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Sample records for andersoni induces interleukin-4

  1. Pathological features of Cryptosporidium andersoni-induced lesions in SCID mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuno, Koichi; Yanai, Tokuma; Sakai, Hiroki; Satoh, Masaaki; Kai, Chieko; Nakai, Yutaka

    2013-07-01

    To assess the infectivity and the istopathological features of Cryptosporidium andersoni (C. andersoni) in laboratory animals, SCID mice were orally inoculated with oocysts of C. andersoni. Starting one week after inoculation, the SCID mice began shedding oocysts, and this continued for ten weeks. Histopathologically, myriads of C. andersoni were observed on the apical surface of the epithelium in the gastric pit of the glandular stomach. There were few lesions in the gastric epithelium except C. andersoni adhesion. In the lamina propria of the affected mucosa, minimum infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed. Immunohistochemically, C. andersoni demonstrated a positive reaction to a number of primary antibodies of Cryptosporidium parvum. In the experiment described here, few increases were seen in apoptotic epithelial cells in the affected mucosas of the SCID mice, and the nuclear augmentation was not enhanced. It was hypothesized that the absence of apoptosis and cell division were due to a lack of inflammatory cell reaction in the lamina propria.

  2. A recombinant DNA vaccine encoding C. andersoni oocyst wall protein induces immunity against experimental C. parvum infection.

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    Zheng, Jun; Ren, Wenzhi; Pan, Qingshan; Wang, Qiuyue; Elhag, I A Elfaki; Li, Jianhua; Li, Mingying; Gong, Pengtao; Liu, Yingli; Zhang, Xichen

    2011-06-30

    Cryptosporidium andersoni parasited in the abomasum has been demonstrated as a cause of reduction of milk production in dairy cow. In this study, a novel chimeric DNA vaccine pVAX1-AB was constructed and the efficacy against Cryptosporidium parvum was determined. BALB/c mice were divided into 3 groups and immunized with DNA vaccine expressing the oocyst wall protein, AB protein of C. andersoni, the recombinant plasmid containing the AB gene, respectively. After inoculation of 1 × 10(6) oocysts of C. parvum, the humoral and cellular immune responses were detected. Experimental results showed that the recombinant plasmid can induce corresponding specific antibody response, simultaneously influenced cellular immune responses, and provided greater protection rate (48.6%) than the other groups. These results indicated that chimeric DNA vaccine has a potential in Cryptosporidium vaccine development.

  3. Interleukin-19 Downregulates Interleukin-4-Induced Eotaxin Production in Human Nasal Fibroblasts

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    Masaaki Higashino

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that IL-19 down-regulates IL-4-induced eotaxin production via SOCS-1 in human nasal fibroblasts. In non-hematopoietic cells in AR, IL-19 might be an immunosuppressive factor.

  4. Systemic treatment with interleukin-4 induces regression of pulmonary metastases in a murine renal cell carcinoma model.

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    Hillman, G G; Younes, E; Visscher, D; Ali, E; Lam, J S; Montecillo, E; Pontes, J E; Haas, G P; Puri, R K

    1995-02-01

    Advanced metastatic renal cell carcinoma has been shown to be responsive to immunotherapy but the response rate is still limited. We have investigated the therapeutic potential of systemic interleukin-4 (IL-4) administration for the treatment of pulmonary metastases in the murine Renca renal adenocarcinoma model. Renca cells were injected iv in Balb/c mice to induce multiple pulmonary tumor nodules. From Day 5, Renca-bearing mice were treated with two daily injections of recombinant murine IL-4 for 5 consecutive days. IL-4 treatment induced a significant reduction in the number of lung metastases in a dose-dependent manner and significantly augmented the survival of treated animals. Immunohistochemistry studies, performed on lung sections, showed macrophage and CD8+ T cell infiltration in the tumor nodules 1 day after the end of IL-4 treatment. The CD8 infiltration increased by Day 7 after IL-4 treatment. Granulocyte infiltration was not detectable. To clarify further the role of the immune system in IL-4 anti-tumor effect, mice were depleted of lymphocyte subpopulations by in vivo injections of specific antibodies prior to treatment with IL-4. Depletion of CD8+ T cells or AsGM1+ cells abrogated the effect of IL-4 on lung metastases, whereas depletion of CD4+ T cells had no impact. These data indicate that CD8+ T cells and AsGM1+ cells are involved in IL-4-induced regression of established renal cell carcinoma.

  5. Reciprocal immunomodulatory effects of gamma interferon and interleukin-4 on filaria-induced airway hyperresponsiveness.

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    Mehlotra, R K; Hall, L R; Haxhiu, M A; Pearlman, E

    2001-03-01

    Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE) is a severe asthmatic syndrome of lymphatic filariasis, in which an allergic response is induced to microfilariae (Mf) in the lungs. Previously, in a murine model for TPE, we have demonstrated that recombinant interleukin-12 (IL-12) suppresses pulmonary eosinophilia and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) by modulating the T helper (Th) response in the lungs from Th2- to Th1-like, with elevated gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma) production and decreased IL-4 and IL-5 production. The present study examined the immunomodulatory roles of IL-4 and IFN-gamma in filaria-induced AHR and pulmonary inflammation using mice genetically deficient in these cytokines. C57BL/6, IL-4 gene knockout (IL-4(-/-)), and IFN-gamma(-/-) mice were first immunized with soluble Brugia malayi antigens and then inoculated intravenously with 200,000 live Mf. Compared with C57BL/6 mice, IL-4(-/-) mice exhibited significantly reduced AHR, whereas IFN-gamma(-/-) mice had increased AHR. Histopathologically, each mouse strain showed increased cellular infiltration into the lung parenchyma and bronchoalveolar space compared with naïve animals. However, consistent with changes in AHR, IL-4(-/-) mice had less inflammation than C57BL/6 mice, whereas IFN-gamma(-/-) mice had exacerbated pulmonary inflammation with the loss of pulmonary architecture. Systemically, IL-4(-/-) mice produced significantly higher IFN-gamma levels compared with C57BL/6 mice, whereas IFN-gamma(-/-) mice produced significantly higher IL-4 levels. These data indicate that IL-4 is required for the induction of filaria-induced AHR, whereas IFN-gamma suppresses AHR.

  6. Therapeutic activity of an interleukin-4/interleukin-13 dual antagonist on oxazolone-induced colitis in mice.

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    Kasaian, Marion T; Page, Karen M; Fish, Susan; Brennan, Agnes; Cook, Timothy A; Moreira, Karen; Zhang, Melvin; Jesson, Michael; Marquette, Kimberly; Agostinelli, Rita; Lee, Julie; Williams, Cara M M; Tchistiakova, Lioudmila; Thakker, Paresh

    2014-11-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 are critical drivers of immune activation and inflammation in ulcerative colitis, asthma and other diseases. Because these cytokines may have redundant function, dual targeting holds promise for achieving greater efficacy. We have recently described a bifunctional therapeutic targeting IL-4 and IL-13 developed on a novel protein scaffold, generated by combining specific binding domains in an optimal configuration using appropriate linker regions. In the current study, the bifunctional IL-4/IL-13 antagonist was evaluated in the murine oxazolone-induced colitis model, which produces disease with features of ulcerative colitis. The bifunctional IL-4/IL-13 antagonist reduced body weight loss throughout the 7-day course of the model, and ameliorated the increased colon weight and decreased colon length that accompany disease. Colon tissue gene expression was modulated in accordance with the treatment effect. Concentrations of serum amyloid P were elevated in proportion to disease severity, making it an effective biomarker. Serum concentrations of the bifunctional IL-4/IL-13 antagonist were inversely proportional to disease severity, colon tissue expression of pro-inflammatory genes, and serum amyloid P concentration. Taken together, these results define a panel of biomarkers signifying engagement of the IL-4/IL-13 pathway, confirm the T helper type 2 nature of disease in this model, and demonstrate the effectiveness of dual cytokine blockade.

  7. Interleukin-4 Protects Dopaminergic Neurons In vitro but Is Dispensable for MPTP-Induced Neurodegeneration In vivo

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    Hühner, Laura; Rilka, Jennifer; Gilsbach, Ralf; Zhou, Xiaolai; Machado, Venissa; Spittau, Björn

    2017-01-01

    Microglia are involved in physiological as well as neuropathological processes in the central nervous system (CNS). Their functional states are often referred to as M1-like and M2-like activation, and are believed to contribute to neuroinflammation-mediated neurodegeneration or neuroprotection, respectively. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one the most common neurodegenerative disease and is characterized by the progressive loss of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons in the substantia nigra resulting in bradykinesia, tremor, and rigidity. Interleukin 4 (IL4)-mediated M2-like activation of microglia, which is characterized by upregulation of alternative markers Arginase 1 (Arg1) and Chitinase 3 like 3 (Ym1) has been well studied in vitro but the role of endogenous IL4 during CNS pathologies in vivo is not well understood. Interestingly, microglia activation by IL4 has been described to promote neuroprotective and neurorestorative effects, which might be important to slow the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we addressed the role of endogenous and exogenous IL4 during MPP+-induced degeneration of mDA neurons in vitro and further addressed the impact of IL4-deficiency on neurodegeneration in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD in vivo. Our results clearly demonstrate that exogenous IL4 is important to protect mDA neurons in vitro, but endogenous IL4 seems to be dispensable for development and maintenance of the nigrostriatal system as well as MPTP-induced loss of TH+ neurons in vivo. These results underline the importance of IL4 in promoting a neuroprotective microglia activation state and strengthen the therapeutic potential of exogenous IL4 for protection of mDA neurons in PD models. PMID:28337124

  8. Apoptosis in human germinal centre B cells by means of CC chemokine receptor 3 expression induced by interleukin-2 and interleukin-4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qiu-ping; XIE Luo-kun; ZHANG Li-jun; TAN Jin-quan

    2005-01-01

    Background CC chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3), expressed on some inflammatory cells, is a member of the chemokine receptor family. Its ligand is eotaxin/CCL11. In this research, we studied the expression and function of CCR3 induced by interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) on human germinal centre (GC) B cells.Methods Cells isolated from human tonsils were stimulated with IL-2 or/and IL-4 followed by bonding with eotaxin/CCL11. Flow cytometry was used to detect expression of CCR3 on GC B cells and apoptosis of GC B cells. Real time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot assays were used to analyse the CCR3 mRNA expressed in the GC B cells. Chemotaxis and adhesion assays were used to determine the effect of eotaxin/CCL11 ligand bonded to CCR3 on GC B cells.Results There was no CCR3 expression on human freshly isolated GC B cells. The combination IL-2 and IL-4 could upregulate CCR3 mRNA and protein expression on GC B cells. Eotaxin could not induce GC B cell chemotaxis and adhesion but triggered apoptosis of GC B cells.Conclusion IL-2 and IL-4 together induced expression of CCR3 on GC B cells, and the receptor acted as a death receptor.

  9. Interleukin-13/Interleukin-4-induced oxidative stress contributes to death of prothrombinkringle-2 (pKr-2)-activated microglia.

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    Won, So-Yoon; Kim, Sang Ryong; Maeng, Sungho; Jin, Byung K

    2013-12-15

    The present study examined whether Interleukin-13 (IL-13) or IL-4, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, could induce cell death of activated microglia by prothrombin kringle-2 (pKr-2) which is a domain of prothrombin distinct from thrombin. Microglia cell death was detected at eight days after co-treatment of pKr-2 with IL-13/IL-4 in vitro. This cell death was assessed by live assay, dead assay, TUNEL and MTT assay. In parallel, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was evident as assessed by superoxide assay, WST-1 and analyzing DCF in combination of pKr-2 and IL-13 or IL-4 treated microglia. The IL-13/IL-4-enhanced ROS production and cell death in pKr-2 activated microglia was partially inhibited by an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin and/or by several antioxidants. Moreover, Western blot analysis showed a significant increase in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in combination of pKr-2 and IL-13 or IL-4 treated microglia, which was partially inhibited by apocynin and an antioxidant, trolox. Additional studies demonstrated that microglia cell death was reversed by treatment with COX-2 inhibitor, NS398. Our data strongly suggest that oxidative stress and COX-2 activation through NADPH oxidase may contribute to IL-13/IL-4 induced cell death of pKr-2 activated microglia.

  10. A Crystallin Fold in the Interleukin-4-inducing Principle of Schistosoma mansoni Eggs (IPSE/α-1) Mediates IgE Binding for Antigen-independent Basophil Activation.

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    Meyer, N Helge; Mayerhofer, Hubert; Tripsianes, Konstantinos; Blindow, Silke; Barths, Daniela; Mewes, Astrid; Weimar, Thomas; Köhli, Thies; Bade, Steffen; Madl, Tobias; Frey, Andreas; Haas, Helmut; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen; Sattler, Michael; Schramm, Gabriele

    2015-09-04

    The IL-4-inducing principle from Schistosoma mansoni eggs (IPSE/α-1), the major secretory product of eggs from the parasitic worm S. mansoni, efficiently triggers basophils to release the immunomodulatory key cytokine interleukin-4. Activation by IPSE/α-1 requires the presence of IgE on the basophils, but the detailed molecular mechanism underlying activation is unknown. NMR and crystallographic analysis of IPSEΔNLS, a monomeric IPSE/α-1 mutant, revealed that IPSE/α-1 is a new member of the βγ-crystallin superfamily. We demonstrate that this molecule is a general immunoglobulin-binding factor with highest affinity for IgE. NMR binding studies of IPSEΔNLS with the 180-kDa molecule IgE identified a large positively charged binding surface that includes a flexible loop, which is unique to the IPSE/α-1 crystallin fold. Mutational analysis of amino acids in the binding interface showed that residues contributing to IgE binding are important for IgE-dependent activation of basophils. As IPSE/α-1 is unable to cross-link IgE, we propose that this molecule, by taking advantage of its unique IgE-binding crystallin fold, activates basophils by a novel, cross-linking-independent mechanism.

  11. Interleukin 4 signals through two related pathways.

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    Pernis, A; Witthuhn, B; Keegan, A D; Nelms, K; Garfein, E; Ihle, J N; Paul, W E; Pierce, J H; Rothman, P

    1995-08-15

    The interleukin 4 (IL-4) signaling pathway involves activation, by tyrosine phosphorylation, of two distinct substrates, a signal-transducing factor (STF-IL4) and the IL-4-induced phosphotyrosine substrate (4PS). It is not known whether the IL-4-mediated activation of these substrates occurs via related or distinct signaling pathways. We report that 32D cells, an IL-3-dependent myeloid progenitor cell line in which no phosphorylated 4PS is found, activate high levels of STF-IL4 in response to IL-4. Consistent with the known requirement for 4PS or insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) in IL-4-mediated mitogenesis, activation of STF-IL4 in 32D cells is not sufficient for IL-4-inducible c-myc expression. In addition, we have examined the ability of 32D cells transfected with different truncation mutants of the human IL-4 receptor to activate Jak-3 kinase and STF-IL4 in response to human IL-4. As in the case of 4PS/IRS-1, we have found that activation of both Jak-3 and STF-IL4 requires the presence of the IL-4 receptor region comprising aa 437-557. The finding that the same region of the IL-4 receptor is required for the induction of both 4PS/IRS-1 and STF-IL4 suggests that the IL-4-stimulated activation of these two substrates might involve common factors.

  12. Interleukin-4, interleukin-10, and interleukin-1-receptor antagonist but not transforming growth factor-beta induce ramification and reduce adhesion molecule expression of rat microglial cells.

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    Wirjatijasa, Florentina; Dehghani, Faramarz; Blaheta, Roman A; Korf, Horst-Werner; Hailer, Nils P

    2002-06-01

    The activity of microglial cells is strictly controlled in order to maintain central nervous system (CNS) immune privilege. We hypothesized that several immunomodulatory factors present in the CNS parenchyma, i.e., the Th2-derived cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10, interleukin-1-receptor-antagonist (IL-1-ra), or transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta can modulate microglial morphology and functions. Microglial cells were incubated with IL-4, IL-10, IL-1-ra, TGF-beta, or with astrocyte conditioned media (ACM) and were analyzed for morphological changes, expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, and secretion of IL-1beta or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. Whereas untreated controls showed an amoeboid morphology both Th2-derived cytokines, IL-1-ra, and ACM induced a morphological transformation to the ramified phenotype. In contrast, TGF-beta-treated microglial cells showed an amoeboid morphology. Even combined with the neutralizing antibodies against IL-4, IL-10, or TGF-beta ACM induced microglial ramification. Furthermore, ACM did not contain relevant amounts of IL-4 and IL-10, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Flow cytometry showed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ICAM-1-expression on microglial cells was strongly suppressed by ACM, significantly modulated by IL-4, IL-10, or IL-1-ra, but not influenced by TGF-beta. The LPS-induced secretion of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha was only reduced after application of ACM, whereas IL-4 or IL-10 did not inhibit IL-1beta- or TNF-alpha secretion. TGF-beta enhanced IL-1beta- but not TNF-alpha secretion. In summary, we demonstrate that IL-4, IL-10, and IL-1-ra induce microglial ramification and reduce ICAM-1-expression, whereas the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines is not prevented. TGF-beta has no modulating effects. Importantly, unidentified astrocytic factors that are not identical with IL-4, IL-10, or TGF-beta possess strong immunomodulatory properties.

  13. Wheat gliadin promotes the interleukin-4-induced IgE production by normal human peripheral mononuclear cells through a redox-dependent mechanism.

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    Dugas, Bernard; Dugas, Nathalie; Conti, Marc; Calenda, Alphonse; Pino, Paco; Thomas, Yolène; Mazier, Dominique; Vouldoukis, Ioannis

    2003-03-21

    Increased levels of serum IgE have been described in gliadin-intolerant patients; however, biological mechanisms implicated in this immunoglobulin production remained unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that in vitro crude gliadins and gliadin lysates (Glilys) promoted the IL-4-induced IgE production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), indicating that the biological process related to gliadin intolerance and/or allergy may lead to IgE production in vivo. It was found that crude gliadin and Glilys potentiated, after 13 days of culture in a dose-dependent manner, IL-4-induced IgE production and, to a lesser extent, the IgG production, while they did not affect IgA or IgM productions. This promoting effect of gliadin and Glilys on the IL-4-induced activation of normal human PBMC was also observed on the early release (2 days) of the soluble fraction of CD23, suggesting its possible involvement in IgE potentiation. The promoting effect of crude gliadin and Glilys appeared to be indirect because they did not modify purified B-lymphocytes IgE production after IL-4 and anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody stimulation. In addition, as revealed by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence, we demonstrated that crude gliadin and Glilys promoted a substantial production of free radicals by normal human PBMC, treated or not with IL-4. This redox imbalance associated with an increased IgE production led us to evaluate the effect of pharmacological antioxidants (N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1)) on IgE production by human PBMC. The NAC and the intracellularly delivered SOD1 were found to suppress the IL-4+/-crude gliadin or Glilys-induced IgE production by normal human PBMC. Taken together, these data indicated that gliadin specifically enhanced IL-4-induced IgE production by normal human PBMC, probably by the regulation of redox pathways, and that this 'pro-allergenic' effect could be counteracted by natural antioxidants: thiols and

  14. Eesti kunst Andersoni muuseumis / Jaan Elken

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elken, Jaan, 1954-

    1999-01-01

    14. okt.-st Helsingis Amos Andersoni kunstimuuseumis näitus "Eesti kunst ajaleht Kaleva kogudest". Kunstikogust, kunstnikke, kelle töid on näitusel. Näituse dominant ئ 1989. a. omandatud Jüri Arraku 'Kalevala' temaatikast inspireeritud 12-osaline söejoonistuste sari. Avamisel anti ajalehe juubelimedal ka Eesti Rahvuskultuuri Fondile, Eesti Kunstnike Liidule, Eesti Instituudile Soomes.

  15. Human basophils express interleukin-4 receptors

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    Valent, P.; Besemer, J.; Kishi, K.; Di Padova, F.; Geissler, K.; Lechner, K.; Bettelheim, P. (Univ. of Vienna (Austria))

    1990-11-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4), a multipotential lymphokine reputed to play an important role in the regulation of immune responses, interacts with a variety of hemopoietic target cells through specific cell surface membrane receptors. The present study was designed to investigate whether human basophils express IL-4 binding sites. For this purpose, basophils were enriched to homogeneity (93% and 98% purity, respectively) from the peripheral blood of two chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL) donors using a cocktail of monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) and complement. Purified basophils bound 125I-radiolabeled recombinant human (rh) IL-4 in a specific manner. Quantitative binding studies and Scatchard plot analysis revealed the presence of a single class of high affinity IL-4 binding sites (280 +/- 40 sites per cell in donor 1 and 640 +/- 45 sites per cell in donor 2) with an apparent dissociation constant, kd, of 7.12 x 10(-11) +/- 2.29 x 10(-11) and 9.55 +/- 3.5 x 10(-11) mol/L, respectively. KU812-F, a human basophil precursor cell line, was found to express a single class of 810 to 1,500 high affinity IL-4 binding sites with a kd of 2.63 to 5.54 x 10(-10) mol/L. No change in the numbers or binding constants of IL-4 receptors was found after exposure of KU812-F cells to rhIL-3 (a potent activator of basophils) for 60 minutes. No effect of rhIL-4 on 3H-thymidine uptake, release or synthesis of histamine, or expression of basophil differentiation antigens (Bsp-1, CD11b, CD25, CD40, CD54) on primary human CGL basophils or KU812-F cells was observed.

  16. Genotyping Cryptosporidium andersoni in cattle in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China.

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    Guang-Hui Zhao

    Full Text Available The present study examined the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium andersoni in cattle in Shaanxi province, China. A total of 2071 fecal samples (847 from Qinchuan cattle and 1224 from dairy cattle were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts, and 70 samples (3.4% were C. andersoni-positive and those positive samples were identified by PCR amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA and the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP genes. C. andersoni was the only species found in the examined cattle in this province. Fifty-seven C. andersoni isolates were characterized into 5 MLST subtypes using multilocus sequence typing analysis, including a new subtype in the native beef breed Qinchuan cattle. All of these C. andersoni isolates presented a clonal genetic structure. These findings provide new insights into the genetic structure of C. andersoni isolates in Shaanxi province and basic data of Cryptosporidium prevalence status, which in turn have implications for controlling cryptosporidiosis in this province.

  17. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulates interleukin-4-mediated STAT6 signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woetmann, Anders; Brockdorff, Johannes; Lovato, Paola

    2002-01-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4) plays a pivotal role in the induction and maintenance of allergy by promoting Th2 differentiation and B cell isotype switching to IgE. Studies on STAT6-deficient mice have demonstrated the essential role of STAT6 in mediating the biological functions of IL-4. IL-4 induces tyr...

  18. The bacterial microbiome of dermacentor andersoni ticks influences pathogen susceptibility

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    Ticks are of medical and veterinary importance due to their ability to transmit pathogens to humans and animals. The Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni, is a vector of a number of pathogens, including Anaplasma marginale, which is the most widespread tick-borne pathogen of livestock. Al...

  19. Antiinflammatory properties of a peptide derived from interleukin-4

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    Klementiev, Boris; Enevoldsen, Maj N; Li, Shizhong

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a potent antiinflammatory cytokine. However its use in the clinic is hampered by side effects. We here describe the identification of a novel synthetic peptide, termed Ph8, derived from α-helix C of IL-4, which interacts with IL-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα). Employing various...

  20. 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-Heptamethoxyflavone reduces interleukin-4 production in the spleen cells of mice.

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    Nakajima, Mitsunari; Ogawa, Minetaro; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Morio; Okuyama, Satoshi; Furukawa, Yoshiko

    2016-01-01

    In our previous studies, we reported anti-inflammatory functions of 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF), which is a polymethoxyflavone rich in various citrus fruits. Here, we investigated the immunomodulatory function of HMF in mice. HMF administration (50 mg/kg, i.p., 2 times/week) tended to reduce the production of antigen-specific IgE induced by ovalbumin in combination with aluminum hydroxide gel. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed the reduction of interleukin-4(+)CD4(+) spleen cells and sustained presence of interferon-γ(+)CD4(+) spleen cells in mice administered HMF, whereas the ratio of CD4(+)CD8(-) versus CD4(-)CD8(+) spleen cells was not affected. Interleukin-4 release from CD3/CD28-stimulated spleen cells of mice administered HMF was reduced, whereas interferon-γ release was not affected. These results suggest that HMF has an immunomodulatory function via reduced interleukin-4 expression.

  1. Interleukin 4: signalling mechanisms and control of T cell differentiation.

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    Paul, W E

    1997-01-01

    Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is a pleiotropic type I cytokine that controls both growth and differentiation among haemopoietic and non-haemopoietic cells. Its receptor is a heterodimer. One chain, the IL-4R alpha chain, binds IL-4 with high affinity and determines the nature of the biochemical signals that are induced. The second chain, gamma c, is required for the induction of such signals. IL-4-mediated growth depends upon activation events that involve phosphorylation of Y497 of IL-4R alpha, leading to the binding and phosphorylation of 4PS/IRS-2 in haemopoietic cells and of IRS-1 in non-haemopoietic cells. By contrast, IL-4-mediated differentiation events depend upon more distal regions of the IL-4R alpha chain that include a series of STAT-6 binding sites. The distinctive roles of these receptor domains was verified by receptor-reconstruction experiments. The 'growth' and 'differentiation' domains of the IL-4R alpha chain, independently expressed as chimeric structures with a truncated version of the IL-2R beta chain, were shown to convey their functions to the hybrid receptor. The critical role of STAT-6 in IL-4-mediated gene activation and differentiation was made clear by the finding that lymphocytes from STAT-6 knockout mice are strikingly deficient in these functions but have retained the capacity to grow, at least partially, in response to IL-4. IL-4 plays a central role in determining the phenotype of naive CD4+ T cells. In the presence of IL-4, newly primed naive T cells develop into IL-4 producers while in its absence they preferentially become gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma) producers. Recently, a specialized subpopulation of T cells, CD4+/NK1.1+ cells, has been shown to produce large amounts of IL-4 upon stimulation. Two examples of mice with deficiencies in these cells are described--beta 2-microglobulin knockout mice and SJL mice. Both show defects in the development of IL-4-producing cells and in the increase in serum IgE in response to stimulation with the

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Cytokine Interleukin-4 Inhibits Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Expression in the Mouse Macrophage Cell Line RAW264.7 through the Repression of Octamer-Dependent Transcription

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    Miki Hiroi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS is a signature molecule involved in the classical activation of M1 macrophages and is induced by the Nos2 gene upon stimulation with Th1-cell derived interferon-gamma (IFNγ and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Although the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 is known to inhibit Nos2 gene expression, the molecular mechanism involved in the negative regulation of Nos2 by IL-4 remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of IL-4-mediated Nos2 transcriptional repression in the mouse macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (Stat6 knockdown by siRNA abolished the IL-4-mediated inhibition of Nos2 induced by IFNγ/LPS. Transient transfection of a luciferase reporter gene containing the 5′-flanking region of the Nos2 gene demonstrated that an octamer transcription factor (OCT binding site in the promoter region is required for both positive regulation by IFNγ/LPS and negative regulation by IL-4. Although IL-4 had no inhibitory effect on the DNA-binding activity of constitutively expressed Oct-1, IL-4-induced Nos2-reporter transcriptional repression was partially attenuated by overexpression of the coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP. These results suggest that a coactivator/cofactor that functionally interacts with Oct-1 is a molecular target for the IL-4-mediated inhibition of Nos2 and that IL-4-activated Stat6 represses Oct-1-dependent transcription by competing with this coactivator/cofactor.

  3. CXC chemokine receptor 4 expression and stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha-induced chemotaxis in CD4+ T lymphocytes are regulated by interleukin-4 and interleukin-10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinquan, T; Quan, S; Jacobi, H H

    2000-01-01

    We report that interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 can significantly up- or down-regulate CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) expression on CD4+ T lymphocytes, respectively. Stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha)-induced CD4+ T-lymphocyte chemotaxis was also correspondingly regulated by IL-4 and IL......,000 SDF-1alpha-binding sites per cell, among freshly isolated CD4+ T lymphocytes, and two types of CXCR4 with different affinities (Kd1 approximately 4.4 nM and Kd2 approximately 14.6 nM), and a total of approximately 130,000 SDF-1alpha-binding sites per cell, among IL-4-stimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes......-mobilization stimulation. These results indicate that the effects of IL-4 and IL-10 on the CXCR4-SDF-1 receptor-ligand pair may be of particular importance in the cytokine/chemokine environment concerning the inflammatory processes and in the progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection....

  4. Multilocus sequence subtyping and genetic structure of Cryptosporidium muris and Cryptosporidium andersoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongjun; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Longxian; Ning, Changshen; Liu, Aiqin; Zhao, Jinfeng; Feng, Yaoyu; Qi, Meng; Wang, Helei; Lv, Chaochao; Zhao, Guanghui; Xiao, Lihua

    2012-01-01

    In this study, nine C. muris and 43 C. andersoni isolates from various animals in China were subtyped by a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) tool. DNA sequence analyses showed the presence of 1-2 subtypes of C. muris and 2-6 subtypes of C. andersoni at each of the four loci (MS1, MS2, MS3, and MS16), nine of which represented new subtypes. Altogether, two C. muris and 10 C. andersoni MLST subtypes were detected. Linkage disequilibrium analysis indicated although the overall population structure of the two parasites was clonal, the Chinese C. andersoni in cattle has an epidemic structure. Three and two clusters were produced in the C. muris and C. andersoni populations by Structure 2.3.3 analysis, with Chinese C. muris and C. andersoni substructures differing from other countries. Thus, this study suggested the prevalence of C. andersoni in China is not attributed to the introduction of dairy cattle. More studies involving more genetic loci and systematic sampling are needed to better elucidate the population genetic structure of C. muris and C. andersoni in the world and the genetic basis for the difference in host specificity among the two most common gastric parasites.

  5. CLINICAL IMPORTANCE OF INTERLEUKIN-4 IN SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T A Nevskaya

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate whether serum levels of interleukin-4 ( IL-4 reflects the clinical disease status and laboratory features of systemic sclerosis (SSc. IL-4 was measured by ELISA in forty patients wilh SSc. We revealed IL-4 (Ю-lOOOpg/ml in sera from 12 of 40 pts (30%. These pts had significantly less duration of disease, the progression of skin and visceral involvement by the time of investigation and a trend lo the greater frequency of lung fibrosis. There was no correlation of IL-4 level with type of SSc. The pts with increased scrum levels of IL-4 had higher levels of circulated immune complexes, y-globulins, but the levels of acute phase reactants (CRP, fibrinogen were lower compared with the of others. We suggest that serum IL-4 may serve a biologic marker for the progression of skin and lung fibrosis, but the results require confirmation in longitudinal study.

  6. Täiustatud tõde ehk Walter Andersoni rahvajuttude enesekontrolli seadus / Elo-Hanna Seljamaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seljamaa, Elo-Hanna, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    Geograafilis-ajaloolise meetodi lähtealuste ja eesmärkide toel analüüsitakse Walter Andersoni, Tartu Ülikooli esimese folkloristikaprofessori käsitlusi folkloorist ja folkloori uurimisest ning tema tegevust meetodi edasiarendajana

  7. Functional Haplotypes in Interleukin 4 Gene Associated with Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Marcia Pinto Alves; Rossa, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Chronic periodontitis (CP) is an infectious inflammatory disease that affects tooth-supporting structures and in which dental plaque bacteria, immune mechanisms and genetic predisposition play important roles. Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is a key anti-inflammatory cytokine with relevant action in imbalances in inflamed periodontal tissue. Individuals carrying the TCI/CCI genotype (S-haplotype) of the IL-4 gene are 5 times more susceptible to CP, whereas the CTI/TTD genotype (P-haplotype) confers protection against CP. Compared with the S-haplotype, subjects with the P-haplotype produce higher levels of the IL-4 protein after non-surgical periodontal therapy. The present in vitro study aimed to investigate the functionality of IL-4 haplotypes in immune cells to obtain insight into the influence of these genetic variations in regulating immune responses to CP-associated bacteria. Peripheral blood was collected from 6 subjects carrying each haplotype, and their immune cells were challenged with periodontopathogens to compare responses of the different haplotypes with regard to gene expression, protein secretion and the immunophenotype of T helper responses. We found higher IL-4 mRNA and protein levels in the P-haplotype, which also presented higher levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines. In contrast, cells from S-haplotype subjects responded with higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. S-haplotype individuals exhibited significantly greater polarization toward the Th1 phenotype, whereas the P-haplotype was associated with an attenuated response to periodontopathogens, with suggestive skewing toward Th2/M2 phenotypes. In conclusion, IL-4 genetic variations associated with susceptibility to or protection against chronic periodontitis are directly associated with influencing the response of immune cells to periodontopathogens. PMID:28114408

  8. Molecular and Cellular Responses to Interleukin-4 Treatment in a Rat Model of Transient Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lively, Starlee; Hutchings, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Within hours after stroke, potentially cytotoxic pro-inflammatory mediators are elevated within the brain; thus, one potential therapeutic strategy is to reduce them and skew the brain toward an anti-inflammatory state. Because interleukin-4 (IL-4) treatment induces an anti-inflammatory, “alternative-activation” state in microglia and macrophages in vitro, we tested the hypothesis that early supplementation of the brain with IL-4 can shift it toward an anti-inflammatory state and reduce damage after transient focal ischemia. Adult male rat striata were injected with endothelin-1, with or without co-injection of IL-4. Inflammation, glial responses and damage to neurons and white matter were quantified from 1 to 7 days later. At 1 day, IL-4 treatment increased striatal expression of several anti-inflammatory markers (ARG1, CCL22, CD163, PPARγ), increased phagocytic (Iba1-positive, CD68-positive) microglia/macrophages, and increased VEGF-A-positive infiltrating neutrophils in the infarcts. At 7 days, there was evidence of sustained, propagating responses. IL-4 increased CD206, CD200R1, IL-4Rα, STAT6, PPARγ, CD11b, and TLR2 expression and increased microglia/macrophages in the infarct and astrogliosis outside the infarct. Neurodegeneration and myelin damage were not reduced, however. The sustained immune and glial responses when resolution and repair processes have begun warrant further studies of IL-4 treatment regimens and long-term outcomes. PMID:27634961

  9. Interleukin-4 mediates the neuroprotective effects of rosiglitazone in the aged brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loane, David J; Deighan, Brian F; Clarke, Rachael M; Griffin, Rebecca J; Lynch, Aileen M; Lynch, Marina A

    2009-06-01

    Increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines, like interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), is a feature of the aged brain and it is generally accepted that the primary cell source of these cytokines is activated microglia. In hippocampus of aged rats, the increase in IL-1 beta is accompanied by microglial activation and impaired long-term potentiation (LTP). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) possess anti-inflammatory properties that target microglia. In this study the PPAR gamma agonist, rosiglitazone, was orally administered to young and aged rats, and we report that the age-related increases in NO and IL-1 beta production were attenuated in hippocampus of rosiglitazone-treated aged rats and that this was associated with a restoration of LTP. In addition, treatment with rosiglitazone increased interleukin-4 (IL-4) mRNA and reversed the age-related decrease in hippocampal IL-4 concentration. Significantly, while rosiglitazone attenuated the LPS-induced increase in MHCII and IL-1 beta concentration in glia prepared from wildtype mice, it failed to exert an effect in glia prepared from IL-4(-/-) mice, thereby suggesting that the anti-inflammatory actions of rosiglitazone are mediated by its ability to increase IL-4 expression.

  10. Aberrant Wound Healing in an Epidermal Interleukin-4 Transgenic Mouse Model of Atopic Dermatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    Full Text Available Wound healing in a pre-existing Th2-dominated skin milieu was assessed by using an epidermal specific interleukin-4 (IL-4 transgenic (Tg mouse model, which develops a pruritic inflammatory skin condition resembling human atopic dermatitis. Our results demonstrated that IL-4 Tg mice had delayed wound closure and re-epithelialization even though these mice exhibited higher degrees of epithelial cell proliferation. Wounds in IL-4 Tg mice also showed a marked enhancement in expression of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, elevated infiltration of inflammatory cells including neutrophils, macrophages, CD3+ lymphocytes, and epidermal dendritic T lymphocytes. In addition, these mice exhibited a significantly higher level of angiogenesis as compared to wild type mice. Furthermore, wounds in IL-4 Tg mice presented with larger amounts of granulation tissue, but had less expression and deposition of collagen. Taken together, an inflamed skin condition induced by IL-4 has a pronounced negative influence on the healing process. Understanding more about the pathogenesis of wound healing in a Th2- dominated environment may help investigators explore new potential therapeutic strategies.

  11. Aberrant Wound Healing in an Epidermal Interleukin-4 Transgenic Mouse Model of Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Bao, Lei; Chan, Lawrence S; DiPietro, Luisa A; Chen, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing in a pre-existing Th2-dominated skin milieu was assessed by using an epidermal specific interleukin-4 (IL-4) transgenic (Tg) mouse model, which develops a pruritic inflammatory skin condition resembling human atopic dermatitis. Our results demonstrated that IL-4 Tg mice had delayed wound closure and re-epithelialization even though these mice exhibited higher degrees of epithelial cell proliferation. Wounds in IL-4 Tg mice also showed a marked enhancement in expression of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, elevated infiltration of inflammatory cells including neutrophils, macrophages, CD3+ lymphocytes, and epidermal dendritic T lymphocytes. In addition, these mice exhibited a significantly higher level of angiogenesis as compared to wild type mice. Furthermore, wounds in IL-4 Tg mice presented with larger amounts of granulation tissue, but had less expression and deposition of collagen. Taken together, an inflamed skin condition induced by IL-4 has a pronounced negative influence on the healing process. Understanding more about the pathogenesis of wound healing in a Th2- dominated environment may help investigators explore new potential therapeutic strategies.

  12. Study on The Role of Interleukin-4 in Experimental Murine Systemic Candidiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of interleukin-4 (IL-4) in experimental murine systemic Candidiasis, we created the intact and dexamethasone-induced immunosuppressed murine systemic Candidiasis models. In these models, two-site ELISA and RT-PCR were applied to determine the level of IL-4 protein and mRNA expression in spleens respectively, clone forming units (CFUs) of infected kidneys were determined with the plating dilution method, and mean survival time (MST) of the mice was recorded. The results showed that, when compared with the controls, protein level of IL-4 increased in both intact mice infected with lethal doses of yeast (day 3, P0.05; day 7, P<0.05). Furthermore, the level of IL-4 was higher on day 7 than on day 3 after infection (P<0.001 and P<0.05 respectively in two groups). The tendency of IL-4mRNA expression was similar with that of IL-4 protein. As for fungal loads in kidneys, CFUs were significantly higher on day 7 than on day 3 after infection (P<0.001 in both groups). Mice in both groups succumbed to infection within several days. It was suggested that IL-4 might play a promoting role in the development of murine systemic Candidiasis.

  13. Cell culture plastics with immobilized interleukin-4 for monocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Hjortø, Gertrud Malene; Met, Ozcan;

    2011-01-01

    Standard cell culture plastic was surface modified by passive adsorption or covalent attachment of interleukin (IL)-4 and investigated for its ability to induce differentiation of human monocytes into mature dendritic cells, a process dose-dependently regulated by IL-4. Covalent attachment of IL-4...... in water instead of phosphate-buffered saline. Passively adsorbed IL-4 was observed to induce differentiation to dendritic cells, but analysis of cell culture supernatants revealed that leakage of IL-4 into solution could account for the differentiation observed. Covalent attachment resulted in bound IL-4...... at similar concentrations to the passive adsorption process, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and the bound IL-4 did not leak into solution to any measurable extent during cell culture. However, covalently bound IL-4 was incapable of inducing monocyte differentiation. This may be caused...

  14. Proteomics informed by transcriptomics identifies novel secreted proteins in Dermacentor andersoni saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermacentor andersoni, known as the Rocky Mountain wood tick, is found in the western United States and transmits diseases of veterinary and public health importance including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Colarado tick fever and bovine anaplasmosis. Tick saliva is known to modulate both ...

  15. Cryptosporidium andersoni from a Danish cattle herd: identification and preliminary characterisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Ahrens, Peter; Lowery, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    In November 1997, Cryptosporidium andersoni, for the first time, was isolated from a Danish heifer. The isolate was characterised morphologically, molecularly, and furthermore inoculated into mice and one calf. Data on the distribution of cryptosporidia in the herd of origin were obtained at two ...

  16. STAT6: its role in interleukin 4-mediated biological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, K; Kishimoto, T; Akira, S

    1997-05-01

    Interleukin (IL) 4 is known to be a cytokine which plays a central role in the regulation of immune response. Studies on cytokine signal transduction have clarified the mechanism by which IL4 exerts its functions. Two cytoplasmic proteins, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 6 and IL4-induced phosphotyrosine substrate/insulin receptor substrate 2 (4PS/IRS2), are activated in IL4 signal transduction. Recent studies from STAT6-deficient mice have revealed the essential role of STAT6 in IL4-mediated biological actions. In addition, STAT6 has also been demonstrated to be important for the functions mediated by IL13, which is related to IL4. IL4 and IL13 have been shown to induce the production of IgE, which is a major mediator in an allergic response. These findings indicate that STAT6 activation is involved in IL4- and IL13-mediated disorders such as allergy.

  17. Cell culture plastics with immobilized interleukin-4 for monocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Hjortø, Gertrud Malene; Met, Özcan;

    2011-01-01

    Standard cell culture plastic was surface modified by passive adsorption or covalent attachment of interleukin (IL)-4 and investigated for its ability to induce differentiation of human monocytes into mature dendritic cells, a process dose-dependently regulated by IL-4. Covalent attachment of IL-4...... proceeded via anthraquinone photochemistry to introduce amine functionalities at the surface followed by coupling of IL-4 through a bifunctional amine-reactive linker. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that undesirable multilayer formation of the photoactive compound could be avoided by reaction...... in water instead of phosphate-buffered saline. Passively adsorbed IL-4 was observed to induce differentiation to dendritic cells, but analysis of cell culture supernatants revealed that leakage of IL-4 into solution could account for the differentiation observed. Covalent attachment resulted in bound IL-4...

  18. Common elements in interleukin 4 and insulin signaling pathways in factor-dependent hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L M; Keegan, A D; Li, W; Lienhard, G E; Pacini, S; Gutkind, J S; Myers, M G; Sun, X J; White, M F; Aaronson, S A

    1993-05-01

    Interleukin 4 (IL-4), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) efficiently induced DNA synthesis in the IL-3-dependent murine myeloid cell lines FDC-P1 and FDC-P2. Although these factors could not individually sustain long-term growth of these lines, a combination of IL-4 with either insulin or IGF-I did support continuous growth. The principal tyrosine-phosphorylated substrate observed in FDC cells stimulated with IL-4, previously designated 4PS, was of the same size (170 kDa) as the major substrate phosphorylated in response to insulin or IGF-I. These substrates had phosphopeptides of the same size when analyzed by digestion with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, and each tightly associated with the 85-kDa component of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase after factor stimulation. IRS-1, the principal substrate phosphorylated in response to insulin or IGF-I stimulation in nonhematopoietic cells, is similar in size to 4PS. However, anti-IRS-1 antibodies failed to efficiently precipitate 4PS, and some phosphopeptides generated by V8 protease digestion of IRS-1 were distinct in size from the phosphopeptides of 4PS. Nevertheless, IL-4, insulin, and IGF-I were capable of stimulating tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 in FDC cells that expressed this substrate as a result of transfection. These findings indicate that (i) IL-4, insulin, and IGF-I use signal transduction pathways in FDC lines that have at least one major feature in common, the rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of 4PS, and (ii) insulin and IGF-I stimulation of hematopoietic cell lines leads to the phosphorylation of a substrate that may be related to but is not identical to IRS-1.

  19. Development of a PCR Diagnostic Kit for Cryptosporidium andersoni in Dairy Cow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Rong-qiong; LI Guo-qing; XIAO Shu-min; LI Wei-hua

    2007-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is an important zoonosis caused by the Cryptosporidium species. To develop a PCR diagnostic kit for molecular detection and differential diagnosis of Cryptosporidiurn spp., a portion of ITS-1 sequence of Cryptosporidium. Andersoni was chosen as the target DNA for designing the species-specific primers (ZRQF/ZR). The kit components were determined after the PCR amplification conditions were serially optimized. A series of tests were conducted in the specificity, sensitivity, stability, reproducibility, and stored period of the kit, respectively. The results showed that only C. Andersoni were amplified specific band of about 500 bp, while Cryptosporidium. Parvum, Cryptosporidium. Baileyi, Eimeria sp of dairy cow, Toxoplasma gondii, Eimeria sp of pig, Ascaris suum, Cyclospora sp, and E. Coli could not be amplified. 254 oocysts of C. Andersoni was the lowest number that could be detected using the kit. The kit worked well after being stored at room temperature, 4 and -20℃ for nine months. Fecal specimens, which were collected from a total of 243 calves on four different dairy farms in Guangdong Province, China, and one dairy farm in Henan Province, China, were examined using the kit; the positive rate of the kit was 2-13% higher than that of the routine methods. The results indicated that the kit can detect fecal samples faster, more sensitively, and conveniently, and can provide a useful tool for the identification and differentiation of C. Andersoni from the other Cryptosporidium species; it also has implications for further studies on molecular epidemiology and differential diagnostics of cryptosporidiosis in animals.

  20. Proteomics informed by transcriptomics identifies novel secreted proteins in Dermacentor andersoni saliva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudenda, Lwiindi; Aguilar Pierle, Sebastian; Turse, Joshua E.; Scoles, Glen A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Clauss, Therese RW; Ueti, Massaro W.; Brown, Wendy C.; Brayton, Kelly A.

    2014-08-07

    Dermacentor andersoni, known as the Rocky Mountain wood tick, is found in the western United States and transmits pathogens that cause diseases of veterinary and public health importance including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Colorado tick fever and bovine anaplasmosis. Tick saliva is known to modulate both innate and acquired immune responses, enabling ticks to feed for several days without detection. During feeding ticks subvert host defences such as hemostasis and inflammation, which would otherwise result in coagulation, wound repair and rejection of the tick. Molecular characterization of the proteins and pharmacological molecules secreted in tick saliva offers an opportunity to develop tick vaccines as an alternative to the use of acaricides, as well as new anti-inflammatory drugs. We performed proteomics informed by transcriptomics to identify D. andersoni saliva proteins that are secreted during feeding. The transcript data generated a database of 21,797 consensus sequences, which we used to identify 677 proteins secreted in the saliva of D. andersoni ticks fed for 2 and 5 days, following proteomic investigations of whole saliva using mass spectrometry. Salivary gland transcript levels of unfed ticks were compared with 2 and 5 day fed ticks to identify genes upregulated early during tick feeding. We cross-referenced the proteomic data with the transcriptomic data to identify 157 proteins of interest for immunomodulation and blood feeding. Proteins of unknown function as well as known immunomodulators were identified.

  1. MLST subtypes and population genetic structure of Cryptosporidium andersoni from dairy cattle and beef cattle in northeastern China's Heilongjiang Province.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    Full Text Available Cattle are the main reservoir host of C. andersoni, which shows a predominance in yearlings and adults of cattle. To understand the subtypes of C. andersoni and the population genetic structure in Heilongjiang Province, fecal specimens were collected from 420 dairy cattle and 405 beef cattle at the age of 12-14 months in eight cattle farms in five areas within this province and were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts by microscopy after Sheather's sugar flotation technique. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 19.15% (158/825 and all the Cryptosporidium isolates were identified as C. andersoni by the SSU rRNA gene nested PCR-RFLP using SspI, VspI and MboII restriction enzymes. A total of 50 C. andersoni isolates were randomly selected and sequenced to confirm the RFLP results before they were subtyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST at the four microsatellite/minisatellite loci (MS1, MS2, MS3 and MS16. Four, one, two and one haplotypes were obtained at the four loci, respectively. The MLST subtype A4,A4,A4,A1 showed an absolute predominance and a wide distribution among the six MLST subtypes obtained in the investigated areas. Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed the presence of a clonal population genetic structure of C. andersoni in cattle, suggesting the absence of recombination among lineages. The finding of a clonal population genetic structure indicated that the prevalence of C. andersoni in cattle in Heilongjiang Province is not attributed to the introduction of cattle. Thus, prevention and control strategies should be focused on making stricter measures to avoid the occurrence of cross-transmission and re-infection between cattle individuals. These molecular data will also be helpful to explore the source attribution of infection/contamination of C. andersoni and to elucidate its transmission dynamics in Heilongjiang Province, even in China.

  2. MOLECULAR GENETIC ANALYSIS OF INTERLEUKIN 4 GENE POLYMORPHISM AMONG TELEUTIANS, SHORIANS, AND CAUCASIANS IN KEMEROVO REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ostaptseva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. An interleukin 4 polymorphism has been studied in Teleutians, Shorians, and Caucasoids living in the Kemerovo Region. The groups of Teleutians and Caucasoids are characterised with even or close-to-even distribution of the IL-4 alleles. The most widespread genotype in populations of Teleutians and Caucasoids was the 2R/3R heterozygosity, and 3R/3R proved to be the mostly rare. These data are indicative for mixing processes among Teleutians in the Kemerovo Region and Siberian Caucasoids. The major IL-4 genotype in Shorian population was 3R/3R, and the heterozygotic genotype 2R/3R took the second position.

  3. Hodgkin lymphoma therapy with interleukin-4 receptor-directed cytotoxin in an infiltrating animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Mariko; Kawakami, Koji; Kioi, Mitomu; Leland, Pamela; Puri, Raj K

    2005-05-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma represents unique clinicopathologic features because Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (H-RS) cells produce a variety of cytokines, express a variety of cytokine receptors, and are surrounded by numerous nonmalignant immunoreactive cells. We found that receptors for interleukin-4 (IL-4R) are highly expressed in H-RS cells. To target interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4R), we used a recombinant protein fusing circularly permuted human IL-4 and Pseudomonas exotoxin termed IL4(38-37)-PE38KDEL, or IL-4 cytotoxin. The cytotoxic effect of IL-4 cytotoxin on H-RS cell lines was determined to be moderate to high in vitro. We developed an infiltrating model of Hodgkin disease (HD) by injecting an adherent population of HD-MyZ cells subcutaneously into the flanks of beige/nude/X-linked immunodeficient mice. The animal model exhibited spontaneous metastasis of H-RS cells to lymph nodes and dissemination to vital organs, including the lungs. Intraperitoneal or intratumoral treatment of these mice with IL-4 cytotoxin resulted in regression of the primary tumor mass and a decrease in the incidence of lymph node metastasis. Mice injected with HD-MyZ cells demonstrated 203% prolonged survival (mean survival, 63 days) compared with control (mean survival, 31 days) when they received systemic IL-4 cytotoxin treatment. Because numerous H-RS cell lines express receptors for IL-4, IL-4 cytotoxin may be a unique agent for the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma.

  4. Isolation and molecular cloning of a secreted immunosuppressant protein from Dermacentor andersoni salivary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, D K; Palmer, M J; Caimano, M J; Radolf, J D; Wikel, S K

    2000-06-01

    A 36-kDa immunosuppressant protein (Da-p36) was isolated from salivary glands of feeding female ixodid ticks Dermacentor andersoni, using its affinity for UltraLink Biosupport Medium (Pierce, Rockford, Illinois)/protein complexes. Using a nested set of forward degenerate oligonucleotide primers corresponding to Da-p36 N-terminal amino acids, a cDNA encoding the immunosuppressant protein was isolated by 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The resulting 772-base pair cDNA encodes a novel protein with predicted molecular weight of 24.9 kDa. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of 5 potential glycosylation sites and 1 myristylation site. Immunoblot analyses showed native Da-p36 is present in salivary glands and saliva from both male and female D. andersoni but not in salivary glands or saliva from Amblyomma americanum or Ixodes scapularis. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analyses showed that Da-p36 expression is temporally regulated in salivary glands with maximum mRNA levels preceding maximum Da-p36 accumulation that occurred at day 6 of feeding. The levels of Da-p36 mRNA and protein were greatly reduced in salivary glands from near-replete females removed from sheep after 8 days of feeding. These data are consistent with a role of Da-p36 in immunosuppression during feeding.

  5. Comparison of differentially expressed genes in the salivary glands of male ticks, Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor andersoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bior, Abdelaziz D; Essenberg, Richard C; Sauer, John R

    2002-06-01

    Genes expressed differentially in the salivary glands of unfed and fed male ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.), were identified, cloned and sequenced, and some were compared with those expressed in the salivary glands of Dermacentor andersoni. Total protein and RNA increased sixfold in the salivary glands of fed male A. americanum, while in fed male D. andersoni salivary glands, RNA increased approximately 3.5 times. Feeding D. andersoni in the presence of females increased total RNA by 25% over those fed in the absence of females. Complementary DNAs were synthesized from RNA obtained from unfed and fed ticks and amplified using RNA arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (RAP-PCR) with three different primers in separate reactions. Differential display showed clear banding differences between the fed and the unfed ticks in A. americanum and D. andersoni. Sixty-one cDNA fragments that appeared to be from differentially expressed genes in A. americanum were isolated, cloned and sequenced. Hybridization reactions with labeled cDNA probes confirmed the differential expression of many of the genes in unfed and fed ticks' salivary glands; however, many of the bands contained more than one fragment and some of the fragments isolated from apparently differential bands were not specific. Sequences for 28 of the cDNA fragments (150-600 nucleotides in length) demonstrated similarity to genes in the databases, but nine of these were similar to sequences of unknown function. Some of the gene fragments identified may be important to tick feeding or tick salivary gland physiology, including a histamine-binding protein, an organic ion transporter, an apoptosis inhibitor, a cathepsin-B-like cysteine protease, proteins involved in gene regulation and several proteins involved in protein synthesis. Cross-hybridization of identified cDNAs from A. americanum with cDNA probes synthesized from D. andersoni total RNA did not show significant similarity between the two species.

  6. Microbial exposures in infancy predict levels of the immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin-4 in Filipino young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallman, Paula Skye; Kuzawa, Christopher; Adair, Linda; Borja, Judith B.; McDade, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Infancy represents a window of development during which long-term immunological functioning can be influenced. In this study, we evaluate proxies of microbial exposures in infancy as predictors of interleukin-4 (IL-4) in young adulthood. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is an immunoregulatory cytokine that plays a role in the pathogenesis of atopic and allergic disease. Methods Data come from 1,403 participants in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS), an ongoing population-based study in the Philippines. Relationships between microbial and nutritional environments in infancy and plasma IL-4 concentrations in adulthood were evaluated using tobit regression models. Results Having older siblings and more episodes of respiratory illness in infancy significantly predicted lower concentrations of plasma IL-4 in adulthood. Unexpectedly, more episodes of diarrheal illness in infancy were associated with higher IL-4. Interactions between a composite household pathogen exposure score, and the duration of exclusive breastfeeding approached significance. This interaction showed that the negative association between household pathogen exposure in infancy and adult IL-4 was only significant for individuals who had been exclusively breastfed for a short duration of time. Finally, currently living in an urban household was unexpectedly, negatively associated with adult IL-4. Associations were independent of early nutrition, socioeconomic status, and urbanicity, as well as current measures of infection, body fat, socioeconomic status, and smoking. Conclusions This study builds on a growing body of literature demonstrating that early ecological conditions have long-term effects on human biology by providing evidence that multiple proxies of microbial exposures in infancy are associated with adult IL-4. PMID:22307655

  7. [Effect of airborne fungi on interleukin-4 mRNA expression in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, H; Song, W; Jiang, R

    2001-09-01

    The effect of indoor airborne fungi on interleukin-4 (IL-4) mRNA expression in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of rats was studied by inoculating via trachea with fungi suspension. A simplified competitive RT-PCR method was used to measure the IL-4 mRNA expression in plasma. The results showed that interleukin-4 expression was much higher in the affected groups than that in the control one. It suggested that IL-4 might play an important role in the sensitization progress of fungi.

  8. Murine cutaneous responses to the Rocky Mountain spotted fever vector, Dermacentor andersoni, feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dar M Heinze

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tick salivary glands produce complex cocktails of bioactive molecules that facilitate blood feeding and pathogen transmission by modulating host hemostasis, pain/itch responses, wound healing, and both innate and adaptive immunity. In this study, cutaneous responses at Dermacentor andersoni bite-sites were analyzed using Affymetrix mouse genome arrays and histopathology at 12, 48, 96 and 120 hours post- infestation (hpi during primary infestations and 120hpi during secondary infestations. The microarray data suggests: (1 chemotaxis of neutrophils, monocytes, and other cell types; (2 production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species; and, (3 keratin- based wound healing responses. Histological analysis supported the microarray findings. At 12hpi, a mild inflammatory infiltrate was present in the dermis, especially concentrated at the junction between dermal connective tissue and underlying adipose tissue. A small lesion was located immediately under the hypostome and likely represents the feeding pool. Surprisingly, at 48hpi, the number of inflammatory cells had not increased from 12hpi, perhaps mirroring the reduction in gene expression seen at this time point. The feeding lesion is very well defined, and extravasated erythrocytes are readily evident around the hypostome. By 96hpi, the inflammatory infiltrate has increased dramatically and the feeding lesion appears to have moved deeper into the dermis. At 120hpi, most of the changes at 96hpi are intensified. The infiltrate is very dense, the epidermis is markedly thickened, the feeding lesion is poorly defined and the dermal tissue near the hypostome appears to be loosing its normal architecture. In conclusion, during D. andersoni feeding infiltration of inflammatory cells increases across time concurrent with significant changes in the epidermal and dermal compartments near the feeding tick. The importance of changes in the epidermal layer in the host response to ticks is not known, however

  9. Interleukin 4-producing CD4+ T cells in the skin of cats with allergic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosje, P J; Dean, G A; Willemse, T; Rutten, V P M G; Thepen, T

    2002-03-01

    Lesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis has a cellular infiltrate and a CD4/CD8 ratio comparable to that in humans with atopic dermatitis. CD4+ helper T cells and in particular cells belonging to the Th2 subset play an important role in disease pathogenesis in humans. We investigated the cytokine pattern of CD4+ T cells in situ, with special emphasis on the putative presence of cells producing interleukin 4 (IL4), in cats with allergic dermatitis. Immunohistochemical procedures were used to determine that CD4+ T cells in lesional and nonlesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis can produce IL4, as occurs in humans. Lesional and nonlesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis had significantly more IL4+ T cells (P = 0.001) than did skin of healthy control cats. Double staining indicated that all IL4+ cells were positive for pan-T or CD4 markers. Double labeling for mast cell chymase and IL4 stained primarily different cells. Western blotting demonstrated cross-reactivity between the antibody against human IL4 and a feline recombinant IL4. These results indicate that IL4 is primarily produced by CD4+ T cells and is also present in clinically uninvolved skin, indicating a role in the pathogenesis of allergic dermatitis in cats.

  10. Association study of interleukin-4 polymorphisms with paranoid schizophrenia in the Polish population: a critical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fila-Danilow, Anna; Kucia, Krzysztof; Kowalczyk, Malgorzata; Owczarek, Aleksander; Paul-Samojedny, Monika; Borkowska, Paulina; Suchanek, Renata; Kowalski, Jan

    2012-08-01

    Changes in immunological system are one of dysfunctions reported in schizophrenia. Some changes based on an imbalance between Th1 and Th2 cytokines results from cytokine gene polymorphisms. Interleukin-4 gene (IL4) is considered as a potential candidate gene in schizophrenia association studies. The aim of the current case-control study was to examine whether the -590C/T (rs2243250) and -33C/T (rs2070874) IL4 gene polymorphisms are implicated in paranoid schizophrenia development in the Polish population. Genotyping of polymorphisms was performed by using PCR-RFLP technique. The genotypes and alleles distribution of both SNPs were analysed in patients (n = 182) and healthy individuals constituted the control group (n = 215). The connection between some clinical variables and studied polymorphisms has been examined as well. We did not revealed any association between the -590C/T and -33C/T polymorphisms and paranoid schizophrenia. In case of both SNPs the homozygous TT genotype was extremely rare. Both polymorphic sites of the IL4 gene were found to be in a very strong linkage disequilibrium. However we did not identify a haplotype predispose to paranoid schizophrenia. No associations were also observed between the clinical course and psychopathology of the disease and the genotypes of both analysed polymorphisms. Our results suggest that the polymorphisms -590C/T in IL4 gene promoter region and -33C/T in the 5'-UTR are not involved in the pathophysiology of paranoid schizophrenia in Polish residents.

  11. Monoclonal antibody selection for interleukin-4 quantification using suspension arrays and forward-phase protein microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Cole, K D; Peterson, A; He, Hua-Jun; Gaigalas, A K; Zong, Y

    2007-12-01

    A recombinant mouse interleukin-4 (IL-4) and three different purified rat antimouse IL-4 monoclonal antibodies (Mab) with different clonalities were employed as a model system. This system was used to examine monoclonal antibody effectiveness using both conventional and high-throughput measurement techniques to select antibodies for attaining the most sensitive detection of the recombinant IL-4 through the "sandwich-type" immunoassays. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements and two high-throughput methods, suspension arrays (also called multiplexed bead arrays) and forward-phase protein microarrays, predicted the same capture (BVD4-1D11) and detection (BVD6-24G2) antibody pair for the most sensitive detection of the recombinant cytokine. By using this antibody pair, we were able to detect as low as 2 pg/mL of IL-4 in buffer solution and 13.5 pg/mL of IL-4 spiked in 100% normal mouse serum with the multiplexed bead arrays. Due to the large amount of material required for SPR measurements, the study suggests that the multiplexed bead arrays and protein microarrays are both suited for the selection of numerous antibodies against the same analyte of interest to meet the need in the areas of systems biology and reproducible clinical diagnostics for better patient care.

  12. Regulation of interleukin-4 signaling by extracellular reduction of intramolecular disulfides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curbo, Sophie; Gaudin, Raphael [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Microbiology F68, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, SE-14186 Stockholm (Sweden); Carlsten, Mattias; Malmberg, Karl-Johan [Center for Infectious Medicine, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, SE-14186 Stockholm (Sweden); Troye-Blomberg, Marita [Department of Immunology, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Ahlborg, Niklas [Department of Immunology, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Mabtech, Box 1233, SE-13128 Nacka Strand (Sweden); Karlsson, Anna; Johansson, Magnus [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Microbiology F68, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, SE-14186 Stockholm (Sweden); Lundberg, Mathias, E-mail: mathias.lundberg@ki.se [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Microbiology F68, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, SE-14186 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-12-25

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4) contains three structurally important intramolecular disulfides that are required for the bioactivity of the cytokine. We show that the cell surface of HeLa cells and endotoxin-activated monocytes can reduce IL-4 intramolecular disulfides in the extracellular space and inhibit binding of IL-4 to the IL-4R{alpha} receptor. IL-4 disulfides were in vitro reduced by thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). Reduction of IL-4 disulfides by the cell surface of HeLa cells was inhibited by auranofin, an inhibitor of thioredoxin reductase that is an electron donor to both Trx1 and PDI. Both Trx1 and PDI have been shown to be located at the cell surface and our data suggests that these enzymes are involved in catalyzing reduction of IL-4 disulfides. The pro-drug N-acetylcysteine (NAC) that promotes T-helper type 1 responses was also shown to mediate the reduction of IL-4 disulfides. Our data provides evidence for a novel redox dependent pathway for regulation of cytokine activity by extracellular reduction of intramolecular disulfides at the cell surface by members of the thioredoxin enzyme family.

  13. Interleukin-4 and 13 concentrations in infants at risk to develop Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruger Thomas E

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An exaggerated inflammatory response occurs in the first few days of life in infants who subsequently develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. The increase of inflammatory cytokines in many disease processes is generally balanced by a rise in anti-inflammatory cytokines. Interleukin-4 (IL-4 and interleukin-13 (IL-13 have been shown to inhibit production of several inflammatory cytokines important in the development of BPD. Methods We sought to determine if a correlation exists between the presence or absence of IL-4 and IL-13 in tracheal aspirates (TA during the first 3 weeks of life and the development of BPD in premature infants. Serial TAs were prospectively obtained from 36 very low birth weight infants and IL-4 and IL-13 concentrations were determined by ELISA. Results Infants who developed BPD (n = 19 were less mature (25.3 ± 0.02 wks vs. 27.8 ± 0.05 wks; p Conclusions TA concentrations of IL-4 and IL-13 do not increase significantly during acute lung injury in premature infants.

  14. Molecular And Structural Basis of Cytokine Receptor Pleiotropy in the Interleukin-4/13 System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaPorte, S.L.; Juo, Z.S.; Vaclavikova, J.; Colf, L.A.; Qi, X.; Heller, N.M.; Keegan, A.D.; Garcia, K.C.

    2009-05-20

    Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-13 are cytokines critical to the development of T cell-mediated humoral immune responses, which are associated with allergy and asthma, and exert their actions through three different combinations of shared receptors. Here we present the crystal structures of the complete set of type I (IL-4R{alpha}/{gamma}{sub c}/IL-4) and type II (IL-4R/IL-13R{alpha}1/IL-4, IL-4R{alpha}/IL-13R{alpha}1/IL-13) ternary signaling complexes. The type I complex reveals a structural basis for {gamma}{sub c}'s ability to recognize six different {gamma}{sub c}-cytokines. The two type II complexes utilize an unusual top-mounted Ig-like domain on IL-13R{alpha}1 for a novel mode of cytokine engagement that contributes to a reversal in the IL-4 versus IL-13 ternary complex assembly sequences, which are mediated through substantially different recognition chemistries. We also show that the type II receptor heterodimer signals with different potencies in response to IL-4 versus IL-13 and suggest that the extracellular cytokine-receptor interactions are modulating intracellular membrane-proximal signaling events.

  15. First description of heterogeneity in 18S rRNA genes in the haploid genome of Cryptosporidium andersoni Kawatabi type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikarashi, Makoto; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Honma, Hajime; Kasai, Kenji; Kaneta, Yoshiyasu; Nakai, Yutaka

    2013-09-01

    The Apicomplexan Cryptosporidium andersoni, is a species of gastric Cryptosporidium, is frequently detected in older calves and adult cattle. Genotyping analyses based on 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences have been performed on a novel C. andersoni genotype, namely the Kawatabi type, and the oocysts were classified into two distinct groups genotypically: Type A (the sequence in GenBank) and Type B (with a thymine nucleotide insertion not in Type A). This study analyzed 3775 cattle at a slaughterhouse and 310 cattle at a farm using microscopy and found 175 Cryptosporidium-positive animals: 171 from the slaughterhouse and four from the farm, and all infecting parasites were determined to be C. andersoni from 18S rRNA gene sequences determined from fecal DNA. In genotyping analyses with single isolated oocysts, about a half of analyzed ones were clearly classified into well known two genotypes (Type A and B). In addition to these two known genotypes, we have detected some oocysts showing mixed signals of Types A and B in the electropherogram from the automated sequencer (the Type C genotype). To determine the genotypic composition of sporozoites carried by the Type C oocysts, we analyzed their 18S rRNA gene sequences using a single sporozoite isolation procedure. Some sporozoites were classified as either Type A or Type B. However, more than half of the analyzed isolated sporozoites showed a mixed signal identical to that of Type C oocysts, and both the Type A and B signals were surely detectable from such sporozoites after a cloning procedure. In conclusion, C. andersoni carries two different genotypes heterogeneously in its haploid genome.

  16. Evidence of balanced diversity at the chicken interleukin 4 receptor alpha chain locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podisi Baitsi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The comparative analysis of genome sequences emerging for several avian species with the fully sequenced chicken genome enables the genome-wide investigation of selective processes in functionally important chicken genes. In particular, because of pathogenic challenges it is expected that genes involved in the chicken immune system are subject to particularly strong adaptive pressure. Signatures of selection detected by inter-species comparison may then be investigated at the population level in global chicken populations to highlight potentially relevant functional polymorphisms. Results Comparative evolutionary analysis of chicken (Gallus gallus and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata genes identified interleukin 4 receptor alpha-chain (IL-4Rα, a key cytokine receptor as a candidate with a significant excess of substitutions at nonsynonymous sites, suggestive of adaptive evolution. Resequencing and detailed population genetic analysis of this gene in diverse village chickens from Asia and Africa, commercial broilers, and in outgroup species red jungle fowl (JF, grey JF, Ceylon JF, green JF, grey francolin and bamboo partridge, suggested elevated and balanced diversity across all populations at this gene, acting to preserve different high-frequency alleles at two nonsynonymous sites. Conclusion Haplotype networks indicate that red JF is the primary contributor of diversity at chicken IL-4Rα: the signature of variation observed here may be due to the effects of domestication, admixture and introgression, which produce high diversity. However, this gene is a key cytokine-binding receptor in the immune system, so balancing selection related to the host response to pathogens cannot be excluded.

  17. Cytoplasmic expression of recombinant interleukin-2 and interleukin-4 proteins results in hydrogen peroxide accumulation and reduction in catalase activity in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S Hejazi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: The Reactive oxygen species (ROS is induced in the cells following various stresses but the effect of recombinant protein expression on ROS generation has not been studied yet. In this study, H2O2 concentration and catalase activity variations and their correlation with cell growth following cytoplasmic expression of human interleukin-2 (hIL-2 and mouse interleukin-4 (mIL-4 in Escherichia coli were investigated. Additionally, the effect of recombinant protein expression under different conditions was compared to the effect of foreign DNA introduction on these factors. Methods: Plasmids pEThIL-2 and pETmIL-4 were used for expression of human interleukin-2 (hIL-2 and mouse interleukin-4 (mIL-4 inside the cytoplasm of the cells. Having confirmed protein expression using SDS-PAGE analysis and ELISA assay, H2O2 concentration and catalase activity were measured at various ODs. Results and major conclusion: Empty vector introduction increased significantly H2O2 concentration of the cells. However, H2O2 concentration in hIL-2 and mIL-4 expressing cells was significantly higher than its concentration in empty vector transformed cells. Catalase activity was reduced in foreign DNA introduced cells. It was more lowered following expression of recombinant proteins. Results of this study revealed the relationship between foreign DNA introduction and protein expression with H2O2 elevation and catalase activity reduction. There was also correlation between H2O2 elevation and reduction in catalase activity with the cell growth depression.

  18. Presence of interleukin-4-producing cells for human bone regeneration after application of guided tissue regeneration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabashima, H; Nagata, K

    2001-07-01

    To study the process of bone regeneration we examined three samples of periapical regenerative tissue obtained from two patients under a guided tissue regeneration treatment in endodontic surgery by the immunohistochemical and enzyme histochemical methods. The regenerative tissue consisted of a large number of fibroblast-like cells and a small number of mononuclear cells. Fibroblast-like cells stained positively for alkaline phosphatase and osteopontin, whereas mononuclear cells stained positively for CD4. Interleukin-4-producing cells could be detected in adjacent sections. However, interferon-y-producing cells could not be detected. These findings suggest that interleukin-4-producing cells may be one of the elements associated with success in the human bone regeneration process in vivo.

  19. Recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated inhibiting of interleukin-4 expression in rat model of asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Asthma is a chronic disease characterized by reversible airway obstruction, airway hyper- responsiveness, and inflammation of airways. Th2 cells, one sort of CD4+ T lymphocytes, are currently considered to play an important role in the chronic airway inflammation of asthma. Meanwhile, a number of laboratories have clearly established the importance of the Th2-derived cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4) in mediating the airway inflammatory response. Anti-IL-4 therapy might be beneficial in treatment of chronic asthma.

  20. Salivary Interferon Gamma and Interleukin-4 Levels in Patients Suffering from Oral Lichen Planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Malekzadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Oral lichen planus (OLP is a chronic inflammatory disease. Immunological factor may act as etiological factor. The cellular immune cells such as T cells are important in pathogenesis. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ and interleukin 4 (IL-4 are secreted by T-helper 1 (Th1 and Th2, respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between salivary levels of IFN-γ and IL-4 with OLP. Materials and Methods: This case control study included sixty three Iranian OLP patients who were selected from the Department of Oral Medicine of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences from January to July 2013. An equal number of healthy volunteers were also selected as a control group. The OLP patients were then divided into two following sub-groups: reticular (n=30 and erythematous/ulcerative (n=33. All patients had no systemic disease and received no medication. IFN-γ and IL-4 levels in whole unstimulated saliva (WUS were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test. Data analysis was done using t test, ANOVA, least significant difference (LSD test, and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Reticular OLP patients showed higher salivary IFN-γ (7.74 ± 0.09 pg/ml and IL-4 (3.876 ± 0.05 pg/ml levels compared with the control group, indicating that difference was significant. Salivary IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio significantly increased compared with control group (P=0.042. Salivary IFN-γ and IL-4 levels between sub-groups (reticular and erythematous/ulcerative were not significantly different (2.6 ± 0.06 and 2.3 ± 0.05, respectively, P<0.05. Conclusion: Salivary IFN-γ and IL-4 levels were increased in OLP patients. An increase of salivary IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio in OLP patients showed that Th1 might have a dominant role in the OLP pathogenesis.

  1. Isolation of a Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia, Rickettsia peacockii, in a Rocky Mountain Wood Tick, Dermacentor andersoni, Cell Line

    OpenAIRE

    Simser, Jason A.; Palmer, Ann T.; Munderloh, Ulrike G.; Kurtti, Timothy J.

    2001-01-01

    An embryonic cell line (DAE100) of the Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni, was observed by microscopy to be chronically infected with a rickettsialike organism. The organism was identified as a spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsia by PCR amplification and sequencing of portions of the 16S rRNA, citrate synthase, Rickettsia genus-specific 17-kDa antigen, and SFG-specific 190-kDa outer membrane protein A (rOmpA) genes. Sequence analysis of a partial rompA gene PCR fragment and indi...

  2. An Attempt at Captive Breeding of the Endangered Newt Echinotriton andersoni, from the Central Ryukyus in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Sumida

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Anderson’s crocodile newt (Echinotriton andersoni is distributed in the Central Ryukyu Islands of southern Japan, but environmental degradation and illegal collection over the last several decades have devastated the local populations. It has therefore been listed as a class B1 endangered species in the IUCN Red List, indicating that it is at high risk of extinction in the wild. The species is also protected by law in both Okinawa and Kagoshima prefectures. An artificial insemination technique using hormonal injections could not be applied to the breeding of this species in the laboratory. In this study we naturally bred the species, and tested a laboratory farming technique using several male and female E. andersoni pairs collected from Okinawa, Amami, and Tokunoshima Islands and subsequently maintained in near-biotopic breeding cages. Among 378 eggs derived from 17 females, 319 (84.4% became normal tailbud embryos, 274 (72.5% hatched normally, 213 (56.3% metamorphosed normally, and 141 (37.3% became normal two-month-old newts; in addition, 77 one- to three-year-old Tokunoshima newts and 32 Amami larvae are currently still growing normally. Over the last five breeding seasons, eggs were laid in-cage on slopes near the waterfront. Larvae were raised in nets maintained in a temperature-controlled water bath at 20 °C and fed live Tubifex. Metamorphosed newts were transferred to plastic containers containing wet sponges kept in a temperature-controlled incubator at 22.5 °C and fed a cricket diet to promote healthy growth. This is the first published report of successfully propagating an endangered species by using breeding cages in a laboratory setting for captive breeding. Our findings on the natural breeding and raising of larvae and adults are useful in breeding this endangered species and can be applied to the preservation of other similarly wild and endangered species such as E. chinhaiensis.

  3. Identification and characterization of a critical CP2-binding element in the human interleukin-4 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casolaro, V; Keane-Myers, A M; Swendeman, S L; Steindler, C; Zhong, F; Sheffery, M; Georas, S N; Ono, S J

    2000-11-24

    Expression of cytokine genes in T cells is thought to result from a complex network of antigen- and mitogen-activated transcriptional regulators. CP2, a factor homologous to Drosophila Elf-1 and previously found to be a critical regulator of several viral and cellular genes in response to developmental signals, is rapidly activated in T helper (Th) cells in response to mitogenic stimulation. Here we show that overexpression of CP2 enhances interleukin (IL)-4 promoter-driven chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression, while repressing IL-2 promoter activity, in transiently transfected Jurkat cells. A CP2-protected element, partially overlapping the nuclear factor of activated T cell-binding P2 sequence, was required for IL-4 promoter activation in CP2-overexpressing Jurkat cells. This CP2-response element is the site of a cooperative interaction between CP2 and an inducible heteromeric co-factor(s). Mutation of conserved nucleotide contacts within the CP2-response element prevented CP2 binding and significantly reduced constitutive and induced IL-4 promoter activity. Expression of a CP2 mutant lacking the Elf-1-homology region of the DNA-binding domain inhibited IL-4 promoter activity in a dominant negative fashion in transiently transfected Jurkat cells. Moreover, overexpressed CP2 markedly enhanced, while its dominant negative mutant consistently suppressed, expression of the endogenous IL-4 gene in the murine Th2 cell line D10. Taken together, these findings point to CP2 as a critical IL-4 transactivator in Th cells.

  4. Behavioural consequences of an 8 Gy total body irradiation in mice: Regulation by interleukin-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Meeren, A.; Lebaron-Jacobs, L. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dept. de Protection de la sante de l' Homme et de Dosimetrie, Section Autonome de Radiobiologie Appliquee a la Medecine, IPSN, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2001-02-01

    The effects of an 8 Gy {gamma} total body irradiation (TBI) on exploration and locomotion activities as well as temperature were studied in C57BL6/J mice. Survival, body weight, and blood cell counts were also assessed in irradiated mice treated with placebo or interleukin (IL)-4. The efficacy of IL-4 treatment on improvement in exploration activity was evaluated. The study was carried out from 3 h to 30 days following exposure. Our results showed a biphasic response to irradiation concerning the exploration activity of mice. Irradiated mice had reduced activity as early as 3 h after exposure, with recovery of activity within 24 h. The exploration activity again decreased 4 days after irradiation and the recovery occurred slowly after day 17. IL-4 ameliorated the exploration status in mice in both phases. The locomotion activity was studied using a telemetry apparatus. A similar pattern to that of the exploration data was observed, with a minimal activity observed between days 13 and 17. A radiation-induced hypothermia was also noticed over the same time period. (author)

  5. Opposite effects of interleukin-4 on memory T helper cell development depend on interleukin-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemer, V; Motta, I; Perret, R; Truffa-Bachi, P

    1996-01-01

    We previously reported that cyclosporin A (CSA) promotes the generation of T helper memory cells during antigenic priming of murine spleen cells in vitro. More recently, we have demonstrated that interleukin-2 (IL2) has a downmodulating effect on T helper memory cell generation. The present data address the role of the other T cell growth factor, IL4, upon induction of these cells. The data presented here show that IL4 can interfere with this process: addition of rIL4 to immunosuppressed priming cultures leads to a considerable decrease in the helper activity of the recovered cells. However, in standard cultures, in which IL2 is normally produced, no effect of IL4 on T helper memory cell generation was found. Addition of IL4 has important consequences for cytokines produced upon antigenic restimulation. In standard cultures, IL4 primes for cells expressing high levels of IL2 and IL4 mRNA. Strikingly, in immunosuppressed priming cultures, IL4 counterbalances the CSA-induced blockade of the IFN gamma gene. Taken together, our results suggest that the unique role of IL4 is to drive T helper memory precursors into an IL4 production differentiation pathway. However, IL4 has a downmodulating effect on memory T helper cell induction when IL2 is not produced. These results confirm that synergy between IL2 and IL4 is mandatory for the directive role of IL4 upon IL4-producing cells. Furthermore, the finding that IL4 promotes the induction of IFN gamma in a CSA-resistant pathway represents a new tool for analysis of regulation of the IFN gamma gene.

  6. Effects of potential food sources on biological and demographic parameters of the predatory mites Kampimodromus aberrans, Typhlodromus pyri and Amblyseius andersoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzon, Mauro; Pozzebon, Alberto; Duso, Carlo

    2012-11-01

    Kampimodromus aberrans, Typhlodromus pyri and Amblyseius andersoni are generalist predatory mites important in controlling tetranychid and eriophyoid mites in European vineyards. They can persist by exploiting various non-prey foods when their main prey is absent or scarce. A comparative analysis of the effects of various prey and non-prey foods on the life history of these predators is lacking. In the laboratory, predatory mites were reared on herbivorous mites (Panonychus ulmi, Eotetranychus carpini and Colomerus vitis), a potential alternative prey (Tydeus caudatus) and two non-prey foods, i.e. the pollen of Typha latifolia and the mycelium of Grape downy mildew (GDM) Plasmopara viticola. Developmental times, survival, sex ratio and fecundity as well as life table parameters were estimated. Kampimodromus aberrans developed faster on E. carpini, C. vitis or pollen than on P. ulmi and laid more eggs on pollen than on prey. Low numbers of this predator developed on GDM infected leaves. Tydeus caudatus was not suitable as prey for any of the three predatory mites. Kampimodromus aberrans showed the highest intrinsic rate of population increase when fed on pollen. Developmental times of T. pyri on prey or pollen were similar but fecundity was higher on pollen than on P. ulmi. Typhlodromus pyri had higher intrinsic rates of population increase on C. vitis and pollen than on P. ulmi; E. carpini showed intermediate values whereas GDM resulted in the lowest r ( m ) values. Development of A. andersoni females was faster on pollen and C. vitis than on P. ulmi and GDM. Fecundity was higher on pollen and mites compared to GDM. Life table parameters of A. andersoni did not differ when predators were fed with prey or pollen while GDM led to a lower r ( m ) value. On a specific diet A. andersoni exhibited faster development and higher fecundity than T. pyri and K. aberrans. These findings improve knowledge on factors affecting the potential of predatory mites in controlling

  7. Differential mRNA expression and production of interleukin-4 and interferon-gamma in stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells of house-dust mite-allergic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, M.P.; Baert, M.R.M.; Vredendaal, A.E.C.M.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.

    1998-01-01

    Summary : Optimal culture conditions were established for the analysis of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interfe-ron-gamma (IFN- ) mRNA expression and protein production, as well as proliferative capacity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). These culture conditions permitted the analysis of diff

  8. Interleukin-4 is essential for the control of microfilariae in murine infection with the filaria Litomosoides sigmodontis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmann, L; Saeftel, M; Bain, O; Fischer, K; Fleischer, B; Hoerauf, A

    2001-05-01

    Litomosoides sigmodontis is the only filaria which develops from infective larvae into microfilaria-producing adults in immunocompetent laboratory mice. In this study we report that interleukin-4 knockout (IL-4 KO) mice have an up to 100-fold-higher and a significantly prolonged microfilaremia compared to wild-type BALB/c mice, as well as 20 times more microfilariae in the thoracic cavity, the site of infection. While worm development and adult worm persistence were equivalent in IL-4 KO and wild-type mice, the fertility and length of adult female worms in IL-4 KO mice was clearly enhanced. The high susceptibility to microfilariae in IL-4 KO mice required the presence of adult worms in a full infection cycle since microfilariae loads did not differ much between IL-4 KO and wild-type mice when purified microfilariae were injected into mice. In addition, we found that eosinophilia was diminished and immunoglobulin E (IgE) was absent in IL-4 KO mice. IgE, however, does not seem to be the essential factor for microfilarial containment since microfilaremia was not elevated in B-cell KO mice. In conclusion, IL-4 is shown for the first time to be essential for the control of microfilarial loads but not of adult worm loads in a fully permissive murine filarial infection. IL-4 dependent effector pathways seem to operate on adult worms rather than directly on microfilariae.

  9. Enhanced potency of replicon vaccine using one vector to simultaneously co-express antigen and interleukin-4 molecular adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yao; An, Huai-Jie; Wei, Xiao-Qi; Xu, Qing; Yu, Yun-Zhou; Sun, Zhi-Wei

    2013-02-01

    We evaluated the utility of interleukin-4 (IL-4) as molecular adjuvant of replicon vaccines for botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) in mouse model. In both Balb/c and C57/BL6 mice that received the plasmid DNA replicon vaccines derived from Semliki Forest virus (SFV) encoding the Hc gene of BoNT/A (AHc), the immunogenicity was significantly modulated and enhanced by co-delivery or co-express of the IL-4 molecular adjuvant. The enhanced potencies were also produced by co-delivery or co-expression of the IL-4 molecular adjuvant in mice immunized with the recombinant SFV replicon particles (VRP) vaccines. In particular, when AHc and IL-4 were co-expressed within the same replicon vaccine vector using dual-expression or bicistronic IRES, the anti-AHc antibody titers, serum neutralization titers and survival rates of immunized mice after challenged with BoNT/A were significantly increased. These results indicate IL-4 is an effective Th2-type adjuvant for the replicon vaccines in both strain mice, and the co-expression replicon vaccines described here may be an excellent candidate for further vaccine development in other animals or humans. Thus, we described a strategy to design and develop efficient vaccines against BoNT/A or other pathogens using one replicon vector to simultaneously co-express antigen and molecular adjuvant.

  10. Association Between Interleukin 4 Gene Seventy-Base-Pair Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Polymorphism and Uterine Leiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salimi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Uterine Leiomyoma (UL is the most common gynecological tumor and a public health problem. Higher serum interleukin 4 (IL-4 level, as an anti-inflammatory cytokine that regulates TH1/TH2 cells balance, has been observed in the uterine cavity. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the association between IL4 gene variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR polymorphism and the risk of UL in southeast of Iran. Patients and Methods We compared of 99 patients with UL with that of 102 healthy controls. The IL4 VNTR polymorphism was genotyped by gel electrophoresis after PCR amplification. Results There was no significant association between RP*1/RP*2 and RP*2/RP*2 genotypes and UL; however, a significant association between RP*2/RP*2 genotype and UL was found after adjustment for age (OR, 4; 95% CI, 1.3-12.4; and P = 0.015. The frequency of RP*2 allele was significantly higher in women with UL (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.5; and P = 0.03. Conclusions The IL4 VNTR RP*2/RP*2 genotype could be an age-related risk factor for UL. Moreover, the frequency of RP*2 allele was significantly higher in women with UL.

  11. Interleukin-4 ameliorates the functional recovery of intracerebral hemorrhage through the alternative activation of microglia/macrophage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjing eYang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuro-inflammation plays an important role in the recovery of brain injury after stroke. Microglia/macrophage is the major executor in the neuro-inflammation, which can be polarized into two distinct phenotypes: injurious/toxic classical activation (M1 phenotype and protective alternative activation (M2 phenotype. Here, we investigated whether intracerebral administration of interleukin-4 (IL-4 at an early stage could affect the activation of microglia/macrophage and the corresponding outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH. The neuro-behavior was recorded between different groups in the rat ICH model. The M1 and M2 markers were then determined by qRT-PCR, western blotting, ELISA and immunofluorescence, respectively. We observed aberrant activation of microglia/macrophage after ICH. After intracerebral injection of IL-4, M1 activation was greatly inhibited while M2 activation was enhanced, along with improving neurobehavioral recovery from deficits after ICH. Our study showed that early intracerebral injection of IL-4 potentially promotes neuro-functional recovery, probably through enhancing the alternative activation of microglia/macrophage.

  12. Interferon-c and interleukin-4 detected in serum and saliva from patients with oral lichen planus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Zhao Liu; Qian-Ming Chen; Ming-Jing He; Long Long; Dong-Liang Mu; Ming-Shu Xu; Xue Xing; Xin Zeng; Ga Liao; Hong-Xia Dan

    2014-01-01

    Our previous salivary study had demonstrated an apparent T helper 2 (Th2)-predominance in saliva of oral lichen planus (OLP) patients and suggested a potential of salivary interleukin-4 (IL-4) as a biomarker for monitoring disease severity. To further determine the consistency of Th1/Th2 bias of OLP, this study investigated the expression profile of interferon-c (IFN-c) and IL-4 in serum and the relationship of the serum levels of these cytokines with their saliva partners. Sixty ethnic Chinese patients with OLP (40 of the erythematous/ulcerative form and 20 of the reticular form) were recruited for this study, with 40 age-sex-matched healthy volunteers as control group. IFN-c and IL-4 levels in serum and paired saliva samples were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. OLP patient showed a low-level IFN-c but high-level IL-4 expression profile in both serum and saliva, with a lower IFN-c/IL-4 ratio. Serum IL-4 level in the erythematous/ulcerative group was significantly higher than that in the reticular group. Serum levels of IFN-c and IL-4 were significantly and positively correlated with their saliva partners. These results provided more evidence for Th2 cytokine-predominant immune imbalance in OLP, as well as the potential of IL-4 as the biomarker for monitoring severity of OLP.

  13. A soluble, high-affinity, interleukin-4-binding protein is present in the biological fluids of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Botran, R.; Vitetta, E.S. (Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Cytokines such as interleukin 4 (IL-4) play a key role in the regulation of immune responses, but little is known about how their multiple activities are regulated in vivo. In this report, we demonstrate that an IL-4-binding protein (IL-4BP) is constitutively present in the biological fluids of mice (serum, ascites fluid, and urine). Binding of {sup 125}I-labeled IL-4 to the IL-4BP is specific and saturable and can be inhibited by an excess of unlabeled IL-4 but not IL-2. The IL-4BP binds IL-4 with an affinity similar to that reported for the cellular IL-4 with an affinity similar to that reported for the cellular IL-4 receptor (K{sub d} {approx}7 {times} 10{sup {minus}11} M) and has a molecular mass of 30-40 kDa and pI values of 3.6-4.8. IL-4BP-containing biological fluids or purified IL-4BP competitively inhibit the binding of {sup 125}I-labeled IL-4 to mouse T or B cells and inhibit the biological activity of IL-4 but not IL-2. The serum levels of IL-4BP in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice are lower than those of normal mice. The above findings suggest that IL-4BP plays an important immunoregulatory role in vivo.

  14. Endogenous expression of interleukin-4 regulates macrophage activation and confines cavity formation after traumatic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Ihm; Jeong, Soo Ryeong; Kang, Young Mi; Han, Dae Hee; Jin, Byung Kwan; Namgung, Uk; Kim, Byung G

    2010-08-15

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) triggers inflammatory reactions in which various types of cells and cytokines are involved. Several proinflammatory cytokines are up-regulated after SCI and play crucial roles in determining the extent of secondary tissue damage. However, relatively little is known about antiinflammatory cytokines and their roles in spinal cord trauma. Recent studies have shown that an antiinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-4 (IL-4), is expressed and exerts various modulatory effects in CNS inflammation. We found in the present study that IL-4 was highly expressed at 24 hr after contusive SCI in rats and declined thereafter, with concurrent up-regulation of IL-4 receptor subunit IL-4alpha. The majority of IL-4-producing cells were myeloperoxidase-positive neutrophils. Injection of neutralizing antibody against IL-4 into the contused spinal cord did not significantly affect the expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha or other antiinflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and transforming growth factor-beta. Instead, attenuation of IL-4 activity led to a marked increase in the extent of ED1-positive macrophage activation along the rostrocaudal extent at 7 days after injury. The enhanced macrophage activation was preceded by an increase in the level of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2). Finally, IL-4 neutralization resulted in more extensive cavitation at 4 weeks after injury. These results suggest that endogenous expression of antiinflammatory cytokine IL-4 regulates the extent of acute macrophage activation and confines the ensuing secondary cavity formation after spinal cord trauma.

  15. Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist and Interleukin-4 Genes Variable Number Tandem Repeats Are Associated with Adiposity in Malaysian Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Yung-Yean; Ong, Hing-Huat

    2017-01-01

    Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RA) intron 2 86 bp repeat and interleukin-4 (IL4) intron 3 70 bp repeat are variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) that have been associated with various diseases, but their role in obesity is elusive. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of IL1RA and IL4 VNTRs with obesity and adiposity in 315 Malaysian subjects (128 M/187 F; 23 Malays/251 ethnic Chinese/41 ethnic Indians). The allelic distributions of IL1RA and IL4 were significantly different among ethnicities, and the alleles were associated with total body fat (TBF) classes. Individuals with IL1RA I/II genotype or allele II had greater risk of having higher overall adiposity, relative to those having the I/I genotype or I allele, respectively, even after controlling for ethnicity [Odds Ratio (OR) of I/II genotype = 12.21 (CI = 2.54, 58.79; p = 0.002); II allele = 5.78 (CI = 1.73, 19.29; p = 0.004)]. However, IL4 VNTR B2 allele was only significantly associated with overall adiposity status before adjusting for ethnicity [OR = 1.53 (CI = 1.04, 2.23; p = 0.03)]. Individuals with IL1RA II allele had significantly higher TBF than those with I allele (31.79 ± 2.52 versus 23.51 ± 0.40; p = 0.005). Taken together, IL1RA intron 2 VNTR seems to be a genetic marker for overall adiposity status in Malaysian subjects. PMID:28293435

  16. Inhibition of murine renal carcinoma pulmonary metastases by systemic administration of interferon gamma: mechanism of action and potential for combination with interleukin 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, G G; Younes, E; Visscher, D; Hamzavi, F; Kim, S; Lam, J S; Montecillo, E J; Ali, E; Pontes, J E; Puri, R K; Haas, G P

    1997-10-01

    We have previously demonstrated that IFN-gamma causes cell growth inhibition and up-regulation of MHC antigens in human renal cell carcinoma cell lines. In this study, we have investigated the therapeutic potential of IFN-gamma for the treatment of 5-day established pulmonary metastases induced by i.v. injection of Renca cells, a murine renal adenocarcinoma. We found that systemic injections of IFN-gamma significantly reduced the number of lung metastases in a dose-dependent manner and increased mouse survival. Histological evaluation of IFN-gamma-treated lungs showed residual small tumor nodules containing extensive necrosis and mononuclear infiltrates. Immunohistochemistry studies on lung sections showed macrophage infiltration into tumor nodules, and in vivo depletion of macrophages partially inhibited IFN-gamma antitumor effect, suggesting a role for the macrophages in tumor destruction. Lymphocyte depletion of either natural killer (NK) cells or CD4+ or CD8+ T-cell subsets or both T-cell subsets did not affect the IFN-gamma effect, whereas depletion of both NK and T cells decreased the antitumor activity of IFN-gamma. These data indicate that neither T cells nor NK cells are essential for this activity but that either lymphocyte population can contribute to the IFN-gamma effect. An optimal dose of IFN-gamma inhibited by 60% the growth of Renca cells treated for 3 days in vitro, but this effect was transient and less pronounced in a long-term colony assay, suggesting that IFN-gamma direct growth inhibition may play a role but may not be sufficient to mediate its antitumor effect in vivo. In vitro, IFN-gamma caused up-regulation of class I MHC antigens and induction of class II antigen expression in Renca cells, an effect that may enhance Renca immunogenicity but may be relevant only when a T-cell response is elicited. A sequential administration of IFN-gamma followed by interleukin 4 was therapeutically better than IFN-gamma alone for the treatment of advanced

  17. Effect of Ligustrazine Injection on Levels of Interleukin-4 and Interferon-γ in Patients with Bronchial Asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of ligustrazine injection (LI) on serum levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in patients with bronchial asthma and determine the mechanism of action of LI in preventing and treating asthma.Methods:Sixty-eight patients with mild or moderate bronchial asthma were assigned to two groups equally according to their sequence number,odd or even.The conventional treatment was administered to both groups,and LI was given to the treatment group by ultrasonic spray inhalation twice a day but not to the control group.The therapeutic course for all was 2 weeks.Further,30 healthy subjects who had no history of smoking were enrolled as the normal control group.The clinical condition scores,frequency of attacks and dosage of Terbutaline inhaled were scored and recorded on the first day of hospitalization (before treatment) and after treatment.At the same time,the indexes of lung function,including forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1),forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity ratio (FEV1%) and the peak expiratory flow (PEF) were determined before treatment.The levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ in peripheral blood were detected by ELISA before and after treatment,and compared with that of the healthy control group.]Results:After treatment,the clinical condition scores were found to be lower,indexes of lung function were elevated,but serum level of IL-4 and ratio of IL-4/IFN-γ were reduced in both groups,showing significant differences as compared to those before treatment (P<0.05).However,the changes in all the indexes were more significant in the treatment group than in the control group,also showing statistical significance (P<0.05).No significant difference was revealed when IFN-γ levels were compared before and after treatment in both groups,though a lowering trend could be seen,significant difference could not be found in the comparison of IFN- γ levels between groups after treatment (P>0

  18. Tumor necrosis factor-alfa and interleukin-4 in cerbrospinal fluid and plasma in different clinical forms of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Multiple sclerosis (MS is an immunemediated central nervous system disease characterized by inflammation, demyelination and axonal degeneration. Cytokines are proven mediators of immunological process in MS. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a difference in the production of the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha and interleukin-4 (IL-4 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma in the MS patients and the controls (other neurological non-inflammatory diseases and to determine a possible difference in these cytokines in plasma and CSF in different clinical forms of MS. Methods. This study involved 60 consecutive MS patients - 48 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS and 12 patients with secondary progressive MS (SPMS. The control group consisted of 20, age and sex matched, nonimmunological, neurological patients. According to the clinical presentation of MS at the time of this investigation, 34 (56.7% patients had relapse (RRMS, 14 (23.3% were in remission (RRMS, while the rest of the patients, 12 (20.0%, were SPMS. TNF-alpha and IL-4 concentrations were measured in the same time in CSF and plasma in the MS patients and the controls. Extended disability status score (EDSS, albumin ratio and IgG index were determined in all MS patients. Results. The MS patients had significantly higher CSF and plasma levels of TNF-alpha than the controls (p < 0.001 for both samples. IL-4 CSF levels were significantly lower in the MS patients than in the controls (p < 0.001, however plasma levels were similar. The patients in relapse (RRMS and with progressive disease (SPMS had higher concentrations of CSF TNF-alpha levels than the patients in remission (p < 0.001. IL-4 CSF levels in relapse (RRMS and SPMS groups were lower than in the patients in remission. The patients in remission had an unmeasurable plasma TNF-alpha level and the patients with SPMS had significantly lower IL-4 levels in plasma than the patients in

  19. INTERLEUKIN 1 AND INTERLEUKIN 4 GENES POLYMORPHISM ASSOCIATED WITH EARLY AND PRESCHOOL AGE CHILDREN SENSITIZATION TO STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Shabaldin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Streptococcus pyogenes infection and sensitization to its antigens is considered to be an unfavorable factor for the induction of rheumatic pathology. The search for genetic predictors of rheumatic diseases in general, and sensitization to S. pyogenes, in particular, is of high relevance in modern medicine.Objective. To study the associations between interleukin 1 and interleukin 4 gene polymorphisms and the development of sensitization to antigens of S. pyogenes in toddlers and preschool children.Materials and methods. 771 children aged 2–6 years with recurrent acute respiratory tract infections treated by allergist-immunologist and otorhinolaryngologist were included in the study. Antibodies against S. pyogenes were determined by ELISA using commercial kits “Immunoteks” (Stavropol, Russia in all children. Children with IgG immune response to S. pyogenes were assigned to the study group (n = 306, whereas children without this response were assigned to the control group (n = 465. Both groups underwent gene typing of IL1B (+3953, C→T, rs 114634, IL1Ra (VNTR, intron 2, 89 bp and IL4 (VNTR intron 3, 70 bp gene polymorphisms in the Laboratory for Pharmacogenomics, ICBFM SB RAS. The data were processed using routine statistical methods for genetic analysis and the statistical software package Statistica 6.0. There were no deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium across all loci, suggesting validity of association studies between individual and combined genotypes and sensitization to antigens of S. pyogenes.Results. Positive association between sensitization to antigens of S. pyogenes and individual genotypes have been found: IL1B (+3953, C→T*C,T (52.6% in the study group vs. 39.8% in the control group, p = 0.001; OR = 2.02; CI(99% 0.47–5.93, IL1Ra (VNTR, intron 2, 89 bp*2r,5r (7.19% in the study group vs. 1.29% in the control group, p = 0.001; OR = 5.59; CI(99% 1.58–19.77, IL4 (VNTR intron 3, 70 bp*2r,2r (6

  20. Interferon-¿ and interleukin-4 production by human T cells recognizing Leishmania donovani antigens separated by SDS-PAGE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrenscheer, J; Kemp, M; Kurtzhals, J A

    1995-01-01

    of proliferation and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from individuals who had recovered from visceral leishmaniasis caused by L. donovani. The release of interleukin-4 (IL-4) by PBMC stimulated with the isolated L. donovani antigen fractions...... was infrequently observed. The results show that T cells from individuals who have been cured of visceral leishmaniasis recognize and respond to a wide range of leishmanial antigens. There was no evidence of particular fractions constantly giving either IFN-gamma or IL-4-producing responses....

  1. 长效人白细胞介素4拮抗剂的研究%Interleukin-4 antagonists with longer half-life in plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋西勇; 唱韶红; 刘波; 巩新; 吴军

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop an interleukin-4(IL-4) antagonist named M5-IgG1Fc protein constructed by genetic engineering of antibody Fc fragment-cytokine mutein fusion protein which has a long half-life time in plasma.M5-IgG1 Fc protein binds to IL-4 receptor but cannot activate downstream signalling pathway , which provides a basis for drug develop-ment for allergic diseases .Methods The synthesized interleukin-4 mutant gene ( named M5 ) was cloned into the expres-sion vector pBV220 and transformed into E.coli DH5α.Chimeric gene M5-IgG1Fc obtained by overlap extension (SOE) method was transformed into glycoengineered Pichia pastoris GJK01 through expression vector pPICZαA .Then M5-IgGFc fusion protein was obtained by protein purification after being induced by methanol in 72 hours.The anti-IL-4 biologicial ac-tivity assay of M5 and M5-IgG1 Fc was performed with CTLL-2/IL-4R cells and detected with MTT colormetry .Finally,the half-life time of M5 and M5-IgG1 Fc protein in mice was compared by detecting the remaining amount in plasma with ELISA kit.Results The M5 protein expressed in E.coli and M5-IgG1 Fc fusion protein expressed in P.pastoris GJK01 both had IL-4 antagonistic bioactivity .The EC50 of both, which inhibited 5.6 ×10 -2 nmol/ml of IL-4, were 0.31 ±0.05 and 0.77 ± 0.03 nmol/ml,respectively.The maximum of M5 in plasma at 0.5 h was 5.8 ×10 -2 nmol/ml but the remaining amount was 2.8%of the maximum at 2 h.M5 protein could not be detected after administration at 8 h because of the detection line . The maximum of M5-IgG1 Fc fusion protein was 4.7 ×10 -2 nmol/ml,while fusion protein M5-IgG1 Fc decreased to 4.3%of its maximum at 120 h and could not be detected at 168 h.Conclusion M5 protein has IL-4 antagonistic bioactivity .M5-IgG1 Fc fusion protein expressed in glycoengineered P.pastoris GJK01 has IL-4 antagonistic bioactivity and long retention time in mice,which can be potentially used for treatment of allergic diseases .%目的

  2. Similarities and differences in signal transduction by interleukin 4 and interleukin 13: analysis of Janus kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, A D; Johnston, J A; Tortolani, P J; McReynolds, L J; Kinzer, C; O'Shea, J J; Paul, W E

    1995-08-15

    The cytokines interleukin (IL) 4 and IL-13 induce many of the same biological responses, including class switching to IgE and induction of major histocompatibility complex class II antigens and CD23 on human B cells. It has recently been shown that IL-4 induces the tyrosine phosphorylation of a 170-kDa protein, a substrate called 4PS, and of the Janus kinase (JAK) family members JAK1 and JAK3. Because IL-13 has many functional effects similar to those of IL-4, we compared the ability of IL-4 and IL-13 to activate these signaling molecules in the human multifactor-dependent cell line TF-1. In this report we demonstrate that both IL-4 and IL-13 induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of 4PS and JAK1. Interestingly, although IL-4 induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK3, we did not detect JAK3 phosphorylation in response to IL-13. These data suggest that IL-4 and IL-13 signal in similar ways via the activation of JAK1 and 4PS. However, our data further indicate that there are significant differences because IL-13 does not activate JAK3.

  3. JAK1 kinase forms complexes with interleukin-4 receptor and 4PS/insulin receptor substrate-1-like protein and is activated by interleukin-4 and interleukin-9 in T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, T; Tsang, M L; Yang, Y C

    1994-10-28

    Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-9 regulate the proliferation of T lymphocytes through interactions with their receptors. Previous studies have shown that unknown tyrosine kinases are involved in the proliferative signaling triggered by IL-4 and IL-9. Here we show that IL-4 and IL-9 induce overlapping (170, 130, and 125 kilodalton (kDa)) and distinct (45 and 88/90 kDa, respectively) protein tyrosine phosphorylation in T lymphocytes. We further identify the 170-kDa tyrosine-phosphorylated protein as 4PS/insulin receptor substrate-1-like (IRS-1L) protein and 130-kDa protein as JAK1 kinase. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that JAK1 forms complexes with the IL-4 receptor and 4PS/IRS-1L protein following ligand-receptor interaction. In addition, we demonstrate that IL-9, but not IL-4, induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat 91 transcriptional factor. The overlapping and distinct protein tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of the same JAK1 kinase in T lymphocytes strongly suggests that IL-4 and IL-9 share the common signal transduction pathways and that the specificity for each cytokine could be achieved through the unique tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins triggered by individual cytokines.

  4. A two-in-one antibody engineered from a humanized interleukin 4 antibody through mutation in heavy chain complementarity-determining regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chingwei V; Koenig, Patrick; Fuh, Germaine

    2014-01-01

    A mono-specific antibody may recruit a second antigen binding specificity, thus converting to a dual-specific Two-in-One antibody through mutation at the light chain complementarity-determining regions (CDRs). It is, however, unknown whether mutation at the heavy chain CDRs may evolve such dual specificity. Herein, we examined the CDRs of a humanized interleukin 4 (IL4) antibody using alanine scanning and structural modeling, designed libraries of mutants in regions that tolerate mutation, and isolated dual specific antibodies harboring mutation at the heavy chain CDRs only. We then affinity improved an IL4/IL5 dual specific antibody to variants with dissociation constants in the low nanomolar range for both antigens. The results demonstrate the full capacity of antibodies to evolve dual binding specificity.

  5. THE CHANGES IN LEVEL OF 8-ENDORPHIN, INTERLEUKIN-2, INTERLEUKIN-4, INTERLEUKIN-6, IMUNOGLOBULIN AND CORTISOL HORMONE ON PRACTICES OF BRETHING EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumpis Agus Sudarku

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: the study was to reveal the changes of immunity at breathing exercises. This was an experimental study. With randomized pre-posttest control group design. Methods: The population were students of MA Mu'alimin, in Yogyakarta. Respondents were 15 students for each groups. The unit analysis were data analysis from blood taken from vena cubiti. The dependent variables were levels of IL 6, IL 4, IL 2, cortisol, Beta Endorphin, and lgG. The training programme was conducted in 7 weeks, 3 times per week, sub maximal intensity, and 6 sets per session. The laboratory vanable were the ELISA method. Results: Manova test were p: 0,000 Implied that there were differences (Wilk Lambda pinterleukin 4. Hence, beta endorphin had the strongest contribution to the increase of body immunity compared with other variables. Conclusion: Breathing exercises could increase physical fitness and impenetrability of proven body manifestly. Breathing exercise increased beta endorphin, immunoglobulin G and interleukin 6, while interleukin 2 and interleukin 4 did not increase Cortisol level did not decrease stgnificantly but there was an indication of level of cortisol decrease. Immunity modulator which caused breathing exercise stressor got by 3 groups with strong contribution on the basis concept of psychoneuroimmunologic. Key words: breathing exercise, immunity, modulation

  6. Suppression of prostaglandin E(2)-mediated c-fos mRNA induction by interleukin-4 in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, D; Kawajiri, H; Takahashi, Y; Yoshimoto, T

    2000-03-01

    When murine peritoneal macrophages were stimulated for 30 min with arachidonic acid, the growth-associated immediate early gene c-fos was induced in a concentration-dependent manner as assessed by Northern blot analysis. The arachidonic acid-induced c-fos mRNA expression was inhibited by a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, but not by a lipoxygenase inhibitor, nordihydroguaiaretic acid. Macrophages produced prostaglandin (PG) E(2) from arachidonic acid as determined by an enzyme immunoassay. Northern blot analysis revealed the expression of PGE receptor EP2 and EP4 subtypes, but not EP1 and EP3 in murine macrophages. PGE(2) brought about a marked elevation of cAMP, and c-fos mRNA expression was increased by PGE(2) and dibutyryl cAMP in these cells. These results suggest that arachidonic acid is transformed to PGE(2), which then binds to EP2 and EP4 receptors to increase intracellular cAMP and c-fos mRNA expression. Furthermore, the induction of c-fos by arachidonic acid, PGE(2), and cAMP was suppressed by pretreatment with interleukin (IL)-4. We also showed that the tyrosine phosphorylation of a Janus kinase, JAK3, is enhanced by IL-4 treatment, suggesting that the PGE(2)-mediated c-fos mRNA induction is inhibited by IL-4 through the tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK3.

  7. In vivo Regulation of the Allergic Response by the Interleukin 4 Receptor Alpha Chain Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-based Inhibitory Motif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachdjian, Raffi; Khatib, Shadi Al; Schwinglshackl, Andreas; Kim, Hong Sook; Chen, Andrew; Blasioli, Julie; Mathias, Clinton; Kim, Hye-Young; Umetsu, Dale T.; Oettgen, Hans C.; Chatila, Talal A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Signaling by IL-4 and IL-13 via the IL-4 receptor alpha chain (IL-4Rα) plays a critical role in the pathology of allergic diseases. The IL-4Rα is endowed with an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM), centered on tyrosine 709 (Y709) in the cytoplasmic domain, that binds a number of regulatory phosphatases. The function of the ITIM in the in vivo regulation of IL-4R signaling remains unknown. Objective To determine the in vivo function of the IL-4Rα ITIM using mice in which the ITIM was inactivated by mutagenesis of the tyrosine Y709 residue into phenylalanine (F709). Methods F709 ITIM mutant mice were derived by knockin mutagenesis. Activation of intracellular signaling cascades by IL-4 and IL-13 was assessed by intracellular staining of phosphorylated signaling intermediates and by gene expression analysis. In vivo responses to allergic sensitization were assessed using models of allergic airway inflammation. Results The F709 mutation increased STAT6 phosphorylation by IL-4 and, disproportionately, by IL-13. This was associated with exaggerated Th2 polarization, enhanced alternative macrophage activation by IL-13, augmented basal and antigen-induced IgE responses and intensified allergen-induced eosinophilic airway inflammation and hyperreactivity. Conclusions These results point to a physiologic negative regulatory role for the Y709 ITIM in signaling via IL-4Rα, especially by IL-13. PMID:20392476

  8. Critical role of intestinal interleukin-4 modulating regulatory T cells for desensitization, tolerance, and inflammation of food allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Yoko; Takeyama, Jun; Hiraide, Erika; Kikuchi, Akira; Murakami, Hitoshi; Hosono, Akira; Nochi, Tomonori; Wakatsuki, Yoshio; Shimojo, Naoki; Kaminogawa, Shuichi; Sato, Ryuichiro; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Hachimura, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Background and objective The mechanism inducing either inflammation or tolerance to orally administered food allergens remains unclear. To investigate this we analyzed mouse models of food allergy (OVA23-3) and tolerance (DO11.10 [D10]), both of which express ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T-cell receptors. Methods OVA23-3, recombination activating gene (RAG)-2-deficient OVA23-3 (R23-3), D10, and RAG-2-deficient D10 (RD10) mice consumed a diet containing egg white (EW diet) for 2–28 days. Interleukin (IL)-4 production by CD4+ T cells was measured as a causative factor of enteropathy, and anti-IL-4 antibody was used to reveal the role of Foxp3+ OVA-specific Tregs (aiTreg) in this process. Results Unlike OVA23-3 and R23-3 mice, D10 and RD10 mice did not develop enteropathy and weight loss on the EW diet. On days 7–10, in EW-fed D10 and RD10 mice, splenic CD4+ T cells produced significantly more IL-4 than did those in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs); this is in contrast to the excessive IL-4 response in the MLNs of EW-fed OVA23-3 and R23-3 mice. EW-fed R23-3 mice had few aiTregs, whereas EW-fed RD10 mice had them in both tissues. Intravenous injections of anti-IL-4 antibody recovered the percentage of aiTregs in the MLNs of R23-3 mice. On day 28, in EW-fed OVA23-3 and R23-3 mice, expression of Foxp3 on CD4+ T cells corresponded with recovery from inflammation, but recurrence of weight loss was observed on restarting the EW diet after receiving the control-diet for 1 month. No recurrence developed in D10 mice. Conclusions Excessive IL-4 levels in the MLNs directly inhibited the induction of aiTregs and caused enteropathy. The aiTregs generated in the attenuation of T cell-dependent food allergic enteropathy may function differently than aiTregs induced in a tolerance model. Comparing the two models enables to investigate their aiTreg functions and to clarify differences between inflammation with subsequent desensitization versus tolerance. PMID:28234975

  9. The interaction of two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch, with Cry protein production and predation by Amblyseius andersoni (Chant) in Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton and Cry1F maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan-Yan; Tian, Jun-Ce; Shi, Wang-Peng; Dong, Xue-Hui; Romeis, Jörg; Naranjo, Steven E; Hellmich, Richard L; Shelton, Anthony M

    2016-02-01

    Crops producing insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), are an important tool for managing lepidopteran pests on cotton and maize. However, the effects of these Bt crops on non-target organisms, especially natural enemies that provide biological control services, are required to be addressed in an environmental risk assessment. Amblyseius andersoni (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a cosmopolitan predator of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), a significant pest of cotton and maize. Tri-trophic studies were conducted to assess the potential effects of Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton and Cry1F maize on life history parameters (survival rate, development time, fecundity and egg hatching rate) of A. andersoni. We confirmed that these Bt crops have no effects on the biology of T. urticae and, in turn, that there were no differences in any of the life history parameters of A. andersoni when it fed on T. urticae feeding on Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab or non-Bt cotton and Cry1F or non-Bt maize. Use of a susceptible insect assay demonstrated that T. urticae contained biologically active Cry proteins. Cry proteins concentrations declined greatly as they moved from plants to herbivores to predators and protein concentration did not appear to be related to mite density. Free-choice experiments revealed that A. andersoni had no preference for Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton or Cry1F maize-reared T. urticae compared with those reared on non-Bt cotton or maize. Collectively these results provide strong evidence that these crops can complement other integrated pest management tactics including biological control.

  10. Interferon gamma, interleukin 4 and transforming growth factor beta in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats: dynamics of cellular mRNA expression in the central nervous system and lymphoid cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Mustafa, M; Ljungdahl, A;

    1995-01-01

    The potential role of certain important immunoregulatory and effector cytokines in autoimmune neuroinflammation have been studied. We have examined the expression of mRNA, with in situ hybridization, of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin 4 (IL-4) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF...

  11. Significance of CYCLOOXYGENASE-2(COX-2), PERIOSTIN (POSTN) and INTERLEUKIN-4(IL-4) gene expression in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miłoński, Jarosław; Zielińska-Bliźniewska, Hanna; Przybyłowska, Karolina; Pietkiewicz, Piotr; Korzycka-Zaborowska, Barbara; Majsterek, Ireneusz; Olszewski, Jurek

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the level of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), Periostin (POSTN) and Interleukin-4(IL-4) gene expression in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, without polyps and with a nasal septum deviation. The tests were performed on 63 patients (24 women and 39 men) with chronic rhinosinusitis and polyps (CRSwP-study group I), with determination of the COX-2, POSTN and IL-4 gene expression; an allergy was diagnosed in 38 cases. The reference groups were patients with chronic rhinosinusitis without polyps--CRS (n = 23, including 14 women and 9 men) and patients with nasal septum deviation--DSN (n = 18, including 9 women and 9 men). The expression level was determined in the polyp tissue and the mucosa of paranasal sinus collected during an FESS. The expression level of studied genes was also evaluated in the material. Immediately after being collected, the tissue fragments were placed in test tubes with 1 ml of RNAlater (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) preventing the degradation of RNA and frozen at -70 °C. The studies revealed an increased level of POSTN, IL-4 gene expression and a decreased level of COX-2 gene expression that may be associated with the development of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. An analysis of the expression level indicates the participation of POSTN and IL-4 in the development of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps in patients with atopy.

  12. 白细胞介素-4基因多态性与Graves'病的关系%Association of Interleukin-4 gene polymorphisms with Graves' disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚莹; 蒋玲; 江维岩; 张晓黎; 武传龙

    2003-01-01

    目的:探讨白细胞介素-4(Interleukin-4,IL-4)基因多态性与Graves'病(Graves'Disease GD)发病易感性的关系.方法:选择汉族GD患者和正常人各100例,采用序列特异性引物聚合酶链反应(PCR-SSP)检测等位基因和基因型.结果:GD组IL-4启动子区-590位置t等位基因频率明显低于对照组(8%对15.5%;P<0.05).GD组IL-4(-590)c/t杂合子基因型频率显著低于对照组(12%对25%;P<0.05).结论:在中国汉族人群中,GD患者和正常人之间存在IL-4(-590)等位基因和基因型频率分布的差异.GD患者IL-4启动子区-590位置t等位基因频率下降,可能使IL-4总的转录活性减低,通过免疫炎症反应导致GD发病.

  13. Evaluation of accuracy and uncertainty of ELISA assays for the determination of interleukin-4, interleukin-5, interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Lone; Kristiansen, Jesper; Christensen, Jytte M

    2002-01-01

    . However, models for establishing the traceability and uncertainty of immunoassay results are lacking. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were developed for determination of the human cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-5 (IL-5), interferon-y (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor......-alpha (TNF-alpha). The accuracy of each of the assays was evaluated in the ranges of 1-15 microg/l (IL-4), 0.001-1 microg/l (IL-5), 0.5-2.5 microg/l (IFN-T) and 0.14-2.2 microg/l (TNF-alpha). Other evaluated performance characteristics were the limit of detection (LOD), immunological specificity......) of the assessed ELISAs was found to be in the range of 11-18%, except for IL-5 where RSDA increased at decreasing concentrations. The LOD was 0.12 microg/l, 0.0077 microg/l, 0.0069 microg/l and 0.0063 microg/l for IL-4, IL-5, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, respectively. Traceability to the WHO IS was established...

  14. T helper 2 (Th2) cell differentiation, type 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) development and regulation of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinfang

    2015-09-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5 and IL-13, the signature cytokines that are produced during type 2 immune responses, are critical for protective immunity against infections of extracellular parasites and are responsible for asthma and many other allergic inflammatory diseases. Although many immune cell types within the myeloid lineage compartment including basophils, eosinophils and mast cells are capable of producing at least one of these cytokines, the production of these "type 2 immune response-related" cytokines by lymphoid lineages, CD4 T helper 2 (Th2) cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in particular, are the central events during type 2 immune responses. In this review, I will focus on the signaling pathways and key molecules that determine the differentiation of naïve CD4 T cells into Th2 cells, and how the expression of Th2 cytokines, especially IL-4 and IL-13, is regulated in Th2 cells. The similarities and differences in the differentiation of Th2 cells, IL-4-producing T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and ILC2s as well as their relationships will also be discussed.

  15. Effects of Micronutrients on Oxidative Stress and Islet Function in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Rats: Relationships to Th2 Type Cytokines, Interleukin-4, and Interluekin-10

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Gui-zhen; LI Mei-hua; SONG Yang; LIU Ting; GAO Shen; SUN Ying

    2007-01-01

    To observe the effects of the micronutrients on oxidative and autoimmune destruction of islets so as to prevent a person from the onset and development of type 1 Diabetes Mellitus(T1DM), the interleukin-4 and interleukin-10 expressions of lymphocytes in peripheral blood and spleen of T1 DM rats were determined by flow cytometry. GSH-Px activity and MDA level in the rats' pancreas were measured using biochemical methods. The insulin contents in serum and β cell insulin secret storage were tested by RIA and IHC, respectively. There was an increase in the percentages of 1L-4 and IL-10 positive lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and spleen of the groups of rats supplemented with various combinations of micronutrients(p <0. 01 and p <0. 05, respectively); the blood glucose concentration decreased (p<0.05); both the functional β cell in islets and the insulin content in pancreatic tissue increased(p<0.05 and p<0.01); the GSH-Px activity and MDA level of pancreas in the rats enhanced and decreased respectively(p<0.01 and p<0.05). The results suggest that micronutrients may alleviate the islet lesions by upregulating the expressions of IL-4 and IL-10 and lowering oxidative stress in diabetic rats.

  16. Evidence for occurrence of mounting sex pheromone on body surface of femaleDermacentor variabilis (Say) AndDermacentor andersoni (Stiles) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J; Hamilton, C; Sonenshine, D E

    1988-01-01

    MaleDermacentor variabilis andD. andersoni respond to an unknown chemical or chemicals present on the body surfaces of partially engorged conspecific female ticks. Following contact, the males mount the females and apply their mouthparts and legs against the female dorsal body surface. Then, the males turn with these appendages still in close contact and crawl to the female's venter, whereupon they locate the gonopore, probe the vulva, and copulate. Similar responses are elicited by heterospecific as well as conspecific females. However, the response is lost when the female cuticle is cleaned (delipidized) with organic solvents. It can be restored by applying hexane extracts prepared from female cuticle to the previously cleaned females. Males do not use surface texture as the primary stimulus for mate recognition. Male ticks also respond to hexane extracts applied to spherical inanimate objects, ("dummy" female), suggesting that a chemical or chemicals soluble in organic solvents has been transferred to these objects. These findings suggest the existence of a previously undescribed pheromone, the mounting sex pheromone (MSP). This contact sex pheromone enables males excited and attracted by 2,6-dichlorophenol to identify the female as a potential mating partner. The MSP is the second in the series of three sex pheromones guiding the hierarchy of behavioral responses which constitute tick courtship behavior.

  17. The study on secretion of cytokine interleukin-4, interleukin-10 and interferon-γ in peripheral blood of multiple sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-yan QIAO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective Multiple sclerosis (MS is a mainly cell-mediated autoimmune demyelinating disease in central nervous system (CNS, characterized by inflammatory demyelinating and infiltration of mononuclear cells around microvessels in CNS. It has been shown that MS is caused by the imbalance between T helper cell 1 (Th1 and Th2 or between inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokines. However, the profile of cytokine according to the published data is contradictory. This study is to evaluate the status of cytokines from mononuclear T cells in MS patients and try to provide clues for clinical diagnosis and treatment.  Methods Enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT was used to test the spontaneous and antigen-specific [concanavalin A (ConA, myelin basic protein (MBP and acetyleholine receptor (AChR] Th1-related cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ and Th2-related cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4, IL-10 in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells in MS patients, who had not received any immunological treatment over the last 3 months.  Results Compared with normal controls and patients with non-immune neurological diseases, MBP specific IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ of MS patients increased significantly (P = 0.000, for all. In addition, MBP specific IFN-γ level of MS patients increased signicantly in acute or exacerbating phase when compared with that in stable phase (P = 0.002, while MBP specific IL-4 and IL-10 levels did not differ significantly (P > 0.05, for all.  Conclusions The examinations of IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ cytokines using ELISPOT are helpful for the differential diagnosis and the disease course of MS. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.10.008

  18. Inhibitory effect of heparin-derived oligosaccharides on secretion of interleukin-4 and interleukin-5 from human peripheral blood T lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Li Ji; Hui-Fei Cui; Feng Shi; Yan-Qing Chi; Ji-Chao Cao; Mei-Yu Geng; Hua-Shi Guan

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effect of heparin-derived oligosaccharides (Oligs) on secretion of interleukin-4 (IL-4)and interleukin-5 (IL-5) from human peripheral blood T lymphocytes (PBTLs).METHODS: Oligs were prepared by three different heparin depolymerization methods and separated by gel filtration chromatography. PBTLs from ten adult patients with allergic eosinophilic gastroenteritis were treated with phytahematoagglutinin (PHA) and Oligs. The supernatants from the cell culture of PBTLs were harvested and subjected to the deterrnination of IL-4 and IL-5 contents by ELISA method.RESULTS: At the concentration of 5 μg/mL, Oligs with different Mr had different effects on the secretion of IL-4 and IL-5. The tetrasaccharide with Mr of 1 142, produced by depolymerizing heparin with hydrogen peroxide, had the strongest inhibitory effect on the secretion of IL-4. It decreased the IL-4 content from 375.6±39.2 ng/L (PHA group) to 12.5±5.7 ng/L (P<0.01). The hexasaccharide with Mr of 1 806, produced by depolymerizing heparin with β-elimination method, had the strongest inhibitory effect on the secretion of IL-5. It decreased the IL-5 content from 289.2±33.4 ng/L (PHA group) to 22.0±5.2 ng/L (P<0.01).CONCLUSION: The inhibitory activity of Oligs on the secretion of IL-4 and IL-5 from human PBTLs closely depends on their molecular structure, and there may be an essential structure to act as an inhibitor. The most effective inhibitors of IL-4 and IL-5 secretion are tetrasaccharides and hexasaccharides, respectively.

  19. Effect of neuropeptide Y on white matter demyelination and serum interleukin-4 and gamma-interferon levels in the guinea pig with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohong Li; Ke Yu; Zuoxiao Li

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) may influence differentiation of Th cells. It is assumed that the immunological pathology of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is related to abnormal differentiation of Th cellsOBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of NPY on white matter demyelination, the serum levels interleukin-4 (IL-4) and gamma-interferon (IFN-γ), as well as EAE pathogenesis in an EAE guinea pig model following NPY injection into the lateral cerebral ventricle.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized controlled animal study, which was performed in the Infection Immunity Animal Laboratory, Affiliated Hospital of Luzhou Medical College, China, from October 2005 to April 2006.MATERIALS: Thirty healthy female guinea pigs of 8-12 weeks of age, and 10 healthy female rats of three months of age were used. NPY was provided by Sigma Company, USA. NPY kit was provided by Beijing Huaying Biotechnology Institute, China.METHODS: Thirty guinea pigs were randomly divided into three groups: normal control group, EAE model group, and NPY intervention group (n=10 per group). Normal control group and EAE model group: Saline (10μL, once) was injected into the lateral cerebral ventricle. After one week, the same volume of Freund's adjuvant complete was either injected subcutaneously into two post-palms or EAE was modeled. NPY intervention group: EAE was modeled after one week and NPY was injected (10μL of 6nmol NPY, once) into the lateral cerebral ventricle. Myelin basic protein (MBP) antigen made from rat spinal cord homogenate and Freund's adjuvant complete were injected subcutaneously into both post-palms (0.2mL per palm) to establish the EAE model.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: White matter demyelination of the cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord were observed by light microscopy after HE staining. Levels of serum IFN-γ and IL-4 were detected by the double antibody sandwich ABC-ELISA technique. NPY content was detected by radioimmunoassay

  20. In vitro proliferation of Cryptosporidium andersoni in HCT-8 and AGS cell lines%安氏隐孢子虫在HCT-8和AGS细胞中增殖效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    逯兆喜; 吴亮; 姜旭淦; 沈玉娟; 傅行礼; 涂国华; 李礼; 陈盛霞; 曹建平

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the proliferation of Cryptosporidium andersoni in human ileocecal adenocarcinoma (HCT-8)cells and human stomach adenocarcinoma (AGS) cells, HCT-8 and AGS cells were harvested at mid-exponential phase and planted in 6 well plates. When the monolayers reached 60 -70% confluency, the excysted oocysts (2.5 × l05/well) were inoculated into cells and parasite growth was terminated at 24 h and 48 h. Then the proliferation of parasites was determined by Giemsa staining and Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. At 24 h and 48 h, the number of parasites in HCT-8 cells was higher than that of AGS cells (P<0.05) by Giemsa staining. The copies of COWP gene in HCT-8 cells were also higher than those of AGS cells (P<0. 05) by Real-time PCR assay. It's found that the HCT-8 cell line was a more suitable host model to support Cryptosporidium andersoni proliferation than that of AGS cell line.%目的 比较安氏隐孢子虫(Cryptosporidium andersoni)在人结肠腺癌(human ileocecal adenocarcinoma,HCT-8)细胞和人胃腺癌(human stomach adenocarcinoma,AGS)细胞中的增殖.方法 取培养至对数生长期的HCT-8细胞和AGS细胞,接种于6孔培养板中,待细胞生长融合至60%~70%时,加入2.5 × 105个安氏隐孢子虫卵囊,培养至24 h和48 h,以Giemsa染色法和Real-time PCR技术检测虫体在细胞中的增殖.结果 Giemsa染色法观察24 h和48 h HCT-8细胞中虫体数量均高于AGS细胞(P<0.05).Real-time PCR技术测得24 h和48 h HCT-8细胞中安氏隐孢子虫卵囊COWP基因拷贝数均高于AGS细胞(P<0.05).结论 与AGS细胞相比,以HCT-8细胞作为体外感染模型更利于安氏隐孢子虫的增殖.

  1. EFFECTS OF INTERLEUKIN-4 ON GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE-COLONY FORMATION FROM MURINE BONE MARROW CELLS AND HEMATOPOIETIC RECONSTITUTION FOLLOWING MURINE ALLOGENEIC BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱康儿; KerryAtkinson

    1994-01-01

    We investigated the effects of mouse recombinant IL-4 on hematopoiesis in vitro and in vivo.IL-4 alone was found to be incapable of stimulating colony formation,but it inhibited both IL-3-and GM-CSF-induced colony for-mation by murine hematopoietic progenitor cells.In contrast,colony formation induced by G-CSF was enhanced in the presence of IL-4.We also studied the influence of IL-4 on hematopoietie reconstiution after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in a murine model,and found that IL-4 and G-CSF was significantly suppressed by IL-4.The combination of IL-4 and GM-CSF caused a significant decrease in the absolute mumber of meutrophils.

  2. Research Related to Interleukin-4 Gene Polymorphism and Diabetes%白细胞介素-4基因多态性与糖尿病的相关研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁云飞; 孙曙光; 刘肖梅

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia metabolic diseases. with the improvement of people's living standards, the aging population, the incidence rate was gradually rising trend. Diabetes pathogenesis is still not very clear so far, and pathogenesis of diabetes is now a hot topic. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) (10kb) located on chromosome 5q31.1, there are four polymorphic alleles. which has a strong linkage disequilibrium. In this paper, the correlation progress (IL-4) gene polymorphisms of interleukin-4 with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, diabetes complications start on.%糖尿病是慢性高血糖为特征的代谢性疾病。随着人民生活水平的提高、人口老化,发病率呈逐渐升高的流行趋势。糖尿病发病机制到目前仍不十分明确,糖尿病发病机制是现在的热点话题。白细胞介素-4(IL-4)(10 kb)位于染色体5q31.1上,有4个多态性的等位基因,它们具有很强的连锁不平衡。本文就白细胞介素-4(IL-4)基因多态性与1型糖尿病、2型糖尿病、糖尿病并发症的相关性进展展开论述。

  3. Interleukin-4 and interleukin-10 modulate nuclear factor kappaB activity and nitric oxide synthase-2 expression in Theiler's virus-infected brain astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Holgado, Eduardo; Arévalo-Martín, Angel; Castrillo, Antonio; Boscá, Lisardo; Vela, José M; Guaza, Carmen

    2002-06-01

    In brain astrocytes, nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) is activated by stimuli that produce cellular stress causing the expression of genes involved in defence, including the inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS-2). Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) induces a persistent CNS infection and chronic immune-mediated demyelination, similar to human multiple sclerosis. The cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 inhibit the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, counteracting the inflammatory process. Our study reports that infection of cultured astrocytes with TMEV resulted in a time-dependent phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha, degradation of IkappaBalpha and IkappaBbeta, activation of NF-kappaB and expression of NOS-2. The proteasome inhibitor MG-132 blocked TMEV-induced nitrite accumulation, NOS-2 mRNA expression and phospho-IkappaBalpha degradation, suggesting NF-kappaB-dependent NOS-2 expression. Pretreatment of astrocytes with IL-4 or IL-10 decreased p65 nuclear translocation, NF-kappaB binding activity and NOS-2 transcription. IL-4 and IL-10 caused an accumulation of IkappaBalpha in TMEV-infected astrocytes without affecting IkappaBbeta levels. The IkappaB kinase activity and the degradation rate of both IkappaBs were not modified by either cytokine, suggesting de novo synthesis of IkappaBalpha. Indeed, IL-4 or IL-10 up-regulated IkappaBalpha mRNA levels after TMEV infection. Therefore, the accumulation of IkappaBalpha might impair the translocation of the NF-kappaB to the nucleus, mediating the inhibition of NF-kappaB activity. Overall, these data suggest a novel mechanism of action of IL-4 and IL-10, which abrogates NOS-2 expression in viral-infected glial cells.

  4. Interleukin-4 enhances trafficking and functional activities of GM-CSF-stimulated mouse myeloid-derived dendritic cells at late differentiation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Shu-Yi, E-mail: in_shuyi@hotmail.com [Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Graduate Institute of Biotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Taiwan International Graduate Program (TIGP), Molecular and Biological Agricultural Sciences Program, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Chien-Yu, E-mail: sallywang1973@hotmail.com [Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yang, Ning-Sun, E-mail: nsyang@gate.sinica.edu.tw [Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Graduate Institute of Biotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Taiwan International Graduate Program (TIGP), Molecular and Biological Agricultural Sciences Program, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2011-09-10

    Mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) are being employed as an important model for translational research into the development of DC-based therapeutics. For such use, the localization and specialized mobility of injected BMDCs within specific immune tissues are known to define their immunity and usefulness in vivo. In this study, we demonstrate that IL-4, a key driving factor for in vitro propagation and differentiation of BMDCs, when added during a late culture stage can enhance the in vivo trafficking activity of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-induced BMDCs. It suggests that the temporal control of IL-4 stimulation during the in vitro generation of DCs drastically affects the DC trafficking efficiency in vivo. With this modification of IL-4 stimulation, we also show that much less cytokine was needed to generate BMDCs with high purity and yield that secrete a high level of cytokines and possess a good capacity to induce proliferation of allogeneic CD4{sup +}T cells, as compared to the conventional method that uses a continuous supplement of GM-CSF and IL-4 throughout cultivation. These results provide us with an important know-how for differentiation of BMDCs from myeloid stem cells, and for use of other immune cells in related medical or stem cell applications.

  5. Uptake of neutrophil-derived Ym1 protein distinguishes wound macrophages in the absence of interleukin-4 signaling in murine wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, Itamar; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Frank, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    The determination of regenerative wound-healing macrophages as alternatively activated macrophages is currently questioned by the absence of IL-4 in wound tissue. Yet, murine wound tissue expressed high levels of Ym1 (chitinase 3-like 3), an established marker of the IL-4-induced alternatively activated macrophage phenotype. Ym1 was expressed in wound neutrophils but not in macrophages. Initially, Ym1-free wound-healing macrophages, invading from the wound margins, became gradually positive for the protein in the absence of IL-4 signaling and Stat6 activation, as they entered the neutrophil-populated wound regions. IL-4 failed to induce Ym1 protein in ex vivo-cultured wound tissue explants containing wound-healing macrophages. Recombinant Ym1 protein was selectively taken up by macrophages but not by keratinocytes and endothelial cells. Cultured macrophages lost the ability to take up the recombinant protein when four highly conserved residues and the 70-amino acid small α+β domain essential for Ym1 function were removed. The data suggest that the IL-4/Stat6-independent presence of Ym1 protein in wound-healing macrophages is of exogenous origin, with Ym1 taken up from wound neutrophils as the cellular source. The data suggest that in situ determination of wound-healing macrophages, often defined by Ym1, might not essentially describe an IL-4-dependent macrophage phenotype. Consequently, wound-healing macrophages should not be classified by the established categories of the well-accepted but simplified paradigm of M1/M2 macrophage activation.

  6. Interleujin 13: a new cytokin with properties similar to those of interleukin 4 Interleuquina 13: una nueva citoquina con propiedades similares a la interleuquina 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Vargas

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Interleukln 13 (IL-13 is a recently discovered cytokine produced by TH2 Iymphocytes. Its most important physiological activity relates with suppression of Inflammatory and cytotoxic functions of monocytes/macrophages. This suggests that this cytokine could be a potent In vivo modulator of the Immune response. In additlon, IL-13 shows an important role in the control of B cells immunoreactivity (it up-regulates the expression of CD23, MHC-II and Induces IgE and IgG4 synthesis. The human IL-13 gene is located on chromosome 5q23.31, closely Iinked to genes coding for IL-4 and several immunoregulatory and hematopoyetic growth factors such as IL-3, GM CSF and IL-5. Particularly, IL-13 shares with IL- 4 and IL-10 the ability to suppress the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines Iike IL-1α., IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α., IL-8 and MIP-1 α. by activated human macrophages. These data show the Importance of this cytokine In the Immunoregulation of Inflammatory, allergic and autoimmune processes.

    La interleuquina 13 es una citoquina recientemente descrita producida por Iinfocitos TH2. Su principal papel fisiológico está relacionado con la supresión de las funciones citotóxicas e inflamatorias de los monocitos/macrófagos, lo que indica que puede ser un potente modulador de la respuesta inmune in vivo. Además, ejerce una función importante en el control de la inmunorreactividad de los linfocitos B (potencia la expresión de CD23, MHC-II e Induce la síntesis de IgE e IgG4. El gen de la IL-13 humana se encuentra ubicado en el cromosoma Sq23-31, adyacente a

  7. Association between interleukin-4 polymorphisms and asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To perform a systematic review and meta analysis on the association of C-589T and C-590T polymorphisms of IL-4 with asthma and to estimate allele frequencies, the magnitude of the gene effect as well as the possible mode of inheritance. Methods: A genetic model-free approach was used to perform a meta analysis. Heterogeneity, sensitivity analysis and publication bias were also explored. Results: Our meta analysis summarized the evidence to date regarding the association of C-589T and C-590T polymorphisms in the promoter region of IL-4 gene with asthma. For C-590T, the results showed a significant recessive genetic model, and the CC genotype was about 24% less likely to have asthma than the genotype CT and TT. Although there was evidence suggesting a recessive genetic model for C-589T, the recessive model was not statistically significant. Conclusion: This meta analysis suggests that there may be an important effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region of IL-4 gene on the pathogenesis of asthma.

  8. A preliminary study on the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms of interleukin 4 (IL4, IL13, IL4 receptor alpha (IL4Rα & Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 genes with asthma in Indian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Davoodi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Interleukin 4 (IL4 and IL13 genes are believed to be responsible for inflammation of the airways in asthmatics. These share a common receptor component called IL4Rα which is another potentially important candidate gene linked to asthma phenotypes. Another gene Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 might affect the incidence or progression of asthma through the expression of proinflammatory genes. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in IL4, IL13, IL4Rα and TLR4 have been reported to be linked to asthma or related phenotypes in several ethnic populations using linkage studies and association studies. However, the results have not been consistent. We investigated five SNPs (C-589T and C-33T of IL4, G+2044A of IL13, A+1902G of IL4Rα, and A+896G of TLR4 in patients with adult onset asthma to evaluate their role in manifestation and severity of asthma. Methods: Adult (>18 yr of age patients with asthma (n=100 and healthy controls (n=50 were included in the study. Genotyping was performed using sequenom MassARRAY technology. Results: The mutant alleles of the C-589T and C-33T SNPs in the promoter region of IL4 were present in 4 per cent patients with asthma but absent from the control group suggesting that the variations in IL4 may contribute to asthma occurrence. The SNPs of other genes were seen in both controls and patients. Interpretation & conclusions: The results suggest the possible association between the genetic distribution of C-589T and C-33T SNPs of IL4 with asthma in Indian adults.

  9. Correlation of interleukin-4 gene polymorphism with cerebral infarction%白细胞介素4基因多态性与脑梗死的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金磊; 陈宁; 吴洁敏; 张蕾; 徐志毅; 倪培华

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨白细胞介素4(interleukin-4,IL-4)基因多态性与脑梗死间的相关性.方法:选取189例急性脑梗死患者(脑梗死组)和92例非急性脑梗死者(对照组),运用聚合酶链反应-限制性片段长度多态性(polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism,PCR-RFLP)技术,结合血液生化和血压等临床资料,对 IL-4 基因-590C/T和33C/T 2个位点的基因单核苷酸多态性与脑梗死间的关系进行研究. 结果:IL-4基因-590C/T位点上,脑梗死组与对照组间的基因型、等位基因频率分布有显著差异(P0.05);脑梗死组TT型患者的收缩压、舒张压参数均明显高于对照组(P0.05) be-tween CI group and the control group. However, CI patients with TT genotype had higher blood pressure and lower HDL-C level (P<0.05) when compared with the control group. Conclusions: T allele of-590C/T polymorphism in IL-4 gene might be associated with an increased risk of CI in Shanghai population.

  10. Interleukin-4 and 13 induce the expression and release of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, interleukin-6 and stem cell factor from human detrusor smooth muscle cells: synergy with interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Andresen, Lars; Alvarez, Susana

    2006-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis is characterized by an increased number of activated MCs in the detrusor muscle. However, to our knowledge the factors that influence the anatomical relationship between MCs and HDSMCs are unknown. MCP-1, IL-6 and SCF have a critical role in the regulation of MC development,...

  11. Activation of JAK3, but not JAK1, is critical to interleukin-4 (IL4) stimulated proliferation and requires a membrane-proximal region of IL4 receptor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malabarba, M G; Kirken, R A; Rui, H; Koettnitz, K; Kawamura, M; O'Shea, J J; Kalthoff, F S; Farrar, W L

    1995-04-21

    The tyrosine kinases JAK1 and JAK3 have been shown to undergo tyrosine phosphorylation in response to interleukin-2 (IL), IL4, IL7, and IL9, cytokines which share the common IL2 receptor gamma-chain (IL2R gamma), and evidence has been found for a preferential coupling of JAK3 to IL2R gamma and JAK1 to IL2R beta. Here we show, using human premyeloid TF-1 cells, that IL4 stimulates JAK3 to a larger extent than JAK1, based upon three different evaluation criteria. These include a more vigorous tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK3 as measured by anti-phosphotyrosine immunoblotting, a more marked activation of JAK3 as determined by in vitro tyrosine kinase assays and a more manifest presence of JAK3 in activated IL4-receptor complexes. These observations suggest that IL4 receptor signal transduction does not depend on equimolar heterodimerization of JAK1 and JAK3 following IL4-induced heterodimerization of IL4R alpha and IL2R gamma. Indeed, when human IL4R alpha was stably expressed in mouse BA/F3 cells, robust IL4-induced proliferation and JAK3 activation occurred without detectable involvement of JAK1, JAK2, or TYK2. The present study suggests that JAK1 plays a subordinate role in IL4 receptor signaling, and that in certain cells exclusive JAK3 activation may mediate IL4-induced cell growth. Moreover, mutational analysis of human IL4R alpha showed that a membrane-proximal cytoplasmic region was critical for JAK3 activation, while the I4R motif was not, which is compatible with a role of JAK3 upstream of the recruitment of the insulin receptor substrate-1/4PS signaling proteins by IL4 receptors.

  12. Association between GRB2/Sos and insulin receptor substrate 1 is not sufficient for activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases by interleukin-4: implications for Ras activation by insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, W; Yuan, Y; Rose, E; Batzer, A G; Harada, N; Skolnik, E Y

    1995-03-01

    Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) mediates the activation of a variety of signaling pathways by the insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptors by serving as a docking protein for signaling molecules with SH2 domains. We and others have shown that in response to insulin stimulation IRS-1 binds GRB2/Sos and have proposed that this interaction is important in mediating Ras activation by the insulin receptor. Recently, it has been shown that the interleukin (IL)-4 receptor also phosphorylates IRS-1 and an IRS-1-related molecule, 4PS. Unlike insulin, however, IL-4 fails to activate Ras, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), or mitogen-activated protein kinases. We have reconstituted the IL-4 receptor into an insulin-responsive L6 myoblast cell line and have shown that IRS-1 is tyrosine phosphorylated to similar degrees in response to insulin and IL-4 stimulation in this cell line. In agreement with previous findings, IL-4 failed to activate the ERKs in this cell line or to stimulate DNA synthesis, whereas the same responses were activated by insulin. Surprisingly, IL-4's failure to activate ERKs was not due to a failure to stimulate the association of tyrosine-phosphorylated IRS-1 with GRB2/Sos; the amounts of GRB2/Sos associated with IRS-1 were similar in insulin- and IL-4-stimulated cells. Moreover, the amounts of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity associated with IRS-1 were similar in insulin- and IL-4-stimulated cells. In contrast to insulin, however, IL-4 failed to induce tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc or association of Shc with GRB2. Thus, ERK activation correlates with Shc tyrosine phosphorylation and formation of an Shc/GRB2 complex. Thus, ERK activation correlates with Shc tyrosine phosphorylation and formation of an Shc/GRB2 complex. Previous studies have indicated that activation of ERks in this cell line is dependent upon Ras since a dominant-negative Ras (Asn-17) blocks ERK activation by insulin. Our findings, taken in the context

  13. Effects of Interleukin-4 on Cell Proliferation and Melanin Synthesis in Cultured Human Melanocytes in Vitro%白细胞介素4对体外培养人黑素细胞增殖及黑素合成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静宇; 林新瑜; 王芳; 林鸿刚

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish the cultured system of human normal melanocytes in vitro, and to study effects of interleukin-4(IL-4) on cultured human melanocytes. Methods Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT) method, NaOH cracking process assay was employed to measure the rate of proliferation, melanin synthesis of melanocytes respectively; apoptosis rates of melanocytes were detected by flow cytometry. Results IL-4 showed a significant decreasing in the rate of melanocyte proliferation in concentration and time -dependent manner. It could inhibite melanin synthesis and increase melanocyte apoptosis. Conclusion It suggests that IL-4 at the concentration of 50 to 200 μg/L is able to suppress melanoeytic proliferation and melanin synthesis. This provides experiment reference for IL-4 on treating pigmentary diseases.%目的 建立正常人表皮黑素细胞体外培养体系,观察不同浓度白细胞介素4(interleukin-4,IL-4)对体外培养正常人黑素细胞的细胞增殖及黑素合成的影响.方法 采用四甲基偶氮唑盐比色(methylthiazolyl tetrazolium,MTT)法测定不同浓度IL-4对黑素细胞增殖的影响,氢氧压钠(NaOH)裂解法测定黑素生成量,流式细胞仪检测黑素细胞的凋亡率.结果 IL-4对黑素细胞活力有抑制作用,能使细胞增殖能力降低,黑素合成减少,增加黑素细胞的凋亡率.结论 IL-4对体外培养的黑素细胞增殖及黑素生成都有抑制作用,这为临床应用IL-4治疗色素性疾病提供了实验依据.

  14. The interleukin-4 receptor: signal transduction by a hematopoietin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, A D; Pierce, J H

    1994-02-01

    Over the last several years, the receptors for numerous cytokines have been molecularly characterized. Analysis of their amino acid sequences shows that some of these receptors bear certain motifs in their extracellular domains that define a family of receptors called the Hematopoietin receptor superfamily. Significant advances in characterizing the structure, function, and mechanisms of signal transduction have been made for several members of this family. The purpose of this review is to discuss the recent advances made for one of the family members, the interleukin (IL) 4 receptor. Other receptor systems have recently been reviewed elsewhere. The IL-4 receptor consists of, at the minimum, the cloned 140 kDa IL-4-binding chain with the potential for associating with other chains. The IL-4 receptor transduces its signal by activating a tyrosine kinase that phosphorylates cellular substrates, including the receptor itself, and the 170 kDa substrate called 4PS. Phosphorylated 4PS interacts with the SH2 domain of the enzyme PI-3'-kinase and increases its enzymatic activity. These early events in the IL-4 receptor initiated signaling pathway may trigger a series of signals that will ultimately lead to an IL-4 specific biologic outcome.

  15. Association of Interleukin-4 Receptor Gene Polymorphism with Chronic Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khoshhal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Periodontitis is a multifactorial disease in which host immune system and genetic factors have an important role in its pathogenesis. Genetic polymorphisms in cytokines and their receptors have been proposed as potential markers for periodontal diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether IL-4R gene polymorphism is associated with chronic periodontitis (CP or not? Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study ninety non smoker patients (61 women and 29 men with chronic periodontitis were selected according to established criteria. They were categorized into three groups according to their clinical attachment level (CAL. Mutation at position 375(alanine/glutamine, 411(leucine/serine, 478(serine/proline, 406 (arginine/ cysteine in the IL-4R gene was detected by a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP method.Results: The distribution of mutations for IL-4 polymorphism at amino acids 375 (P=0.41, 411(P=0.22, 478(P=0.17, 406(P=0.77 were not significantly different among mild, moderate and sever chronic periodontitis patients. Conclusion: This study suggests that there is no correlation between IL-4R polymorphism of chronic periodontitis.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2011;18(3:63-69

  16. 异丁斯特对支气管哮喘豚鼠Th2型细胞因子白介素4、白介素1 3及嗜酸粒细胞趋化因子的影响%Effect of ibudilast on Th2 type cytokines interleukin-4,interleukin-13 and eotaxin in asthmatic guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐姗; 苏梦琪; 吕伟红; 张洪泉

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨异丁斯特对支气管哮喘(简称哮喘)豚鼠Th2型细胞因子白介素4(interleukin-4,IL-4)、IL-13及嗜酸粒细胞趋化凶子(eotaxin)的影响.方法 Hartley豚鼠,随机分为正常对照组、哮喘模型组、异丁斯特10、20、30 mg/kg组及地塞米松(DXM)给药组.用卵白蛋白致敏制备豚鼠哮喘模型,给药后观察各组肺组织的病理变化;收集支气管肺泡灌洗液(BALF),并对其中的嗜酸粒细胞(eosinophil,EOS)进行计数;采用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)法测定BALF中IL4、IL-13的含量;双抗体夹心ABC_ELISA法检测eotaxin水平.结果 HE染色显示,模型组豚鼠支气管壁及管腔内、血管周围可见大量炎症细胞浸润,平滑肌肥厚,黏膜、肺组织充血水肿,异丁斯特各剂量组及DXM给药组较模型组炎症表现明显减轻;与模型组比较,异丁斯特各剂量组及DXM给药组均能显著降低哮喘豚鼠BALF中EOS的数量;与模型组比较,异丁斯特各剂量组及DXM给药组均能显著降低哮喘豚鼠BALF中IL-4、IL-13含量及eotaxin水平.结论 异丁斯特对哮喘豚鼠有治疗作用,其机制可能与降低IL-4、II-13含量及eotaxin水平,减少气道EOS浸润,从而减轻哮喘气道炎症有关.%Objective To investigate the effect of ibudilast on Th2 type cytokines interleukin-4(IL-4),IL-13 and eotaxin in asthmatic guinea pigs.Methods Hartley guinea pigs were randomly divided into control group,bronchial asthma (asthma) group,ibudilast 10,20,30 mg/kg and dexamethasone (DXM) groups.Guinea pig asthma model was established by ovalbumin challenge methods.After therapy,the change of pathology was observed.Then BALF was collected and the number of esosinophil(EOS)was counted.IL-4,IL-13 and eotaxin in BALF were detected respectively by ELISA and ABC-ELISA.Results HE staining showed that there were a large number of inflammatory cells around bronchial wall,the lumen and vessel in model group.Smooth muscle hypertrophy,mucous membrane and lung

  17. 肿瘤坏死因子α和白细胞介素4对脐血CD34+造血干细胞来源的树突状细胞体外培养体系的影响%Influence of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-4 on the in vitro culture system for dendritic cells derived from cord blood CD34+hematopoietic precu rsor cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾镭; 邢美芬; 季晓辉; 孙志达; 杨晓帆; 王慧娟; 李明顺

    2008-01-01

    瘤坏死因子aoh、白细胞介素448 h加入诱导培养的树突状细胞各表型表达相对较佳,其细胞表达CD80,CD86均较其他组高,尤以CD86表达为著,并具有激发异体T细胞增殖能力.结论:CD34+造血干细胞经过合适的培养体系能够诱导分化为功能性树突状细胞,以GM-CSF与肿瘤坏死因子α O h加入、白细胞介素4 48 h加入的GM-CSF+肿瘤坏死因子α+白细胞介素4方案更为可取.%BACKGROUND: Blood stem cells (BSCs) are the most primitive cells in the immune system and can be differentiated into many kinds of cells. As the regulatory cells of immune response, dendritic cells (DCs) have been attracted more and more attention in the field of autoimmune diseases. Due to different resources of precursor cells, DCs have different cytokines, ideal cytokine matching,applying orders, and experimental cultured conditions. Furthermore, development, phenotypic expression, and mature degree are still different.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- a ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) on the culture system and provide improved method for inducing functional DCs in vitro, derived from cord blood CD34+ hematopoietic precursor cells (HPC).DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Observational study, which was performed in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Nanjing Medical University from March 2005 to November 2005.MATERIALS: The cord blood was collected from neonatal umbilical cord in the 81 Hospital of Nanjing City. CD34 monoclonal antibody coated magnetic bead system (MACS) was provided by Miltenyi Biotec Company, Germany; human recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF), human recombinant interleukin-4 (rhlL-4), and human recombinant tumor necrosis factor-α (rhTNF-α) by Pepro Tech Company, USA.METHODS: CD34+HPC were isolated and purified from umbilical cord blood by using a high-gradient magnetic cell sorting system (MACS). Then the cells were cultured

  18. Association between-590C/T polymorphisms of interleukin-4 gene and chronic periodontitis: A meta-analysis%白细胞介素-4基因-590C/T多态性与慢性牙周炎易感性的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜晓佳; 林莉; 姜文兰; 潘亚萍; 姜鹏

    2012-01-01

    目的:通过文献评价探讨白细胞介素-4(interleukin-4,IL-4)-590C/T基因多态性与慢性牙周炎(chronic periodontitis,CP)易感性之间的关系.方法:检索8个数据库,搜集国内外有关病例对照研究文献.根据种族进行亚组分析,采用Meta分析评估IL-4基因多态性与CP的关联性,同时进行发表偏倚的检验和异质性分析,并对结果进行敏感性分析 . 结果:最终有8个研究纳入系统评价,病例组628例,健康对照组717例 . Meta分析结果显示,IL-4基因-590C/T位点等位基因频率及基因多态性与研究人群CP易感性间均无显著相关性.进一步亚组分析显示,对于C等位基因而言,携带T等位基因增加了高加索人患CP的风险(C vs.T:OR=0.71,95%CI=0.56~0.89);高加索人种CP的易感性与-590C/T位点多态性显著相关(C vs.T:OR=0.71,95%CI=0.56~0.89;CC vs.CT:OR =0.60,95%CI=0.38~0.94;隐性模型CC vs.CT+TT:OR =0.61,95%CI=0.42~0.88),即高加索人中携带CC基因型者较携带CT与TT基因型者患CP风险减少39%,而亚洲人CP的易感性与该基因无显著相关性.结论:IL-4基因-590C/T位点多态性与高加索人CP易感性有一定相关性.这一结论尚需要大规模、多种族的流行病学研究加以验证.%To evaluate the relationship between —590C/T polymorphisms of interleukin-4 gene and chronic periodontitis using meta-analysis. METHODS: The selected studies were pooled from eight major electronic databases for case-control study. To gain a more precise estimation of the relationship, a stratified meta-analysis with two subgroups was performed according to the races.Heterogeneity, publication bias and sensitivity analysis were also explored. RESULTS: Totally 8 studies were recruited. Total sample sizes for chronic periodontitis and control groups were 628 and 717, respectively. Meta -analysis showed that both -590C/T polymorphisms and allele frequency were not significantly associated with chronic periodontitis

  19. Effect of intrauterine hepatitis B virus infection on peripheral blood mononuclear cells interferon-γ and interleukin-4 in newborns%乙型肝炎病毒宫内感染对新生儿外周血细胞因子干扰素γ和白介素4的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏雪松; 彭勋; 陈妍华; 王瑞华; 马洁; 佟艳

    2008-01-01

    Objegtive To observe the effect of intrauterine hepatitis B virus(HBV)infection on peripheral blood mononuclear cells function of secreting interferon-γ and interleukin-4.Methotis Pregnant women were systematically screened for HBsAg and HBeAg when attending the antenatal clinic at the Qinhuangdao Maternal and Child HeMth HospitaL Totally 67 pairs of mothers and infanta were enrolled into this study after obtaining the women's consent.Venous blood samples were collected from the infants within 6 hours after birth and before HBIG injection and HBVac immunization.Blood sample was taken from the mother at or afterthe time when the infant was born.HBV DNA in plasma and PBMC from mothers andtheir newborns were examined using polymerase chmn reaction(PCR).According to HBV DNA in PBMC of newborns.they were divided into two groups.The PBMCs isolated from newborn were cultured with purified HBsAg or phytohemagglutinin(PHA).The supernatant intedeukin-4 and interferon-γ level was measured by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA).Results In 19 newborns PBMC was pesifive for HBV DNA.Maternal PBMCHBVDNApositivitywas associatedwith high rate ofintrauterine HBV infection in the infants(X2=7.58,P<0.01).Compared with the infants whose PBMC HBV DNA was negative,the infanta with PBMC positive for HBV DNA expressed a lower level interferon-γ secretion after purified HBsAg stimulation(t=4.71,P<0.01),however,no significant difference was geen after PHA stimulation (t=1.21,P>0.05).The supematant IL-4 level detected after stimulation with purified HBsAg was higher in the newborns whose PBMC HBV DNA was positive as compared with those negative for PBMC HBV DNA (t=-8.51.P<0.05).The level of IL-4 did not show any significant difference after stimulation with PHA between the PBMC HBV DNA negative and positive groups(t=-2.40,P>0.05).Conclusion Infection with HBV of maternal PBMC is responsible for pefinatM newborn's PBMC HBV infection and it may be an important route of

  20. 三氧化二砷体外对哮喘患者外周血T细胞凋亡和白细胞介素4分泌的影响%Effects of arsenic trioxide on apoptosis and interleukin-4 release of peripheral T cells from asthmatic patients in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃冬云; 黄韧; 吴铁

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨三氧化二砷治疗哮喘的可能机制.方法 分离21例哮喘患者和20例健康对照者外周血T 细胞,分别加入三氧化二砷(0.1 mg·L-1)或地塞米松(5 mg·L-1)培养24 h.用ELISA方法检测培养上清液中白细胞介素4(IL-4)的含量,用荧光显微镜、流式细胞术和细胞色素c 试剂盒检测细胞凋亡.结果 哮喘患者T细胞自发释放IL-4较健康对照者明显增多;三氧化二砷对健康对照者T细胞IL-4的释放无影响,对哮喘患者T细胞IL-4释放增加具有抑制作用;地塞米松可使两组T细胞IL-4的释放明显降低.哮喘患者外周血T细胞体外培养24 h凋亡百分率较健康对照者明显降低,细胞浆细胞色素c含量降低;三氧化二砷明显增加哮喘患者T细胞凋亡的百分率和细胞色素c的含量,对健康对照者作用不明显;地塞米松可使两组的T细胞凋亡百分率和细胞色素c含量增加.结论 三氧化二砷治疗哮喘的机制可能与诱导哮喘患者T细胞凋亡和IL-4分泌减少有关.%AIM To study the possible mechanism of the treatment of arsenic trioxide on asthma. METHODS T cells isolated from 21 asthmatic patients and 20 healthy controls were treated with arsenic trioxide (0.1 mg·L-1) or dexamethasone (5 mg·L-1),in vitro, for 24 h. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) levels in supernatants from T cells were quantified with ELISA. Cell apoptosis was measured by using fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and cytochrome c ELISA kit. RESULTS T cells of asthmatic patients spontaneously released more IL-4 than that of healthy controls. Arsenic trioxide significantly decreased IL-4 release of T cells from asthmatic patients, which was more obvious compared with healthy controls. Dexamethasone decreased IL-4 release in both groups. Apoptosis percentage and cytochrome c content in cytoplasm of T cells from asthmatic patients were lower than those from healthy controls. Arsenic trioxide significantly increased the apoptosis percentage and

  1. 地塞米松对支气管哮喘豚鼠白介素4、白介素5及气道反应性的影响%Effects of dexamethasone on interleukin-4,interleukin-5 and airway hyperresponsiveness of asthmatic model in guinea pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢柏梅; 范亮; 彭利静; 刘楠; 杨瑜莹; 张延海

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of dexamethasone on interleukin-4 (IL-4) ,IL-5 in serum and airway hyperresponsiveness(AHR) of asthmatic model in guinea pig and to provide theoretical basis for the treatment of bronchial asthma(asthma). Methods This experiment included three groups:normal control group,asthmatic model group and dexamethasone treatment group,involving 10 guinea pigs in each group.Asthmatic models in guinea pigs were constructed by immunization of intraperitoneal injection with saline ovalbumin(OVA) and challenge of inspiration with nebulized OVA. A three-way cannula was inserted into the lumen of the trachea for mechanical ventilation and the intratracheal pressure (IP) was measured simultaneously for reflecting airway responsiveness. The levels of IL-4, IL-5 in serum of guinea pigs were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The levels of IL-4, IL-5 of asthmatic model group (38.2±3.4) ng/L and (344.4±21.8) ng/L were significantly higher than those of normal control group (19.8±1.2) ng/L and (77.8±26.0) ng/L( P<0.01). The levels of IL-4,IL-5 of dexamethasone group (22. 0±1. 8) ng/L and (234.6±35.1) ng/L were significantly lower than those of asthmatic model group( P<0.01). The airway responsiveness of asthmatic model group (0. 013±0.014) g/L was significantly higher than that of normal control group (0. 168±0. 186) g/L (P<0.01). Compared with that of asthmatic model group, the airway responsiveness of dexamethasone group (0. 144±0. 154) g/L decreased significantly( P < 0.01), but they did not have any statistical significance from that of normal control group( P > 0.05). Conclusions Dexamethasone could efficiently decrease the AHR of asthmatic guinea pig. The mechanism may be that dexamethasone could prevent the production of IL-4, IL-5 in asthmatic guinea pig.%目的 探讨地塞米松对支气管哮喘(简称哮喘)豚鼠模型白介素4(IL-4)、IL-5水平及气道高反应性(airway hyperreactivity

  2. 内耳注入携带 IL -4基因的骨髓间充质干细胞对豚鼠免疫性内耳病基因治疗的研究%Gene Therapy of Inner Ear Injection with Bone -Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Decorated with Interleukin-4 Gene on Immune-Mediated Inner Ear Disease in Guinea Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭浪; 谭长强; 刘树森; 江萍; 衡伟伟

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究内耳局部植入白细胞介素4(IL -4)基因修饰骨髓间充质干细胞(bone-marrow mesen-chymal stem cells ,BMSCs)对免疫性内耳病豚鼠内耳病理损伤和听功能的调节与治疗作用。方法采用钥孔嘁血蓝蛋白(KLH)抗原在已致敏的豚鼠圆窗龛局部免疫,制成豚鼠免疫性内耳病模型55只,分为五组:A组(BMSCs载体组)、B组(BM SCs空载体对照组)、C组(重组慢病毒IL -4基因组)、D组(慢病毒空载体对照组)及E组(模拟手术对照组),每组11只,各组均将相应的悬液20μl[BMSCs悬液中含BMSCs(1.5~2.0)×106,慢病毒浓缩液浓度为0.5×108 pfu]经鼓阶开窗植入内耳。采用免疫荧光组织化学试验法、免疫酶组织化学试验法观察IL -4基因产物在内耳组织结构中的分布和表达情况,酶联免疫吸附试验观察血清抗KLH特异性抗体水平,ABR测试听功能变化。结果与免疫前相比,免疫后A、B、C组ABR波Ⅲ阈值不同程度降低,A组阈值降低更明显,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);免疫组织化学染色显示BMSCs荧光反应阳性细胞主要分布在鼓阶、前庭阶;内耳光镜观察A、B、C组仅在鼓阶内有絮状物,注射部位有少量红细胞和白细胞,D、E组可见不同程度的膜迷路积水,螺旋神经节和蜗轴小血管周围有单个核细胞浸润。结论重组IL -4基因的慢病毒载体可在体外成功转染BM SCs ,经鼓阶途径植入内耳后可在内耳迁移并产生基因产物IL -4,可明显减轻免疫性内耳病动物的内耳免疫炎性反应和听功能损伤,而BMSCs可以作为细胞载体把携带有目的基因的治疗因子迁移到损伤部位而发挥治疗作用。%Objective To evaluate the gene therapeutic effects of guinea pigs model with immune -mediated inner ear disease(IMIED)after locally injection of bone -marrow mesenchymal stem cells(BMSCs) decorated by in-terleukin-4 gene .Methods Guinea pigs were immunized with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and caused 55 animal models ,divided into five groups ,each group with 11 animals :groupA(BMSCs carrier) ,group B(BMSCs emp-ty -carrier control group) ,group C(recombinent lentivirus IL -4 gene) ,group D(lentivirus empty -carrier control group) ,group E(simulation operation control group) .Groups were all injected with the corresponding suspension (20 μl)[includs BMSCs ceas of (1 .5~2 .0) × 106 ,the concentration of (entivirus) is 0 .5 × 108 pfu] by the scala tympani window into the inner ear .The fluorography immunohistochemistry test and enzyme immunohistochemistry test for the situation of IL -4 gene express and productive protein distribution in inner ear .Auditory functions and the KLH level of guinea pigs blood were monitored respectively by auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and ELISA test .Results The threshold of ABR wave Ⅲ decreased in group A ,group B and group C .The result were more significant in group A and group B than that in group C ,but results in group A was more prominent (P<0 .05) . The results of immunohistochemistry test showed that fluorescence positive BMSCs mainly scattered in scala tymani and scala vestibule .The microscope results showed that for the group A ,B and C ,there were only few foccule and red and white blood cells in scala tympani floc ,but for group D and group E ,with different levels of labyrinthine hy-drops and some mononuclear cells around the spiral ganglion and small blood vessels .Conclusion Restructuring lentiviral vector with IL -4 gene can be successfully transfected into BMSCs in vitro ,compared to inplangting into inner ear in scala tympani approach ,the cells can migrate and generate gene product of IL -4 ,to significantly im-prove the auditory functions and inflammatory reaction of inner ear disease ,and BMSCs can be used as a carrier to migrate to the damaged part with therapeutic gene .

  3. 大蒜新素对大鼠变应性鼻炎模型血浆中白细胞介素4和γ干扰素的影响%Effect of garlicin on the serum levels of interleukin 4 and interferon in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉晓; 陈冬; 李添应; 冯炼强; 许庚; 文卫平

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨大蒜新素对大鼠变应性鼻炎模型外周血中愀扇潘和白细胞介素4(IL-4)的影响.方法 健康雌性SD大鼠30只,随机分为对照组、空白组和实验组,每组10只.实验组用卵清蛋白辅以氢氧化铝和灭活百日咳杆菌佐剂建立变应性鼻炎模型,成功后连续腹腔注射大蒜新素10 d;对照组造模方法同实验组,成功后腹腔注射等体积的生理盐水;空白组除无卵清蛋白致敏和激发外,方法同对照组.颈内静脉取血,分离血浆,采用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)检测血浆中IL-4和INF-愕暮俊=峁实验组、对照组和空白组大鼠外周血浆中IL-4水平(-x±s,下同)分别为(22.81±8.79)pg/L、(41.43±4.93)pg/L和(9.93±2.07)pg/L;INF-愕乃椒直鹗.32±11.20)pg/L,(11.35±2.45)pg/L和(21.69±5.93)pg/L.实验组血浆中IL-4的水平低于对照组而高于空白组,差异具有统计学意义(t值分别为3.22及4.17,P值均0.05).结论 大蒜新素能降低大鼠变应性鼻炎模型外周血中IL-4的水平,同时提高INF-γ的水平,对Th1和Th2细胞因子水平具有调节作用.%Objective To investigate the effect of garlicin on the levels of interferon interleukin 4(IL-4)in blood of alhrgic rhinitis rat model Methods Thirty healthy female SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups:control group,negative control group and experimental group,10 rats for each group.Ten rata(experimental group)were sensitized and intranasally challenged by ovalbumin,aluminium hyrdroxide hydrate gel and Bordetella pertussis inactive microorganism suspension adjuvants,as allergic rhinitis models.and then injection of garliein(0.4 ml)intraperitoneally per day for 10 days.Control group rats were immunized as experimental group,and then injection of physiological saline 8.8 equal volume as garlicin.Negative control group rata were investigated using physiological saline.Blood of intrajugular vein of rat was extracted for separated plasma.Enzyme liked immunosorbent assay

  4. 毛细支气管炎患儿血清γ干扰素、白细胞介素-4水平变化及其临床意义%Changes of Interferon -γ and Interleukin -4 Levels in Serum of Children with Bronchiolitis and Their Clinical Significances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小飞; 向志云; 吴显劲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the changes of interferon -γ( IFN -γ) ,interleukin -4(IL-4) and their correlation with the severity of bronchiolitis in children. Methods 1. IFN - γand IL -4 levels in serum were measured by enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay in 20 healthy children( healthy control group) and 54 children with bronchiolitis before treatment, after treatment and after 2 months of follow- up.2. Fifty - four cases of bronchiolitis based on dyspnea criteria were divided into mild group, moderate group and severe group, and the levels of IFN - γ, IL - 4 in the 3 groups were compared. The levels of INF - γ and IL - 4 in 20 healthy children were measured as controls. Results 1. The level of IFN -γ in children with bronchiolitis before treatment was significantly lower than that in healthy control group( P < 0.01 ).The level of IFN - γin children with bronchiolitis in post - treatment group was significantly higher than that in pre - treatment group, but still significantly lower than that in healthy control group( P <0.01 ). The level of IL-4 in children with bronchiolitis in pre -treatment group was significantly higher than that in healthy control group( P < 0.01 ). The level of IL -4 in children with bronchiolitis in post - treatment group was significantly lower than that in pre - treatment group, but still significantly higher than that in healthy control group (P < 0.01 ). The levels of IFN - γ and IL -4 after 2 months of follow - up were close to those in the healthy control group. 2. The level of IFN - γ in mild group was significantly higher than that in moderate group,and in moderate group was significantly higher than that in severe group( Pa <0.01 ). The level of IL - 4 in moderate group was significantly lower than that in severe group( P < 0.01 ). Conclusions Children with bronchiolitis showed decreased IFN -γ level and increased IL -4 level, so IFN -γ/IL- 4 level was imbalanced, and which was correlated with the degree of severity

  5. 滨蒿内酯对哮喘豚鼠血清和肺组织匀浆中白细胞介素4与干扰素γ失衡的调节作用%Regulation of the imbalance of interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 of serum and pulmonary tissue homogenate in asthmatic guinea pig with scoparone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪瑞; 柳春; 李智; 滕赞

    2005-01-01

    背景:滨蒿内酯是传统中药茵陈的主要有效成分之一,具有免疫抑制、消炎和舒张支气管平滑肌的作用.滨蒿内酯是否能改善哮喘豚鼠血清及肺组织匀浆中白细胞介素4与干扰素γ(IL-4/IFN-y)失衡、进而抑制IgE的产生而发挥平喘作用目前尚不清楚.目的:研究滨蒿内酯的平喘作用及其对哮喘豚鼠免疫功能的调节作用.设计:以实验动物为研究对象,随机对照的验证性研究.单位:一所大学的天然药物研究室.材料:实验于2000-07/2002-03在中国医科大学药理教研室完成.选择健康雄性豚鼠84只,体质量(200±50)g,清洁级.干预:分别采用10 g/L组胺与1 g/L乙酰胆碱混合液引喘及10 mL/L卵蛋白致敏复制法制备急性和迟发性哮喘豚鼠模型,采用雾化吸入途径给予滨蒿内酯药治疗,观察引喘潜伏期,并分别采用化学发光法、放免法和双抗夹心法检测迟发性哮喘豚鼠血清及肺组织匀浆中IgE,IL-4和IFN-γ的含量.主要观察指标:引喘潜伏期以及实验动物血清及肺组织匀浆中IgE,IL-4和IFN-y含量.结果:滨蒿内酯明显延长急性和迟发性哮喘引喘潜伏期,哮喘组豚鼠血清及肺组织匀浆中IgE,IL-4含量较对照组明显增加(P<0.05),IFN-γ含量明显降低(P<0.05);而滨蒿内酯组IgE水平及IL-4含量较哮喘组豚鼠显著降低(P<0.05),IFN-γ的含量则明显升高(P<0.05).结论:滨蒿内酯通过调节IL-4/IFN-γ之间的失衡、抑制IgE的异常合成发挥明显的抗哮喘作用.%BACKGROUND: Scoparone,which is a major principle separated from traditional Chinese herbs artemisia scoparia, which possesses actions of immunosuppression, anti-inflammation and relaxing bronchial smooth muscle. It' s not known whether scoparone possesses the regulation of the imbalance of interferon-gamma(IFN-γ) and interleukin-4(IL-4) in asthmatic guinea pig.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the inhibition and immunoregulation of scoparone on asthmatic

  6. Effect of fungus on expression of interferon-γ and interleukin-4 in natural killer cells%真菌对自然杀伤细胞内干扰素-γ和白细胞介素-4表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎阳; 刘玲; 马晓晓; 席丽艳; 方建培; 魏菁

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of fungus Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans on the expression of endocellular interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) in cytokineinduced natural killer (NK) cells.Methods NK cells were cultured with Aspergillusfumigatus or Candida albicans by non-contact or direct-contact methods with a ratio of NK cells to fungus of 10 ∶ 1.The expressions of IFN-γ and IL-4 in NK cells were evaluated by flow cytometry after co-cultured for 6 h.Analysis of variance or SNK-q test was used to compare the expressions of IFN-γ and IL-4 among different groups.Results The IFN-γexpression rates in NK cells with direct contacting to Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae,or to different morphotypes of Candida albicans were (20.12 ± 0.53) %,(20.69 ± 0.34) % and (20.8 ±0.37)% respectively,while IFN-γexpression in NK cells with indirect contacting to fumigatus hyphae,or to different morphotypes of Candida albicans were (21.40 ± 0.53) %,(20.57 ± 1.09) % and (20.20 ±0.51) % respectively,and all were significantly higher than that in the blank group [(15.11 ± 2.60) %,all P > 0.05].The IFN-γ expression rates in the Aspergillus fumigatus spores direct and indirect contacting groups were (14.33 ± 0.98) % and (14.97 ± 1.53) %,which were not of significant difference compared with the blank group (P > 0.05).The IL-4 expression rates in NK cells with direct contacting to different morphotypes of Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans were (1.25 ± 0.06) %,(1.21 ± 0.03) %,(1.22 ± 0.46) % and (1.26 ± 0.11) %,while those in indirect contacting groups were (1.21 ± 0.06) %,(1.25 ±0.04)%,(1.27 ±0.03)% and (1.26 ±0.1)%,which were not of significant difference compared with the blank group [(1.23 ± 0.05) %,all P > 0.05].Conclusion Fungus stimuli can reduce the secretion of IFN-γ in NK cells,but have not significant influence on the secretion of IL-4.%目的 探讨烟曲霉、白假丝酵母菌的

  7. 不同类型过敏性结膜炎患者眼表组织中白细胞介素-4、5和13的表达%Expressions of interleukin-4,5 and 13 in ocular surface with different types of allergic conjunctivitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚娟; 李冰; 郑晓汾

    2015-01-01

    IL-5和IL-13蛋白质量浓度分别为(14.06±3.50)、(10.88±1.82)和(34.28±8.42) pg/ml,SAC组分别为(7.71±0.65)、(5.10±1.33)、(23.77±6.29) pg/ml,PAC组分别为(3.30±1.50)、(2.43±1.28)和(17.67±4.28) pg/ml,组间总体比较差异均有统计学意义(F=200.29、260.49、128.23,均P<0.01);其中VKC组IL-4、IL-5、IL-13蛋白质量浓度明显高于SAC组和PAC组,SAC组IL-4、IL-5和IL-13蛋白质量浓度明显高于PAC组,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.01).结论 IL-4、IL-5和IL-13参与多种类型过敏性结膜炎的发病,但在不同类型过敏性结膜炎患者中眼表的表达均有差异.%Background The pathogenesis of allergic conjunctivitis has not been clearly established.Current researchers indicate that interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5 and IL-13 may play an important role in allergic conjunctivitis.But whether the roles of these inflammatory factors are same in different types of allergic conjunctivitis remains unclear.Objective This study was to investigate the expressions of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 in ocular surface with different types of allergic conjunctivitis.Methods A prospective cohort study was designed.Eighty individuals were recruited in Shanxi Eye Hospital from April 2013 to September 2014, including 20 patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), 20 patients with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC), 20 patients with perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC) and 20 normal healthy subjects.Surficial tissues were binocularly scraped using disinfected scraper from upper eyelid conjunctiva, and 4 μl of tear fluid was obtained with capillary tube.The expressions of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 protein and mRNA in the conjunctival epithelial cells were detected by immunohistochemistry and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR.The IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 concentrations in tear fluid were assayed by Luminex method.This study complied with Declaration of Helsinki and the research protocol was approved by the Shanxi Eye Hospital Ethics

  8. Inhibitory effect of n-butanol fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in a guinea pig model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Shailaja G; Banerjee, Aryamitra; Chauhan, Bhupendrasinh F; Padh, Harish; Nivsarkar, Manish; Mehta, Anita A

    2009-01-01

    Moringaceae, which belongs to the Moringa oleifera Lam. family, is a well-known herb used in Asian medicine as an antiallergic drug. In the present study, the efficacy of the n-butanol extract of the seeds of the plant (MONB) is examined against ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in guinea pigs. The test drugs (MONB or dexamethasone) are administered orally prior to challenge with aerosolized 0.5% ovalbumin. During the experimental period, bronchoconstriction tests are performed, and lung function parameters are measured. The blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are collected to assess cellular content, and serum is used for cytokine (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-4, and interleukin-6) assays. Histamine assays of lung tissue are performed using lung tissue homogenate. The results suggest that in ovalbumin-sensitized model control animals, tidal volume is decreased, respiration rate is increased, and both the total and differential cell counts in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are increased significantly compared with nonsensitized controls. MONB treatment shows improvement in all parameters except bronchoalveolar lavage tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-4. Moreover, MONB treatment demonstrates protection against acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstriction and airway inflammation. These results indicate that MONB has an inhibitory effect on airway inflammation. Thus, MONB possesses an antiasthmatic property through modulation of the relationship between Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalances.

  9. Interleukin-4 production in BALB/c mice immunized with Anisakis simplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perteguer María Jesús

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the interleukin (IL-4 levels in BALB/c mice immunized with Anisakis extract in single or multiple doses and in mice orally infected with a larva. From animals immunized maximum responses were obtained with the multiple doses with an only IL-4 peak. Conversely, in the mice inoculated with a larva per os, the IL-4 levels showed two peaks of different rates.

  10. Micro RNA-17-92 cluster mediates interleukin-4-suppressed IL-10 expression in B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Gui; Geng, Xiao-Rui; Liu, Jiang-Qi; Mo, Li-Hua; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of allergen-related inflammation in the intestine is to be further understood. Micro RNA (miR) can regulate immune responses. This study aims to investigate the role of miR-17-92 cluster in the induction of food allergen-related inflammation in the intestine. In this study, a mouse model of food allergen-related intestinal inflammation was developed. Expression of miR-17-92 cluster in B cells of the intestinal mucosa was analyzed by real time quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that the levels of miR-19a, one of the members of the miR-17-92 cluster, were detected in the B cells of the intestine of mice sensitized to ovalbumin, which was significantly higher than that in naïve control mice. The expression of IL-10 by B cells was significantly lower in the sensitized mice as compared with naive control mice. Exposure to IL-4 in the culture increased the expression of miR-19a as well as suppression the expression of IL-10 in B cells via remolding DNA structure at the IL-10 promoter locus. We conclude that B cells from sensitized mice show higher levels of miR-19a, which plays an important role in the suppression of IL-10 in the B cells.

  11. Association of interleukin-4 and interleukin-17F polymorphisms in periodontitis in Dravidian ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Jain

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: In Malayalam speaking Dravidian population IL-4 + 33C/T loci appears to be an important risk factor for periodontal disease with a leaning towards aggressive periodontitis. The association between IL-17F at 7383A/G and 7488A/G loci with either chronic or an aggressive periodontitis could not be ascertained.

  12. The Mechanism of Chemokine Receptor 9 Internalization Triggered by Interleukin 2 and Interleukin 4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoling Tong; Lijun Zhang; Li Zhang; Meng Hu; Jun Leng; Beibei Yu; Beibei Zhou; Yi Hu; Qiuping Zhang

    2009-01-01

    In previous study, we found that the chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9) was highly expressed on CD4+ T cells from patients with T-cell lineage acute lymphocytic leukemia (T-ALL) and mediated leukemia cell infiltration and metastasis. Combined use of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and IL-4 promoted the internalization of CCR9 and therefore attenuated leukemia cell infiltration and metastasis. In this study, we preliminarily investigated the mechanism of internalization of CCR9 on MOLT4 cell model (a human leukemia T-cell line, naturally expresses CCR9) and found that IL-2 upregulated the cell surface expression of IL-4Rα (CD124) greatly, whereas IL-4 had no significant influence on α (CD25) and β subunits (CD122) of IL-2R. Moreover, specific inhibitors, such as staurosporine, H89 and heparin, inhibited internalization of CCR9, which indicated a role of protein kinase C (PKC) and G protein-coupled kinase 2 (GRK2), respectively. Furthermore, GRK2 was upregulated and translocated to cell membrane in IL-2 and IL-4 treated cells which indicated that PKC could be a prerequisite for GRK2 activity.Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2009;6(3):181-189.

  13. Interferon-¿ and interleukin-4 in human Leishmania donovani infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, M; Kurtzhals, J A; Kharazmi, A

    1993-01-01

    Clinical and immunological similarities between Leishmania donovani infections in humans and L. major infections in mice suggest that some of the pathophysiological mechanisms are the same in the two conditions. Both infections can result either in a fatal systemic disease or in a self-limiting i......, activated by antigens from the invading micro-organism, may contribute to determine this environment....... can direct the T cell response into Th1 or Th2 type. If similar mechanisms operate in humans, the outcome of L. donovani infections may depend on the local cytokine environment in which early activation of Leishmania specific T cells takes place. Cytokines secreted by cross-reactive memory T cells...

  14. Functionality and opposite roles of two interleukin 4 haplotypes in immune cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anovazzi, G; Medeiros, M C; Pigossi, S C; Finoti, L S; Souza Moreira, T M; Mayer, M P A; Zanelli, C F; Valentini, S R; Rossa-Junior, C; Scarel-Caminaga, R M

    2017-01-01

    Cytokines expression can be influenced by polymorphisms in their respective coding genes. We associated the CTI/TTD haplotype (Hap-1) and TCI/CCI haplotype (Hap-2) in the IL4 gene formed by the −590, +33 and variable number of tandem repeat polymorphisms with the severity of chronic periodontitis in humans. The functionality of these IL4 haplotypes in the response of immune cells to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) with Ionomycin and IL-1β (as inflammatory stimuli) was evaluated. Gene expression (quantitative real-time PCR), profile of secreted cytokines (multiplex) and phenotypic polarization of T cells (flow cytometry) were the outcomes assessed. Green fluorescent protein reporter plasmid constructs containing specific IL4 haplotype were transiently transfected into JM cells to assess the influence of the individual haplotypes on promoter activity. In response to inflammatory stimuli the immune cells from Hap-1 haplotype had increased expression of anti-inflammatory IL4; conversely, the Hap-2 haplotype showed higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The haplotype CTI proved to be the most important for the regulation of IL4 promoter, regardless of the nature of the inflammatory stimulation; whereas the polymorphism in the promoter region had the least functional effect. In conclusion, IL4 haplotypes studied are functional and trigger opposite immune responses: anti-inflammatory (Hap-1) and pro-inflammatory (Hap-2). In addition, we identified the CTI haplotype as the main responsible for the regulation of IL4 transcriptional activity. PMID:28053321

  15. Interleukin-4 receptor −3223C→T Polymorphism is Associated with Increased Gastric Adenocarcinoma Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Burada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer remains one of the most common types of cancer worldwide, with a large geographical variation in incidence and mortality rates. Cytokine polymorphisms are the most studied host polymorphisms and are associated with an increased risk of stomach cancer in many regions, but have not been studied extensively in Eastern European populations.

  16. T-cells mediate an inhibitory effect of interleukin-4 on osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirosavljevic, Danijela; Quinn, Julian M W; Elliott, Jan; Horwood, Nicole J; Martin, T John; Gillespie, Matthew T

    2003-06-01

    IL-4 is an important cytokine that can influence bone. We identified two distinct actions of IL-4 to inhibit osteoclast formation: one direct on osteoclast progenitors and the second through the production of a novel T-cell surface-associated molecule(s). These data show a new link between the immune system and bone. The Th2 cytokine interleukin (IL)-4 inhibits osteoclast formation in vitro but also acts on other cell types found in bone, including T-cells and macrophages. Because some osteoclastogenesis inhibitors (e.g., IL-12) act indirectly through T-cells, we investigated IL-4 action on osteoclastogenesis in the presence of T-cells. Osteoclast formation from murine spleen cells treated with RANKL and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) was blocked by IL-4 even when spleen cells were depleted of T-cells (Thy 1.2+) and/or B-cells (B220+). Also, IL-4 inhibited osteoclastogenesis in RANKL/M-CSF-stimulated adherent spleen cells, Rag1 -/- (lymphocyte-deficient) spleen cells, and bone marrow macrophages, indicating an action on myelomonocytic cells to block osteoclastogenesis. In contrast, IL-4 did not inhibit osteoclastogenesis in cells from IL-4 receptor null mice (IL-4R -/-). However, when wildtype T-cells were added to IL-4R -/- spleen cell cultures, IL-4 inhibited osteoclast formation, indicating a T-cell-dependent action. Osteoclast formation in RANKL-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells was not inhibited by IL-4 unless T-cells were added to the culture. Separation of RAW 264.7 cells and T-cells by semipermeable membrane ablated this action of IL-4, suggesting the induction of a membrane-associated osteoclastogenesis inhibitor. However, membrane-bound inhibitors thymic shared antigen-1 (TSA-1) and osteoclast inhibitory lectin (OCIL) were not regulated by IL-4. In summary, at least two mechanisms of IL-4 -mediated osteoclastogenesis inhibition exist, including a direct action on myelomonocytic progenitors (from which osteoclasts derive) and an indirect action through T-cells that may involve novel anti-osteoclastic factors.

  17. Evidence for regulated interleukin-4 expression in chondrocyte-scaffolds under in vitro inflammatory conditions.

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    Muhammad Farooq Rai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects of regulated expression of IL-4 in chondrocyte-scaffolds under in vitro inflammatory conditions. METHODS: Mature articular chondrocytes from dogs (n = 3 were conditioned through transient transfection using pcDNA3.1.cIL-4 (constitutive or pCOX-2.cIL-4 (cytokine-responsive plasmids. Conditioned cells were seeded in alginate microspheres and rat-tail collagen type I matrix (CaReS® to generate two types of tissue-engineered 3-dimensional scaffolds. Inflammatory arthritis was simulated in the packed chondrocytes through exogenous addition of recombinant canine (rc IL-1β (100 ng/ml plus rcTNFα (50 ng/ml in culture media for 96 hours. Harvested cells and culture media were analyzed by various assays to monitor the anti-inflammatory and regenerative (anabolic properties of cIL-4. RESULTS: cIL-4 was expressed from COX-2 promoter exclusively on the addition of rcIL-1β and rcTNFα while its expression from CMV promoter was constitutive. The expressed cIL-4 downregulated the mRNA expression of IL-1β, TNFα, IL-6, iNOS and COX-2 in the cells and inhibited the production of NO and PGE(2 in culture media. At the same time, it up-regulated the expression of IGF-1, IL-1ra, COL2a1 and aggrecan in conditioned chondrocytes in both scaffolds along with a diminished release of total collagen and sGAG into the culture media. An increased amount of cIL-4 protein was detected both in chondrocyte cell lysate and in concentrated culture media. Neutralizing anti-cIL-4 antibody assay confirmed that the anti-inflammatory and regenerative effects seen are exclusively driven by cIL-4. There was a restricted expression of IL-4 under COX-2 promoter possibly due to negative feedback loop while it was over-expressed under CMV promoter (undesirable. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory /anabolic outcomes from both scaffolds were reproducible and the therapeutic effects of cIL-4 were both scaffold- and promoter-independent. CONCLUSIONS: Regulated expression of therapeutic candidate gene(s coupled with suitable scaffold(s could potentially serve as a useful tissue-engineering tool to devise future treatment strategies for osteoarthritis.

  18. Effects of Flavin7 on allergen induced hyperreactivity of airways

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    Franova S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Some studies have suggested that the polyphenolic compounds might reduce the occurrence of asthma symptoms. The aim of our experiments was to evaluate the effects of 21 days of the flavonoid Flavin7 administration on experimentally induced airway inflammation in ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs. We assessed tracheal smooth muscle reactivity by an in vitro muscle-strip method; changes in airway resistance by an in vivo plethysmographic method; histological picture of tracheal tissue; and the levels of interleukin 4 (IL-4, and interleukin 5 (IL-5 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. Histological investigation of tracheal tissue and the concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 in BALF were used as indices of airway inflammation. Administration of Flavin7 caused a significant decrease of specific airway resistance after histamine nebulization and a decline in tracheal smooth muscle contraction amplitude in response to bronchoconstricting mediators. Flavin7 minimized the degree of inflammation estimated on the basis of eosinophil calculation and IL-4 and IL-5 concentrations. In conclusion, administration of Flavin7 showed bronchodilating and anti-inflammatory effects on allergen-induced airway inflammation.

  19. Experimental neurocysticercosis: absence of IL-4 induces lower encephalitis

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    Hidelberto Matos Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Neurocysticercosis (NCC is the most severe clinical manifestation of cysticercosis. One of the factors responsible for its symptomatology is the host inflammatory response. Therefore the influence of interleukin 4 (IL-4 on the induction of encephalitis in experimental NCC was evaluated. Methods BALB/c (WT and BALB/c (IL-4-KO mice were inoculated intracranially with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci and euthanized at 7, 30, 60 and 90 days later, the encephala removed and histopathologically analyzed. Results The absence of IL-4 induced greater parasitism. In the initial phase of the infection, IL-4-KO showed a lower intensity in the inflammatory infiltration of polimorphonuclear cells in the host-parasite interface and intra-parenquimatous edema. The IL-4-KO animals, in the late phase of the infection, showed lower intensity of ventriculomegaly, encephalitis, and meningitis, and greater survival of the parasites in comparison with the WT animals. Conclusion The absence of IL-4 induced lower inflammatory infiltration, ventriculomegaly and perivasculitis in experimental NCC.

  20. Effect of promoting blood circulation by removing blood stasis on serum transforming growth factor - β1, interleukin -4 and interleukin - 10 levels in female rats with chronic pelvic inflammatory disease%活血化瘀法对慢性盆腔炎雌性大鼠血清TGF-β1和IL-4、IL-10水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师伟; 刘瑞芬; 杨晓娜; 徐丽

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨活血化瘀法对慢性盆腔炎雌性大鼠血清TGF -β1、IL -4、IL - 10水平的影响.方法:采用混合细菌加机械损伤方法,建立慢性盆腔炎大鼠模型,对60只大鼠随机分为模型组、桂枝茯苓胶囊治疗高、中、低剂量组、对照组,各组均为12只,另外选择假手术慢性盆腔炎造模大鼠(假手术组)、正常饲养未干预大鼠(正常组)各12只.检测各组大鼠血清TGF -β1、IL-4、IL - 10的水平.结果:①血清TGF -β1水平:模型组较正常组、假手术组显著升高(P<0.01);实验组较模型组显著降低(P<0.01或P<0.05),且中、高剂量组水平接近正常组(P>0.05);低剂量实验组较对照组显著升高(P<0.01);中剂量实验组较高、低剂量实验组均降低.②血清IL -4、IL - 10水平:模型组较正常组、假手术组显著降低(P<0.01);中剂量实验组较模型组明显升高(P<0.01),且接近正常组水平(P>0.05);中、高剂量实验组较对照组均升高,其中IL-4升高有统计学意义(P<0.01),IL - 10升高无统计学意义(P>0.05),低剂量实验组较对照组均降低,其中IL -4无统计学意义(P>0.05),IL - 10有统计学意义(P<0.01);中剂量实验组较高、低剂量实验组均升高.③中剂量实验组各指标间相关性分析:TGF-β1与IL -4、IL - 10有显著负相关性(P<0.01),IL-4与IL - 10有显著正相关性(P<0.01).结论:活血化瘀法能影响慢性盆腔炎大鼠血清TGF -β1、IL-4、IL - 10水平,与药物剂量存在相关性,这可能是活血化瘀法抗粘连和抑制炎症反应,从而治疗慢性盆腔炎和缓解盆腔粘连的机制之一.%Objective: To explore the effect of promoting blood circulation by removing blood stasis on serum transforming growth factor-pi (TGF-β1), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin- 10 (IL-10) levels in female rats with chrome pelvic inflammatory dis-ease. Methods; Mixed bacteria plus mechanical damage method were used to establish

  1. Levamisole induces interleukin-18 and shifts type 1/type 2 cytokine balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, C-C; Gillespie, K M; Mathieson, P W

    2000-01-01

    Immune responses can be classified, according to the predominant cytokines involved, into type 1 (featuring interferon-γ, IFN-γ) and type 2 (featuring interleukin-4, IL-4); imbalance between type 1 and type 2 cytokine compartments has been implicated in many human diseases. Levamisole is a drug with an unknown mode of action that has been used to boost immunity in infectious diseases including leprosy, and in some cancers. To test the hypothesis that levamisole acts by inducing a shift to a type 1 immune response, we used Brown Norway (BN) rats, which are markedly biased to type 2 responses. BN rats treated with levamisole showed a dose-dependent rise in serum IFN-γ and fall in serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) level. Detailed analysis of cytokine gene expression showed upregulation of IFN-γ and downregulation of IL-4 messenger RNA. This coincided with marked upregulation of IL-18, a recently characterized cytokine with potent activity in stimulating IFN-γ production. IL-12 was not induced. Further, the type 2 response induced in BN rats by mercuric chloride was markedly attenuated when rats were pretreated with levamisole: there was a 2-log reduction in maximum serum IgE level and marked attenuation of IL-4 gene upregulation. These data indicate that levamisole acts by resetting the immune balance towards a type 1 response via induction of IL-18. Our findings provide a direction for development of more specific immunomodulating therapy. PMID:10886398

  2. Chemistry of the nudibranch Aldisa andersoni: Structure and biological activity of phorbazole metabolites

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nuzzo, G.; Ciavatta, M.L.; Kiss, R.; Mathieu, V.; Leclercqz, H.; Manzo, E.; Villani, G.; Mollo, E.; Lefranc, F.; DeSouza, L.; Gavagnin, M.; Guido Cimino, G.

    26 ± 2 The human cancer cell lines include the A549 NSCLC (DSMZ code ACC107), the MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen (DSMZ) code ACC115, the SKMEL-28 melanoma (ATCC code HTB-72), the Hs683...

  3. Protective effect of Bifidobacterium infantis CGMCC313-2 on ovalbumin-induced airway asthma and β-lactoglobulin-induced intestinal food allergy mouse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng-Yun; Yang, Zhen-Yu; Dai, Wen-Kui; Huang, Jian-Qiong; Li, Yin-Hu; Zhang, Juan; Qiu, Chuang-Zhao; Wei, Chun; Zhou, Qian; Sun, Xin; Feng, Xin; Li, Dong-Fang; Wang, He-Ping; Zheng, Yue-Jie

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine whether oral administration of Bifidobacterium infantis CGMCC313-2 (B. infantis CGMCC313-2) inhibits allergen-induced airway inflammation and food allergies in a mouse model. METHODS Ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma and β-lactoglobulin-induced food allergy mouse models were used in this study. Following oral administration of B. infantis CGMCC313-2 during or after allergen sensitization, histopathologic changes in the lung and intestine were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. In the allergic asthma mouse model, we evaluated the proportion of lung-infiltrating inflammatory cells. OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 levels in serum and cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were also assessed. In the food allergy mouse model, the levels of total IgE and cytokines in serum were measured. RESULTS Oral administration of B. infantis CGMCC313-2 during or after allergen sensitization suppressed allergic inflammation in lung and intestinal tissues, while the proportion of infiltrating inflammatory cells was significantly decreased in the BALF of allergic asthma mice. Moreover, B. infantis CGMCC313-2 decreased the serum levels of total IgE in food allergy mice, and reductions in IgE and IgG1 were also observed in OVA-induced allergic asthma mice. The expression of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 in both serum and BALF was suppressed following the administration of B. infantis CGMCC313-2, while an effect on serum IL-10 levels was not observed. CONCLUSION B. infantis CGMCC313-2 inhibits the secretion of allergen-induced IgE, IL-4 and IL-13, and attenuates allergic inflammation.

  4. Hyperoxia Exacerbates Postnatal Inflammation-Induced Lung Injury in Neonatal BRP-39 Null Mutant Mice Promoting the M1 Macrophage Phenotype

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    Mansoor A. Syed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale. Hyperoxia exposure to developing lungs—critical in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia—may augment lung inflammation by inhibiting anti-inflammatory mediators in alveolar macrophages. Objective. We sought to determine the O2-induced effects on the polarization of macrophages and the role of anti-inflammatory BRP-39 in macrophage phenotype and neonatal lung injury. Methods. We used RAW264.7, peritoneal, and bone marrow derived macrophages for polarization (M1/M2 studies. For in vivo studies, wild-type (WT and BRP-39−/− mice received continuous exposure to 21% O2 (control mice or 100% O2 from postnatal (PN 1 to PN7 days, along with intranasal lipopolysaccharide (LPS administered on alternate days (PN2, -4, and -6. Lung histology, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL cell counts, BAL protein, and cytokines measurements were performed. Measurements and Main Results. Hyperoxia differentially contributed to macrophage polarization by enhancing LPS induced M1 and inhibiting interleukin-4 induced M2 phenotype. BRP-39 absence led to further enhancement of the hyperoxia and LPS induced M1 phenotype. In addition, BRP-39−/− mice were significantly more sensitive to LPS plus hyperoxia induced lung injury and mortality compared to WT mice. Conclusions. These findings collectively indicate that BRP-39 is involved in repressing the M1 proinflammatory phenotype in hyperoxia, thereby deactivating inflammatory responses in macrophages and preventing neonatal lung injury.

  5. Anti-inflammatory effect of amurensin H on asthma-like reaction induced by allergen in sensitized mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-tang LI; Chun-suo YAO; Jin-ye BAI; Mao LIN; Gui-fang CHENG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To explore the anti-inflammatory effects of amurensin H on asthma-like reaction induced by allergen in sensitized mice. Methods: BALB/c mice were sensitized by ovalbumin (OVA, ip) on d 0 and d 14 and challenged with 1 % OVA on d 18 to 22. Mice developed airway eosinophilia, mucus hypersecretion, and elevation in cytokine levels. Mice were administered amurensin H orally at the doses of 49, 70, or 100 mg/kg once every day from d 15 to the last day. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALE) were collected at 24 h and 48 h after the last OVA challenge. Levels of tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α), interleukin 4 (IL-4), interleukin 5 (IL-5), and interleukin 13 (IL-13) in BALF were measured using ELISA method. Differential cell counts of macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils and eosinophils were performed in 200 cells per slide (one slide per animal). Lung tissue sections of 6-um thickness were stained with Mayer's hematoxylin and eosin for assessment of cell infiltration, mucus production, and tissue damage. Results: Oral administration of amurensin H significantly inhibited OVA-induced increases in total cell counts, eosinophil counts, and TNF-α, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 levels in BALF. In addition, amuresin H dramatically decreased OVA-induced lung tissue damage and mucus production. Conclusion: Amurensin H may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of allergic airway inflammation.

  6. Phellinus linteus Extract Augments the Immune Response in Mitomycin C-Induced Immunodeficient Mice

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    Shintaro Matsuba

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Phellinus linteus is a fungus distributed throughout Japan, Korea and China. Boiled water-soluble extracts from P. linteus (PLW have shown anti-tumor and immunomodulatory properties in experiments done by intraperitoneal treatment, or in in vitro cell cultures. This is the first investigation on how oral administration of PLW influences immune responses. Here, we established immunodeficient mice by mitomycin C (MMC and then researched how PLW influenced plaque-forming cell (PFC production and populations of cytokine [interferon- (IFNγ- and interleukin-4 (IL-4]-producing T lymphocytes. PLW samples were administered orally for 19 days (1, 2 or 4 g/kg/day. PFC assay was followed using Jerne's method. IFN- and IL-4-producing T lymphocyte populations were measured by flow-activated cell sorter (FACS. These assays were conducted the day after the last oral administration. MMC groups were given MMC (1 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally for 6 days with PLW administration. The number of PFC per 106 spleen cells increased significantly in the PLW (2 g/kg/day group when compared with the MMC-control (P < 0.05 while populations of IFNγ- and IL-4-producing T lymphocytes decreased by MMC treatment. However, the PLW group tended to increase more than the MMC-control. Our results indicated that PLW augments the immune response of the spleen in MMC-induced immunodeficient mice.

  7. Phellinus linteus Extract Augments the Immune Response in Mitomycin C-Induced Immunodeficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuba, Shintaro; Matsuno, Hideo; Sakuma, Masahiro; Komatsu, Yasuhiro

    2008-03-01

    Phellinus linteus is a fungus distributed throughout Japan, Korea and China. Boiled water-soluble extracts from P. linteus (PLW) have shown anti-tumor and immunomodulatory properties in experiments done by intraperitoneal treatment, or in in vitro cell cultures. This is the first investigation on how oral administration of PLW influences immune responses. Here, we established immunodeficient mice by mitomycin C (MMC) and then researched how PLW influenced plaque-forming cell (PFC) production and populations of cytokine [interferon- (IFNgamma-) and interleukin-4 (IL-4)]-producing T lymphocytes. PLW samples were administered orally for 19 days (1, 2 or 4 g/kg/day). PFC assay was followed using Jerne's method. IFN- and IL-4-producing T lymphocyte populations were measured by flow-activated cell sorter (FACS). These assays were conducted the day after the last oral administration. MMC groups were given MMC (1 mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally for 6 days with PLW administration. The number of PFC per 10(6) spleen cells increased significantly in the PLW (2 g/kg/day) group when compared with the MMC-control (P < 0.05) while populations of IFNgamma- and IL-4-producing T lymphocytes decreased by MMC treatment. However, the PLW group tended to increase more than the MMC-control. Our results indicated that PLW augments the immune response of the spleen in MMC-induced immunodeficient mice.

  8. Immunosuppressive effects of fisetin against dinitrofluorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like symptoms in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gun-Dong; Lee, Seung Eun; Park, Yong Seek; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Park, Gwi Gun; Park, Cheung-Seog

    2014-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a multifactorial chronic skin disorder that is increasing in prevalence globally. In NC/Nga mice, repetitive epicutaneous applications of 2-4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) induces AD-like clinical symptoms. Bioflanonol fisetin (3,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a dietary component found in plants, fruits and vegetables. Fisetin has various physiological effects that include anti-oxidation, anti-angiogenesis, anti-carcinogenesis and anti-inflammation. In this study, we investigated whether fisetin relieves AD-like clinical symptoms induced by repeated DNFB treatment in NC/Nga mice. Fisetin significantly inhibited infiltration of inflammatory cells including eosinophils, mast cells and CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T cells, and suppressed the expressions of cytokines and chemokines associated with dermal infiltrates in AD-like skin lesions. Total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and the ratio of phospho-NF-κB p65 to total NF-κB p65 were markedly reduced by fisetin. Fisetin also reduced the production of interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 by activated CD4(+) T cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10 was increased. These results implicate fisetin as a potential therapeutic for AD.

  9. Pacific oyster-derived polysaccharides attenuate allergen-induced intestinal inflammation in a murine model of food allergy

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    Chiung-Hsiang Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oyster-derived polysaccharides (OPS have been shown to modulate the T helper (Th1/Th2 immunobalance toward the Th1-dominant direction in antigen-primed splenocytes. In the present study, we hypothesized that OPS might attenuate intestinal inflammation associated with food allergy, a Th2-dominant immune disorder. BALB/c mice were sensitized twice with ovalbumin (OVA absorbed to alum and then repeatedly challenged with intragastric OVA to induce intestinal allergic responses. The mice were administered by gavage with OPS and/or vehicle (distilled water once/d during the two sensitization phases, and once every other day during the challenge phase. Administration with OPS attenuated OVA challenge-elicited diarrhea, and the infiltration of mast cells in the intestine. OPS demonstrated a protective effect on the reduced ratio of villus length over crypt depth of the intestine in allergic mice. Furthermore, OPS administration markedly attenuated the intestinal expression of the Th2 signature cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4. Collectively, these results demonstrated the in vivo antiallergic activity of OPS, which is associated with the suppression of allergen-induced intestinal Th2 responses and mast cell activation.

  10. Increased interleukin-4-positive lymphocytes in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and concurrent non-endocrine autoimmune disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaguida, M G; Nardo, S; Del Duca, S C; Lococo, E; Virili, C; Gargano, L; Lenti, L; Centanni, M

    2011-08-01

    A prevalent T helper type 1 (Th1) subset of lymphocytes has been described in Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), but whether a similar polarization may characterize HT when associated with non-endocrine autoimmune disorders (NEAD) is not known. The aim of the present study was to analyse the intracellular Th1 and Th2 distinctive cytokines in patients with isolated HT or associated with non-endocrine autoimmune disorders. Intracellular cytokine expression was assessed in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of 68 out-patients (females = 55; males = 13; median age = 6 years) with HT : 33 had isolated HT and 35 had a concurrent NEAD. The percentage of interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-2 Th1- and IL-4 Th2-positive cells was measured by flow cytometric analysis. We found an increased percentage of IL-2-positive cells in all patients, without differences between patients with isolated HT or associated with NEAD. IFN-γ(+) cells were also increased in both groups, but the median percentage of those with isolated HT was lower than in patients with HT+NEAD (19·0 versus 29·9%; P = 0·0082). An increased number of IL-4-positive cells was observed in three of 33 (9·1%) patients with isolated HT and in 25 of 35 patients with NEAD [71%; P lymphocytes characterizes patients with autoimmune thyroiditis who have associated non-endocrine autoimmune disorders. These findings may represent an initial tool to detect patients with autoimmune thyroiditis in which additional non-endocrine autoimmune disorders may be awaited.

  11. Effect of Inhaled Budesonide on Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-6 in Exhaled Breath Condensate of Asthmatic Patients

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    Chun-Hua Chi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The concentration of IL-4 in the EBC of asthmatic patients decreased gradually with ICS treatment. Measurement of IL-4 in EBC could be useful to monitor airway inflammation in asthmatics.

  12. Effect of Inhaled Budesonide on Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-6 in Exhaled Breath Condensate of Asthmatic Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Hua Chi; Ji-Ping Liao; Yan-Ni Zhao; Xue-Ying Li; Guang-Fa Wang

    2016-01-01

    Background:Studies ofinterleukin (IL)-4 and IL-6 in the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of asthmatic patients are limited.This study was to determine the effect of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatment on IL-4 and IL-6 in the EBC of asthmatic patients.Methods:In a prospective,open-label study,budesonide 200 μg twice daily by dry powder inhaler was administered to 23 adult patients with uncontrolled asthma (mean age 42.7 years) for 12 weeks.Changes in asthma scores,lung function parameters (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1],peak expiratory flow [PEF],forced expiratory flow at 50% of forced vital capacity [FEF50],forced expiratory flow at 75% of forced vital capacity,maximum mid-expiratory flow rate) and the concentrations of IL-4 and IL-6 in EBC were measured.Results:Both asthma scores and lung function parameters were significantly improved by ICS treatment.The mean IL-4 concentration in the EBC was decreased gradually,from 1.92 ± 0.56 pmol/L before treatment to 1.60 ± 0.36 pmol/L after 8 weeks of treatment (P < 0.05) and 1.54 ± 0.81 pmol/L after 12 weeks of treatment (P < 0.01).However,the IL-6 concentration was not significantly decreased.The change in the IL-4 concentration was correlated with improvements in mean FEV1,PEF and FEF50 values (correlation coefficients-0.468,-0.478,and-0.426,respectively).Conclusions:The concentration of IL-4 in the EBC of asthmatic patients decreased gradually with ICS treatment.Measurement of IL-4 in EBC could be useful to monitor airway inflammation in asthmatics.

  13. Reduced interleukin-4 receptor α expression on CD8+ T cells correlates with higher quality anti-viral immunity.

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    Danushka K Wijesundara

    Full Text Available With the hope of understanding how interleukin (IL-4 and IL-13 modulated quality of anti-viral CD8(+ T cells, we evaluated the expression of receptors for these cytokines following a range of viral infections (e.g. pox viruses and influenza virus. Results clearly indicated that unlike other IL-4/IL-13 receptor subunits, IL-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα was significantly down-regulated on anti-viral CD8(+ T cells in a cognate antigen dependent manner. The infection of gene knockout mice and wild-type (WT mice with vaccinia virus (VV or VV expressing IL-4 confirmed that IL-4, IL-13 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6 were required to increase IL-4Rα expression on CD8(+ T cells, but not interferon (IFN-γ. STAT6 dependent elevation of IL-4Rα expression on CD8(+ T cells was a feature of poor quality anti-viral CD8(+ T cell immunity as measured by the production of IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α in response to VV antigen stimulation in vitro. We propose that down-regulation of IL-4Rα, but not the other IL-4/IL-13 receptor subunits, is a mechanism by which CD8(+ T cells reduce responsiveness to IL-4 and IL-13. This can improve the quality of anti-viral CD8(+ T cell immunity. Our findings have important implications in understanding anti-viral CD8(+ T cell immunity and designing effective vaccines against chronic viral infections.

  14. Interleukin-4 and interferon-¿ production by Leishmania stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from nonexposed individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Kemp, M; Poulsen, L K

    1995-01-01

    Leishmania reactive CD4+ T cells could be demonstrated. The cells from different individuals showed different patterns of IFN-gamma and/or IL-4 production upon antigenic stimulation. In experimental leishmaniasis the early balance between IFN-gamma and IL-4 is important for the clinical outcome. Our findings...

  15. Allelic polymorphisms in the repeat and promoter regions of the interleukin-4 gene and malaria severity in Ghanaian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyan, B A; Goka, B; Cvetkovic, J T;

    2004-01-01

    Immunoglobulin E has been associated with severe malaria suggesting a regulatory role for interleukin (IL)-4 and/or IgE in the pathogenesis of severe malaria. We have investigated possible associations between polymorphisms in the IL-4 repeat region (intron 3) and promoter regions (IL-4 +33CT and...

  16. Interleukin-4 in the Generation of the AERD Phenotype: Implications for Molecular Mechanisms Driving Therapeutic Benefit of Aspirin Desensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Steinke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD is explained in part by over-expression of 5-lipoxygenase, leukotriene C4 synthase (LTC4S and the cysteinyl leukotriene (CysLT receptors (CysLT1 and 2, resulting in constitutive over-production of CysLTs and the hyperresponsiveness to CysLTs that occurs with aspirin ingestion. Increased levels of IL-4 have been found in the sinus mucosa and nasal polyps of AERD subjects. Previous studies demonstrated that IL-4 is primarily responsible for the upregulation of LTC4S by mast cells and the upregulation of CysLT1 and 2 receptors on many immune cell types. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 acts to prevent CysLT secretion by inhibiting mast cell and eosinophil activation. PGE2 concentrations are reduced in AERD reflecting diminished expression of cyclooxygenase (COX-2. IL-4 can inhibit basal and stimulated expression of COX-2 and microsomal PGE synthase 1 leading to decreased capacity for PGE2 secretion. Thus, IL-4 plays an important pathogenic role in generating the phenotype of AERD. This review will examine the evidence supporting this hypothesis and describe a model of how aspirin desensitization provides therapeutic benefit for AERD patients.

  17. Estimation of serum level of interleukin-17 and interleukin-4 in leprosy, towards more understanding of leprosy immunopathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Abdallah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Combating Mycobacterium leprae is known to be via T-helper1 response. However, other T-helper effector cells; T-helper17 and T-helper2; play a role, particularly in the context of disease type. Aims: We aimed to evaluate serum levels of interleukin (IL-17 (T-helper17 cytokine and IL-4 (T-helper2 cytokine in untreated patients with different types of leprosy, compared to controls. Methods: Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, serum IL-17 and IL-4 levels were estimated in 43 leprotic patients and 43 controls. Patients were divided into six groups; tuberculoid, borderline cases, lepromatous, erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL, type 1 reactional leprosy, and pure neural leprosy. Patients were also categorized according to bacillary load and the presence or absence of reactions. Results: Serum IL-17 was significantly lower in cases (4-61.5 pg/mL; median 19, compared to controls (26-55 pg/mL; median 36 (P < 0.001, and was significantly lower in each type of leprosy compared to controls, with the lowest level in lepromatous leprosy (4-61.5 pg/mL; median 12.5. Significantly elevated serum IL-4 was found in patients (1.31-122.4 pg/mL; median 2.31 compared to controls (1.45-5.72 pg/mL; median 2.02 (P = 0.008, with the highest level among lepromatous leprosy patients (2-87.2 pg/mL; median 28.9, and the lowest in type 1 reactional leprosy (1.4-2.5 pg/mL; median 1.87 (P = 0.006. Conclusion: Defective secretion of IL-17 is related to disease acquisition as well as progression toward lepromatous pole in leprosy patients. The overproduction of IL-4 in patients with lepromatous leprosy may infer their liability to develop ENL. Nevertheless, the small number of the studied population is a limitation.

  18. Asthma and Atopic Dermatitis: A Review of Targeted Inhibition of Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-13 As Therapy for Atopic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzney, Catherine D; Gottlieb, Alice B; Rosmarin, David

    2016-02-01

    Type 2 helper T cell (Th2)-mediated inflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma and atopic dermatitis (AD). Recent research focusing on the suppression of the Th2 axis with targeted inhibitors in atopic disease is showing promising early results. In particular, the simultaneous blockage of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 has successfully mitigated symptoms of allergic asthma and AD in preliminary clinical trials. Given the current therapeutic challenges of treating these chronic and severe diseases, this review brings to light new data demonstrating that agents targeting IL-4 and IL-13 are relatively safe and effective medications in blocking the inflammatory cascade responsible for allergic asthma and atopic dermatitis.

  19. Identification of a coordinate regulator of interleukins 4, 13 and 5 by cross-species sequence comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loots, Gabriela G.; Locksley, Richard M.; Blankespoor, Catherine M.; Wang, Zhi-En; Miller, Webb; Rubin, Edward M.; Frazer, Kelly A.

    1999-12-12

    Regulatory elements, such as locus control regions (LCRs), that act over large genomic intervals to influence the expression patterns of genes have been difficult to Regulatory elements, such as locus control regions (LCRs), that act over large genomic intervals to influence the expression patterns of genes have been difficult to Regulatory elements, such as locus control regions (LCRs), that act over large genomic intervals to influence the expression patterns of genes have been difficult to Regulatory elements, such as locus control regions (LCRs), that act over large genomic intervals to influence the expression patterns of genes have been difficult to identify using standard molecular biology approaches. In this study we exploited a comparative sequence-based strategy to find non-coding sequences with the physical properties of LCR elements in the human 5q31 interleukin gene cluster region. Comparative analysis of {approximately} 1 Mb of orthologous human (5q31) and mouse (chromosome 11) sequenc es identified 90 conserved non-coding elements (3 100 bp in length and 3 70% identity). Fifteen of the non-coding elements were experimentally characterized, of which 12 were determined to be single copy in the human genome and 10 to be present (3 75% identity) in at least 2 mammals in addition to humans and mice. The largest non-coding sequence identified (401 bp in length) was conserved both with regard to sequence ({approximately}80% identity in mice, humans, cows, dogs, rabbits) and genomic location (in the IL-4 - IL-13 intergenic region in the 4 mammals examined). Functional characterization of this element in YAC transgenic mice revealed it to be a potent regulator of IL-4, IL-13 and IL-5 expression - genes spread over 120 kb.

  20. Quercetin Protects Mice from ConA-Induced Hepatitis by Inhibiting HMGB1-TLR Expression and Down-Regulating the Nuclear Factor Kappa B Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Liu, Hong-chun; Yao, Qun-yan; Xu, Bei-li; Zhang, Shun-cai; Tu, Chuan-tao

    2016-02-01

    The dietary flavonoid quercetin has hepatoprotective effects. We analyzed the effects of quercetin on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis in mice and its underlying molecular mechanisms of action. Mice were administered quercetin (50 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) or vehicle 30 min before intravenous administration of ConA. Quercetin pretreatment significantly reduced the ConA-induced elevations in plasma aminotransferase concentrations and liver necrosis, as well as reducing serum concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon-γ, and interleukin-4. Quercetin pretreatment also reduced expression of high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) and toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR-4 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein in liver tissues. Quercetin pretreatment significantly inhibited degradation of inhibitory kappa B alpha and modulated ConA-induced nuclear translocation in the liver of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65. These results demonstrate that quercetin protects against ConA-mediated hepatitis in mice by attenuating the HMGB1-TLRs-NF-κB signaling pathway.

  1. Motorcycle exhaust particles induce airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in BALB/C mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Chen; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Kang, Jaw-Jou

    2004-06-01

    A number of large studies have reported that environmental pollutants from fossil fuel combustion can cause deleterious effects to the immune system, resulting in an allergic reaction leading to respiratory tract damage. In this study, we investigated the effect of motorcycle exhaust particles (MEP), a major pollutant in the Taiwan urban area, on airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in laboratory animals. BALB/c mice were instilled intratracheally (i.t.) with 1.2 mg/kg and 12 mg/kg of MEP, which was collected from two-stroke motorcycle engines. The mice were exposed 3 times i.t. with MEP, and various parameters for airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness were sequentially analyzed. We found that MEP would induce airway and pulmonary inflammation characterized by infiltration of eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and inflammatory cell infiltration in lung. In addition, MEP treatment enhanced BALF interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) cytokine levels and serum IgE production. Bronchial response measured by unrestrained plethysmography with methacholine challenge showed that MEP treatment induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in BALB/c mice. The chemical components in MEP were further fractionated with organic solvents, and we found that the benzene-extracted fraction exerts a similar biological effect as seen with MEP, including airway inflammation, increased BALF IL-4, serum IgE production, and induction of AHR. In conclusion, we present evidence showing that the filter-trapped particles emitted from the unleaded-gasoline-fueled two-stroke motorcycle engine may induce proinflammatory and proallergic response profiles in the absence of exposure to allergen.

  2. Substance P Induces HO-1 Expression in RAW 264.7 Cells Promoting Switch towards M2-Like Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is a neuropeptide that mediates many physiological as well as inflammatory responses. Recently, SP has been implicated in the resolution of inflammation through induction of M2 macrophages phenotype. The shift between M1-like and M2-like, allowing the resolution of inflammatory processes, also takes place by means of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1). HO-1 is induced in response to oxidative stress and inflammatory stimuli and modulates the immune response through macrophages polarisation. SP induces HO-1 expression in human periodontal ligament (PDL), the latter potentially plays a role in cytoprotection. We demonstrated that SP promotes M2-like phenotype from resting as well as from M1 macrophages. Indeed, SP triggers the production of interleukine-10 (IL-10), interleukine-4 (IL-4) and arginase-1 (Arg1) without nitric oxide (NO) generation. In addition, SP increases HO-1 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Here we report that SP, without affecting cell viability, significantly reduces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enzymes, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukine-6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and ameliorates migration and phagocytic properties in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. M2-like conversion required retention of NF-κB p65 into the cytoplasm and HO-1 induced expression. Silencing of the HO-1 mRNA expression reversed the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 stimulated by LPS and down-regulated anti-inflammatory hallmarks of M2 phenotype. In conclusion, our data show that SP treatment might be associated with anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells by suppressing NF-κB activation and inducing HO-1 expression. PMID:27907187

  3. Walnut Polyphenol Extract Attenuates Immunotoxicity Induced by 4-Pentylphenol and 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol in Murine Splenic Lymphocyte

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    Lubing Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available 4-pentylphenol (PP and 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (PNMC, two important components of vehicle emissions, have been shown to confer toxicity in splenocytes. Certain natural products, such as those derived from walnuts, exhibit a range of antioxidative, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we investigated the effects of walnut polyphenol extract (WPE on immunotoxicity induced by PP and PNMC in murine splenic lymphocytes. Treatment with WPE was shown to significantly enhance proliferation of splenocytes exposed to PP or PNMC, characterized by increases in the percentages of splenic T lymphocytes (CD3+ T cells and T cell subsets (CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, as well as the production of T cell-related cytokines and granzymes (interleukin-2, interleukin-4, and granzyme-B in cells exposed to PP or PNMC. These effects were associated with a decrease in oxidative stress, as evidenced by changes in OH, SOD, GSH-Px, and MDA levels. The total phenolic content of WPE was 34,800 ± 200 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g, consisting of at least 16 unique phenols, including ellagitannins, quercetin, valoneic acid dilactone, and gallic acid. Taken together, these results suggest that walnut polyphenols significantly attenuated PP and PNMC-mediated immunotoxicity and improved immune function by inhibiting oxidative stress.

  4. Effect of Buzhong Yiqi Decoction(补中益气汤)on Murine Liver Damage Induced by Food Allergy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈虹; 董阳深; 陈奋华; 纪经智; 陈岩峰; 上野幸三; 饭仓洋治

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Buzhong Yiqi decoction (, BZYQD) on liver damage induced by food allergy in mice. Methods: Nc/Jic strain mice with high levels of serum IgE were sensitized by ovalbumin (OVA), and then divided into two groups and respectively treated with BZYQD (treated group) or normal saline (model group). Samples of serum, liver tissues and small intestine were collected two weeks later, and another group of non-sensitized mice was set as the normal group. The levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured with spectrophotometry. The liver tissue and small intestine were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) for pathologic analysis. The liver samples were also subjected to analysis of CD4-T helper cell and cytokine (interleukin-4, IL-4, interleukin-6, IL-6) expression with immunohistochemical (avidin-biotin complex, ABC) method. Results; Serum ALT levels decreased and obvious pathologic improvements were seen in the mice treated with BZYQD. And compared with the model mice, the number of positive cells of IL-4, IL-6 and CD4 cell decreased significantly in those treated with BZYQD. Conclusion: BZYQD can effectively decrease the production of cytokines associated with allergic reaction in the liver of mice thus effective in treating liver damage caused by food allergy.

  5. GATA3-Driven Th2 Responses Inhibit TGF-β1–Induced FOXP3 Expression and the Formation of Regulatory T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantel, Pierre-Yves; Kuipers, Harmjan; Boyman, Onur; Rhyner, Claudio; Ouaked, Nadia; Rückert, Beate; Karagiannidis, Christian; Lambrecht, Bart N; Hendriks, Rudolf W; Crameri, Reto; Akdis, Cezmi A; Blaser, Kurt; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten B

    2007-01-01

    Transcription factors act in concert to induce lineage commitment towards Th1, Th2, or T regulatory (Treg) cells, and their counter-regulatory mechanisms were shown to be critical for polarization between Th1 and Th2 phenotypes. FOXP3 is an essential transcription factor for natural, thymus-derived (nTreg) and inducible Treg (iTreg) commitment; however, the mechanisms regulating its expression are as yet unknown. We describe a mechanism controlling iTreg polarization, which is overruled by the Th2 differentiation pathway. We demonstrated that interleukin 4 (IL-4) present at the time of T cell priming inhibits FOXP3. This inhibitory mechanism was also confirmed in Th2 cells and in T cells of transgenic mice overexpressing GATA-3 in T cells, which are shown to be deficient in transforming growth factor (TGF)-β–mediated FOXP3 induction. This inhibition is mediated by direct binding of GATA3 to the FOXP3 promoter, which represses its transactivation process. Therefore, this study provides a new understanding of tolerance development, controlled by a type 2 immune response. IL-4 treatment in mice reduces iTreg cell frequency, highlighting that therapeutic approaches that target IL-4 or GATA3 might provide new preventive strategies facilitating tolerance induction particularly in Th2-mediated diseases, such as allergy. PMID:18162042

  6. A human T-cell line with inducible production of interleukins 5 and 4. A model for studies of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordvinov, V A; Peroni, S E; De Boer, M L; Kees, U R; Sanderson, C J

    1999-08-31

    The production of interleukin-5 (IL5) and interleukin-4 (IL4) by activated T-cells is important in the pathogenesis of helminth infections and allergy. Human Jurkat cells express IL4 but one of the main factors restricting studies of human IL5 expression has been the lack of human T-cell lines which express significant levels of IL5 in an inducible fashion. We report that the human T-cell leukemia cell line (PER-117), previously shown to produce IL2, also produces IL5 and IL4, and is a useful model for the study of the regulation of IL5 and IL4 gene expression. We show that expression of IL5 and IL4 mRNAs in PER-117 cells is stimulation dependent. IL5 and IL4 reporter constructs are also transiently expressed in these cells in an inducible fashion. IL5 production in the PER-117 cell line can be activated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate alone and further enhanced by calcium ionophore A23187, cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate or anti-CD28 antibodies. The conditions used to stimulate the PER-117 cells determined whether IL5 production was inhibited by cyclosporin A or dexamethasone. These data indicate that the PER-117 cell line is a model to study signal transduction and transcriptional activation of the human IL5 gene in human T-cells.

  7. Cyprinus carpio Decoction Improves Nutrition and Immunity and Reduces Proteinuria through Nephrin and CD2AP Expressions in Rats with Adriamycin-Induced Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyprinus carpio decoction (CCD is a well-known Chinese food medicine formula, accepted widely as a useful therapy in preventing edema and proteinuria caused by renal disease. However, the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. The current study investigated the potential mechanism of CCD in alleviating nephropathy induced by adriamycin (ADR in rats. 70  eight-week-old Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal, model, fosinopril, YD, YG groups. All rats except for the normal group received 6.5 mg/kg⋅bw of ADR injection into the vena caudalis once. Different doses of CCD (11.3 and 22.5 g kg-1 were lavaged to rats in YD and YG groups, respectively. Then the serum biochemical values of the total protein (TP, albumin (ALB, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine (Cr, electrolyte levels, and the urinary protein (UP content in 12 hr urine were measured. Interleukin-4 (IL-4 and interferon (INF-γ were measured by enzyme-like immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The pathomorphological analysis was observed using light and electron microscopy, and the expressions of nephrin and CD2-associated protein (CD2AP in renal tissues were determined by immunohistochemical assay. The results indicated that CCD can relieve ADR-induced nephropathy (ADN by improving the nutrition status, regulating the immunity, and inhibiting proteinuria by increasing nephrin and CD2AP expressions.

  8. GATA3-driven Th2 responses inhibit TGF-beta1-induced FOXP3 expression and the formation of regulatory T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Yves Mantel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factors act in concert to induce lineage commitment towards Th1, Th2, or T regulatory (Treg cells, and their counter-regulatory mechanisms were shown to be critical for polarization between Th1 and Th2 phenotypes. FOXP3 is an essential transcription factor for natural, thymus-derived (nTreg and inducible Treg (iTreg commitment; however, the mechanisms regulating its expression are as yet unknown. We describe a mechanism controlling iTreg polarization, which is overruled by the Th2 differentiation pathway. We demonstrated that interleukin 4 (IL-4 present at the time of T cell priming inhibits FOXP3. This inhibitory mechanism was also confirmed in Th2 cells and in T cells of transgenic mice overexpressing GATA-3 in T cells, which are shown to be deficient in transforming growth factor (TGF-beta-mediated FOXP3 induction. This inhibition is mediated by direct binding of GATA3 to the FOXP3 promoter, which represses its transactivation process. Therefore, this study provides a new understanding of tolerance development, controlled by a type 2 immune response. IL-4 treatment in mice reduces iTreg cell frequency, highlighting that therapeutic approaches that target IL-4 or GATA3 might provide new preventive strategies facilitating tolerance induction particularly in Th2-mediated diseases, such as allergy.

  9. Protective effects of the polyphenol sesamin on allergen-induced T(H2 responses and airway inflammation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Huei Lin

    Full Text Available Allergic asthma is a lifelong airway condition that affects people of all ages. In recent decades, asthma prevalence continues to increase globally, with an estimated number of 250,000 annual deaths attributed to the disease. Although inhaled corticosteroids and β-adrenergic receptor agonists are the primary therapeutic avenues that effectively reduce asthma symptoms, profound side effects may occur in patients with long-term treatments. Therefore, development of new therapeutic strategies is needed as alternative or supplement to current asthma treatments. Sesamin is a natural polyphenolic compound with strong anti-oxidative effects. Several studies have reported that sesamin is effective in preventing hypertension, thrombotic tendency, and neuroinflammation. However, it is still unknown whether sesamin can reduce asthma-induced allergic inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR. Our study has revealed that sesamin exhibited significant anti-inflammatory effects in ovalbumin (OVA-induced murine asthma model. We found that treatments with sesamin after OVA sensitization and challenge significantly decreased expression levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and serum IgE. The numbers of total inflammatory cells and eosinophils in BALF were also reduced in the sesamin-treated animals. Histological results demonstrated that sesamin attenuated OVA-induced eosinophil infiltration, airway goblet cell hyperplasia, mucus occlusion, and MUC5AC expression in the lung tissue. Mice administered with sesamin showed limited increases in AHR compared with mice receiving vehicle after OVA challenge. OVA increased phosphorylation levels of IκB-α and nuclear expression levels of NF-κB, both of which were reversed by sesamin treatments. These data indicate that sesamin is effective in treating allergic asthma responses induced by OVA in mice.

  10. Protective effects of the polyphenol sesamin on allergen-induced T(H)2 responses and airway inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Huei; Shen, Mei-Lin; Zhou, Ning; Lee, Chen-Chen; Kao, Shung-Te; Wu, Dong Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Allergic asthma is a lifelong airway condition that affects people of all ages. In recent decades, asthma prevalence continues to increase globally, with an estimated number of 250,000 annual deaths attributed to the disease. Although inhaled corticosteroids and β-adrenergic receptor agonists are the primary therapeutic avenues that effectively reduce asthma symptoms, profound side effects may occur in patients with long-term treatments. Therefore, development of new therapeutic strategies is needed as alternative or supplement to current asthma treatments. Sesamin is a natural polyphenolic compound with strong anti-oxidative effects. Several studies have reported that sesamin is effective in preventing hypertension, thrombotic tendency, and neuroinflammation. However, it is still unknown whether sesamin can reduce asthma-induced allergic inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Our study has revealed that sesamin exhibited significant anti-inflammatory effects in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine asthma model. We found that treatments with sesamin after OVA sensitization and challenge significantly decreased expression levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-13, and serum IgE. The numbers of total inflammatory cells and eosinophils in BALF were also reduced in the sesamin-treated animals. Histological results demonstrated that sesamin attenuated OVA-induced eosinophil infiltration, airway goblet cell hyperplasia, mucus occlusion, and MUC5AC expression in the lung tissue. Mice administered with sesamin showed limited increases in AHR compared with mice receiving vehicle after OVA challenge. OVA increased phosphorylation levels of IκB-α and nuclear expression levels of NF-κB, both of which were reversed by sesamin treatments. These data indicate that sesamin is effective in treating allergic asthma responses induced by OVA in mice.

  11. Effect of insulin on functional status of cord blood-derived dendritic cells and on dendritic cell-induced CTL cytotoxicity against pancreatic cancer cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu-Liang Liu; Yi-Sheng Wang; Jia-Xiang Wang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most important antigen-presenting cells in the human body, and DCs with different mature status possess different or even opposite functions. This study was designed to explore the influence of insulin on the functional status of cord blood-derived DCs and on DC-induced cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity against pancreatic cancer cell lines. METHODS: Mononuclear cells were isolated from fresh cord blood. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were used to induce or stimulate the mononuclear cells. Insulin at different concentrations served to modify DCs, and then DC morphology, number, and growth status were assessed. The DC immunophenotype was detected with a flow cytometer. The IL-12 in DC supernatant was determined by ELISA. DC functional status was evaluated by the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction. T lymphocytes were induced by insulin-modified DCs to become CTLs. The CTL cytotoxicity against pancreatic cancer cell lines was determined. RESULTS:  Mononuclear cells from cord blood can be differentiated into DCs by cytokine induction and insulin modification. With the increase in insulin concentration (2.5-25 mg/L), the expression of DC HLA-DR, CD1α, CD80, and CD83 was significantly increased, the DC ability to secrete IL-12 was significantly improved, DC function to activate autologous lymphocytes was significantly enhanced, and the cytotoxicity of CTLs induced by insulin-modified DCs against pancreatic cancer cell lines was significantly strengthened. CONCLUSIONS: Insulin may facilitate DC induction and maturation, and improve the reproductive activity of autologous lymphocytes. The cytotoxicity of CTLs induced by insulin-modified DCs against pancreatic cancer cell lines was significantly enhanced. Insulin may serve as a factor modifying DCs and inducing CTLs in vitro in insulin biotherapy.

  12. IL-4 protects the B-cell lymphoma cell line CH31 from anti-IgM-induced growth arrest and apoptosis:contribution of the PI-3' kinase/AKT pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gregory B Carey; Elena Semenova; Xiulan Qi; Achsah D Keegan

    2007-01-01

    Interleukin-4(IL-4)promotes lymphocyte survival and protects primary lymphomas from apoptosis.Previous studies reported differential requirements for the signal transducer and activator of transcription 6(STAT6)and IRS2/phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase(PI-3K)signaling pathways in mediating the IL-4-induced protection from Fas-mediated apoptosis.In this study,we characterized IL-4-activated signals that suppress anti-IgM-mediated apoptosis and growth arrest of CH31,a model B-cell lymphoma line.In CH31,anti-IgM treatment leads to the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential,phospho-Akt,phospho-CDK2,and c-myc protein.These losses are followed by massive induction ofp27Kip1 protein expression,cell cycle arrest,and apoptosis.Strikingly,IL-4 treatment prevented or reversed these changes.Furthermore,IL-4 suppressed the activation of caspases 9 and 3,and,in contrast to previous reports,induced the phosphorylation(deactivation)of BAD.IL-4 treatment also induced expression of BclxL,a STAT6-dependent gene.Pharmacologic inhibitors and dominant inhibitory forms of PI-3K andAkt abrogated the anti-apoptotic function of IL-4.These results suggest that the IL-4 receptor activates several signaling pathways,with the Akt pathway playing a major role in suppression of the apoptotic program activated by anti-IgM.

  13. Immune tolerance induced by adoptive transfer of dendritic cells in an insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus routine model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-liang ZHANG; Xiao-lei ZOU; Jia-bei PENG; Ming XIANG

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect and underlying mechanisms of inunune-tolerance induced by the adoptive transfer of bone marrow (BM)-derived dendritic cells (DC) in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) mice. Methods: The IDDM model was established by a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ) in Balb/c mice. Two DC subpopulations were generated from the BM cells with granulocyte-macroph-age colony-stimulating factor with or without interleukin-4. The purity and the T cell stimulatory capability of DC were identified. These cells were used to modu-late autoimmune response in pre-diabetic mice. Blood glucose was examined weekly; pancreas tissues were taken for histopathological analysis, and CD4+ T cells were isolated to detect lymphocyte proliferation by MTT assay and the ratio of CD4+CD25+ T cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). The cytokine secretion was determined by ELISA analysis. Results: Two DC subsets were generated from BM, which have phenotypes of mature DC (mDC) and immature DC (iDC), respectively. The level of blood glucose decreased significantly by transferring iDC (P<0.01) rather than mDC. Less lymphocyte infiltration was ob-served in the islets, and pancreatic structure was intact. In vitro, proliferation of lymphocytes decreased and the proportion of CD4+CD25+ T cells increased remarkably, compared with the mDC-treated groups (P<0.05), which were associ-ated with increased level of the Th2 cytokine and reduced level of the Th1 cytokine after iDC transfer. Conclusion: Our data showed that iDC transfer was able to confer protection to mice from STZ-induced IDDM. The immune-tolerance to IDDM may be associated with promoting the production of CD4+CD25+ T cells and inducing regulatory Th2 responses in vivo.

  14. Effect of Buzhong Yiqi Decoction (补中益气汤) on Murine Liver Damage Induced by Food Allergy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈虹; 董阳深; 陈奋华; 纪经智; 陈岩峰; 上野幸三; 饭仓洋治

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the effect of Buzhong Yiqi decoction ( 补中益气汤, BZYQD) on liver damage induced by food allergy in mice. Methods: Nc/Jic strain mice with high levels of serum IgE were sensitized by ovalbumin (OVA), and then divided into two groups and respectively treated with BZYQD (treated group) or normal saline (model group). Samples Of serum, liver tissues and small intestine were collected two weeks later, and another group of non-sensitized mice was set as the normal group. The levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured with spectrophotometry. The liver tissue and small intestine were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) for pathologic analysis. The liver samples were also subjected to analysis of CD4-T helper cell and cytokine (interleukin-4, IL-4, interleukin-6, IL-6) expression with immunohistochemical (avidin-biotin complex, ABC) method. Results: Serum ALT levels decreased and obvious pathologic improvements were seen in the mice treated with BZYQD. And compared with the model mice, the number of positive cells of IL-4, IL-6 and CD4 cell decreased significantly in those treated with BZYQD. Conclusion: BZYQD can effectively decrease the production of cytokines associated with allergic reaction in the liver of mice thus effective in treating liver damage caused by food allergy.

  15. Measles virus-induced immunosuppression in SLAM knock-in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Ritsuko; Ohno, Shinji; Ikegame, Satoshi; Yanagi, Yusuke

    2010-05-01

    Measles virus (MV) causes transient severe immunosuppression in patients, which may lead to secondary viral and bacterial infections, largely accounting for measles-related morbidity and mortality. MV is known to infect immune cells by using the human signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM; also called CD150) as a cellular receptor, but the mechanism by which MV causes immunosuppression is not well understood. We show that MV infection of SLAM knock-in mice, in which the V domain of mouse SLAM was replaced by the V domain of human SLAM, crossed with alpha/beta-interferon receptor knockout mice, reproduced many immunological alterations observed in human patients. These included lymphopenia, inhibition of T-cell proliferation and antibody production, increased production of the Th2 cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4) and the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10, and suppression of contact hypersensitivity. Gross redistribution of lymphocytes among lymphoid tissues was not apparent in infected mice, nor was an increase of regulatory T cells. The numbers of lymphocytes in lymph nodes remained almost unchanged after MV infection, despite enhanced apoptosis, suggesting that lymph nodes were replenished with lymphocytes from the peripheral blood, which may have contributed to the observed lymphopenia in the spleen. Blocking of IL-10 by use of an anti-IL-10 receptor antibody ameliorated suppression of contact hypersensitivity in infected mice. These results indicate that SLAM knock-in mice lacking the expression of the alpha/beta-interferon receptor serve as a useful small animal model with which to elucidate MV-induced immunosuppression.

  16. Characterisation of Immune and Neuroinflammatory Changes Associated with Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makker, Preet G. S.; Duffy, Samuel S.; Lees, Justin G.; Perera, Chamini J.; Tonkin, Ryan S.; Butovsky, Oleg; Park, Susanna B.; Goldstein, David

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) and associated neuropathic pain is a debilitating adverse effect of cancer treatment. Current understanding of the mechanisms underpinning CIPN is limited and there are no effective treatment strategies. In this study, we treated male C57BL/6J mice with 4 cycles of either Paclitaxel (PTX) or Oxaliplatin (OXA) over a week and tested pain hypersensitivity and changes in peripheral immune responses and neuroinflammation on days 7 and 13 post 1st injection. We found that both PTX and OXA caused significant mechanical allodynia. In the periphery, PTX and OXA significantly increased circulating CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell populations. OXA caused a significant increase in the percentage of interleukin-4+ lymphocytes in the spleen and significant down-regulation of regulatory T (T-reg) cells in the inguinal lymph nodes. However, conditional depletion of T-reg cells in OXA-treated transgenic DEREG mice had no additional effect on pain sensitivity. Furthermore, there was no leukocyte infiltration into the nervous system of OXA- or PTX-treated mice. In the peripheral nervous system, PTX induced expression of the neuronal injury marker activating transcription factor-3 in IB4+ and NF200+ sensory neurons as well as an increase in the chemokines CCL2 and CCL3 in the lumbar dorsal root ganglion. In the central nervous system, PTX induced significant astrocyte activation in the spinal cord dorsal horn, and both PTX and OXA caused reduction of P2ry12+ homeostatic microglia, with no measurable changes in IBA-1+ microglia/macrophages in the dorsal and ventral horns. We also found that PTX induced up-regulation of several inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, CCL11, CCL4, CCL3, IL-12p70 and GM-CSF) in the spinal cord. Overall, these findings suggest that PTX and OXA cause distinct pathological changes in the periphery and nervous system, which may contribute to chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. PMID:28125674

  17. Characterisation of Immune and Neuroinflammatory Changes Associated with Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makker, Preet G S; Duffy, Samuel S; Lees, Justin G; Perera, Chamini J; Tonkin, Ryan S; Butovsky, Oleg; Park, Susanna B; Goldstein, David; Moalem-Taylor, Gila

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) and associated neuropathic pain is a debilitating adverse effect of cancer treatment. Current understanding of the mechanisms underpinning CIPN is limited and there are no effective treatment strategies. In this study, we treated male C57BL/6J mice with 4 cycles of either Paclitaxel (PTX) or Oxaliplatin (OXA) over a week and tested pain hypersensitivity and changes in peripheral immune responses and neuroinflammation on days 7 and 13 post 1st injection. We found that both PTX and OXA caused significant mechanical allodynia. In the periphery, PTX and OXA significantly increased circulating CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell populations. OXA caused a significant increase in the percentage of interleukin-4+ lymphocytes in the spleen and significant down-regulation of regulatory T (T-reg) cells in the inguinal lymph nodes. However, conditional depletion of T-reg cells in OXA-treated transgenic DEREG mice had no additional effect on pain sensitivity. Furthermore, there was no leukocyte infiltration into the nervous system of OXA- or PTX-treated mice. In the peripheral nervous system, PTX induced expression of the neuronal injury marker activating transcription factor-3 in IB4+ and NF200+ sensory neurons as well as an increase in the chemokines CCL2 and CCL3 in the lumbar dorsal root ganglion. In the central nervous system, PTX induced significant astrocyte activation in the spinal cord dorsal horn, and both PTX and OXA caused reduction of P2ry12+ homeostatic microglia, with no measurable changes in IBA-1+ microglia/macrophages in the dorsal and ventral horns. We also found that PTX induced up-regulation of several inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, CCL11, CCL4, CCL3, IL-12p70 and GM-CSF) in the spinal cord. Overall, these findings suggest that PTX and OXA cause distinct pathological changes in the periphery and nervous system, which may contribute to chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain.

  18. Inducing autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Lea M; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Andersen, Jens S.

    2014-01-01

    catabolism, which has recently been found to induce autophagy in an MTOR independent way and support cancer cell survival. In this study, quantitative phosphoproteomics was applied to investigate the initial signaling events linking ammonia to the induction of autophagy. The MTOR inhibitor rapamycin was used...

  19. Effects of nebulized ketamine on allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in actively sensitized Brown-Norway rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR and allergic inflammatory changes are regarded as the primary manifestations of asthma, the main goals of asthma treatment are to decrease inflammation and maximize bronchodilation. These goals can be achieved with aerosol therapy. Intravenous administration of the anesthetic, ketamine, has been shown to trigger bronchial smooth muscle relaxation. Furthermore, increasing evidence suggests that the anti-inflammatory properties of ketamine may protect against lung injury. However, ketamine inhalation might yield the same or better results at higher airway and lower ketamine plasma concentrations for the treatment of asthma. Here, we studied the effect of ketamine inhalation on bronchial hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation in a Brown-Norway rat model of ovalbumin(OVA-induced allergic asthma. Animals were actively sensitized by subcutaneous injection of OVA and challenged by repeated intermittent (thrice weekly exposure to aerosolized OVA for two weeks. Before challenge, the sensitizened rats received inhalation of aerosol of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS or aerosol of ketamine or injection of ketamine respectivity. Airway reactivity to acetylcholine (Ach was measured in vivo, and various inflammatory markers, including Th2 cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, as well as induciable nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and nitric oxide (NO in lungs were examined. Our results revealed that delivery of aerosolized ketamine using an ultrasonic nebulizer markedly suppressed allergen-mediated airway hyperreactivity, airway inflammation and airway inflammatory cell infiltration into the BALF, and significantly decreased the levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 in the BALF and expression of iNOS and the concentration of NO in the inflamed airways from OVA-treated rats. These findings collectively indicate that nebulized ketamine attenuated many of the central components of inflammatory changes and AHR in

  20. Cytokine Expression in CD3+ Cells in an Infant with Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome (FPIES: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mori

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES is a non-IgE-mediated food allergy characterized by severe vomiting, diarrhea, and often failure to thrive in infants. Symptoms typically resolve after the triggering food-derived protein is removed from the diet and recur within few hours after the re-exposure to the causal protein. The diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms and a positive food challenge. In this study, we report a case of FPIES to rice in an 8-month-old boy. We performed a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC to rice and we measured the intracellular T cell expression of interleukin-4 (IL-4; IL-10, and interferon (IFN- pre-and post-challenge during an acute FPIES reaction and when tolerance to rice had been achieved. For the first time we describe an increase in T cell IL-4 and decrease in IFN- expression after a positive challenge with rice (i.e. rice triggered a FPIES attack and an increase in T cell IL-10 expression after rice challenge 6 months later after a negative challenge (i.e., the child had acquired tolerance to rice in an 8 month old with documented FPIES to rice. A Th2 activation associated with high IL-4 levels may contribute to the pathophysiology of the disease. On the other hand, T cell-derived IL-10 may play a role in the acquisition of immunotolerance by regulating the Th1 and Th2 responses.

  1. The changes and significance of T cell subsets and cytokines in the induced sputum in children with asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu-Hui Tian; Feng-Qiong Zuo; Wei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the changes and significance of T cell subsets and cytokines in the induced sputum in children with asthma.Methods:A total of 86 cases of children with asthma were selected as research objects in the observation group, while a total of 35 cases of healthy children were chosen as research objects in the control group. Lung function indexes including the ratio (FEV1%) of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) / forced vital capacity (FVC) and the maximum peak expiratory flow (PEF), and inflammatory cytokines in the induced sputum including interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and T cell subsets including Th1 cells, CD8+CD28- Treg cells, CD4+CD25+ Treg cells, Th2 cells and Th17 cells, and T cell subsets related cytokines including interferon-γ (IFN-γ), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) were all detected and compared between the two groups.Results:The levels of IL-8, TNF-α and IL-6 in the induced sputum in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05), while FEV1% and PEF were significantly decreased in the observation group compared with the control group (P<0.05); the number of Th1 cells, CD8+CD28- Treg cells and CD4+CD25+ Treg cells in the induced sputum was significantly lower, while the number of Th2 cells and Th17 cells was significantly higher in the observation group than that in the control group (P<0.05); the expression levels of IFN-γ from Th1 cells and TGF-β from Treg cells were significantly lower, while the expression levels of IL-4 from Th2 cells and IL-17A from Th17 cells were significantly higher in the observation group than those in the control group (P<0.05).Conclusions:The number of T cell subsets in the induced sputum in children with asthma is abnormal, showing increases in the number of the Th2 cells and Th17 cells as well as their related cytokines, and decreases in the

  2. Antigen-sensitized CD4+CD62Llow memory/effector T helper 2 cells can induce airway hyperresponsiveness in an antigen free setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagatani Katsuya

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR is one of the most prominent features of asthma, however, precise mechanisms for its induction have not been fully elucidated. We previously reported that systemic antigen sensitization alone directly induces AHR before development of eosinophilic airway inflammation in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation, which suggests a critical role of antigen-specific systemic immune response itself in the induction of AHR. In the present study, we examined this possibility by cell transfer experiment, and then analyzed which cell source was essential for this process. Methods BALB/c mice were immunized with ovalbumin (OVA twice. Spleen cells were obtained from the mice and were transferred in naive mice. Four days later, AHR was assessed. We carried out bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL to analyze inflammation and cytokine production in the lung. Fluorescence and immunohistochemical studies were performed to identify T cells recruiting and proliferating in the lung or in the gut of the recipient. To determine the essential phenotype, spleen cells were column purified by antibody-coated microbeads with negative or positive selection, and transferred. Then, AHR was assessed. Results Transfer of spleen cells obtained from OVA-sensitized mice induced a moderate, but significant, AHR without airway antigen challenge in naive mice without airway eosinophilia. Immunization with T helper (Th 1 elicited antigen (OVA with complete Freund's adjuvant did not induce the AHR. Transferred cells distributed among organs, and the cells proliferated in an antigen free setting for at least three days in the lung. This transfer-induced AHR persisted for one week. Interleukin-4 and 5 in the BAL fluid increased in the transferred mice. Immunoglobulin E was not involved in this transfer-induced AHR. Transfer of in vitro polarized CD4+ Th2 cells, but not Th1 cells, induced AHR. We finally clarified that CD4+CD62Llow memory

  3. Biological studies on the effect of estrogen on experimentally induced asthma in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Desouki, Nabila I; Tabl, Ghada A; Elkhodary, Yasmin A A

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the influence of estrogen hormone on the experimentally induced asthma in male mice. The animals were divided into four groups, with 20 mice in each group; group I (control mice) included mice that received no treatment, group II included mice that received intraperitoneal estrogen injection (0.25 mg/kg body weight (bw), twice on day 28 of the experiment), group III (asthmatic mice) included asthmatic mice that received intraperitoneal injection of two doses of ovalbumin (OVA; 2 µg of OVA mixed with 100 µg of aluminum potassium sulfate) on days 1 and 14 of the experiment and then challenged intranasally with a single dose of OVA (50 µg dissolved in 0.05 ml phosphate-buffered saline; PBS) on day 28 of the experiment, and group IV (asthmatic mice treated with estrogen) included asthma model male mice that received the estrogen (0.5 mg/kg bw in 40 ml PBS, twice on the day 28 of the experiment). The immunohistochemical studies observed a marked intensity of CD15 immunoreactivity in the lung tissues of asthma model mice. Physiological results recorded that the total and differential count of leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of asthma model mice recorded a significant increase in the number of leukocytes especially in the number of eosinophil cells. The BALF of asthma model mice showed high levels of interleukins 4 and 5 (IL-4 and IL-5), and there was a significant decrease in both the levels of IL-4 and IL-5 in BALF of asthma model mice treated with estrogen. In conclusion, the obtained results indicated that the asthma is responsible for certain immunohistochemical and physiological alterations induced in lung tissues of mice. The administration of estrogen to asthmatic male mice could improve these changes. For this reason, the present findings support the possible role of estrogen in modulating the inflammatory effects caused by asthma in male mice and may be helpful to cure many asthmatic progressions.

  4. Nuclear factor of activated T cells regulates the expression of interleukin-4 in Th2 cells in an all-or-none fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köck, Juliana; Kreher, Stephan; Lehmann, Katrin; Riedel, René; Bardua, Markus; Lischke, Timo; Jargosch, Manja; Haftmann, Claudia; Bendfeldt, Hanna; Hatam, Farahnaz; Mashreghi, Mir-Farzin; Baumgrass, Ria; Radbruch, Andreas; Chang, Hyun-Dong

    2014-09-26

    Th2 memory lymphocytes have imprinted their Il4 genes epigenetically for expression in dependence of T cell receptor restimulation. However, in a given restimulation, not all Th cells with a memory for IL-4 expression express IL-4. Here, we show that in reactivated Th2 cells, the transcription factors NFATc2, NF-kB p65, c-Maf, p300, Brg1, STAT6, and GATA-3 assemble at the Il4 promoter in Th2 cells expressing IL-4 but not in Th2 cells not expressing it. NFATc2 is critical for assembly of this transcription factor complex. Because NFATc2 translocation into the nucleus occurs in an all-or-none fashion, dependent on complete dephosphorylation by calcineurin, NFATc2 controls the frequencies of cells reexpressing Il4, translates analog differences in T cell receptor stimulation into a digital decision for Il4 reexpression, and instructs all reexpressing cells to express the same amount of IL-4. This analog-to-digital conversion may be critical for the immune system to respond to low concentrations of antigens.

  5. Evaluation of Antibody Responses Elicited by Immunization of Mice with a Pneumococcal Antigen Genetically Fused to Murine HSP70 and Murine Interleukin-4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis O. GOR; Salamatu S. MAMBULA

    2006-01-01

    The heat shock (stress) protein HSP70 has been shown to be a potent stimulator of cellular immune responses. In order to determine whether HSP70 has the ability to stimulate antibody responses, we constructed and expressed fusion proteins consisting of murine HSP70 or murine interleukin (IL)-4 covalently linked to a pneumococcal cell wall-associated protein antigen designated PpmA. Immunization of mice with the PpmA-HSP70 fusion protein (PpmA-70) failed to elicit an increased PpmA-specific serum antibody response. In contrast, mice immunized with PpmA fused to IL-4 (PpmA-IL4), or PpmA fused to both IL-4 and HSP70 (PpmA-IL4-70) fusion proteins elicited high levels of PpmA-specific antibody responses.These data suggest that HSP70 has a limited capacity to stimulate immune responses to heterologous antigens in vivo.

  6. Bi-phasic effect of interferon (IFN)-alpha: IFN-alpha up- and down-regulates interleukin-4 signaling in human T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Karsten Wessel; Sommer, Viveca Horst; Woetmann, Anders

    2003-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta is produced by virally infected cells and is believed to play an important role in early phases of the innate immune response. In addition, IFN-alpha/beta inhibits interleukin (IL)-4 signaling in B cells and monocytes, suggesting that IFN-alpha/beta (like IFN-gamma) is......Interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta is produced by virally infected cells and is believed to play an important role in early phases of the innate immune response. In addition, IFN-alpha/beta inhibits interleukin (IL)-4 signaling in B cells and monocytes, suggesting that IFN-alpha/beta (like IFN......-gamma) is a Th1 cytokine. Here, we study cross-talk between IFN-alpha and IL-4 in human T cells. As expected, stimulation with IFN-alpha for 12-24 h inhibits IL-4 signaling. Surprisingly, however, IFN-alpha has the opposite effect on IL-4 signaling at earlier time points (up to 6 h). Thus, IFN-alpha enhances IL...

  7. Production of interferon-¿ and interleukin-4 by human T cells recognizing Leishmania lipophosphoglycan-associated protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, M; Kurtzhals, J A; Christensen, C B

    1993-01-01

    The Leishmania protein LPGAP which is co-isolated with lipophosphoglycan is a specific activator of T cells from individuals who have recovered from American leishmaniasis. We have tested the effect of LPGAP on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from Kenyan donors cured from L. donovani...

  8. Electroacupuncture at the ST36 acupoint increases interleukin-4 responsiveness in macrophages, generation of alternatively activated macrophages and susceptibility to Leishmania major infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguiar Danillo N

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electroacupuncture (EA has been used to treat inflammatory diseases. Alternatively activated macrophages (AAMo stimulated by cytokines such as interleukin (IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 are anti-inflammatory and mildly microbicidal. This study aimed to evaluate whether EA at the Zusanli acupoint (ST36 would change the profile of healthy murine macrophages, particularly the generation of AAMo and susceptibility to Leishmania major infection. Methods BALB/c mice were treated with EA (15/30 Hz at the ST36 acupoint for 20 min/d for 5 d. After the final EA session, the mice were euthanized and their peritoneal cells were harvested and counted for determination of arginase activity, nitric oxide (NO production and microbicidal activity after culture in the presence or absence of IL-4, interferon-γ (IFNγ or lipopolysaccharide (LPS or both IFNγ and LPS. Twelve mice were infected with L. major promastigotes into the footpads after the final EA session and the infection course was monitored. Results Peritoneal cells freshly obtained from EA-treated mice had similar arginase and microbicidal activities to cells from sham-treated mice. After culture with IL-4, cells from EA-treated mice exhibited significant increases in the arginase activity (sham: 58 ± 11.3 vs. EA: 80.7 ± 4.6%, P = 0.025 and number of parasites/infected cell (sham: 2.5 ± 0.4 vs. EA: 4.3 ± 0.8 cells, P = 0.007. The NO production was lower in cells from EA-treated mice cultured in the presence of a combination of IFNγ and LPS (sham: 31.6 ± 6.5 vs. EA: 22.3 ± 2.1 μM, P = 0.025. The lesion size in mice infected with L. major promastigotes was larger in EA-treated mice (sham: 3.26 ± 0.29 vs. EA: 2.23 ± 0.4 mm, P = 0.039. Conclusion EA at the ST36 acupoint increases IL-4 responsiveness in macrophages, Generation of AAMo and susceptibility to L. major infection

  9. Toxocara canis: Het effect van behandeling met anti-interleukine-5 en anti-interleukine-4 op immunologische en ontstekingsparameters in de longen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs J; Pitstra B; Rouws C; Rees E van; Savelkoul HFJ; LPM; VUA/celbiologie en immunologie; EUR/MF

    1995-01-01

    De toenames van eosinofiele granulocyten en IgE concentraties in Toxocara canis geinfecteerde BALB/c muizen werden geblokkeerd door behandeling met ratte-hybridoma cellen die respectievelijk anti-interleukine-5 (anti-IL-5) en anti-IL-4 produceerden. Doel was het effect te bestuderen van deze blo

  10. Development of a human IgG4 bispecific antibody for dual targeting of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-13 (IL-13) cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, Christoph; Bevers, Jack; Jackman, Janet; Chiang, Nancy; Nakamura, Gerald; Dillon, Michael; Liu, Hongbin; Molina, Patricia; Elliott, J Michael; Shatz, Whitney; Scheer, Justin M; Giese, Glen; Persson, Josefine; Zhang, Yin; Dennis, Mark S; Giulianotti, James; Gupta, Prateek; Reilly, Dorothea; Palma, Enzo; Wang, Jianyong; Stefanich, Eric; Scheerens, Heleen; Fuh, Germaine; Wu, Lawren C

    2013-09-13

    Human bispecific antibodies have great potential for the treatment of human diseases. Although human IgG1 bispecific antibodies have been generated, few attempts have been reported in the scientific literature that extend bispecific antibodies to other human antibody isotypes. In this paper, we report our work expanding the knobs-into-holes bispecific antibody technology to the human IgG4 isotype. We apply this approach to generate a bispecific antibody that targets IL-4 and IL-13, two cytokines that play roles in type 2 inflammation. We show that IgG4 bispecific antibodies can be generated in large quantities with equivalent efficiency and quality and have comparable pharmacokinetic properties and lung partitioning, compared with the IgG1 isotype. This work broadens the range of published therapeutic bispecific antibodies with natural surface architecture and provides additional options for the generation of bispecific antibodies with differing effector functions through the use of different antibody isotypes.

  11. Effect of anti-gamma-interferon and anti-interleukin-4 administration on the resistance of mice against infection with reticulotropic and myotropic strains of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petray, P B; Rottenberg, M E; Bertot, G; Corral, R S; Diaz, A; Orn, A; Grinstein, S

    1993-01-01

    We studied the effect of in vivo administration of anti-gamma-IFN and anti-IL-4 monoclonal antibodies on the resistance of mice against myotropic and reticulotropic strains of Trypanosoma cruzi. Anti-gamma-IFN treatment augmented the susceptibility of mice when infected with the reticulotropic RA and Tulahuén strains of T. cruzi but did not alter the course of infection with the myotropic CA-I strain of the parasite. In vivo administration of anti-IL-4 enhanced the resistance of mice when infected with either Tulahuén or RA strains but did not affect the course of parasitemia when infected with CA-I. The possible biological relevance of these observations is discussed.

  12. Influence of the Chungkookjang on histamine-induced wheal and flare skin response: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Dae-Young

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts Background Allergic disease is a consequence of exposure to normally innocuous substances that elicit the activation of mast cells. Mast-cell-mediated allergic response is involved in many diseases such as anaphylaxis, urticaria, allergic rhinitis, asthma and allergic dermatitis. The development of food products for the prevention of allergic disease is an important subject in human health. The chungkookjang (CKJ has been reported to exhibit antiallergic inflammatory activity. Therefore, the aim of the study is to examine the effects of the CKJ to reduce histamine-induced wheal and flare skin responses. Methods/Design A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 60 healthy subjects will be carried out. Sixty volunteers (aged 20-80 who gave a written consent before entering the study will be randomized in two groups of thirty subjects each. The skin prick test with histamine solution of 10 mg/ml will be performed on the ventral forearm, 10 cm from the elbow. The subjects will be instructed to take 35 g per day of either the CKJ pills or a placebo pills for a period of 3 months. Diameters of wheal and flare will be assessing 15 minutes after performing the above-mentioned skin prick test. The primary outcome is change in wheal and flare responses. Secondary outcomes will be include change in serum histamine, immunoglobulin E, cytokines (interferon-gamma, interleukin-4, -10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and eosinophil cationic protein. Discussion This study will show the potential anti-inflammatory properties of the CKJ in their skin activity when histamine is the challenging agent as occurs in the clinical situation. And the present protocol will confirm the efficacy and safety of the CKJ for allergy symptoms, suggesting more basic knowledge to conduct further randomized controlled trials (RCT. If this study will be successfully performed, the CKJ will be an alternative dietary supplemental remedy for allergy patients

  13. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Exercise-Induced Asthma A A ... previous continue Tips for Kids With Exercise-Induced Asthma For the most part, kids with exercise-induced ...

  14. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: A practice parameter. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. 2010;105:S1. Krafczyk ... up exercise on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2012;44:383. Asthma ...

  15. Extrachromosomal inducible expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, Douwe M; Van Haastert, Peter J M

    2013-01-01

    Inducible expression systems are very convenient for proteins that induce strong side effects such as retardation of growth or development and are essential for the expression of toxic proteins. In this chapter we describe the doxycycline-inducible expression system, optimized for the controlled exp

  16. Bromazepam-induced dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Trullen, J M; Modrego Pardo, P J; Vázquez André, M; López Lozano, J J

    1992-01-01

    Benzodiazepines are drugs with a good tolerance that are widely used for the treatment of anxiety. Extrapyramidal side-effects are unusual. Diazepam is effective for the treatment of drug-induced dystonias, nevertheless there are some reports of Diazepam-induced dystonia. We report a case history of a patient who developed oromandibular dystonia after taking Bromazepam. The possible mechanisms that cause drug-induced dystonia are described.

  17. Fasudil inhibits apoptosis of skeletal muscle satellite cells induced by H2O2%H2O2诱导骨骼肌卫星细胞凋亡及法舒地尔的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江华; 董少红; 熊玮; 刘启云; 梁新剑; 庞新利

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Skeletal muscle satelite cels are muscle-derived stem cels with proliferation and differentiation potential distributing between the muscle cel membrane and the base film. Studies have shown that skeletal muscle satelite cels are of efficacy and safety, but the survival rate of the transplanted stem cels is very low, which greatly limits the application of skeletal muscle satelite cels. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of Fasudil on apoptosis of skeletal muscle satelite cels induced by H2O2. METHODS: Skeletal muscle satelite cels cultured in vitro were randomly divided into three groups including H2O2group, H2O2+Fasudil group (Fasudil group) and control group. Apoptosis rates were observed by flow cytometry. The concentrations of interleukin-4 and tumor necrosis factor-a in each group were detected by ELISA. Western blot was employed to measure the protein level of Bax in each group. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the H2O2group, a significant decrease was found in the apoptosis rate of cels, protein level of Bax, and concentrations of interleukin-4 and tumor necrosis factor-a in the Fasudil group (alP < 0.05). These findings indicate that Fasudil can play anti-apoptosis protection by inhibiting Rho-kinase signaling pathway, which may be related to the reduced expression of Bax.%背景:骨骼肌卫星细胞是成体骨骼肌中位于肌细胞膜和基膜之间具有增殖分化潜能的肌源性干细胞,研究表明骨骼肌卫星细胞的有效性及安全性,但是移植后的干细胞成活率极低,极大的限制了骨骼肌卫星细胞的应用.目的:观察过氧化氢(H2O2)对大鼠骨骼肌卫星细胞凋亡的影响以及法舒地尔的保护作用.方法:取体外培养的骨骼肌卫星细胞,随机分为正常对照组,H2O2组,H2O2+法舒地尔组(法舒地尔组),采用流式细胞仪检测细胞凋亡率,ELISA法检测白细胞介素4、肿瘤坏死因子a的浓度,Western blot检测Bax蛋白的表达.结果与结论:同H2O2组相

  18. Induced radioactivity at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    A description of some of the problems and some of the advantages associated with the phenomenon of induced radioactivity at accelerator centres such as CERN. The author has worked in this field for several years and has recently written a book 'Induced Radioactivity' published by North-Holland.

  19. Diet induced thermogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. METHODS: Measuring c

  20. Mesalamine-Induced Myocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre-Louis Michel; Richard Dorent; Nadjib Hammoudi; Florence Pontnau; Antoine Khalil; Clement Bailly; Olivier Merceron

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays mesalamine is a common treatment for Crohn's disease and hypersensitive reactions to this product have been reported. Yet there is limited information concerning mesalamine-induced myocarditis and its mechanism is not known. We described a case of mesalamine-induced myocarditis in Crohn's disease of the colon.

  1. Mesalamine-Induced Myocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Merceron

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays mesalamine is a common treatment for Crohn's disease and hypersensitive reactions to this product have been reported. Yet there is limited information concerning mesalamine-induced myocarditis and its mechanism is not known. We described a case of mesalamine-induced myocarditis in Crohn's disease of the colon.

  2. Diet induced thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westerterp KR

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. Methods Measuring conditions include nutritional status of the subject, physical activity and duration of the observation. Diet characteristics are energy content and macronutrient composition. Results Most studies measure diet-induced thermogenesis as the increase in energy expenditure above basal metabolic rate. Generally, the hierarchy in macronutrient oxidation in the postprandial state is reflected similarly in diet-induced thermogenesis, with the sequence alcohol, protein, carbohydrate, and fat. A mixed diet consumed at energy balance results in a diet induced energy expenditure of 5 to 15 % of daily energy expenditure. Values are higher at a relatively high protein and alcohol consumption and lower at a high fat consumption. Protein induced thermogenesis has an important effect on satiety. In conclusion, the main determinants of diet-induced thermogenesis are the energy content and the protein- and alcohol fraction of the diet. Protein plays a key role in body weight regulation through satiety related to diet-induced thermogenesis.

  3. Mania induced by opipramol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazhungil Firoz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antidepressants have propensity to induce manic switch in patients with bipolar disorder. Opipramol is an atypical anxiolytic and antidepressant drug which predominantly acts on sigma receptors. Although structurally resembles tricyclic antidepressant imipramine it does not have inhibitory action on the reuptake of norepinephrine/serotonin and hence it is not presumed to cause manic switch in bipolar depression. Here, we describe a case of mania induced by opipramol, in a patient with bipolar affective disorder who was treated for moderate depressive episode with lithium and opipramol and we discuss neurochemical hypothesis of opipramol-induced mania.

  4. Vitiligo, drug induced (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this person's face have resulted from drug-induced vitiligo. Loss of melanin, the primary skin pigment, occasionally ... is the case with this individual. The typical vitiligo lesion is flat and depigmented, but maintains the ...

  5. Drug-induced hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxic hepatitis ... to get liver damage. Some drugs can cause hepatitis with small doses, even if the liver breakdown ... liver. Many different drugs can cause drug-induced hepatitis. Painkillers and fever reducers that contain acetaminophen are ...

  6. Drug-induced catatonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Harpreet S; Singh, Ira

    2005-09-01

    Catatonia is a heterogeneous syndrome that varies in etiology, presentation, course and sequelae. Initially conceptualized as a subtype of schizophrenia, catatonia is now recognized to occur not only with other psychiatric conditions but also with medical conditions and drug-induced and toxic states. While drug-induced catatonia is now a recognized entity, most studies club it with catatonia due to general medical conditions or organic catatonia, thus precluding any meaningful interpretation of such cases. The literature on drug-induced catatonia mostly draws from scattered case reports. This article attempts to review the available literature in this realm and integrate the information in an attempt to explore the epidemiology, etiology, mechanism and treatment of drug-induced catatonia.

  7. Topological Induced Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Oda, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    We propose a topological model of induced gravity (pregeometry) where both Newton's coupling constant and the cosmological constant appear as integration constants in solving field equations. The matter sector of a scalar field is also considered, and by solving field equations it is shown that various types of cosmological solutions in the FRW universe can be obtained. A detailed analysis is given of the meaning of the BRST transformations, which make the induced gravity be a topological field theory, by means of the canonical quantization analysis, and the physical reason why such BRST transformations are needed in the present formalism is clarified. Finally, we propose a dynamical mechanism for fixing the Lagrange multiplier fields by following the Higgs mechanism. The present study clearly indicates that the induced gravity can be constructed at the classical level without recourse to quantum fluctuations of matter and suggests an interesting relationship between the induced gravity and the topological qu...

  8. Cold-induced metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Marken Lichtenbelt, W.D.; Daanen, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cold-induced metabolism. van Marken Lichtenbelt WD, Daanen HA. Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cold response can be insulative (drop in peripheral temperature) or metabolic (increase in energy expenditure). Nonshivering thermogenesi

  9. Exercise-induced asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000036.htm Exercise-induced asthma To use the sharing features on this page, ... such as running, basketball, or soccer. Use Your Asthma Medicine Before you Exercise Take your short-acting, ...

  10. Optomechanically induced transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Weis, S; Deleglise, S; Gavartin, E; Arcizet, O; Schliesser, A; Kippenberg, T J

    2010-01-01

    Coherent interaction of laser radiation with multilevel atoms and molecules can lead to quantum interference in the electronic excitation pathways. A prominent example observed in atomic three-level-systems is the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), in which a control laser induces a narrow spectral transparency window for a weak probe laser beam. The concomitant rapid variation of the refractive index in this spectral window can give rise to dramatic reduction of the group velocity of a propagating pulse of probe light. Dynamic control of EIT via the control laser enables even a complete stop, that is, storage, of probe light pulses in the atomic medium. Here, we demonstrate optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT)--formally equivalent to EIT--in a cavity optomechanical system operating in the resolved sideband regime. A control laser tuned to the lower motional sideband of the cavity resonance induces a dipole-like interaction of optical and mechanical degrees of freedom. Under...

  11. Trauma-induced coagulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrancha, Elizabeth D; Gonzalez, Luis S

    2014-08-01

    Coagulopathy is the inability of blood to coagulate normally; in trauma patients, it is a multifactorial and complex process. Seriously injured trauma patients experience coagulopathies during the acute injury phase. Risk factors for trauma-induced coagulopathy include hypothermia, metabolic acidosis, hypoperfusion, hemodilution, and fluid replacement. In addition to the coagulopathy induced by trauma, many patients may also be taking medications that interfere with hemostasis. Therefore, medication-induced coagulopathy also is a concern. Traditional laboratory-based methods of assessing coagulation are being supported or even replaced by point-of-care tests. The evidence-based management of trauma-induced coagulopathy should address hypothermia, fluid resuscitation, blood components administration, and, if needed, medications to reverse identified coagulation disorders.

  12. Carbamazepine-Induced Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1992-01-01

    Intractable diarrhea induced by carbamazepine (CBZ) in 3 patients and necessitating discontinuation of the drug is reported from the Departments of Neurology and Medicine, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Kentucky.

  13. Lorazepam-induced diplopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisha M Lucca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diplopia - seeing double - is a symptom with many potential causes, both neurological and ophthalmological. Benzodiazepine induced ocular side-effects are rarely reported. Lorazepam is one of the commonly used benzodiazepine in psychiatric practice. Visual problems associated with administration of lorazepam are rarely reported and the frequency of occurrence is not established. We report a rare case of lorazepam-induced diplopia in a newly diagnosed case of obsessive compulsive disorder.

  14. Terahertz field induced electromigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strikwerda, Andrew; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof;

    We report the first observation of THz-field-induced electromigration in sub-wavelength metallic gap structures after exposure to intense single-cycle, sub-picosecond electric field transients of amplitude up to 400 kV/cm.......We report the first observation of THz-field-induced electromigration in sub-wavelength metallic gap structures after exposure to intense single-cycle, sub-picosecond electric field transients of amplitude up to 400 kV/cm....

  15. Lorazepam-induced diplopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucca, Jisha M; Ramesh, Madhan; Parthasarathi, Gurumurthy; Ram, Dushad

    2014-01-01

    Diplopia - seeing double - is a symptom with many potential causes, both neurological and ophthalmological. Benzodiazepine induced ocular side-effects are rarely reported. Lorazepam is one of the commonly used benzodiazepine in psychiatric practice. Visual problems associated with administration of lorazepam are rarely reported and the frequency of occurrence is not established. We report a rare case of lorazepam-induced diplopia in a newly diagnosed case of obsessive compulsive disorder.

  16. Contrast-induced nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. García Hernández

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Contrast-induced nephropathy is an important complication associated with the use of contrast media. Favoring factors for the development of contrast-induced nephronpathy have been widely described, being diabetes mellitus and previous renal disease the greatest risk. The pathophysiology is a complex process where the medullary hypoxia represents the trigger element. Previous hydration and the use of low osmolality contrast are the most recommended measures to prevent its development.

  17. Paroxetine-induced galactorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Prannay; Chavan, B S; Das, Subhash

    2014-10-01

    Drug-induced galactorrhea has been reported with agents such as antidopaminergic antiemetics, antipsychotics, etc., with few case reports of galactorrhea with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, including paroxetine, being reported in last few decades. Prolactin levels have been found to be either raised or normal in these cases. We here report a case of paroxetine induced galactorrhea in a 48-year-old female patient of obsessive compulsive disorder, having hyperprolactinemic and euprolactinemic galactorrhea at different time with a pituitary incidentaloma.

  18. Paroxetine-induced galactorrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Gulati, Prannay; Chavan, B.S.; Das, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced galactorrhea has been reported with agents such as antidopaminergic antiemetics, antipsychotics, etc., with few case reports of galactorrhea with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, including paroxetine, being reported in last few decades. Prolactin levels have been found to be either raised or normal in these cases. We here report a case of paroxetine induced galactorrhea in a 48-year-old female patient of obsessive compulsive disorder, having hyperprolactinemic and euprola...

  19. Acute myeloid leukemia cells inhibit the differentiation and maturation of dendritic cells and induce the generation of regulatory T cells%急性髓系白血病细胞对树突状细胞分化、成熟和调节性T细胞生成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingbing Wang; Xin Chen; Jun Liu; Zimin Sun; Shiang Huang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of soluble factors secreted by acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells on the phenotypical and functional properties of DCs derived from normal mononuclear cells. Methods: Mononuclear cells were cultured with interleukin-4 (IL-4) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), in the presence or absence of 24 h culture supernatants from fresh primary AML cells, to generate immature DCs. The maturation of DCs was induced by cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and prostaglandin-2 (PGE-2). The phenotypic alterations of DCs and DCs-primed CD4+ T cells were evaluated using flow cytometry. Precursor frequency (PF) was calculated to monitor the allostimulatory effects of DCs on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Results:AML cell supernatant-treated DCs showed significantly lower expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, and reduced response to cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha,and PGE-2. The allostimulatory effects of AML cell supernatant-treated DCs on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were significantly lower than those of normal mature DCs [PF: (1.8±0.5)% vs. (5.2±1.6)% for CD4+ T cells, (2.1±0.6)% vs. (6.5±2.0)%for CD8+ T cells, P<0.01]. These AML supematant-induced DCs could also induce allogeneic CD4+ T cells to differentiate into CD4+CD25high T cells, which had immunophenotyping characteristics of regulatory T cells, i.e. they expressed Foxp3 but not active maker CD69. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that soluble factors secreted by AML cells can inhibit development and functions of DCs. In addition, AML supematant-induced DCs can induce the generation of CD4+CD25high T cells from CD4+T cells, which may be a mechanism of increased prevalence of CD4+CD25high regulatory T cells and immune dysfunction in AML patients.

  20. Crystalglobulin-induced nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinay; El Ters, Mireille; Kashani, Kianoush; Leung, Nelson; Nasr, Samih H

    2015-03-01

    Crystalline nephropathy refers to renal parenchymal deposition of crystals leading to kidney damage. The most common forms of crystalline nephropathy encountered in renal pathology are nephrocalcinosis and oxalate nephropathy. Less frequent types include urate nephropathy, cystinosis, dihydroxyadeninuria, and drug-induced crystalline nephropathy (e.g., caused by indinavir or triamterene). Monoclonal proteins can also deposit in the kidney as crystals and cause tissue damage. This occurs in conditions such as light chain proximal tubulopathy, crystal-storing histiocytosis, and crystalglobulinemia. The latter is a rare complication of multiple myeloma that results from crystallization of monoclonal proteins in the systemic vasculature, leading to vascular injury, thrombosis, and occlusion. In this report, we describe a case of crystalglobulin-induced nephropathy and discuss its pathophysiology and the differential diagnosis of paraprotein-induced crystalline nephropathy.

  1. Gravitationally induced quantum transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, A.; Paranjape, M. B.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we calculate the probability for resonantly inducing transitions in quantum states due to time-dependent gravitational perturbations. Contrary to common wisdom, the probability of inducing transitions is not infinitesimally small. We consider a system of ultracold neutrons, which are organized according to the energy levels of the Schrödinger equation in the presence of the Earth's gravitational field. Transitions between energy levels are induced by an oscillating driving force of frequency ω . The driving force is created by oscillating a macroscopic mass in the neighborhood of the system of neutrons. The neutron lifetime is approximately 880 sec while the probability of transitions increases as t2. Hence, the optimal strategy is to drive the system for two lifetimes. The transition amplitude then is of the order of 1.06 ×10-5, and hence with a million ultracold neutrons, one should be able to observe transitions.

  2. Gravitationally induced quantum transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Landry, A

    2016-01-01

    In this letter, we calculate the probability for resonantly induced transitions in quantum states due to time dependent gravitational perturbations. Contrary to common wisdom, the probability of inducing transitions is not infinitesimally small. We consider a system of ultra cold neutrons (UCN), which are organized according to the energy levels of the Schr\\"odinger equation in the presence of the earth's gravitational field. Transitions between energy levels are induced by an oscillating driving force of frequency $\\omega$. The driving force is created by oscillating a macroscopic mass in the neighbourhood of the system of neutrons. The neutrons decay in 880 seconds while the probability of transitions increase as $t^2$. Hence the optimal strategy is to drive the system for 2 lifetimes. The transition amplitude then is of the order of $1.06\\times 10^{-5}$ hence with a million ultra cold neutrons, one should be able to observe transitions.

  3. Time Domain Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    2012-01-01

    Time-domain-induced polarization has significantly broadened its field of reference during the last decade, from mineral exploration to environmental geophysics, e.g., for clay and peat identification and landfill characterization. Though, insufficient modeling tools have hitherto limited the use...... of time-domaininduced polarization for wider purposes. For these reasons, a new forward code and inversion algorithm have been developed using the full-time decay of the induced polarization response, together with an accurate description of the transmitter waveform and of the receiver transfer function......%. Furthermore, the presence of low-pass filters in time-domain-induced polarization instruments affects the early times of the acquired decays (typically up to 100 ms) and has to be modeled in the forward response to avoid significant loss of resolution. The developed forward code has been implemented in a 1D...

  4. [Radiation induced tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Bayard, L; Delgado López, L; Tirado Bejarano, C; Gómez Puerto, A; García Fernández, J L

    1998-04-01

    Radiations at cellular level produce different effects, depending on type of radiation and irradiated tissue. The radiation-induced cancers are associated to non-letals genetics mutations, and to classify like radiation induced tumors is necessary that appear in the treatment volume, a long latency period (years), histolo-different to the primary lesion, enough doses quantitatively and that exists a greater incidence in the irradiated populations. The genetics mutations affect at tumoral suppressors gen(Gen RB I, p53, BRCA I, BRCA 2) and repressors gen (hMSH 2, hMLH I,...), they could be longer and multifocals mutations, and produce lack of cellular control and a greater predisposition to develop tumors and a probable risk of increment of radiosensitivity. We present some of the more representatives studies about radiation-induced tumors.

  5. Wheat induced urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppal Monica

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is widely consumed all over India in various forms - flour, daliya, maida, suji and wheat bran. Very few cases of wheat induced urticaria have been reported. This may be due to unusual features of wheat related hypersensitivity. A 35 year old female presented to us with history of chronic urticaria and angioedema. History revealed correlation between wheat intake and urticaria episodes. Prick testing was done with wheat antigen in the standard series and derivatives of raw wheat. Normal saline and histamine were used as controls. Prick testing was positive. Oral challenge induced urticaria within half an hour. This report discusses clinical features of wheat related hypersensitivity.

  6. Induced Norm Control Toolbox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beran, Eric Bengt

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the basic nature of the InducedNorm Control Toolbox (INCT). The toolbox is a set of Matlab-filesusing LMITOOL and the Semidefinite Programming package(SP). Thetoolbox is public domain. The INCT provides a series of analysisand synthesis tools for continuous time-invariant lin......This paper describes the basic nature of the InducedNorm Control Toolbox (INCT). The toolbox is a set of Matlab-filesusing LMITOOL and the Semidefinite Programming package(SP). Thetoolbox is public domain. The INCT provides a series of analysisand synthesis tools for continuous time...

  7. Rosuvastatin-induced pemphigoid.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murad, Aizuri A

    2012-01-01

    Statins are widely prescribed medications and very well tolerated. Rosuvastatin is another member of this drug used to treat dyslipidaemia. It is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Immunobullous disease is usually idiopathic but can be drug-induced. Both idiopathic and iatrogenic forms share common clinical and immunohistological features. The authors report a case of pemphigoid induced by rosuvastatin, a commonly prescribed medication. To our knowledge, there is limited report on rosuvastatin associated with pemphigoid in the literature.

  8. Geomagnetism and Induced Voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Biller, R. D.

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics laboratories have seen an influx of "conceptual integrated science" over time in their classrooms with elements of other sciences such as chemistry, biology, Earth science, and astronomy. We describe a laboratory to introduce this development, as it attracts attention to the voltage induced in the human brain as it…

  9. Injection-induced earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, William L

    2013-07-12

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard.

  10. Understanding induced seismicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsworth, Derek; Spiers, Christopher J.; Niemeijer, Andre R.

    2016-01-01

    Fluid injection–induced seismicity has become increasingly widespread in oil- and gas-producing areas of the United States (1–3) and western Canada. It has shelved deep geothermal energy projects in Switzerland and the United States (4), and its effects are especially acute in Oklahoma, where seismi

  11. Amlodipine induced gingival enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Gittaboyina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced gingival overgrowth or enlargement is an abnormal growth of the gingiva due to an adverse drug reaction in patients treated with anticonvulsants, immunosuppressants, and calcium channel blockers (CCBs. CCBs are considered as one of the etiologic factors among patients seeking dental care for drug-induced gingival enlargement or overgrowth. This enlargement can be localized or generalized and can range from mild to extremely severe, affecting patient's appearance, and function. CCBs are one of the most commonly used drugs for the management of cardiovascular disorders and are known for causing gingival over growth. Amlodipine is a new CCB and has been used with increasing frequency in the management of hypertension and angina. Although amlodipine is considered as a safe drug, very rarely it may induce gingival overgrowth. A rare case of amlodipine-induced gingival overgrowth has been reported herein a 45-year-old female patient. The treatment aspect included scaling and root planing, substitution of the drug, the surgical excision, and the maintenance and supportive therapy resulting in an excellent clinical outcome.

  12. Pyrazinamide induced thrombocytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kant Surya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombocytopenia is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of certain antitubercular drugs and is characterized by rapid destruction of platelets whenever offending drug is taken by a susceptible person. We report a case of pyrazinamide-induced thrombocytopenia in a patient receiving anti tubercular drugs.

  13. Cold-induced metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenbelt, W. van Marken; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose of review Cold response can be insulative (drop in peripheral temperature) or metabolic (increase in energy expenditure). Nonshivering thermogenesis by sympathetic, norepinephrine-induced mitochondrial heat production in brown adipose tissue is a well known component of this metabolic respon

  14. Bacteriocin Inducer Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novel peptides produced by bacteriocin-producing bacteria stimulate the production of bacteriocins in vitro. The producer bacteria are cultured in the presence of a novel inducer bacteria and a peptide having a carboxy terminal sequence of VKGLT in order to achieve an increase in bacteriocin produc...

  15. Induced Angular Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G. W.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses, classically and quantum mechanically, the angular momentum induced in the bound motion of an electron by an external magnetic field. Calculates the current density and its magnetic moment, and then uses two methods to solve the first-order perturbation theory equation for the required eigenfunction. (Author/GA)

  16. Mild induced hypothermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Maria E; Jensen, Jens-Ulrik; Bestle, Morten H

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Coagulopathy associates with poor outcome in sepsis. Mild induced hypothermia has been proposed as treatment in sepsis but it is not known whether this intervention worsens functional coagulopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Interim analysis data from an ongoing randomized controlled tr...

  17. Ergotamine-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörmann, B; Höchter, W; Seib, H J; Ottenjann, R

    1985-07-01

    We report on a 45-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis of the rectum that arose after the use of up to 6 suppositories of a preparation containing ergotamine daily over a period of 6 years. On the basis of a review of the literature the clinical, endoscopic and histological features of the ergotamine-induced colitis are characterized.

  18. Drug-induced hyperkalemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem, Chaker; Badreddine, Atef; Fathallah, Neila; Slim, Raoudha; Hmouda, Houssem

    2014-09-01

    Hyperkalemia is a common clinical condition that can be defined as a serum potassium concentration exceeding 5.0 mmol/L. Drug-induced hyperkalemia is the most important cause of increased potassium levels in everyday clinical practice. Drug-induced hyperkalemia may be asymptomatic. However, it may be dramatic and life threatening, posing diagnostic and management problems. A wide range of drugs can cause hyperkalemia by a variety of mechanisms. Drugs can interfere with potassium homoeostasis either by promoting transcellular potassium shift or by impairing renal potassium excretion. Drugs may also increase potassium supply. The reduction in renal potassium excretion due to inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system represents the most important mechanism by which drugs are known to cause hyperkalemia. Medications that alter transmembrane potassium movement include amino acids, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, suxamethonium, and mannitol. Drugs that impair renal potassium excretion are mainly represented by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-II receptor blockers, direct renin inhibitors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, calcineurin inhibitors, heparin and derivatives, aldosterone antagonists, potassium-sparing diuretics, trimethoprim, and pentamidine. Potassium-containing agents represent another group of medications causing hyperkalemia. Increased awareness of drugs that can induce hyperkalemia, and monitoring and prevention are key elements for reducing the number of hospital admissions, morbidity, and mortality related to drug-induced hyperkalemia.

  19. Advertising-Induced Embarrassment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puntoni, S.; Hooge, de I.E.; Verbeke, W.J.M.I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Consumer embarrassment is a concern for many advertisers. Yet little is known about ad-induced embarrassment. The authors investigate when and why consumers experience embarrassment as a result of exposure to socially sensitive advertisements. The theory distinguishes between viewing potent

  20. Injection-induced earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard.

  1. Uterine contraction induced by Tanzanian plants used to induce abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolajsen, Tine; Nielsen, Frank; Rasch, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Women in Tanzania use plants to induce abortion. It is not known whether the plants have an effect.......Women in Tanzania use plants to induce abortion. It is not known whether the plants have an effect....

  2. Viral induced demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlman, S A; Hinton, D R

    2001-01-01

    Viral induced demyelination, in both humans and rodent models, has provided unique insights into the cell biology of oligodendroglia, their complex cell-cell interactions and mechanisms of myelin destruction. They illustrate mechanisms of viral persistence, including latent infections in which no infectious virus is readily evident, virus reactivation and viral-induced tissue damage. These studies have also provided excellent paradigms to study the interactions between the immune system and the central nervous system (CNS). Although of interest in their own right, an understanding of the diverse mechanisms used by viruses to induce demyelination may shed light into the etiology and pathogenesis of the common demyelinating disorder multiple sclerosis (MS). This notion is supported by the persistent view that a viral infection acquired during adolescence might initiate MS after a long period of quiescence. Demyelination in both humans and rodents can be initiated by infection with a diverse group of enveloped and non-enveloped RNA and DNA viruses (Table 1). The mechanisms that ultimately result in the loss of CNS myelin appear to be equally diverse as the etiological agents capable of causing diseases which result in demyelination. Although demyelination can be a secondary result of axonal loss, in many examples of viral induced demyelination, myelin loss is primary and associated with axonal sparing. This suggests that demyelination induced by viral infections can result from: 1) a direct viral infection of oligodendroglia resulting in cell death with degeneration of myelin and its subsequent removal; 2) a persistent viral infection, in the presence or absence of infectious virus, resulting in the loss of normal cellular homeostasis and subsequent oligodendroglial death; 3) a vigorous virus-specific inflammatory response wherein the virus replicates in a cell type other than oligodendroglia, but cytokines and other immune mediators directly damage the

  3. Induced Charge Capacitive Deionization

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, S; Biesheuvel, P M; Bercovici, M

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the phenomenon of induced-charge capacitive deionization (ICCDI) that occurs around a porous and conducting particle immersed in an electrolyte, under the action of an external electrostatic field. The external electric field induces an electric dipole in the porous particle, leading to capacitive charging of its volume by both cations and anions at opposite poles. This regime is characterized both by a large RC charging time and a small electrochemical charge relaxation time, which leads to rapid and significant deionization of ionic species from a volume which is on the scale of the particle. We show by theory and experiment that the transient response around a cylindrical particle results in spatially non-uniform charging and non-steady growth of depletion regions which emerge around the particle's poles. Potentially, ICCDI can be useful in applications where fast concentration changes of ionic species are required over large volumes.

  4. Curvature-induced dissipation

    CERN Document Server

    Debus, J -D; Succi, S; Herrmann, H J

    2015-01-01

    By inspecting the effect of curvature on a moving fluid, we find that local sources of curvature not only exert inertial forces on the flow, but also generate viscous stresses as a result of the departure of streamlines from the idealized geodesic motion. The curvature-induced viscous forces are shown to cause an indirect and yet appreciable energy dissipation. As a consequence, the flow converges to a stationary equilibrium state solely by virtue of curvature-induced dissipation. In addition, we show that flow through randomly-curved media satisfies a non-linear transport law, resembling Darcy-Forchheimer's law, due to the viscous forces generated by the spatial curvature. It is further shown that the permeability can be characterized in terms of the average metric perturbation.

  5. Tulipalin A induced phytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, James; Bourgeois, Marie; Harbison, Raymond

    2014-04-01

    Tulipalin A induced phytotoxicity is a persistent allergic contact dermatitides documented in floral workers exposed to Alstroemeria and its cultivars.[1] The causative allergen is tulipalin A, a toxic glycoside named for the tulip bulbs from which it was first isolated.[2] The condition is characterized by fissured acropulpitis, often accompanied by hyperpigmentation, onychorrhexis, and paronychia. More of the volar surface may be affected in sensitized florists. Dermatitis and paronychia are extremely common conditions and diagnostic errors may occur. A thorough patient history, in conjunction with confirmatory patch testing with a bulb sliver and tuliposide A exposure, can prevent misdiagnosis. We report a case of Tulipalin A induced phytotoxicity misdiagnosed as an unresolved tinea manuum infection in a patient evaluated for occupational exposure.

  6. Induced pluripotent stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siddhartha Bhowmik; LI Yong

    2011-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are a recent development which has brought a promise of great therapeutic values. The previous technique of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been ineffective in humans. Recent discoveries show that human fibroblasts can be reprogrammed by a transient over expression of a small number of genes; they can undergo induced pluripotency. iPS were first produced in 2006. By 2008, work was underway to remove the potential oncogenes from their structure. In 2009, protein iPS (piPS) cells were discovered. Surface markers and reporter genes play an important role in stem cell research. Clinical applications include generation of self renewing stem cells, tissue replacement and many more. Stem cell therapy has the ability to dramatically change the treatment of human diseases.

  7. Ofloxacin induced hypersensitivity reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Babu Ramineni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ofloxacin is a commonly used antimicrobial agent to combat various infections. The adverse profile of quinolones includes gastrointestinal symptoms, which are the most frequent, neuropsychiatric symptoms, hematologic abnormalities are less common. We report a rare case of ofloxacin induced hypersensitivity reaction in a 57 year old female patient with complaints of rashes over the axilla, upper limb and back, abdomen, thorax associated with exfoliation of skin all over the axilla associated with severe itching. Based on history and clinical examination patient was diagnosed as ofloxacin induced hypersensitivity reaction and was successfully treated with antihistamines and corticosteroids. Pharmacovigilance should be a part of patient care in order to reduce occurrence of adverse drug reaction and also encourage practitioners in reporting so as to gather more and more data regarding adverse drug reactions. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(1.000: 349-351

  8. Cyanamide-induced granulocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajima, M; Usuki, K; Igarashi, A; Okazaki, R; Hamano, K; Urabe, A; Totsuka, Y

    1997-09-01

    We report a 64-year-old male with granulocytopenia and dermatitis due to cyanamide treatment. We administered cyanamide for alcoholism. After about one month he suffered from scaly erythema over his whole body and granulocytopenia (granulocyte; 140/microliter) with maturation arrest in bone marrow. After cessation of cyanamide and the start of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration, the skin eruption ameliorated gradually, and the peripheral blood granulocyte counts increased. Cyanamide showed positive results in the drug lymphocyte stimulation test (198%) and the patch test led to the diagnosis of granulocytopenia and dermatitis induced by cyanamide. After restarting glibenclamide and diazepam administration, his granulocytopenia did not reoccur. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case with granulocytopenia induced by cyanamide.

  9. Sepsis-induced Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Bermejo, Francisco J; Ruiz-Bailen, Manuel; Gil-Cebrian, Julián; Huertos-Ranchal, María J

    2011-01-01

    Myocardial dysfunction is one of the main predictors of poor outcome in septic patients, with mortality rates next to 70%. During the sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction, both ventricles can dilate and diminish its ejection fraction, having less response to fluid resuscitation and catecholamines, but typically is assumed to be reversible within 7-10 days. In the last 30 years, It´s being subject of substantial research; however no explanation of its etiopathogenesis or effective treatment have been proved yet. The aim of this manuscript is to review on the most relevant aspects of the sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction, discuss its clinical presentation, pathophysiology, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies proposed in recent years. PMID:22758615

  10. OXYTOCIN INDUCED NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hyperbilirubinemia is one of the most common causes of health problems, observed in 60% of term and 80% of preterm infants in the first week of life . Hyperbilirubinemia leads to neurotoxicity in severe condition. Some studies suggests that liberal use of oxytocin for inducing labour is one of the factor which lead to neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of oxytocin and neonatal bilirubin levels with spontaneous vaginal delivery . MATERIALS AND METHOD S : 100 full term parturients were selected for this study. The subjects were divided into two groups. 50 healthy babies of women who had oxytocin induced labour and 50 healthy babies of women with normal vaginal delivery following spontaneous onset of labour formed the control group. Neon atal serum bilirubin was measured on day 1, 3 and 5 after delivery. Bilirubin was measured by spectrophotometry. Data was analysed in ms excel sheet using spss 19.0v. Statistical analysis was done by using unpaired‘t’ test. RESULTS: There was significant i ncrease in bilirubin level in oxytocin induced group compared to control group on day 1 and 3. There was insignificant increase in bilirubin level in oxytocin induced group on day 5. However the level of serum bilirubin is within normal limits as bilirubin level normally rises on till 4 th day and decreases thereafter. CONCLUSION: Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia may be due to oxytocin administration by continues IV infusion which results in erythrocyte swell and rupture. Increase in bilirubin level in oxytocin i nduced group is within physiological limits

  11. Polarization induced doped transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Huili (Grace); Jena, Debdeep; Nomoto, Kazuki; Song, Bo; Zhu, Mingda; Hu, Zongyang

    2016-06-07

    A nitride-based field effect transistor (FET) comprises a compositionally graded and polarization induced doped p-layer underlying at least one gate contact and a compositionally graded and doped n-channel underlying a source contact. The n-channel is converted from the p-layer to the n-channel by ion implantation, a buffer underlies the doped p-layer and the n-channel, and a drain underlies the buffer.

  12. Drug-induced diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassany, O; Michaux, A; Bergmann, J F

    2000-01-01

    Diarrhoea is a relatively frequent adverse event, accounting for about 7% of all drug adverse effects. More than 700 drugs have been implicated in causing diarrhoea; those most frequently involved are antimicrobials, laxatives, magnesium-containing antacids, lactose- or sorbitol-containing products, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, prostaglandins, colchicine, antineoplastics, antiarrhythmic drugs and cholinergic agents. Certain new drugs are likely to induce diarrhoea because of their pharmacodynamic properties; examples include anthraquinone-related agents, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, lipase inhibitors and cholinesterase inhibitors. Antimicrobials are responsible for 25% of drug-induced diarrhoea. The disease spectrum of antimicrobial-associated diarrhoea ranges from benign diarrhoea to pseudomembranous colitis. Several pathophysiological mechanisms are involved in drug-induced diarrhoea: osmotic diarrhoea, secretory diarrhoea, shortened transit time, exudative diarrhoea and protein-losing enteropathy, and malabsorption or maldigestion of fat and carbohydrates. Often 2 or more mechanisms are present simultaneously. In clinical practice, 2 major types of diarrhoea are seen: acute diarrhoea, which usually appears during the first few days of treatment, and chronic diarrhoea, lasting more than 3 or 4 weeks and which can appear a long time after the start of drug therapy. Both can be severe and poorly tolerated. In a patient presenting with diarrhoea, the medical history is very important, especially the drug history, as it can suggest a diagnosis of drug-induced diarrhoea and thereby avoid multiple diagnostic tests. The clinical examination should cover severity criteria such as fever, rectal emission of blood and mucus, dehydration and bodyweight loss. Establishing a relationship between drug consumption and diarrhoea or colitis can be difficult when the time elapsed between the start of the drug and the onset of symptoms is long, sometimes up to several

  13. Inducement Prizes and Innovation.

    OpenAIRE

    Brunt, Liam; Lerner, Josh; Nicholas, Tom

    2011-01-01

    We examine prizes as an inducement for innovation using a novel dataset of awards for inventiveness offered by the Royal Agricultural Society of England from 1839 to 1939. At annual shows the RASE held competitive trials and awarded medals and monetary prizes (exceeding one million pounds in current prices) to spur technological development. We find large effects of the prizes on contest entries, especially for the Society’s gold medal. Matching award and patent data, we also detect large eff...

  14. Inducement prizes and innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Brunt, Liam; Lerner, Josh; Nicholas, Tom

    2011-01-01

    We examine prizes as an inducement for innovation using a novel dataset of awards for inventiveness offered by the Royal Agricultural Society of England from 1839 to 1939. At annual shows the RASE held competitive trials and awarded medals and monetary prizes (exceeding one million pounds in current prices) to spur technological development. We find large effects of the prizes on contest entries, especially for the Society’s gold medal. Matching award and patent data, we also detect large eff...

  15. Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Seifollah Beladi Mousavi

    2014-02-01

    The standard approach to prevent cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity is the administration of lower doses of cisplatin in combination with the administration of full intravenous isotonic saline before and after cisplatin administration. Although a number of pharmacologic agents including sodium thiosulfate, N-acetylcysteine, theophylline and glycine have been evaluated for prevention of nephrotoxicity, none have proved to have an established role, thus, additional clinical studies will be required to confirm their probable effects.

  16. Environment induced incoherent controllability

    OpenAIRE

    Romano, Raffaele; D'Alessandro, Domenico

    2005-01-01

    We prove that the environment induced entanglement between two non interacting, two-dimensional quantum systems S and P can be used to control the dynamics of S by means of the initial state of P. Using a simple, exactly solvable model, we show that both accessibility and controllability of S can be achieved under suitable conditions on the interaction of S and P with the environment.

  17. Ethanol-induced analgesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohorecky, L.A.; Shah, P.

    1987-09-07

    The effect of ethanol (ET) on nociceptive sensitivity was evaluated using a new tail deflection response (TDR) method. The IP injection of ET (0.5 - 1.5 g/kg) produced raid dose-dependent analgesia. Near maximal effect (97% decrease in TDR) was produced with the 1.5 g/kg dose of ET ten minutes after injection. At ninety minutes post-injection there was still significant analgesia. Depression of ET-induced nociceptive sensitivity was partially reversed by a 1 mg/kg dose of naloxone. On the other hand, morphine (0.5 or 5.0 mg/kg IP) did not modify ET-induced analgesia, while 3.0 minutes of cold water swim (known to produce non-opioid mediated analgesia) potentiated ET-induced analgesic effect. The 0.5 g/kg dose of ET by itself did not depress motor activity in an open field test, but prevented partially the depression in motor activity produced by cold water swim (CWS). Thus, the potentiation by ET of the depression of the TDR produced by CWS cannot be ascribed to the depressant effects of ET on motor activity. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  18. Induced QCD I: Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, Bastian B; Wettig, Tilo

    2016-01-01

    We explore an alternative discretization of continuum SU(N_c) Yang-Mills theory on a Euclidean spacetime lattice, originally introduced by Budzcies and Zirnbauer. In this discretization the self-interactions of the gauge field are induced by a path integral over N_b auxiliary boson fields, which are coupled linearly to the gauge field. The main progress compared to earlier approaches is that N_b can be as small as N_c. In the present paper we (i) extend the proof that the continuum limit of the new discretization reproduces Yang-Mills theory in two dimensions from gauge group U(N_c) to SU(N_c), (ii) derive refined bounds on N_b for non-integer values, and (iii) perform a perturbative calculation to match the bare parameter of the induced gauge theory to the standard lattice coupling. In follow-up papers we will present numerical evidence in support of the conjecture that the induced gauge theory reproduces Yang-Mills theory also in three and four dimensions, and explore the possibility to integrate out the ga...

  19. Induced abortion and psychosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi-Demicheli, F; Kulier, R; Perrin, E; Campana, A

    2000-12-01

    Little information exists on the impact of induced abortion on psychosexuality. Negative psychological effects and psychiatric complications due to termination of pregnancy seem to be rare. The objective of this study was to review the impact of induced abortion on sexuality and couple relationships. A systematic search of the literature was performed. Studies had to report a quantitative or qualitative evaluation of sexuality after pregnancy termination. Four studies were included. In the one prospective study using a control group, no difference in sexual functioning between groups after 1 year was reported. In the remaining observational studies, sexual dysfunction was reported in up to 30% of women after termination. Women undergoing abortion had significantly more conflicts in their partnerships. This was similar in all studies. Separation occurred in about one-quarter of all couples. Some studies report sexual dysfunction after termination of pregnancy. In about half of the couples separated after termination, abortion seemed not to have led to the separation. Psychological factors, together with relationship problems, might have played a role in failed contraception. The impact of induced abortion on sexuality needs to be studied in greater detail with rigorous methodology to draw firm conclusions.

  20. Duxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukund Joshi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The survival rate of cancer patients has greatly increased over the last 20 years. However, to achieve this result, a considerable price has been paid in terms of the side-effects associated with the intensive anticancer treatment. Cardiotoxicity of anticancer drugs is a serious problem. It is defined, by the National Cancer Institute, as the and ldquo;toxicity that affects the heart. and rdquo; This definition not only includes a direct effect of the drug on the heart, but also an indirect effect due to enhancement of hemodynamic flow alterations or due to thrombotic events. Cardiotoxicity can develop in a subacute, acute, or chronic manner. The risk for such effects depends upon: cumulative dose, rate of drug administration, mediastinal radiation, advanced age, younger age, female gender, pre-existing heart disease and hypertension. Anthracyclines, such as doxorubicin (DOX, cause serious cardiac side-effects. Acute tachyarrhythmias and acute heart failure (HF may occur after high doses, but these reactions are now rare due to changed dosage schemes (e.g. slower infusion with the aim to prevent this. However, the sub-acute or chronic cardiac effects of anthracyclines remain a clinical problem. Clinically, anthracycline induced cardiotoxicity manifests itself as left ventricular failure, which develops insidiously over months to years after completion of the anthracycline based chemotherapy and may result in congestive HF. The mechanism of anthracyclin induced cardiotoxicity is not totally unraveled. It is likely that the decline in myocardial function is related to apoptosis of cardiac myocytes that occurs apparently at random in the myocardium. Anthracyclin induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the presence of intracellular iron, impaired homeostasis of intracellular iron and calcium (that may facilitate the apoptosis induced by the ROS have been put forward as mechanisms. Cardiac protection can be achieved by limitation of the

  1. Pathogenesis of cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and therapeutic effects of glucocorticoids and N-acetylcysteine in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐凌; 蔡柏蔷; 朱元珏

    2004-01-01

    Background T lymphocytes and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the details of the mechanisms involved are unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate the changes in interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-4 (IL-4), MMP-9, MMP-12 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) levels in a smoke-induced COPD rat model and the therapeutic effects of glucocorticoids and N-acetylcysteine.Methods Male Wistar rats were exposed to cigarette smoke for 3.5 months. Budesonide or N-acetylcysteine was given in the last month. Lung function was measured at the end of the study. IL-4 and IFN-γ levels were then determined in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of MMP-9, MMP-12 and TIMP-1 mRNA in lung tissue was determined by RT-PCR. Results In comparison with the control group, rats exposed to smoke had a significant increase in IL-4 and MMP-12 levels and a significant decrease in IFN-γ levels. In addition, the IL-4/ IFN-γ ratio and MMP-12/TIMP-1 ratio were both higher. At the same time, the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 0.3 second to forced vital capacity (FEV0.3/FVC) and dynamic compliance (Cdyn) decreased and expiratory resistance (Re) increased. By measuring pulmonary mean linear intercept and mean alveolar numbers, obvious emphysematous changes were observed in the smoke exposed group. After treatment with budesonide, IL-4 and MMP-12 decreased and IFN-γ increased. The IL-4/IFN-γ ratio returned to normal, though the MMP-12/TIMP-1 ratio remained unchanged. FEV0.3/FVC was significantly higher and Re was significantly lower than that in untreated smoke exposed rats. No significant differences were found in pulmonary mean linear intercept and mean alveolar numbers. After treatment with N-acetylcysteine, IFN-γ increased and the IL-4/IFN-γ ratio decreased. The MMP-12/TIMP-1 ratio remained

  2. Radiation Induced Genomic Instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, William F.

    2011-03-01

    Radiation induced genomic instability can be observed in the progeny of irradiated cells multiple generations after irradiation of parental cells. The phenotype is well established both in vivo (Morgan 2003) and in vitro (Morgan 2003), and may be critical in radiation carcinogenesis (Little 2000, Huang et al. 2003). Instability can be induced by both the deposition of energy in irradiated cells as well as by signals transmitted by irradiated (targeted) cells to non-irradiated (non-targeted) cells (Kadhim et al. 1992, Lorimore et al. 1998). Thus both targeted and non-targeted cells can pass on the legacy of radiation to their progeny. However the radiation induced events and cellular processes that respond to both targeted and non-targeted radiation effects that lead to the unstable phenotype remain elusive. The cell system we have used to study radiation induced genomic instability utilizes human hamster GM10115 cells. These cells have a single copy of human chromosome 4 in a background of hamster chromosomes. Instability is evaluated in the clonal progeny of irradiated cells and a clone is considered unstable if it contains three or more metaphase sub-populations involving unique rearrangements of the human chromosome (Marder and Morgan 1993). Many of these unstable clones have been maintained in culture for many years and have been extensively characterized. As initially described by Clutton et al., (Clutton et al. 1996) many of our unstable clones exhibit persistently elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (Limoli et al. 2003), which appear to be due dysfunctional mitochondria (Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2006). Interestingly, but perhaps not surprisingly, our unstable clones do not demonstrate a “mutator phenotype” (Limoli et al. 1997), but they do continue to rearrange their genomes for many years. The limiting factor with this system is the target – the human chromosome. While some clones demonstrate amplification of this chromosome and thus lend

  3. Catatonia induced by disulfiram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HK Goswami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Catatonia is a clinical syndrome with varieties of psychomotor abnormalities of retardation and excitement. It can occur both in psychiatric and medical conditions. The aetiology of catatonia has not been fully described. Many researchers suggest that catatonia can occur due to deficiency of cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA which is an inhibitory neurotransmitter. Disulfiram is an agent that is being used in the treatment of alcohol dependence by its aversive effect. It has been seen that disulfiram is one of the causes of catatonia. This paper aimed to report a case of catatonia induced by disulfiram with no past history of any psychiatric or medical illness.

  4. Contrast induced nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacul, Fulvio; van der Molen, Aart J; Reimer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    measures used to reduce the incidence of CIN, and the management of patients receiving metformin. Key Points • Definition, risk factors and prevention of contrast medium induced nephropathy are reviewed. • CIN risk is lower with intravenous than intra-arterial iodinated contrast medium. • eGFR of 45 ml....../min/1.73 m (2) is CIN risk threshold for intravenous contrast medium. • Hydration with either saline or sodium bicarbonate reduces CIN incidence. • Patients with eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m (2) receiving contrast medium can continue metformin normally....

  5. Contrast induced nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacul, Fulvio; van der Molen, Aart J; Reimer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    measures used to reduce the incidence of CIN, and the management of patients receiving metformin. Key Points • Definition, risk factors and prevention of contrast medium induced nephropathy are reviewed. • CIN risk is lower with intravenous than intra-arterial iodinated contrast medium. • eGFR of 45 ml....../min/1.73 m (2) is CIN risk threshold for intravenous contrast medium. • Hydration with either saline or sodium bicarbonate reduces CIN incidence. • Patients with eGFR = 60 ml/min/1.73 m (2) receiving contrast medium can continue metformin normally....

  6. Antioxidant-Induced Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Kross

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are among the most popular health-protecting products, sold worldwide without prescription. Indeed, there are many reports showing the benefits of antioxidants but only a few questioning the possible harmful effects of these “drugs”. The normal balance between antioxidants and free radicals in the body is offset when either of these forces prevails. The available evidence on the harmful effects of antioxidants is analyzed in this review. In summary, a hypothesis is presented that “antioxidant-induced stress” results when antioxidants overwhelm the body’s free radicals.

  7. Ofloxacin-induced hallucinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmila Chauhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced hallucinations are not uncommon, and may be misdiagnosed as psychiatric illness leading to unnecessary treatment with antipsychotics. If a temporal association of use of a drug having the potential to cause hallucinations is present, mere withdrawal of the drug causes complete improvement in the symptoms. There are reports of various untoward central nervous system adverse events following administration of fluoroquinolones, including delirium, hallucinations and psychosis, even after a single dose. We describe a 5-year-old girl who suffered visual hallucinations following ofloxacin use.

  8. Sitagliptin-induced hemolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekur Ragini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sitagliptin is a newer oral hypoglycemic drug of the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor class. It appears to be a promising newer oral hypoglycemic agent. The advantages are the absence of hypoglycemia when used as monotherapy and they cause less gain weight. We report a case of sitagliptin-induced hemolysis, a rare side effect, not reported in the literature. As sitagliptin is widely used in type 2 diabetes mellitus physicians should be aware of the possibility of this rare but potentially serious adverse drug reaction.

  9. Cannabis induced asystole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancheau, Daniel; Blanco, Jessica; Gholkar, Gunjan; Patel, Brijesh; Machado, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis or marijuana is the most used recreational, and until recently illegal, drug in the United States. Although cannabis has medicinal use, its consumption has been linked to motor vehicle accidents in dose dependent fashion. Marijuana and other cannabinoids produce a multitude of effects on the human body that may result in these motor vehicle accidents. Some of the effects that marijuana has been known to cause include altered sensorium, diminished reflexes, and increased vagal tone. We present a case of cannabis induced asystole from hypervagotonia.

  10. Drug-induced gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Ari; Dobs, Adrian

    2008-11-01

    Gynecomastia is caused by drugs in 10 - 25% of all cases. The pathophysiologic mechanism for some drugs includes exogenous estrogens exposure, medications that cause hypogonadism, anti-androgenic effects and hyperprolactinemia. This manuscript reviews common examples of drug-induced gynecomastia, discussing the mechanisms and possible treatments. Discontinuing the medication is always the best choice; however, if this is not possible, then testosterone replacement therapy may be needed for hypogonadism. When a man is euogonadal, a trial of the anti-estrogen, tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor may be an option.

  11. Man-Induced Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard

    1994-01-01

    Human motion can cause various types of periodic or transient dynamic loads. The periodic loads are mainly due to jumping, running, dancing, walking and body rocking. Transient loads primarily result from single impulse loads, such as jumping and falling from elevated positions. The response...... concerned with spectator-induced vertical vibrations on grandstands. The idea is to use impulse response analysis and base the load description on the load impulse. If the method is feasable, it could be used in connection with the formulation of requirements in building codes. During the last two decades...

  12. Xerostomia induced by radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimi D

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available David Alimi Department of Anesthesiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USAWe read with great interest the excellent review on xerostomia induced by radiotherapy, by Pinna et al.1 The authors should be congratulated for a very detailed review of the physiopathology, clinical symptoms, and therapeutic management of an extremely difficult condition. Although we agree that the use of anticholinergic medication represents treatment, it requires the patient to have residual salivary gland function. Unfortunately, it is well established that in most cases radiotherapy destroys most of the salivary gland and associated salivary secretions.     

  13. Trauma Induced Coagulopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genét, Gustav Folmer; Johansson, Per; Meyer, Martin Abild Stengaard

    2013-01-01

    It remains debated whether traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces a different coagulopathy compared to non-TBI. This study investigated traditional coagulation tests, biomarkers of coagulopathy and endothelial damage in trauma patients with and without TBI. Blood from 80 adult trauma patients were...... sampled (median of 68 min (IQR 48-88) post-injury) upon admission to our trauma centre. Plasma/serum were retrospectively analysed for biomarkers reflecting sympathoadrenal activation (adrenaline, noradrenaline), coagulation activation/inhibition and fibrinolysis (protein C, activated protein C, tissue...

  14. Electromagnetically Induced Entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xihua; Xiao, Min

    2015-08-28

    Quantum entanglement provides an essential resource for quantum computation, quantum communication, and quantum network. How to conveniently and efficiently produce entanglement between bright light beams presents a challenging task to build realistic quantum information processing networks. Here, we present an efficient and convenient way to realize a novel quantum phenomenon, named electromagnetically induced entanglement, in the conventional Λ-type three-level atomic system driven by a strong pump field and a relatively weak probe field. Nearly perfect entanglement between the two fields can be achieved with a low coherence decay rate between the two lower levels, high pump-field intensity, and large optical depth of the atomic ensemble. The physical origin is quantum coherence between the lower doublet produced by the pump and probe fields, similar to the well-known electromagnetically induced transparency. This method would greatly facilitate the generation of nondegenerate narrow-band continuous-variable entanglement between bright light beams by using only coherent laser fields, and may find potential and broad applications in realistic quantum information processing.

  15. Antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, Jolene R; Guthrie, Sally K; Ellingrod, Vicki L

    2009-01-01

    Use of antipsychotic agents has been associated with hyperprolactinemia, or elevated prolactin levels; this hormonal abnormality can interfere with the functioning of reproductive, endocrine, and metabolic systems. As antipsychotic agents are increasingly used for both United States Food and Drug Administration-approved and nonapproved indications, many individuals are at risk for developing antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia. First-generation antipsychotics pose the greatest risk of causing this adverse effect; however, second-generation antipsychotics, particularly risperidone and paliperidone, also often increase prolactin secretion. Hyperprolactinemia has short- and long-term consequences that can seriously affect quality of life: menstrual disturbances, galactorrhea, sexual dysfunction, gynecomastia, infertility, decreased bone mineral density, and breast cancer. Although many of these are definitively connected to elevated prolactin levels, some, such as breast cancer, require further study. Both clinicians and patients should be aware of hyperprolactinemia-associated effects. To prevent or alleviate the condition, tailoring an antipsychotic drug regimen to each individual patient is essential. In addition, the risk of hyperprolactinemia can be minimized by using the lowest effective dose of the antipsychotic agent. If the effects of prolactin are evident, the drug can be changed to another agent that is less likely to affect prolactin levels; alternatively, a dopamine agonist may be added, although this may compromise antipsychotic efficacy. Additional research is needed to clarify the appropriate level of monitoring, the long-term effects, and the optimal treatment of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia.

  16. [Gluten induced diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frič, P; Zavoral, M; Dvořáková, T

    2013-05-01

    The introduction of cereals in human nutrition 10 000 years ago caused the occurrence of gluten induced diseases. This protein complex is involved in pathogenesis of wheat allergy, celiac disease, and gluten sensitivity. Wheat allergy and celiac disease are mediated by the system of adaptive immunity. Gluten sensitivity is a recently defined entity induced by innate immune mechanisms. These subjects present various intestinal and particularly extraintestinal symptoms. The differences between celiac disease and gluten intolerance include permeability of the intestinal mucosal barrier, histology of duodenal biopsy, and mucosal gene expression. The symptoms of gluten sensitivity may also have another genetic background of food intolerance independent of the HLADQ2, - DQ8 system and tissue transglutaminase (eg. in some psychiatric disorders). At present, there is no specific bio-marker of gluten sensitivity. The diagnosis is possible only by exclusion of other causes of symptoms and improvement on a glutenfree diet applied in a doubleblind placebo controlled manner with optional sequence of both stages to exclude the placebo effect due to nutritional intervention.

  17. Interferon induced thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomer, Yaron; Menconi, Francesca

    2009-12-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFNalpha) is used for the treatment of various disorders, most notable chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. One of the commonest side effects of IFNalpha therapy is thyroiditis, with up to 40% of HCV patients on IFNalpha developing clinical or subclinical disease. In some cases interferon induced thyroiditis (IIT) may result in severe symptomatology necessitating discontinuation of therapy. IIT can manifest as clinical autoimmune thyroiditis, presenting with symptoms of classical Hashimoto's thyroiditis or Graves' disease, or as non-autoimmune thyroiditis. Non-autoimmune thyroiditis can manifest as destructive thyroiditis, with early thyrotoxicosis and later hypothyroidism, or as non-autoimmune hypothyroidism. While the epidemiology and clinical presentation of IIT have been well characterized the mechanisms causing IIT are still poorly understood. It is likely that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) itself plays a role in the disease, as the association between HCV infection and thyroiditis is well established. It is believed that IFNalpha induces thyroiditis by both immune stimulatory effects and by direct effects on the thyroid. Early detection and therapy of this condition are important in order to avoid complications of thyroid disease such as cardiac arrhythmias.

  18. Drug-induced lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Robert L

    2005-04-15

    Autoantibodies and, less commonly, systemic rheumatic symptoms are associated with treatment with numerous medications and other types of ingested compounds. Distinct syndromes can be distinguished, based on clinical and laboratory features, as well as exposure history. Drug-induced lupus has been reported as a side-effect of long-term therapy with over 40 medications. Its clinical and laboratory features are similar to systemic lupus erythematosus, except that patients fully recover after the offending medication is discontinued. This syndrome differs from typical drug hypersensitivity reactions in that drug-specific T-cells or antibodies are not involved in induction of autoimmunity, it usually requires many months to years of drug exposure, is drug dose-dependent and generally does not result in immune sensitization to the drug. Circumstantial evidence strongly suggests that oxidative metabolites of the parent compound trigger autoimmunity. Several mechanisms for induction of autoimmunity will be discussed, including bystander activation of autoreactive lymphocytes due to drug-specific immunity or to non-specific activation of lymphocytes, direct cytotoxicity with release of autoantigens and disruption of central T-cell tolerance. The latter hypothesis will be supported by a mouse model in which a reactive metabolite of procainamide introduced into the thymus results in lupus-like autoantibody induction. These findings, as well as evidence for thymic function in drug-induced lupus patients, support the concept that abnormalities during T-cell selection in the thymus initiate autoimmunity.

  19. Optimisation of the CT h4S bioassay for detection of human interleukin-4 secreted by mononuclear cells stimulated by phytohaemaglutinin or by human leukocyte antigen mismatched mixed lymphocyte culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Lykke; Russell, Charlotte Astrid; Bendtzen, Klaus;

    2002-01-01

    bioassay with regards to specificity, sensitivity, detection limit, and reproducibility. We have found the optimal assay conditions to be 1 x 10 (4) CT.h4S cells/well deprived of IL-4 for 24 h and preincubated for 7 h followed by 18 h of incubation with tritiated methyl-thymidine. In this setting the CT.h4......S bioassay detects 5 pg/ml of human recombinant IL-4 with no detection of IL-2 in concentrations below 500 pg/ml. We have found 72 h of culture optimal for detection of IL-2 and IL-4 produced by human mononuclear cells (MNC) in response to stimulation with phytohaemaglutinin and for detection of IL...... of IL-4 detection was not due to high amounts of soluble IL-4 receptor. With the use of 1x10(6) responder cells/well in HLA-mismatched MLC, we found limited IL-4 accumulation still increasing at day 12. We conclude that the CT.h4S bioassay is a reliable and specific method for quantification of IL-4...

  20. Optimisation of the CT h4S bioassay for detection of human interleukin-4 secreted by mononuclear cells stimulated by phytohaemaglutinin or by human leukocyte antigen mismatched mixed lymphocyte culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Lykke; Russell, Charlotte Astrid; Bendtzen, Klaus;

    2002-01-01

    bioassay with regards to specificity, sensitivity, detection limit, and reproducibility. We have found the optimal assay conditions to be 1 x 10 (4) CT.h4S cells/well deprived of IL-4 for 24 h and preincubated for 7 h followed by 18 h of incubation with tritiated methyl-thymidine. In this setting the CT.h4...... of IL-4 detection was not due to high amounts of soluble IL-4 receptor. With the use of 1x10(6) responder cells/well in HLA-mismatched MLC, we found limited IL-4 accumulation still increasing at day 12. We conclude that the CT.h4S bioassay is a reliable and specific method for quantification of IL-4......Limiting dilution analysis has been used in the context of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation to determine anti-recipient interleukin-2 (IL-2) producing helper T lymphocyte precursor (HTLp) frequencies, which in several studies have been predictive of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Recently...

  1. The effect of disodium cromoglycate, budesonide, and cyclosporin A on interleukin-4, interleukin-5, and interleukin-13 secretions in Der p I-stimulated T cells from house dust mite-sensitive atopic and nonatopic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jae-Won; Lee, Ha-Baik; Chung, Yong-Hoon; Choi, Yong

    2002-01-01

    Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), budesonide, and cyclosporin A (CsA) were the well-known immunomodulators for the allergic and immunologic diseases clinically. In this study, we evaluated the characteristics of inhibition on cytokine synthesis of Der p I-stimulated T cells by the same inhibiting concentrations of DSCG, budesonide, and CsA in house-dust mite antigen (Der p I)-specific atopic and nonatopic healthy individuals. Seven house dust mite allergen specific patients were recruited for this study. Seven healthy volunteers were included on the basis of negative allergic manifestations and low serum immunoglobulin E values. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured in the presence of recombinant interleukin (rIL)-2 with or without budesonide, DSCG, CsA, and Der p I for 48 hours. Cells were stained with anti-CD4 fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated monoclonal antibody, and then anti-human IL-4 phycoerythrin, IL-5, or IL-13 monoclonal antibody, respectively, was added to both blocked and stained samples. Incubation of PBMC from atopics with each immunomodulator and Der p I resulted in the reduction of IL-4 secretion compared with Der p I alone stimulation. However, IL-4 secretion in PBMC from nonatopics was not reduced with DSCG and Der p I stimulation. IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 secretions of PBMC from atopics were significantly decreased after incubation with each immunomodulator and Der p I, compared with after incubation with Der p I alone. These results might be considered to show either that DSCG has a selective inhibiting effect on cytokine production in T cells from atopics or is a weak inhibitor of cytokine secretions compared with budesonide and CsA at even strength for the inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation in normal, healthy individuals.

  2. Activation of natural killer T Cells promotes M2 macrophage polarization in adipose tissue and improves systemic glucose tolerance via interleukin-4 (IL-4)/STAT6 protein signalling axis in obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, Y.; Sun, S.; Xu, Aimin; Bhargava, P.; Yang, Liu; Lam, K.S.L.; Gao, Bin; Lee, Chih-Hao; Kersten, A.H.; Qi, L.

    2012-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are important therapeutic targets in various disease models and are under clinical trials for cancer patients. However, their function in obesity and type 2 diabetes remains unclear. Our data show that adipose tissues of both mice and humans contain a population of type

  3. Induced Seismicity Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. R.; Jarpe, S.; Harben, P.

    2014-12-01

    There are many seismological aspects associated with monitoring of permanent storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic formations. Many of these include monitoring underground gas migration through detailed tomographic studies of rock properties, integrity of the cap rock and micro seismicity with time. These types of studies require expensive deployments of surface and borehole sensors in the vicinity of the CO2 injection wells. Another problem that may exist in CO2 sequestration fields is the potential for damaging induced seismicity associated with fluid injection into the geologic reservoir. Seismic hazard monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields requires a seismic network over a spatially larger region possibly having stations in remote settings. Expensive observatory-grade seismic systems are not necessary for seismic hazard deployments or small-scale tomographic studies. Hazard monitoring requires accurate location of induced seismicity to magnitude levels only slightly less than that which can be felt at the surface (e.g. magnitude 1), and the frequencies of interest for tomographic analysis are ~1 Hz and greater. We have developed a seismo/acoustic smart sensor system that can achieve the goals necessary for induced seismicity monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields. The unit is inexpensive, lightweight, easy to deploy, can operate remotely under harsh conditions and features 9 channels of recording (currently 3C 4.5 Hz geophone, MEMS accelerometer and microphone). An on-board processor allows for satellite transmission of parameter data to a processing center. Continuous or event-detected data is kept on two removable flash SD cards of up to 64+ Gbytes each. If available, data can be transmitted via cell phone modem or picked up via site visits. Low-power consumption allows for autonomous operation using only a 10 watt solar panel and a gel-cell battery. The system has been successfully tested for long-term (> 6 months) remote operations over a wide range

  4. Diet-Induced Thermogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Chang-rong; GAO Si-zheng; JIA Jun-jing; Mark Jois

    2008-01-01

    An immense amount of information has now accrued about the factors that influence the increment of heat and the efficiency with which the energy of food is used by different animal species.Heat increment is one of the major factors that decrease the efficiency of energy utilization.In growing animals,the free energy content of the basal ATP requirement is typically about one-third of dietary basal heat production (thermogenesis).Thermogenesis is an evolutionary and biologically significant mechanism for adaptive,homeostatic heat production in animals,including shivering thermogenesis (ST),nonshivefing thermogenesis (NST),diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT),febrile response (fever),and so on.The main focus of this review is on the effect of DIT on energy metabolism.

  5. Catatonia induced by levetiracetam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Marie-Josée; Nguyen, Dang-Khoa; Clément, Jean-François; Bruneau, Marie-Andrée

    2006-02-01

    Levetiracetam (Keppra) is a novel antiepileptic drug approved as adjunctive treatment for adults with partial onset seizures. Although the drug is generally well tolerated, behavioral side effects have been reported in variable frequency. Most behavioral problems are mild in nature (agitation, hostility, anxiety, emotional lability, apathy, depression) and quickly resolve with discontinuation of medication. However, serious psychiatric adverse events may also occur with rare cases of psychosis and suicidal behavior. We report here the case of a 43-year-old woman who developed symptoms compatible with catatonia after being exposed to levetiracetam for the treatment of epilepsy. To our knowledge, it is the first reported case of catatonia induced by levetiracetam. We review the difficulties that may be encountered in the differential diagnosis of medical catatonia.

  6. Aripiprazole-induced priapism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya K Trivedi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Priapism is a urologic emergency representing a true disorder of penile erection that persists beyond or is unrelated to sexual interest or stimulation. A variety of psychotropic drugs are known to produce priapism, albeit rarely, through their antagonistic action on alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. We report such a case of priapism induced by a single oral dose of 10 mg aripiprazole, a drug with the least affinity to adrenergic receptors among all atypical antipsychotics. Polymorphism of alpha-2A adrenergic receptor gene in schizophrenia patients is known to be associated with sialorrhea while on clozapine treatment. Probably, similar polymorphism of alpha-1 adrenergic receptor gene could contribute to its altered sensitivity and resultant priapism. In future, pharmacogenomics-based approach may help in personalizing the treatment and effectively prevent the emergence of such side effects.

  7. Migraine induced by hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, Nanna; Schytz, Henrik Winther; Britze, Josefine

    2016-01-01

    Migraine with aura is prevalent in high-altitude populations suggesting an association between migraine aura and hypoxia. We investigated whether experimental hypoxia triggers migraine and aura attacks in patients suffering from migraine with aura. We also investigated the metabolic and vascular...... response to hypoxia. In a randomized double-blind crossover study design, 15 migraine with aura patients were exposed to 180 min of normobaric hypoxia (capillary oxygen saturation 70-75%) or sham on two separate days and 14 healthy controls were exposed to hypoxia. Glutamate and lactate concentrations...... in the visual cortex were measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The circumference of cranial arteries was measured by 3 T high-resolution magnetic resonance angiography. Hypoxia induced migraine-like attacks in eight patients compared to one patient after sham (P = 0.039), aura in three...

  8. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S

    2001-01-01

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants.

  9. Gadolinium-Induced Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Derrick J; Kay, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs), once believed to be safe for patients with renal disease, have been strongly associated with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), a severe systemic fibrosing disorder that predominantly afflicts individuals with advanced renal dysfunction. We provide a historical perspective on the appearance and disappearance of NSF, including its initial recognition as a discrete clinical entity, its association with GBCA exposure, and the data supporting a causative relationship between GBCA exposure and NSF. On the basis of this body of evidence, we propose that the name gadolinium-induced fibrosis (GIF) more accurately reflects the totality of knowledge regarding this disease. Use of high-risk GBCAs, such as formulated gadodiamide, should be avoided in patients with renal disease. Restriction of GBCA use in this population has almost completely eradicated new cases of this debilitating condition. Emerging antifibrotic therapies may be useful for patients who suffer from GIF.

  10. [Cannabis-induced disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyka, M; Preuss, U; Hoch, E

    2017-03-01

    Use and misuse of cannabis and marihuana are frequent. About 5% of the adult population are current users but only 1.2% are dependent. The medical use of cannabis is controversial but there is some evidence for improvement of chronic pain and spasticity. The somatic toxicity of cannabis is well proven but limited and psychiatric disorders induced by cannabis are of more relevance, e.g. cognitive disorders, amotivational syndrome, psychoses and delusional disorders as well as physical and psychological dependence. The withdrawal symptoms are usually mild and do not require pharmacological interventions. To date there is no established pharmacotherapy for relapse prevention. Psychosocial interventions include psychoeducation, behavioral therapy and motivational enhancement. The CANDIS protocol is the best established German intervention among abstinence-oriented therapies.

  11. Tibolone induced Bullous pemphigoid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal. R. Tandon, Annil Mahajan* & Sudhaa Sharma**

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present first ever report of Bullous pemphigoid induced by Tibolone, a STEAR (Selective tissueestrogenic activity regulator that has progestogenic, some androgenic as well as estrogenic effects prescribedas an alternative to estrogen replacement therapy for treatment of climacteric symptoms in one ofthe 51 year old postmenopausal women with one and half year duration since menopause with previoushistory of use of estrogen progesterone pills during her active sexual life. The mechanism for this ADR isnot well understood. But possible explanation could be progesterone activity of the drug leading to autoimmunityas reported previously. The present patient was managed by dechallenge of drug, local, oral corticosteroidsand injectable, methotrexate, along with folic acid and antibiotic coverage fearing anemia andsecondary infections.

  12. Radiation induced microbial pesticide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Sang Jae

    2000-01-01

    To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

  13. Radiation induced oral mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Satheesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene

  14. Vincristine induced cranial polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Ali; Yilmaz, Cahide; Yilmaz, Nebi; Oner, Ahmet Faik

    2006-06-01

    We describe a 5-year-old girl showed recovery of vincristine induced cranial polyneuropathy with pyridoxine and pyridostigmine treatment. A 5-year-old girl was diagnosed preB cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). She received chemotherapy according to the previously described modified St. Jude total therapy studies XIII. Five days after the fourth dose of vincristine, she presented with bilateral ptosis. Neurological examination revealed bilateral ptosis, and complete external opthalmoplegia with normal pupillary and corneal reflexes. She received 3.8 mg cumulative dose of vincristin before development of ptosis. A neuroprotective and neuroregenerative treatment attempt with pyridoxine and pyridostigmine was initiated. The bilateral ptosis markedly improved after 7 days of pyridoxine and pyridostigmine treatment and completely resolved after two weeks. The both agents were given for 3 weeks and were well tolerated without any side effects. During the follow up period we did not observe residue or recurrence of the ptosis.

  15. Paliperidone palmitate-induced sialorrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Cengisiz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Extrapyramidal, metabolic, and cardiac side effects were reported for atypical antipsychotics; although a few resources show paliperidone-induced sialorrhea, there are no resources that show paliperidone palmitate-induced sialorrhea. In this paper, we present the paliperidone palmitate-induced sialorrhea side effects of a patient who applied on our clinic [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(0.100: 8-13

  16. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jin Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  17. Radio-induced brain lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgan Mircea Radu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Radiotherapy, an important tool in multimodal oncologic treatment, can cause radio-induced brain lesion development after a long period of time following irradiation.

  18. Orlistat-induced acute pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Drug-induced pancreatitis is a rare but important cause of pancreatic injury. Orlistat is a pancreatic lipase inhibitor licensed for the treatment of obesity. We present a case of orlistat- induced mild acute pancreatitis that developed 8 days after starting treatment.

  19. Sparfloxacin induced toxic epidermal necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh M

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN is a life-threatening cutaneous adverse drug reaction. TEN is known to occur with the fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics, but only four cases of sparfloxacin induced TEN have been reported to the WHO database. This is another case report of sparfloxacin induced TEN.

  20. Chlorpromazine induced ocular myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitya S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Drug induced bilateral ptosis is a very rare adverse drug reaction. Here we report a case of ten year old male child with chlorpromazine induced bilateral ptosis due to ocular myasthenia. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(5.000: 653-654

  1. Congruence properties of induced representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Dieter; Momeni, Arash; Venkov, Alexei

    In this paper we study representations of the projective modular group induced from the Hecke congruence group of level 4 with Selberg's character. We show that the well known congruence properties of Selberg's character are equivalent to the congruence properties of the induced representations. ...

  2. Chloroquine-induced pruritus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghahowa S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chloroquine-induced pruritus remains one of the most common side-effects in the use of chloroquine in the prophylaxis and treatment of uncomplicated malaria before the advent of artemisinin-based combination therapies. It has been reported to vary from a tolerable to intolerable intensity among susceptible individuals resulting in disruption of treatment and development of resistance to the drug thus leading to therapeutic failures as reported. This scourge is quite challenging due to the complex physiologic mechanism that has not been fully elucidated. Factors observed to be responsible in the induction of pruritus such as age, race, heredity, density of parasitaemia; impurities in formulations, plasmodial specie, dosage form and metabolites have been discussed in this review. Efforts to ameliorate this burden have necessitated the use of drugs of diverse pharmacological classes such as antihistamines, corticosteroids and multivitamins either alone or as a combination. This review is to look into the use of chloroquine retrospectively, and consider its re-introduction due to its safety. Efficacy can be attained if the pruritic effect is resolved.

  3. Methaemoglobinemia Induced by MDMA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. W. Verhaert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Case. A 45-year-old man with a blank medical history presented at the emergency room with dizziness and cyanosis. Physical examination showed cyanosis with a peripheral saturation (SpO2 of 85%, he did not respond to supplemental oxygen. Arterial blood gas analysis showed a striking chocolate brown colour. Based on these data, we determined the arterial methaemoglobin concentration. This was 32%. We gave 100% oxygen and observed the patient in a medium care unit. The next day, patient could be discharged in good condition. Further inquiry about exhibitions and extensive history revealed that the patient used MDMA (3,4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine, the active ingredient of ecstasy. Conclusion. Acquired methaemoglobinemia is a condition that occurs infrequently, but is potentially life threatening. Different nutrients, medications, and chemicals can induce methaemoglobinemia by oxidation of haemoglobin. The clinical presentation of a patient with methaemoglobinemia is due to the impossibility of O2 binding and transport, resulting in tissue hypoxia. Important is to think about methaemoglobin in a patient who presents with cyanosis, a peripheral saturation of 85% that fails to respond properly to the administration of O2. Because methaemoglobin can be reduced physiologically, it is usually sufficient to remove the causative agent, to give O2, and to observe the patient.

  4. Temozolomide-Induced Myelodysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan A. Natelson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient who had received temozolomide (TMZ as a single agent in treatment of malignant glioma developed therapy-induced myelodysplasia (T-MDS. TMZ is an orally active imidazotetrazine which methylates guanine residues in DNA, ultimately causing single and double-strand DNA breaks leading to apoptotic cell death. TMZ does not chemically cross-link DNA and is considered a nonclassical alkylating agent, similar in structure and activity to dacarbazine. Observations on this patient, and on similarly treated others, suggest that the cumulative dose threshold (CDT for TMZ that predisposes to T-MDS and which may potentially lead to acute myeloid leukemia (T-AML is around 18000 to 20000 mg/sq m. Although the incidence of T-MDS and the predisposing CDT of TMZ may differ from that of other potentially leukemogenic compounds currently and formerly used as chemotherapeutic agents, all alkylating agents, including TMZ, should be considered potentially leukemogenic when administered long term.

  5. Methaemoglobinemia Induced by MDMA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaert, L L W

    2011-01-01

    Case. A 45-year-old man with a blank medical history presented at the emergency room with dizziness and cyanosis. Physical examination showed cyanosis with a peripheral saturation (SpO(2)) of 85%, he did not respond to supplemental oxygen. Arterial blood gas analysis showed a striking chocolate brown colour. Based on these data, we determined the arterial methaemoglobin concentration. This was 32%. We gave 100% oxygen and observed the patient in a medium care unit. The next day, patient could be discharged in good condition. Further inquiry about exhibitions and extensive history revealed that the patient used MDMA (3,4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine, the active ingredient of ecstasy). Conclusion. Acquired methaemoglobinemia is a condition that occurs infrequently, but is potentially life threatening. Different nutrients, medications, and chemicals can induce methaemoglobinemia by oxidation of haemoglobin. The clinical presentation of a patient with methaemoglobinemia is due to the impossibility of O(2) binding and transport, resulting in tissue hypoxia. Important is to think about methaemoglobin in a patient who presents with cyanosis, a peripheral saturation of 85% that fails to respond properly to the administration of O(2). Because methaemoglobin can be reduced physiologically, it is usually sufficient to remove the causative agent, to give O(2), and to observe the patient.

  6. Carbimazole-induced agranulocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 47 year old lady with hyperthyroidism for past 1½ years was initially on Carbimazole 20 mg orally then changed to 30 mg (during Hysterectomy but was taking 10 mg for last 1 year. She had intermittent fever with severe B/L bifrontal headache since 3 weeks. Routine investigations showed anaemia, neutropenia, leucopenia and CRP elevation. Peripheral smear showed normocytic normochromic anaemia with Rouleaux formation, leucopenia with 2% atypical cells and mild thrombocytosis. Widal test, RA factor (Rheumatoid factor test, Ig M (Immunoglobulin M dengue, Ig M Lepto, TORCH infections (Toxoplasmosis, Other (Syphilis, varicella-zoster, parvovirus B19, Cytomegalovirus and Herpes infections, ANA (Antinuclear antibody screen cANCA (Cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and pANCA (Perinuclear Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies tests were negative. Bone marrow aspiration showed normo to hypercellular marrow with 15% atypical cells and plasma cells. Multiple myeloma workup was done. Carbimazole was withheld. Conclusion: Drug induced agranulocytosis occurs with in 1-2 months of taking the antithyroid medication but onset delayed by 1½ year. De-challenge resulted normalization of blood parameters.

  7. Inducible HSP70 Protects Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae-June; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kwon, Hee-Choong; Lee, Su-Jae; Bae, Sang-Woo; Lee, Yun-Sil [Korea Institute of Radiological Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Ho [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Irradiation (IR) delivered to the head and neck is a common treatment for malignancies. Salivary glands in the irradiation field are severely damaged, and consequently this resulted in marked salivary hypofunction. While the exact mechanism of salivary gland damage remains enigmatic, fluid secreting acinar cells are lost, and saliva output is dramatically reduced. Previously we have reported that inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70i) induced radioresistance in vitro. Moreover, HSP70i localized to salivary glands by gene transfer has great potential for the treatment of salivary gland. Herein, we investigated whether HSP70 can use as radio protective molecules for radiation-induced salivary gland damage in vivo.

  8. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Nissar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last 7 decades heparin has remained the most commonly used anticoagulant. Its use is increasing, mainly due to the increase in the number of vascular interventions and aging population. The most feared complication of heparin use is heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT. HIT is a clinicopathologic hypercoagulable, procoagulant prothrombotic condition in patients on heparin therapy, and decrease in platelet count by 50% or to less than 100,000, from 5 to 14 days of therapy. This prothrombotic hypercoagulable state in HIT patient is due to the combined effect of various factors, such as platelet activation, mainly the formation of PF4/heparin/IgG complex, stimulation of the intrinsic factor, and loss of anticoagulant effect of heparin. Diagnosis of HIT is done by clinical condition, heparin use, and timing of thrombocytopenia, and it is confirmed by either serotonin release assay or ELISA assay. Complications of HIT are venous/arterial thrombosis, skin gangrene, and acute platelet activation syndrome. Stopping heparin is the basic initial treatment, and Direct Thrombin Inhibitors (DTI are medication of choice in these patients. A few routine but essential procedures performed by using heparin are hemodialysis, Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, and Cardiopulmonary Bypass; but it cannot be used if a patient develops HIT. HIT patients with unstable angina, thromboembolism, or indwelling devices, such as valve replacement or intraaortic balloon pump, will require alternative anticoagulation therapy. HIT can be prevented significantly by keeping heparin therapy shorter, avoiding bovine heparin, using low-molecular weight heparin, and stopping heparin use for flush and heparin lock.

  9. Extreme geomagnetically induced currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Ryuho; Ngwira, Chigomezyo

    2016-12-01

    We propose an emergency alert framework for geomagnetically induced currents (GICs), based on the empirically extreme values and theoretical upper limits of the solar wind parameters and of d B/d t, the time derivative of magnetic field variations at ground. We expect this framework to be useful for preparing against extreme events. Our analysis is based on a review of various papers, including those presented during Extreme Space Weather Workshops held in Japan in 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. Large-amplitude d B/d t values are the major cause of hazards associated with three different types of GICs: (1) slow d B/d t with ring current evolution (RC-type), (2) fast d B/d t associated with auroral electrojet activity (AE-type), and (3) transient d B/d t of sudden commencements (SC-type). We set "caution," "warning," and "emergency" alert levels during the main phase of superstorms with the peak Dst index of less than -300 nT (once per 10 years), -600 nT (once per 60 years), or -900 nT (once per 100 years), respectively. The extreme d B/d t values of the AE-type GICs are 2000, 4000, and 6000 nT/min at caution, warning, and emergency levels, respectively. For the SC-type GICs, a "transient alert" is also proposed for d B/d t values of 40 nT/s at low latitudes and 110 nT/s at high latitudes, especially when the solar energetic particle flux is unusually high.

  10. Immune Vasculitis Induced Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between immune vasculitis and atherosclerosis was studied. The experimental model of weanling rabbits for immune vasculitis was reproduced by intravenous injection of 10 % bovine serum albumin. There were 6 groups: group A, 25 weanling rabbits with immune vasculitis subject to coronary arteriography; group B, 10 normal mature rabbits subject to coronary arteriography; group C, 10 weanling rabbits subject to coronary arteriography; group D, 8 weanling rabbits with vasculitis and cholesterol diet; group E, 8 weanling rabbits receiving single cholesterol diet; group F: 8 weanling rabbits receiving basic diet. Four weeks later, coronary arteriography was performed in groups A, B and C. The rabbits in groups D, E and F were sacrificed for the study of pathological changes in the coronary artery after 12 weeks. The results showed that the dilatation of coronary artery occurred in 6 rabbits of group A, but in groups B and C, no dilatation of coronary artery appeared. In comparison with group E, more severe atherosclerosis occurred in group D, showing the thickened plaque, fibrous sclerosis and atherosclerotic lesion. Percentage of plaques covering aortic intima, incidence of atherosclerosis of small coronary arteries and degree of stenosis of coronary arteries were significantly higher in group D than in group E (P<0.01). No atherosclerosis changes were found in group F. It was concluded that in the acute phase, the serum immune vasculitis can induce the dilatation of coronary artery of some weanling rabbits, and aggravate the formation of atherosclerosis in rabbits fed with cholesterol diet. Immune vasculitis is a new risk factor of atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease.

  11. Does stress induce bowel dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ming; El-Zaatari, Mohamad; Kao, John Y

    2014-08-01

    Psychological stress is known to induce somatic symptoms. Classically, many gut physiological responses to stress are mediated by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. There is, however, a growing body of evidence of stress-induced corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) release causing bowel dysfunction through multiple pathways, either through the HPA axis, the autonomic nervous systems, or directly on the bowel itself. In addition, recent findings of CRF influencing the composition of gut microbiota lend support for the use of probiotics, antibiotics, and other microbiota-altering agents as potential therapeutic measures in stress-induced bowel dysfunction.

  12. Cisplatin-Induced Eosinophilic Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideharu Ideguchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 67-year-old man suffering from esophageal cancer was admitted to our hospital complaining of dyspnea and hypoxemia. He had been treated with cisplatin, docetaxel, and fluorouracil combined with radiotherapy. Chest computed tomography revealed bilateral ground-glass opacity, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed increased eosinophils. Two episodes of transient eosinophilia in peripheral blood were observed after serial administration of anticancer drugs before the admission, and drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test to cisplatin was positive. Thus cisplatin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia was suspected, and corticosteroid was effectively administered. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of cisplatin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia.

  13. Noise-induced coherent switch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Taking the famous genetic toggle switch as an example,we numerically investigated the effect of noise on bistability.We found that extrinsic noise resulting from stochastic fluctuations in synthesis and degradation rates and from the environmental fluctuation in gene regulatory processes can induce coherent switch,and that there is an optimal noise intensity such that the noise not only can induce this switch,but also can amplify a weak input signal.In addition,we found that the intrinsic noise introduced through the Poisson τ-leap algorithm cannot induce such a switch.

  14. Drug-Induced Metabolic Acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Amy Quynh Trang; Xu, Li Hao Richie; Moe, Orson W

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis could emerge from diseases disrupting acid-base equilibrium or from drugs that induce similar derangements. Occurrences are usually accompanied by comorbid conditions of drug-induced metabolic acidosis, and clinical outcomes may range from mild to fatal. It is imperative that clinicians not only are fully aware of the list of drugs that may lead to metabolic acidosis but also understand the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. In this review, we categorized drug-induced metabolic acidosis in terms of pathophysiological mechanisms, as well as individual drugs' characteristics.

  15. Systemic resistance induced by rhizosphere bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.C. van; Bakker, P.A.H.M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Nonpathogenic rhizobacteria can induce a systemic resistance in plants that is phenotypically similar to pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance (ISR) has been demonstrated against fungi, bacteria, and viruses in Arabidopsis, bean, carn

  16. 基于因子分析方法筛选大鼠溃疡性结肠炎的敏感指标%Screening of Sensitive Indexes of TNBS-induced Ulcerative Colitis in Rats by Factor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵益; 李冰涛; 刘燕; 赖小东; 刘红宁; 徐国良

    2014-01-01

    目的:运用因子分析方法探讨三硝基苯磺酸(TNBS)+乙醇诱导的溃疡性结肠炎(UC)的敏感性指标。方法 SD 大鼠随机分为正常对照组、模型组;以 TNBS +乙醇诱导 UC 模型,模型复制5 d 后测定大鼠体质量、隐血、稀便情况,计算疾病活动指数(DAI 指数)和肠指数;比色法检测结肠组织匀浆上清液髓质过氧化酶(MPO)、丙二醛(MDA)、超氧化物岐化酶(SOD)、一氧化氮(NO)含量;酶联免疫吸附(ELISA)法检测血浆中白介素(IL)-4、IL-18、P-选择素含量。通过因子分析法评价各指标的主成分,并进一步计算出判别标准 b 值,以确定敏感指标。结果 UC 在炎症和氧化方面指标经因子分析后,用主成分提取得到4个成分,特征指数1.382>1,判别标准 b 值的排序为 DAI 指数>肠指数>MPO>肠质量>MDA。结论利用因子分析可以指导UC 大鼠模型敏感指标的筛选,可选取 DAI 指数、肠指数、MPO 等作为大鼠 UC 敏感性指标。%Objective To investigate the sensitive indexes of rat ulcerative colitis model induced by trinitro-benzene-sulfonic acid (TNBS)and ethanol-induced using the method of factor analysis. Methods SD rats were randomly divided into normal group and model group. Rat model of ulcerative colitis was induced by TNBS and ethanol. Five days after the modeling,we examined rat body weight,occult blood and loose stool,and calculated disease activity index (DAI)and colon index. The contents of medullary peroxidase(MPO),malondialdehyde (MDA),superoxide dismustase(SOD),nitric oxide(NO)in colon tissue homogenate were detected by colorimetric method. The interleukin 4(IL-4),IL-18,P-selectin levels of plasma were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). Factor analysis method was used to evaluate the principal components of each index,and then the discriminant?criteria b value was calculated for defining the sensitive index

  17. Reading-Induced Absence Seizures

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1995-01-01

    A 12-year-old girl with a 2-year history of absence seizures induced by reading and diagnosed by video EEG is reported from The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, and Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital, Saudi Arabia.

  18. Eigenvalue Conditions for Induced Subgraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harant Jochen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Necessary conditions for an undirected graph G to contain a graph H as induced subgraph involving the smallest ordinary or the largest normalized Laplacian eigenvalue of G are presented.

  19. Induced-charge Electrokinetic Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Bazant, M Z; Bazant, Martin Z.; Squires, Todd M.

    2003-01-01

    Motivated by the recent discovery of AC electro-osmosis near micro-electrodes, we predict a broad class of nonlinear electrokinetic phenomena involving induced interfacial charge. By considering various polarizable objects (metals or dielectrics) in DC and AC applied fields, we develop a simple physical picture of `induced-charge electro-osmosis' (ICEO), the fluid slip at a surface due to an electric field acting on the diffuse charge it induces. We also discuss `induced-charge electrophoresis' (ICEP), the analogous motion of a freely-suspended polarizable particle. Both differ significantly from their classical linear counterparts. We present a mathematical theory of ICEO flows in the weakly nonlinear limit of thin double layers. As an example, we calculate the time-dependent ICEO slip around a metallic sphere with a thin dielectric coating in a suddenly-applied DC field. We briefly discuss possible applications of ICEO to microfluidics and of ICEP to colloidal manipulation.

  20. Methadone Induced Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Chadi Saifan; Daniel Glass; Iskandar Barakat; Suzanne El-Sayegh

    2013-01-01

    Background. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) caused by opiate abuse or overuse has been well documented in the medical literature. Most documented case reports have involved either heroin or hydrocodone/acetaminophen. Recently, case reposts of methadone induced SSHL have been published. Case Report. We present the case of a 31-year-old man who developed SSHL after a methadone overdose induced stupor. He was subsequently restarted on methadone at his regular dose. On follow-up audiomet...

  1. Mutations induced in plant breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga B, P. (Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia. Inst. de Produccion y Sanidad Vegetal)

    1984-10-01

    The most significant aspects of the use of ionizing radiations in plant breeding are reviewed. Aspects such as basic principles of mutation, expression and selection in obtention of mutants, methods for using induced mutations and sucess achieved with this methodology in plant breeding are reviewed. Results obtained in a program of induced mutation on wheat for high content of protein and lysine at the Universidad Austral de Chile are presented.

  2. Holographic Two-Photon Induced Photopolymerization

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Holographic two-photon-induced photopolymerization (HTPIP) offers distinct advantages over conventional one-photon-induced photopolymerization and current techniques...

  3. T cell subsets and cytokines in allergic and non-allergic children. I. Analysis of IL-4, IFN-? and IL-13 mRNA expression and protein production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, H.; Neijens, H.J.; Baert, M.R.M.; Oranje, A.P.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.

    1997-01-01

    Interleukin 4 (IL-4) and IL-13 are key cytokines inducing switching to immunoglobulin E (IgE), whereas interferon (IFN-) acts inhibitory on this process. We analysed whether differences existed in IL-4, IFN- and IL-13 mRNA expression and protein production between T cells of children with allergic a

  4. Victim-induced criminality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooner, M

    1966-09-02

    about the probable effects on the administration of criminal justice. These are pragmatic problems; there is a third problem which may at this time seem speculative, but is, nevertheless, quite important. 3) To what extent will a particular proposal for victim compensation contribute to a temptation-opportunity pattern in victim behavior? In previous studies it has been pointed out that large numbers of our fellow Americans have tended to acquire casual money-handling habits-generically designated "carelessness"-which contribute to the national growth of criminality. How the victim helps the criminal was sketched in reports of those studies (10). It was made abundantly clear that human beings in our affluent society cannot be assumed to be prudent or self-protective against the hazards of crime. Even when the "victim" is not overtly acting to commit a crime-as in the case of the property owner who hires an arsonist-he often tempts the offender. Among the victims of burglary-statistically the most prevalent crime in the United States-are a substantial number of Americans who keep cash, jewelry, and other valuables carelessly at home or in hotel rooms to which the burglar has easy access through door or window. Victims of automobile theft-one of the fastest growing classes of crime-include drivers who leave the vehicle or its contents invitingly accessible to thieves. And so on with other classes of crime. As pointed out in previous studies, when victim behavior follows a temptation-opportunity pattern, it (i) contributes to a "climate of criminal inducements," (ii) adds to the economic resources available to criminal societies, and (iii) detracts from the ability of lawenforcement agencies to suppress the growth of crime.

  5. Induced airflow in flying insects II. Measurement of induced flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sane, Sanjay P; Jacobson, Nathaniel P

    2006-01-01

    The flapping wings of insects and birds induce a strong flow over their body during flight. Although this flow influences the sensory biology and physiology of a flying animal, there are very little data on the characteristics of this self-generated flow field or its biological consequences. A model proposed in the companion paper estimated the induced flow over flying insects. In this study, we used a pair of hot wire anemometers to measure this flow at two locations near the body of a tethered flapping hawk moth, Manduca sexta. The axial inflow anemometer measured the airflow prior to its entry into the stroke plane, whereas the radial outflow anemometer measured the airflow after it crossed the stroke plane. The high temporal resolution of the hot wire anemometers allowed us to measure not only the mean induced flow but also subtle higher frequency disturbances occurring at 1-4 times the wing beat frequency. These data provide evidence for the predictions of a mathematical model proposed in the companion paper. Specifically, the absolute value of the measured induced flow matches the estimate of the model. Also, as predicted by the model, the induced flow varies linearly with wing beat frequency. Our experiments also show that wing flexion contributes significantly to the observed higher frequency disturbances. Thus, the hot wire anemometry technique provides a useful means to quantify the aerodynamic signature of wing flexion. The phasic and tonic components of induced flow influence several physiological processes such as convective heat loss and gas exchange in endothermic insects, as well as alter the nature of mechanosensory and olfactory stimuli to the sensory organs of a flying insect.

  6. Uterine contraction induced by Ghanaian plants used to induce abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birgitte HV; Soelberg, Jens; Kristiansen, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    Ethnomedicinal observations from the time of the Atlantic slave trade show women in Ghana historically used plants as emmenagogues (menstruation stimulants) and to induce abortion. This study investigates the effect of four of these plants on uterine contraction. The historically used plants were...... response obtained with acetylcholine. Erythrina senegalensis, Ficus sur and Physalis angulata did not show activity. M. cecropioides can thus be used to induce contractions, which coincides well with the historical and extant use of M. cecropioides as emmenagogue/birth stimulant...

  7. Drug-induced cutaneous vasculitides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiga, E; Verdelli, A; Bonciani, D; Bonciolini, V; Quintarelli, L; Volpi, W; Fabbri, P; Caproni, M

    2015-04-01

    Cutaneous vasculitides (CV) can be idiopathic or secondary to several triggers, including drugs, which account for up to 30% of all the cases of CV. Several drugs can induce CV, including some medications commonly used in dermatology, including minocycline, and several new drugs, such as anti-TNF agents. Different pathomecanisms are involved in the development of drug-induced CV, including the formation and deposition of immune complexes, the induction of neutrophil apoptosis, the formation of neoantigens between the drugs and proteins from the host, the shift of the immune response, and others. Although the diagnosis is difficult, because the clinical picture of drug-induced CV is in general indistinguishable from that of other forms of CV, it is important to recognize such entities in order to correctly manage the patient. Anamnesis, diagnostic algorithms to assess the likelihood of the association between a drug and a cutaneous reaction, skin biopsy and laboratory testing (including the search for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) are useful tools to make a diagnosis of drug-induced CV. About the therapy, while in idiopathic vasculitides the treatment is usually more aggressive and long-lasting, very often requiring a maintenance therapy with immunosuppressive drugs, in drug-induced CV the discontinuation of the suspected drug alone is usually enough to achieve complete remission, making the prognosis usually very good.

  8. Drug-induced lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carrabba

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced lupus is a syndrome which share symptoms and laboratory characteristics with the idiopathic systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. The list of medications implicated as etiologic agents in drug-induced lupus continues to grow. The terms used for this condition are lupus-like syndrome, drug-induced lupus erythematosus (DILE and drug related lupus. More than 80 drugs have been associated with DILE. The first case of DILE was reported in 1945 and associated with sulfadiazin. In 1953 it was reported that DILE was related to the use of hydralazine. Drugs responsible for the development of DILE can divided into three groups, but the list of these drugs is quite long because new drugs are included yearly in the list. The syndrome is characterised by arthralgia, myalgia, pleurisy, rash and fever in association with antinuclear antibodies in the serum. Recognition of DILE is important because it usually reverts within a few weeks after stopping the drug.

  9. Static behaviour of induced seismicity

    CERN Document Server

    Mignan, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    The standard paradigm to describe seismicity induced by fluid injection is to apply nonlinear diffusion dynamics in a poroelastic medium. I show that the spatiotemporal behaviour and rate evolution of induced seismicity can, instead, be expressed by geometric operations on a static stress field produced by volume change at depth. I obtain laws similar in form to the ones derived from poroelasticity while requiring a lower description length. Although fluid flow is known to occur in the ground, it is not pertinent to the behaviour of induced seismicity. The proposed model is equivalent to the static stress model for tectonic foreshocks generated by the Non- Critical Precursory Accelerating Seismicity Theory. This study hence verifies the explanatory power of this theory outside of its original scope.

  10. Late onset clozapine induced agranulocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmohan Velayudhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Agranulocytosis is defined as an absolute neutrophil count less than 100/mm 3 in association with infectious disease. The risk of agranulocytosis is 0.38% of all clozapine treated cases and there is a relatively lesser incidence in Indian population. The risk of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis and neutropenia is highest in the first 6 months and higher in the initial 18 months after the onset of treatment. There have been very few reports of neutropenia and agranulocytosis after this period. There have so far been no reports of late onset clozapine induced agranulocytosis has been reported from India. A case of late onset clozapine induced agranulocytosis with possible mechanism of the same is reported.

  11. Surface-induced evaporative cooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke Min; Yan Bo; Cheng Feng; Wang Yu-Zhu

    2009-01-01

    The effects of surface-induced evaporative cooling on an atom chip are investigated. The evolutions of temperature, number and phase-space density of the atom cloud are measured when the atom cloud is brought close to the surface. Rapid decrease of the temperature and number of the atoms is found when the atom-surface distance is < 100 μm. A gain of about a factor of five on the phase-space density is obtained. It is found that the efficiency of the surface-induced evaporative cooling depends on the atom-surface distance and the shape of the evaporative trap. When the atoms are moved very close to the surface, severe heating is observed, which dominates when the holding time is > 8 ms. It is important that the surface-induced evaporative cooling offers novel possibilities for the realization of a continuous condensation, where a spatially varying evaporative cooling is required.

  12. Validating induced seismicity forecast models - Induced Seismicity Test Bench

    CERN Document Server

    Kiraly-Proag, Eszter; Gischig, Valentin; Wiemer, Stefan; Karvounis, Dimitrios; Doetsch, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Induced earthquakes often accompany fluid injection, and the seismic hazard they pose threatens various underground engineering projects. Models to monitor and control induced seismic hazard with traffic light systems should be probabilistic, forward-looking, and updated as new data arrive. In this study, we propose an Induced Seismicity Test Bench to test and rank such models; this test bench can be used for model development, model selection, and ensemble model building. We apply the test bench to data from the Basel 2006 and Soultz-sous-For\\^ets 2004 geothermal stimulation projects, and we assess forecasts from two models: Shapiro and Smoothed Seismicity (SaSS) and Hydraulics and Seismics (HySei). These models incorporate a different mix of physics-based elements and stochastic representation of the induced sequences. Our results show that neither model is fully superior to the other. Generally, HySei forecasts the seismicity rate better after shut-in, but is only mediocre at forecasting the spatial distri...

  13. Metal-induced crystallization fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zumin; Mittemeijer, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Metal-Induced CrystallizationAtomic Mechanisms and Interface Thermodynamics of Metal-Induced Crystallization of Amorphous Semiconductors at Low TemperaturesThermodynamics and Kinetics of Layer Exchange upon Low-Temperature Annealing Amorphous Si/Polycrystalline Al Layered StructuresMetal-Induced Crystallization by Homogeneous Insertion of Metallic Species in Amorphous SemiconductorsAluminum-Induced Crystallization: Applications in Photovoltaic TechnologiesApplications of Metal-Induced Crystallization for Advanced Flat-Panel DisplaysLaser-Assisted Meta

  14. Snowfall induced by corona discharge

    CERN Document Server

    Ju, Jingjing; Li, Ruxin; Du, Shengzhe; Sun, Haiyi; Liu, Yonghong; Tian, Ye; Bai, Yafeng; Liu, Yaoxiang; Chen, Na; Wang, Jingwei; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Jiansheng; Chin, S L; Xu, Zhizhan

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated for the first time the condensation and precipitation (or snowfall) induced by a corona discharge inside a cloud chamber. Ionic wind was found to have played a more significant role than ions as extra Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN). 2.25 g of net snow enhancement was measured after applying a 30 kV corona discharge for 25 min. In comparison with another newly emerging femtosecond laser filamentation method, the snow precipitation induced by the corona discharge has about 4 orders of magnitude higher wall-plug efficiency under similar conditions.

  15. Induced radioactivity in LDEF components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, B. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Parnell, T. A.; Laird, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    A systematic study of the induced radioactivity of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is being carried out in order to gather information about the low earth orbit radiation environment and its effects on materials. The large mass of the LDEF spacecraft, its stabilized configuration, and long mission duration have presented an opportunity to determine space radiation-induced radioactivities with a precision not possible before. Data presented include preliminary activities for steel and aluminum structural samples, and activation subexperiment foils. Effects seen in the data show a clear indication of the trapped proton anisotropy in the South Atlantic Anomaly and suggest contributions from different sources of external radiation fluxes.

  16. Drug-induced hepatic injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Andreasen, P B

    1992-01-01

    The Danish Committee on Adverse Drug Reactions received 1100 reports of suspected drug-induced hepatic injury during the decade 1978-1987. The causal relationship between drug and hepatic injury was classified as definite in 57 (5.2%) reports, probable in 989 (89.9%) reports, possible in 50 (4...... during the last 2 years of the decade. Based on consumption data, the incidence of hepatic injury due to sulindac was estimated to be 18-fold higher than that due to ibuprofen. Paracetamol was reported to induce acute cytotoxic as well as cholestatic reactions in non-alcoholic subjects taking therapeutic...

  17. Drug-induced hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Hair loss can have major psychological consequences. It can be due to a wide variety of causes, including hormonal disorders, dietary factors, infections, inflammation, trauma, emotional factors, and cancer. Drugs can also induce hair loss, by interacting with the hair growth cycle. Drug-induced hair loss may be immediate or delayed, sudden or gradual, and diffuse or localised. It is usually reversible after drug discontinuation. The drugs most often implicated in hair loss are anticancer agents, interferon, azole antifungals, lithium, immunosuppressants, and many other drugs belonging to a variety of pharmacological classes.

  18. Ceftriaxone-induced toxic hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erdal Peker; Eren Cagan; Murat Dogan

    2009-01-01

    Toxic hepatitis or drug-induced liver injury encompasses a spectrum of clinical disease ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to acute liver failure. The advantages of a long half-life, wide spectrum, high tissue penetration rate, and a good safety profile,make ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin,a frequent choice in the treatment of childhood infections. Previous studies have reported a few cases of high aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, along with three cases ofhepatitis caused by ceftriaxone. Here, we report a case of drug-induced toxic hepatitis in a patient who was treated with ceftriaxone for acute tonsillitis.

  19. An induced junction photovoltaic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Silicon solar cells operating with induced junctions rather than diffused junctions have been fabricated and tested. Induced junctions were created by forming an inversion layer near the surface of the silicon by supplying a sheet of positive charge above the surface. Measurements of the response of the inversion layer cell to light of different wavelengths indicated it to be more sensitive to the shorter wavelengths of the sun's spectrum than conventional cells. The greater sensitivity occurs because of the shallow junction and the strong electric field at the surface.

  20. Anesthetic-Induced Developmental Neurotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-RenLiu; Qian Liu; Jing Li; Sulpicio G. Soriano

    2011-01-01

    1 IntroductionMillions of newborn and infants receive anesthetic,sedative and analgesic drugs for surgery and painful procedures on a daily basis.Recent laboratory reports clearly demonstrate that anesthetic and sedative drugs induced both neuroapoptosis and neurocognitive deficits in laboratory models.This issue is of paramount interest to pediatric anesthesiologists and intensivists because it questions the safety of anesthetics used for fetal and neonatal anesthesia[1-2].In an attempt to summarize the rapidly expanding laboratorybased literature on anesthetic-induced developmental neurotoxicity (AIDN),this review will examine published reports on the characterization,mechanisms and alleviation of this phenomenon.

  1. Traffic forecasts ignoring induced demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter; Nicolaisen, Morten Skou; Strand, Arvid

    2012-01-01

    Although the phenomenon of induced traffic has been theorized for more than 60 years and is now widely accepted among transport researchers, the traffic-generating effects of road capacity expansion are still often neglected in transport modelling. Such omission can lead to serious bias in the as......Although the phenomenon of induced traffic has been theorized for more than 60 years and is now widely accepted among transport researchers, the traffic-generating effects of road capacity expansion are still often neglected in transport modelling. Such omission can lead to serious bias...

  2. Radiation-induced intestinal inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meritxell Mollà; Julián Panés

    2007-01-01

    Radiation induces an important inflammatory response in the irradiated organs, characterized by leukocyte infiltration and vascular changes that are the main limiting factor in the application of this therapeutic modality for the treatment of cancer. Recently, a considerable investigative effort has been directed at determining the molecular mechanisms by which radiation induces leukocyte recruitment, in order to create strategies to prevent intestinal inflammatory damage. In these review, we consider current available evidence on the factors governing the process of leukocyte recruitment in irradiated organs, mainly derived from experimental studies, with special attention to adhesion molecules, and their value as therapeutic targets.

  3. Bathtub suction-induced purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Maeran C; Schroeder, Theresa L

    2004-01-01

    We report two cases of bathtub suction-induced purpura. Two girls, ages 9 and 14 years, developed recurring purpura "spontaneously" in the same lower back location and in the same U-shaped distribution. The patients had similar histopathologic findings, with extravasated erythrocytes and a sparse superficial inflammatory infiltrate. After extensive evaluation, one patient eventually admitted to self-inducing her lesions by creating suction against a bathtub. The second patient denied self-inflicting her lesions; however, her purpura improved when she stopped taking baths.

  4. Demand inducement as cheap talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcott, P

    1999-12-01

    The doctor-patient interaction is analysed in a game of cheap talk. Causes and consequences of imperfect agency are examined. One form of imperfect agency, supplier-induced demand, is a feature of neologism proof equilibria with some parameter values but not with others. The model is used to evaluate two tests that have been used to test for the existence of supplier-induced demand. The analysis suggests that the two tests, which compare the medical utilization of informed and uninformed consumers, are not valid.

  5. Conflict-Induced Perceptual Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Mike; Luna-Rodriguez, Aquiles; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In a variety of conflict paradigms, target and distractor stimuli are defined in terms of perceptual features. Interference evoked by distractor stimuli tends to be reduced when the ratio of congruent to incongruent trials is decreased, suggesting conflict-induced perceptual filtering (i.e., adjusting the processing weights assigned to stimuli…

  6. Photobiomodulation on alcohol induced dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zheng-Ping; Liu, Timon C.; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yan-Fang

    2007-05-01

    Alcohol, which is ubiquitous today, is a major health concern. Its use was already relatively high among the youngest respondents, peaked among young adults, and declined in older age groups. Alcohol is causally related to more than 60 different medical conditions. Overall, 4% of the global burden of disease is attributable to alcohol, which accounts for about as much death and disability globally as tobacco and hypertension. Alcohol also promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or interferes with the body's normal defense mechanisms against these compounds through numerous processes, particularly in the liver. Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a cell-specific effect of low intensity monochromatic light or low intensity laser irradiation (LIL) on biological systems. The cellular effects of both alcohol and LIL are ligand-independent so that PBM might rehabilitate alcohol induced dysfunction. The PBM on alcohol induced human neutrophil dysfunction and rat chronic atrophic gastritis, the laser acupuncture on alcohol addiction, and intravascular PBM on alcoholic coma of patients and rats have been observed. The endonasal PBM (EPBM) mediated by Yangming channel, autonomic nervous systems and blood cells is suggested to treat alcohol induced dysfunction in terms of EPBM phenomena, the mechanism of alcohol induced dysfunction and our biological information model of PBM. In our opinion, the therapeutic effects of PBM might also be achieved on alcoholic myopathy.

  7. Plasma generation induced by triboelectrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Singh, Shailendra Vikram; Michelsen, Poul

    2009-01-01

    A gas discharge plasma can be induced by triboelectrification around a sliding contact. The detailed physical mechanism of triboelectrification is unknown, but an empirical classification scheme can be referred to in practice. It is reported that intense ultra-violet emission from a plasma...

  8. Constraint-induced movement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellini, Greta; Gianola, Silvia; Banzi, Rita;

    2014-01-01

    on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) included in a Cochrane systematic review on the effectiveness of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) for stroke patients. METHODS: We extracted data on the functional independence measure (FIM) and the action research arm test (ARAT) from RCTs that compared CIMT...

  9. Ventilator and viral induced inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennus, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis expands current knowledge on ventilator induced lung injury and provides insights on the immunological effects of mechanical ventilation during viral respiratory infections. The experimental studies in the first part of this thesis improve our understanding of how mechanical ventilation

  10. Toxic encephalopathy induced by capecitabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, B; Rochlitz, C; Herrmann, R; Pless, M

    2004-01-01

    Toxic encephalopathy is a rarely described side effect of 5-fluorouracil which usually presents with cerebellar, neuropsychiatric, and focal neurological symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging findings are described as patchy white matter alterations. We report the 1st case of capecitabine-induced toxic encephalopathy with epilepsy-like symptoms and diffuse white matter alterations on magnetic resonance imaging.

  11. Transdermal hyoscine induced unilateral mydriasis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hannon, Breffni

    2012-03-20

    The authors present a case of unilateral mydriasis in a teenager prescribed transdermal hyoscine hydrobromide (scopolamine) for chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. The authors discuss the ocular side-effects associated with this particular drug and delivery system and the potential use of transdermal hyoscine as an antiemetic agent in this group.

  12. Late onset startle induced tics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, MAJ; Brown, P; Morris, HR; Lees, A

    1999-01-01

    Three cases of late onset Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome are presented. The motor ties were mainly induced by an unexpected startling stimulus, but the startle reflex was not exaggerated. The ties developed after physical trauma or a period of undue emotional stress. Reflex ties may occur in Gille

  13. Hydralazine-induced constrictive pericarditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, CFC; ElGamal, MIH; Gans, ROB; Hoorntje, SJ

    1996-01-01

    A 59-year-old man was diagnosed as having constrictive pericarditis 17 months after a typical hydralazine-induced autoimmune syndrome, This late complication of hydralazine has been reported only once. Ten years later the patient was found to have anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies directed agai

  14. SPS Ion Induced Desorption Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    This experiment will give a study about the induced desorption from heavy ion (Indium ion run from week 45 in SPS T4-H8 area) impacting LHC type graphite collimator. 4 different samples are located in the 4 chambers 90° one to each other: pure graphite, graphite with copper coating, graphite with NEG coating, 316LN stainless steal (reference).

  15. Adolescents and Exercise Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Pamela; Bickanse, Shanna; Bogenreif, Mike; VanSickle, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    This article defines asthma and exercise induced asthma, and provides information on the triggers, signs, and symptoms of an attack. It also gives treatments for these conditions, along with prevention guidelines on how to handle an attack in the classroom or on the practice field. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  16. Nodal bradycardia induced by tocainide.

    OpenAIRE

    Mandal, S. K.; Datta, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    A case of tocainide-induced nodal bradycardia in standard recommended dose is reported. There was no recurrence when the drug was subsequently reintroduced in a reduced dosage. It is suggested that in the elderly, tocainide should be used in a lower dosage than normally recommended.

  17. Drug-induced renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, J R

    1979-11-01

    The clinical manifestations of drug-induced renal disease may include all the manifestations attributed to natural or spontaneous renal diseases such as acute renal failure, chronic renal failure, acute nephritic syndrome, renal colic, haematuria, selective tubular defects, obstructive nephropathy, etc. It is therefore vital in any patient with renal disease whatever the clinical manifestations might be, to obtain a meticulous drug and toxin inventory. Withdrawal of the offending drug may result in amelioration or cure of the renal disorder although in the case of severe renal failure it may be necessary to utilise haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis to tide the patient over the period of acute renal failure. Analgesic nephropathy is an important cause of terminal chronic renal failure and it is therefore vital to make the diagnosis as early as possible. The pathogenesis of some drug-induced renal disorders appears to be immunologically mediated. There are many other pathogenetic mechanisms involved in drug-induced renal disorders and some drugs may under appropriate circumstances be responsible for a variety of different nephrotoxic effects. For example, the sulphonamides have been incriminated in examples of crystalluria, acute interstitial nephritis, acute tubular necrosis, generalised hypersensitivity reactions, polyarteritis nodosa and drug-induced lupus erythematosus.

  18. 'Popper'-induced vision loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krilis, Matthew; Thompson, Julia; Atik, Alp; Lusthaus, Jed; Jankelowitz, Stacey

    2013-05-01

    Amyl nitrite 'poppers' are recreational drugs, which are a potent source of nitric oxide. The use of 'poppers' can cause psychoactive stimulation, reduced blood pressure, tachycardia and involuntary muscle relaxation. Their use is becoming increasingly common around the world, including approximately 60% of Australia's male homosexual community. We report the first case of 'popper'-induced vision loss in Australasia.

  19. Microcracks and Overpressure- Induced Fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed M. Al - QAHTANI

    2001-01-01

    The microfractures and natural fractures studies have a great significance in the hydrocarbon accumulation exploration and can be a good supporter for wide geophysical study on the major structures. This paper is a brief review on microcracks and overpressure- induced fracture. It is to discuss different views on the mechanism of fractures in the subsurface of the earth.

  20. [Readers' position against induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-25

    Replies to the request by the Journal of Nursing on readers' positions against induced abortion indicate there is a definite personal position against induced abortion and the assistance in this procedure. Some writers expressed an emotional "no" against induced abortion. Many quoted arguments from the literature, such as a medical dictionary definition as "a premeditated criminally induced abortion." The largest group of writers quoted from the Bible, the tenor always being: "God made man, he made us with his hands; we have no right to make the decision." People with other philosophies also objected. Theosophical viewpoint considers reincarnation and the law of cause and effect (karma). This philosophy holds that induced abortion impedes the appearance of a reincarnated being. The fundamental question in the abortion problem is, "can the fetus be considered a human life?" The German anatomist Professor E. Bleckschmidt points out that from conception there is human life, hence the fertilized cell can only develop into a human being and is not merely a piece of tissue. Professional nursing interpretation is that nursing action directed towards killing of a human being (unborn child) is against the nature and the essence of the nursing profession. A different opinion states that a nurse cares for patients who have decided for the operation. The nurse doesn't judge but respects the individual's decision. Some proabortion viewpoints considered the endangering of the mother's life by the unborn child, and the case of rape. With the arguments against abortion the question arises how to help the woman with unwanted pregnancy. Psychological counseling is emphasized as well as responsible and careful assistance. Referral to the Society for Protection of the Unborn Child (VBOK) is considered as well as other agencies. Further reader comments on this subject are solicited.

  1. Distinguishing warming-induced drought from drought-induced warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick, M. L.; Yin, D.

    2015-12-01

    It is usually observed that temperatures, especially maximum temperatures are higher during drought. A very widely held public perception is that the increase in temperature is a cause of drought. This represents the warming-induced drought scenario. However, the agricultural and hydrologic scientific communities have a very different interpretation with drought being the cause of increasing temperature. In essence, those communities assume the warming is a surface feedback and their interpretation is for drought-induced warming. This is a classic cause-effect problem that has resisted definitive explanation due to the lack of radiative observations at suitable spatial and temporal scales. In this presentation we first summarise the observations and then use theory to untangle the cause-effect relationships that underlie the competing interpretations. We then show how satellite data (CERES, NASA) can be used to disentangle the cause-effect relations.

  2. Does a parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia induce vestigial cytoplasmic incompatibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaijeveld, Ken; Reumer, Barbara M.; Mouton, Laurence; Kremer, Natacha; Vavre, Fabrice; van Alphen, Jacques J. M.

    2011-03-01

    Wolbachia is a maternally inherited bacterium that manipulates the reproduction of its host. Recent studies have shown that male-killing strains can induce cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) when introgressed into a resistant host. Phylogenetic studies suggest that transitions between CI and other Wolbachia phenotypes have also occurred frequently, raising the possibility that latent CI may be widespread among Wolbachia. Here, we investigate whether a parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia strain can also induce CI. Parthenogenetic females of the parasitoid wasp Asobara japonica regularly produce a small number of males that may be either infected or not. Uninfected males were further obtained through removal of the Wolbachia using antibiotics and from a naturally uninfected strain. Uninfected females that had mated with infected males produced a slightly, but significantly more male-biased sex ratio than uninfected females that had mated with uninfected males. This effect was strongest in females that mated with males that had a relatively high Wolbachia titer. Quantitative PCR indicated that infected males did not show higher ratios of nuclear versus mitochondrial DNA content. Wolbachia therefore does not cause diploidization of cells in infected males. While these results are consistent with CI, other alternatives such as production of abnormal sperm by infected males cannot be completely ruled out. Overall, the effect was very small (9%), suggesting that if CI is involved it may have degenerated through the accumulation of mutations.

  3. Electrochemical Oscillations Induced by Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟俊红; 贺占博

    2003-01-01

    A new type of electrochemical oscillation induced by surfactant was observed in experiments. The electrochemical system is a Daniell cell with a copper rod in CuSO4 aqueous and an aluminum rod in Al(NO3)3 aqueous as electrodes. The surfactants are CTAB, TX-100, SLS. The addition of trace surfactant solution by a micro-syringe made the original monotonously changing electrochemical system produce obvious periodic phenomena. At the mean time, the copper ion selective electrode and Hg2SO4 reference electrode were used to monitor the copper electrode reaction and determine its rate constant k of first order reaction. According to the experimental results of electrode reaction kinetics, the possible mechanism was found to be the polarization induced from the directional adsorption of trace surfactant on the electrode surface. That is the electrochemical oscillations.

  4. Methadone Induced Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadi Saifan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL caused by opiate abuse or overuse has been well documented in the medical literature. Most documented case reports have involved either heroin or hydrocodone/acetaminophen. Recently, case reposts of methadone induced SSHL have been published. Case Report. We present the case of a 31-year-old man who developed SSHL after a methadone overdose induced stupor. He was subsequently restarted on methadone at his regular dose. On follow-up audiometry exams, he displayed persistent moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss bilaterally. Discussion. This case is notable because unlike all but one previously reported case, the patient—who was restated on methadone—did not make a complete recovery. Conclusion. Methadone overuse in rare cases causes SSHL.

  5. Color-induced graph colorings

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive treatment of color-induced graph colorings is presented in this book, emphasizing vertex colorings induced by edge colorings. The coloring concepts described in this book depend not only on the property required of the initial edge coloring and the kind of objects serving as colors, but also on the property demanded of the vertex coloring produced. For each edge coloring introduced, background for the concept is provided, followed by a presentation of results and open questions dealing with this topic. While the edge colorings discussed can be either proper or unrestricted, the resulting vertex colorings are either proper colorings or rainbow colorings. This gives rise to a discussion of irregular colorings, strong colorings, modular colorings, edge-graceful colorings, twin edge colorings and binomial colorings. Since many of the concepts described in this book are relatively recent, the audience for this book is primarily mathematicians interested in learning some new areas of graph colorings...

  6. Methadone induced sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifan, Chadi; Glass, Daniel; Barakat, Iskandar; El-Sayegh, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Background. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) caused by opiate abuse or overuse has been well documented in the medical literature. Most documented case reports have involved either heroin or hydrocodone/acetaminophen. Recently, case reposts of methadone induced SSHL have been published. Case Report. We present the case of a 31-year-old man who developed SSHL after a methadone overdose induced stupor. He was subsequently restarted on methadone at his regular dose. On follow-up audiometry exams, he displayed persistent moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss bilaterally. Discussion. This case is notable because unlike all but one previously reported case, the patient-who was restated on methadone-did not make a complete recovery. Conclusion. Methadone overuse in rare cases causes SSHL.

  7. Drug-induced sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, S A

    1982-01-01

    Commonly used drugs that may cause sexual dysfunction are reviewed. The anatomy and physiology of the normal sexual response are reviewed. The influence of drugs on neurogenic, hormonal, and vascular mechanisms may result in diminished libido, impotence, ejaculatory and orgasmic difficulties, inhibited vaginal lubrication, menstrual irregularities, and gynecomastia in men or painful breast enlargement in women. Parasympatholytic agents, which interfere with cholinergic transmission, may affect erectile potency, while adrenergic inhibiting agents may interfere with ejaculatory control. Central nervous system depressants or sedating drugs, drugs producing hyperprolactinemia, and antiandrogenic drugs also may affect the normal sexual response. Drugs such as antihypertensive and antipsychotic agents may induce sexual dysfunction that can result in patient noncompliance. Usually, drug-induced side effects are reversible with discontinuation of the offending agent.

  8. Esomeprazole-induced photoallergic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are no published case reports of esomeprazole-induced photoallergic dermatitis. We report here a 58-year-old lady with prior history of propylthiouracil and carbimazole-induced photoallergy, who presented with heartburn and dysphagia. She was diagnosed to have erosive esophagitis and was treated with esomeprazole, following which she developed photoallergic dermatitis. It improved on cessation of the drug and did not recur on subsequent treatment with ranitidine. Naranjo score for this adverse drug event was 8, thereby making it a probable adverse drug reaction. This reaction may be due to sulphur moiety, which is common to all these drugs. Physicians must be aware of this possible side-effect, especially in patients with prior history of photoallergy to other drugs.

  9. Prediction of pilot induced oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin PANĂ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An important problem in the design of flight-control systems for aircraft under pilotedcontrol is the determination of handling qualities and pilot-induced oscillations (PIO tendencieswhen significant nonlinearities exist in the vehicle description. The paper presents a method to detectpossible pilot-induced oscillations of Category II (with rate and position limiting, a phenomenonusually due to a misadaptation between the pilot and the aircraft response during some tasks in whichtight closed loop control of the aircraft is required from the pilot. For the analysis of Pilot in the LoopOscillations an approach, based on robust stability analysis of a system subject to uncertainparameters, is proposed. In this analysis the nonlinear elements are substituted by linear uncertainparameters. This approach assumes that PIO are characterized by a limit cycle behavior.

  10. Lead- induced genotoxicity in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Truta

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The changes induced in cytogenetic parameters from root meristems of Triticum aestivum cv. Maruca seedlings have been studied after treatment with lead acetate and lead nitrate solutions, at four concentrations (10, 25, 50, 100 μM containing 2.07, 5.18, 10.36, respectively 20.72 μg ml-1 Pb2+. Lead induced mitosis disturbances in root meristematic cells of wheat seedlings, expressed mainly in decrease of mitotic index and changes in preponderance of division phases. This heavy metal has genotoxic effects, expressed in the occurrence of many chromosomal aberrations in all Pb2+ treated variants. Pb2+ nitrate shows a more pronounced genotoxic potential than lead acetate trihydrate.

  11. Electromagnetically Induced Quantum Holographic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tian-Hui; Xie, Min; Ma, Hong-Yang; Zheng, Chun-Hong; Chen, Li-Bo

    2016-05-01

    We study the quantum holographic imaging of one-dimensional electromagnetically induced grating created by a strong standing wave in an atomic medium. Entangled photon pairs, generated in a spontaneous parametric down-conversion process, are employed as the imaging light to realize coincidence recording. By theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, we find that both the amplitude and phase information of the object can be imaged with the characteristic of imaging nonlocally and of arbitrarily controllable image variation in size.

  12. Drug-Induced Sleep Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charakorn, Natamon; Kezirian, Eric J

    2016-12-01

    Drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) is an upper airway evaluation technique in which fiberoptic examination is performed under conditions of unconscious sedation. Unique information obtained from this 3-dimensional examination of the airway potentially provides additive benefits to other evaluation methods to guide treatment selection. This article presents recommendations regarding DISE technique and the VOTE Classification system for reporting DISE findings and reviews the evidence concerning DISE test characteristics and the association between DISE findings and treatment outcomes.

  13. Acyclovir-induced thrombotic microangiopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, R.; Mukku, K. K.; Devaraju, S. B. R.; Uppin, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    Acyclovir is a commonly used antiviral drug. Acute kidney injury (AKI) due to intratubular crystal precipitation and interstitial nephritis is well known. Here we present a case of acyclovir induced AKI in a 61 year old male with herpes zoster, which presented like thrombotic microangiopathy with acute interstitial nephritis. This is the first case report on acyclovir causing thrombotic microaniopathy with partial improvement in renal function after plasmapharesis. PMID:28356666

  14. Induced, endogenous and exogenous centrality

    OpenAIRE

    Everett, Martin G.; Stephen P. Borgatti

    2010-01-01

    Centrality measures are based upon the structural position an actor has within the network. Induced centrality, sometimes called vitality measures, take graph invariants as an overall measure and derive vertex level measures by deleting individual nodes or edges and examining the overall change. By taking the sum of standard centrality measures as the graph invariant we can obtain measures which examine how much centrality an individual node contributes to the centrality of the other nodes in...

  15. Noise-induced quantum transport

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Pulak Kumar; Barik, Debashis; Ray, Deb Shankar

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the problem of directed quantum transport induced by external exponentially correlated telegraphic noise. In addition to quantum nature of the heat bath, nonlinearity of the periodic system potential brings in quantum contribution. We observe that quantization, in general, enhances classical current at low temperature, while the differences become insignificant at higher temperature. Interplay of quantum diffusion and quantum correction to system potential is analyzed for various r...

  16. Current-Induced Membrane Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, MB; Soestbergen, van, M Michiel; A Mani; Bruus, H.; Biesheuvel, PM; Bazant, MZ

    2012-01-01

    Possible mechanisms for overlimiting current (OLC) through aqueous ion-exchange membranes (exceeding diffusion limitation) have been debated for half a century. Flows consistent with electro-osmotic instability have recently been observed in microfluidic experiments, but the existing theory neglects chemical effects and remains to be quantitatively tested. Here, we show that charge regulation and water self-ionization can lead to OLC by “current-induced membrane discharge” (CIMD), even in the...

  17. Abacavir-induced liver toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Diletta Pezzani

    Full Text Available Abstract Abacavir-induced liver toxicity is a rare event almost exclusively occurring in HLA B*5701-positive patients. Herein, we report one case of abnormal liver function tests occurring in a young HLA B*5701-negative woman on a stable nevirapine-based regimen with no history of liver problems or alcohol abuse after switching to abacavir from tenofovir. We also investigated the reasons for abacavir discontinuation in a cohort of patients treated with abacavir-lamivudine-nevirapine.

  18. Abacavir-induced liver toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzani, Maria Diletta; Resnati, Chiara; Di Cristo, Valentina; Riva, Agostino; Gervasoni, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Abacavir-induced liver toxicity is a rare event almost exclusively occurring in HLA B*5701-positive patients. Herein, we report one case of abnormal liver function tests occurring in a young HLA B*5701-negative woman on a stable nevirapine-based regimen with no history of liver problems or alcohol abuse after switching to abacavir from tenofovir. We also investigated the reasons for abacavir discontinuation in a cohort of patients treated with abacavir-lamivudine-nevirapine.

  19. Acoustically-Induced Electrical Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    We have observed electrical signals excited by and moving along with an acoustic pulse propagating in a sandstone sample. Using resonance we are now studying the characteristics of this acousto-electric signal and determining its origin and the controlling physical parameters. Four rock samples with a range of porosities, permeabilities, and mineralogies were chosen: Berea, Boise, and Colton sandstones and Austin Chalk. Pore water salinity was varied from deionized water to sea water. Ag-AgCl electrodes were attached to the sample and were interfaced to a 4-wire electrical resistivity system. Under computer control, the acoustic signals were excited and the electrical response was recorded. We see strong acoustically-induced electrical signals in all samples, with the magnitude of the effect for each rock getting stronger as we move from the 1st to the 3rd harmonics in resonance. Given a particular fluid salinity, each rock has its own distinct sensitivity in the induced electrical effect. For example at the 2nd harmonic, Berea Sandstone produces the largest electrical signal per acoustic power input even though Austin Chalk and Boise Sandstone tend to resonate with much larger amplitudes at the same harmonic. Two effects are potentially responsible for this acoustically-induced electrical response: one the co-seismic seismo-electric effect and the other a strain-induced resistivity change known as the acousto-electric effect. We have designed experimental tests to separate these mechanisms. The tests show that the seismo-electric effect is dominant in our studies. We note that these experiments are in a fluid viscosity dominated seismo-electric regime, leading to a simple interpretation of the signals where the electric potential developed is proportional to the local acceleration of the rock. Toward a test of this theory we have measured the local time-varying acoustic strain in our samples using a laser vibrometer.

  20. Nifedipine-Induced gingival overgrowth

    OpenAIRE

    Florio, Ornella; School of Dentistry of São Jose dos Campos - State University of São Paulo; Tfouni, Maysa; School of Dentistry of São Jose dos Campos - State University of São Paulo; Balducci, Ivan; School of Dentistry of São Jose dos Campos - State University of São Paulo; Marco, Andrea Carvalho de; School of Dentistry of São Jose dos Campos - State University of São Paulo; Neves Jardini, Maria Aparecida; School of Dentistry of São Jose dos Campos - State University of São Paulo; Dias Almeida, Janete; School of Dentistry of São Jose dos Campos - State University of São Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate gingival overgrowth induced by nifedipine and to correlate it with plaque accumulation. Material and Methods: Sixty patients were divided into a treated group (n=30) consisting of hypertensive patients treated with nifedipine and a control group (n=30) consisting of patients without arterial hypertension. The following exams were performed on the first visit: anamnesis, measurement of blood pressure, weight and height, extra- and i...

  1. Ellipticity induced in vacuum birefringence

    CERN Document Server

    Torgrimsson, Greger

    2014-01-01

    We consider signals of photon-photon scattering in laser-based, low energy experiments. In particular, we consider the ellipticity induced on a probe beam by a strong background field, and compare it with a recent worldline expression for the photon polarisation flip amplitude. When the probe and the background are plane waves, the ellipticity is equal to the flip amplitude. Here we investigate the ellipticity-amplitude relation for more physical fields.

  2. Teriparatide Induced Delayed Persistent Hypercalcemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirosshan Thiruchelvam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Teriparatide, a recombinant PTH, is an anabolic treatment for osteoporosis that increases bone density. Transient hypercalcemia is a reported side effect of teriparatide that is seen few hours following administration of teriparatide and resolves usually within 16 hours of drug administration. Persistent hypercalcemia, although not observed in clinical trials, is rarely reported. The current case describes a rare complication of teriparatide induced delayed persistent hypercalcemia.

  3. MRI-induced retrocalcaneal bursitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tol, J.L.; Dijk, C.N. van [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Maas, M. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-10-01

    This case report describes a patient with acute retrocalcaneal bursitis, which developed after MRI examination of the ankle. The sagittal T2*-weighted gradient echo sequence revealed an extensive susceptibility artifact in the area surrounding the Achilles tendon near its insertion at the os calcis. This artifact was caused by postsurgical metallic particles. We postulate that these particles were mechanically stimulated by the magnetic field and induced the inflammatory response. (orig.)

  4. Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia Antibody Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Sites Search Help? Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia PF4 Antibody Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Heparin-PF4 Antibody; HIT Antibody; HIT PF4 Antibody; Heparin Induced Antibody; ...

  5. YAP Induces Human Naive Pluripotency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Qin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human naive pluripotent stem cell (PSC state, corresponding to a pre-implantation stage of development, has been difficult to capture and sustain in vitro. We report that the Hippo pathway effector YAP is nuclearly localized in the inner cell mass of human blastocysts. Overexpression of YAP in human embryonic stem cells (ESCs and induced PSCs (iPSCs promotes the generation of naive PSCs. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA can partially substitute for YAP to generate transgene-free human naive PSCs. YAP- or LPA-induced naive PSCs have a rapid clonal growth rate, a normal karyotype, the ability to form teratomas, transcriptional similarities to human pre-implantation embryos, reduced heterochromatin levels, and other hallmarks of the naive state. YAP/LPA act in part by suppressing differentiation-inducing effects of GSK3 inhibition. CRISPR/Cas9-generated YAP−/− cells have an impaired ability to form colonies in naive but not primed conditions. These results uncover an unexpected role for YAP in the human naive state, with implications for early human embryology.

  6. Induced Modules of Restricted Lie Superalgebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文德

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we first prove the PBW theorem for reduced universal enveloping algebras of restricted Lie superalgebras. Then the notion of an induced module is introduced and the dimension formula of induced modules is established.Finally, using the results above, we obtain a property of induced modules pertaining to automorphisms of Lie superalgebras and isomorphisms of modules.

  7. Mutations induced by ultraviolet light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifer, Gerd P. [Department of Biology, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010 (United States)]. E-mail: gpfeifer@coh.org; You, Young-Hyun [Department of Biology, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010 (United States); Besaratinia, Ahmad [Department of Biology, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010 (United States)

    2005-04-01

    The different ultraviolet (UV) wavelength components, UVA (320-400 nm), UVB (280-320 nm), and UVC (200-280 nm), have distinct mutagenic properties. A hallmark of UVC and UVB mutagenesis is the high frequency of transition mutations at dipyrimidine sequences containing cytosine. In human skin cancers, about 35% of all mutations in the p53 gene are transitions at dipyrimidines within the sequence 5'-TCG and 5'-CCG, and these are localized at several mutational hotspots. Since 5'-CG sequences are methylated along the p53 coding sequence in human cells, these mutations may be derived from sunlight-induced pyrimidine dimers forming at sequences that contain 5-methylcytosine. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) form preferentially at dipyrimidines containing 5-methylcytosine when cells are irradiated with UVB or sunlight. In order to define the contribution of 5-methylcytosine to sunlight-induced mutations, the lacI and cII transgenes in mouse fibroblasts were used as mutational targets. After 254 nm UVC irradiation, only 6-9% of the base substitutions were at dipyrimidines containing 5-methylcytosine. However, 24-32% of the solar light-induced mutations were at dipyrimidines that contain 5-methylcytosine and most of these mutations were transitions. Thus, CPDs forming preferentially at dipyrimidines with 5-methylcytosine are responsible for a considerable fraction of the mutations induced by sunlight in mammalian cells. Using mouse cell lines harboring photoproduct-specific photolyases and mutational reporter genes, we showed that CPDs (rather than 6-4 photoproducts or other lesions) are responsible for the great majority of UVB-induced mutations. An important component of UVB mutagenesis is the deamination of cytosine and 5-methylcytosine within CPDs. The mutational specificity of long-wave UVA (340-400 nm) is distinct from that of the shorter wavelength UV and is characterized mainly by G to T transversions presumably arising through mechanisms

  8. Statistical Seismology and Induced Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiampo, K. F.; González, P. J.; Kazemian, J.

    2014-12-01

    While seismicity triggered or induced by natural resources production such as mining or water impoundment in large dams has long been recognized, the recent increase in the unconventional production of oil and gas has been linked to rapid rise in seismicity in many places, including central North America (Ellsworth et al., 2012; Ellsworth, 2013). Worldwide, induced events of M~5 have occurred and, although rare, have resulted in both damage and public concern (Horton, 2012; Keranen et al., 2013). In addition, over the past twenty years, the increase in both number and coverage of seismic stations has resulted in an unprecedented ability to precisely record the magnitude and location of large numbers of small magnitude events. The increase in the number and type of seismic sequences available for detailed study has revealed differences in their statistics that previously difficult to quantify. For example, seismic swarms that produce significant numbers of foreshocks as well as aftershocks have been observed in different tectonic settings, including California, Iceland, and the East Pacific Rise (McGuire et al., 2005; Shearer, 2012; Kazemian et al., 2014). Similarly, smaller events have been observed prior to larger induced events in several occurrences from energy production. The field of statistical seismology has long focused on the question of triggering and the mechanisms responsible (Stein et al., 1992; Hill et al., 1993; Steacy et al., 2005; Parsons, 2005; Main et al., 2006). For example, in most cases the associated stress perturbations are much smaller than the earthquake stress drop, suggesting an inherent sensitivity to relatively small stress changes (Nalbant et al., 2005). Induced seismicity provides the opportunity to investigate triggering and, in particular, the differences between long- and short-range triggering. Here we investigate the statistics of induced seismicity sequences from around the world, including central North America and Spain, and

  9. Vincristine-Induced Cranial Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad TALEBIAN*

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Talebian A, Goudarzi RM, Mohammadzadeh M , Mirzadeh AS. Vincristine-Induced Cranial Neuropathy. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Winter; 8(1:66-68. AbstractVincristine (VCR is a vinca alkaloid that is used for treatment of many malignancies.The vinca alkaloids are neurotoxic, usually causing a peripheral neuropathy, but cranial neuropathies are rare as side effects. Described here is the case of a 2.5-year-old boy, a known case of Wilms’ tumor, treated by vincristine (0/067 mg/kg/day and dactinomycin (0/045 mg/kg/day after surgery. Three weeks after treatment, he presented with bilateral ptosis.Neurological examination revealed bilateral ptosis with normal pupillary reflex and eye movement. He received 3.015 mg cumulative dose of vincristine before development of ptosis.Treatment with pyridoxine (150 mg/m2 p.o. BID and pyridostigmine (3 mg/kg p.o. BID started as neuroprotective agents, and after 7 days the problem disappeared.The treatment continued for 6 weeks and there were no signs of ptosis or a recurrence in follow up 2 months later. References:Toopchizade V, Hosseini M, et al. Electrophysiological signs of neuropathy caused by vincristine. Medical Journal of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. 2010 Autumn;31(3; 19-25.Gursel E.S. Vincristine-Induced Unilateral Ptosis in a Child. Pediatr Neurol 2009; 41:461-463.Ngamphaiboon N, Sweeney R, Wetzler M, Wang ES. Pyridoxine treatment of vincristine-induced cranial polyneuropathy in an adult patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia: Case report and review of the literature. Leuk Res. 2010 Aug;34(8:e194-6.Lash SC, Williams CP, Marsh CS, Crithchley C, Hodgkins PR, Mackie EJ. Acute Sixth-Nerve Palsy After Vincristine Therapy. Journal of AAPOS 2004 Feb;8(1: 67-8.Bay A, Yilmaz C, Yilmaz N, Oner AF. Vincristine induced cranial polyneuropathy. Indian J Pediatr. 2006 Jun;73(6:531-3.Tuxen M K, Hansen SW. Complication of treatment, Neurotoxicity secondary to antineoplastic

  10. High homocysteine induces betaine depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbard, Apolline; Benoist, Jean-François; Esse, Ruben; Gupta, Sapna; Lebon, Sophie; de Vriese, An S; de Baulny, Helene Ogier; Kruger, Warren; Schiff, Manuel; Blom, Henk J

    2015-04-28

    Betaine is the substrate of the liver- and kidney-specific betaine-homocysteine (Hcy) methyltransferase (BHMT), an alternate pathway for Hcy remethylation. We hypothesized that BHMT is a major pathway for homocysteine removal in cases of hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy). Therefore, we measured betaine in plasma and tissues from patients and animal models of HHcy of genetic and acquired cause. Plasma was collected from patients presenting HHcy without any Hcy interfering treatment. Plasma and tissues were collected from rat models of HHcy induced by diet and from a mouse model of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) deficiency. S-adenosyl-methionine (AdoMet), S-adenosyl-homocysteine (AdoHcy), methionine, betaine and dimethylglycine (DMG) were quantified by ESI-LC-MS/MS. mRNA expression was quantified using quantitative real-time (QRT)-PCR. For all patients with diverse causes of HHcy, plasma betaine concentrations were below the normal values of our laboratory. In the diet-induced HHcy rat model, betaine was decreased in all tissues analysed (liver, brain, heart). In the mouse CBS deficiency model, betaine was decreased in plasma, liver, heart and brain, but was conserved in kidney. Surprisingly, BHMT expression and activity was decreased in liver. However, in kidney, BHMT and SLC6A12 expression was increased in CBS-deficient mice. Chronic HHcy, irrespective of its cause, induces betaine depletion in plasma and tissues (liver, brain and heart), indicating a global decrease in the body betaine pool. In kidney, betaine concentrations were not affected, possibly due to overexpression of the betaine transporter SLC6A12 where betaine may be conserved because of its crucial role as an osmolyte.

  11. Sad music induces pleasant emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. One possible answer to this question is that we may actually feel positive emotions when we listen to sad music. This suggestion may appear to be counterintuitive; however, in this study, by dividing musical emotion into perceived emotion and felt emotion, we investigated this potential emotional response to music. We hypothesized that felt and perceived emotion may not actually coincide in this respect: sad music would be perceived as sad, but the experience of listening to sad music would evoke positive emotions. A total of 44 participants listened to musical excerpts and provided data on perceived and felt emotions by rating 62 descriptive words or phrases related to emotions on a scale that ranged from 0 (not at all) to 4 (very much). The results revealed that the sad music was perceived to be more tragic, whereas the actual experiences of the participants listening to the sad music induced them to feel more romantic, more blithe, and less tragic emotions than they actually perceived with respect to the same music. Thus, the participants experienced ambivalent emotions when they listened to the sad music. After considering the possible reasons that listeners were induced to experience emotional ambivalence by the sad music, we concluded that the formulation of a new model would be essential for examining the emotions induced by music and that this new model must entertain the possibility that what we experience when listening to music is vicarious emotion.

  12. Esophagitis Induced by Doxycycline Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Şenel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Esophagitis is the most common disease of the esophagus. Drug use is one of the reasons of chemical esophagitis. Herein, we report two male patients of 17 and 18 years of age who developed esophagitis in acne treatment with doxycycline. Both patients took doxycycline capsules for approximately one week. Ulcerations were detected at upper and mid-esophagus of the 17-year-old patient. Circular ulcerations were found at mid-esophagus of the 18-year-old case. Doxycycline induced esophagitis is a preventable disease with the physician giving appropriate medication ingestion advice to the patient.

  13. Sertraline induced acute mandibular dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Raveendranathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been linked with the occurrence of drug-induced parkinsonism, dystonia, dyskinesia, and akathisia. Here, we describe a patient with a diagnosis of emotionally unstable personality disorder and depression who developed severe mandibular dystonia with sertraline in the absence of concurrent prescription of medications, which have potential action on the dopaminergic system. This case highlights the need for clinicians to be aware of this alarming acute adverse effect with sertraline, which is conventionally considered to be well-tolerated and safe.

  14. Drug-induced peripheral neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilholm, Ole Jakob; Christensen, Alex Alban; Zedan, Ahmed;

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy can be caused by medication, and various descriptions have been applied for this condition. In this MiniReview, the term 'drug-induced peripheral neuropathy' (DIPN) is used with the suggested definition: Damage to nerves of the peripheral nervous system caused by a chemical...... substance used in the treatment, cure, prevention or diagnosis of a disease. Optic neuropathy is included in this definition. A distinction between DIPN and other aetiologies of peripheral neuropathy is often quite difficult and thus, the aim of this MiniReview is to discuss the major agents associated...

  15. Opioid induced nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Howard S; Laufer, Andras

    2014-01-05

    Opioids are broad spectrum analgesics that are an integral part of the therapeutic armamentarium to combat pain in the palliative care population. Unfortunately, among the adverse effects of opioids that may be experienced along with analgesia is nausea, vomiting, and/or retching. Although it is conceivable that in the future, using combination agents (opioids combined with agents which may nullify emetic effects), currently nausea/vomiting remains a significant issue for certain patients. However, there exists potential current strategies that may be useful in efforts to diminish the frequency and/or intensity of opioid-induced nausea/vomiting (OINV).

  16. Fluoroquinolone-induced Achilles tendinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, P K; Ho, Carmen T K

    2014-12-01

    We report a case of Achilles tendinitis after intake of ciprofloxacin for treatment of respiratory tract infection. Fluoroquinolone-induced tendinopathy is an uncommon but increasingly recognised adverse effect of this antibiotic class. Most of the cases occur in the Achilles tendon and may lead to tendon rupture. Possible predisposing risk factors include use of steroid, patients with renal impairment or renal transplant, old age, and being an athlete. The drug should be stopped once this condition is suspected. Symptomatic treatment should be given and orthopaedic referral is desirable if tendon rupture occurs.

  17. HYPOGLYCEMIA INDUCED BY ANTIDIABETIC SULFONYLUREAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confederat, Luminiţa; Constantin, Sandra; Lupaşcu, Florentina; Pânzariu, Andreea; Hăncianu, Monica; Profire, Lenuţa

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major health problem due to its increasing prevalence and life-threatening complications. Antidiabetic sulfonylureas represent the first-line drugs in type 2 diabetes even though the most common associated risk is pharmacologically-induced hypoglycemia. In the development of this side effect are involved several factors including the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of the drug, patient age and behavior, hepatic or renal dysfunctions, or other drugs associated with a high risk of interactions. If all these are controlled, the risk-benefit balance can be equal to other oral antidiabetic drugs.

  18. Clozapine-induced late leukopenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Latif, Z

    2012-03-01

    A patient with a 28-year history of schizophrenia was treated with a wide range of antipsychotic medications since diagnosis. She had experienced no clinically significant symptomatic relief until she commenced treatment on clozapine. Her psychotic symptoms, self care, and general sense of well-being improved significantly. After 6 years of successful treatment, she developed leukopenia and clozapine was discontinued. The following issues will be discussed in the article: rechallenge with clozapine following leukopenia during previous therapy and the choice of and haematological monitoring needs with other antipsychotic medications after clozapine-induced blood dyscrasia.

  19. Adsorption-induced step formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thostrup, P.; Christoffersen, Ebbe; Lorensen, Henrik Qvist

    2001-01-01

    Through an interplay between density functional calculations, Monte Carlo simulations and scanning tunneling microscopy experiments, we show that an intermediate coverage of CO on the Pt(110) surface gives rise to a new rough equilibrium structure with more than 50% step atoms. CO is shown to bin...... so strongly to low-coordinated Pt atoms that it can break Pt-Pt bonds and spontaneously form steps on the surface. It is argued that adsorption-induced step formation may be a general effect, in particular at high gas pressures and temperatures....

  20. Bathtub vortex induced by instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizushima, Jiro; Abe, Kazuki; Yokoyama, Naoto

    2014-10-01

    The driving mechanism and the swirl direction of the bathtub vortex are investigated by the linear stability analysis of the no-vortex flow as well as numerical simulations. We find that only systems having plane symmetries with respect to vertical planes deserve research for the swirl direction. The bathtub vortex appearing in a vessel with a rectangular cross section having a drain hole at the center of the bottom is proved to be induced by instability when the flow rate exceeds a threshold. The Coriolis force is capable of determining the swirl direction to be cyclonic.

  1. Neutrino induced 1-pion production

    CERN Document Server

    González-Jiménez, R; Van Dessel, N; Pandey, V; Jachowicz, N

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino-induced pion production constitutes an important contribution to neutrino-nucleus scattering cross sections at intermediate energies. A deep understanding of this process is mandatory for a correct interpretation of neutrino-oscillation experiments. We aim at contributing to the ongoing effort to understand the various experimental results obtained by different collaborations in a wide range of energies. In particular, in this work we analyze recent MiniBooNE and MINERvA charged-current neutrino 1-pion production data. We use a relativistic theoretical approach which accounts for resonant and non-resonant 1-pion production contributions.

  2. Ion beam induced luminescence: Relevance to radiation induced bystander effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, S.B., E-mail: ahmad.rabilal@gmail.com [Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McNeill, F.E., E-mail: fmcneill@mcmaster.ca [Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Byun, S.H., E-mail: soohyun@mcmaster.ca [Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Prestwich, W.V., E-mail: prestwic@mcmaster.ca [Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Seymour, C., E-mail: seymouc@mcmaster.ca [Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Mothersill, C.E., E-mail: mothers@mcmaster.ca [Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this work is quantify the light emitted as a result of charged particle interaction in materials which may be of relevance to radiation induced 'bystander effects' studies. We have developed a system which employs single photon counting to measure the light emitted from samples irradiated under vacuum by a charged particle beam. The system uses a fast photomultiplier tube with a peak cathode response at 420 nm. It has been tested in a proof-of-principle experiment using polystyrene targets. Light output, as a result of irradiation, was measured. The luminescence yield appears to have a non-linear behavior with the incident ion fluence: it rises exponentially to an asymptotic value. The target was irradiated with beam energies varying from 1 to 2 MeV and showed saturation at or before an incident fluence rate of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} H{sup +}/cm{sup 2} s. The average saturation value for the photon output was found to be 40 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} cps. Some measurements were performed using filters to study the emission at specific wavelengths. In the case of filtered light measurements, the photon output was found to saturate at 28 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3}, 10 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6}, and 35 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} cps for wavelengths of 280 {+-} 5 nm, 320 {+-} 5 nm and 340 {+-} 5 nm respectively. The light output reaches a maximum value because of damage induced in the polymer. Our measurements indicate a 'damage cross section' of the order of 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2}. The average radiant intensity was found to increase at wavelengths of 280 and 320 nm when the proton energy was increased. This was not found to occur at 340 nm. In conclusion, the light emission at specific wavelengths was found to depend upon the incident proton fluence and the proton energy. The wavelengths of the emitted light measured in this study have significance for the understanding of radiation induced bystander effects.

  3. Condensation induced water hammer safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gintner, M.A.

    1997-03-10

    Condensation induced water hammer events in piping systems can cause catastrophic steam system failures which can result in equipment damage, personal injury, and even death. As an industry, we have learned to become accustomed to the ''banging'' that we often hear in our steam piping systems, and complacent in our actions to prevent it. It is unfortunate that lives are lost needlessly, as this type of water hammer event is preventable if one only applies some basic principles when operating and maintaining their steam systems. At the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site where I work, there was one such accident that occurred in 1993 which took the life of a former co-worker and friend of mine. Hanford was established as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. it is a 560 square mile complex located along the banks of the Columbia River in Southeastern Washington State. For almost 45 years, hanford's mission was to produce weapons grade plutonium for our nations defense programs. Today, Hanford no longer produces plutonium, but is focused on site clean-up and economic diversification. Hanford still uses steam for heating and processing activities, utilizing over 20 miles of piping distribution systems similar to those found in industry. Although these aging systems are still sound, they cannot stand up to the extreme pressure pulses developed by a condensation induced water hammer.

  4. [Autoimmune hepatitis induced by isotretionine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman Rojas, Patricia; Gallegos Lopez, Roxana; Ciliotta Chehade, Alessandra; Scavino, Yolanda; Morales, Alejandro; Tagle, Martín

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of a teenage patient with the diagnosis of drug induced autoimmune hepatitis. The patient is a 16 years old female, with the past medical history of Hashimoto’s hypothyroidism controlled with levothyroxine, who started treatment with Isotretionin (®Accutane) 20 mg q/12 hours for a total of 3 months for the treatment of severe acne. The physical examination was within normal limits and the results of the laboratory exams are: Baseline values of ALT 28 U/L, AST 28 U/L. Three months later: AST 756 U/L, ALT 1199U/L, alkaline phosphatase 114 U/L, with normal bilirrubin levels throughout the process. The serology studies were negative for all viral hepatitis; ANA titers were positive (1/160) and igG levels were also elevated. A liver biopsy was performed, and was compatible with the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. Corticosteroid therapy was started with Prednisone 40 mg per day one week after stopping the treatment with isotretionin, observing an improvement in the laboratory values. We describe this case and review the world literature since there are no reported cases of Isotretinoin-induced autoimmune hepatitis.

  5. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapio, Soile

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against radiation-induced cardiac damage.

  6. Coffee induces autophagy in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrocola, Federico; Malik, Shoaib Ahmad; Mariño, Guillermo; Vacchelli, Erika; Senovilla, Laura; Chaba, Kariman; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Madeo, Frank; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies and clinical trials revealed that chronic consumption coffee is associated with the inhibition of several metabolic diseases as well as reduction in overall and cause-specific mortality. We show that both natural and decaffeinated brands of coffee similarly rapidly trigger autophagy in mice. One to 4 h after coffee consumption, we observed an increase in autophagic flux in all investigated organs (liver, muscle, heart) in vivo, as indicated by the increased lipidation of LC3B and the reduction of the abundance of the autophagic substrate sequestosome 1 (p62/SQSTM1). These changes were accompanied by the inhibition of the enzymatic activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), leading to the reduced phosphorylation of p70S6K, as well as by the global deacetylation of cellular proteins detectable by immunoblot. Immunohistochemical analyses of transgenic mice expressing a GFP–LC3B fusion protein confirmed the coffee-induced relocation of LC3B to autophagosomes, as well as general protein deacetylation. Altogether, these results indicate that coffee triggers 2 phenomena that are also induced by nutrient depletion, namely a reduction of protein acetylation coupled to an increase in autophagy. We speculate that polyphenols contained in coffee promote health by stimulating autophagy. PMID:24769862

  7. Stress proteins induced by arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Razo, L M; Quintanilla-Vega, B; Brambila-Colombres, E; Calderón-Aranda, E S; Manno, M; Albores, A

    2001-12-01

    The elevated expression of stress proteins is considered to be a universal response to adverse conditions, representing a potential mechanism of cellular defense against disease and a potential target for novel therapeutics. Exposure to arsenicals either in vitro or in vivo in a variety of model systems has been shown to cause the induction of a number of the major stress protein families such as heat shock proteins (Hsp). Among them are members with low molecular weight, such as metallotionein and ubiquitin, as well as ones with masses of 27, 32, 60, 70, 90, and 110 kDa. In most of the cases, the induction of stress proteins depends on the capacity of the arsenical to reach the target, its valence, and the type of exposure, arsenite being the biggest inducer of most Hsp in several organs and systems. Hsp induction is a rapid dose-dependent response (1-8 h) to the acute exposure to arsenite. Thus, the stress response appears to be useful to monitor the sublethal toxicity resulting from a single exposure to arsenite. The present paper offers a critical review of the capacity of arsenicals to modulate the expression and/or accumulation of stress proteins. The physiological consequences of the arsenic-induced stress and its usefulness in monitoring effects resulting from arsenic exposure in humans and other organisms are discussed.

  8. Inducible competitors and adaptive diversification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beren W.ROBINSON; David W.PFENNIG

    2013-01-01

    Identifying the causes of diversification is central to evolutionary biology.The ecological theory of adaptive diversification holds that the evolution of phenotypic differences between populations and species-and the formation of new species-stems from divergent natural selection,often arising from competitive interactions.Although increasing evidence suggests that phenotypic plasticity can facilitate this process,it is not generally appreciated that competitively mediated selection often also provides ideal conditions for phenotypic plasticity to evolve in the first place.Here,we discuss how competition plays at least two key roles in adaptive diversification depending on its pattern.First,heterogenous competition initially generates heterogeneity in resource use that favors adaptive plasticity in the form of"inducible competitors".Second,once such competitively induced plasticity evolves,its capacity to rapidly generate phenotypic variation and expose phenotypes to alternate selective regimes allows populations to respond readily to selection favoring diversification,as may occur when competition generates steady diversifying selection that permanently drives the evolutionary divergence of populations that use different resources.Thus,competition plays two important roles in adaptive diversification--one well-known and the other only now emerging-mediated through its effect on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity.

  9. Simulations of Cavitating Cryogenic Inducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorney, Dan (Technical Monitor); Hosangadi, Ashvin; Ahuja, Vineet; Ungewitter, Ronald J.

    2004-01-01

    Simulations of cavitating turbopump inducers at their design flow rate are presented. Results over a broad range of Nss, numbers extending from single-phase flow conditions through the critical head break down point are discussed. The flow characteristics and performance of a subscale geometry designed for water testing are compared with the fullscale configuration that employs LOX. In particular, thermal depression effects arising from cavitation in cryogenic fluids are identified and their impact on the suction performance of the inducer quantified. The simulations have been performed using the CRUNCH CFD[R] code that has a generalized multi-element unstructured framework suitable for turbomachinery applications. An advanced multi-phase formulation for cryogenic fluids that models temperature depression and real fluid property variations is employed. The formulation has been extensively validated for both liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen by simulating the experiments of Hord on hydrofoils; excellent estimates of the leading edge temperature and pressure depression were obtained while the comparisons in the cavity closure region were reasonable.

  10. Inducible competitors and adaptive diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beren W. ROBINSON, David W. PFENNIG

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the causes of diversification is central to evolutionary biology. The ecological theory of adaptive diversification holds that the evolution of phenotypic differences between populations and species––and the formation of new species––stems from divergent natural selection, often arising from competitive interactions. Although increasing evidence suggests that phenotypic plasticity can facilitate this process, it is not generally appreciated that competitively mediated selection often also provides ideal conditions for phenotypic plasticity to evolve in the first place. Here, we discuss how competition plays at least two key roles in adaptive diversification depending on its pattern. First, heterogenous competition initially generates heterogeneity in resource use that favors adaptive plasticity in the form of “inducible competitors”. Second, once such competitively induced plasticity evolves, its capacity to rapidly generate phenotypic variation and expose phenotypes to alternate selective regimes allows populations to respond readily to selection favoring diversification, as may occur when competition generates steady diversifying selection that permanently drives the evolutionary divergence of populations that use different resources. Thus, competition plays two important roles in adaptive diversification––one well-known and the other only now emerging––mediated through its effect on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity [Current Zoology 59 (4: 537–552, 2013].

  11. Doxorubicin-induced ovarian toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizel Shulamith

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young cancer patients may occasionally face infertility and premature gonadal failure. Apart from its direct effect on follicles and oocytes, chemotherapy may induce ovarian toxicity via an impact on the entire ovary. The role of doxorubicin in potential ovarian failure remains obscure. Our intention was to elucidate doxorubicin-related toxicity within ovaries. Methods Female mice were injected intraperitoneally with 7.5 or 10 mg/kg doxorubicin and their ovaries were visualized in vivo by high resolution MRI, one day and one month following treatment. Ovaries of other treated mice were excised and weighed at the same post-treatment intervals. Ovarian histological sections were stained for TUNEL or active caspase-3 and follicles were counted and categorized. Ovulation rates were evaluated in superovulated female mice treated with doxorubicin. Results A single injection of doxorubicin resulted in a major reduction in both ovarian size and weight that lasted even one month post treatment. A dramatic reduction in ovulation rate was observed one week after treatment, followed by a partial recovery at one month. Histological examination revealed positive staining of TUNEL and active caspase-3. We observed a significant reduction in the population of secondary and primordial follicles one month following treatment. Conclusions Our results may imply a mechanism of chemotherapy-induced ovarian toxicity, manifested by reduced ovulation and accompanied by a reduction in ovarian size, caused probably by an acute insult to the ovary.

  12. Preference pulses induced by reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachiga, Yosuke; Sakagami, Takayuki; Silberberg, Alan

    2014-11-01

    Eight rats responded on concurrent Variable-Ratio 20 Extinction schedules for food reinforcement. The assignment of variable-ratio reinforcement to a left or right lever varied randomly following each reinforcer, and was cued by illumination of a stimulus light above that lever. Postreinforcement preference levels decreased substantially and reliably over time when the lever that just delivered reinforcement was now in extinction; however, if that lever was once again associated with variable ratio, this decrease in same-lever preference tended to be small, and for some subjects, not in evidence. The changes in preference level to the extinction lever were well described by a modified version of Killeen, Hanson, and Osborne's (1978) induction model. Consistent with this model's attribution of preference change to induction, we attribute preference change in this report to a brief period of reinforcer-induced arousal that energizes responding to the lever that delivered the last reinforcer. After a few seconds, this induced responding diminishes, and the operant responding that remains comes under the control of the stimulus light cuing the lever providing variable-ratio reinforcement.

  13. Sildenafil Induced Acute Interstitial Nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Burkhart

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN is characterized by inflammation of the renal interstitium and usually occurs in a temporal relationship with the medication. We present a case of an Asian male who had nephrotic range proteinuria and presented with acute kidney injury. The patient reported an acute change in physical appearance and symptomatology after the ingestion of a single dose of sildenafil. Renal biopsy was notable for minimal change disease (MCD with acute and chronic interstitial nephritis. Renal replacement and glucocorticoid therapy were initiated. Renal recovery within six weeks permitted discontinuation of dialysis. AIN superimposed on MCD is a known association of NSAID induced nephropathy. The temporal association and the absence of any new drugs suggest that the AIN was most likely due to the sildenafil. NSAIDs are less likely to have caused the AIN given their remote use. The ease of steroid responsiveness would also suggest another cause as NSAID induced AIN is often steroid resistant. The MCD was most likely idiopathic given the lack of temporal association with a secondary cause. As the number of sildenafil prescriptions increases, more cases of AIN may be identified and physician awareness for this potential drug disease association is necessary.

  14. Coffee induces autophagy in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrocola, Federico; Malik, Shoaib Ahmad; Mariño, Guillermo; Vacchelli, Erika; Senovilla, Laura; Chaba, Kariman; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Madeo, Frank; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies and clinical trials revealed that chronic consumption coffee is associated with the inhibition of several metabolic diseases as well as reduction in overall and cause-specific mortality. We show that both natural and decaffeinated brands of coffee similarly rapidly trigger autophagy in mice. One to 4 h after coffee consumption, we observed an increase in autophagic flux in all investigated organs (liver, muscle, heart) in vivo, as indicated by the increased lipidation of LC3B and the reduction of the abundance of the autophagic substrate sequestosome 1 (p62/SQSTM1). These changes were accompanied by the inhibition of the enzymatic activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), leading to the reduced phosphorylation of p70(S6K), as well as by the global deacetylation of cellular proteins detectable by immunoblot. Immunohistochemical analyses of transgenic mice expressing a GFP-LC3B fusion protein confirmed the coffee-induced relocation of LC3B to autophagosomes, as well as general protein deacetylation. Altogether, these results indicate that coffee triggers 2 phenomena that are also induced by nutrient depletion, namely a reduction of protein acetylation coupled to an increase in autophagy. We speculate that polyphenols contained in coffee promote health by stimulating autophagy.

  15. Coalescence-induced nanodroplet jumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyeongyun; Xu, Chenyu; Sotelo, Jesus; Chun, Jae Min; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Enright, Ryan; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2016-10-01

    Water vapor condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces has received much attention in recent years due to the ability of such surfaces to shed microscale water droplets via coalescence-induced droplet jumping, resulting in heat transfer, anti-icing, and self-cleaning performance enhancement. Here we report the coalescence-induced removal of water nanodroplets (R ≈500 nm ) from superhydrophobic carbon nanotube (CNT) surfaces. The two-droplet coalescence time is measured for varying droplet Ohnesorge numbers, confirming that coalescence prior to jumping is governed by capillary-inertial dynamics. By varying the conformal hydrophobic coating thickness on the CNT surface, the minimum jumping droplet radius is shown to increase with increasing solid fraction and decreasing apparent advancing contact angle, allowing us to explore both hydrodynamic limitations stemming from viscous dissipation and surface adhesion limitations. We find that, even for the smallest nanostructure length scale (≤100 nm) and lowest surface adhesions, nonideal surface interactions and the evolved droplet morphology play defining roles in limiting the minimum size for jumping on real surfaces. The outcomes of this work demonstrate the ability to passively shed nanometric water droplets, which has the potential to further increase the efficiency of systems that can harness jumping droplets for a wide range of energy and water applications.

  16. Induced gravity II: grand unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einhorn, Martin B.; Jones, D. R. Timothy

    2016-05-01

    As an illustration of a renormalizable, asymptotically-free model of induced gravity, we consider an SO(10) gauge theory interacting with a real scalar multiplet in the adjoint representation. We show that dimensional transmutation can occur, spontaneously breaking SO(10) to SU(5)⊗U(1), while inducing the Planck mass and a positive cosmological constant, all proportional to the same scale v. All mass ratios are functions of the values of coupling constants at that scale. Below this scale (at which the Big Bang may occur), the model takes the usual form of Einstein-Hilbert gravity in de Sitter space plus calculable corrections. We show that there exist regions of parameter space in which the breaking results in a local minimum of the effective action giving a positive dilaton (mass)2 from two-loop corrections associated with the conformal anomaly. Furthermore, unlike the singlet case we considered previously, some minima lie within the basin of attraction of the ultraviolet fixed point. Moreover, the asymptotic behavior of the coupling constants also lie within the range of convergence of the Euclidean path integral, so there is hope that there will be candidates for sensible vacua. Although open questions remain concerning unitarity of all such renormalizable models of gravity, it is not obvious that, in curved backgrounds such as those considered here, unitarity is violated. In any case, any violation that may remain will be suppressed by inverse powers of the reduced Planck mass.

  17. Induced Gravity II: Grand Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Einhorn, Martin B

    2016-01-01

    As an illustration of a renormalizable, asymptotically-free model of induced gravity, we consider an $SO(10)$ gauge theory interacting with a real scalar multiplet in the adjoint representation. We show that dimensional transmutation can occur, spontaneously breaking $SO(10)$ to $SU(5){\\otimes}U(1),$ while inducing the Planck mass and a positive cosmological constant, all proportional to the same scale $v$. All mass ratios are functions of the values of coupling constants at that scale. Below this scale (at which the Big Bang may occur), the model takes the usual form of Einstein-Hilbert gravity in de Sitter space plus calculable corrections. We show that there exist regions of parameter space in which the breaking results in a local minimum of the effective action, and a {\\bf positive} dilaton $(\\hbox{mass})^2$ from two-loop corrections associated with the conformal anomaly. Furthermore, unlike the singlet case we considered previously, some minima lie within the basin of attraction of the ultraviolet fixed ...

  18. Magnetically induced QCD Kondo effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Sho; Itakura, Kazunori; Kuramoto, Yoshio

    2016-10-01

    The "QCD Kondo effect" stems from the color exchange interaction in QCD with non-Abelian property, and can be realized in a high-density quark matter containing heavy-quark impurities. We propose a novel type of the QCD Kondo effect induced by a strong magnetic field. In addition to the fact that the magnetic field does not affect the color degrees of freedom, two properties caused by the Landau quantization in a strong magnetic field are essential for the "magnetically induced QCD Kondo effect"; (1) dimensional reduction to 1 +1 -dimensions, and (2) finiteness of the density of states for lowest energy quarks. We demonstrate that, in a strong magnetic field B , the scattering amplitude of a massless quark off a heavy quark impurity indeed shows a characteristic behavior of the Kondo effect. The resulting Kondo scale is estimated as ΛK≃√{eqB }αs1 /3exp {-4 π /Ncαslog (4 π /αs)} where αs and Nc are the fine structure constant of strong interaction and the number of colors in QCD, and eq is the electric charge of light quarks.

  19. Amylin induces hypoglycemia in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz H. Guerreiro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Amylin is a 37-aminoacid pancreatic protein that exerts control over several metabolic events such as glycemia and lacticemia. Amylin has long been shown to induce increases in arterial plasma glucose. We decided to investigate whether amylin plays additional roles in the glucose metabolism. We evaluated glucose homeostasis using whole blood from the tail tip of fasting, conscious, unrestrained normal and streptozotocyn-induced diabetic mice following subcutaneous administration of mouse amylin. Subcutaneous injection of 1 μg mouse amylin caused a transient decrease in whole blood glucose in both normal and diabetic mice in the absence of insulin. The blood glucose levels were lowest approximately 2 hours after amylin administration, after that they gradually recovered to the levels of the control group. The hypoglycemic effect followed a dose-dependent response ranging from 0.1 to 50 µg / mouse. These results reveal the ability for amylin in the direct control of glycemia at low doses in the absence of insulin.

  20. Dispersive mudslide-induced tsunamis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rubino

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear nested model for mudslide-induced tsunamis is proposed in which three phases of the life of the wave, i.e. the generation, far-field propagation and costal run-up are described by means of different mathematical models, that are coupled through appropriate matching procedures. The generation and run-up dynamics are simulated through a nonlinear shallow-water model with movable lateral boundaries: in the generation region two active layers are present, the lower one describing the slide descending on a sloping topography. For the intermediate phase, representing wave propagation far from the generation region, the hydrostatic assumption is not assumed as appropriate in general and, therefore, a nonlinear model allowing for weak phase dispersion, namely a Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation, is used. This choice is made in order to assess the relevance of dispersive features such as solitary waves and dispersive tails. It is shown that in some realistic circumstances dispersive mudslide-induced tsunami waves can be produced over relatively short, distances. In such cases the use of a hydrostatic model throughout the whole tsunami history turns out to give erroneous results. In particular, when solitary waves are generated during the tsunami propagation in the open sea, the resulting run-up process yields peculiar wave forms leading to amplified coastal inundations with respect to a mere hydrostatic context.

  1. Shear induced phase transitions induced in edible fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Welch, Sarah E.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Sirota, Eric B.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2003-03-01

    The food industry crystallizes fats under different conditions of temperature and shear to obtain products with desired crystalline phases. Milk fat, palm oil, cocoa butter and chocolate were crystallized from the melt in a temperature controlled Couette cell. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies were conducted to examine the role of shear on the phase transitions seen in edible fats. The shear forces on the crystals induced acceleration of the alpha to beta-prime phase transition with increasing shear rate in milk fat and palm oil. The increase was slow at low shear rates and became very strong above 360 s-1. In cocoa butter the acceleration between beta-prime-III and beta-V phase transition increased until a maximum of at 360 s-1, and then decreased, showing competition between enhanced heat transfer and viscous heat generation.

  2. Amoxicillin-induced aseptic meningoencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radi Shahien

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Radi Shahien1, Vetaly Vieksler1, Abdalla Bowirrat11Department of Neurology and Neurophysiology, Ziv Medical Center, Safed, IsraelAbstract: Meningitis is usually produced by an infectious agent, but there are multiple noninfectious causes. Drug-induced aseptic meningitis (DIAM is an important entity and has been reported as an uncommon adverse reaction with numerous agents. Thus, DIAM constitutes a diagnostic and patient management challenge. We present a patient with three episodes of aseptic meningitis due to amoxicillin, and then review the literature on this rare idiosyncratic event which may occur after local or systemic drug administration. A 77-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with fever, headache, and neck stiffness. Seven days before admission he had a dental and gingival inflammation. He was treated with two oral doses of 500 mg daily of amoxicillin for one week. The seventh day he awoke with the complaints that prompted hospital admittance. Amoxicillin was stopped 1 day before his admission. From his history we knew of two similar episodes: The first episode was after a dental procedure 3 months before this incident. He had received a 1-week course of postprocedure amoxicillin of 500 mg daily and had similar headache, fever, and chills during the entire course of treatment. He wasn’t admitted to the hospital, because he stopped taking amoxicillin and he felt spontaneous pain relief after taking symptomatic pain treatment. The second episodes was 6 months after his first admission, he had been admitted to our hospital with the same symptoms. Amoxicillin was stopped and changed with intravenous (IV ceftriaxone (CTRX for 10 days due to suspected partial untreated meningitis. The patient improved rapidly within 2 days and was discharged from the hospital. On the basis of these three confirmed episodes of meningitis after recurrent exposure to amoxicillin, with repetitive negative testing for viral, bacterial, and mycobacterial

  3. Spatially dependent electromagnetically induced transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Radwell, Neal; Piccirillo, Bruno; Barnett, Stephen M; Franke-Arnold, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen vast progress in the generation and detection of structured light, with potential applications in high capacity optical data storage and continuous variable quantum technologies. Here we measure the transmission of structured light through cold rubidium atoms and observe regions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We use q-plates to generate a probe beam with azimuthally varying phase and polarisation structure, and its right and left circular polarisation components provide the probe and control of an EIT transition. We observe an azimuthal modulation of the absorption profile that is dictated by the phase and polarisation structure of the probe laser. Conventional EIT systems do not exhibit phase sensitivity. We show, however, that a weak transverse magnetic field closes the EIT transitions, thereby generating phase dependent dark states which in turn lead to phase dependent transparency, in agreement with our measurements.

  4. Radiative collision-induced photoionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayfeh, M.H.; Payne, M.G.

    1978-05-01

    Semiclassical expressions of two-photon ionization of atoms induced by radiative collisions are derived. The dependence of the ionization yield on the atomic forces, field intensity, and energy gap is derived. Although absorption tends to decrease as the field intensity rises due to stimulated emission at the second crossing, the two-photon ionization yield can be nearly saturated at the first crossing, thus enhancing the absorption. Both regions, ionization in single collisions and ionization between collisions, are treated. In the latter we find that saturation of the ionization can be achieved at much reduced intensities. This process promises an extremely sensitive method for studying radiative collisions, especially when absorption or fluorescence becomes extremely weak.

  5. Current-Induced Membrane Discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Bækbo; van Soestbergen, M.; Mani, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Possible mechanisms for overlimiting current (OLC) through aqueous ion-exchange membranes (exceeding diffusion limitation) have been debated for half a century. Flows consistent with electro-osmotic instability have recently been observed in microfluidic experiments, but the existing theory...... neglects chemical effects and remains to be quantitatively tested. Here, we show that charge regulation and water self-ionization can lead to OLC by "current-induced membrane discharge'' (CIMD), even in the absence of fluid flow, in ion-exchange membranes much thicker than the local Debye screening length....... Salt depletion leads to a large electric field resulting in a local pH shift within the membrane with the effect that the membrane discharges and loses its ion selectivity. Since salt co-ions, H+ ions, and OH- ions contribute to OLC, CIMD interferes with electrodialysis (salt counterion removal...

  6. Inducible models of bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, Casey R; Rosen, Clifford J

    2014-12-11

    Bone is an essential organ that not only confers structural stability to the organism, but also serves as a reservoir for hematopoietic elements and is thought to affect systemic homeostasis through the release of endocrine factors as well as calcium. The loss of bone mass due to an uncoupling of bone formation and bone resorption leads to increased fragility that can result in devastating fractures. Further understanding of the effects of environmental stimuli on the development of bone disease in humans is needed, and they can be studied using animal models. Here, we present established and novel methods for the induction of bone loss in mice, including manipulation of diet and environment, administration of drugs, irradiation, and surgically induced hormone deficiency. All of these models are directly related to human cases, and thus, can be used to investigate the causes of bone loss resulting from these interventions.

  7. Human-induced Arctic moistening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seung-Ki; Zhang, Xuebin; Zwiers, Francis

    2008-04-25

    The Arctic and northern subpolar regions are critical for climate change. Ice-albedo feedback amplifies warming in the Arctic, and fluctuations of regional fresh water inflow to the Arctic Ocean modulate the deep ocean circulation and thus exert a strong global influence. By comparing observations to simulations from 22 coupled climate models, we find influence from anthropogenic greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols in the space-time pattern of precipitation change over high-latitude land areas north of 55 degrees N during the second half of the 20th century. The human-induced Arctic moistening is consistent with observed increases in Arctic river discharge and freshening of Arctic water masses. This result provides new evidence that human activity has contributed to Arctic hydrological change.

  8. Decoherence induced by fluctuating boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    De Lorenci, V A

    2012-01-01

    The effects of fluctuating boundaries on a superposition state of a quantum particle in a box is studied. We consider a model in one space dimension in which the initial state is a coherent superposition of two energy eigenstates. The locations of the walls of the box are assumed to undergo small fluctuation with a Gaussian probability distribution. The spatial probability density of the particle contains an interference term, which is found to decay in time due to the boundary fluctuations. At late times, this term vanishes and the quantum coherence is lost. The system is now described by a density matrix rather than a pure quantum state.This model gives a simple illustration of how environment-induced decoherence can take place in quantum systems. It can also serve as an analog model for the effects of spacetime geometry fluctuations on quantum systems.

  9. Pressure induced polymerization of Formates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschauner, Oliver

    2004-03-01

    The discovery of pressure induced polymerization of CO2 inspired us to search for C-O based chain structures forming at high pressure. We used salts of carboxylic acids as starting materials and exposed them to pressures between 10 and 30 GPa. Upon heating to temperatures above 1800 K we observed deprotonation and significant changes in the Raman shifts of C-O streching modes. Structure analysis based on powder diffraction patterns collected at sector 16 of the APS showed formation of extended C-O chain structures with the cations of the salts residing in the interchain spaces. These new high pressure polymers are interesting by their mechanical strength and provide basic molecular patterns of organic metallic conductors.

  10. Drug-induced liver injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mille Bækdal; Ytting, Henriette; Skalshøi Kjær, Mette

    2017-01-01

    biochemical findings included bilirubin elevated to above 3.2 × ULN, ALT elevated to above 9 × ULN in 86%, INR above 1.4 in 70%. Twenty two patients needed treatment in the liver intensive care unit. Fifteen patients developed acute liver failure with a severe outcome. Six patients were liver transplanted......OBJECTIVE: The idiosyncratic subtype of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a rare reaction to medical treatment that in severe cases can lead to acute liver failure and death. The aim of this study was to describe the presentation and outcome of DILI and to identify potential predictive factors...... and outcome. RESULTS: Of 43 patients, 25 (58%) were female with a mean age of 54 years. The two most frequent causes of DILI were Disulfiram (30%) and antibiotics (19%). The most common symptoms were jaundice, nausea, fatigue and gastrointestinal discomfort. At the time of admission, the most frequent...

  11. Linezolid-induced optic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Karuppannasamy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many systemic antimicrobials have been implicated to cause ocular adverse effects. This is especially relevant in multidrug therapy where more than one drug can cause a similar ocular adverse effect. We describe a case of progressive loss of vision associated with linezolid therapy. A 45-year-old male patient who was on treatment with multiple second-line anti-tuberculous drugs including linezolid and ethambutol for extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB presented to us with painless progressive loss of vision in both eyes. Color vision was defective and fundus examination revealed optic disc edema in both eyes. Ethambutol-induced toxic optic neuropathy was suspected and tablet ethambutol was withdrawn. Deterioration of vision occurred despite withdrawal of ethambutol. Discontinuation of linezolid resulted in marked improvement of vision. Our report emphasizes the need for monitoring of visual function in patients on long-term linezolid treatment.

  12. Radiocontrast-induced renal failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misson, R.T.; Cutler, R.E.

    1985-05-01

    Review of the literature concerning contrast-induced renal dysfunction shows that the currently used agents are remarkably safe with careful patient selection. Clinically apparent kidney failure after their use is essentially nonexistent in those without preexistent renal insufficiency. The incidence rises rapidly in those with azotemia from any cause, however, and diabetic persons with nephropathy are perhaps at special risk. Vigorous volume expansion is possibly effective as a preventive measure and may attenuate adverse effects in those in whom postcontrast dysfunction occurs. New agents are becoming available. It is not yet known if these will prove safer or cost-effective. They have some experimentally demonstrated and theoretical advantages over the presently used agents. 58 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  13. Capecitabine-Induced Coronary Vasospasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danish Henry

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Capecitabine, an oral prodrug of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, is approved for early-stage and advanced colorectal cancer and metastatic breast cancer. Cardiotoxicity of 5-FU is well described in the literature. However, cardiac adverse effects of capecitabine are poorly described. We report a case of coronary vasospasm induced by capecitabine. A 41-year-old female with metastatic breast cancer presented with chest pain 3 days after starting capecitabine. The chest pain was relieved by rest and exacerbated by exertion. Her physical examination was unremarkable except for a rapid heart rate of 100 bpm. Electrocardiogram test showed no acute ischemic changes. Troponin tests were negative. CT angiography of the chest was negative for acute pulmonary embolism. An echocardiogram showed a left ventricular ejection fraction of 60% without any wall motion abnormalities. The chest pain resolved with aspirin and analgesic use. She was discharged following an inconclusive cardiac workup. Further use of capecitabine was discontinued.

  14. Lattice Induced Transparency in Metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Manjappa, Manukumara; Singh, Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Lattice modes are intrinsic to the periodic structures and their occurrence can be easily tuned and controlled by changing the lattice constant of the structural array. Previous studies have revealed excitation of sharp absorption resonances due to lattice mode coupling with the plasmonic resonances. Here, we report the first experimental observation of a lattice induced transparency (LIT) by coupling the first order lattice mode (FOLM) to the structural resonance of a metamaterial resonator at terahertz frequencies. The observed sharp transparency is a result of the destructive interference between the bright mode and the FOLM mediated dark mode. As the FOLM is swept across the metamaterial resonance, the transparency band undergoes large change in its bandwidth and resonance position. Besides controlling the transparency behaviour, LIT also shows a huge enhancement in the Q-factor and record high group delay of 28 ps, which could be pivotal in ultrasensitive sensing and slow light device applications.

  15. Exercise-induced cardiac remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Rory B; Baggish, Aaron L

    2012-01-01

    Early investigations in the late 1890s and early 1900s documented cardiac enlargement in athletes with above-normal exercise capacity and no evidence of cardiovascular disease. Such findings have been reported for more than a century and continue to intrigue scientists and clinicians. It is well recognized that repetitive participation in vigorous physical exercise results in significant changes in myocardial structure and function. This process, termed exercise-induced cardiac remodeling (EICR), is characterized by structural cardiac changes including left ventricular hypertrophy with sport-specific geometry (eccentric vs concentric). Associated alterations in both systolic and diastolic functions are emerging as recognized components of EICR. The increasing popularity of recreational exercise and competitive athletics has led to a growing number of individuals exhibiting these findings in routine clinical practice. This review will provide an overview of EICR in athletes.

  16. Canagliflozin-Induced Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jessica; Begum, Tahmina; Smalligan, Roger D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are relatively new antihyperglycemic agents that lower renal glucose reabsorption. They are used as adjunctive therapy to standard diabetes treatment. Case Report: We present the case of a 62-year-old woman with a past medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and sudden-onset diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Use of canagliflozin, a SGLT-2 inhibitor, was determined to be the cause of the DKA. The patient ultimately recovered after 5 days in the intensive care unit. She was changed to long- and short-acting insulins and instructed to avoid canagliflozin. Conclusion: Although SGLT-2 inhibitors are effective at lowering a patient’s hemoglobin A1C, physicians must be aware of the rare but dangerous potential adverse effect of inducing DKA. This article reports an illustrative case and presents a review of the literature. PMID:27635409

  17. Current-induced membrane discharge

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, M B; Mani, A; Bruus, H; Biesheuvel, P M; Bazant, M Z

    2012-01-01

    Possible mechanisms for over-limiting current (OLC) through aqueous ion-exchange membranes (exceeding diffusion limitation) have been debated for half a century. Flows consistent with electro-osmotic instability (EOI) have recently been observed in microfluidic experiments, but the existing theory neglects chemical effects and remains to be quantitatively tested. Here, we show that charge regulation and water self-ionization can lead to OLC by "current-induced membrane discharge" (CIMD), even in the absence of fluid flow. Salt depletion leads to a large electric field which expels water co-ions, causing the membrane to discharge and lose its selectivity. Since salt co-ions and water ions contribute to OLC, CIMD interferes with electrodialysis (salt counter-ion removal) but could be exploited for current-assisted ion exchange and pH control. CIMD also suppresses the extended space charge that leads to EOI, so it should be reconsidered in both models and experiments on OLC.

  18. Canagliflozin-Induced Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Turner MSIV

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2 inhibitors are relatively new antihyperglycemic agents that lower renal glucose reabsorption. They are used as adjunctive therapy to standard diabetes treatment. Case Report: We present the case of a 62-year-old woman with a past medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and sudden-onset diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA. Use of canagliflozin, a SGLT-2 inhibitor, was determined to be the cause of the DKA. The patient ultimately recovered after 5 days in the intensive care unit. She was changed to long- and short-acting insulins and instructed to avoid canagliflozin. Conclusion: Although SGLT-2 inhibitors are effective at lowering a patient’s hemoglobin A1C, physicians must be aware of the rare but dangerous potential adverse effect of inducing DKA. This article reports an illustrative case and presents a review of the literature.

  19. Nuclear dynamics induced by antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Zhao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Reaction dynamics in collisions of antiprotons on nuclei is investigated within the Lanzhou quantum molecular dynamics model. The reaction channels of elastic scattering, annihilation, charge exchange and inelastic collisions of antiprotons on nucleons have been included in the model. Dynamics on particle production, in particular pions, kaons, antikaons and hyperons, is investigated in collisions of $\\overline{p}$ on $^{12}$C, $^{20}$Ne, $^{40}$Ca and $^{181}$Ta from a low to high incident momenta. It is found that the annihilations of $\\overline{p}$ on nucleons are of importance on the dynamics of particle production in phase space. Hyperons are mainly produced via meson induced reactions on nucleons and strangeness exchange collisions, which lead to the delayed emission in antiproton-nucleus collisions.

  20. Hemolysis induced by PMIVSD occluder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, D Sheshagiri; Barik, Ramachandra; Siva Prasad, Akula

    2016-09-01

    Hemolysis related to occluder, prosthetic valve, and prosthetic ring used for mitral valve annuloplasty are not very unusual. However, hemolysis related to transcathetor closure of post-myocardial infarction ventricular septal defect (PMIVSD) is infrequent. A close follow-up for spontaneous resolution with or without blood transfusion has been reported in a few cases. Occasionally, surgical retrieval is unavoidable or lifelong blood transfusion is required if surgery cannot be done because of higher risk. In this illustration, we have showed a close follow-up of a case of hemolysis induced by atrial septal occluder used for VSD closure after myocardial infarction. Despite successful device closure of PMIVSD which is difficult, a close watch is needed for complications like residual leak, device embolization, and hemolysis.

  1. Laser induced nuclear waste transmutation

    CERN Document Server

    Hirlimann, Charles

    2016-01-01

    When producing electricity that collects the mass energy that is available at the time of the induced disintegration of radioactive elements, other unstable elements are produced with half-life span durations ranging from less than one second to hundreds of thousands of years and which are considered as waste. Managing nuclear waste with a half-life of less than 30 years is an easy task, as our societies clearly know how to keep buildings safe for more than a century, the time it takes for the activity to be divided by a factor of 8. High-activity, long-lasting waste that can last for thousands of years or even longer, up to geological time laps, cannot be taken care of for such long durations. Therefore, these types of waste are socially unacceptable; nobody wants to leave a polluted planet to descendants.

  2. Tenofovir induced lichenoid drug eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mrinal; Gupta, Heena; Gupta, Anish

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous adverse reactions are a common complication of anti-retroviral therapy. Tenofovir is a newer anti-retroviral drug belonging to the nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor group. Systemic adverse effects like nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hepatotoxicity and renal toxicity are common with tenofovir but cutaneous adverse effects are rare. Lichenoid drug eruptions are a common adverse effect seen with a large variety of drugs including antimalarials, antihypertensives, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and diuretics. Lichenoid drug eruption is a rare cutaneous adverse effect of tenofovir with only a single case reported till date. Here, we report a case of tenofovir induced lichenoid drug eruption in a 54-year-old human immunodeficiency virus affected male who presented with generalized lichenoid eruption after 6 weeks of initiation of tenofovir and complete clearance on cessation of the drug.

  3. Current-Induced Effects in Nanoscale Conductors

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    We present an overview of current-induced effects in nanoscale conductors with emphasis on their description at the atomic level. In particular, we discuss steady-state current fluctuations, current-induced forces, inelastic scattering and local heating. All of these properties are calculated in terms of single-particle wavefunctions computed using a scattering approach within the static density-functional theory of many-electron systems. Examples of current-induced effects in atomic and mole...

  4. Treatment of Laser-Induced Retinal Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-29

    Distribution List (enclosed) bI’TF rruIoN STATEMEN A Approved for publi reljaso Disatbunon Unlimited TREATMENT OF LASER-INDUCED RETINAL INJURIES FINAL...suprathreshold retinal laser lesions II. Subthreshold retinal laser lesions III. Effect of steroid treatment on laser-induced retinal injury Discussion and...In the present study we investigated the effect of corticosteroid treatment of argon laser-induced retinal injury on vitreal accumulation of both

  5. Innovation Inducement Prizes: Connecting Research to Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Besharov, Douglas J.; Heidi L. Williams

    2012-01-01

    Innovation inducement prizes have been used for centuries. In the United States, a recent federal policy change—the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010—clarified and simplified a path by which all federal agencies can offer innovation inducement prizes, thus intensifying interest in how government agencies can most effectively design and apply such prizes. This paper aims to review and synthesize the academic literature on innovation inducement prizes, to clarify what has been learne...

  6. Drug-induced status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cock, Hannah R

    2015-08-01

    Drug-induced status epilepticus (SE) is a relatively uncommon phenomenon, probably accounting for less than 5% of all SE cases, although limitations in case ascertainment and establishing causation substantially weaken epidemiological estimates. Some antiepileptic drugs, particularly those with sodium channel or GABA(γ-aminobutyric acid)-ergic properties, frequently exacerbate seizures and may lead to SE if used inadvertently in generalized epilepsies or less frequently in other epilepsies. Tiagabine seems to have a particular propensity for triggering nonconvulsive SE sometimes in patients with no prior history of seizures. In therapeutic practice, SE is most commonly seen in association with antibiotics (cephalosporins, quinolones, and some others) and immunotherapies/chemotherapies, the latter often in the context of a reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Status epilepticus following accidental or intentional overdoses, particularly of antidepressants or other psychotropic medications, has also featured prominently in the literature: whilst there are sometimes fatal consequences, this is more commonly because of cardiorespiratory or metabolic complications than as a result of seizure activity. A high index of suspicion is required in identifying those at risk and in recognizing potential clues from the presentation, but even with a careful analysis of patient and drug factors, establishing causation can be difficult. In addition to eliminating the potential trigger, management should be as for SE in any other circumstances, with the exception that phenobarbitone is recommended as a second-line treatment for suspected toxicity-related SE where the risk of cardiovascular complications is higher anyways and may be exacerbated by phenytoin. There are also specific recommendations/antidotes in some situations. The outcome of drug-induced status epilepticus is mostly good when promptly identified and treated, though less so in the context of overdoses. This article is

  7. Fisheries-induced disruptive selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Pietro; Hui, Cang; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2015-01-21

    Commercial harvesting is recognized to induce adaptive responses of life-history traits in fish populations, in particular by shifting the age and size at maturation through directional selection. In addition to such evolution of a target stock, the corresponding fishery itself may adapt, in terms of fishing policy, technological progress, fleet dynamics, and adaptive harvest. The aim of this study is to assess how the interplay between natural and artificial selection, in the simplest setting in which a fishery and a target stock coevolve, can lead to disruptive selection, which in turn may cause trait diversification. To this end, we build an eco-evolutionary model for a size-structured population, in which both the stock׳s maturation schedule and the fishery׳s harvest rate are adaptive, while fishing may be subject to a selective policy based on fish size and/or maturity stage. Using numerical bifurcation analysis, we study how the potential for disruptive selection changes with fishing policy, fishing mortality, harvest specialization, life-history tradeoffs associated with early maturation, and other demographic and environmental parameters. We report the following findings. First, fisheries-induced disruptive selection is readily caused by commonly used fishing policies, and occurs even for policies that are not specific for fish size or maturity, provided that the harvest is sufficiently adaptive and large individuals are targeted intensively. Second, disruptive selection is more likely in stocks in which the selective pressure for early maturation is naturally strong, provided life-history tradeoffs are sufficiently consequential. Third, when a fish stock is overexploited, fisheries targeting only large individuals might slightly increase sustainable yield by causing trait diversification (even though the resultant yield always remains lower than the maximum sustainable yield that could be obtained under low fishing mortality, without causing disruptive

  8. [Induced abortion in China: problems and interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shang-chun; Qiu, Hong-yan

    2010-10-01

    Pooled literatures showed that the induced abortion in China faces many problems:the number of induced abortion remains large; most cases are young and nulliparity women; the frequency of abortion is high; and the interval between one and another abortion is short. Health promotion strategies should be applied to address these problems. It is important to increase the population's awareness of contraception,especially among nulliparity and migrant populations. Routine and effective contraceptive methods should be recommended and emphasized during induced abortion and delivery to lower the rate of induced abortion.

  9. An evaluation of a hubless inducer and a full flow hydraulic turbine driven inducer boost pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, B. K.; Martinson, A. R.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the performance of several configurations of hubless inducers with a hydrodynamically similar conventional inducer and to demonstrate the performance of a full flow hydraulic turbine driven inducer boost pump using these inducers. A boost pump of this type consists of an inducer connected to a hydraulic turbine with a high speed rotor located in between. All the flow passes through the inducer, rotor, and hydraulic turbine, then into the main pump. The rotor, which is attached to the main pump shaft, provides the input power to drive the hydraulic turbine which, in turn, drives the inducer. The inducer, rotating at a lower speed, develops the necessary head to prevent rotor cavitation. The rotor speed is consistent with present main engine liquid hydrogen pump designs and the overall boost pump head rise is sufficient to provide adequate main pump suction head. This system would have the potential for operating at lower liquid hydrogen tank pressures.

  10. Towards inducing superconductivity into graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efetov, Dmitri K.

    Graphenes transport properties have been extensively studied in the 10 years since its discovery in 2004, with ground-breaking experimental observations such as Klein tunneling, fractional quantum Hall effect and Hofstadters butterfly. Though, so far, it turned out to be rather poor on complex correlated electronic ground states and phase transitions, despite various theoretical predictions. The purpose of this thesis is to help understanding the underlying theoretical and experimental reasons for the lack of strong electronic interactions in graphene, and, employing graphenes high tunability and versatility, to identify and alter experimental parameters that could help to induce stronger correlations. In particular graphene holds one last, not yet experimentally discovered prediction, namely exhibiting intrinsic superconductivity. With its vanishingly small Fermi surface at the Dirac point, graphene is a semi-metal with very weak electronic interactions. Though, if it is doped into the metallic regime, where the size of the Fermi surface becomes comparable to the size of the Brillouin zone, the density of states becomes sizeable and electronic interactions are predicted to be dramatically enhanced, resulting in competing correlated ground states such as superconductivity, magnetism and charge density wave formation. Following these predictions, this thesis first describes the creation of metallic graphene at high carrier doping via electrostatic doping techniques based on electrolytic gates. Due to graphenes surface only properties, we are able to induce carrier densities above n>1014 cm-2 (epsilonF>1eV) into the chemically inert graphene. While at these record high carrier densities we yet do not observe superconductivity, we do observe fundamentally altered transport properties as compared to semi-metallic graphene. Here, detailed measurements of the low temperature resistivity reveal that the electron-phonon interactions are governed by a reduced, density

  11. Vaccination with IL-6 analogues induces autoantibodies to IL-6 and influences experimentally induced inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Pia; Jensen, Lene; Andersson, Christina

    2007-01-01

    ; yet they appear healthy and do not exhibit overt clinical or laboratory abnormalities. We induced comparable levels of aAb-IL-6 in different mouse strains by vaccination with immunogenic IL-6 analogues. We observed that the induced aAb-IL-6 protected against collagen-induced arthritis and experimental...

  12. Psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, M

    1984-03-01

    An attempt is made to identify and document the problems of comparative evaluation of the more recent studies of psychiatric morbidity after abortion and to determine the current consensus so that when the results of the joint RCGP/RCOG study of the sequelae of induced abortion become available they can be viewed in a more informed context. The legalization of abortion has provided more opportunities for studies of subsequent morbidity. New laws have contributed to the changing attitudes of society, and the increasing acceptability of the operation has probably influenced the occurrence of psychiatric sequelae. The complexity of measuring psychiatric sequelae is evident from the many terms used to describe symptomatology and behavioral patterns and from the number of assessment techniques involved. Numerous techniques have been used to quantify psychiatric sequelae. Several authors conclude that few psychiatric problems follow an induced abortion, but many studies were deficient in methodology, material, or length of follow-up. A British study in 1975 reported a favorable outcome for a "representative sample" of 50 National Health Service patients: 68% of these patients had an absence of or only mild feelings of guilt, loss, or self reproach and considered abortion as the best solution to their problem. The 32% who had an adverse outcome reported moderate to severe feelings of guilt, regret, loss, and self reproach, and there was evidence of mental illness. In most of these cases the adverse outcome was related to the patient's environment since the abortion. A follow-up study of 126 women, which compared the overall reaction to therapeutic abortion between women with a history of previous mild psychiatric illness and those without reported that a significantly different emotional reaction could not be demonstrated between the 2 groups. In a survey among women seeking an abortion 271 who were referred for a psychiatric opinion regarding terminations of pregnancy

  13. Opioid-Induced Constipation and Bowel Dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Lissner, Stefan; Bassotti, Gabrio; Coffin, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:  To formulate timely evidence-based guidelines for the management of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. SETTING:  Constipation is a major untoward effect of opioids. Increasing prescription of opioids has correlated to increased incidence of opioid-induced constipation. However, the inh...

  14. Induced disease resistance signaling in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, B.W.M.; Loon, L.C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    To protect themselves from disease, plants have evolved sophisticated inducible defense mechanisms in which the signal molecules salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene often play crucial roles. Elucidation of signaling pathways controlling induced disease resistance is a major objective in resea

  15. Inducible limb-shaking transitory ischemic attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Sverre; Ovesen, Christian; Futrell, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    with exercise-induced weakness associated with tremor in his right arm. His left internal carotid artery was occluded at the bifurcation. Administration of statin and antiplatelet did not relieve his symptoms, and his stereotypic, exercise-induced "limb-shaking" episodes persisted. He underwent successful...

  16. Innovation Inducement Prizes: Connecting Research to Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besharov, Douglas J.; Williams, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Innovation inducement prizes have been used for centuries. In the United States, a recent federal policy change--the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010--clarified and simplified a path by which all federal agencies can offer innovation inducement prizes, thus intensifying interest in how government agencies can most effectively design…

  17. Nucleosynthesis by photon-induced reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, P. E-mail: mohr@ikpAu-darmstadt.de; Babilon, M.; Galaviz, D.; Sonnabend, K.; Vogt, K.; Zilges, A

    2003-05-19

    Similar to the well-known Gamow window for charged particle induced reactions, there exists an effective energy window for photon-induced reactions. Properties of this window are discussed in detail for ({gamma}, n) and ({gamma}, {alpha}) reactions. These reactions are important for the nucleosynthesis of rare neutron-deficient p nuclei.

  18. Cycloserine induced psychosis with hepatic dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal R Tandon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increase in the cases of multidrug resistance tuberculosis, second line anti-tubercular drugs like the cycloserine are being prescribed frequently. Isoniazid and ethambutol are reported to cause psychosis like state; however, few reports of cycloserine induced psychosis are available. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of cycloserine induced psychosis with hepatic dysfunction.

  19. Induced floral heteromorphism in Petunia hybrida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Kashikar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Floral heteromorphism induced in Petunia hybrida with several chemical mutagens and gamma-radiation is discussed. Potentials of these mutagens in inducing various forms are described. The effect of heteromorphism on flower production, pollen sterility and seed set besides cross and self compatibilities between different heteromorphic forms have also been reported.

  20. Gravitational Zero Point Energy induces Physical Observables

    OpenAIRE

    Garattini, Remo

    2010-01-01

    We consider the contribution of Zero Point Energy on the induced Cosmological Constant and on the induced Electric/Magnetic charge in absence of matter fields. The method is applicable to every spherically symmetric background. Extensions to a generic $f(R) $ theory are also allowed. Only the graviton appears to be fundamental to the determination of Zero Point Energy.

  1. Minimal Mimicry: Mere Effector Matching Induces Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparenberg, Peggy; Topolinski, Sascha; Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Both mimicking and being mimicked induces preference for a target. The present experiments investigate the minimal sufficient conditions for this mimicry-preference link to occur. We argue that mere effector matching between one's own and the other person's movement is sufficient to induce preference, independent of which movement is actually…

  2. HOW TO REDUCE NEEDLE INSERTION INDUCED PAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 董莉

    2001-01-01

    Acupuncture needle insertion always results in pain in the local area due to stimulating the free nerve endings—algesireceptors of the skin. In spite of mildness, this pain may induce many patients' fright, and thus, hinders more extensive application of acupuncture. In the present paper, the author introduces some methods for reducing needle insertion induced pain.

  3. Laser-Induced Energy Transfer in Solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morsink, J.B.W.; Rullmann, Johan; Wiersma, Douwe

    1981-01-01

    Laser-induced energy transfer was observed and studied in the system pentacene doped into naphthalene. The transfer spectrum shows a remarkable correspondence with the host density of states function. The rate for laser-induced energy transfer is given and it is concluded that most likely, intermole

  4. Uridine prevents fenofibrate-induced fatty liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuc T Le

    Full Text Available Uridine, a pyrimidine nucleoside, can modulate liver lipid metabolism although its specific acting targets have not been identified. Using mice with fenofibrate-induced fatty liver as a model system, the effects of uridine on liver lipid metabolism are examined. At a daily dosage of 400 mg/kg, fenofibrate treatment causes reduction of liver NAD(+/NADH ratio, induces hyper-acetylation of peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme (ECHD and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1, and induces excessive accumulation of long chain fatty acids (LCFA and very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA. Uridine co-administration at a daily dosage of 400 mg/kg raises NAD(+/NADH ratio, inhibits fenofibrate-induced hyper-acetylation of ECHD, ACOX1, and reduces accumulation of LCFA and VLCFA. Our data indicates a therapeutic potential for uridine co-administration to prevent fenofibrate-induced fatty liver.

  5. Drug-Induced Oxidative Stress and Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian G. Deavall

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are a byproduct of normal metabolism and have roles in cell signaling and homeostasis. Species include oxygen radicals and reactive nonradicals. Mechanisms exist that regulate cellular levels of ROS, as their reactive nature may otherwise cause damage to key cellular components including DNA, protein, and lipid. When the cellular antioxidant capacity is exceeded, oxidative stress can result. Pleiotropic deleterious effects of oxidative stress are observed in numerous disease states and are also implicated in a variety of drug-induced toxicities. In this paper, we examine the nature of ROS-induced damage on key cellular targets of oxidative stress. We also review evidence implicating ROS in clinically relevant, drug-related side effects including doxorubicin-induced cardiac damage, azidothymidine-induced myopathy, and cisplatin-induced ototoxicity.

  6. Vincristine-Induced Cranial Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad TALEBIAN*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Talebian A, Goudarzi RM, Mohammadzadeh M , Mirzadeh AS. Vincristine-Induced Cranial Neuropathy. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Winter; 8(1:66-68. Abstract Vincristine (VCR is a vinca alkaloid that is used for treatment of many malignancies. The vinca alkaloids are neurotoxic, usually causing a peripheral neuropathy, but cranial neuropathies are rare as side effects. Described here is the case of a 2.5-year-old boy, a known case of Wilms’ tumor, treated by vincristine (0/067 mg/kg/day and dactinomycin (0/045 mg/kg/day after surgery. Three weeks after treatment, he presented with bilateral ptosis. Neurological examination revealed bilateral ptosis with normal pupillary reflex and eye movement. He received 3.015 mg cumulative dose of vincristine before development of ptosis. Treatment with pyridoxine (150 mg/m2 p.o. BID and pyridostigmine (3 mg/kg p.o. BID started as neuroprotective agents, and after 7 days the problem disappeared. The treatment continued for 6 weeks and there were no signs of ptosis or a recurrence in follow up 2 months later.

  7. Ibuprofen-induced hypersensitivity syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanau, Radu M; Neuman, Manuela G

    2010-06-01

    Ibuprofen is a widely used antipyretic and analgesic nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID). With the aging of the population, there will be a significant increase in the prevalence of painful degenerative and inflammatory rheumatic conditions. This increase likely will lead to a parallel increase in the use of NSAIDs, including ibuprofen. The primary effect of the NSAIDs is to inhibit cyclooxygenase (prostaglandin synthase), thereby impairing the ultimate transformation of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins, prostacyclin, and thromboxanes. Although in the majority of cases it is safe, this NSAID, ibuprofen, can produce an unpredictable, idiosyncratic, type B reaction that may pose a major concern in clinical practice. Type B reactions are known to occur in susceptible individuals. The true hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) is a systemic disease defined by the triad of fever, rash, and internal organ involvement that starts 1 day to 12 weeks after the initiation of therapy. HSR has limited the therapeutic use of many drugs, including ibuprofen. Hypersensitivity syndrome associated with ibuprofen is a host-dependent drug reaction that is idiosyncratic in nature. This reaction likely is caused by a combination of metabolic and immunologic factors. Immune mediated components, such as T-cell and their products cytokines and chemokines, can exacerbate cellular responses and create complex pathways that lead to a variety of clinical manifestations. Our review presents an ibuprofen-induced clinical manifestation of hypersensitivity syndrome and the necessity of wisely monitoring the patients clinically and by laboratory investigations when prescribing this drug.

  8. Diclofenac Induced Fixed Drug Eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Umeshchandra C Honnaddi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diclofenac is the most commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID for treating various inflammatory and painful conditions. It is generally well tolerated; gastric upset is the most common adverse effect. However very few cases of fixed drug eruptions were reported. Here we present a case of Diclofenac Induced Fixed Drug Eruption. A 62 year old male patient developed fixed drug eruptions with plaques on left thigh two days after receiving diclofenac for osteoarthritic pain. Other etiologies including insect bite, infections were ruled out. One week later after stopping the drug, the lesions were subsided. Diclofenac was strongly suspected as the casual drug. CD8+ effector T-cells have shown to play an important role. However it seems to be a reversible and drug related event. Although it is not life-threatening, fixed drug eruption can have significant effect on the quality of life of patients.Conclusion: Diclofenac is one of the most commonly prescribed NSAIDs by the Physicians. It is usually well tolerated, gastric upset is the most common adverse effect noted with this drug. This case is being reported to highlight a drug as safe as Diclofenac may also be associated with Fixed Drug Eruptions.

  9. Radiation-induced gene responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Paunesku, T.; Shearin-Jones, P.; Oryhon, J.

    1996-12-31

    In the process of identifying genes that are differentially regulated in cells exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UV), we identified a transcript that was repressed following the exposure of cells to a combination of UV and salicylate, a known inhibitor of NF-kappaB. Sequencing this band determined that it has identify to lactate dehydrogenase, and Northern blots confirmed the initial expression pattern. Analysis of the sequence of the LDH 5` region established the presence of NF-kappaB, Sp1, and two Ap-2 elements; two partial AP- 1; one partial RE, and two halves of E-UV elements were also found. Electromobility shift assays were then performed for the AP-1, NF- kappaB, and E-UV elements. These experiments revealed that binding to NF-kappaB was induced by UV but repressed with salicylic acid; UV did not affect AP-1 binding, but salicylic acid inhibited it alone or following UV exposure; and E-UV binding was repressed by UV, and salicylic acid had little effect. Since the binding of no single element correlated with the expression pattern of LDH, it is likely that multiple elements govern UV/salicylate-mediated expression.

  10. Chemotherapy-induced sclerosing cholangitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandrasegaran, K.; Alazmi, W.M.; Tann, M.; Fogel, E.L.; McHenry, L.; Lehman, G.A

    2006-08-15

    Aim: To review the computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cholangiographic findings of chemotherapy-induced sclerosing cholangitis (CISC). Methods: Between January 1995 and December 2004, 11 patients in the endoscopic retrograde cholangiography database were identified with CISC. Twelve CT, four MRI, 69 endoscopic and nine antegrade cholangiographic studies in these patients were reviewed. Serial change in appearance and response to endoscopic treatment were recorded. Results: CISC showed segmental irregular biliary dilatation with strictures of proximal extrahepatic bile ducts. The distal 5 cm of common bile duct was not affected in any patient. CT and MRI findings included altered vascular perfusion of one or more liver segments, liver metastases or peritoneal carcinomatosis. Biliary strictures needed repeated stenting in 10 patients (mean: every 4.7 months). Cirrhosis (n = 1) or confluent fibrosis (n = 0) were uncommon findings. Conclusion: CISC shares similar cholangiographic appearances to primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Unlike PSC, biliary disease primarily involved ducts at the hepatic porta rather than intrahepatic ducts. Multiphasic contrast-enhanced CT or MRI may show evidence of perfusion abnormalities, cavitary liver lesions, or metastatic disease.

  11. Cyclophosphamide-induced temporomandibular synostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, W

    1983-06-01

    The study of malformations helps toward a better understanding of normal development, which is of significance to the orthodontist. Experiments in teratology have induced an extensive variety of facial abnormalities, but temporomandibular joint (TMJ) synostosis has never been previously reported. Ten pregnant female rabbits were treated with a daily injection of 50 mg. cyclophosphamide (DNA synthesis inhibitor), from day 11 to day 14, which is the period that precedes formation of the face. The control sample comprised five female rabbits. The fetuses were obtained by cesarean section on day 28 and stained with alizarin. Six of the ten treated female animals produced offspring that had TMJ synostosis. The skull with TMJ synostosis showed a retrognathic mandibular pattern in relation to the maxilla, and the bony trabeculae in the mandibular angle showed a downward orientation instead of the horizontal orientation seen in animals without synostosis. The length of the heads was significantly smaller in the treatment group than in the control group; within the treatment group, the heads with synostosis were significantly smaller than those without synostosis. It could be hypothesized that the cyclophosphamide might have affected intrinsic factors in the temporomandibular mesenchyma; an impairment in the development and function of the mandibular musculature, which is a vital factor in joint development and maintenance, might also have contributed to the genesis of the malformation. The association of immobilization and mandibular hypodevelopment seems to be in agreement with today's theories on maxillofacial growth.

  12. Bleomycin-Induced Lung Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Reinert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bleomycin is a chemotherapeutic agent commonly used to treat curable diseases such as germinative tumors and Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The major limitation of bleomycin therapy is pulmonary toxicity, which can be life threatening in up to 10% of patients receiving the drug. The mechanism of bleomycin-induced pneumonitis (BIP involves oxidative damage, relative deficiency of the deactivating enzyme bleomycin hydrolase, genetic susceptibility, and the elaboration of inflammatory cytokines. Ultimately, BIP can progress to lung fibrosis. The diagnosis of BIP is established by the combination of systemic symptoms, radiological and histological findings, and respiratory function tests abnormalities, while other disorders should be excluded. Although the diagnosis and pathophysiology of this disease have been better characterized over the past few years, there is no effective therapy for the disease. In general, the clinical picture is extremely complex. A greater understanding of the BIP pathogenesis may lead to the development of new agents capable of preventing or even treating the injury already present. Physicians who prescribe bleomycin must be aware of the potential pulmonary toxicity, especially in the presence of risk factors. This review will focus on BIP, mainly regarding recent advances and perspectives in diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Transgenic technologies to induce sterility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wimmer Ernst A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The last few years have witnessed a considerable expansion in the number of tools available to perform molecular and genetic studies on the genome of Anopheles mosquitoes, the vectors of human malaria. As a consequence, knowledge of aspects of the biology of mosquitoes, such as immunity, reproduction and behaviour, that are relevant to their ability to transmit disease is rapidly increasing, and could be translated into concrete benefits for malaria control strategies. Amongst the most important scientific advances, the development of transgenic technologies for Anopheles mosquitoes provides a crucial opportunity to improve current vector control measures or design novel ones. In particular, the use of genetic modification of the mosquito genome could provide for a more effective deployment of the sterile insect technique (SIT against vector populations in the field. Currently, SIT relies on the release of radiation sterilized males, which compete with wild males for mating with wild females. The induction of sterility in males through the genetic manipulation of the mosquito genome, already achieved in a number of other insect species, could eliminate the need for radiation and increase the efficiency of SIT-based strategies. This paper provides an overview of the mechanisms already in use for inducing sterility by transgenesis in Drosophila and other insects, and speculates on possible ways to apply similar approaches to Anopheles mosquitoes.

  14. Naproxen-induced liver injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sharif Ali; Jason D Pimentel; Chan Ma

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been reported to induce liver injury. Patterns of the injury usually range from mild elevations of liver enzymes to sometimes severe fulminant hepatic failure. Likewise, naproxen is a propionic acid derivative NSAID that was introduced in 1980 and has been available as an over-the-counter medication since 1994, but has rarely been reported to cause liver injury. METHODS: We treated a 30-year-old woman with jaundice and intractablepruritusthatdevelopedshortlyaftertakingnaproxen. We reviewed the medical history and liver histopathology of the patient as well as all previously published case reports of naproxen-associated liver toxicity in the English language literature. RESULTS: The liver biochemical profile of the patient revealed a mixed cholestasis and hepatitis pattern. Consecutive liver biopsies demonstrated focal lobular inflammation, hepatocyte drop-out, and a progressive loss of the small interlobular bile ducts (ductopenia). The biopsy performed two years after onset of the disease showed partial recovery of a small number of bile ducts; however, 10 years passed before the biochemical profile returned to near normal. CONCLUSIONS:  Naproxen-associated liver toxicity remains a rare entity, but should be considered in any patient presenting with cholestasis shortly after its use. Liver injury is most commonly seen in a mixed pattern characterized by cholestasis and hepatitis. The resulting liver damage may take years to resolve.

  15. Studies on tumor induced angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, J L; Ambrus, C M; Forgach, P; Stadler, S; Halpern, J; Sayyid, S; Niswander, P; Toumbis, C

    1992-01-01

    Methods were developed to test angiogenic response to human tumor implants and various biologic agents in the cornea of rabbits and non-human primates (Macaca arctoides). Crude PDGF preparations were found to have significant angiogenic effect. Purified, recombinant PDGF preparations were also effective inhibitors (e.g. pentoxifylline (Px) (which also were found to release PgI2 and t-PA) inhibited human tumor implant induced angiogenesis and reduced spontaneous metastases in 3 transplantable murine tumors (Furth-Columbia Wilms' tumor in Furth-Wistar rats, C-1300 neuroblastoma in A/J mice and HM-Kim mammary carcinoma in Wistar rats) but not in the NIH adenocarcinoma in Balb/c mice. Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC), a metal complexing agent with special affinity to copper and anti-thyroid as well as, immune stimulating activity was shown to be anti-angiogenic and to potentiate the effect of Px. The anti-fibrinolytic agents epsilon amino caproic acid (EACA) and tranaxamic acid (t-AMCHA) were anti-angiogenic. DDTC and Px were synergistic from this point of view.

  16. Vascular calcification: Inducers and inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Donghyun, E-mail: dhlee@cau.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, 221 Heukseok-Dong, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {center_dot} Types of vascular calcification processes. {center_dot} Inducers of vascular calcification. {center_dot} Inhibitors of vascular calcifications. {center_dot} Clinical utility for vascular calcification therapy. {center_dot} Implications for the development of new tissue engineering strategies. - Abstract: Unlike the traditional beliefs, there are mounting evidences suggesting that ectopic mineral depositions, including vascular calcification are mostly active processes, many times resembling that of the bone mineralization. Numbers of agents are involved in the differentiation of certain subpopulation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) into the osteoblast-like entity, and the activation and initiation of extracellular matrix ossification process. On the other hand, there are factors as well, that prevent such differentiation and ectopic calcium phosphate formation. In normal physiological environments, activities of such procalcific and anticalcific regulatory factors are in harmony, prohibiting abnormal calcification from occurring. However, in certain pathophysiological conditions, such as atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and diabetes, such balances are altered, resulting in abnormal ectopic mineral deposition. Understanding the factors that regulate the formation and inhibition of ectopic mineral formation would be beneficial in the development of tissue engineering strategies for prevention and/or treatment of such soft-tissue calcification. Current review focuses on the factors that seem to be clinically relevant and/or could be useful in developing future tissue regeneration strategies. Clinical utilities and implications of such factors are also discussed.

  17. Ifosfamide-Induced Fanconi's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Kun Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ifosfamide is an alkylating antineoplastic prodrug used to treat many solid tumors. The metabolism of ifosfamide is via CYP450 3A4 and 2B6 and produces active ifosfamide mustard, the toxic metabolite acrolein and chloroacetaldehyde (CAA. Additionally, CAA is believed to induce proximal tubular dysfunction which results in Fanconi's syndrome. It is a condition not commonly encountered in adults receiving ifosfamide but relatively common in children. Herein, we have reported a 25-year-old woman with a history of synovial sarcoma with multiple lung metastasis and repetitive locoregional recurrence. She received chemotherapy with high dose ifosfamide as her antineoplastic treatment. Before her 4th cycle of chemotherapy, the patient's pre-chemotherapy evaluation revealed proteinuria, glucosuria, phosphateuria, hypophosphatemia and non-anion gap metabolic acidosis. The above conditions were consistent with Fanconi's syndrome. We treated her with electrolyte supplement and close monitoring of the noted laboratory abnormalities. Fortunately, the laboratory abnormality gradually resolved. Our case highlights the rare potential complication of ifosfamide, especially in patients who had received a high cumulive dose. To avoid this rare but potentially debilitating condition, patients whose cumulative ifosfamide dose reaches threshold should be closely monitored.

  18. Propylthiouracil-induced autoimmune disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Paiaulla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthyroidism is a condition characterized by excessive production of thyroid hormones. Propylthiouracil (PTU is commonly used as first line drug in the management of hyperthyroidism. This is a case report of 24-year-old female, a known case of hyperthyroidism since 4 years, who came with a history of fever and myalgia since 3 days and dyspnea with coughing out of blood since 1 day. Patient was taking PTU (100 mg per day since 4 years for hyperthyroidism. Patient was immediately intubated for type-II respiratory failure. Diagnosed to be having PTU-induced autoimmune disease. PTU was stopped and treated with methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide. Clinical features improved over a period of 8 days and discharged home successfully. Having a high suspicion for the onset of autoimmune disease in hyperthyroidism patients who are on PTU therapy and timely treatment with immunosuppressants and supportive care along with the withdrawal of the drug can make a difference in morbidity and mortality.

  19. Bimatoprost-induced chemical blepharoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnoff, Deborah S; Gotkin, Robert H

    2015-05-01

    We report significant changes in the appearance of the periorbital area, beyond eyelash enhancement, induced by the topical application of bimatoprost ophthalmic solution, 0.03% (Latisse®, Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA). To our knowledge, this is the first report in the dermatology or plastic surgery literature describing the rejuvenating effect and overall improvement in the appearance of the periorbital area resulting from applying Latisse to the upper eyelid margins. To date, reports in the literature discuss side-effects and potential complications of topical bimatoprost therapy causing a constellation of findings known as PAP (prostaglandin-associated periorbitopathy). While periorbitopathy implies pathology or a state of disease, we report changes that can be perceived as an improvement in the overall appearance of the periorbital area. We, therefore, propose a name change from PAP to PAPS - prostaglandin- associated periorbital syndrome. This better describes the beneficial, as well as the possible negative effects of topical bimatoprost. Although there is a risk for periorbital disfigurement, when used bilaterally, in properly selected candidates and titrated appropriately, bimatoprost can be beneficial. The striking improvement in the appearance of some individuals warrants further research into the potential use of topical bimatoprost to achieve a "chemical blepharoplasty."

  20. Mantle superplumes induce geomagnetic superchrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eOlson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We use polarity reversal systematics from numerical dynamos to quantify the hypothesis that the modulation of geomagnetic reversal frequency, including geomagnetic superchrons, results from changes in core heat flux related to growth and collapse of lower mantle superplumes. We parameterize the reversal frequency sensitivity from numerical dynamos in terms of average core heat flux normalized by the difference between the present-day core heat flux and the core heat flux at geomagnetic superchron onset. A low-order polynomial fit to the 0-300 Ma Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS reveals that a decrease in core heat flux relative to present-day of approximately 30% can account for the Cretaceous Normal Polarity and Kiaman Reverse Polarity Superchrons, whereas the hyper-reversing periods in the Jurassic require a core heat flux equal to or higher than present-day. Possible links between GPTS transitions, large igneous provinces (LIPs, and the two lower mantle superplumes are explored. Lower mantle superplume growth and collapse induce GPTS transitions by increasing and decreasing core heat flux, respectively. Age clusters of major LIPs postdate transitions from hyper-reversing to superchron geodynamo states by 30-60 Myr, suggesting that superchron onset may be contemporaneous with LIP-forming instabilities produced during collapses of lower mantle superplumes.

  1. Anatomopathological Changes Induced by Mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Tirziu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungi or mycetes represents the biggest group of microorganisms from the entire biologic system (nearly 250.000 species, very widespread in nature. They are inferior vegetal organisms, heterotrophic, lacking chlorophyll or other trophic pigments, which grow up on live organic substrates or on decaying substrates. The intensive researches from the last two decades had proved that only 30 – 40% from the total number of fungi species is capable to synthesize some toxic metabolites, and, among this species, only 60 species had proved to be dangerous for human or animals. Researches about mycotoxins action upon factors that interfere with the natural or acquired immunity are relatively recent and most of them refer to aflatoxins. The immune-suppression phenomena rely on morphological and histological modifications of lymphoid organs, changes of blood parameters, changes of functional capacity of humoral and some cellular factors. The presence of mycotoxins in feed causes major economic losses, either by their direct action (defined by disease state or indirectly, by affecting the specific and nonspecific resistance of the organism. In the present study we studied the effect of aflatoxins upon the main organs involved in immune response, pathological changes induced by mycotoxins. To determine the influence of mycotoxins on food conversion, weighings were made at the beginning and the end of the experimental period.

  2. Therapeutic effect and hepatotoxicity of Tripterygium wilfordii compound recipe gel on adjuvant-induced arthritis rat%复方雷公藤凝胶剂对大鼠佐剂型关节炎的疗效及肝毒性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周洁; 刘岳凤; 何凯

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect and the impact on liver function of different-dose Tripterygium wilfordii compound recipe gel (TWCG) for external use on adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) rats.Methods Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis rats were dressed with different doses of TWCG,voltaren as positive control and blank gel as blank control.The ankle swelling degrees were evaluated; the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) were detected by ELISA; the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) in ankle cartilage were determined by immunohistochemical method; the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)were tested with the automatic biochemical analyzer.Results Compared with the model group (dressed with blank gel),the ankle swelling degrees in TWCG groups and voltaren group were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) ; the levels of TNF-α markedly decreased and IL-4 increased in sera (P < 0.05) ; the content of MMP-3 in ankle joint tissues was significantly reduced (P <0.05).The effects in high-dose TWCG group and median-dose TWCG group were better than that in voltaren group and low-dose TWCG group (P < 0.05).However,the levels of ALT and AST were not statistically different among the groups (P>0.05).Conclusion TWCG has obvious anti-inflammatory and detumescence effects on AA rat.It can protect cartilage tissue effectively without significant hepatotoxicity.%目的 探讨不同剂量复方雷公藤凝胶剂(TWCG)外用对佐剂型关节炎(AA)大鼠的治疗作用及其对肝功能的影响.方法 以弗氏完全佐剂(FCA)诱导大鼠关节炎模型,用不同剂量TWCG对其外敷治疗,以扶他林乳胶剂为阳性对照,以凝胶基质为空白对照.观察各组大鼠关节肿胀度;ELISA测定大鼠血清中肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)、白细胞介素-4(IL-4)的含量;免疫组织化学方法检测踝关节软骨中基质金属蛋白酶-3(MMP-3)的含

  3. Ciprofloxacin induced fixed drug eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ravishankar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fixed drug eruption (FDE is a clinical entity occurring in the same site or sites each time the drug is administered. Acute lesions appear as sharply marginated erythematous plaques, which are usually found on lips, genitalia, abdomen, and legs. The eruptions usually occur within hours of administration of the offending agent and resolves spontaneously without scarring after few weeks of onset. Most common drugs causing FDE are sulfonamides, tetracyclines, salicylates, barbiturates, doxycycline, fluconazole, clarithromycin, etc. Ciprofloxacin, a widely used fluoroquinolone antimicrobial, induces cutaneous adverse drug reactions (ADRs in about 1-2% of treated patients. Urticaria, angioedema, maculopapular exanthems, and photosensitivity are the most frequently documented cutaneous adverse reactions. In this case report, the patient soon after taking ciprofloxacin tablets, developed itching in the lips, palms and in scrotal region. On continuing the treatment, the next day he developed fluid filled lesions over palm, knuckle, and hyperpigmentation. He gives a history of severe itching and rashes in scrotal region. He gives a history of similar complaints in the previous month after taking ciprofloxacin medication. There was no history of intake of any other medication. On examination, bullous lesions and pustules in finger webs, hyperpigmentation on knuckles, and scrotal erosions were seen. In the present case report, the patient presented with FDE immediately after oral administration of ciprofloxacin and got completely cured after stopping the drug and taking adequate treatment. According to the Naranjo's ADR probability scale (score=8, this ADR is categorized as a and ldquo;probable and rdquo; reaction to the drug. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(6.000: 1096-1097

  4. Noise-induced hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Sliwinska-Kowalska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL still remains a problem in developed countries, despite reduced occupational noise exposure, strict standards for hearing protection and extensive public health awareness campaigns. Therefore NIHL continues to be the focus of noise research activities. This paper summarizes progress achieved recently in our knowledge of NIHL. It includes papers published between the years 2008-2011 (in English, which were identified by a literature search of accessible medical and other relevant databases. A substantial part of this research has been concerned with the risk of NIHL in the entertainment sector, particularly in professional, orchestral musicians. There are also constant concerns regarding noise exposure and hearing risk in "hard to control" occupations, such as farming and construction work. Although occupational noise has decreased since the early 1980s, the number of young people subject to social noise exposure has tripled. If the exposure limits from the Noise at Work Regulations are applied, discotheque music, rock concerts, as well as music from personal music players are associated with the risk of hearing loss in teenagers and young adults. Several recent research studies have increased the understanding of the pathomechanisms of acoustic trauma, the genetics of NIHL, as well as possible dietary and pharmacologic otoprotection in acoustic trauma. The results of these studies are very promising and offer grounds to expect that targeted therapies might help prevent the loss of sensory hair cells and protect the hearing of noise-exposed individuals. These studies emphasize the need to launch an improved noise exposure policy for hearing protection along with developing more efficient norms of NIHL risk assessment.

  5. Metoclopramide-induced cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha M. Rumore

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of cardiac arrest in a patient receiving intravenous (IV metoclopramide and review the pertinent literature. A 62-year-old morbidly obese female admitted for a gastric sleeve procedure, developed cardiac arrest within one minute of receiving metoclopramide 10 mg via slow intravenous (IV injection. Bradycardia at 4 beats/min immediately appeared, progressing rapidly to asystole. Chest compressions restored vital function. Electrocardiogram (ECG revealed ST depression indicative of myocardial injury. Following intubation, the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit. Various cardiac dysrrhythmias including supraventricular tachycardia (SVT associated with hypertension and atrial fibrillation occurred. Following IV esmolol and metoprolol, the patient reverted to normal sinus rhythm. Repeat ECGs revealed ST depression resolution without pre-admission changes. Metoclopramide is a non-specific dopamine receptor antagonist. Seven cases of cardiac arrest and one of sinus arrest with metoclopramide were found in the literature. The metoclopramide prescribing information does not list precautions or adverse drug reactions (ADRs related to cardiac arrest. The reaction is not dose related but may relate to the IV administration route. Coronary artery disease was the sole risk factor identified. According to Naranjo, the association was possible. Other reports of cardiac arrest, severe bradycardia, and SVT were reviewed. In one case, five separate IV doses of 10 mg metoclopramide were immediately followed by asystole repeatedly. The mechanism(s underlying metoclopramide’s cardiac arrest-inducing effects is unknown. Structural similarities to procainamide may play a role. In view of eight previous cases of cardiac arrest from metoclopramide having been reported, further elucidation of this ADR and patient monitoring is needed. Our report should alert clinicians to monitor patients and remain diligent in surveillance and

  6. Mitochondrial rejuvenation after induced pluripotency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T Suhr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As stem cells of the early embryo mature and differentiate into all tissues, the mitochondrial complement undergoes dramatic functional improvement. Mitochondrial activity is low to minimize generation of DNA-damaging reactive oxygen species during pre-implantation development and increases following implantation and differentiation to meet higher metabolic demands. It has recently been reported that when the stem cell type known as induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs are re-differentiated for several weeks in vitro, the mitochondrial complement progressively re-acquires properties approximating input fibroblasts, suggesting that despite the observation that IPSC conversion "resets" some parameters of cellular aging such as telomere length, it may have little impact on other age-affected cellular systems such as mitochondria in IPSC-derived cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have examined the properties of mitochondria in two fibroblast lines, corresponding IPSCs, and fibroblasts re-derived from IPSCs using biochemical methods and electron microscopy, and found a dramatic improvement in the quality and function of the mitochondrial complement of the re-derived fibroblasts compared to input fibroblasts. This observation likely stems from two aspects of our experimental design: 1 that the input cell lines used were of advanced cellular age and contained an inefficient mitochondrial complement, and 2 the re-derived fibroblasts were produced using an extensive differentiation regimen that may more closely mimic the degree of growth and maturation found in a developing mammal. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results - coupled with earlier data from our laboratory - suggest that IPSC conversion not only resets the "biological clock", but can also rejuvenate the energetic capacity of derived cells.

  7. Induced resistance in rice against insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karban, R; Chen, Y

    2007-08-01

    Vaccinations are the mainstay of western preventive medicine, and they have been used to protect some crops against disease and insect pests. We consider rice as a model for protection using induced resistance since it is one of the most important staple crops and there have been significant new developments in: cross-resistance among rice insects, chemical pathways involved in induced resistance, sequencing the rice genome and expression of genes conferring resistance against rice insect pests. Insect attack has been found to cause lesions that kill planthopper eggs and early stages of gall midges. Damaged plants released volatiles that made them less likely to be chosen by planthoppers and more attractive to parasitoids. Chemical elicitors have been developed for dicotyledonous plants and these can induce resistance in rice, although rice does not fit models developed to explain signalling in dicots. For example, salicylic acid did not increase in rice after infection by pathogens and did not appear to be the mobile signal for induced resistance against pathogens although it was involved in induced responses to phloem-feeding insects. Jasmonic acid acted as a signal in some induced responses to pathogens as well as chewing insects. Many of the genes associated with induced resistance in rice have recently been mapped, and techniques are being developed to incorporate them into the genome of cultivated varieties. Attempts to control insect pests of rice will affect interactions with pathogens, predators and parasites, and other organisms in this agroecosystem.

  8. Research progress of exercise-induced fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-yi DAI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced fatigue is a comprehensive response to a variety of physiological and biochemical changes in the body, and can affect people's quality of life to different extents. If no timely recovery after occurrence of fatigue, accumulated gradually, it can lead to "burnout", a "overtraining syndrome", "chronic fatigue syndrome", etc., which will cause endocrine disturbance, immune suppression, even physical illness. Exercise-induced fatigue becomes an important factor endangering human health. In recent years, many experts and scholars at home and abroad are committed to the research of exercise-induced fatigue, and have put forward a variety of hypothesis to explain the cause of exercise-induced fatigue. They expect to find out the methods for preventing and eliminating exercise-induced fatigue. This article discusses mainly the pathogenesis, model building, elimination/ relief, etc. of exercise-induced fatigue to point out the research achievements of exercise-induced fatigue and its existing problems. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.11.14

  9. Preventing infective complications relating to induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Nirmala; Mahmood, Tahir A

    2010-08-01

    Infective complications following induced abortions are still a common cause of morbidity and mortality. This review focusses on defining the strategies to improve care of women seeking an induced abortion and to reduce infective complications. We have considered the evidence for screening and cost-effectiveness for antibiotic prophylaxis. Current evidence suggests that treating all women with prophylactic antibiotics in preference to screening and treating is the most cost-effective way of reducing infective complications following induced abortions. The final strategy to prevent infective complications should be individualized for each region/area depending on the prevalence of organisms causing pelvic infections and the resources available.

  10. Laser-induced damage in optical materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ristau, Detlev

    2014-01-01

    Dedicated to users and developers of high-powered systems, Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials focuses on the research field of laser-induced damage and explores the significant and steady growth of applications for high-power lasers in the academic, industrial, and military arenas. Written by renowned experts in the field, this book concentrates on the major topics of laser-induced damage in optical materials and most specifically addresses research in laser damage that occurs in the bulk and on the surface or the coating of optical components. It considers key issues in the field of hi

  11. Epidural Naloxone to Prevent Buprenorphine Induced PONV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Jadon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidural infusion of local analgesic and opioid are commonly used for postoperative pain relief. This combina-tion gives excellent anlgesia but nausea and vomiting remains a major concern. Low dose epidural naloxone prevents PONV induced by spinal opioids like morphine, fentanyl and sufentanil. However, it is not known that epidural naloxone administration prevents PONV induced by epidural buprenorphine. We have reported three cases of major abdominal operation in which lowdose epidural infusion of naloxone releived the symptom of buprenorphine induced severe PONV and improved the quality of analgesia.

  12. Terbinafine-induced lichenoid drug eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yue; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Haiyan; Lai, Wei; Maibach, Howard I

    2017-03-01

    Drug-induced lichen planus has been induced by antibiotics, anticonvulsants, antidiabetics, antimalarials, antitubercular drugs, antihypertensives, psychiatric drugs, chemotherapeutic agents, diuretic, heavy metals, NSAIDs, etc. Terbinafine, an antifungal agent, is widely used for dermatophyte infections and onychomycosis. Cutaneous adverse effects of terbinafine are rarely reported. Here, we report a case of terbinafine-induced lichenoid drug eruption in a 22-year-old who presented with generalized lichenoid eruption 2 weeks after terbinafine initiation of. The body and lip cleared completely after 8 weeks of drug withdrawal; nail change cleared after 12 weeks.

  13. Vibration-induced droplet atomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukasinovic, Bojan

    The atomization of liquid drops is investigated experimentally using laser vibrometry, high-speed imaging, and particle tracking techniques. The spray is generated by a novel vibration-induced droplet atomization (VIDA) process in which a sessile drop is atomized by an underlying vibrating thin metal diaphragm, resulting in rapid ejection of small secondary droplets from the free surface of the primary drop. Under some conditions, the primary drop can be atomized extremely rapidly by a bursting-like mechanism (e.g., a 0.1 ml water drop can be atomized in 0.4 seconds). The present research has focused on four major areas: global characteristics of VIDA process, instability modes and free surface dynamics of the forced drop, mechanisms of the interface breakup, and parametric characterization of the ensuing spray. Prior to atomization, the drop free surface undergoes three transitions: from axisymmetric standing waves to azimuthal waves, to a newly-observed lattice mode, and to a disordered pre-ejection state. The droplet ejection results from localized collapse of surface troughs and initiation and ultimate breakup of momentary liquid spikes. Breakup begins with capillary pinch-off from spike tips and can be followed by additional pinching of liquid droplets. For a relatively low-viscosity liquid, e.g., water, a capillary-wave instability of the spike is observed in some cases, while for a very viscous liquid, e.g., a glycerin/water solution, the first breakup occurs near the stem of the spike, with or without subsequent breakup of the detached, elongated thread. Different mechanisms dominating the primary breakup of the spike are operative in the low- and high-viscosity ejection regimes. When ejection of the secondary droplets is triggered, the evolution and rate of atomization depend on the coupled dynamics of the primary drop and the vibrating diaphragm. Due to these dynamics, the process can be either self-intensifying or self-decaying. The resulting VIDA spray

  14. Subsurface Airflow Induced by Natural Forcings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiu J. Jiao; LI Hai-long

    2004-01-01

    Subsurface air flow can be induced by natural processes, such as atmospheric or barometric pressure changes, water table fluctuations, topographic effects, and rainfall infiltration. Barometric pressure fluctuations are the most common cause of subsurface air flow, which can be significant under favourable geological conditions. This process has been studied most extensively because of its application to passive soil vapor extraction. Soil air flow induced by water table fluctuations can be significant, particularly where the fluctuations are of high frequency, for example, in tidal-influenced coastal areas. Topographic effects can lead to strong subsoil air flow in areas with great elevation differences. Rainfall infiltration usually produces only weak airflow. Air flow induced by these natural processes has important environmental and engineering implications. Among the different processes, air flow induced by tidal fluctuations has been studied the least, although it has exciting applications to coastal engineering projects and environmental remediation.

  15. A case of dapsone induced methaemoglobinaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dwyer, D

    2008-09-01

    We present a case of dapsone induced methaemoglobinaemia that occurred in a patient who presented to the Emergency Department of a University Hospital. It is an uncommon condition that requires specific and urgent treatment in severe cases.

  16. Drug Induced Hearing Loss: What Is Ototoxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Drug-Induced Hearing Loss What Is Ototoxicity? Past Issues / Spring 2016 Table ... of patients taking these drugs." "Antibiotics Caused My Hearing Loss..." Gulab Lalwani Photo Courtesy of: Gulab Lalwani When ...

  17. Waveguides induced by grey screening solitons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Ke-Qing; Zhao Wei; Yang Yan-Long; Zhang Mei-Zhi; Li Jin-Ping; Liu Hong-Jun; Zhang Yan-Peng

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the properties of waveguides induced by one-dimensional grey screening solitons in biased photore-fractive crystals. The results show that waveguides induced by grey screening solitons are always of single mode for all intensity ratios, i.e. the ratios between the peak intensity of the soliton and the dark irradiance. Our analysis indicates that the energy confined near the centre of the grey soliton and the propagation constant of the guided mode of the waveguide induced by the grey screening soliton increase monotonically with intensity ratio increasing. On the other hand, when the soliton greyness increases, the energy confined near the centre of the grey soliton and the propagation constant of the guided mode of the waveguide induced by the grey screening soliton decrease monotonically. Relevant examples are provided where photorefractive crystal is of the strontium barium niobate type.

  18. Thermally induced morphological transition of silver fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey; Kébaili, Nouari;

    2014-01-01

    We present both experimental and theoretical study of thermally induced morphological transition of silver nanofractals. Experimentally, those nanofractals formed from deposition and diffusion of preformed silver clusters on cleaved graphite surfaces exhibit dendritic morphologies that are highly...

  19. Noise-induced synchronization for phase turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaguchi, H.

    2003-01-01

    Phase turbulence is suppressed by applying common noise additively to the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky type equation, and the noise-induced phase synchronization is realized. The noise strength necessary for the suppression of phase turbulence is evaluated theoretically.

  20. Animal models of glucocorticoid-induced glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overby, Darryl R; Clark, Abbot F

    2015-12-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) therapy is widely used to treat a variety of inflammatory diseases and conditions. While unmatched in their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities, GC therapy is often associated with the significant ocular side effect of GC-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) and iatrogenic open-angle glaucoma. Investigators have generated GC-induced OHT and glaucoma in at least 8 different species besides man. These models mimic many features of this condition in man and provide morphologic and molecular insights into the pathogenesis of GC-OHT. In addition, there are many clinical, morphological, and molecular similarities between GC-induced glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), making animals models of GC-induced OHT and glaucoma attractive models in which to study specific aspects of POAG.