WorldWideScience

Sample records for andean-patagonian canopied stream

  1. Temporal variations in the diet of the exotic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss in an Andean-Patagonian canopied stream Variación temporal en la dieta de la trucha exótica arco iris (Oncorhynchus mykiss en un arroyo forestado de los Andes patagónicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONARDO M BURIA

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We examined seasonal and diel variation in prey species composition and biomass in the diet of the exotic rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1972. The study was carried out in the upper-forested sections of a low order stream in Andean-Patagonia. We studied the importance of functional feeding groups of aquatic invertebrates and the relative contribution of terrestrial and aquatic prey items in order to assess the pathways connecting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems along a stream food web. Trout fed on approximately 40 invertebrate species and scrapers were consistently selected, suggesting their increased vulnerability to predation. However in terms of biomass, rainbow trout diet was mostly composed by shredders which emphasized the role of the allochthonous plant detritus pathway in food webs of forested small streams. Trout individuals fed more intensively in spring and summer and during daytime. Terrestrial items constituted a minor proportion of the diet implying that this component did not represent a significant subsidy for this fish population. As a consequence, the top-down effect on the aquatic community does not appear to be dampened since trout do not strongly preyed on terrestrial invertebrates.Se estudió la variación estacional y diaria en la composición y biomasa de las especies presa en la dieta de la exótica trucha arco iris Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1972 en la sección superior de un arroyo boscoso de bajo orden en los Andes patagónicos. Se analizó la importancia de los grupos funcionales alimentarios de invertebrados acuáticos y la contribución relativa de las presas de origen terrestre y acuático para evaluar las vías tróficas que conectan los ecosistemas acuático y terrestre circundantes. Las truchas consumieron aproximadamente unas 40 especies de invertebrados y los raspadores fueron consistentemente seleccionados, sugiriendo una alta vulnerabilidad a la depredación. Sin embargo en términos de

  2. Taxonomic review of the species of Helina R.-D. (Diptera: Muscidae) from Andean-Patagonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Mariluis, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-12

    Helina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 is the second genus of Muscidae in terms of richness. This genus includes several species collected at high altitudes and high latitudes, and is poorly studied in the Neotropical region. Only 12 species of Helina have been recorded in the southern limit of South America in the Andean-Patagonian forests. In the present work, we studied all the species known from the Andean-Patagonian forests, with the exception of H. viola Malloch, 1934, present three new species, H. araucana sp. nov., H. dorada sp. nov., and H. ouina sp. nov., and provide the first description of the females of H. australis Carvalho & Pont, 1993 and H. rufoapicata Malloch, 1934. We also propose four new synonymies: H. nigrimana basilaris (Carvalho & Pont, 1993) and H. nigrimana grisea (Malloch, 1934) as new junior synonyms of H. nigrimana (Macquart, 1851); and H. fulvocalyptrata Malloch, 1934 and H. simplex Malloch, 1934 as new junior synonyms of H. chilensis Malloch, 1934. Finally, we provide a generic diagnosis and a new key for the Helina species of the Andean-Patagonian forests, as well as notes on the biology and distribution maps of each specimen, and discuss a preliminary contruction of groups of species.

  3. Application of two-stream model to solar radiation of rice canopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakata, T.

    2005-01-01

    The amount of solar radiation absorbed by a crop canopy is correlated with crop production, and thus it is necessary to estimate both transmission and reflection around the canopy for crop growth models. The 'forward and backward streams' representation of radiation has been refined to account for both transmission and reflection in the crop canopy. However, this model has not been applied to a rice canopy through the growing period. The purpose of this study is to examine whether the two-stream model is applicable to the rice canopy, and to investigate the parameters of the model. The values for both transmittance below the rice canopy and reflectance above it that were derived from the two-stream model represent the observed values throughout the growing period. The inclination factor of leaves (F), which is used in the two-stream model, was almost equivalent to the extinction coefficient of transmittance in the case of the rice canopy

  4. Influence of riparian canopy on macroinvertebrate composition and food habits of juvenile salmonids in several Oregon streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. Meehan

    1996-01-01

    The community composition of macroinvertebrates and the feeding habits of juvenile salmonids were studied in eight Oregon streams. Benthic, drift, sticky trap, and water trap samples were taken over a 3-year period, along with stomach samples of the fish. Samples were taken in stream reaches with and without riparian canopy. Both main effects—fish diet versus...

  5. A two stream radiative transfer model for scaling solar induced fluorescence from leaf to canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaife, T. L.

    2017-12-01

    Solar induced fluorescence (SIF) is becoming widely used as a proxy for gross primary productivity (GPP), in particular with the advent of its measurement by Earth Observation satellites such as OCO and GOSAT. A major attraction of SIF is that it is independent of the assumptions embedded in light use efficiency based GPP products derived from satellite missions such as MODIS. The assumptions in such products are likely not compatible with any given land surface model and hence comparing the two is problematic. On the other hand to compare land surface model predictions of GPP to satellite based SIF data requires either (a) translation of SIF into estimates of GPP, or (b) direct predictions of SIF from the land surface model itself. The former typically relies on empirical relationships, whereas the latter can make direct use of our physiological understanding of the link between photosynthesis and fluorescence at the leaf scale and is therefore preferable. Here I derive a two stream model for fluorescence that is capable of translating between leaf scale models of SIF and the canopy leaving radiance taking into account all levels of photon scattering. Other such models have been developed previously but the model described here is physically consistent with the Sellers' two stream radiative transfer scheme which is widely used in modern land surface models. Consequently any model that already employs the Sellers's scheme can use the new model without requiring modification. This includes, for example, JULES, the land surface model of the new UK Earth System Model (UKESM) and CLM, the US Community Land Model (part of the NCAR Earth System Model). The new canopy SIF model is extremely computationally efficient and can be applied to vertically inhomogeneous canopies.

  6. Implementation of a subcanopy solar radiation model on a forested headwater basin in the Southern Appalachians to estimate riparian canopy density and stream insolation for stream temperature models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belica, L.; Petras, V.; Iiames, J. S., Jr.; Caldwell, P.; Mitasova, H.; Nelson, S. A. C.

    2016-12-01

    Water temperature is a key aspect of water quality and understanding how the thermal regimes of forested headwater streams may change in response to climatic and land cover changes is increasingly important to scientists and resource managers. In recent years, the forested mountain watersheds of the Southeastern U.S. have experienced changing climatic patterns as well as the loss of a keystone riparian tree species and anticipated hydrologic responses include lower summer stream flows and decreased stream shading. Solar radiation is the main source of thermal energy to streams and a key parameter in heat-budget models of stream temperature; a decrease in flow volume combined with a reduction in stream shading during summer have the potential to increase stream temperatures. The high spatial variability of forest canopies and the high spatio-temporal variability in sky conditions make estimating the solar radiation reaching small forested headwater streams difficult. The Subcanopy Solar Radiation Model (SSR) (Bode et al. 2014) is a GIS model that generates high resolution, spatially explicit estimates of solar radiation by incorporating topographic and vegetative shading with a light penetration index derived from leaf-on airborne LIDAR data. To evaluate the potential of the SSR model to provide estimates of stream insolation to parameterize heat-budget models, it was applied to the Coweeta Basin in the Southern Appalachians using airborne LIDAR (NCALM 2009, 1m resolution). The LIDAR derived canopy characteristics were compared to current hyperspectral images of the canopy for changes and the SSR estimates of solar radiation were compared with pyranometer measurements of solar radiation at several subcanopy sites during the summer of 2016. Preliminary results indicate the SSR model was effective in identifying variations in canopy density and light penetration, especially in areas associated with road and stream corridors and tree mortality. Current LIDAR data and

  7. Compliance of secondary production and eco-exergy as indicators of benthic macroinvertebrates assemblages' response to canopy cover conditions in Neotropical headwater streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Marden Seabra; Callisto, Marcos; Marques, João Carlos

    2018-02-01

    Riparian vegetation cover influences benthic assemblages structure and functioning in headwater streams, as it regulates light availability and autochthonous primary production in these ecosystems.Secondary production, diversity, and exergy-based indicators were applied in capturing how riparian cover influences the structure and functioning of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in tropical headwater streams. Four hypotheses were tested: (1) open canopy will determine the occurrence of higher diversity in benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages; (2) streams with open canopy will exhibit more complex benthic macroinvertebrate communities (in terms of information embedded in the organisms' biomass); (3) in streams with open canopy benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages will be more efficient in using the available resources to build structure, which will be reflected by higher eco-exergy values; (4) benthic assemblages in streams with open canopy will exhibit more secondary productivity. We selected eight non-impacted headwater streams, four shaded and four with open canopy, all located in the Neotropical savannah (Cerrado) of southeastern Brazil. Open canopy streams consistently exhibited significantly higher eco-exergy and instant secondary production values, exemplifying that these streams may support more complex and productive benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages. Nevertheless, diversity indices and specific eco-exergy were not significantly different in shaded and open canopy streams. Since all the studied streams were selected for being considered as non-impacted, this suggests that the potential represented by more available food resources was not used to build a more complex dissipative structure. These results illustrate the role and importance of the canopy cover characteristics on the structure and functioning of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in tropical headwater streams, while autochthonous production appears to play a crucial role as food

  8. Distribution of detritivores in tropical forest streams of peninsular Malaysia: role of temperature, canopy cover and altitude variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Salmah, Md Rawi; Al-Shami, Salman Abdo; Abu Hassan, Ahmad; Madrus, Madziatul Rosemahanie; Nurul Huda, Abdul

    2014-07-01

    The diversity and abundance of macroinvertebrate shredders were investigated in 52 forested streams (local scale) from nine catchments (regional scale) covering a large area of peninsular Malaysia. A total of 10,642 individuals of aquatic macroinvertebrates were collected, of which 18.22 % were shredders. Biodiversity of shredders was described by alpha (αaverage ), beta (β) and gamma diversity (γ) measures. We found high diversity and abundance of shredders in all catchments, represented by 1,939 individuals (range 6-115 and average per site of 37.29 ± 3.48 SE) from 31 taxa with 2-13 taxa per site (αaverage = 6.98 ± 0.33 SE) and 10-15 taxa per catchment (γ = 13.33 ± 0.55 SE). At the local scale, water temperature, stream width, depth and altitude were correlated significantly with diversity (Adj- R 2 = 0.205). Meanwhile, dissolved oxygen, stream velocity, water temperature, stream width and altitude were correlated to shredder abundance (Adj- R 2 = 0.242). At regional scale, however, water temperature was correlated negatively with β and γ diversity ( r 2 = 0.161 and 0.237, respectively) as well as abundance of shredders ( r 2 = 0.235). Canopy cover was correlated positively with β diversity ( r 2 = 0.378) and abundance ( r 2 = 0.266), meanwhile altitude was correlated positively with β (quadratic: r 2 = 0.175), γ diversity (quadratic: r 2 = 0.848) as well as abundance (quadratic: r 2 = 0.299). The present study is considered as the first report describing the biodiversity and abundance of shredders in forested headwater streams across a large spatial scale in peninsular Malaysia. We concluded that water temperature has a negative effect while altitude showed a positive relationship with diversity and abundance of shredders. However, it was difficult to detect an influence of canopy cover on shredder diversity.

  9. Watershed Land Use and Seasonal Variation Constrain the Influence of Riparian Canopy Cover on Stream Ecosystem Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    While watershed and local scale controls on stream metabolism have been independently investigated, little is known about how controls exerted at these different scales interact to determine stream metabolic rates, or how these interactions vary across seasons. To address this ...

  10. STREAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Mikkel

    This paper presents a flexible model, ‘STREAM’, for transforming higher science education into blended and online learning. The model is inspired by ideas of active and collaborative learning and builds on feedback strategies well-known from Just-in-Time Teaching, Flipped Classroom, and Peer...... Instruction. The aim of the model is to provide both a concrete and comprehensible design toolkit for adopting and implementing educational technologies in higher science teaching practice and at the same time comply with diverse ambitions. As opposed to the above-mentioned feedback strategies, the STREAM...... model supports a relatively diverse use of educational technologies and may also be used to transform teaching into completely online learning. So far both teachers and educational developers have positively received the model and the initial design experiences show promise....

  11. Inorganic mercury (Hg2+ uptake by different plankton fractions of Andean Patagonian lakes (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diéguez M.C.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The species composition and the size structure of natural planktonic food webs may provide essential information to understand the fate of mercury and, in particular, the bioaccumulation pattern of Hg2+ in the water column of lake ecosystems. Heterotrophic and autotrophic picoplankton and phytoplankton are the most important entry points for Hg in aquatic ecosystems since they concentrate Hg2+ and MeHg from ambient water, making them available to planktonic consumers at higher trophic levels of lake food webs. In this investigation we studied the uptake of 197Hg2+ in natural plankton assemblages from four Andean lakes (Nahuel Huapi National Park, Patagonia, Argentina, comprised in the size fractions 0.2-2.7 μm (picoplankton, 0.2-20 μm (pico and nanoplankton and 20-50 μm (microplankton through experiments using Hg2+ labeled with 197Hg2+. The experimental results showed that the uptake of Hg2+ was highest in the smallest plankton fractions (0.2-2.7 μm and 0.2-20 μm compared to the larger fraction comprising microplankton (20-50 um. This pattern was consistent in all lakes, reinforcing the idea that among pelagic organisms, heterotrophic and autotrophic bacteria with the contribution of nanoflagellates and dinoflagellates constitute the main entry point of Hg2+ to the pelagic food web. Moreover, a significant direct relationship was found between the Hg2+ uptake and surface index of the planktonic fractions (SIf. Thus, the smaller planktonic fractions which bore the higher SI were the major contributors to the Hg2+ passing from the abiotic to the biotic pelagic compartments of these Andean lakes.

  12. Canopy Version 7.0: Canopy manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischler, M.; Uchima, M.; Hockney, G.; Mackenzie, P.

    1993-12-01

    Canopy provides a machine-independent environment for attacking grid-oriented problems. This document describes the concepts and routines common to all Canopy implementations, independent of the system and implementation. Information specific to the massively parallel ACPMAPS/indexACPMAPS system at FermiLab is contained in two other documents: The CANOPY ACPMAPS USER's GUIDE provides user-oriented instructions on compiling, running, file system usage, and production job control. The CANOPY ACPMAPS SYSTEM MANUAL describes system tools and installation and system management techniques. System-specific User's Guides may be created for implementations on other systems. The goal of Canopy is to allow scientists to use massively parallel systems for a broad class of applications without having to become expert in any particular system or in parallel programming techniques. The Canopy approach identifies grid-oriented concepts and implements them as routines in a library. Applications written in terms of these concepts will run on any system which supports the Canopy software. A side benefit in dealing with familiar concepts is that programs can more easily be understood by other researchers

  13. Canopy Chemistry (OTTER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Canopy characteristics: leaf chemistry, specific leaf area, LAI, PAR, IPAR, NPP, standing biomass--see also: Meteorology (OTTER) for associated...

  14. NLCD 2001 - Tree Canopy

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The National Land Cover Database 2001 tree canopy layer for Minnesota (mapping zones 39-42, 50-51) was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the...

  15. Turbulent flows over sparse canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Akshath; García-Mayoral, Ricardo

    2018-04-01

    Turbulent flows over sparse and dense canopies exerting a similar drag force on the flow are investigated using Direct Numerical Simulations. The dense canopies are modelled using a homogeneous drag force, while for the sparse canopy, the geometry of the canopy elements is represented. It is found that on using the friction velocity based on the local shear at each height, the streamwise velocity fluctuations and the Reynolds stress within the sparse canopy are similar to those from a comparable smooth-wall case. In addition, when scaled with the local friction velocity, the intensity of the off-wall peak in the streamwise vorticity for sparse canopies also recovers a value similar to a smooth-wall. This indicates that the sparse canopy does not significantly disturb the near-wall turbulence cycle, but causes its rescaling to an intensity consistent with a lower friction velocity within the canopy. In comparison, the dense canopy is found to have a higher damping effect on the turbulent fluctuations. For the case of the sparse canopy, a peak in the spectral energy density of the wall-normal velocity, and Reynolds stress is observed, which may indicate the formation of Kelvin-Helmholtz-like instabilities. It is also found that a sparse canopy is better modelled by a homogeneous drag applied on the mean flow alone, and not the turbulent fluctuations.

  16. Canopy for VERAView Installation Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ronald W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-12

    With the addition of the 3D volume slicer widget, VERAView now relies on Mayavi and its dependents. Enthought's Canopy Python environment provides everything VERAView needs, and pre-built Canopy versions for Windows, Mac OSX, and Linux can be downloaded.

  17. Gainesville's urban forest canopy cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Escobedo; Jennifer A. Seitz; Wayne Zipperer

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystem benefits from trees are linked directly to the amount of healthy urban forest canopy cover. Urban forest cover is dynamic and changes over time due to factors such as urban development, windstorms, tree removals, and growth. The amount of a city's canopy cover depends on its land use, climate, and people's preferences. This fact sheet examines how...

  18. Aquatic insect emergence from headwater streams flowing through regeneration and mature forests in western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Progar; Andrew R. Moldenke

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effect of canopy cover on adult aquatic insect emergence by collecting bi-weekly samples from twelve headwater stream reaches flowing either under a mature conifer canopy or streams flowing through ten-year-old regeneration in western Oregon from February to November 1997. Density and biomass generally followed a bimodal curve with peaks during early...

  19. Estimating Canopy Dark Respiration for Crop Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje Mejia, Oscar Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Crop production is obtained from accurate estimates of daily carbon gain.Canopy gross photosynthesis (Pgross) can be estimated from biochemical models of photosynthesis using sun and shaded leaf portions and the amount of intercepted photosyntheticallyactive radiation (PAR).In turn, canopy daily net carbon gain can be estimated from canopy daily gross photosynthesis when canopy dark respiration (Rd) is known.

  20. Plant photomorphogenesis and canopy growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballare, Carlos L.; Scopel, Ana L.

    1994-01-01

    An important motivation for studying photomorphogenesis is to understand the relationships among plant photophysiology in canopies, canopy productivity, and agronomic yield. This understanding is essential to optimize lighting systems used for plant farming in controlled environments (CE) and for the design of genetically engineered crop strains with altered photoresponses. This article provides an overview of some basic principles of plant photomorphogenesis in canopies and discusses their implications for (1) scaling up information on plant photophysiology from individual plants in CE to whole canopies in the field, and (2) designing lighting conditions to increase plant productivity in CE used for agronomic purposes (e.g. space farming in CE Life Support Systems). We concentrate on the visible (lambda between 400 and 700 nm) and far-infrared (FR; lambda greater than 700 nm) spectral regions, since the ultraviolet (UV; 280 to 400 nm) is covered by other authors in this volume.

  1. Plant photomorphogenesis and canopy growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballare, C.L.; Scopel, A.L. [Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1994-12-31

    An important motivation for studying photomorphogenesis is to understand the relationships among plant photophysiology in canopies, canopy productivity, and agronomic yield. This understanding is essential to optimize lighting systems used for plant farming in controlled environments (CE) and for the design of genetically engineered crop strains with altered photoresponses. This article provides an overview of some basic principles of plant photomorphogenesis in canopies and discusses their implications for (1) scaling up information on plant photophysiology from individual plants in CE to whole canopies in the field, and (2), designing lighting conditions to increase plant productivity in CE used for agronomic purposes [e.g. space farming in CE Life-Support-Systems]. We concentrate on the visible ({lambda} between 400 and 700 nm) and far red (FR; {lambda} > 700 nm) spectral regions, since the ultraviolet (UV; 280 to 400 nm) is covered by other authors in this volume.

  2. Effects of riparian canopy opening and salmon carcass addition on the abundance and growth of resident salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret A. Wilzbach; Bret C. Harvey; Jason L. White; Rodney J. Nakamoto

    2005-01-01

    We studied the concurrent effects of riparian canopy opening and salmon carcass addition on salmonid biomass, density and growth rates in small streams over 2 years. In each of six streams in the Smith and Klamath River basins in northern California, red alder (Alnus rubra) and other hardwoods were removed along both banks of a 100-m reach to...

  3. Streams with Strahler Stream Order

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Stream segments with Strahler stream order values assigned. As of 01/08/08 the linework is from the DNR24K stream coverages and will not match the updated...

  4. Stochastic radiative transfer model for mixture of discontinuous vegetation canopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabanov, Nikolay V.; Huang, D.; Knjazikhin, Y.; Dickinson, R.E.; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2007-01-01

    Modeling of the radiation regime of a mixture of vegetation species is a fundamental problem of the Earth's land remote sensing and climate applications. The major existing approaches, including the linear mixture model and the turbid medium (TM) mixture radiative transfer model, provide only an approximate solution to this problem. In this study, we developed the stochastic mixture radiative transfer (SMRT) model, a mathematically exact tool to evaluate radiation regime in a natural canopy with spatially varying optical properties, that is, canopy, which exhibits a structured mixture of vegetation species and gaps. The model solves for the radiation quantities, direct input to the remote sensing/climate applications: mean radiation fluxes over whole mixture and over individual species. The canopy structure is parameterized in the SMRT model in terms of two stochastic moments: the probability of finding species and the conditional pair-correlation of species. The second moment is responsible for the 3D radiation effects, namely, radiation streaming through gaps without interaction with vegetation and variation of the radiation fluxes between different species. We performed analytical and numerical analysis of the radiation effects, simulated with the SMRT model for the three cases of canopy structure: (a) non-ordered mixture of species and gaps (TM); (b) ordered mixture of species without gaps; and (c) ordered mixture of species with gaps. The analysis indicates that the variation of radiation fluxes between different species is proportional to the variation of species optical properties (leaf albedo, density of foliage, etc.) Gaps introduce significant disturbance to the radiation regime in the canopy as their optical properties constitute major contrast to those of any vegetation species. The SMRT model resolves deficiencies of the major existing mixture models: ignorance of species radiation coupling via multiple scattering of photons (the linear mixture model

  5. Forests and their canopies: Archievements and horizons in canopy science

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nakamura, A.; Kitching, R. L.; Cao, M.; Creedy, T. J.; Fayle, Tom Maurice; Freiberg, M.; Hewitt, C. N.; Itioka, T.; Koh, L. P.; Ma, K.; Malhi, Y.; Mitchell, A.; Novotný, Vojtěch; Ozanne, C. M. P.; Song, L.; Wang, H.; Ashton, L. A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 6 (2017), s. 438-451 ISSN 0169-5347 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09427S; GA ČR GB14-36098G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 669609 - Diversity6continents Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biodiversity * canopy * cranes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 15.268, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169534717300599

  6. Stream Crossings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Physical measurements and attributes of stream crossing structures and adjacent stream reaches which are used to provide a relative rating of aquatic organism...

  7. Akamai Streaming

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Akamai offers world-class streaming media services that enable Internet content providers and enterprises to succeed in today's Web-centric marketplace. They deliver live event Webcasts (complete with video production, encoding, and signal acquisition services), streaming media on demand, 24/7 Webcasts and a variety of streaming application services based upon their EdgeAdvantage.

  8. Canopy Dynamics in Nanoscale Ionic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Jespersen, Michael L.

    2010-07-27

    Nanoscale ionic materials (NIMS) are organic - inorganic hybrids in which a core nanostructure is functionalized with a covalently attached corona and an ionically tethered organic canopy. NIMS are engineered to be liquids under ambient conditions in the absence of solvent and are of interest for a variety of applications. We have used nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation and pulse-field gradient (PFG) diffusion experiments to measure the canopy dynamics of NIMS prepared from 18-nm silica cores modified by an alkylsilane monolayer possessing terminal sulfonic acid functionality, paired with an amine-terminated ethylene oxide/propylene oxide block copolymer canopy. Carbon NMR studies show that the block copolymer canopy is mobile both in the bulk and in the NIMS and that the fast (ns) dynamics are insensitive to the presence of the silica nanoparticles. Canopy diffusion in the NIMS is slowed relative to the neat canopy, but not to the degree predicted from the diffusion of hard-sphere particles. Canopy diffusion is not restricted to the surface of the nanoparticles and shows unexpected behavior upon addition of excess canopy. Taken together, these data indicate that the liquid-like behavior in NIMS is due to rapid exchange of the block copolymer canopy between the ionically modified nanoparticles. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  9. Canopy Dynamics in Nanoscale Ionic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Jespersen, Michael L.; Mirau, Peter A.; Meerwall, Ernst von; Vaia, Richard A.; Rodriguez, Robert; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale ionic materials (NIMS) are organic - inorganic hybrids in which a core nanostructure is functionalized with a covalently attached corona and an ionically tethered organic canopy. NIMS are engineered to be liquids under ambient conditions in the absence of solvent and are of interest for a variety of applications. We have used nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation and pulse-field gradient (PFG) diffusion experiments to measure the canopy dynamics of NIMS prepared from 18-nm silica cores modified by an alkylsilane monolayer possessing terminal sulfonic acid functionality, paired with an amine-terminated ethylene oxide/propylene oxide block copolymer canopy. Carbon NMR studies show that the block copolymer canopy is mobile both in the bulk and in the NIMS and that the fast (ns) dynamics are insensitive to the presence of the silica nanoparticles. Canopy diffusion in the NIMS is slowed relative to the neat canopy, but not to the degree predicted from the diffusion of hard-sphere particles. Canopy diffusion is not restricted to the surface of the nanoparticles and shows unexpected behavior upon addition of excess canopy. Taken together, these data indicate that the liquid-like behavior in NIMS is due to rapid exchange of the block copolymer canopy between the ionically modified nanoparticles. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  10. Identifying the environmental factors that effect within canopy BVOC loss using a multilevel canopy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, W. S.; Fuentes, J. D.; Lerdau, M.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation will provide research findings to evaluate the hypothesis that the loss of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) within plant canopies is dynamic and depends on factors such as plant canopy architecture (height and leaf area distribution), atmospheric turbulence, concentration of oxidants (OH, O3, NO3), and the reactivity of BVOC species. Results will be presented from a new one dimensional, multilevel canopy model that couples algorithms for canopy microclimate, leaf physiology, BVOC emission, turbulent transport, and atmospheric chemistry to investigate the relative importance of factors that impact BVOC loss within a forest canopy. Model sensitivity tests will be presented and discussed to identify factors driving canopy loss. Results show isoprene and monoterpene canopy losses as high as 9 and 18%, respectively, for tall canopies during the daytime. We hypothesize that canopy height and wind speed (i.e. canopy residence time) may be the most important in dictating within-canopy loss. This work will reduce the error in bottom-up flux estimates of BVOCs and ultimately improve parameterizations of BVOC sources in air quality models by accounting for within canopy processes.

  11. VitiCanopy: A Free Computer App to Estimate Canopy Vigor and Porosity for Grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bei, Roberta; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Gilliham, Matthew; Tyerman, Steve; Edwards, Everard; Bianchini, Nicolò; Smith, Jason; Collins, Cassandra

    2016-04-23

    Leaf area index (LAI) and plant area index (PAI) are common and important biophysical parameters used to estimate agronomical variables such as canopy growth, light interception and water requirements of plants and trees. LAI can be either measured directly using destructive methods or indirectly using dedicated and expensive instrumentation, both of which require a high level of know-how to operate equipment, handle data and interpret results. Recently, a novel smartphone and tablet PC application, VitiCanopy, has been developed by a group of researchers from the University of Adelaide and the University of Melbourne, to estimate grapevine canopy size (LAI and PAI), canopy porosity, canopy cover and clumping index. VitiCanopy uses the front in-built camera and GPS capabilities of smartphones and tablet PCs to automatically implement image analysis algorithms on upward-looking digital images of canopies and calculates relevant canopy architecture parameters. Results from the use of VitiCanopy on grapevines correlated well with traditional methods to measure/estimate LAI and PAI. Like other indirect methods, VitiCanopy does not distinguish between leaf and non-leaf material but it was demonstrated that the non-leaf material could be extracted from the results, if needed, to increase accuracy. VitiCanopy is an accurate, user-friendly and free alternative to current techniques used by scientists and viticultural practitioners to assess the dynamics of LAI, PAI and canopy architecture in vineyards, and has the potential to be adapted for use on other plants.

  12. Fast matrix treatment of 3-D radiative transfer in vegetation canopies: SPARTACUS-Vegetation 1.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Robin J.; Quaife, Tristan; Braghiere, Renato

    2018-01-01

    A fast scheme is described to compute the 3-D interaction of solar radiation with vegetation canopies. The canopy is split in the horizontal plane into one clear region and one or more vegetated regions, and the two-stream equations are used for each, but with additional terms representing lateral exchange of radiation between regions that are proportional to the area of the interface between them. The resulting coupled set of ordinary differential equations is solved using the matrix-exponential method. The scheme is compared to solar Monte Carlo calculations for idealized scenes from the RAMI4PILPS intercomparison project, for open forest canopies and shrublands both with and without snow on the ground. Agreement is good in both the visible and infrared: for the cases compared, the root-mean-squared difference in reflectance, transmittance and canopy absorptance is 0.020, 0.038 and 0.033, respectively. The technique has potential application to weather and climate modelling.

  13. Stream systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack E. Williams; Gordon H. Reeves

    2006-01-01

    Restored, high-quality streams provide innumerable benefits to society. In the Pacific Northwest, high-quality stream habitat often is associated with an abundance of salmonid fishes such as chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), and steelhead (O. mykiss). Many other native...

  14. Leaf Wetness within a Lily Canopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, A.F.G.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Klok, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    A wetness duration experiment was carried out within a lily field situated adjacent to coastal dunes in the Netherlands. A within-canopy model was applied to simulate leaf wetness in three layers, with equal leaf area indices, within the canopy. This simulation model is an extension of an existing

  15. Plant canopy characteristics effect on spray deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    While it is common for applicators to standardize their application parameters to minimize changes in settings during a season, this practice does not necessarily provide the best delivery when targeting different types of plant canopies and different zones within the canopy. The objective of this w...

  16. The impact of modifying antenna size of photosystem II on canopy photosynthetic efficiency – development of a new canopy photosynthesis model scaling from metabolism to canopy level processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canopy photosynthesis describes photosynthesis of an entire crop field and positively correlates with biomass production. Much effort in crop breeding has focused on improving canopy architecture and hence light distribution inside the canopy. Here, we develop a new integrated canopy photosynthesis ...

  17. Stream Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital representation of the map accompanying the "Kansas stream and river fishery resource evaluation" (R.E. Moss and K. Brunson, 1981.U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  18. Testing a ground-based canopy model using the wind river canopy crane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Van Pelt; Malcolm P. North

    1999-01-01

    A ground-based canopy model that estimates the volume of occupied space in forest canopies was tested using the Wind River Canopy Crane. A total of 126 trees in a 0.25 ha area were measured from the ground and directly from a gondola suspended from the crane. The trees were located in a low elevation, old-growth forest in the southern Washington Cascades. The ground-...

  19. VitiCanopy: A Free Computer App to Estimate Canopy Vigor and Porosity for Grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta De Bei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index (LAI and plant area index (PAI are common and important biophysical parameters used to estimate agronomical variables such as canopy growth, light interception and water requirements of plants and trees. LAI can be either measured directly using destructive methods or indirectly using dedicated and expensive instrumentation, both of which require a high level of know-how to operate equipment, handle data and interpret results. Recently, a novel smartphone and tablet PC application, VitiCanopy, has been developed by a group of researchers from the University of Adelaide and the University of Melbourne, to estimate grapevine canopy size (LAI and PAI, canopy porosity, canopy cover and clumping index. VitiCanopy uses the front in-built camera and GPS capabilities of smartphones and tablet PCs to automatically implement image analysis algorithms on upward-looking digital images of canopies and calculates relevant canopy architecture parameters. Results from the use of VitiCanopy on grapevines correlated well with traditional methods to measure/estimate LAI and PAI. Like other indirect methods, VitiCanopy does not distinguish between leaf and non-leaf material but it was demonstrated that the non-leaf material could be extracted from the results, if needed, to increase accuracy. VitiCanopy is an accurate, user-friendly and free alternative to current techniques used by scientists and viticultural practitioners to assess the dynamics of LAI, PAI and canopy architecture in vineyards, and has the potential to be adapted for use on other plants.

  20. Bone Canopies in Pediatric Renal Osteodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Renata C; Levin Andersen, Thomas; Friedman, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric renal osteodystrophy (ROD) is characterized by changes in bone turnover, mineralization, and volume that are brought about by alterations in bone resorption and formation. The resorptive and formative surfaces on the cancellous bone are separated from the marrow cavity by canopies...... and their association with biochemical and bone histomorphometric parameters in 106 pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients (stage 2-5) across the spectrum of ROD. Canopies in CKD patients often appeared as thickened multilayered canopies, similar to previous reports in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism....... This finding contrasts with the thin appearance reported in healthy individuals with normal kidney function. Furthermore, canopies in pediatric CKD patients showed immunoreactivity to the PTH receptor (PTHR1) as well as to the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL). The number of surfaces...

  1. Uptake of small particles by tree canopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belot, Y.; Camus, H.; Gauthier, D.; Caput, C.

    1992-01-01

    Most of the deposition data that are available to assess the radiological consequences of an accident have been acquired for low-growing vegetation and are inadapted to forest areas. Consequently, a programme was undertaken to study the deposition of particles on components of different trees and extrapolate the experimental data so obtained to large-scale canopies. The experiments were performed in a wind tunnel allowing canopy components to be exposed to a flow of suspended fluorescent particles of reasonably uniform size. Emphasis was put on particles in the 0.3-1.2 μm subrange, because most of the radioactive particles sampled at long distance from sources are comprised in this size interval. The uptake rates were determined for bare and leaf bearing twigs of several evergreen species (Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris and Quercus ilex), as a function of wind speed and particle size. The deposition rates obtained for the tree components were then used as input to a model that describes the uptake of particles by a large-scale canopy under specified conditions of weather and canopy structure. The model accounts for the diffusion of particles between different strata of the canopy, as well as deposition of particles on the canopy components. It calculates the rates of particle deposition to the horizontal surface of the canopy, and the repartition of the deposited particles within the canopy. Increases in wind speed cause increased deposition, but the effect is less important that it would have been for larger particles. The deposition is relatively insensitive to the size of particles within the subrange considered in this study. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  2. Drag forces of common plant species in temperate streams: consequences of morphology, velocity and biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Sand

    2008-01-01

    Swift flow in streams may physically influence the morphology and distribution of plants. I quantified drag as a function of velocity, biomass and their interaction on the trailing canopy of seven European stream species in an experimental flume and evaluated its importance for species distributi...... than an uneven distribution with the same biomass confined to dense patches surrounded by open flow channels. Thus, management strategies to ensure a patchy plants distribution should be suitable for combining agricultural drainage and ecological stream quality....

  3. Remote sensing of sagebrush canopy nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jessica J.; Glenn, Nancy F.; Sankey, Temuulen T.; Derryberry, DeWayne R.; Germino, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a combination of techniques suitable for remotely sensing foliar Nitrogen (N) in semiarid shrublands – a capability that would significantly improve our limited understanding of vegetation functionality in dryland ecosystems. The ability to estimate foliar N distributions across arid and semi-arid environments could help answer process-driven questions related to topics such as controls on canopy photosynthesis, the influence of N on carbon cycling behavior, nutrient pulse dynamics, and post-fire recovery. Our study determined that further exploration into estimating sagebrush canopy N concentrations from an airborne platform is warranted, despite remote sensing challenges inherent to open canopy systems. Hyperspectral data transformed using standard derivative analysis were capable of quantifying sagebrush canopy N concentrations using partial least squares (PLS) regression with an R2 value of 0.72 and an R2 predicted value of 0.42 (n = 35). Subsetting the dataset to minimize the influence of bare ground (n = 19) increased R2 to 0.95 (R2 predicted = 0.56). Ground-based estimates of canopy N using leaf mass per unit area measurements (LMA) yielded consistently better model fits than ground-based estimates of canopy N using cover and height measurements. The LMA approach is likely a method that could be extended to other semiarid shrublands. Overall, the results of this study are encouraging for future landscape scale N estimates and represent an important step in addressing the confounding influence of bare ground, which we found to be a major influence on predictions of sagebrush canopy N from an airborne platform.

  4. Nondestructive, stereological estimation of canopy surface area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laio; Sciortino, Marco; Aaslyng, Jesper M.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a stereological procedure to estimate the total leaf surface area of a plant canopy in vivo, and address the problem of how to predict the variance of the corresponding estimator. The procedure involves three nested systematic uniform random sampling stages: (i) selection of plants from...... a canopy using the smooth fractionator, (ii) sampling of leaves from the selected plants using the fractionator, and (iii) area estimation of the sampled leaves using point counting. We apply this procedure to estimate the total area of a chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium L.) canopy and evaluate both...... the time required and the precision of the estimator. Furthermore, we compare the precision of point counting for three different grid intensities with that of several standard leaf area measurement techniques. Results showed that the precision of the plant leaf area estimator based on point counting...

  5. BOREAS TE-9 NSA Canopy Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Margolis, Hank; Charest, Martin; Sy, Mikailou

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-9 team collected several data sets related to chemical and photosynthetic properties of leaves. This data set contains canopy biochemistry data collected in 1994 in the NSA at the YJP, OJR, OBS, UBS, and OA sites, including biochemistry lignin, nitrogen, cellulose, starch, and fiber concentrations. These data were collected to study the spatial and temporal changes in the canopy biochemistry of boreal forest cover types and how a high-resolution radiative transfer model in the mid-infrared could be applied in an effort to obtain better estimates of canopy biochemical properties using remote sensing. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  6. An explicit canopy BRDF model and inversion. [Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shunlin; Strahler, Alan H.

    1992-01-01

    Based on a rigorous canopy radiative transfer equation, the multiple scattering radiance is approximated by the asymptotic theory, and the single scattering radiance calculation, which requires an numerical intergration due to considering the hotspot effect, is simplified. A new formulation is presented to obtain more exact angular dependence of the sky radiance distribution. The unscattered solar radiance and single scattering radiance are calculated exactly, and the multiple scattering is approximated by the delta two-stream atmospheric radiative transfer model. The numerical algorithms prove that the parametric canopy model is very accurate, especially when the viewing angles are smaller than 55 deg. The Powell algorithm is used to retrieve biospheric parameters from the ground measured multiangle observations.

  7. Wireless sensor networks for canopy temperature sensing and irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    For researchers, canopy temperature measurements have proven useful in characterizing crop water stress and developing protocols for irrigation management. Today, there is heightened interest in using remote canopy temperature measurements for real-time irrigation scheduling. However, without the us...

  8. West Coast Canopy-Forming Kelp, 1989-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data include the general extents of canopy-forming kelp surveys from 1989 to 2014 and a compilation of existing data sets delineating canopy-forming kelp beds...

  9. ASSESSING THE CANOPY INTEGRITY USING CANOPY DIGITAL IMAGES IN SEMIDECIDUOUS FOREST FRAGMENT IN SÃO CARLOS - SP- BRAZIL1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Yamada

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is well-known that conducting experimental research aiming the characterization of canopy structure of forests can be a difficult and costly task and, generally, requires an expert to extract, in loco, relevant information. Aiming at easing studies related to canopy structures, several techniques have been proposed in the literature and, among them, various are based on canopy digital image analysis. The research work described in this paper empirically compares two techniques that measure the integrity of the canopy structure of a forest fragment; one of them is based on central parts of canopy cover images and, the other, on canopy closure images. For the experiments, 22 central parts of canopy cover images and 22 canopy closure images were used. The images were captured along two transects: T1 (located in the conserved area and T2 (located in the naturally disturbance area. The canopy digital images were computationally processed and analyzed using the MATLAB platform for the canopy cover images and the Gap Light Analyzer (GLA, for the canopy closure images. The results obtained using these two techniques showed that canopy cover images and, among the employed algorithms, the Jseg, characterize the canopy integrity best. It is worth mentioning that part of the analysis can be automatically conducted, as a quick and precise process, with low material costs involved.

  10. Stream Response to an Extreme Defoliation Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, A.; Loffredo, J.; Addy, K.; Bernhardt, E. S.; Berdanier, A. B.; Schroth, A. W.; Inamdar, S. P.; Bowden, W. B.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme climatic events are known to profoundly impact stream flow and stream fluxes. These events can also exert controls on insect outbreaks, which may create marked changes in stream characteristics. The invasive Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar dispar) experiences episodic infestations based on extreme climatic conditions within the northeastern U.S. In most years, gypsy moth populations are kept in check by diseases. In 2016 - after successive years of unusually warm, dry spring and summer weather -gypsy moth caterpillars defoliated over half of Rhode Island's 160,000 forested ha. No defoliation of this magnitude had occurred for more than 30 years. We examined one RI headwater stream's response to the defoliation event in 2016 compared with comparable data in 2014 and 2015. Stream temperature and flow was gauged continuously by USGS and dissolved oxygen (DO) was measured with a YSI EXO2 sonde every 30 minutes during a series of deployments in the spring, summer and fall from 2014-2016. We used the single station, open channel method to estimate stream metabolism metrics. We also assessed local climate and stream temperature data from 2009-2016. We observed changes in stream responses during the defoliation event that suggest changes in ET, solar radiation and heat flux. Although the summer of 2016 had more drought stress (PDSI) than previous years, stream flow occurred throughout the summer, in contrast to several years with lower drought stress when stream flow ceased. Air temperature in 2016 was similar to prior years, but stream temperature was substantially higher than the prior seven years, likely due to the loss of canopy shading. DO declined dramatically in 2016 compared to prior years - more than the rising stream temperatures would indicate. Gross Primary Productivity was significantly higher during the year of the defoliation, indicating more total fixation of inorganic carbon from photo-autotrophs. In 2016, Ecosystem Respiration was also higher and Net

  11. Coupled soil-leaf-canopy and atmosphere radiative transfer modeling to simulate hyperspectral multi-angular surface reflectance and TOA radiance data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, W.; Bach, H.

    2007-01-01

    Coupling radiative transfer models for the soil background and vegetation canopy layers is facilitated by means of the four-stream flux interaction concept and use of the adding method. Also the coupling to a state-of-the-art atmospheric radiative transfer model like MODTRAN4 can be established in

  12. Modeling percent tree canopy cover: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston; Gretchen G. Moisen; Barry T. Wilson; Mark V. Finco; Warren B. Cohen; C. Kenneth Brewer

    2012-01-01

    Tree canopy cover is a fundamental component of the landscape, and the amount of cover influences fire behavior, air pollution mitigation, and carbon storage. As such, efforts to empirically model percent tree canopy cover across the United States are a critical area of research. The 2001 national-scale canopy cover modeling and mapping effort was completed in 2006,...

  13. Canopy Photosynthesis: From Basics to Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hikosaka, Kouki; Niinemets, Ülo; Anten, N.P.R.

    2016-01-01

    A plant canopy, a collection of leaves, is an ecosystem-level unit of photosynthesis that assimilates carbon dioxide and exchanges other gases and energy with the atmosphere in a manner highly sensitive to ambient conditions including atmospheric carbon dioxide and water vapor concentrations, light

  14. Evaluating radiative transfer schemes treatment of vegetation canopy architecture in land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braghiere, Renato; Quaife, Tristan; Black, Emily

    2016-04-01

    Incoming shortwave radiation is the primary source of energy driving the majority of the Earth's climate system. The partitioning of shortwave radiation by vegetation into absorbed, reflected, and transmitted terms is important for most of biogeophysical processes, including leaf temperature changes and photosynthesis, and it is currently calculated by most of land surface schemes (LSS) of climate and/or numerical weather prediction models. The most commonly used radiative transfer scheme in LSS is the two-stream approximation, however it does not explicitly account for vegetation architectural effects on shortwave radiation partitioning. Detailed three-dimensional (3D) canopy radiative transfer schemes have been developed, but they are too computationally expensive to address large-scale related studies over long time periods. Using a straightforward one-dimensional (1D) parameterisation proposed by Pinty et al. (2006), we modified a two-stream radiative transfer scheme by including a simple function of Sun zenith angle, so-called "structure factor", which does not require an explicit description and understanding of the complex phenomena arising from the presence of vegetation heterogeneous architecture, and it guarantees accurate simulations of the radiative balance consistently with 3D representations. In order to evaluate the ability of the proposed parameterisation in accurately represent the radiative balance of more complex 3D schemes, a comparison between the modified two-stream approximation with the "structure factor" parameterisation and state-of-art 3D radiative transfer schemes was conducted, following a set of virtual scenarios described in the RAMI4PILPS experiment. These experiments have been evaluating the radiative balance of several models under perfectly controlled conditions in order to eliminate uncertainties arising from an incomplete or erroneous knowledge of the structural, spectral and illumination related canopy characteristics typical

  15. The influence of light, stream gradient, and iron on Didymosphenia geminata bloom development in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel A.; Mosel, Kyle; Chipps, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    The aquatic nuisance species Didymosphenia geminata was first documented in Rapid Creek of South Dakota’s Black Hills during 2002. Since then, blooms have occurred primarily in a 39-km section of Rapid Creek while blooms were rarely observed in other Black Hills streams. In this study, we evaluated factors related to the presence and development of visible colonies of D. geminata in four streams of the Black Hills. At the watershed scale, stream gradient was negatively associated with the occurrence of D. geminata whereas stream width was positively related to D. geminata presence. At the stream scale, D. geminata coverage was inversely related to canopy coverage and iron concentration. At the local scale, shading by bridges virtually eliminated growth of D. geminata colonies under bridges. At all three scales, proxy measures of light such as stream width, canopy coverage, and bridge shading revealed that light availability was an important factor influencing the presence and coverage of D. geminata colonies. In general, streams that had relatively wide stream reaches (mean = 9.9 m), shallow gradients (mean = 0.22%), and little canopy cover (mean = 13%) were associated with D. geminata blooms. In addition, iron concentrations in streams with D. geminata colonies were lower than in streams without blooms.

  16. Fish diversity in adjacent ambient, thermal, and post-thermal freshwater streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant area is drained by five streams of various sizes and thermal histories. One has never been thermally stressed, two presently receive thermal effluent, and two formerly received thermal effluent from nuclear production reactors. Sixty-four species of fishes are known to inhabit these streams; 55 species is the highest number obtained from any one stream. Thermal effluent in small streams excludes fish during periods of high temperatures, but the streams are rapidly reinvaded when temperatures subside below lethal limits. Some cyprinids become extinct in nonthermal tributaries upstream from the thermal effluents after extended periods of thermal stress. This extinction is similar to that which follows stream impoundment. Post-thermal streams rapidly recover their fish diversity and abundance. The alteration of the streambed and removal of overhead canopy may change the stream characteristics and modify the post-thermal fish fauna

  17. Within-canopy sesquiterpene ozonolysis in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, K.; YañEz Serrano, A.; Arneth, A.; Abrell, L.; Jardine, A.; van Haren, J.; Artaxo, P.; Rizzo, L. V.; Ishida, F. Y.; Karl, T.; Kesselmeier, J.; Saleska, S.; Huxman, T.

    2011-10-01

    Through rapid reactions with ozone, which can initiate the formation of secondary organic aerosols, the emission of sesquiterpenes from vegetation in Amazonia may have significant impacts on tropospheric chemistry and climate. Little is known, however, about sesquiterpene emissions, transport, and chemistry within plant canopies owing to analytical difficulties stemming from very low ambient concentrations, high reactivities, and sampling losses. Here, we present ambient sesquiterpene concentration measurements obtained during the 2010 dry season within and above a primary tropical forest canopy in Amazonia. We show that by peaking at night instead of during the day, and near the ground instead of within the canopy, sesquiterpene concentrations followed a pattern different from that of monoterpenes, suggesting that unlike monoterpene emissions, which are mainly light dependent, sesquiterpene emissions are mainly temperature dependent. In addition, we observed that sesquiterpene concentrations were inversely related with ozone (with respect to time of day and vertical concentration), suggesting that ambient concentrations are highly sensitive to ozone. These conclusions are supported by experiments in a tropical rain forest mesocosm, where little atmospheric oxidation occurs and sesquiterpene and monoterpene concentrations followed similar diurnal patterns. We estimate that the daytime dry season ozone flux of -0.6 to -1.5 nmol m-2 s-1 due to in-canopy sesquiterpene reactivity could account for 7%-28% of the net ozone flux. Our study provides experimental evidence that a large fraction of total plant sesquiterpene emissions (46%-61% by mass) undergo within-canopy ozonolysis, which may benefit plants by reducing ozone uptake and its associated oxidative damage.

  18. Canopy arthropod responses to experimental canopy opening and debris deposition in a tropical rainforest subject to hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy D. Schowalter; Michael R. Willig; Steven J. Presley

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed responses of canopy arthropods on seven representative early and late successional overstory and understory tree species to a canopy trimming experiment designed to separate effects of canopy opening and debris pulse (resulting from hurricane disturbance) in a tropical rainforest ecosystem at the Luquillo Experimental Forest Long-Term Ecological Research (...

  19. Microclimate, canopy structure and photosynthesis in canopies of three contrasting temperate forage grasses. III. Canopy photosynthesis, individual leaf photosynthesis and the distribution of current assimilate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheehy, J E

    1977-01-01

    The rates of canopy and individual leaf photosynthesis and /sup 14/C distribution for three temperate forage grasses Lolium perenne cv. S24, L. perenne cv. Reveille and Festuca arundinacea cv. S170 were determined in the field during a summer growth period. Canopy photosynthesis declined as the growth period progressed, reflecting a decline in the photosynthetic capacity of successive youngest fully expanded leaves. The decline in the maximum photosynthetic capacity of the canopies was correlated with a decline in their quantum efficiencies at low irradiance. Changes in canopy structure resulted in changes in canopy net photosynthesis and dark respiration. No clear relationships between changes in the environment and changes in canopy net photosynthesis and dark respiration were established. The relative distributions of /sup 14/C in the shoots of the varieties gave a good indication of the amount of dry matter per ground area in the varieties. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  20. The roles of dimensionality, canopies and complexity in ecosystem monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher H R Goatley

    Full Text Available Canopies are common among autotrophs, increasing their access to light and thereby increasing competitive abilities. If viewed from above canopies may conceal objects beneath them creating a 'canopy effect'. Due to complexities in collecting 3-dimensional data, most ecosystem monitoring programmes reduce dimensionality when sampling, resorting to planar views. The resultant 'canopy effects' may bias data interpretation, particularly following disturbances. Canopy effects are especially relevant on coral reefs where coral cover is often used to evaluate and communicate ecosystem health. We show that canopies hide benthic components including massive corals and algal turfs, and as planar views are almost ubiquitously used to monitor disturbances, the loss of vulnerable canopy-forming corals may bias findings by presenting pre-existing benthic components as an altered system. Our reliance on planar views in monitoring ecosystems, especially coral cover on reefs, needs to be reassessed if we are to better understand the ecological consequences of ever more frequent disturbances.

  1. Biophysical information in asymmetric and symmetric diurnal bidirectional canopy reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern C.; Caldwell, William F.; Pettigrew, Rita E.; Ustin, Susan L.; Martens, Scott N.; Rousseau, Robert A.; Berger, Kevin M.; Ganapol, B. D.; Kasischke, Eric S.; Clark, Jenny A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present a theory for partitioning the information content in diurnal bidirectional reflectance measurements in order to detect differences potentially related to biophysical variables. The theory, which divides the canopy reflectance into asymmetric and symmetric functions of solar azimuth angle, attributes asymmetric variation to diurnal changes in the canopy biphysical properties. The symmetric function is attributed to the effects of sunlight interacting with a hypothetical average canopy which would display the average diurnal properties of the actual canopy. The authors analyzed radiometer data collected diurnally in the Thematic Mapper wavelength bands from two walnut canopies that received differing irrigation treatments. The reflectance of the canopies varied with sun and view angles and across seven bands in the visible, near-infrared, and middle infrared wavelength regions. Although one of the canopies was permanently water stressed and the other was stressed in mid-afternoon each day, no water stress signature was unambiguously evident in the reflectance data.

  2. Experimental manipulation of leaf litter colonization by aquatic invertebrates in a third order tropical stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uieda, V S; Carvalho, E M

    2015-05-01

    Through a manipulative experiment, the colonization of leaf litter by invertebrates was investigated in two sections of a tropical stream (spatial scale) that differed in function of the canopy cover, one with the presence (closed area) and another without riparian vegetation (open area), during one month of the dry and one of the wet season (temporal scale). The work aimed to verify differences related to four variables: season, canopy cover, leaf type and leaf condition. Litter bags containing arboreal and herbaceous leaves (leaf type variable), non-conditioned and preconditioned (leaf condition variable) were placed at the bottom of the stream in each area (canopy cover variable) and season (dry and wet), and removed after 13-day colonization. The analysis of the remaining litter dry mass per leaf bag emphasizes differences related mainly to seasonality, canopy cover and leaf type, although leaf condition was also important when combined with those three factors. Comparing the abundance of invertebrates per treatment, there was a tendency of high predominance of Chironomidae during the dry season and greater taxa diversity and evenness during the wet season, when the water flow increase could alter the availability of microhabitats for local fauna. Even though canopy cover alone was not a significant source of variation in the abundance of invertebrates, the results showed a tendency of a combined effect of canopy cover with seasonality and leaf condition.

  3. Seagrass canopy photosynthetic response is a function of canopy density and light environment: a model for Amphibolis griffithii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley, John D; McMahon, Kathryn; Fearns, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional computer model of canopies of the seagrass Amphibolis griffithii was used to investigate the consequences of variations in canopy structure and benthic light environment on leaf-level photosynthetic saturation state. The model was constructed using empirical data of plant morphometrics from a previously conducted shading experiment and validated well to in-situ data on light attenuation in canopies of different densities. Using published values of the leaf-level saturating irradiance for photosynthesis, results show that the interaction of canopy density and canopy-scale photosynthetic response is complex and non-linear, due to the combination of self-shading and the non-linearity of photosynthesis versus irradiance (P-I) curves near saturating irradiance. Therefore studies of light limitation in seagrasses should consider variation in canopy structure and density. Based on empirical work, we propose a number of possible measures for canopy scale photosynthetic response that can be plotted to yield isoclines in the space of canopy density and light environment. These plots can be used to interpret the significance of canopy changes induced as a response to decreases in the benthic light environment: in some cases canopy thinning can lead to an equivalent leaf level light environment, in others physiological changes may also be required but these alone may be inadequate for canopy survival. By providing insight to these processes the methods developed here could be a valuable management tool for seagrass conservation during dredging or other coastal developments.

  4. Seagrass canopy photosynthetic response is a function of canopy density and light environment: a model for Amphibolis griffithii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Hedley

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional computer model of canopies of the seagrass Amphibolis griffithii was used to investigate the consequences of variations in canopy structure and benthic light environment on leaf-level photosynthetic saturation state. The model was constructed using empirical data of plant morphometrics from a previously conducted shading experiment and validated well to in-situ data on light attenuation in canopies of different densities. Using published values of the leaf-level saturating irradiance for photosynthesis, results show that the interaction of canopy density and canopy-scale photosynthetic response is complex and non-linear, due to the combination of self-shading and the non-linearity of photosynthesis versus irradiance (P-I curves near saturating irradiance. Therefore studies of light limitation in seagrasses should consider variation in canopy structure and density. Based on empirical work, we propose a number of possible measures for canopy scale photosynthetic response that can be plotted to yield isoclines in the space of canopy density and light environment. These plots can be used to interpret the significance of canopy changes induced as a response to decreases in the benthic light environment: in some cases canopy thinning can lead to an equivalent leaf level light environment, in others physiological changes may also be required but these alone may be inadequate for canopy survival. By providing insight to these processes the methods developed here could be a valuable management tool for seagrass conservation during dredging or other coastal developments.

  5. Modelling the canopy development of bambara groundnut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karunaratne, A.S.; Azam-Ali, S.N.; Al-Shareef, I.

    2010-01-01

    Canopy development of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc) is affected by temperature stress, drought stress and photoperiod. The quantification of these documented effects by means of a suitable crop model, BAMGRO is presented in this paper. Data on canopy development from five growth...... chamber, four glasshouse and three field experiments were analyzed to calibrate and validate the BAMGRO model to produce simulations for temperature stress, drought stress and photoperiodic effect on two contrasting landraces; Uniswa Red (Swaziland) and S19-3 (Namibia). The daily initiation rate of new...... leaves is calculated by means of a Gaussian function and is altered by temperature stress, drought stress, photoperiod and plant density. The rate in dead leaf number is dependent upon the maximum senescence fraction which can be explained by physiological maturity, mutual shading, temperature stress...

  6. Cockpit canopy shattering using exploding wire techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novac, B M; Smith, I R; Downs, P R; Marston, P; Fahey, D

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the principal experimental results provided by a preliminary investigation into the possibility of using exploding wire (EW) techniques to shatter the plastic cockpit canopy of a modern jet aircraft. The data provided forms the basis for a qualitative understanding of the physics of interaction between the plasma produced by an EW and the surrounding elasto-plastic material in which the wire is embedded. To optimize the shock-wave 'clean cutting' effect, the significance of the material, the dimensions of the exploding wire and the amplitude of the current and voltage pulses are all considered. This leads to important conclusions concerning both the characteristics of the EW and the optimum arrangement of the electrical circuit, with the single most important optimization factor being the peak electrical power input to the EW, rather than the dissipated Joule energy. A full-scale system relevant to an actual cockpit canopy shattering is outlined and relevant results are presented and discussed

  7. Drivers of nitrogen transfer in stream food webs across continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Beth C; Whiles, Matt R; Collins, Sarah M; Flecker, Alexander S; Hamilton, Steve K; Johnson, Sherri L; Rosi, Emma J; Ashkenas, Linda R; Bowden, William B; Crenshaw, Chelsea L; Crowl, Todd; Dodds, Walter K; Hall, Robert O; El-Sabaawi, Rana; Griffiths, Natalie A; Marti, Eugènia; McDowell, William H; Peterson, Scot D; Rantala, Heidi M; Riis, Tenna; Simon, Kevin S; Tank, Jennifer L; Thomas, Steven A; von Schiller, Daniel; Webster, Jackson R

    2017-12-01

    Studies of trophic-level material and energy transfers are central to ecology. The use of isotopic tracers has now made it possible to measure trophic transfer efficiencies of important nutrients and to better understand how these materials move through food webs. We analyzed data from thirteen 15 N-ammonium tracer addition experiments to quantify N transfer from basal resources to animals in headwater streams with varying physical, chemical, and biological features. N transfer efficiencies from primary uptake compartments (PUCs; heterotrophic microorganisms and primary producers) to primary consumers was lower (mean 11.5%, range 100%). Total N transferred (as a rate) was greater in streams with open compared to closed canopies and overall N transfer efficiency generally followed a similar pattern, although was not statistically significant. We used principal component analysis to condense a suite of site characteristics into two environmental components. Total N uptake rates among trophic levels were best predicted by the component that was correlated with latitude, DIN:SRP, GPP:ER, and percent canopy cover. N transfer efficiency did not respond consistently to environmental variables. Our results suggest that canopy cover influences N movement through stream food webs because light availability and primary production facilitate N transfer to higher trophic levels. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  8. Canopy soil bacterial communities altered by severing host tree limbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody R. Dangerfield

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Trees of temperate rainforests host a large biomass of epiphytic plants, which are associated with soils formed in the forest canopy. Falling of epiphytic material results in the transfer of carbon and nutrients from the canopy to the forest floor. This study provides the first characterization of bacterial communities in canopy soils enabled by high-depth environmental sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Canopy soil included many of the same major taxonomic groups of Bacteria that are also found in ground soil, but canopy bacterial communities were lower in diversity and contained different operational taxonomic units. A field experiment was conducted with epiphytic material from six Acer macrophyllum trees in Olympic National Park, Washington, USA to document changes in the bacterial communities of soils associated with epiphytic material that falls to the forest floor. Bacterial diversity and composition of canopy soil was highly similar, but not identical, to adjacent ground soil two years after transfer to the forest floor, indicating that canopy bacteria are almost, but not completely, replaced by ground soil bacteria. Furthermore, soil associated with epiphytic material on branches that were severed from the host tree and suspended in the canopy contained altered bacterial communities that were distinct from those in canopy material moved to the forest floor. Therefore, the unique nature of canopy soil bacteria is determined in part by the host tree and not only by the physical environmental conditions associated with the canopy. Connection to the living tree appears to be a key feature of the canopy habitat. These results represent an initial survey of bacterial diversity of the canopy and provide a foundation upon which future studies can more fully investigate the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of these communities.

  9. A Two-Big-Leaf Model for Canopy Temperature, Photosynthesis, and Stomatal Conductance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yongjiu; Dickinson, Robert E.; Wang, Ying-Ping

    2004-06-01

    The energy exchange, evapotranspiration, and carbon exchange by plant canopies depend on leaf stomatal control. The treatment of this control has been required by land components of climate and carbon models. Physiological models can be used to simulate the responses of stomatal conductance to changes in atmospheric and soil environments. Big-leaf models that treat a canopy as a single leaf tend to overestimate fluxes of CO2 and water vapor. Models that differentiate between sunlit and shaded leaves largely overcome these problems.A one-layered, two-big-leaf submodel for photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, leaf temperature, and energy fluxes is presented in this paper. It includes 1) an improved two stream approximation model of radiation transfer of the canopy, with attention to singularities in its solution and with separate integrations of radiation absorption by sunlit and shaded fractions of canopy; 2) a photosynthesis stomatal conductance model for sunlit and shaded leaves separately, and for the simultaneous transfers of CO2 and water vapor into and out of the leaf—leaf physiological properties (i.e., leaf nitrogen concentration, maximum potential electron transport rate, and hence photosynthetic capacity) vary throughout the plant canopy in response to the radiation weight time-mean profile of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and the soil water limitation is applied to both maximum rates of leaf carbon uptake by Rubisco and electron transport, and the model scales up from leaf to canopy separately for all sunlit and shaded leaves; 3) a well-built quasi-Newton Raphson method for simultaneous solution of temperatures of the sunlit and shaded leaves.The model was incorporated into the Common Land Model (CLM) and is denoted CLM 2L. It was driven with observational atmospheric forcing from two forest sites [Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study (ABRACOS) and Boreal Ecosystem Atmosphere Study (BOREAS)] for 2 yr of simulation. The

  10. Impact of Canopy Coupling on Canopy Average Stomatal Conductance Across Seven Tree Species in Northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, B. E.; Mackay, D. S.; Samanta, S.; Ahl, D. E.; Burrows, S. S.; Gower, S. T.

    2001-12-01

    Land use changes over the last century in northern Wisconsin have resulted in a heterogeneous landscape composed of the following four main forest types: northern hardwoods, northern conifer, aspen/fir, and forested wetland. Based on sap flux measurements, aspen/fir has twice the canopy transpiration of northern hardwoods. In addition, daily transpiration was only explained by daily average vapor pressure deficit across the cover types. The objective of this study was to determine if canopy average stomatal conductance could be used to explain the species effects on tree transpiration. Our first hypothesis is that across all of the species, stomatal conductance will respond to vapor pressure deficit so as to maintain a minimum leaf water potential to prevent catostrophic cavitiation. The consequence of this hypothesis is that among species and individuals there is a proportionality between high stomatal conductance and the sensitivity of stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. Our second hypothesis is that species that do not follow the proportionality deviate because the canopies are decoupled from the atmosphere. To test our two hypotheses we calculated canopy average stomatal conductance from sap flux measurements using an inversion of the Penman-Monteith equation. We estimated the canopy coupling using a leaf energy budget model that requires leaf transpiration and canopy aerodynamic conductance. We optimized the parameters of the aerodynamic conductance model using a Monte Carlo technique across six parameters. We determined the optimal model for each species by selecting parameter sets that resulted in the proportionality of our first hypothesis. We then tested the optimal energy budget models of each species by comparing leaf temperature and leaf width predicted by the models to measurements of each tree species. In red pine, sugar maple, and trembling aspen trees under high canopy coupling conditions, we found the hypothesized proportionality

  11. Mechanistic study of aerosol dry deposition on vegetated canopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroff, A.

    2005-04-01

    The dry deposition of aerosols onto vegetated canopies is modelled through a mechanistic approach. The interaction between aerosols and vegetation is first formulated by using a set of parameters, which are defined at the local scale of one surface. The overall deposition is then deduced at the canopy scale through an up-scaling procedure based on the statistic distribution parameters. This model takes into account the canopy structural and morphological properties, and the main characteristics of the turbulent flow. Deposition mechanisms considered are Brownian diffusion, interception, initial and turbulent impaction, initially with coniferous branches and then with entire canopies of different roughness, such as grass, crop field and forest. (author)

  12. Modeling directional thermal radiance from a forest canopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, M.J.; Balick, L.K.; Smith, J.A.; Hutchison, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing technology have increased interest in utilizing the thermal-infared region to gain additional information about surface features such as vegetation canopies. Studies have shown that sensor view angle, canopy structure, and percentage of canopy coverage can affect the response of a thermal sensor. These studies have been primarily of agricultural regions and there have been relatively few examples describing the thermal characteristics of forested regions. This paper describes an extension of an existing thermal vegetation canopy radiance model which has been modified to partially account for the geometrically rough structure of a forest canopy. Fourier series expansion of a canopy height profile is used to calculate improved view factors which partially account for the directional variations in canopy thermal radiance transfers. The original and updated radiance model predictions are compared with experimental data obtained over a deciduous (oak-hickory) forest site. The experimental observations are also used to document azimuthal and nadir directional radiance variations. Maximum angular variations in measured canopy temperatures were 4–6°C (azimuth) and 2.5°C (nadir). Maximum angular variations in simulated temperatures using the modified rough surface model was 4°C. The rough surface model appeared to be sensitive to large gaps in the canopy height profile, which influenced the resultant predicted temperature. (author)

  13. Specular, diffuse and polarized imagery of an oat canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern C.; De Venecia, Kurt J.

    1988-01-01

    Light, polarized by specular reflection, has been found to be an important part of the light scattered by several measured plant canopies. The authors investigate for one canopy the relative importance of specularly reflected sunlight, specularly reflected light from other sources including skylight, and diffusely upwelling light. Polarization images are used to gain increased understanding of the radiation transfer process in a plant canopy. Analysis of the results suggests that properly analyzed polarized remotely sensed data, acquired under specific atmospheric conditions by a specially designed sensor, potentially provide measures of physiological and morphological states of plants in a canopy.

  14. Evaluation of one dimensional analytical models for vegetation canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Narendra S.; Kuusk, Andres

    1992-01-01

    The SAIL model for one-dimensional homogeneous vegetation canopies has been modified to include the specular reflectance and hot spot effects. This modified model and the Nilson-Kuusk model are evaluated by comparing the reflectances given by them against those given by a radiosity-based computer model, Diana, for a set of canopies, characterized by different leaf area index (LAI) and leaf angle distribution (LAD). It is shown that for homogeneous canopies, the analytical models are generally quite accurate in the visible region, but not in the infrared region. For architecturally realistic heterogeneous canopies of the type found in nature, these models fall short. These shortcomings are quantified.

  15. Evaporation from rain-wetted forest in relation to canopy wetness, canopy cover, and net radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, W.

    2001-01-01

    Evaporation from wet canopies is commonly calculated using E-PM, the Penman-Monteith equation with zero surface resistance. However, several observations show a lower evaporation from rain-wetted forest. Possible causes for the difference between E-PM and experiments are evaluated to provide rules

  16. Stream invertebrate productivity linked to forest subsidies: 37 stream-years of reference and experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J Bruce; Eggert, Susan L; Meyer, Judy L; Webster, Jackson R

    2015-05-01

    Riparian habitats provide detrital subsidies of varying quantities and qualities to recipient ecosystems. We used long-term data from three reference streams (covering 24 stream-years) and 13-year whole-stream organic matter manipulations to investigate the influence of terrestrial detrital quantity and quality on benthic invertebrate community structure, abundance, biomass, and secondary production in rockface (RF) and mixed substrates (MS) of forested headwater streams. Using a mesh canopy covering the entire treatment stream, we examined effects of litter ex'clusion, small- and large-wood removal, and addition of artificial wood (PVC) and leaves of varying quality on organic matter standing crops and invertebrate community structure and function. We assessed differences in functional feeding group distribution between substrate types as influenced by organic matter manipulations and long-term patterns of predator and prey production in manipulated vs. reference years. Particulate organic matter standing crops in MS of the treatment stream declined drastically with each successive year of litter exclusion, approaching zero after three years. Monthly invertebrate biomass and annual secondary production was positively related to benthic organic matter in the MS habitats. Rockface habitats exhibited fewer changes than MS habitats across all organic matter manipulations. With leaf addition, the patterns of functional group distribution among MS and RF habitats returned to patterns seen in reference streams. Secondary production per unit organic matter standing crop was greatest for the leaf addition period, followed by the reference streams, and significantly less for the litter exclusion and wood removal periods. These data indicate that the limited organic matter remaining in the stream following litter exclusion and wood removal was more refractory than that in the reference streams, whereas the added leaf material was more labile and readily converted into

  17. Fluxes of trichloroacetic acid through a conifer forest canopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stidson, R.T.; Heal, K.V.; Dickey, C.A.; Cape, J.N.; Heal, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    Controlled-dosing experiments with conifer seedlings have demonstrated an above-ground route of uptake for trichloroacetic acid (TCA) from aqueous solution into the canopy, in addition to uptake from the soil. The aim of this work was to investigate the loss of TCA to the canopy in a mature conifer forest exposed only to environmental concentrations of TCA by analysing above- and below-canopy fluxes of TCA and within-canopy instantaneous reservoir of TCA. Concentrations and fluxes of TCA were quantified for one year in dry deposition, rainwater, cloudwater, throughfall, stemflow and litterfall in a 37-year-old Sitka spruce and larch plantation in SW Scotland. Above-canopy TCA deposition was dominated by rainfall (86%), compared with cloudwater (13%) and dry deposition (1%). On average only 66% of the TCA deposition passed through the canopy in throughfall and stemflow (95% and 5%, respectively), compared with 47% of the wet precipitation depth. Consequently, throughfall concentration of TCA was, on average, ∼1.4 x rainwater concentration. There was no significant difference in below-canopy fluxes between Sitka spruce and larch, or at a forest-edge site. Annual TCA deposited from the canopy in litterfall was only ∼1-2% of above-canopy deposition. On average, ∼800 μg m -2 of deposited TCA was lost to the canopy per year, compared with estimates of above-ground TCA storage of ∼400 and ∼300 μg m -2 for Sitka spruce and larch, respectively. Taking into account likely uncertainties in these values (∼±50%), these data yield an estimate for the half-life of within-canopy elimination of TCA in the range 50-200 days, assuming steady-state conditions and that all TCA lost to the canopy is transferred into the canopy material, rather than degraded externally. The observations provide strong indication that an above-ground route is important for uptake of TCA specifically of atmospheric origin into mature forest canopies, as has been shown for seedlings (in

  18. Biodiversity Meets the Atmosphere: A Global View of Forest Canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. M. P. Ozanne; D. Anhuf; S. L. Boulter; M. Keller; R. L. Kitching; C. Korner; F. C. Meinzer; A. W. Mitchell; T. Nakashizuka; P. L. Silva Dias; N. E. Stork; S. J. Wright; M Yoshimura

    2003-01-01

    The forest canopy is the functional interface between 90% of Earth’s terrestrial biomass and the atmosphere. Multidisciplinary research in the canopy has expanded concepts of global species richness, physiological processes, and the provision of ecosystem services. Trees respond in a species-specific manner to elevated carbon dioxide levels, while climate change...

  19. Water stress effects on spatially referenced cotton crop canopy properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    rop canopy temperature is known to be affected by water stress. Canopy reflectance can also be impacted as leaf orientation and color respond to the stress. As sensor systems are investigated for real-time management of irrigation and nitrogen, it is essential to understand how the data from the sen...

  20. Hierarchical Canopy Dynamics of Electrolyte-Doped Nanoscale Ionic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Jespersen, Michael L.

    2013-12-23

    Nanoscale ionic materials (NIMs) are organic-inorganic hybrids prepared from ionically functionalized nanoparticles (NP) neutralized by oligomeric polymer counterions. NIMs are designed to behave as liquids under ambient conditions in the absence of solvent and have no volatile organic content, making them useful for a number of applications. We have used nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation and pulsed-field gradient NMR to probe local and collective canopy dynamics in NIMs based on 18-nm silica NPs with a covalently bound anionic corona, neutralized by amine-terminated ethylene oxide/propylene oxide block copolymers. The NMR relaxation studies show that the nanosecond-scale canopy dynamics depend on the degree of neutralization, the canopy radius of gyration, and crowding at the ionically modified NP surface. Two canopy populations are observed in the diffusion experiments, demonstrating that one fraction of the canopy is bound to the NP surface on the time scale (milliseconds) of the diffusion experiment and is surrounded by a more mobile layer of canopy that is unable to access the surface due to molecular crowding. The introduction of electrolyte ions (Na+ or Mg2+) screens the canopy-corona electrostatic interactions, resulting in a reduced bulk viscosity and faster canopy exchange. The magnitude of the screening effect depends upon ion concentration and valence, providing a simple route for tuning the macroscopic properties of NIMs. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  1. Hierarchical Canopy Dynamics of Electrolyte-Doped Nanoscale Ionic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Jespersen, Michael L.; Mirau, Peter A.; von Meerwall, Ernst D.; Koerner, Hilmar; Vaia, Richard A.; Fernandes, Nikhil J.; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscale ionic materials (NIMs) are organic-inorganic hybrids prepared from ionically functionalized nanoparticles (NP) neutralized by oligomeric polymer counterions. NIMs are designed to behave as liquids under ambient conditions in the absence of solvent and have no volatile organic content, making them useful for a number of applications. We have used nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation and pulsed-field gradient NMR to probe local and collective canopy dynamics in NIMs based on 18-nm silica NPs with a covalently bound anionic corona, neutralized by amine-terminated ethylene oxide/propylene oxide block copolymers. The NMR relaxation studies show that the nanosecond-scale canopy dynamics depend on the degree of neutralization, the canopy radius of gyration, and crowding at the ionically modified NP surface. Two canopy populations are observed in the diffusion experiments, demonstrating that one fraction of the canopy is bound to the NP surface on the time scale (milliseconds) of the diffusion experiment and is surrounded by a more mobile layer of canopy that is unable to access the surface due to molecular crowding. The introduction of electrolyte ions (Na+ or Mg2+) screens the canopy-corona electrostatic interactions, resulting in a reduced bulk viscosity and faster canopy exchange. The magnitude of the screening effect depends upon ion concentration and valence, providing a simple route for tuning the macroscopic properties of NIMs. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  2. Forest canopy BRDF simulation using Monte Carlo method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Wu, B.; Zeng, Y.; Tian, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Monte Carlo method is a random statistic method, which has been widely used to simulate the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of vegetation canopy in the field of visible remote sensing. The random process between photons and forest canopy was designed using Monte Carlo method.

  3. Soil carbon estimation from eucalyptus grandis using canopy spectra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapping soil fertility parameters, such as soil carbon (C), is fundamentally important for forest management and research related to forest growth and climate change. This study seeks to establish the link between Eucalyptus grandis canopy spectra and soil carbon using raw and continuum-removed spectra. Canopy-level ...

  4. Crop canopy BRDF simulation and analysis using Monte Carlo method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Wu, B.; Tian, Y.; Zeng, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This author designs the random process between photons and crop canopy. A Monte Carlo model has been developed to simulate the Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of crop canopy. Comparing Monte Carlo model to MCRM model, this paper analyzes the variations of different LAD and

  5. Estimating wood volume from canopy area in deciduous woodlands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we tested the predictive ability of canopy area in estimating wood volume in deciduous woodlands of Zimbabwe. The study was carried out in four sites of different climatic conditions. We used regression analysis to statistically quantify the prediction of wood volume from canopy area at species and stand level ...

  6. Patrones de distribución espacial de ensambles de macroinvertebrados bentónicos de un sistema fluvial Andino Patagónico Spatial distribution patterns of benthic macroinvertebrates assemblages in an Andean Patagonian fluvial system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA MOYA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En enero de 2006 se estudiaron los patrones espaciales de distribución de comunidades de macroinvertebrados bentónicos de la cuenca hidrográfica del río Baker (45°50' O y 47°55' S y los principales factores controladores, intentando cubrir la mayor variedad de ecosistemas lóticos. Para llevar a cabo el estudio se seleccionaron 27 estaciones de muestreo ubicadas en las diferentes subcuencas del río. En cada estación se realizó una caracterización fisicoquímica del agua (conductividad, oxígeno disuelto, pH, temperatura y turbidez, y se documentaron las características del tramo de río (e.g. ancho del cauce y tipo de sedimento e información cartográfica utilizando un sistema de información geográfica (SIG. Se identificaron un total de 51 taxa que correspondieron en su mayoría a larvas de insectos (80 %. Los grupos con mayor riqueza fueron los órdenes Ephemeroptera (15 taxa, Plecoptera (8 taxa y Trichoptera (8 taxa. Los análisis de clasificación y ordenación realizados con los datos de abundancia, permitieron reconocer siete grupos de estaciones diferentes (A-F que fueron estadísticamente significativos (P In January of 2006 we studied the distributional patterns of benthic macroinvertebrate communities of the Baker river basin (45°50' O and 47°55' S and their main controlling factors trying to cover the greater variety of the lotic ecosystems. To carry out the study, 27 sampling stations were located in the different sub basins of the river. In each station, physical-chemical parameters of the column of water were quantified (conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature and turbidity, and documented characteristics of the segment (e.g. wide of the channel and sediment type and cartographic information using a geographic information system (GIS and complemented with cartographic information using GIS. Identified a total of 51 taxa, are mostly insect larvae (80 %. The groups most richness were orders Ephemeroptera (15 taxa, Plecoptera (8 taxa and Trichoptera (8 taxa. The classification and ordination analyses carried out with the data of abundance, allowed to recognize seven groups stations (A-F statistically significant (P < 0.05. The múltiple regression analysis, showed that the environmental variable that accounts for the observed biological patterns, was coverage cobble, explaining 45.1 % the variance of the biological data (r² = 0.44 P < 0.05.

  7. Measuring canopy structure with an airborne laser altimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.C.; Evans, D.L.; Jacobs, D.; Everitt, J.H.; Weltz, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Quantification of vegetation patterns and properties is needed to determine their role on the landscape and to develop management plans to conserve our natural resources. Quantifying vegetation patterns from the ground, or by using aerial photography or satellite imagery is difficult, time consuming, and often expensive. Digital data from an airborne laser altimeter offer an alternative method to quantify selected vegetation properties and patterns of forest and range vegetation. Airborne laser data found canopy heights varied from 2 to 6 m within even-aged pine forests. Maximum canopy heights measured with the laser altimeter were significantly correlated to measurements made with ground-based methods. Canopy shape could be used to distinguish deciduous and evergreen trees. In rangeland areas, vegetation heights, spatial patterns, and canopy cover measured with the laser altimeter were significantly related with field measurements. These studies demonstrate the potential of airborne laser data to measure canopy structure and properties for large areas quickly and quantitatively

  8. Thermal IR exitance model of a plant canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, D. S.; Smith, J. A.; Link, L. E.

    1981-01-01

    A thermal IR exitance model of a plant canopy based on a mathematical abstraction of three horizontal layers of vegetation was developed. Canopy geometry within each layer is quantitatively described by the foliage and branch orientation distributions and number density. Given this geometric information for each layer and the driving meteorological variables, a system of energy budget equations was determined and solved for average layer temperatures. These estimated layer temperatures, together with the angular distributions of radiating elements, were used to calculate the emitted thermal IR radiation as a function of view angle above the canopy. The model was applied to a lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) canopy over a diurnal cycle. Simulated vs measured radiometric average temperatures of the midcanopy layer corresponded with 2 C. Simulation results suggested that canopy geometry can significantly influence the effective radiant temperature recorded at varying sensor view angles.

  9. Deploying Fourier Coefficients to Unravel Soybean Canopy Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubery, Talukder Z; Shook, Johnathon; Parmley, Kyle; Zhang, Jiaoping; Naik, Hsiang S; Higgins, Race; Sarkar, Soumik; Singh, Arti; Singh, Asheesh K; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar

    2016-01-01

    Soybean canopy outline is an important trait used to understand light interception ability, canopy closure rates, row spacing response, which in turn affects crop growth and yield, and directly impacts weed species germination and emergence. In this manuscript, we utilize a methodology that constructs geometric measures of the soybean canopy outline from digital images of canopies, allowing visualization of the genetic diversity as well as a rigorous quantification of shape parameters. Our choice of data analysis approach is partially dictated by the need to efficiently store and analyze large datasets, especially in the context of planned high-throughput phenotyping experiments to capture time evolution of canopy outline which will produce very large datasets. Using the Elliptical Fourier Transformation (EFT) and Fourier Descriptors (EFD), canopy outlines of 446 soybean plant introduction (PI) lines from 25 different countries exhibiting a wide variety of maturity, seed weight, and stem termination were investigated in a field experiment planted as a randomized complete block design with up to four replications. Canopy outlines were extracted from digital images, and subsequently chain coded, and expanded into a shape spectrum by obtaining the Fourier coefficients/descriptors. These coefficients successfully reconstruct the canopy outline, and were used to measure traditional morphometric traits. Highest phenotypic diversity was observed for roundness, while solidity showed the lowest diversity across all countries. Some PI lines had extraordinary shape diversity in solidity. For interpretation and visualization of the complexity in shape, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed on the EFD. PI lines were grouped in terms of origins, maturity index, seed weight, and stem termination index. No significant pattern or similarity was observed among the groups; although interestingly when genetic marker data was used for the PCA, patterns similar to canopy

  10. StreamCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The StreamCat Dataset provides summaries of natural and anthropogenic landscape features for ~2.65 million streams, and their associated catchments, within the...

  11. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  12. The impact of modifying photosystem antenna size on canopy photosynthetic efficiency-Development of a new canopy photosynthesis model scaling from metabolism to canopy level processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingfeng; Wang, Yu; Qu, Mingnan; Ort, Donald R; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2017-12-01

    Canopy photosynthesis (A c ) describes photosynthesis of an entire crop field and the daily and seasonal integrals of A c positively correlate with daily and seasonal biomass production. Much effort in crop breeding has focused on improving canopy architecture and hence light distribution inside the canopy. Here, we develop a new integrated canopy photosynthesis model including canopy architecture, a ray tracing algorithm, and C 3 photosynthetic metabolism to explore the option of manipulating leaf chlorophyll concentration ([Chl]) for greater A c and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). Model simulation results show that (a) efficiency of photosystem II increased when [Chl] was decreased by decreasing antenna size and (b) the light received by leaves at the bottom layers increased when [Chl] throughout the canopy was decreased. Furthermore, the modelling revealed a modest ~3% increase in A c and an ~14% in NUE was accompanied when [Chl] reduced by 60%. However, if the leaf nitrogen conserved by this decrease in leaf [Chl] were to be optimally allocated to other components of photosynthesis, both A c and NUE can be increased by over 30%. Optimizing [Chl] coupled with strategic reinvestment of conserved nitrogen is shown to have the potential to support substantial increases in A c , biomass production, and crop yields. © 2017 The Authors Plant, Cell & Environment Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Momentum and scalar transport within a vegetation canopy following atmospheric stability and seasonal canopy changes: the CHATS experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dupont

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Momentum and scalar (heat and water vapor transfer between a walnut canopy and the overlying atmosphere are investigated for two seasonal periods (before and after leaf-out, and for five thermal stability regimes (free and forced convection, near-neutral condition, transition to stable, and stable. Quadrant and octant analyses of momentum and scalar fluxes followed by space-time autocorrelations of observations from the Canopy Horizontal Array Turbulence Study's (CHATS thirty meter tower help characterize the motions exchanging momentum, heat, and moisture between the canopy layers and aloft.

    During sufficiently windy conditions, i.e. in forced convection, near-neutral and transition to stable regimes, momentum and scalars are generally transported by sweep and ejection motions associated with the well-known canopy-top "shear-driven" coherent eddy structures. During extreme stability conditions (both unstable and stable, the role of these "shear-driven" structures in transporting scalars decreases, inducing notable dissimilarity between momentum and scalar transport.

    In unstable conditions, "shear-driven" coherent structures are progressively replaced by "buo-yantly-driven" structures, known as thermal plumes; which appear very efficient at transporting scalars, especially upward thermal plumes above the canopy. Within the canopy, downward thermal plumes become more efficient at transporting scalars than upward thermal plumes if scalar sources are located in the upper canopy. We explain these features by suggesting that: (i downward plumes within the canopy correspond to large downward plumes coming from above, and (ii upward plumes within the canopy are local small plumes induced by canopy heat sources where passive scalars are first injected if there sources are at the same location as heat sources. Above the canopy, these small upward thermal plumes aggregate to form larger scale upward thermal plumes. Furthermore, scalar

  14. Productivity of Stream Definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, Jörg; Grabmayer, Clemens; Hendriks, Dimitri; Isihara, Ariya; Klop, Jan

    2007-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continuously in such a way that a uniquely determined stream is obtained as the limit. Whereas productivity is undecidable

  15. Productivity of stream definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, J.; Grabmayer, C.A.; Hendriks, D.; Isihara, A.; Klop, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continually in such a way that a uniquely determined stream in constructor normal form is obtained as the limit. Whereas

  16. Forest canopy temperatures: dynamics, controls, and relationships with ecosystem fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, C. J.; Griffith, D.; Kim, Y.; Law, B. E.; Hanson, C. V.; Kwon, H.; Schulze, M.; Detto, M.; Pau, S.

    2017-12-01

    Temperature strongly affects enzymatic reactions, ecosystem biogeochemistry, and species distributions. Although most focus is on air temperature, the radiative or skin temperature of plants is more relevant. Canopy skin temperature dynamics reflect biophysical, physiological, and anatomical characteristics and interactions with the environment, and can be used to examine forest responses to stresses like droughts and heat waves. Thermal infrared (TIR) imaging allows for extensive temporal and spatial sampling of canopy temperatures, particularly compared to spot measurements using thermocouples. We present results of TIR imaging of forest canopies at eddy covariance flux tower sites in the US Pacific Northwest and in Panama. These forests range from an old-growth temperate rainforest to a second growth semi-arid pine forest to a semi-deciduous tropical forest. Canopy temperature regimes at these sites are highly variable. Canopy temperatures at all forest sites displayed frequent departures from air temperature, particularly during clear sky conditions, with elevated canopy temperatures during the day and depressed canopy temperatures at night compared to air temperature. Comparison of canopy temperatures to fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy reveals stronger relationships than those found with air temperature. Daytime growing season net ecosystem exchange at the pine forest site is better explained by canopy temperature (r2 = 0.61) than air temperature (r2 = 0.52). At the semi-deciduous tropical forest, canopy photosynthesis is highly correlated with canopy temperature (r2 = 0.51), with a distinct optimum temperature for photosynthesis ( 31 °C) that agrees with leaf-level measurements. During the peak of one heat wave at an old-growth temperate rainforest, hourly averaged air temperature exceeded 35 °C, 10 °C above average. Peak hourly canopy temperature approached 40 °C, and leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit exceeded 6 kPa. These extreme

  17. Canopy wake measurements using multiple scanning wind LiDARs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markfort, C. D.; Carbajo Fuertes, F.; Iungo, V.; Stefan, H. G.; Porte-Agel, F.

    2014-12-01

    Canopy wakes have been shown, in controlled wind tunnel experiments, to significantly affect the fluxes of momentum, heat and other scalars at the land and water surface over distances of ˜O(1 km), see Markfort et al. (EFM, 2013). However, there are currently no measurements of the velocity field downwind of a full-scale forest canopy. Point-based anemometer measurements of wake turbulence provide limited insight into the extent and details of the wake structure, whereas scanning Doppler wind LiDARs can provide information on how the wake evolves in space and varies over time. For the first time, we present measurements of the velocity field in the wake of a tall patch of forest canopy. The patch consists of two uniform rows of 40-meter tall deciduous, plane trees, which border either side of the Allée de Dorigny, near the EPFL campus. The canopy is approximately 250 m long, and it is approximately 40 m wide, along the direction of the wind. A challenge faced while making field measurements is that the wind rarely intersects a canopy normal to the edge. The resulting wake flow may be deflected relative to the mean inflow. Using multiple LiDARs, we measure the evolution of the wake due to an oblique wind blowing over the canopy. One LiDAR is positioned directly downwind of the canopy to measure the flow along the mean wind direction and the other is positioned near the canopy to evaluate the transversal component of the wind and how it varies with downwind distance from the canopy. Preliminary results show that the open trunk space near the base of the canopy results in a surface jet that can be detected just downwind of the canopy and farther downwind dissipates as it mixes with the wake flow above. A time-varying recirculation zone can be detected by the periodic reversal of the velocity near the surface, downwind of the canopy. The implications of canopy wakes for measurement and modeling of surface fluxes will be discussed.

  18. Importance of terrestrial arthropods as subsidies in lowland Neotropical rain forest stream ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Gaston E.; Torres, Pedro J.; Schwizer, Lauren M.; Duff, John H.; Pringle, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of terrestrial arthropods has been documented in temperate stream ecosystems, but little is known about the magnitude of these inputs in tropical streams. Terrestrial arthropods falling from the canopy of tropical forests may be an important subsidy to tropical stream food webs and could also represent an important flux of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in nutrient-poor headwater streams. We quantified input rates of terrestrial insects in eight streams draining lowland tropical wet forest in Costa Rica. In two focal headwater streams, we also measured capture efficiency by the fish assemblage and quantified terrestrially derived N- and P-excretion relative to stream nutrient uptake rates. Average input rates of terrestrial insects ranged from 5 to 41 mg dry mass/m2/d, exceeding previous measurements of aquatic invertebrate secondary production in these study streams, and were relatively consistent year-round, in contrast to values reported in temperate streams. Terrestrial insects accounted for half of the diet of the dominant fish species, Priapicthys annectens. Although terrestrially derived fish excretion was found to be a small flux relative to measured nutrient uptake rates in the focal streams, the efficient capture and processing of terrestrial arthropods by fish made these nutrients available to the local stream ecosystem. This aquatic-terrestrial linkage is likely being decoupled by deforestation in many tropical regions, with largely unknown but potentially important ecological consequences.

  19. A radiosity model for heterogeneous canopies in remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    GarcíA-Haro, F. J.; Gilabert, M. A.; Meliá, J.

    1999-05-01

    A radiosity model has been developed to compute bidirectional reflectance from a heterogeneous canopy approximated by an arbitrary configuration of plants or clumps of vegetation, placed on the ground surface in a prescribed manner. Plants are treated as porous cylinders formed by aggregations of layers of leaves. This model explicitly computes solar radiation leaving each individual surface, taking into account multiple scattering processes between leaves and soil, and occlusion of neighboring plants. Canopy structural parameters adopted in this study have served to simplify the computation of the geometric factors of the radiosity equation, and thus this model has enabled us to simulate multispectral images of vegetation scenes. Simulated images have shown to be valuable approximations of satellite data, and then a sensitivity analysis to the dominant parameters of discontinuous canopies (plant density, leaf area index (LAI), leaf angle distribution (LAD), plant dimensions, soil optical properties, etc.) and scene (sun/ view angles and atmospheric conditions) has been undertaken. The radiosity model has let us gain a deep insight into the radiative regime inside the canopy, showing it to be governed by occlusion of incoming irradiance, multiple scattering of radiation between canopy elements and interception of upward radiance by leaves. Results have indicated that unlike leaf distribution, other structural parameters such as LAI, LAD, and plant dimensions have a strong influence on canopy reflectance. In addition, concepts have been developed that are useful to understand the reflectance behavior of the canopy, such as an effective LAI related to leaf inclination.

  20. CFD modelling and wind tunnel validation of airflow through plant canopies using 3D canopy architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endalew, A. Melese; Hertog, M.; Delele, M.A.; Baetens, K.; Persoons, T.; Baelmans, M.; Ramon, H.; Nicolai, B.M.; Verboven, P.

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of pesticide application to agricultural fields and the resulting environmental contamination highly depend on atmospheric airflow. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling of airflow within plant canopies using 3D canopy architecture was developed to understand the effect of the canopy to airflow. The model average air velocity was validated using experimental results in a wind tunnel with two artificial model trees of 24 cm height. Mean air velocities and their root mean square (RMS) values were measured on a vertical plane upstream and downstream sides of the trees in the tunnel using 2D hotwire anemometer after imposing a uniform air velocity of 10 m s -1 at the inlet. 3D virtual canopy geometries of the artificial trees were modelled and introduced into a computational fluid domain whereby airflow through the trees was simulated using Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and k-ε turbulence model. There was good agreement of the average longitudinal velocity, U between the measurements and the simulation results with relative errors less than 2% for upstream and 8% for downstream sides of the trees. The accuracy of the model prediction for turbulence kinetic energy k and turbulence intensity I was acceptable within the tree height when using a roughness length (y 0 = 0.02 mm) for the surface roughness of the tree branches and by applying a source model in a porous sub-domain created around the trees. The approach was applied for full scale orchard trees in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and was compared with previous approaches and works. The simulation in the ABL was made using two groups of full scale orchard trees; short (h = 3 m) with wider branching and long (h = 4 m) with narrow branching. This comparison showed good qualitative agreements on the vertical profiles of U with small local differences as expected due to the spatial disparities in tree architecture. This work was able to show airflow within and above the

  1. Smartphone based hemispherical photography for canopy structure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xuefen; Cui, Jian; Jiang, Xueqin; Zhang, Jingwen; Yang, Yi; Zheng, Tao

    2018-01-01

    The canopy is the most direct and active interface layer of the interaction between plant and environment, and has important influence on energy exchange, biodiversity, ecosystem matter and climate change. The measurement about canopy structure of plant is an important foundation to analyze the pattern, process and operation mechanism of forest ecosystem. Through the study of canopy structure of plant, solar radiation, ambient wind speed, air temperature and humidity, soil evaporation, soil temperature and other forest environmental climate characteristics can be evaluated. Because of its accuracy and effectiveness, canopy structure measurement based on hemispherical photography has been widely studied. However, the traditional method of canopy structure hemispherical photogrammetry based on SLR camera and fisheye lens. This method is expensive and difficult to be used in some low-cost occasions. In recent years, smartphone technology has been developing rapidly. The smartphone not only has excellent image acquisition ability, but also has the considerable computational processing ability. In addition, the gyroscope and positioning function on the smartphone will also help to measure the structure of the canopy. In this paper, we present a smartphone based hemispherical photography system. The system consists of smart phones, low-cost fisheye lenses and PMMA adapters. We designed an Android based App to obtain the canopy hemisphere images through low-cost fisheye lenses and provide horizontal collimation information. In addition, the App will add the acquisition location tag obtained by GPS and auxiliary positioning method in hemisphere image information after the canopy structure hemisphere image acquisition. The system was tested in the urban forest after it was completed. The test results show that the smartphone based hemispherical photography system can effectively collect the high-resolution canopy structure image of the plant.

  2. Directional Canopy Emissivity Estimation Based on Spectral Invariants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, M.; Cao, B.; Ren, H.; Yongming, D.; Peng, J.; Fan, W.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface emissivity is a crucial parameter for estimating land surface temperature from remote sensing data and also plays an important role in the physical process of surface energy and water balance from local to global scales. To our knowledge, the emissivity varies with surface type and cover. As for the vegetation, its canopy emissivity is dependent on vegetation types, viewing zenith angle and structure that changes in different growing stages. Lots of previous studies have focused on the emissivity model, but few of them are analytic and suited to different canopy structures. In this paper, a new physical analytic model is proposed to estimate the directional emissivity of homogenous vegetation canopy based on spectral invariants. The initial model counts the directional absorption in six parts: the direct absorption of the canopy and the soil, the absorption of the canopy and soil after a single scattering and after multiple scattering within the canopy-soil system. In order to analytically estimate the emissivity, the pathways of photons absorbed in the canopy-soil system are traced using the re-collision probability in Fig.1. After sensitive analysis on the above six absorptions, the initial complicated model was further simplified as a fixed mathematic expression to estimate the directional emissivity for vegetation canopy. The model was compared with the 4SAIL model, FRA97 model, FRA02 model and DART model in Fig.2, and the results showed that the FRA02 model is significantly underestimated while the FRA97 model is a little underestimated, on basis of the new model. On the contrary, the emissivity difference between the new model with the 4SAIL model and DART model was found to be less than 0.002. In general, since the new model has the advantages of mathematic expression with accurate results and clear physical meaning, the model is promising to be extended to simulate the directional emissivity for the discrete canopy in further study.

  3. Potential Sources of Polarized Light from a Plant Canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Field measurements have demonstrated that sunlight polarized during a first surface reflection by shiny leaves dominates the optical polarization of the light reflected by shiny-leafed plant canopies having approximately spherical leaf angle probability density functions ("Leaf Angle Distributions" - LAD). Yet for other canopies - specifically those without shiny leaves and/or spherical LADs - potential sources of optically polarized light may not always be obvious. Here we identify possible sources of polarized light within those other canopies and speculate on the ecologically important information polarization measurements of those sources might contain.

  4. Benthic invertebrate fauna, small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Bruce Wallace; S.L. Eggert

    2009-01-01

    Small streams (first- through third-order streams) make up >98% of the total number of stream segments and >86% of stream length in many drainage networks. Small streams occur over a wide array of climates, geology, and biomes, which influence temperature, hydrologic regimes, water chemistry, light, substrate, stream permanence, a basin's terrestrial plant...

  5. ForestCrowns: a software tool for analyzing ground-based digital photographs of forest canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew F. Winn; Sang-Mook Lee; Phillip A. Araman

    2013-01-01

    Canopy coverage is a key variable used to characterize forest structure. In addition, the light transmitted through the canopy is an important ecological indicator of plant and animal habitat and understory climate conditions. A common ground-based method used to document canopy coverage is to take digital photographs from below the canopy. To assist with analyzing...

  6. Solar wind stream interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosling, J.T.; Asbridge, J.R.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements aboard Imp 6, 7, and 8 reveal that approximately one third of all high-speed solar wind streams observed at 1 AU contain a sharp boundary (of thickness less than approx.4 x 10 4 km) near their leading edge, called a stream interface, which separates plasma of distinctly different properties and origins. Identified as discontinuities across which the density drops abruptly, the proton temperature increases abruptly, and the speed rises, stream interfaces are remarkably similar in character from one stream to the next. A superposed epoch analysis of plasma data has been performed for 23 discontinuous stream interfaces observed during the interval March 1971 through August 1974. Among the results of this analysis are the following: (1) a stream interface separates what was originally thick (i.e., dense) slow gas from what was originally thin (i.e., rare) fast gas; (2) the interface is the site of a discontinuous shear in the solar wind flow in a frame of reference corotating with the sun; (3) stream interfaces occur at speeds less than 450 km s - 1 and close to or at the maximum of the pressure ridge at the leading edges of high-speed streams; (4) a discontinuous rise by approx.40% in electron temperature occurs at the interface; and (5) discontinuous changes (usually rises) in alpha particle abundance and flow speed relative to the protons occur at the interface. Stream interfaces do not generally recur on successive solar rotations, even though the streams in which they are embedded often do. At distances beyond several astronomical units, stream interfaces should be bounded by forward-reverse shock pairs; three of four reverse shocks observed at 1 AU during 1971--1974 were preceded within approx.1 day by stream interfaces. Our observations suggest that many streams close to the sun are bounded on all sides by large radial velocity shears separating rapidly expanding plasma from more slowly expanding plasma

  7. Rotor Systems Research Aircraft /RSRA/ canopy explosive severance/fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bement, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA), a compound rotor/fixed-wing aircraft, incorporates an emergency escape system for the three crew members; to achieve unobstructed egress, the overhead acrylic canopies of each crew member will be explosively severed and fractured into predictably small, low-mass pieces. A canopy explosive severance/fracture system was developed under this investigation that included the following system design considerations: selection of canopy and explosive materials, determining the acrylic's explosive severance and fracture characteristics, evaluating the effects of installation variables and temperature, determining the most effective explosive patterns, conducting full-scale, flat and double-curvature canopy tests, and evaluating the effects of back-blast of the explosive into the cockpit.

  8. Assessing the vegetation canopy influences on wind flow using wind ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Artificial plastic vegetations with different porosity and canopy shape were introduced as ... Wind erosion is the Aeolian process by which soil particles are detached from ..... the stabilizing role of vegetation on wind erosion. And therefore, for ...

  9. Canopy Dynamics in Nanoscale Ionic Materials Probed by NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirau, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Nanoscale ionic materials (NIMs) are hybrids prepared from ionically functionalized nanoparticles (NP) neutralized by oligomeric polymer counter-ions. NIMs are designed to behave as liquids under ambient conditions in the absence of solvent and have no volatile organic content, making them useful for a number of applications. We have used NMR relaxation and pulse-field gradient NMR to probe local and collective canopy dynamics in NIMs based on silica nanoparticles (NP), fullerols and proteins in order to understand the relationship between the core and canopy structure and the bulk properties. The NMR studies show that the canopy dynamics depend on the degree of neutralization, the canopy radius of gyration and molecular crowding at the ionically modified NP surface. The viscosity in NIMs can be directly controlled with the addition of ions that enhance the exchange rate for polymers at the NP surface. These results show that NIMs for many applications can be prepared by controlling the dynamics of the NP interface.

  10. National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Percent Tree Canopy Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Percent Tree Canopy Collection is a product of the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and is produced through a cooperative project...

  11. Aerial electrostatic spray deposition and canopy penetration in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spray deposition on abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces along with canopy penetration are essential for insect control and foliage defoliation in cotton production agriculture. Researchers have reported that electrostatically charged sprays have increased spray deposit onto these surfaces under widel...

  12. Coupling nutrient uptake and energy flow in headwater streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Fellows, Christine [Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland, Australia; Valett, H. Maurice [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Dahm, Cliff [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Thomas, Steve [University of Nebraska

    2006-08-01

    Nutrient cycling and energy flow in ecosystems are tightly linked through the metabolic processes of organisms. Greater uptake of inorganic nutrients is expected to be associated with higher rates of metabolism [gross primary production (GPP) and respiration (R)], due to assimilatory demand of both autotrophs and heterotrophs. However, relationships between uptake and metabolism should vary with the relative contribution of autochthonous and allochthonous sources of organic matter. To investigate the relationship between metabolism and nutrient uptake, we used whole-stream and benthic chamber methods to measure rates of nitrate-nitrogen (NO{sub 3}-N) uptake and metabolism in four headwater streams chosen to span a range of light availability and therefore differing rates of GPP and contributions of autochthonous carbon. We coupled whole-stream metabolism with measures of NO{sub 3}-N uptake conducted repeatedly over the same stream reach during both day and night, as well as incubating benthic sediments under both light and dark conditions. NO{sub 3}-N uptake was generally greater in daylight compared to dark conditions, and although day-night differences in whole-stream uptake were not significant, light-dark differences in benthic chambers were significant at three of the four sites. Estimates of N demand indicated that assimilation by photoautotrophs could account for the majority of NO{sub 3}-N uptake at the two sites with relatively open canopies. Contrary to expectations, photoautotrophs contributed substantially to NO{sub 3}-N uptake even at the two closed-canopy sites, which had low values of GPP/R and relied heavily on allochthonous carbon to fuel R.

  13. Simulation of ICESat-2 canopy height retrievals for different ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    Slated for launch in late 2017 (or early 2018), the ICESat-2 satellite will provide a global distribution of geodetic measurements from a space-based laser altimeter of both the terrain surface and relative canopy heights which will provide a significant benefit to society through a variety of applications ranging from improved global digital terrain models to producing distribution of above ground vegetation structure. The ATLAS instrument designed for ICESat-2, will utilize a different technology than what is found on most laser mapping systems. The photon counting technology of the ATLAS instrument onboard ICESat-2 will record the arrival time associated with a single photon detection. That detection can occur anywhere within the vertical distribution of the reflected signal, that is, anywhere within the vertical distribution of the canopy. This uncertainty of where the photon will be returned from within the vegetation layer is referred to as the vertical sampling error. Preliminary simulation studies to estimate vertical sampling error have been conducted for several ecosystems including woodland savanna, montane conifers, temperate hardwoods, tropical forest, and boreal forest. The results from these simulations indicate that the canopy heights reported on the ATL08 data product will underestimate the top canopy height in the range of 1 - 4 m. Although simulation results indicate the ICESat-2 will underestimate top canopy height, there is, however, a strong correlation between ICESat-2 heights and relative canopy height metrics (e.g. RH75, RH90). In tropical forest, simulation results indicate the ICESat-2 height correlates strongly with RH90. Similarly, in temperate broadleaf forest, the simulated ICESat-2 heights were also strongly correlated with RH90. In boreal forest, the simulated ICESat-2 heights are strongly correlated with RH75 heights. It is hypothesized that the correlations between simulated ICESat-2 heights and canopy height metrics are a

  14. Predicting tropical plant physiology from leaf and canopy spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Christopher E; Asner, Gregory P; Martin, Roberta E

    2011-02-01

    A broad regional understanding of tropical forest leaf photosynthesis has long been a goal for tropical forest ecologists, but it has remained elusive due to difficult canopy access and high species diversity. Here we develop an empirical model to predict sunlit, light-saturated, tropical leaf photosynthesis using leaf and simulated canopy spectra. To develop this model, we used partial least squares (PLS) analysis on three tropical forest datasets (159 species), two in Hawaii and one at the biosphere 2 laboratory (B2L). For each species, we measured light-saturated photosynthesis (A), light and CO(2) saturated photosynthesis (A(max)), respiration (R), leaf transmittance and reflectance spectra (400-2,500 nm), leaf nitrogen, chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids, and leaf mass per area (LMA). The model best predicted A [r(2) = 0.74, root mean square error (RMSE) = 2.9 μmol m(-2) s(-1))] followed by R (r(2) = 0.48), and A(max) (r(2) = 0.47). We combined leaf reflectance and transmittance with a canopy radiative transfer model to simulate top-of-canopy reflectance and found that canopy spectra are a better predictor of A (RMSE = 2.5 ± 0.07 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) than are leaf spectra. The results indicate the potential for this technique to be used with high-fidelity imaging spectrometers to remotely sense tropical forest canopy photosynthesis.

  15. CANOPY STRUCTURE AND DEPOSITION EFFICIENCY OF VINEYARD SPRAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Pergher

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A field study was performed to analyse how deposition efficiency from an axial-fan sprayer was affected by the canopy structure of vines trained to the High Cordon, Low Cordon and Casarsa systems, at beginning of flowering and beginning of berry touch growth stages. An empirical calibration method, providing a dose rate adjustment roughly proportional to canopy height, was used. The canopy structure was assessed using the Point Quadrat method, and determining the leaf area index (LAI and the leaf layer index (LLI. Spray deposits were measured by colorimetry, using a water soluble dye (Tartrazine as a tracer. Correlation between deposits and canopy parameters were analysed and discussed. Foliar deposits per unit leaf area were relatively constant, suggesting that empirical calibration can reduce deposit variability associated with different training systems and growth stages. Total foliar deposition ranged from 33.6% and 82.3% of total spray volume, and increased proportionally with the LLI up to LLI<4. Deposits on bunches significantly decreased with the LLI in the grape zone. The results suggest that sprayer efficiency is improved by a regular, symmetrical canopy, with few leaf layers in the grape zone as in Low Cordon. However, a LLI<3 over the whole canopy and >40% gaps in the foliage both reduced total deposition, and may increase the risk for larger drift losses.

  16. Inventory of miscellaneous streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueck, K.J.

    1995-09-01

    On December 23, 1991, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) agreed to adhere to the provisions of the Department of Ecology Consent Order. The Consent Order lists the regulatory milestones for liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site to comply with the permitting requirements of Washington Administrative Code. The RL provided the US Congress a Plan and Schedule to discontinue disposal of contaminated liquid effluent into the soil column on the Hanford Site. The plan and schedule document contained a strategy for the implementation of alternative treatment and disposal systems. This strategy included prioritizing the streams into two phases. The Phase 1 streams were considered to be higher priority than the Phase 2 streams. The actions recommended for the Phase 1 and 2 streams in the two reports were incorporated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Miscellaneous Streams are those liquid effluents streams identified within the Consent Order that are discharged to the ground but are not categorized as Phase 1 or Phase 2 Streams. This document consists of an inventory of the liquid effluent streams being discharged into the Hanford soil column

  17. Hydrography - Streams and Shorelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The hydrography layer consists of flowing waters (rivers and streams), standing waters (lakes and ponds), and wetlands -- both natural and manmade. Two separate...

  18. Streams in the urban heat island: spatial and temporal variability in temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Kayleigh A.; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Grace, James B.; Hassett, Brooke A.; Sudduth, Elizabeth B.; Wang, Siyi; Urban, Dean L.

    2013-01-01

    Streams draining urban heat islands tend to be hotter than rural and forested streams at baseflow because of warmer urban air and ground temperatures, paved surfaces, and decreased riparian canopy. Urban infrastructure efficiently routes runoff over hot impervious surfaces and through storm drains directly into streams and can lead to rapid, dramatic increases in temperature. Thermal regimes affect habitat quality and biogeochemical processes, and changes can be lethal if temperatures exceed upper tolerance limits of aquatic fauna. In summer 2009, we collected continuous (10-min interval) temperature data in 60 streams spanning a range of development intensity in the Piedmont of North Carolina, USA. The 5 most urbanized streams averaged 21.1°C at baseflow, compared to 19.5°C in the 5 most forested streams. Temperatures in urban streams rose as much as 4°C during a small regional storm, whereas the same storm led to extremely small to no changes in temperature in forested streams. Over a kilometer of stream length, baseflow temperature varied by as much as 10°C in an urban stream and as little as 2°C in a forested stream. We used structural equation modeling to explore how reach- and catchment-scale attributes interact to explain maximum temperatures and magnitudes of storm-flow temperature surges. The best predictive model of baseflow temperatures (R2  =  0.461) included moderately strong pathways directly (extent of development and road density) and indirectly, as mediated by reach-scale factors (canopy closure and stream width), from catchment-scale factors. The strongest influence on storm-flow temperature surges appeared to be % development in the catchment. Reach-scale factors, such as the extent of riparian forest and stream width, had little mitigating influence (R2  =  0.448). Stream temperature is an essential, but overlooked, aspect of the urban stream syndrome and is affected by reach-scale habitat variables, catchment-scale urbanization

  19. Forest canopy water fluxes can be estimated using canopy structure metrics derived from airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Johannes; Christiansen, Jesper Riis

    2015-01-01

    Forests contribute to improve water quality, affect drinking water resources, and therefore influence water supply on a regional level. The forest canopy structure affects the retention of precipitation (Pr) in the canopy and hence the amount of water transferred to the forest floor termed canopy...... impacts water resources on a large scale in regions where forests play a major role in water resource management....

  20. Carcinogenic ptaquiloside in stream water at base flow and during storm events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strobel, Bjarne W.; Clauson-Kaas, Frederik; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2017-01-01

    identified, of which the compound ptaquiloside (PTA) is the most abundant. Ptaquiloside has been shown to be highly water soluble, leachable from bracken fronds and litter, and present in the soil below bracken stands. During storm events throughfall from the bracken canopy was collected as well. Stream...... water samples were taken as grab samples, while throughfall accumulated in glass jars set out below the canopy. Field blanks and fortified lab controls were included to ensure reliability of the analysis. Ptaquiloside concentrations were determined using LC-MS/MS after a clean-up using solid phase...... extraction. Results showed that PTA levels in the stream were highly dependent on precipitation, and was rising considerably during rain events, peaking at 2.28 μg/L, before quickly (conservation...

  1. Removing forest canopy cover restores a reptile assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, David A; Webb, Jonathan K; Shine, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Humans are rapidly altering natural systems, leading to changes in the distribution and abundance of species. However, so many changes are occurring simultaneously (e.g., climate change, habitat fragmentation) that it is difficult to determine the cause of population fluctuations from correlational studies. We used a manipulative field experiment to determine whether forest canopy cover directly influences reptile assemblages on rock outcrops in southeastern Australia. Our experimental design consisted of three types of rock outcrops: (1) shady sites in which overgrown vegetation was manually removed (n = 25); (2) overgrown controls (n = 30); and (3) sun-exposed controls (n = 20). Following canopy removal, we monitored reptile responses over 30 months. Canopy removal increased reptile species richness, the proportion of shelter sites used by reptiles, and relative abundances of five species that prefer sun-exposed habitats. Our manipulation also decreased the abundances of two shade-tolerant species. Canopy cover thus directly influences this reptile assemblage, with the effects of canopy removal being dependent on each species' habitat preferences (i.e., selection or avoidance of sun-exposed habitat). Our study suggests that increases in canopy cover can cause declines of open-habitat specialists, as previously suggested by correlative studies from a wide range of taxa. Given that reptile colonization of manipulated outcrops occurred rapidly, artificially opening the canopy in ecologically informed ways could help to conserve imperiled species with patchy distributions and low vagility that are threatened by vegetation overgrowth. One such species is Australia's most endangered snake, the broadheaded snake (Hoplocephalus bungaroides).

  2. LHCb trigger streams optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkach, D.; Kazeev, N.; Neychev, R.; Panin, A.; Trofimov, I.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Vesterinen, M.

    2017-10-01

    The LHCb experiment stores around 1011 collision events per year. A typical physics analysis deals with a final sample of up to 107 events. Event preselection algorithms (lines) are used for data reduction. Since the data are stored in a format that requires sequential access, the lines are grouped into several output file streams, in order to increase the efficiency of user analysis jobs that read these data. The scheme efficiency heavily depends on the stream composition. By putting similar lines together and balancing the stream sizes it is possible to reduce the overhead. We present a method for finding an optimal stream composition. The method is applied to a part of the LHCb data (Turbo stream) on the stage where it is prepared for user physics analysis. This results in an expected improvement of 15% in the speed of user analysis jobs, and will be applied on data to be recorded in 2017.

  3. Asteroid/meteorite streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, J.

    The independent discovery of the same three streams (named alpha, beta, and gamma) among 139 Earth approaching asteroids and among 89 meteorite producing fireballs presents the possibility of matching specific meteorites to specific asteroids, or at least to asteroids in the same stream and, therefore, presumably of the same composition. Although perhaps of limited practical value, the three meteorites with known orbits are all ordinary chondrites. To identify, in general, the taxonomic type of the parent asteroid, however, would be of great scientific interest since these most abundant meteorite types cannot be unambiguously spectrally matched to an asteroid type. The H5 Pribram meteorite and asteroid 4486 (unclassified) are not part of a stream, but travel in fairly similar orbits. The LL5 Innisfree meteorite is orbitally similar to asteroid 1989DA (unclassified), and both are members of a fourth stream (delta) defined by five meteorite-dropping fireballs and this one asteroid. The H5 Lost City meteorite is orbitally similar to 1980AA (S type), which is a member of stream gamma defined by four asteroids and four fireballs. Another asteroid in this stream is classified as an S type, another is QU, and the fourth is unclassified. This stream suggests that ordinary chondrites should be associated with S (and/or Q) asteroids. Two of the known four V type asteroids belong to another stream, beta, defined by five asteroids and four meteorite-dropping (but unrecovered) fireballs, making it the most probable source of the eucrites. The final stream, alpha, defined by five asteroids and three fireballs is of unknown composition since no meteorites have been recovered and only one asteroid has an ambiguous classification of QRS. If this stream, or any other as yet undiscovered ones, were found to be composed of a more practical material (e.g., water or metalrich), then recovery of the associated meteorites would provide an opportunity for in-hand analysis of a potential

  4. Percent Forest Adjacent to Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept...

  5. Percent Agriculture Adjacent to Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept...

  6. Simulations of tropical rainforest albedo: is canopy wetness important?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia N.M. Yanagi

    Full Text Available Accurate information on surface albedo is essential for climate modelling, especially for regions such as Amazonia, where the response of the regional atmospheric circulation to the changes on surface albedo is strong. Previous studies have indicated that models are still unable to correctly reproduce details of the seasonal variation of surface albedo. Therefore, it was investigated the role of canopy wetness on the simulated albedo of a tropical rainforest by modifying the IBIS canopy radiation transfer code to incorporate the effects of canopy wetness on the vegetation reflectance. In this study, simulations were run using three versions of the land surface/ecosystem model IBIS: the standard version, the same version recalibrated to fit the data of albedo on tropical rainforests and a modified version that incorporates the effects of canopy wetness on surface albedo, for three sites in the Amazon forest at hourly and monthly scales. The results demonstrated that, at the hourly time scale, the incorporation of canopy wetness on the calculations of radiative transfer substantially improves the simulations results, whereas at the monthly scale these changes do not substantially modify the simulated albedo.

  7. The MODIS Vegetation Canopy Water Content product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustin, S. L.; Riano, D.; Trombetti, M.

    2008-12-01

    Vegetation water stress drives wildfire behavior and risk, having important implications for biogeochemical cycling in natural ecosystems, agriculture, and forestry. Water stress limits plant transpiration and carbon gain. The regulation of photosynthesis creates close linkages between the carbon, water, and energy cycles and through metabolism to the nitrogen cycle. We generated systematic weekly CWC estimated for the USA from 2000-2006. MODIS measures the sunlit reflectance of the vegetation in the visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared. Radiative transfer models, such as PROSPECT-SAILH, determine how sunlight interacts with plant and soil materials. These models can be applied over a range of scales and ecosystem types. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were used to optimize the inversion of these models to determine vegetation water content. We carried out multi-scale validation of the product using field data, airborne and satellite cross-calibration. An Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) of the product is under evaluation by NASA. The CWC product inputs are 1) The MODIS Terra/Aqua surface reflectance product (MOD09A1/MYD09A1) 2) The MODIS land cover map product (MOD12Q1) reclassified to grassland, shrub-land and forest canopies; 3) An ANN trained with PROSPECT-SAILH; 4) A calibration file for each land cover type. The output is an ENVI file with the CWC values. The code is written in Matlab environment and is being adapted to read not only the 8 day MODIS composites, but also daily surface reflectance data. We plan to incorporate the cloud and snow mask and generate as output a geotiff file. Vegetation water content estimates will help predicting linkages between biogeochemical cycles, which will enable further understanding of feedbacks to atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. It will also serve to estimate primary productivity of the biosphere; monitor/assess natural vegetation health related to drought, pollution or diseases

  8. Wadeable Streams Assessment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Wadeable Streams Assessment (WSA) is a first-ever statistically-valid survey of the biological condition of small streams throughout the U.S. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) worked with the states to conduct the assessment in 2004-2005. Data for each parameter sampled in the Wadeable Streams Assessment (WSA) are available for downloading in a series of files as comma separated values (*.csv). Each *.csv data file has a companion text file (*.txt) that lists a dataset label and individual descriptions for each variable. Users should view the *.txt files first to help guide their understanding and use of the data.

  9. The Atmospheric Chemistry and Canopy Exchange Simulation System (ACCESS: model description and application to a temperate deciduous forest canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Saylor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest canopies are primary emission sources of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs and have the potential to significantly influence the formation and distribution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA mass. Biogenically-derived SOA formed as a result of emissions from the widespread forests across the globe may affect air quality in populated areas, degrade atmospheric visibility, and affect climate through direct and indirect forcings. In an effort to better understand the formation of SOA mass from forest emissions, a 1-D column model of the multiphase physical and chemical processes occurring within and just above a vegetative canopy is being developed. An initial, gas-phase-only version of this model, the Atmospheric Chemistry and Canopy Exchange Simulation System (ACCESS, includes processes accounting for the emission of BVOCs from the canopy, turbulent vertical transport within and above the canopy and throughout the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL, near-explicit representation of chemical transformations, mixing with the background atmosphere and bi-directional exchange between the atmosphere and canopy and the atmosphere and forest floor. The model formulation of ACCESS is described in detail and results are presented for an initial application of the modeling system to Walker Branch Watershed, an isoprene-emission-dominated forest canopy in the southeastern United States which has been the focal point for previous chemical and micrometeorological studies. Model results of isoprene profiles and fluxes are found to be consistent with previous measurements made at the simulated site and with other measurements made in and above mixed deciduous forests in the southeastern United States. Sensitivity experiments are presented which explore how canopy concentrations and fluxes of gas-phase precursors of SOA are affected by background anthropogenic nitrogen oxides (NOx. Results from these experiments suggest that the

  10. THE PRE-PENUMBRAL MAGNETIC CANOPY IN THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacTaggart, David [School of Mathematics and Statistics University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QW (United Kingdom); Guglielmino, Salvo L.; Zuccarello, Francesca [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia—Sezione Astrofisica, Università di Catania, via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy)

    2016-11-01

    Penumbrae are the manifestation of magnetoconvection in highly inclined (to the vertical direction) magnetic field. The penumbra of a sunspot tends to form, initially, along the arc of the umbra antipodal to the main region of flux emergence. The question of how highly inclined magnetic field can concentrate along the antipodal curves of umbrae, at least initially, remains to be answered. Previous observational studies have suggested the existence of some form of overlying magnetic canopy that acts as the progenitor for penumbrae. We propose that such overlying magnetic canopies are a consequence of how the magnetic field emerges into the atmosphere and are, therefore, part of the emerging region. We show, through simulations of twisted flux tube emergence, that canopies of highly inclined magnetic field form preferentially at the required locations above the photosphere.

  11. Competition and facilitation structure plant communities under nurse tree canopies in extremely stressful environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Namazi, Ali A; El-Bana, Magdy I; Bonser, Stephen P

    2017-04-01

    Nurse plant facilitation in stressful environments can produce an environment with relatively low stress under its canopy. These nurse plants may produce the conditions promoting intense competition between coexisting species under the canopy, and canopies may establish stress gradients, where stress increases toward the edge of the canopy. Competition and facilitation on these stress gradients may control species distributions in the communities under canopies. We tested the following predictions: (1) interactions between understory species shift from competition to facilitation in habitats experiencing increasing stress from the center to the edge of canopy of a nurse plant, and (2) species distributions in understory communities are controlled by competitive interactions at the center of canopy, and facilitation at the edge of the canopy. We tested these predictions using a neighbor removal experiment under nurse trees growing in arid environments. Established individuals of each of four of the most common herbaceous species in the understory were used in the experiment. Two species were more frequent in the center of the canopy, and two species were more frequent at the edge of the canopy. Established individuals of each species were subjected to neighbor removal or control treatments in both canopy center and edge habitats. We found a shift from competitive to facilitative interactions from the center to the edge of the canopy. The shift in the effect of neighbors on the target species can help to explain species distributions in these canopies. Canopy-dominant species only perform well in the presence of neighbors in the edge microhabitat. Competition from canopy-dominant species can also limit the performance of edge-dominant species in the canopy microhabitat. The shift from competition to facilitation under nurse plant canopies can structure the understory communities in extremely stressful environments.

  12. Quantifying interception associated with new urban vegetation canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerk, W.; Montalto, F. A.

    2013-12-01

    Interception of precipitation by vegetation canopies has long been recognized as an important component of the hydrologic cycle, though most research has been in closed or sparse canopy forests. Much less work has been published on interception by urban vegetation, and especially associated with the low growing shrubs commonly installed in green infrastructure program. To inform urban watershed model with vegetation-specific interception data, a field experiment was designed to directly measure canopy throughfall associated with two shrub species commonly included in urban greening programs. Data was collected at a high (e.g. five second) sampling frequency. A non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test performed on data collected between August and October of 2012 demonstrated statistically significant (p= 0.0011) differences in recorded throughfall between two species (94% for Itea virginica, 86% for Cornus sericea). Additionally, the results suggested that the relationship of throughfall to rainfall intensity varied by species. For Itea, the ratio of throughfall to precipitation intensity was close to 1:1. However, for Cornus, the throughfall rate was on average slower (or 0.85 of the precipitation intensity). An improved and expanded set-up installed in 2013 added two additional species (Prunus laurocerasus and Hydrangea quercifolia). The 2013 results confirm interspecies differences in both throughfall amount, and in the relationship of throughfall rate to precipitation intensity. The results are discussed with respect to droplet splashing and enhanced evaporation within the canopy. Both years' findings suggest that the quantity of water intercepted by vegetation canopies exceeds the canopy storage capacity, as assumed in many conventional hydrologic models.

  13. Effect of canopy architectural variation on transpiration and thermoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, R.; Banerjee, T.

    2017-12-01

    One of the major scientific questions identified by the NGEE - Tropics campaign is the effect of disturbances such as forest fires, vegetation thinning and land use change on carbon, water and energy fluxes. Answers to such questions can help develop effective forest management strategies and shape policies to mitigate damages under natural and anthropogenic climate change. The absence of horizontal and vertical variation of forest canopy structure in current models is a major source of uncertainty in answering these questions. The current work addresses this issue through a bottom up process based modeling approach to systematically investigate the effect of forest canopy architectural variation on plant physiological response as well as canopy level fluxes. A plant biophysics formulation is used which is based on the following principles: (1) a model for the biochemical demand for CO2 as prescribed by photosynthesis models. This model can differentiate between photosynthesis under light-limited and nutrient-limited scenarios. (2) A Fickian mass transfer model including transfer through the laminar boundary layer on leaves that may be subjected to forced or free convection depending upon the mean velocity and the radiation load; (3) an optimal leaf water use strategy that maximizes net carbon gain for a given transpiration rate to describe the stomatal aperture variation; (4) a leaf-level energy balance to accommodate evaporative cooling. Such leaf level processes are coupled to solutions of atmospheric flow through vegetation canopies. In the first test case, different scenarios of top heavy and bottom heavy (vertical) foliage distributions are investigated within a one-dimensional framework where no horizontal heterogeneity of canopy structure is considered. In another test case, different spatial distributions (both horizontal and vertical) of canopy geometry (land use) are considered, where flow solutions using large eddy simulations (LES) are coupled to the

  14. The relationship between reference canopy conductance and simplified hydraulic architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Kimberly; Oren, Ram; Stoy, Paul; Juang, Jehn-Yih; Siqueira, Mario; Katul, Gabriel

    2009-06-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are dominated by vascular plants that form a mosaic of hydraulic conduits to water movement from the soil to the atmosphere. Together with canopy leaf area, canopy stomatal conductance regulates plant water use and thereby photosynthesis and growth. Although stomatal conductance is coordinated with plant hydraulic conductance, governing relationships across species has not yet been formulated at a practical level that can be employed in large-scale models. Here, combinations of published conductance measurements obtained with several methodologies across boreal to tropical climates were used to explore relationships between canopy conductance rates and hydraulic constraints. A parsimonious hydraulic model requiring sapwood-to-leaf area ratio and canopy height generated acceptable agreement with measurements across a range of biomes (r2=0.75). The results suggest that, at long time scales, the functional convergence among ecosystems in the relationship between water-use and hydraulic architecture eclipses inter-specific variation in physiology and anatomy of the transport system. Prognostic applicability of this model requires independent knowledge of sapwood-to-leaf area. In this study, we did not find a strong relationship between sapwood-to-leaf area and physical or climatic variables that are readily determinable at coarse scales, though the results suggest that climate may have a mediating influence on the relationship between sapwood-to-leaf area and height. Within temperate forests, canopy height alone explained a large amount of the variance in reference canopy conductance (r2=0.68) and this relationship may be more immediately applicable in the terrestrial ecosystem models.

  15. Future Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  16. Channelized Streams in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This draft dataset consists of all ditches or channelized pieces of stream that could be identified using three input datasets; namely the1:24,000 National...

  17. Stochastic ice stream dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantelli, Elisa; Bertagni, Matteo Bernard; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-08-09

    Ice streams are narrow corridors of fast-flowing ice that constitute the arterial drainage network of ice sheets. Therefore, changes in ice stream flow are key to understanding paleoclimate, sea level changes, and rapid disintegration of ice sheets during deglaciation. The dynamics of ice flow are tightly coupled to the climate system through atmospheric temperature and snow recharge, which are known exhibit stochastic variability. Here we focus on the interplay between stochastic climate forcing and ice stream temporal dynamics. Our work demonstrates that realistic climate fluctuations are able to (i) induce the coexistence of dynamic behaviors that would be incompatible in a purely deterministic system and (ii) drive ice stream flow away from the regime expected in a steady climate. We conclude that environmental noise appears to be crucial to interpreting the past behavior of ice sheets, as well as to predicting their future evolution.

  18. Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  19. Streaming tearing mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, M.; Sato, T.; Dasgupta, B.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic stability of streaming tearing mode is investigated numerically. A bulk plasma flow parallel to the antiparallel magnetic field lines and localized in the neutral sheet excites a streaming tearing mode more strongly than the usual tearing mode, particularly for the wavelength of the order of the neutral sheet width (or smaller), which is stable for the usual tearing mode. Interestingly, examination of the eigenfunctions of the velocity perturbation and the magnetic field perturbation indicates that the streaming tearing mode carries more energy in terms of the kinetic energy rather than the magnetic energy. This suggests that the streaming tearing mode instability can be a more feasible mechanism of plasma acceleration than the usual tearing mode instability.

  20. DNR 24K Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — 1:24,000 scale streams captured from USGS seven and one-half minute quadrangle maps, with perennial vs. intermittent classification, and connectivity through lakes,...

  1. Trout Stream Special Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer shows Minnesota trout streams that have a special regulation as described in the 2006 Minnesota Fishing Regulations. Road crossings were determined using...

  2. Scientific stream pollution analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nemerow, Nelson Leonard

    1974-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the analysis of water pollution that presents a careful balance of the biological,hydrological, chemical and mathematical concepts involved in the evaluation of stream...

  3. Collaborative Media Streaming

    OpenAIRE

    Kahmann, Verena

    2008-01-01

    Mit Hilfe der IP-Technologie erbrachte Multimedia-Dienste wie IPTV oder Video-on-Demand sind zur Zeit ein gefragtes Thema. Technisch werden solche Dienste unter dem Begriff "Streaming" eingeordnet. Ein Server sendet Mediendaten kontinuierlich an Empfänger, welche die Daten sofort weiterverarbeiten und anzeigen. Über einen Rückkanal hat der Kunde die Möglichkeit der Einflussnahme auf die Wiedergabe. Eine Weiterentwicklung dieser Streaming-Dienste ist die Möglichkeit, gemeinsam mit anderen dens...

  4. Endogenous and exogenous control of ecosystem function: N cycling in headwater streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valett, H M; Thomas, S A; Mulholland, P J; Webster, J R; Dahm, C N; Fellows, C S; Crenshaw, C L; Peterson, C G

    2008-12-01

    Allochthonous inputs act as resource subsidies to many ecosystems, where they exert strong influences on metabolism and material cycling. At the same time, metabolic theory proposes endogenous thermal control independent of resource supply. To address the relative importance of exogenous and endogenous influences, we quantified spatial and temporal variation in ecosystem metabolism and nitrogen (N) uptake using seasonal releases of 15N as nitrate in six streams differing in riparian-stream interaction and metabolic character. Nitrate removal was quantified using a nutrient spiraling approach based on measurements of downstream decline in 15N flux. Respiration (R) and gross primary production (GPP) were measured with whole-stream diel oxygen budgets. Uptake and metabolism metrics were addressed as z scores relative to site means to assess temporal variation. In open-canopied streams, areal uptake (U; microg N x m(-2) x s(-1)) was closely related to GPP, metabolic rates increased with temperature, and R was accurately predicted by metabolic scaling relationships. In forested streams, N spiraling was not related to GPP; instead, uptake velocity (v(f); mm/s) was closely related to R. In contrast to open-canopied streams, N uptake and metabolic activity were negatively correlated to temperature and poorly described by scaling laws. We contend that streams differ along a gradient of exogenous and endogenous control that relates to the relative influences of resource subsidies and in-stream energetics as determinants of seasonal patterns of metabolism and N cycling. Our research suggests that temporal variation in the propagation of ecological influence between adjacent systems generates phases when ecosystems are alternatively characterized as endogenously and exogenously controlled.

  5. Endogenous and exogenous control of ecosystem function: N cycling in headwater streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Valett, H. Maurice [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Thomas, Steve [University of Nebraska; Webster, Jackson [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Dahm, Cliff [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Fellows, Christine [Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland, Australia; Crenshaw, Chelsea [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Peterson, Chris G. [Loyola University

    2008-01-01

    Allochthonous inputs act as resource subsidies to many ecosystems, where they exert strong influences on metabolism and material cycling. At the same time, metabolic theory proposes endogenous thermal control independent of resource supply. To address the relative importance of exogenous and endogenous influences, we quantified spatial and temporal variation in ecosystem metabolism and nitrogen (N) uptake using seasonal releases of {sup 15}N as nitrate in six streams differing in riparian-stream interaction and metabolic character. Nitrate removal was quantified using a nutrient spiraling approach based on measurements of downstream decline in {sup 15}N flux. Respiration (R) and gross primary production (GPP) were measured with whole-stream diel oxygen budgets. Uptake and metabolism metrics were addressed as z scores relative to site means to assess temporal variation. In open-canopied streams, areal uptake (U; {micro}g N {center_dot} m{sup -2} {center_dot} s{sup -1}) was closely related to GPP, metabolic rates increased with temperature, and R was accurately predicted by metabolic scaling relationships. In forested streams, N spiraling was not related to GPP; instead, uptake velocity (v{sub f}; mm/s) was closely related to R. In contrast to open-canopied streams, N uptake and metabolic activity were negatively correlated to temperature and poorly described by scaling laws. We contend that streams differ along a gradient of exogenous and endogenous control that relates to the relative influences of resource subsidies and in-stream energetics as determinants of seasonal patterns of metabolism and N cycling. Our research suggests that temporal variation in the propagation of ecological influence between adjacent systems generates phases when ecosystems are alternatively characterized as endogenously and exogenously controlled.

  6. Streaming Pool: reuse, combine and create reactive streams with pleasure

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    When connecting together heterogeneous and complex systems, it is not easy to exchange data between components. Streams of data are successfully used in industry in order to overcome this problem, especially in the case of "live" data. Streams are a specialization of the Observer design pattern and they provide asynchronous and non-blocking data flow. The ongoing effort of the ReactiveX initiative is one example that demonstrates how demanding this technology is even for big companies. Bridging the discrepancies of different technologies with common interfaces is already done by the Reactive Streams initiative and, in the JVM world, via reactive-streams-jvm interfaces. Streaming Pool is a framework for providing and discovering reactive streams. Through the mechanism of dependency injection provided by the Spring Framework, Streaming Pool provides a so called Discovery Service. This object can discover and chain streams of data that are technologically agnostic, through the use of Stream IDs. The stream to ...

  7. The third RAdiation transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: Documenting progress in canopy reflectance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widlowski, J.L.; Taberner, M.; Pinty, B.; Bruniquel-Pinel, V.; Disney, M.I.; Fernandes, R.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J.P.; Gobron, N.; Kuusk, A.; Lavergne, T.; LeBlanc, S.; Lewis, P.E.; Martin, E.; Mõttus, M.; North, P.R.J.; Qin, W.; Robustelli, M.; Rochdi, N.; Ruiloba, R.; Thompson, R.; Verhoef, W.; Verstraete, M.M.; Xie, D.

    2007-01-01

    [1] The Radiation Transfer Model Intercomparison ( RAMI) initiative benchmarks canopy reflectance models under well-controlled experimental conditions. Launched for the first time in 1999, this triennial community exercise encourages the systematic evaluation of canopy reflectance models on a

  8. Third Radiation Transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) exercise : Documenting progress in canopy reflectance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widlowski, J.-L.; Taberner, M.; Pinty, B.; Bruniquel-Pinel, V.; Disney, M.; Fernandes, R.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J.P.; Gobron, N.; Kuusk, A.; Lavergne, T.; Leblanc, S.; Lewis, P.E.; Martin, E.; Mottus, M.; North, P.R.J.; Qin, W.; Robustelli, M.; Rochdi, N.; Ruiloba, R.; Soler, C.; Thompson, R.; Verhoef, W.; Xie, D.; Thompson, R.

    2007-01-01

    The Radiation Transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) initiative benchmarks canopy reflectance models under well‐controlled experimental conditions. Launched for the first time in 1999, this triennial community exercise encourages the systematic evaluation of canopy reflectance models on a voluntary

  9. LBA-ECO LC-15 Aerodynamic Roughness Maps of Vegetation Canopies, Amazon Basin: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, LBA-ECO LC-15 Aerodynamic Roughness Maps of Vegetation Canopies, Amazon Basin: 2000, provides physical roughness maps of vegetation canopies in the...

  10. Exploring Relationships between Canopy Architecture, Light Distribution, and Photosynthesis in Contrasting Rice Genotypes Using 3D Canopy Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra J. Burgess

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The arrangement of leaf material is critical in determining the light environment, and subsequently the photosynthetic productivity of complex crop canopies. However, links between specific canopy architectural traits and photosynthetic productivity across a wide genetic background are poorly understood for field grown crops. The architecture of five genetically diverse rice varieties—four parental founders of a multi-parent advanced generation intercross (MAGIC population plus a high yielding Philippine variety (IR64—was captured at two different growth stages using a method for digital plant reconstruction based on stereocameras. Ray tracing was employed to explore the effects of canopy architecture on the resulting light environment in high-resolution, whilst gas exchange measurements were combined with an empirical model of photosynthesis to calculate an estimated carbon gain and total light interception. To further test the impact of different dynamic light patterns on photosynthetic properties, an empirical model of photosynthetic acclimation was employed to predict the optimal light-saturated photosynthesis rate (Pmax throughout canopy depth, hypothesizing that light is the sole determinant of productivity in these conditions. First, we show that a plant type with steeper leaf angles allows more efficient penetration of light into lower canopy layers and this, in turn, leads to a greater photosynthetic potential. Second the predicted optimal Pmax responds in a manner that is consistent with fractional interception and leaf area index across this germplasm. However, measured Pmax, especially in lower layers, was consistently higher than the optimal Pmax indicating factors other than light determine photosynthesis profiles. Lastly, varieties with more upright architecture exhibit higher maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis indicating a canopy-level impact on photosynthetic efficiency.

  11. Estimation of leaf area index for cotton canopies using the LI-COR LAI-2000 plant canopy analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, S.K.; Lascano, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Measurement of leaf area index (LAI) is useful for understanding cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) growth, water use, and canopy light interception. Destructive measurement is time consuming and labor intensive. Our objective was to evaluate sampling procedures using the Li-Cor (Lincoln, NE) LAI 2000 plant canopy analyzer (PCA) for nondestructive estimation of cotton LAI on the southern High Plains of Texas. We evaluated shading as a way to allow PCA measurements in direct sunlight and the influence of solar direction when using this procedure. We also evaluated a test of canopy homogeneity (information required for setting PCA field of view), determined the number of below-canopy measurements required, examined the influence of leaf wilting on PCA LAI determinations, and tested an alternative method (masking the sensor's two outer rings) for calculating LAI from PCA measurements. The best agreement between PCA and destructively measured LAI values was obtained when PCA observations were made either during uniformly overcast conditions or around solar noon using the shading method. Heterogeneous canopies with large gaps between rows required both a restricted (45 degrees) azimuthal field of view and averaging the LAI values for two transects, made with the field of view parallel and then perpendicular to the row direction. This method agreed well (r2 = 0.84) with destructively measured LAI in the range of 0.5 to 3.5 and did not deviate from a 1:1 relationship. The PCA underestimated LAI by greater than or equal 20% when measurements were made on canopies wilted due to water stress. Masking the PCA sensor's outer rings did not improve the relationship between estimated and measured LAI in the range of LAI sampled

  12. Juvenile coho salmon growth and health in streams across an urbanization gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanjer, Andrew R.; Moran, Patrick W.; Larsen, Kimberly; Wetzel, Lisa; Hansen, Adam G.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2018-01-01

    Expanding human population and urbanization alters freshwater systems through structural changes to habitat, temperature effects from increased runoff and reduced canopy cover, altered flows, and increased toxicants. Current stream assessments stop short of measuring health or condition of species utilizing these freshwater habitats and fail to link specific stressors mechanistically to the health of organisms in the stream. Juvenile fish growth integrates both external and internal conditions providing a useful indicator of habitat quality and ecosystem health. Thus, there is a need to account for ecological and environmental influences on fish growth accurately. Bioenergetics models can simulate changes in growth and consumption in response to environmental conditions and food availability to account for interactions between an organism's environmental experience and utilization of available resources. The bioenergetics approach accounts for how thermal regime, food supply, and food quality affect fish growth. This study used a bioenergetics modeling approach to evaluate the environmental factors influencing juvenile coho salmon growth among ten Pacific Northwest streams spanning an urban gradient. Urban streams tended to be warmer, have earlier emergence dates and stronger early season growth. However, fish in urban streams experienced increased stress through lower growth efficiencies, especially later in the summer as temperatures warmed, with as much as a 16.6% reduction when compared to fish from other streams. Bioenergetics modeling successfully characterized salmonid growth in small perennial streams as part of a more extensive monitoring program and provides a powerful assessment tool for characterizing mixed life-stage specific responses in urban streams.

  13. The dynamics of aerosol behaviour and fate within spruce canopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ould-Dada, Zitouni

    1996-01-01

    The current work was intended to provide data on aerosol inputs to forest ecosystems and their subsequent fate. The background to the project was the Chernobyl accident which highlighted the importance of forests and other semi-natural ecosystems as a link in the transfer of radioactivity to man. In the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident, forests were identified as a specific type of semi-natural ecosystem for which radioecological data were almost completely absent within the countries of the European Union. Information on radionuclide behaviour and transfer in forest ecosystems was therefore needed to establish and test radiological assessment models which can be used to evaluate the likely contribution to radiological dose-to-man contaminated forests may make. The objective of this study was thus to provide data on dry deposition, resuspension and field loss of aerosols to forest canopies, in particular those of Norway spruce (Picea abies), from wind tunnel experiments conducted with small scale 'model' canopies. An aerosol generation system was developed to produce aerosol particles in the size range of 0.13-1.37 μm (VMD). Particle size distributions can be controlled within desired limits and with sufficient stability over time allowing the technique to be suitable for use in extended aerosol deposition studies. A full scale dry deposition experiment using 0.82 μm (VMAD) uranium particles was performed in the wind tunnel using Norway spruce saplings of approximately 45 cm height. Deposition velocities (V g ) were obtained and these were related to meteorological measurements (wind speed, friction velocity, turbulence intensity) inside the wind tunnel and LAI of the canopy. The latter was divided into five horizontal layers and both horizontal and vertical variations in deposition were assessed. A V g value of 0.497 cm s -1 was obtained for the canopy as a whole with the highest and lowest fluxes of 2.85 x 10 -8 and 8.14 x 10 -9 μgU cm -2 s -1 occurring at

  14. Streams and their future inhabitants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, K.; Friberg, Nikolai

    2006-01-01

    In this fi nal chapter we look ahead and address four questions: How do we improve stream management? What are the likely developments in the biological quality of streams? In which areas is knowledge on stream ecology insuffi cient? What can streams offer children of today and adults of tomorrow?...

  15. A comparison of ground-based methods for estimating canopy closure for use in phenology research

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, AM; Ramsay, PM

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Climate change is influencing tree phenology, causing earlier and more prolonged canopy closure in temperate forests. Canopy closure is closely associated with understorey light, so shifts in its timing have wide-reaching consequences for ecological processes in the understorey. Widespread monitoring of forest canopies through time is needed to understand changes in light availability during spring in particular. Canopy openness, derived from hemispherical photography, has frequently...

  16. Application of Lidar remote sensing to the estimation of forest canopy and stand structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefsky, Michael Andrew

    A new remote sensing instrument, SLICER (Scanning Lidar Imager of Canopies by Echo Recovery), has been applied to the problem of remote sensing the canopy and stand structure of two groups of deciduous forests, Tulip Poplar-Oak stands in the vicinity of Annapolis, MD. and bottomland hardwood stands near Williamston, NC. The ability of the SLICER instrument to remotely sense the vertical distribution of canopy structure (Canopy Height Profile), bulk canopy transmittance, and several indices of canopy height has been successfully validated using twelve stands with coincident field and SLICER estimates of canopy structure. Principal components analysis has been applied to canopy height profiles from both field sites, and three significant factors were identified, each closely related to the amount of foliage in a recognizable layer of the forest, either understory, midstory, or overstory. The distribution of canopy structure to these layers is significantly correlated with the size and number of stems supporting them. The same layered structure was shown to apply to both field and SLICER remotely sensed canopy height profiles, and to apply to SLICER remotely sensed canopy profiles from both the bottomland hardwood stands in the coastal plain of North Carolina, and to mesic Tulip-Poplars stands in the upland coastal plain of Maryland. Linear regressions have demonstrated that canopy and stand structure are correlated to both a statistically significant and useful degree. Stand age and stem density is more highly correlated to stand height, while stand basal area and aboveground biomass are more closely related to a new measure of canopy structure, the quadratic mean canopy height. A geometric model of canopy structure has been shown to explain the differing relationships between canopy structure and stand basal area for stands of Eastern Deciduous Forest and Douglas Fir Forest.

  17. A meta-analysis of leaf nitrogen distribution within plant canopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hikosaka, Kouki; Anten, Niels P.R.; Borjigidai, Almaz; Kamiyama, Chiho; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Oikawa, Shimpei; Iio, Atsuhiro; Watanabe, Makoto; Koike, Takayoshi; Nishina, Kazuya; Ito, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Leaf nitrogen distribution in the plant canopy is an important determinant for canopy photosynthesis. Although the gradient of leaf nitrogen is formed along light gradients in the canopy, its quantitative variations among species and environmental responses remain unknown.

  18. The influence of multi-season imagery on models of canopy cover: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston; Dennis M. Jacobs; Chris R. King; Ivey C. Elmore

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying tree canopy cover in a spatially explicit fashion is important for broad-scale monitoring of ecosystems and for management of natural resources. Researchers have developed empirical models of tree canopy cover to produce geospatial products. For subpixel models, percent tree canopy cover estimates (derived from fine-scale imagery) serve as the response...

  19. Examining conifer canopy structural complexity across forest ages and elevations with LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van R. Kane; Jonathan D. Bakker; Robert J. McGaughey; James A. Lutz; Rolf F. Gersonde; Jerry F. Franklin

    2010-01-01

    LiDAR measurements of canopy structure can be used to classify forest stands into structural stages to study spatial patterns of canopy structure, identify habitat, or plan management actions. A key assumption in this process is that differences in canopy structure based on forest age and elevation are consistent with predictions from models of stand development. Three...

  20. Estimation of in-canopy ammonia sources and sinks in a fertilized Zea mays field

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analytical model was developed that describes the in-canopy vertical distribution of NH3 source and sinks and vertical fluxes in a fertilized agricultural setting using measured in-canopy concentration and wind speed profiles. This model was applied to quantify in-canopy air-s...

  1. Canopy sink-source partitioning influences root/soil respiration in apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    The root system of plants derives all its energy from photosynthate translocated from the canopy to the root system. Canopy manipulations that alter either the rate of canopy photosynthesis or the translocation of photosynthate are expected to alter dry matter partitioning to the root system. Fiel...

  2. Evaporation and the sub-canopy energy environment in a flooded forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    The combination of canopy cover and a free water surface makes the sub-canopy environment of flooded forested wetlands unlike other aquatic or terrestrial systems. The sub-canopy vapor flux and energy budget are not well understood in wetlands, but they importantly control water level and understory...

  3. Estimates of forest canopy height and aboveground biomass using ICESat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Lefsky; David J. Harding; Michael Keller; Warren B. Cohen; Claudia C. Carabajal; Fernando Del Bom; Maria O. Hunter; Raimundo Jr. de Oliveira

    2005-01-01

    Exchange of carbon between forests and the atmosphere is a vital component of the global carbon cycle. Satellite laser altimetry has a unique capability for estimating forest canopy height, which has a direct and increasingly well understood relationship to aboveground carbon storage. While the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) onboard the Ice, Cloud and land...

  4. Los Angeles 1-Million tree canopy cover assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory E. McPherson; James R. Simpson; Qingfu Xiao; Wu Chunxia

    2008-01-01

    The Million Trees LA initiative intends to chart a course for sustainable growth through planting and stewardship of trees. The purpose of this study was to measure Los Angeles's existing tree canopy cover (TCC), determine if space exists for 1 million additional trees, and estimate future benefits from the planting. High resolution QuickBird remote sensing data,...

  5. Mapping forest canopy disturbance in the Upper Great Lakes, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Garner; Mark D. Nelson; Brian G. Tavernia; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Ian W. Housman

    2015-01-01

    A map of forest canopy disturbance was generated for Michigan, Wisconsin, and most of Minnesota using 42 Landsat time series stacks (LTSS) and a vegetation change tracker (VCTw) algorithm. Corresponding winter imagery was used to reduce commission errors of forest disturbance by identifying areas of persistent snow cover. The resulting disturbance age map was classed...

  6. Amblyomma tapirellum (Dunn, 1933) collected from tropical forest canopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loaiza, J.R.; Miller, M.J.; Bermingham, E.; Sanjur, O.I.; Jansen, P.A.; Rovira, J.R.; Alvarez, E.; Rodriguez, E.; Davis, P.; Dutari, L.C.; Pecor, J.; Foley, D.; Radtke, M.; Pongsiri, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Free-ranging ticks are widely known to be restricted to the ground level of vegetation. Here, we document the capture of the tick species Amblyomma tapirellum in light traps placed in the forest canopy of Barro Colorado Island, central Panama. A total of forty eight adults and three nymphs were

  7. A New Mechanism of Canopy Effect in Unsaturated Freezing Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Jidong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Canopy effect refers to the phenomenon where moisture accumulates underneath an impervious cover. Field observation reveals that canopy effect can take place in relatively dry soils where the groundwater table is deep and can lead to full saturation of the soil immediately underneath the impervious cover. On the other hand, numerical analysis based on existing theories of heat and mass transfer in unsaturated soils can only reproduce a minor amount of moisture accumulation due to an impervious cover, particularly when the groundwater table is relatively deep. In attempt to explain the observed canopy effect in field, this paper proposes a new mechanism of moisture accumulation in unsaturated freezing soils: vapour transfer in such a soil is accelerated by the process of vapour-ice desublimation. A new approach for modelling moisture and heat movements is proposed, in which the phase change of evaporation, condensation and de-sublimation of vapor flow are taken into account. The computed results show that the proposed model can indeed reproduce the unusual moisture accumulation observed in relatively dry soils. The results also demonstrate that soil freezing fed by vapour transfer can result in a water content close to full saturation. Since vapour transfer is seldom considered in geotechnical design, the canopy effect deserves more attention during construction and earth works in cold and arid regions.

  8. Transient water stress in a vegetation canopy - Simulations and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Toby N.; Belles, James E.; Gillies, Robert R.

    1991-01-01

    Consideration is given to observational and modeling evidence of transient water stress, the effects of the transpiration plateau on the canopy radiometric temperature, and the factors responsible for the onset of the transpiration plateau, such as soil moisture. Attention is also given to the point at which the transient stress can be detected by remote measurement of surface temperature.

  9. Estimating foliar biochemistry from hyperspectral data in mixed forest canopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber Gharib, Silvia; Kneubühler, Mathias; Psomas, Achilleas

    2008-01-01

    data to estimate the foliar concentration of nitrogen, carbon and water in three mixed forest canopies in Switzerland. With multiple linear regression models, continuum-removed and normalized HyMap spectra were related to foliar biochemistry on an individual tree level. The six spectral wavebands used...

  10. Tree diversity and canopy cover in cocoa systems in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asare, Richard; Ræbild, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) growing systems in Ghana and West Africa consist of diverse tree species and densities.This study was conducted to determine factors that influence tree species configurations and how tree characteristics affect canopy cover in cocoa farms. Eighty-six farmers...

  11. Estimating forest canopy bulk density using six indirect methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Elizabeth D. Reinhardt; Joe Scott; Kathy Gray; James Reardon

    2005-01-01

    Canopy bulk density (CBD) is an important crown characteristic needed to predict crown fire spread, yet it is difficult to measure in the field. Presented here is a comprehensive research effort to evaluate six indirect sampling techniques for estimating CBD. As reference data, detailed crown fuel biomass measurements were taken on each tree within fixed-area plots...

  12. Effects of experimental canopy manipulation on amphibian egg deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary I. Felix; Yong Wang; Callie J. Schweitzer

    2010-01-01

    Although effects of forest management on amphibians are relatively well studied, few studies have examined how these practices affect egg deposition by adults, which can impact population recruitment. We quantified the effects of 4 canopy tree-retention treatments on amphibian oviposition patterns in clusters of 60-L aquatic mesocosms located in each treatment. We also...

  13. Modelling kinetics of plant canopy architecture: concepts and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birch, C.J.; Andrieu, B.; Fournier, C.; Vos, J.; Room, P.

    2003-01-01

    Most crop models simulate the crop canopy as an homogeneous medium. This approach enables modelling of mass and energy transfer through relatively simple equations, and is useful for understanding crop production. However, schematisation of an homogeneous medium cannot address the heterogeneous

  14. Effect of forest canopy on GPS-based movement data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas J. DeCesare; John R. Squires; Jay A. Kolbe

    2005-01-01

    The advancing role of Global Positioning System (GPS) technology in ecology has made studies of animal movement possible for larger and more vagile species. A simple field test revealed that lengths of GPS-based movement data were strongly biased (Pof forest canopy. Global Positioning System error added an average of 27.5% additional...

  15. Canopy management, leaf fall and litter quality of dominant tree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small-scale farmers in the banana-coffee agro-zone of Central Uganda plant and maintain trees to provide a range of benefits. However, the impact of trees on soil fertility and crop yields is small. On many farms, trees exist in infinite numbers, compositions, with no proper spacing, sequencing and canopy management ...

  16. A canopy observation platform in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leighton, Mark; Thomas, Barry

    1980-01-01

    Tropical biologists are often frustrated in their attempts to study plants, animals, and climate in the forest canopy because of the difficulty of access to this region 20-50 meters high. This problem can be overcome by the use of free-standing towers (Pasoh, Malaya; Barro Colorado Island, Panama)

  17. Leaf and canopy photosynthesis of a chlorophyll deficient soybean mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakowska, Karolina; Alberti, Giorgio; Genesio, Lorenzo; Peressotti, Alessandro; Delle Vedove, Gemini; Gianelle, Damiano; Colombo, Roberto; Rodeghiero, Mirco; Panigada, Cinzia; Juszczak, Radosław; Celesti, Marco; Rossini, Micol; Haworth, Matthew; Campbell, Benjamin W; Mevy, Jean-Philippe; Vescovo, Loris; Cendrero-Mateo, M Pilar; Rascher, Uwe; Miglietta, Franco

    2018-03-02

    The photosynthetic, optical, and morphological characteristics of a chlorophyll-deficient (Chl-deficient) "yellow" soybean mutant (MinnGold) were examined in comparison with 2 green varieties (MN0095 and Eiko). Despite the large difference in Chl content, similar leaf photosynthesis rates were maintained in the Chl-deficient mutant by offsetting the reduced absorption of red photons by a small increase in photochemical efficiency and lower non-photochemical quenching. When grown in the field, at full canopy cover, the mutants reflected a significantly larger proportion of incoming shortwave radiation, but the total canopy light absorption was only slightly reduced, most likely due to a deeper penetration of light into the canopy space. As a consequence, canopy-scale gross primary production and ecosystem respiration were comparable between the Chl-deficient mutant and the green variety. However, total biomass production was lower in the mutant, which indicates that processes other than steady state photosynthesis caused a reduction in biomass accumulation over time. Analysis of non-photochemical quenching relaxation and gas exchange in Chl-deficient and green leaves after transitions from high to low light conditions suggested that dynamic photosynthesis might be responsible for the reduced biomass production in the Chl-deficient mutant under field conditions. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Computing energy budget within a crop canopy from Penmann's ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan, Krishtel eMaging Solutions

    Computing energy budget within a crop canopy from. Penmann's formulae. Mahendra Mohan∗ and K K Srivastava∗∗. ∗Radio and Atmospheric Science Division, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012, India. ∗∗Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.

  19. Base Cation Leaching From the Canopy of a Rubber ( Hevea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Base cations are essential to the sustainability of forest ecosystems. They are important for neutralizing the acidifying effects of atmospheric deposition. There is the need for in-depth understanding of base cation depletion and leaching from forest canopy. This is important particularly due to the increasing acidification and ...

  20. Improving canopy sensor algorithms with soil and weather information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) need to support corn (Zea mays L.) production can be highly variable within fields. Canopy reflectance sensing for assessing crop N health has been implemented on many farmers’ fields to side-dress or top-dress variable-rate N application, but at times farmers report the performance of ...

  1. Blue Oak Canopy Effect on Seasonal Forage Production and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Frost; Neil K. McDougald; Montague W. Demment

    1991-01-01

    Forage production and forage quality were measured seasonally beneath the canopy of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) and in open grassland at the San Joaquin Experimental Range. At the March and peak standing crop sampling dates forage production was significantly greater (p=.05) beneath blue oak compared to open grassland. At most sampling dates, the...

  2. Effects of sub-Arctic shrub canopies on snowmelt energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewley, D.; Essery, R.; Pomeroy, J.

    2006-12-01

    Much of the low Arctic is covered with shrub tundra, and there is increasing evidence that snowmelt rates are substantially different between shrub tundra and poorly vegetated sites. The cause of this remains uncertain, however, and extends beyond simple differences in albedo. Results are presented in this study from a detailed field investigation at Wolf Creek Research Basin in 2004 to determine the effect of two different shrub canopy structures on both melt rates and the partitioning of melt energy. The low shrub site (LSS) was essentially an unvegetated snowfield prior to melt (mean albedo ~0.85), and shrubs only became exposed during the last few days of melt reaching a mean height of 0.31 m and mean Plant Area Index (PAI) of 0.32. Shrubs at the tall shrub site (TSS) were partially buried initially (shrub fraction, mean height and PAI of 0.2, 0.9 m and 0.41) but dominated the landscape by the end of melt (corresponding values of 0.71, 1.6 m and 0.6). Melt rates were higher at TSS up until the exposure of shrubs and bare ground at LSS, after which the rates converged. A Shrub-Snow Canopy Model (SSCM) is developed to improve snowmelt simulations for shrub canopies by parameterizing the key shrub effects on surface fluxes, including the extinction of shortwave irradiance beneath shrubs and in canopy gaps, and the enhancement of snow surface fluxes of longwave radiation and sensible heat. SSCM was run for LSS assuming no shrubs were present above the variable snow and bare ground tiles, whereas for TSS an increasing shrub fraction above each tile was prescribed from observations. Results from both sites suggest that sensible heat fluxes contributed more melt energy than net radiation, and were greater during early melt at TSS due to the warming of exposed shrubs. SWE was accurately predicted against transect measurements at TSS (rms error 4 mm), but was overestimated at LSS (rms error 13 mm) since both air temperatures and turbulent transport were underestimated

  3. Estimating canopy bulk density and canopy base height for conifer stands in the interior Western United States using the Forest Vegetation Simulator Fire and Fuels Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth Ex; Frederick Smith; Tara Keyser; Stephanie Rebain

    2017-01-01

    The Forest Vegetation Simulator Fire and Fuels Extension (FFE-FVS) is often used to estimate canopy bulk density (CBD) and canopy base height (CBH), which are key indicators of crown fire hazard for conifer stands in the Western United States. Estimated CBD from FFE-FVS is calculated as the maximum 4 m running mean bulk density of predefined 0.3 m thick canopy layers (...

  4. Simulated transient thermal infrared emissions of forest canopies during rainfall events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Jerrell R.; Hawkins, William R.; Howington, Stacy E.; Kala, Raju V.

    2017-05-01

    We describe the development of a centimeter-scale resolution simulation framework for a theoretical tree canopy that includes rainfall deposition, evaporation, and thermal infrared emittance. Rainfall is simulated as discrete raindrops with specified rate. The individual droplets will either fall through the canopy and intersect the ground; adhere to a leaf; bounce or shatter on impact with a leaf resulting in smaller droplets that are propagated through the canopy. Surface physical temperatures are individually determined by surface water evaporation, spatially varying within canopy wind velocities, solar radiation, and water vapor pressure. Results are validated by theoretical canopy gap and gross rainfall interception models.

  5. Dispersion simulation of airborne effluent through tree canopy using OpenFOAM CFD code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakesh, P.T.; Venkatesan, R.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear plants are often surrounded by tree canopy as a part of landscaping and green belt development. The transport and dispersion of air borne pollutants within the tree/plant canopies is greatly controlled by turbulence. The density of the tree canopy, the height and type of the trees is of importance while determining the intensity of turbulence. In order to study the mechanical effect of the canopy and the consequent modification in the ground level concentration pattern from a ground level release of radioactivity, a CFD code called OpenFOAM is used. The main task of this study is the implementation of flow and dispersion through plant canopies in Open FOAM

  6. Chlorophyll Can Be Reduced in Crop Canopies with Little Penalty to Photosynthesis1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewry, Darren T.; VanLoocke, Andy; Cho, Young B.

    2018-01-01

    The hypothesis that reducing chlorophyll content (Chl) can increase canopy photosynthesis in soybeans was tested using an advanced model of canopy photosynthesis. The relationship among leaf Chl, leaf optical properties, and photosynthetic biochemical capacity was measured in 67 soybean (Glycine max) accessions showing large variation in leaf Chl. These relationships were integrated into a biophysical model of canopy-scale photosynthesis to simulate the intercanopy light environment and carbon assimilation capacity of canopies with wild type, a Chl-deficient mutant (Y11y11), and 67 other mutants spanning the extremes of Chl to quantify the impact of variation in leaf-level Chl on canopy-scale photosynthetic assimilation and identify possible opportunities for improving canopy photosynthesis through Chl reduction. These simulations demonstrate that canopy photosynthesis should not increase with Chl reduction due to increases in leaf reflectance and nonoptimal distribution of canopy nitrogen. However, similar rates of canopy photosynthesis can be maintained with a 9% savings in leaf nitrogen resulting from decreased Chl. Additionally, analysis of these simulations indicate that the inability of Chl reductions to increase photosynthesis arises primarily from the connection between Chl and leaf reflectance and secondarily from the mismatch between the vertical distribution of leaf nitrogen and the light absorption profile. These simulations suggest that future work should explore the possibility of using reduced Chl to improve canopy performance by adapting the distribution of the “saved” nitrogen within the canopy to take greater advantage of the more deeply penetrating light. PMID:29061904

  7. Large eddy simulation of the atmospheric boundary layer above a forest canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Jahrul

    2017-11-01

    A goal of this talk is to discuss large eddy simulation (LES) of atmospheric turbulence within and above a canopy/roughness sublayer, where coherent turbulence resembles a turbulent mixing layer. The proposed LES does not resolve the near wall region. Instead, a near surface canopy stress model has been combined with a wall adapting local eddy viscosity model. The canopy stress is represented as a three-dimensional time dependent momentum sink, where the total kinematic drag of the canopy is adjusted based on the measurements in a forest canopy. This LES has been employed to analyze turbulence structures in the canopy/roughness sublayer. Results indicate that turbulence is more efficient at transporting momentum and scalars in the roughness sublayer. The LES result has been compared with the turbulence profile measured over a forest canopy to predict the turbulence statistics in the inertial sublayer above the canopy. Turbulence statistics between the inertial sublayer, the canopy sublayer, and the rough-wall boundary layer have been compared to characterize whether turbulence in the canopy sublayer resembles a turbulent mixing layer or a boundary layer. The canopy turbulence is found dominated by energetic eddies much larger in scale than the individual roughness elements. Financial support from the National Science and Research Council (NSERC), Canada is acknowledged.

  8. Transmittance of young Norway spruce stand canopy for photosynthetically active radiation during the growing season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markova, I.; Kubasek, J.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of transmittance of young Norway spruce stand canopy for photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was made at the study site of Bily Kriz (the Moravian-Silesian Beskids Mts., the Czech Republic) at different sky conditions during the growing season in 2010. For the description of PAR transmittance different phenological phases of the spruce stand development in clear and overcast days were chosen. The mean daily PAR transmittance of the spruce canopy was significantly higher in overcast days compared with clear ones. Diffuse PAR thus penetrated into lower parts of the canopy more efficiently than direct one. PAR transmittance of young Norway spruce stand canopy was different in individual phenological phases of the spruce stand canopy which was caused by changes in the stand structure during the growing season. Thus monitoring of transmittance of young Norway spruce stand canopy for PAR can help to describe the development of spruce stand canopy

  9. Impacts of an invasive snail (Tarebia granifera) on nutrient cycling in tropical streams: the role of riparian deforestation in Trinidad, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslemi, Jennifer M; Snider, Sunny B; Macneill, Keeley; Gilliam, James F; Flecker, Alexander S

    2012-01-01

    Non-native species and habitat degradation are two major catalysts of environmental change and often occur simultaneously. In freshwater systems, degradation of adjacent terrestrial vegetation may facilitate introduced species by altering resource availability. Here we examine how the presence of intact riparian cover influences the impact of an invasive herbivorous snail, Tarebia granifera, on nitrogen (N) cycling in aquatic systems on the island of Trinidad. We quantified snail biomass, growth, and N excretion in locations where riparian vegetation was present or removed to determine how snail demographics and excretion were related to the condition of the riparian zone. In three Neotropical streams, we measured snail biomass and N excretion in open and closed canopy habitats to generate estimates of mass- and area-specific N excretion rates. Snail biomass was 2 to 8 times greater and areal N excretion rates ranged from 3 to 9 times greater in open canopy habitats. Snails foraging in open canopy habitat also had access to more abundant food resources and exhibited greater growth and mass-specific N excretion rates. Estimates of ecosystem N demand indicated that snail N excretion in fully closed, partially closed, and open canopy habitats supplied 2%, 11%, and 16% of integrated ecosystem N demand, respectively. We conclude that human-mediated riparian canopy loss can generate hotspots of snail biomass, growth, and N excretion along tropical stream networks, altering the impacts of an invasive snail on the biogeochemical cycling of N.

  10. The Rabbit Stream Cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Martin; Vesterager, Mette; Zenner, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The stream cipher Rabbit was first presented at FSE 2003, and no attacks against it have been published until now. With a measured encryption/decryption speed of 3.7 clock cycles per byte on a Pentium III processor, Rabbit does also provide very high performance. This paper gives a concise...... description of the Rabbit design and some of the cryptanalytic results available....

  11. Music Streaming in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Rex

    This report analyses how a ’per user’ settlement model differs from the ‘pro rata’ model currently used. The analysis is based on data for all streams by WiMP users in Denmark during August 2013. The analysis has been conducted in collaboration with Christian Schlelein from Koda on the basis of d...

  12. Academic streaming in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falaschi, Alessandro; Mønster, Dan; Doležal, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    The TF-NETCAST task force was active from March 2003 to March 2004, and during this time the mem- bers worked on various aspects of streaming media related to the ultimate goal of setting up common services and infrastructures to enable netcasting of high quality content to the academic community...

  13. Relationships between NDVI, canopy structure, and photosynthesis in three California vegetation types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamon, J.A.; Field, C.B.; Goulden, M.L.; Griffin, K.L.; Hartley, A.E.; Joel, G.; Penuelas, J.; Valentini, R.

    1995-01-01

    In a range of plant species from three Californian vegetation types, we examined the widely used ''normalized difference vegetation index'' (NDVI) and ''simple ratio'' (SR) as indicators of canopy structure, light absorption, and photosynthetic activity. These indices, which are derived from canopy reflectance in the red and near-infrared wavebands, highlighted phenological differences between evergreen and deciduous canopies. They were poor indicators of total canopy biomass due to the varying abundance of non-green standing biomass in these vegetation types. However, in sparse canopies (leaf area index (LAI) apprxeq 0-2), NDVI was a sensitive indicator of canopy structure and chemical content (green biomass, green leaf area index, chlorophyll content, and foliar nitrogen content). At higher canopy green LAI values ( gt 2; typical of dense shrubs and trees), NDVI was relatively insensitive to changes in canopy structure. Compared to SR, NDVI was better correlated with indicators of canopy structure and chemical content, but was equivalent to the logarithm of SR. In agreement with theoretical expectations, both NDVI and SR exhibited near-linear correlations with fractional PAR intercepted by green leaves over a wide range of canopy densities. Maximum daily photosynthetic rates were positively correlated with NDVI and SR in annual grassland and semideciduous shrubs where canopy development and photosynthetic activity were in synchrony. The indices were also correlated with peak springtime canopy photosynthetic rates in evergreens. However, over most of the year, these indices were poor predictors of photosynthetic performance in evergreen species due to seasonal reductions in photosynthetic radiation-use efficiency that occurred without substantial declines in canopy greenness. Our results support the use of these vegetation indices as remote indicators of PAR absorption, and thus potential photosynthetic activity, even in

  14. Landscape-scale changes in forest canopy structure across a partially logged tropical peat swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedeux, B. M. M.; Coomes, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    Forest canopy structure is strongly influenced by environmental factors and disturbance, and in turn influences key ecosystem processes including productivity, evapotranspiration and habitat availability. In tropical forests increasingly modified by human activities, the interplay between environmental factors and disturbance legacies on forest canopy structure across landscapes is practically unexplored. We used airborne laser scanning (ALS) data to measure the canopy of old-growth and selectively logged peat swamp forest across a peat dome in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, and quantified how canopy structure metrics varied with peat depth and under logging. Several million canopy gaps in different height cross-sections of the canopy were measured in 100 plots of 1 km2 spanning the peat dome, allowing us to describe canopy structure with seven metrics. Old-growth forest became shorter and had simpler vertical canopy profiles on deeper peat, consistent with previous work linking deep peat to stunted tree growth. Gap size frequency distributions (GSFDs) indicated fewer and smaller canopy gaps on the deeper peat (i.e. the scaling exponent of Pareto functions increased from 1.76 to 3.76 with peat depth). Areas subjected to concessionary logging until 2000, and illegal logging since then, had the same canopy top height as old-growth forest, indicating the persistence of some large trees, but mean canopy height was significantly reduced. With logging, the total area of canopy gaps increased and the GSFD scaling exponent was reduced. Logging effects were most evident on the deepest peat, where nutrient depletion and waterlogged conditions restrain tree growth and recovery. A tight relationship exists between canopy structure and peat depth gradient within the old-growth tropical peat swamp forest. This relationship breaks down after selective logging, with canopy structural recovery, as observed by ALS, modulated by environmental conditions. These findings improve our

  15. Winter radiation extinction and reflection in a boreal pine canopy: measurements and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomeroy, J.W.; Dion, K.

    1996-01-01

    Predicting the rate of snow melt and intercepted snow sublimation in boreal forests requires an understanding of the effects of snow-covered conifers on the exchange of radiant energy. This study examined the amount of intercepted snow on a jack pine canopy in the boreal forest of central Saskatchewan and the shortwave and net radiation exchange with this canopy, to determine the effect of intercepted snow and canopy structure on shortwave radiation reflection and extinction and net radiation attenuation in a boreal forest. The study focused on clear sky conditions, which are common during winter in the continental boreal forest. Intercepted snow was found to have no influence on the clear-sky albedo of the canopy, the extinction of short wave radiation by the canopy or ratio of net radiation at the canopy top to that at the surface snow cover. Because of the low albedo of the snow-covered canopy, net radiation at the canopy top remains positive and a large potential source of energy for sublimation. The canopy albedo declines somewhat as the extinction efficiency of the underlying canopy increases. The extinction efficiency of short wave radiation in the canopy depends on solar angle because of the approximately horizontal orientation of pine branches. For low solar angles above the horizon, the extinction efficiency is quite low and short wave transmissivity through the canopy is relatively high. As the solar angle increases, extinction increases up to angles of about 50°, and then declines. Extinction of short wave radiation in the canopy strongly influences the attenuation of net radiation by the canopy. Short wave radiation that is extinguished by branches is radiated as long wave, partly downwards to the snow cover. The ratio of net radiation at the canopy top to that at the snow cover surface increases with the extinction of short wave radiation and is negative for low extinction efficiencies. For the pine canopy examined, the daily mean net radiation at

  16. Winter Radiation Extinction and Reflection in a Boreal Pine Canopy: Measurements and Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, J. W.; Dion, K.

    1996-12-01

    Predicting the rate of snowmelt and intercepted snow sublimation in boreal forests requires an understanding of the effects of snow-covered conifers on the exchange of radiant energy. This study examined the amount of intercepted snow on a jack pine canopy in the boreal forest of central Saskatchewan and the shortwave and net radiation exchange with this canopy, to determine the effect of intercepted snow and canopy structure on shortwave radiation reflection and extinction and net radiation attenuation in a boreal forest. The study focused on clear sky conditions, which are common during winter in the continental boreal forest. Intercepted snow was found to have no influence on the clear-sky albedo of the canopy, the extinction of short wave radiation by the canopy or ratio of net radiation at the canopy top to that at the surface snow cover. Because of the low albedo of the snow-covered canopy, net radiation at the canopy top remains positive and a large potential source of energy for sublimation. The canopy albedo declines somewhat as the extinction efficiency of the underlying canopy increases. The extinction efficiency of short wave radiation in the canopy depends on solar angle because of the approximately horizontal orientation of pine branches. For low solar angles above the horizon, the extinction efficiency is quite low and short wave transmissivity through the canopy is relatively high. As the solar angle increases, extinction increases up to angles of about 50̂, and then declines. Extinction of short wave radiation in the canopy strongly influences the attenuation of net radiation by the canopy. Short wave radiation that is extinguished by branches is radiated as long wave, partly downwards to the snow cover. The ratio of net radiation at the canopy top to that at the snow cover surface increases with the extinction of short wave radiation and is negative for low extinction efficiencies. For the pine canopy examined, the daily mean net radiation at the

  17. Distinctive channel geometry and riparian vegetation: A geomorphic classification for arid ephemeral streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutfin, N.; Shaw, J. R.; Wohl, E. E.; Cooper, D.

    2012-12-01

    Interactions between hydrology, channel form, and riparian vegetation along arid ephemeral streams are not thoroughly understood and current stream classifications do not adequately represent variability in channel geometry and associated riparian communities. Relatively infrequent hydrologic disturbances in dryland environments are responsible for creation and maintenance of channel form that supports riparian communities. To investigate the influence of channel characteristics on riparian vegetation in the arid southwestern United States, we develop a geomorphic classification for arid ephemeral streams based on the degree of confinement and the composition of confining material that provide constraints on available moisture. Our conceptual model includes five stream types: 1) bedrock channels entirely confined by exposed bedrock and devoid of persistent alluvium; 2) bedrock with alluvium channels at least partially confined by bedrock but containing enough alluvium to create bedforms that persist through time; 3) incised alluvium channels bound only by unconsolidated alluvial material into which they are incised; 4) braided washes that exhibit multi-thread, braided characteristics regardless of the composition of confining material; and 5) piedmont headwater 0-2nd order streams (Strahler) confined only by unconsolidated alluvium and which initiate as secondary channels on piedmont surfaces. Eighty-six study reaches representing the five stream types were surveyed on the U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground in the Sonoran Desert of southwestern Arizona. Non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) indicates significant differences between the five stream types with regards to channel geometry (i.e., stream gradient, width-to-depth ratio, the ratio between valley width and channel width (Wv/Wc), shear stress, and unit stream power) and riparian vegetation (i.e., presence and canopy coverage by species, canopy stratum, and life form). Discriminant analysis

  18. Strengthening the Ubuntu social canopy after the Afrophobic attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorodzai Dube

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In view of the aftermath of the Afrophobic attacks in South Africa, this study regards Paul�s emphasis concerning common humanity and morality as a possible lacuna towards strengthening Ubuntu. Paul taught that both the Jews and the Gentiles have their common ancestor � Adam, and that good morality is a better identity marker than ethnicity. In view of the aftermath of the Afrophobic attacks in South Africa, this study suggests that similar arguments can be used to amend the Ubuntu social canopy.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This study is interdisciplinary in nature in that it uses perspectives from social sciences to seek solutions towards a more inclusive communityKeywords: Afrophobia; Xenophobia; Ubuntu; Social Canopy; Christ-like Anthropology

  19. [Active crop canopy sensor-based nitrogen diagnosis for potato].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Li, Fei; Qin, Yong-Lin; Fan, Ming-Shou

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, two potato experiments involving different N rates in 2011 were conducted in Wuchuan County and Linxi County, Inner Mongolia. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was collected by an active GreenSeeker crop canopy sensor to estimate N status of potato. The results show that the NDVI readings were poorly correlated with N nutrient indicators of potato at vegetative Growth stage due to the influence of soil background. With the advance of growth stages, NDVI values were exponentially related to plant N uptake (R2 = 0.665) before tuber bulking stage and were linearly related to plant N concentration (R2 = 0.699) when plant fully covered soil. In conclusion, GreenSeeker active crop sensor is a promising tool to estimate N status for potato plants. The findings from this study may be useful for developing N recommendation method based on active crop canopy sensor.

  20. Monitoring leaf photosynthesis with canopy spectral reflectance in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Y.; Zhu, Y.; Cao, W.

    2005-01-01

    We determined the quantitative relationships between leaf photosynthetic characteristics (LPC) and canopy spectral reflectance under different water supply and nitrogen application rates in rice plants. The responses of reflectance at red radiation (680 nm) to different water contents and N rates were parallel to those of leaf net photosynthetic rate (PN). The relationships of reflectance at 680 nm and ratio index of R(810,680) (near infrared/red) to PN of different leaf positions and layers indicated that the top two full leaves were the best positions for quantitative monitoring of PN with remote sensing technique, and the index R(810,680) was the best ratio index for evaluating LPC. Testing of the models with independent data sets indicated that R(810,680) could well estimate PN of the top two leaves and canopy leaf photosynthetic potential. Hence R(810,680) can be used to monitor LPC in rice under diverse growing conditions

  1. Effects of changing canopy directional reflectance on feature selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Oliver, R. E.; Kilpela, O. E.

    1973-01-01

    The use of a Monte Carlo model for generating sample directional reflectance data for two simplified target canopies at two different solar positions is reported. Successive iterations through the model permit the calculation of a mean vector and covariance matrix for canopy reflectance for varied sensor view angles. These data may then be used to calculate the divergence between the target distributions for various wavelength combinations and for these view angles. Results of a feature selection analysis indicate that different sets of wavelengths are optimum for target discrimination depending on sensor view angle and that the targets may be more easily discriminated for some scan angles than others. The time-varying behavior of these results is also pointed out.

  2. Million trees Los Angeles canopy cover and benefit assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; J.R. Simpson; Q. Xiao; C. Wu

    2011-01-01

    The Million Trees LA initiative intends to improve Los Angeles’s environment through planting and stewardship of 1 million trees. The purpose of this study was to measure Los Angeles’s existing tree canopy cover (TCC), determine if space exists for 1 million additional trees, and estimate future benefits from the planting. High-resolution QuickBird remote sensing data...

  3. Canopy architecture and radiation interception measurements in olive

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Espejo, Antonio; Durán, Pablo; Fernández Luque; Girón Moreno, Ignacio Francisco; Martín Palomo, María José

    2008-01-01

    In this work we tested techniques suitable for a future validation of the RATP model to simulate transpiration and photosynthesis of mature olive trees under field conditions. Canopy architecture was characterised with an electromagnetic 3D digitiser and the software 3A. Although the capability of the software to deal with big data sets has to be improved, the system seems to meet the RATP requirements. An array of radiation sensors mounted in an aluminium bar and located at di...

  4. Dry deposition and fate of radionuclides within spruce canopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ould-Dada, Z.; Shaw, G.; Kinnersley, R.P.; Minski, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The assessment of radiation dose to human populations from the release of radionuclides into the atmosphere following a nuclear accident relies on the use of simulation models. These need to be calibrated and tested using experimental data. In this study, the deposition and resuspension of radionuclides within a forest environment was investigated. Forests were identified in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident as a specific type of semi-natural ecosystem for which radiological data were lacking within the countries of the European Union. Wind tunnel and field data have been collected for small model canopies of Norwegian spruce saplings using uranium and silica aerosol particles. These have provided quantitative estimates of the potential of a tree canopy to constitute an airborne inhalation hazard and a secondary source of airborne contamination after the initial deposition. Using these results, a multi-layer compartmental model of aerosol flux (CANDEP) has been developed and calibrated. It combines the processes of dry deposition, resuspension and field loss in individual layers of the model canopy. (5 figures; 4 tables; 15 references). (UK)

  5. [Estimation of vegetation canopy water content using Hyperion hyperspectral data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao-Ning; Ma, Jian-Wei; Li, Xiao-Tao; Leng, Pei; Zhou, Fang-Cheng; Li, Shuang

    2013-10-01

    Vegetation canopy water content (VCWC) has widespread utility in agriculture, ecology and hydrology. Based on the PROSAIL model, a novel model for quantitative inversion of vegetation canopy water content using Hyperion hyperspectral data was explored. Firstly, characteristics of vegetation canopy reflection were investigated with the PROSAIL radiative transfer model, and it was showed that the first derivative at the right slope (980 - 1 070 nm) of the 970 nm water absorption feature (D98-1 070) was closely related to VCWC, and determination coefficient reached to 0.96. Then, bands 983, 993, 1 003, 1 013, 1 023, 1 033, 1 043, 1 053 and 1 063 nm of Hyperion data were selected to calculate D980-1 070, and VCWC was estimated using the proposed method. Finally, the retrieval result was verified using field measured data in Yingke oasis of the Heihe basin. It indicated that the mean relative error was 12.5%, RMSE was within 0.1 kg x m(-2) and the proposed model was practical and reliable. This study provides a more efficient way for obtaining VCWC of large area.

  6. Analysis of hydraulic characteristics for stream diversion in small stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sang-Jin; Jun, Kye-Won [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju(Korea)

    2001-10-31

    This study is the analysis of hydraulic characteristics for stream diversion reach by numerical model test. Through it we can provide the basis data in flood, and in grasping stream flow characteristics. Analysis of hydraulic characteristics in Seoknam stream were implemented by using computer model HEC-RAS(one-dimensional model) and RMA2(two-dimensional finite element model). As a result we became to know that RMA2 to simulate left, main channel, right in stream is more effective method in analysing flow in channel bends, steep slope, complex bed form effect stream flow characteristics, than HEC-RAS. (author). 13 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  7. A canopy trimming experiment in Puerto Rico: the response of litter invertebrate communities to canopy loss and debris deposition in a tropical forest subject to hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara A. Richardson; Michael J. Richardson; Grizelle Gonzalez; Aaron B. Shiels; Diane S. Srivastava

    2010-01-01

    Hurricanes cause canopy removal and deposition of pulses of litter to the forest floor. A Canopy Trimming Experiment (CTE) was designed to decouple these two factors, and to investigate the separate abiotic and biotic consequences of hurricane-type damage and monitor recovery processes. As part of this experiment, effects on forest floor invertebrate communities were...

  8. Persistent effects of wildfire and debris flows on the invertebrate prey base of rainbow trout in Idaho streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, A.E.; Dunham, J.B.; Buffington, J.M.; Wipfli, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Wildfire and debris flows are important physical and ecological drivers in headwater streams of western North America. Past research has primarily examined short-term effects of these disturbances; less is known about longer-term impacts. We investigated wildfire effects on the invertebrate prey base for drift-feeding rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) in Idaho headwater streams a decade after wildfire. Three stream types with different disturbance histories were examined: 1) unburned, 2) burned, and 3) burned followed by debris flows that reset channel morphology and riparian vegetation. The quantity of macroinvertebrate drift (biomass density) was more variable within than among disturbance categories. Average body weight and taxonomic richness of drift were significantly related to water temperature and influenced by disturbance history. During the autumn sampling period, the amount of terrestrial insects in rainbow trout diets varied with disturbance history and the amount of overhead canopy along the stream banks. Results indicate that there are detectable changes to macroinvertebrate drift and trout diet a decade after wildfire, and that these responses are better correlated with specific characteristics of the stream (water temperature, canopy cover) than with broad disturbance classes.

  9. Streaming gravity mode instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shui.

    1989-05-01

    In this paper, we study the stability of a current sheet with a sheared flow in a gravitational field which is perpendicular to the magnetic field and plasma flow. This mixing mode caused by a combined role of the sheared flow and gravity is named the streaming gravity mode instability. The conditions of this mode instability are discussed for an ideal four-layer model in the incompressible limit. (author). 5 refs

  10. Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

    2013-01-01

    Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

  11. On the theory of gaseous transport to plant canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bache, D. H.

    Solutions of the convection-diffusion equations are developed to show the relationship between bulk transport parameters affecting gaseous transfer to plant canopies and local rates of transfer within the canopy. Foliage density is considered to be uniform and the drag coefficient of elements is specified by cd = γu- n with u as the local wind-speed and γ and n constants. Under conditions of high surface resistance, the bulk deposition velocity at the top of the canopy vg( h) approaches a limit defined by v g(h) = v̂gL p(1-ψ v̂gL p/u ∗) , where v̂g is the local deposition rate, Lp the effective foliage area, u ∗ the friction velocity and ψ a structure coefficient. From this, a criterion is proposed for defining the conditions in which the local resistances may be added in parallel. Comparisons with the external model for the bulk transport resistance rp = ra + rb + rc (where r p = 1/v g(h) and ra is a diffusive resistance between the apparent momentum sink and height h) shows that the bulk surface resistance r c = r̂s/L p( r̂s being a local surface resistance due to internal properties of the surface) and r b = overliner̂p-r a, appearing as an excess aerodynamic component; overliner̂p refers to the depth-averaged value of r̂p—the resistance to transfer through the laminar sublayer enveloping individual canopy elements. In conditions of zero surface resistance the bulk transport rate rp, o can be specified by r p,o/r a = E( r̂p/r̂∗) hq with E and q as constants, the term r̂p/r̂∗ referring to the resistances to mass and momentum transfer to canopy elements. A general expression is formulated for the sublayer Stanton number B -1  r bu ∗ at the extremes of high and zero surface resistance. In conditions of low surface resistance, it is shown that the terms rb + rc cannot be conveniently separated into equivalent aerodynamic and surface components as at the limit of high surface resistance. This conclusion is a departure from previous

  12. The LHCb Turbo stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig, A., E-mail: albert.puig@cern.ch

    2016-07-11

    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction. In the Turbo stream the trigger will write out a compact summary of physics objects containing all information necessary for analyses. This will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissioned and developed during 2015 with a selection of physics analyses. It is anticipated that the turbo stream will be adopted by an increasing number of analyses during the remainder of LHC Run II (2015–2018) and ultimately in Run III (starting in 2020) with the upgraded LHCb detector.

  13. Modeling canopy-induced turbulence in the Earth system: a unified parameterization of turbulent exchange within plant canopies and the roughness sublayer (CLM-ml v0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Bonan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Land surface models used in climate models neglect the roughness sublayer and parameterize within-canopy turbulence in an ad hoc manner. We implemented a roughness sublayer turbulence parameterization in a multilayer canopy model (CLM-ml v0 to test if this theory provides a tractable parameterization extending from the ground through the canopy and the roughness sublayer. We compared the canopy model with the Community Land Model (CLM4.5 at seven forest, two grassland, and three cropland AmeriFlux sites over a range of canopy heights, leaf area indexes, and climates. CLM4.5 has pronounced biases during summer months at forest sites in midday latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, gross primary production, nighttime friction velocity, and the radiative temperature diurnal range. The new canopy model reduces these biases by introducing new physics. Advances in modeling stomatal conductance and canopy physiology beyond what is in CLM4.5 substantially improve model performance at the forest sites. The signature of the roughness sublayer is most evident in nighttime friction velocity and the diurnal cycle of radiative temperature, but is also seen in sensible heat flux. Within-canopy temperature profiles are markedly different compared with profiles obtained using Monin–Obukhov similarity theory, and the roughness sublayer produces cooler daytime and warmer nighttime temperatures. The herbaceous sites also show model improvements, but the improvements are related less systematically to the roughness sublayer parameterization in these canopies. The multilayer canopy with the roughness sublayer turbulence improves simulations compared with CLM4.5 while also advancing the theoretical basis for surface flux parameterizations.

  14. Modeling canopy-induced turbulence in the Earth system: a unified parameterization of turbulent exchange within plant canopies and the roughness sublayer (CLM-ml v0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonan, Gordon B.; Patton, Edward G.; Harman, Ian N.; Oleson, Keith W.; Finnigan, John J.; Lu, Yaqiong; Burakowski, Elizabeth A.

    2018-04-01

    Land surface models used in climate models neglect the roughness sublayer and parameterize within-canopy turbulence in an ad hoc manner. We implemented a roughness sublayer turbulence parameterization in a multilayer canopy model (CLM-ml v0) to test if this theory provides a tractable parameterization extending from the ground through the canopy and the roughness sublayer. We compared the canopy model with the Community Land Model (CLM4.5) at seven forest, two grassland, and three cropland AmeriFlux sites over a range of canopy heights, leaf area indexes, and climates. CLM4.5 has pronounced biases during summer months at forest sites in midday latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, gross primary production, nighttime friction velocity, and the radiative temperature diurnal range. The new canopy model reduces these biases by introducing new physics. Advances in modeling stomatal conductance and canopy physiology beyond what is in CLM4.5 substantially improve model performance at the forest sites. The signature of the roughness sublayer is most evident in nighttime friction velocity and the diurnal cycle of radiative temperature, but is also seen in sensible heat flux. Within-canopy temperature profiles are markedly different compared with profiles obtained using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, and the roughness sublayer produces cooler daytime and warmer nighttime temperatures. The herbaceous sites also show model improvements, but the improvements are related less systematically to the roughness sublayer parameterization in these canopies. The multilayer canopy with the roughness sublayer turbulence improves simulations compared with CLM4.5 while also advancing the theoretical basis for surface flux parameterizations.

  15. A LIDAR-Based Tree Canopy Characterization under Simulated Uneven Road Condition: Advance in Tree Orchard Canopy Profile Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In real outdoor canopy profile detection, the accuracy of a LIDAR scanner to measure canopy structure is affected by a potentially uneven road condition. The level of error associated with attitude angles from undulations in the ground surface can be reduced by developing appropriate correction algorithm. This paper proposes an offline attitude angle offset correction algorithm based on a 3D affine coordinate transformation. The validity of the correction algorithm is verified by conducting an indoor experiment. The experiment was conducted on an especially designed canopy profile measurement platform. During the experiment, an artificial tree and a tree-shaped carved board were continuously scanned at constant laser scanner travel speed and detection distances under simulated bumpy road conditions. Acquired LIDAR laser scanner raw data was processed offline by exceptionally developed MATLAB program. The obtained results before and after correction method show that the single attitude angle offset correction method is able to correct the distorted data points in tree-shaped carved board profile measurement, with a relative error of 5%, while the compound attitude angle offset correction method is effective to reduce the error associated with compound attitude angle deviation from the ideal scanner pose, with relative error of 7%.

  16. Re-Meandering of Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Kristensen, Klaus Kevin; Friberg, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the restoration of physical habitats and its influence on macroinvertebrate community structure in 18 Danish lowland streams comprising six restored streams, six streams with little physical alteration and six channelized streams. We hypothesized that physical habitats and macroinver...

  17. Can Canopy Uptake Influence Nitrogen Acquisition and Allocation by Trees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Richard; Perks, Mike; Mencuccini, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization due to atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic nitrogen (NDEP) may explain some of the net carbon (C) sink (0.6-0.7 Pg y-1) in temperate forests, but estimates of the additional C uptake due to atmospheric N additions (ΔCΔN) can vary by over an order of magnitude (~ 5 to 200 ΔCΔN). High estimates from several recent studies [e.g. Magnani (2007), Nature 447 848-850], deriving ΔCΔN from regional correlations between NDEP and measures of C uptake (such as eddy covariance -derived net ecosystem production, or forest inventory data) contradict estimates from other studies of 15N tracer applications added as fertilizer to the forest floor. A strong ΔCΔN effect requires nitrogen to be efficiently acquired by trees and allocated to high C:N, long-lived woody tissues, but these isotope experiments typically report relatively little (~ 20 %) of 15N added is found above-ground, with estimates are often attributed to co-variation with other factors across the range of sites investigated. However 15N-fertilization treatments often impose considerably higher total N loads than ambient NDEP and almost exclusively only apply mineral 15N treatments to the soil, often in a limited number of treatment events over relatively short periods of time. Excessive N deposition loads can induce negative physiological effects and limit the resulting ΔCΔN observed, and applying treatments to the soil may ignore the importance of canopy nitrogen uptake in overall forest nutrition. As canopies can directly take up nitrogen, the chronic, (relatively) low levels of ambient NDEP inputs from pollution may be acquired without some of the effects of heavy N loads, obtaining this N before it reaches the soil, and allowing canopies to substitute for, or supplement, edaphic N nutrition. The strength of this effect depends on how much N uptake can occur across the canopy under field conditions, and if this extra N supplies growth in woody tissues such as the stem, as

  18. Stream processing health card application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Seda; Gündem, Taflan Imre

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a data stream management system embedded to a smart card for handling and storing user specific summaries of streaming data coming from medical sensor measurements and/or other medical measurements. The data stream management system that we propose for a health card can handle the stream data rates of commonly known medical devices and sensors. It incorporates a type of context awareness feature that acts according to user specific information. The proposed system is cheap and provides security for private data by enhancing the capabilities of smart health cards. The stream data management system is tested on a real smart card using both synthetic and real data.

  19. Response of Boreal forest tree canopy cover to chronic gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    A section of the Canadian Boreal forest was irradiated chronically by a point source of 137 Cs from 1973 to 1986. Tree canopy cover was measured at permanently marked locations during the pre-irradiation, irradiation and post-irradiation phases, spanning a period of two decades. The tree canopy was severely affected at dose rates greater than 10 mGy/h delivered chronically. The canopy of sensitive coniferous tree species, such as Abies balsamea and Picea Mariana, decreased at dose rates greater than 2 mGy/h, but in some cases the tree canopy was replaced by more resistant species, such as Populus tremuloides and Salix bebbiana. Effects on canopy cover could not be detected at dose rates less than 0.1 mGy/h. Even at dose rates of 5 mGy/h, the forest canopy is recovering six years after irradiation stopped. (author)

  20. Abundance of green tree frogs and insects in artificial canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James L.; Ulyshen, Michael D.; Kilgo, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Horn, Scott, James L. Hanula, Michael D. Ulyshen, and John C. Kilgo. 2005. Abundance of green tree frogs and insects in artificial canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest. Am. Midl. Nat. 153:321-326. Abstract: We found more green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) in canopy gaps than in closed canopy forest. Of the 331 green tree frogs observed, 88% were in canopy gaps. Likewise, higher numbers and biomasses of insects were captured in the open gap habitat. Flies were the most commonly collected insect group accounting for 54% of the total capture. These data suggest that one reason green tree frogs were more abundant in canopy gaps was the increased availability of prey and that small canopy gaps provide early successional habitats that are beneficial to green tree frog populations.

  1. Co-optimal distribution of leaf nitrogen and hydraulic conductance in plant canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoniemi, Mikko S; Duursma, Remko A; Medlyn, Belinda E

    2012-05-01

    Leaf properties vary significantly within plant canopies, due to the strong gradient in light availability through the canopy, and the need for plants to use resources efficiently. At high light, photosynthesis is maximized when leaves have a high nitrogen content and water supply, whereas at low light leaves have a lower requirement for both nitrogen and water. Studies of the distribution of leaf nitrogen (N) within canopies have shown that, if water supply is ignored, the optimal distribution is that where N is proportional to light, but that the gradient of N in real canopies is shallower than the optimal distribution. We extend this work by considering the optimal co-allocation of nitrogen and water supply within plant canopies. We developed a simple 'toy' two-leaf canopy model and optimized the distribution of N and hydraulic conductance (K) between the two leaves. We asked whether hydraulic constraints to water supply can explain shallow N gradients in canopies. We found that the optimal N distribution within plant canopies is proportional to the light distribution only if hydraulic conductance, K, is also optimally distributed. The optimal distribution of K is that where K and N are both proportional to incident light, such that optimal K is highest to the upper canopy. If the plant is constrained in its ability to construct higher K to sun-exposed leaves, the optimal N distribution does not follow the gradient in light within canopies, but instead follows a shallower gradient. We therefore hypothesize that measured deviations from the predicted optimal distribution of N could be explained by constraints on the distribution of K within canopies. Further empirical research is required on the extent to which plants can construct optimal K distributions, and whether shallow within-canopy N distributions can be explained by sub-optimal K distributions.

  2. Impact of Vertical Canopy Position on Leaf Spectral Properties and Traits across Multiple Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawanda W. Gara

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the vertical pattern of leaf traits across plant canopies provide critical information on plant physiology, ecosystem functioning and structure and vegetation response to climate change. However, the impact of vertical canopy position on leaf spectral properties and subsequently leaf traits across the entire spectrum for multiple species is poorly understood. In this study, we examined the ability of leaf optical properties to track variability in leaf traits across the vertical canopy profile using Partial Least Square Discriminatory Analysis (PLS-DA. Leaf spectral measurements together with leaf traits (nitrogen, carbon, chlorophyll, equivalent water thickness and specific leaf area were studied at three vertical canopy positions along the plant stem: lower, middle and upper. We observed that foliar nitrogen (N, chlorophyll (Cab, carbon (C, and equivalent water thickness (EWT were higher in the upper canopy leaves compared with lower shaded leaves, while specific leaf area (SLA increased from upper to lower canopy leaves. We found that leaf spectral reflectance significantly (P ≤ 0.05 shifted to longer wavelengths in the ‘red edge’ spectrum (685–701 nm in the order of lower > middle > upper for the pooled dataset. We report that spectral bands that are influential in the discrimination of leaf samples into the three groups of canopy position, based on the PLS-DA variable importance projection (VIP score, match with wavelength regions of foliar traits observed to vary across the canopy vertical profile. This observation demonstrated that both leaf traits and leaf reflectance co-vary across the vertical canopy profile in multiple species. We conclude that canopy vertical position has a significant impact on leaf spectral properties of an individual plant’s traits, and this finding holds for multiple species. These findings have important implications on field sampling protocols, upscaling leaf traits to canopy level

  3. Development of models for thermal infrared radiation above and within plant canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paw u, Kyaw T.

    1992-01-01

    Any significant angular dependence of the emitted longwave radiation could result in errors in remotely estimated energy budgets or evapotranspiration. Empirical data and thermal infrared radiation models are reviewed in reference to anisotropic emissions from the plant canopy. The biometeorological aspects of linking longwave models with plant canopy energy budgets and micrometeorology are discussed. A new soil plant atmosphere model applied to anisotropic longwave emissions from a canopy is presented. Time variation of thermal infrared emission measurements is discussed.

  4. Quantifying Forested Riparian Buffer Ability to Ameliorate Stream Temperature in a Missouri Ozark Border Stream of the Central U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulliner, E. A.; Hubbart, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    Riparian buffers play an important role in modulating stream water quality, including temperature. There is a need to better understand riparian form and function to validate and improve contemporary management practices. Further studies are warranted to characterize energy attenuation by forested riparian canopy layers that normally buffer stream temperature, particularly in the central hardwood forest regions of the United States where relationships between canopy density and stream temperature are unknown. To quantify these complex processes, two intensively instrumented hydroclimate stations were installed along two stream reaches of a riparian stream in central Missouri, USA in the winter of 2008. Hydroclimate stations are located along stream reaches oriented in both cardinal directions, which will allow interpolation of results to other orientations. Each station consists of an array of instrumentation that senses the flux of water and energy into and out of the riparian zone. Reference data are supplied from a nearby flux tower (US DOE) located on top of a forested ridge. The study sites are located within a University of Missouri preserved wildland area on the border of the southern Missouri’s Ozark region, an ecologically distinct region in the central United States. Limestone underlies the study area, resulting in a distinct semi-Karst hydrologic system. Vegetation forms a complex, multi-layered canopy extending from the stream edge through the riparian zone and into surrounding hills. Climate is classified as humid continental, with approximate average annual temperature and precipitation of 13.2°C and 970mm, respectively. Preliminary results (summer 2009 data) indicate incoming short-wave radiation is 24.9% higher at the N-S oriented stream reach relative to the E-W oriented reach. Maximum incoming short wave radiation during the period was 64.5% lower at the N-S reach relative to E-W reach. Average air temperature for the E-W reach was 0.3°C lower

  5. Tree Death Not Resulting in Gap Creation: An Investigation of Canopy Dynamics of Northern Temperate Deciduous Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Francois Senécal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several decades of research have shown that canopy gaps drive tree renewal processes in the temperate deciduous forest biome. In the literature, canopy gaps are usually defined as canopy openings that are created by partial or total tree death of one or more canopy trees. In this study, we investigate linkages between tree damage mechanisms and the formation or not of new canopy gaps in northern temperate deciduous forests. We studied height loss processes in unmanaged and managed forests recovering from partial cutting with multi-temporal airborne Lidar data. The Lidar dataset was used to detect areas where canopy height reduction occurred, which were then field-studied to identify the tree damage mechanisms implicated. We also sampled the density of leaf material along transects to characterize canopy structure. We used the dataset of the canopy height reduction areas in a multi-model inference analysis to determine whether canopy structures or tree damage mechanisms most influenced the creation of new canopy gaps within canopy height reduction areas. According to our model, new canopy gaps are created mainly when canopy damage enlarges existing gaps or when height is reduced over areas without an already established dense sub-canopy tree layer.

  6. Investigation into the role of canopy structure traits and plant functional types in modulating the correlation between canopy nitrogen and reflectance in a temperate forest in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Quanzhou; Wang, Shaoqiang; Zhou, Lei

    2017-10-01

    A precise estimate of canopy leaf nitrogen concentration (CNC, based on dry mass) is important for researching the carbon assimilation capability of forest ecosystems. Hyperspectral remote sensing technology has been applied to estimate regional CNC, which can adjust forest photosynthetic capacity and carbon uptake. However, the relationship between forest CNC and canopy spectral reflectance as well as its mechanism is still poorly understood. Using measured CNC, canopy structure and species composition data, four vegetation indices (VIs), and near-infrared reflectance (NIR) derived from EO-1 Hyperion imagery, we investigated the role of canopy structure traits and plant functional types (PFTs) in modulating the correlation between CNC and canopy reflectance in a temperate forest in northeast China. A plot-scale forest structure indicator, named broad foliar dominance index (BFDI), was introduced to provide forest canopy structure and coniferous and broadleaf species composition. Then, we revealed the response of forest canopy reflectance spectrum to BFDI and CNC. Our results showed that leaf area index had no significant effect on NIR (P>0.05) but indicated that there was a significant correlation (R2=0.76, P0.05). On the contrary, removing the CNC effect, the partial correlation between BFDI and NIR was positively significant (R=0.69, Pforest types. Nevertheless, the relationship cannot be considered as a feasible approach of CNC estimation for a single PFT.

  7. Nitrogen saturation in stream ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Stevan R; Valett, H Maurice; Webster, Jackson R

    2006-12-01

    The concept of nitrogen (N) saturation has organized the assessment of N loading in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we extend the concept to lotic ecosystems by coupling Michaelis-Menten kinetics and nutrient spiraling. We propose a series of saturation response types, which may be used to characterize the proximity of streams to N saturation. We conducted a series of short-term N releases using a tracer (15NO3-N) to measure uptake. Experiments were conducted in streams spanning a gradient of background N concentration. Uptake increased in four of six streams as NO3-N was incrementally elevated, indicating that these streams were not saturated. Uptake generally corresponded to Michaelis-Menten kinetics but deviated from the model in two streams where some other growth-critical factor may have been limiting. Proximity to saturation was correlated to background N concentration but was better predicted by the ratio of dissolved inorganic N (DIN) to soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), suggesting phosphorus limitation in several high-N streams. Uptake velocity, a reflection of uptake efficiency, declined nonlinearly with increasing N amendment in all streams. At the same time, uptake velocity was highest in the low-N streams. Our conceptual model of N transport, uptake, and uptake efficiency suggests that, while streams may be active sites of N uptake on the landscape, N saturation contributes to nonlinear changes in stream N dynamics that correspond to decreased uptake efficiency.

  8. What is the most prominent factor limiting photosynthesis in different layers of a greenhouse cucumber canopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsu-Wei; Henke, Michael; de Visser, Pieter H B; Buck-Sorlin, Gerhard; Wiechers, Dirk; Kahlen, Katrin; Stützel, Hartmut

    2014-09-01

    Maximizing photosynthesis at the canopy level is important for enhancing crop yield, and this requires insights into the limiting factors of photosynthesis. Using greenhouse cucumber (Cucumis sativus) as an example, this study provides a novel approach to quantify different components of photosynthetic limitations at the leaf level and to upscale these limitations to different canopy layers and the whole plant. A static virtual three-dimensional canopy structure was constructed using digitized plant data in GroIMP. Light interception of the leaves was simulated by a ray-tracer and used to compute leaf photosynthesis. Different components of photosynthetic limitations, namely stomatal (S(L)), mesophyll (M(L)), biochemical (B(L)) and light (L(L)) limitations, were calculated by a quantitative limitation analysis of photosynthesis under different light regimes. In the virtual cucumber canopy, B(L) and L(L) were the most prominent factors limiting whole-plant photosynthesis. Diffusional limitations (S(L) + M(L)) contributed Photosynthesis in the lower canopy was more limited by the biochemical capacity, and the upper canopy was more sensitive to light than other canopy parts. Although leaves in the upper canopy received more light, their photosynthesis was more light restricted than in the leaves of the lower canopy, especially when the light condition above the canopy was poor. An increase in whole-plant photosynthesis under diffuse light did not result from an improvement of light use efficiency but from an increase in light interception. Diffuse light increased the photosynthesis of leaves that were directly shaded by other leaves in the canopy by up to 55%. Based on the results, maintaining biochemical capacity of the middle-lower canopy and increasing the leaf area of the upper canopy would be promising strategies to improve canopy photosynthesis in a high-wire cucumber cropping system. Further analyses using the approach described in this study can be expected to

  9. STREAM2016: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Geoffrey [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Jha, Shantenu [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Ramakrishnan, Lavanya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC) facilities including accelerators, light sources and neutron sources and sensors that study, the environment, and the atmosphere, are producing streaming data that needs to be analyzed for next-generation scientific discoveries. There has been an explosion of new research and technologies for stream analytics arising from the academic and private sectors. However, there has been no corresponding effort in either documenting the critical research opportunities or building a community that can create and foster productive collaborations. The two-part workshop series, STREAM: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop (STREAM2015 and STREAM2016), were conducted to bring the community together and identify gaps and future efforts needed by both NSF and DOE. This report describes the discussions, outcomes and conclusions from STREAM2016: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop, the second of these workshops held on March 22-23, 2016 in Tysons, VA. STREAM2016 focused on the Department of Energy (DOE) applications, computational and experimental facilities, as well software systems. Thus, the role of “streaming and steering” as a critical mode of connecting the experimental and computing facilities was pervasive through the workshop. Given the overlap in interests and challenges with industry, the workshop had significant presence from several innovative companies and major contributors. The requirements that drive the proposed research directions, identified in this report, show an important opportunity for building competitive research and development program around streaming data. These findings and recommendations are consistent with vision outlined in NRC Frontiers of Data and National Strategic Computing Initiative (NCSI) [1, 2]. The discussions from the workshop are captured as topic areas covered in this report's sections. The report

  10. Galaxies with jet streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, R.

    1981-01-01

    Describes recent research work on supersonic gas flow. Notable examples have been observed in cosmic radio sources, where jet streams of galactic dimensions sometimes occur, apparently as the result of interaction between neighbouring galaxies. The current theory of jet behaviour has been convincingly demonstrated using computer simulation. The surprisingly long-term stability is related to the supersonic velocity, and is analagous to the way in which an Appollo spacecraft re-entering the atmosphere supersonically is protected by the gas from the burning shield. (G.F.F.)

  11. Oscillating acoustic streaming jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moudjed, Brahim; Botton, Valery; Henry, Daniel; Millet, Severine; Ben Hadid, Hamda; Garandet, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    The present paper provides the first experimental investigation of an oscillating acoustic streaming jet. The observations are performed in the far field of a 2 MHz circular plane ultrasound transducer introduced in a rectangular cavity filled with water. Measurements are made by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in horizontal and vertical planes near the end of the cavity. Oscillations of the jet appear in this zone, for a sufficiently high Reynolds number, as an intermittent phenomenon on an otherwise straight jet fluctuating in intensity. The observed perturbation pattern is similar to that of former theoretical studies. This intermittently oscillatory behavior is the first step to the transition to turbulence. (authors)

  12. Interception storage capacities of tropical rainforest canopy trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwitz, Stanley R.

    1985-04-01

    The rainwater interception storage capacities of mature canopy trees in a tropical rainforest site in northeast Queensland, Australia, were approximated using a combination of field and laboratory measurements. The above-ground vegetative surfaces of five selected species (three flaky-barked; two smooth-barked) were saturated under laboratory conditions in order to establish their maximum interception storage capacities. Average leaf surface interception storages ranged from 112 to 161 ml m -2. The interception storages of bark ranged from 0.51 to 0.97 ml cm -3. These standardized interception storages were applied to estimates of leaf surface area and bark volume for 51 mature canopy trees representing the selected species in the field site. The average whole tree interception storage capacities of the five species ranged from 110 to 5281 per tree and 2.2 to 8.3 mm per unit projected crown area. The highly significant interspecific differences in interception storage capacity suggest that both floristic and demographic data are needed in order to accurately calculate a forest-wide interception storage capacity for species-rich tropical rainforest vegetation. Species with large woody surface areas and small projected crown areas are capable of storing the greatest depth equivalents of rainwater under heavy rainfall conditions. In the case of both the flaky-barked and the smooth-barked species, bark accounted for > 50% of the total interception storage capacity under still-air conditions, and > 80% under turbulent air conditions. The emphasis in past interception studies on the role of leaf surfaces in determining the interception storage capacity of a vegetative cover must be modified for tropical rainforests to include the storage capacity provided by the bark tissue on canopy trees.

  13. The metaphors we stream by: Making sense of music streaming

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen, Anja Nylund

    2016-01-01

    In Norway music-streaming services have become mainstream in everyday music listening. This paper examines how 12 heavy streaming users make sense of their experiences with Spotify and WiMP Music (now Tidal). The analysis relies on a mixed-method qualitative study, combining music-diary self-reports, online observation of streaming accounts, Facebook and last.fm scrobble-logs, and in-depth interviews. By drawing on existing metaphors of Internet experiences we demonstrate that music-streaming...

  14. Individual variation in habitat use in two stream fish assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Resende Manna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The habitat use is an individual choice that is influenced by physical conditions such as substrate type, food resources availability and adequate depth. However, habitat use is often measured only through interspecific variability because intraspecific variability is supposed to be low. Here, the differences in habitat use by two stream fish assemblages in two different environments (Brazilian rainforest and semiarid were investigated at both interspecific and intraspecific levels. We performed 55 hours of underwater observation in a 200 meters long stretch in each stream and quantified the following habitat descriptors: (i water velocity, (ii distance from the stream bank, (iii substratum, (iv water column depth, (v aquatic cover, and (vi canopy percentage. To compare intra and interspecific variability we summarized the multivariate habitat use databases using Principal Components Analysis (PCA on Euclidean distance. An Analysis of Similarity (ANOSIM was performed to test the differences in habitat use by the two assemblages. Besides, in each fish community we did an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA to test within vs between species variability for individual position on each PCA axes. To go further than these univariate tests, the differences among the species and assemblages were tested with Permutational Multivariate Analysis of Variance (PERMANOVA. The habitat use between assemblages was significantly different (ANOSIM – R=0.14; p<0.001. PERMANOVA revealed significant differences among species in both assemblages (Rainforest - F=7.25; p<0.001; semiarid - F=4.84; p<0.001. Lower F values in the semiarid assemblage revealed a higher level of intraspecific variability for this assemblage. Our findings showed high intra and interspecific variability in both stream fish assemblages and highlight the importance of measuring individual’s differences for this feature of fish biodiversity. Additionally, the versatility described for tropical

  15. Use of UAVs for Remote Measurement of Vegetation Canopy Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, A.; Laliberte, A.; Herrick, J.; Steele, C.; Bestelmeyer, B.; Chopping, M. J.

    2006-12-01

    Remote sensing with different sensors has proven useful for measuring vegetation canopy variables at scales ranging from landscapes down to individual plants. For use at landscape scales, such as desert grasslands invaded by shrubs, it is possible to use multi-angle imagery from satellite sensors, such as MISR and CHRIS/Proba, with geometric optical models to retrieve fractional woody plant cover. Vegetation community states can be mapped using visible and near infrared ASTER imagery at 15 m resolution. At finer scales, QuickBird satellite imagery with approximately 60 cm resolution and piloted aircraft photography with 25-80 cm resolution can be used to measure shrubs above a critical size. Tests conducted with the QuickBird data in the Jornada basin of southern New Mexico have shown that 87% of all shrubs greater than 2 m2 were detected whereas only about 29% of all shrubs less than 2 m2 were detected, even at these high resolutions. Because there is an observational gap between satellite/aircraft measurements and ground observations, we have experimented with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) producing digital photography with approximately 5 cm resolution. We were able to detect all shrubs greater than 2 m2, and we were able to map small subshrubs indicative of rangeland deterioration, as well as remnant grass patches, for the first time. None of these could be identified on the 60 cm resolution data. Additionally, we were able to measure canopy gaps, shrub patterns, percent bare soil, and vegetation cover over mixed rangeland vegetation. This approach is directly applicable to rangeland health monitoring, and it provides a quantitative way to assess shrub invasion over time and to detect the depletion or recovery of grass patches. Further, if the UAV images have sufficient overlap, it may be possible to exploit the stereo viewing capabilities to develop a digital elevation model from the orthophotos, with a potential for extracting canopy height. We envision two

  16. Canopy assemblages of ants in a New Guinea rain forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janda, Milan; Konečná, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2011), s. 83-91 ISSN 0266-4674 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB612230701; GA MŠk LC06073; GA MŠk ME09082; GA ČR GD206/08/H044; GA ČR GA206/09/0115; GA ČR GAP505/10/0673 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : bait traps * canopy * dominance Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.401, year: 2011

  17. Tracking Gendered Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eriksson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most prominent features of digital music services is the provision of personalized music recommendations that come about through the profiling of users and audiences. Based on a range of "bot experiments," this article investigates if, and how, gendered patterns in music recommendations are provided by the streaming service Spotify. While our experiments did not give any strong indications that Spotify assigns different taste profiles to male and female users, the study showed that male artists were highly overrepresented in Spotify's music recommendations; an issue which we argue prompts users to cite hegemonic masculine norms within the music industries. Although the results should be approached as historically and contextually contingent, we argue that they point to how gender and gendered tastes may be constituted through the interplay between users and algorithmic knowledge-making processes, and how digital content delivery may maintain and challenge gender relations and gendered power differentials within the music industries. Seen through the lens of critical research on software, music and gender performativity, the experiments thus provide insights into how gender is shaped and attributed meaning as it materializes in contemporary music streams.

  18. The LHCb Turbo stream

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070171

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction. In the Turbo stream the trigger will write out a compact summary of physics objects containing all information necessary for analyses. This will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissioned and developed during 2015 wi...

  19. Streamlining of plant patches in streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Sand; Pedersen, Morten Lauge

    2008-01-01

    . Sediment elevation within patches (avg. 4.1 cm) increased significantly with patch length, but did not differ between unstable sand or more stable coarse sediment for the same patch length. Shape of canopy and root area did not change significantly with sediment type. 4. Pressure drag on the canopy...

  20. Stream Lifetimes Against Planetary Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsecchi, G. B.; Lega, E.; Froeschle, Cl.

    2011-01-01

    We study, both analytically and numerically, the perturbation induced by an encounter with a planet on a meteoroid stream. Our analytical tool is the extension of pik s theory of close encounters, that we apply to streams described by geocentric variables. The resulting formulae are used to compute the rate at which a stream is dispersed by planetary encounters into the sporadic background. We have verified the accuracy of the analytical model using a numerical test.

  1. Modeling radiative transfer in tropical rainforest canopies: sensitivity of simulated albedo to canopy architectural and optical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia N. M. Yanagi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the sensitivity of the surface albedo simulated by the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS to a set of Amazonian tropical rainforest canopy architectural and optical parameters. The parameters tested in this study are the orientation and reflectance of the leaves of upper and lower canopies in the visible (VIS and near-infrared (NIR spectral bands. The results are evaluated against albedo measurements taken above the K34 site at the INPA (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia Cuieiras Biological Reserve. The sensitivity analysis indicates a strong response to the upper canopy leaves orientation (x up and to the reflectivity in the near-infrared spectral band (rNIR,up, a smaller sensitivity to the reflectivity in the visible spectral band (rVIS,up and no sensitivity at all to the lower canopy parameters, which is consistent with the canopy structure. The combination of parameters that minimized the Root Mean Square Error and mean relative error are Xup = 0.86, rVIS,up = 0.062 and rNIR,up = 0.275. The parameterizations performed resulted in successful simulations of tropical rainforest albedo by IBIS, indicating its potential to simulate the canopy radiative transfer for narrow spectral bands and permitting close comparison with remote sensing products.Este estudo avalia a sensibilidade do albedo da superfície pelo Simulador Integrado da Biosfera (IBIS a um conjunto de parâmetros que representam algumas propriedades arquitetônicas e óticas do dossel da floresta tropical Amazônica. Os parâmetros testados neste estudo são a orientação e refletância das folhas do dossel superior e inferior nas bandas espectrais do visível (VIS e infravermelho próximo (NIR. Os resultados são avaliados contra observações feitas no sítio K34 pertencente ao Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA na Reserva Biológica de Cuieiras. A análise de sensibilidade indica uma forte resposta aos parâmetros de orienta

  2. Organized turbulent motions in a hedgerow vineyard: effect of evolving canopy structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrame, Nadia; Tezza, Luca; Tha Paw U, Kyaw; Pitacco, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Vegetation-atmosphere exchanges are determined by functional and structural properties of the plants together with environmental forcing. However, a fundamental aspect is the interaction of the canopy with the lower atmosphere. The vegetation deeply alters the composition and physical properties of the air flow, exchanging energy, matter and momentum with it. These processes take place in the bottom part of the atmospheric boundary layer where turbulence is the main mechanism transporting within-canopy air towards the mid- and upper atmospheric boundary layer and vice versa. Canopy turbulence is highly influenced by vegetation drag elements, determining the vertical profile of turbulent moments within the canopy. Canopies organized in rows, like vineyards, show peculiar turbulent transport dynamics. In addition, the morphological structure (phenology) of the vineyard is greatly variable seasonally, shifting from an empty canopy during vine dormancy to dense foliage in summer. The understanding of the canopy ventilation regime is related to several practical applications in vineyard management. For example, within-canopy turbulent motion is very important to predict small particles dispersion, like fungal spores, and minimize infection studying the effect on leaf wetness duration. Our study aims to follow the continuous evolution of turbulence characteristics and canopy structure during the growing season of a hedgerow vineyard, from bud break to fully developed canopy. The field experiment was conducted in a flat extensive vineyard in North-Eastern Italy, using a vertical array of five synchronous sonic anemometers within and above the canopy. Turbulent flow organization was greatly influenced by canopy structure. Turbulent coherent structures involved in momentum transport have been investigated using the classical quadrant analysis and a novel approach to identify dominant temporal scales. Momentum transport in the canopy was dominated by downward gusts showing

  3. Morphology of a Wetland Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurmu; Andrle

    1997-11-01

    / Little attention has been paid to wetland stream morphology in the geomorphological and environmental literature, and in the recently expanding wetland reconstruction field, stream design has been based primarily on stream morphologies typical of nonwetland alluvial environments. Field investigation of a wetland reach of Roaring Brook, Stafford, Connecticut, USA, revealed several significant differences between the morphology of this stream and the typical morphology of nonwetland alluvial streams. Six morphological features of the study reach were examined: bankfull flow, meanders, pools and riffles, thalweg location, straight reaches, and cross-sectional shape. It was found that bankfull flow definitions originating from streams in nonwetland environments did not apply. Unusual features observed in the wetland reach include tight bends and a large axial wavelength to width ratio. A lengthy straight reach exists that exceeds what is typically found in nonwetland alluvial streams. The lack of convex bank point bars in the bends, a greater channel width at riffle locations, an unusual thalweg location, and small form ratios (a deep and narrow channel) were also differences identified. Further study is needed on wetland streams of various regions to determine if differences in morphology between alluvial and wetland environments can be applied in order to improve future designs of wetland channels.KEY WORDS: Stream morphology; Wetland restoration; Wetland creation; Bankfull; Pools and riffles; Meanders; Thalweg

  4. Validating spatial structure in canopy water content using geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, E. W.; Zhang, M. H.; Ustin, S. L.; Rejmankova, E.; Haxo, R. S.

    1995-01-01

    Heterogeneity in ecological phenomena are scale dependent and affect the hierarchical structure of image data. AVIRIS pixels average reflectance produced by complex absorption and scattering interactions between biogeochemical composition, canopy architecture, view and illumination angles, species distributions, and plant cover as well as other factors. These scales affect validation of pixel reflectance, typically performed by relating pixel spectra to ground measurements acquired at scales of 1m(exp 2) or less (e.g., field spectra, foilage and soil samples, etc.). As image analysis becomes more sophisticated, such as those for detection of canopy chemistry, better validation becomes a critical problem. This paper presents a methodology for bridging between point measurements and pixels using geostatistics. Geostatistics have been extensively used in geological or hydrogeolocial studies but have received little application in ecological studies. The key criteria for kriging estimation is that the phenomena varies in space and that an underlying controlling process produces spatial correlation between the measured data points. Ecological variation meets this requirement because communities vary along environmental gradients like soil moisture, nutrient availability, or topography.

  5. A canopy layer model and its application to Rome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonacquisti, V.; Casale, G.R.; Palmieri, S.; Siani, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    An urban canopy layer model based on four energy balance equations at ground level and at building level was developed to simulate and describe the urban climate and the heat storage in an urban setting. Thermal and radiative characteristics of urban and rural surfaces as well as atmospheric parameters related to the general synoptic conditions were used as data input. In addition, buildings were modelled as parallelepipeds and the hysteresis of materials was taken into account. The model provides as output skin temperature of buildings, air temperature and humidity within the canopy layer and hence the mean surface temperature and the air temperature at 2 m above surface. The latter parameter was used for the comparison with in situ temperature observations. The model was applied to Rome in radiative summer and winter episodes. The results, which agree with observations, show that the Urban Heat Island (UHI) is a nocturnal phenomenon, present both in winter (the greatest difference between urban and rural temperatures is about 2 deg. C) and summer (the temperature difference is about 5 deg. C), mainly resulting from the urban geometry and the thermal properties of materials. The anthropogenic heat does not play an important role in the UHI development. A monthly nocturnal behaviour of temperature differences between urban and surrounding rural areas shows that the maximum mean value of 4.2 deg. C occurs in August. Moreover, the parks in the city centre, where temperatures are lower, define two distinct heat islands, east and west

  6. Diurnal Solar Energy Conversion and Photoprotection in Rice Canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Katherine; Sirault, Xavier; Quick, W Paul; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Furbank, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Genetic improvement of photosynthetic performance of cereal crops and increasing the efficiency with which solar radiation is converted into biomass has recently become a major focus for crop physiologists and breeders. The pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorescence technique (PAM) allows quantitative leaf level monitoring of the utilization of energy for photochemical light conversion and photoprotection in natural environments, potentially over the entire crop lifecycle. Here, the diurnal relationship between electron transport rate (ETR) and irradiance was measured in five cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa) in canopy conditions with PAM fluorescence under natural solar radiation. This relationship differed substantially from that observed for conventional short term light response curves measured under controlled actinic light with the same leaves. This difference was characterized by a reduced curvature factor when curve fitting was used to model this diurnal response. The engagement of photoprotective processes in chloroplast electron transport in leaves under canopy solar radiation was shown to be a major contributor to this difference. Genotypic variation in the irradiance at which energy flux into photoprotective dissipation became greater than ETR was observed. Cultivars capable of higher ETR at midrange light intensities were shown to produce greater leaf area over time, estimated by noninvasive imaging. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Spatial variation in atmospheric nitrogen deposition on low canopy vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, Rene; Diggelen, Rudy van

    2006-01-01

    Current knowledge about the spatial variation of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on a local scale is limited, especially for vegetation with a low canopy. We measured nitrogen deposition on artificial vegetation at variable distances of local nitrogen emitting sources in three nature reserves in the Netherlands, differing in the intensity of agricultural practices in the surroundings. In the nature reserve located in the most intensive agricultural region nitrogen deposition decreased with increasing distance to the local farms, until at a distance of 1500 m from the local nitrogen emitting sources the background level of 15 kg N ha -1 yr -1 was reached. No such trend was observed in the other two reserves. Interception was considerably lower than in woodlands and hence affected areas were larger. The results are discussed in relation to the prospects for the conservation or restoration of endangered vegetation types of nutrient-poor soil conditions. - Areas with low canopy vegetation are affected over much larger distances by nitrogen deposition than woodlands

  8. Arachnid aloft: directed aerial descent in neotropical canopy spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanoviak, Stephen P; Munk, Yonatan; Dudley, Robert

    2015-09-06

    The behaviour of directed aerial descent has been described for numerous taxa of wingless hexapods as they fall from the tropical rainforest canopy, but is not known in other terrestrial arthropods. Here, we describe similar controlled aerial behaviours for large arboreal spiders in the genus Selenops (Selenopidae). We dropped 59 such spiders from either canopy platforms or tree crowns in Panama and Peru; the majority (93%) directed their aerial trajectories towards and then landed upon nearby tree trunks. Following initial dorsoventral righting when necessary, falling spiders oriented themselves and then translated head-first towards targets; directional changes were correlated with bilaterally asymmetric motions of the anterolaterally extended forelegs. Aerial performance (i.e. the glide index) decreased with increasing body mass and wing loading, but not with projected surface area of the spider. Along with the occurrence of directed aerial descent in ants, jumping bristletails, and other wingless hexapods, this discovery of targeted gliding in selenopid spiders further indicates strong selective pressures against uncontrolled falls into the understory for arboreal taxa. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Phylogenetic Structure of Foliar Spectral Traits in Tropical Forest Canopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M. McManus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Spectranomics approach to tropical forest remote sensing has established a link between foliar reflectance spectra and the phylogenetic composition of tropical canopy tree communities vis-à-vis the taxonomic organization of biochemical trait variation. However, a direct relationship between phylogenetic affiliation and foliar reflectance spectra of species has not been established. We sought to develop this relationship by quantifying the extent to which underlying patterns of phylogenetic structure drive interspecific variation among foliar reflectance spectra within three Neotropical canopy tree communities with varying levels of soil fertility. We interpreted the resulting spectral patterns of phylogenetic signal in the context of foliar biochemical traits that may contribute to the spectral-phylogenetic link. We utilized a multi-model ensemble to elucidate trait-spectral relationships, and quantified phylogenetic signal for spectral wavelengths and traits using Pagel’s lambda statistic. Foliar reflectance spectra showed evidence of phylogenetic influence primarily within the visible and shortwave infrared spectral regions. These regions were also selected by the multi-model ensemble as those most important to the quantitative prediction of several foliar biochemical traits. Patterns of phylogenetic organization of spectra and traits varied across sites and with soil fertility, indicative of the complex interactions between the environmental and phylogenetic controls underlying patterns of biodiversity.

  10. Spatial Heterogeneity of the Forest Canopy Scales with the Heterogeneity of an Understory Shrub Based on Fractal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine K. Denny

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Spatial heterogeneity of vegetation is an important landscape characteristic, but is difficult to assess due to scale-dependence. Here we examine how spatial patterns in the forest canopy affect those of understory plants, using the shrub Canada buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis (L. Nutt. as a focal species. Evergreen and deciduous forest canopy and buffaloberry shrub presence were measured with line-intercept sampling along ten 2-km transects in the Rocky Mountain foothills of west-central Alberta, Canada. Relationships between overstory canopy and understory buffaloberry presence were assessed for scales ranging from 2 m to 502 m. Fractal dimensions of both canopy and buffaloberry were estimated and then related using box-counting methods to evaluate spatial heterogeneity based on patch distribution and abundance. Effects of canopy presence on buffaloberry were scale-dependent, with shrub presence negatively related to evergreen canopy cover and positively related to deciduous cover. The effect of evergreen canopy was significant at a local scale between 2 m and 42 m, while that of deciduous canopy was significant at a meso-scale between 150 m and 358 m. Fractal analysis indicated that buffaloberry heterogeneity positively scaled with evergreen canopy heterogeneity, but was unrelated to that of deciduous canopy. This study demonstrates that evergreen canopy cover is a determinant of buffaloberry heterogeneity, highlighting the importance of spatial scale and canopy composition in understanding canopy-understory relationships.

  11. Analyzing indicators of stream health for Minnesota streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, U.; Kocian, M.; Wilson, B.; Bolton, A.; Nieber, J.; Vondracek, B.; Perry, J.; Magner, J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research has emphasized the importance of using physical, chemical, and biological indicators of stream health for diagnosing impaired watersheds and their receiving water bodies. A multidisciplinary team at the University of Minnesota is carrying out research to develop a stream classification system for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) assessment. Funding for this research is provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. One objective of the research study involves investigating the relationships between indicators of stream health and localized stream characteristics. Measured data from Minnesota streams collected by various government and non-government agencies and research institutions have been obtained for the research study. Innovative Geographic Information Systems tools developed by the Environmental Science Research Institute and the University of Texas are being utilized to combine and organize the data. Simple linear relationships between index of biological integrity (IBI) and channel slope, two-year stream flow, and drainage area are presented for the Redwood River and the Snake River Basins. Results suggest that more rigorous techniques are needed to successfully capture trends in IBI scores. Additional analyses will be done using multiple regression, principal component analysis, and clustering techniques. Uncovering key independent variables and understanding how they fit together to influence stream health are critical in the development of a stream classification for TMDL assessment.

  12. ADAPTIVE STREAMING OVER HTTP (DASH UNTUK APLIKASI VIDEO STREAMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Oka Widyantara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze Internet-based streaming video service in the communication media with variable bit rates. The proposed scheme on Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH using the internet network that adapts to the protocol Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP. DASH technology allows a video in the video segmentation into several packages that will distreamingkan. DASH initial stage is to compress the video source to lower the bit rate video codec uses H.26. Video compressed further in the segmentation using MP4Box generates streaming packets with the specified duration. These packages are assembled into packets in a streaming media format Presentation Description (MPD or known as MPEG-DASH. Streaming video format MPEG-DASH run on a platform with the player bitdash teritegrasi bitcoin. With this scheme, the video will have several variants of the bit rates that gave rise to the concept of scalability of streaming video services on the client side. The main target of the mechanism is smooth the MPEG-DASH streaming video display on the client. The simulation results show that the scheme based scalable video streaming MPEG-DASH able to improve the quality of image display on the client side, where the procedure bufering videos can be made constant and fine for the duration of video views

  13. Comparing two periphyton collection methods commonly used for stream bioassessment and the development of numeric nutrient standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodman, Ashley R; Scott, J Thad

    2017-07-01

    Periphyton is an important component of stream bioassessment, yet methods for quantifying periphyton biomass can differ substantially. A case study within the Arkansas Ozarks is presented to demonstrate the potential for linking chlorophyll-a (chl-a) and ash-free dry mass (AFDM) data sets amassed using two frequently used periphyton sampling protocols. Method A involved collecting periphyton from a known area on the top surface of variably sized rocks gathered from relatively swift-velocity riffles without discerning canopy cover. Method B involved collecting periphyton from the entire top surface of cobbles systematically gathered from riffle-run habitat where canopy cover was intentionally avoided. Chl-a and AFDM measurements were not different between methods (p = 0.123 and p = 0.550, respectively), and there was no interaction between method and time in the repeated measures structure of the study. However, significantly different seasonal distinctions were observed for chl-a and AFDM from all streams when data from the methods were combined (p methods may effectively be used together with some minor considerations due to potential confounding factors. This study provides motivation for the continued investigation of combining data sets derived from multiple methods of data collection, which could be useful in stream bioassessment and particularly important for the development of regional stream nutrient criteria for the southern Ozarks.

  14. Relation between Streaming Potential and Streaming Electrification Generated by Streaming of Water through a Sandwich-type Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Kazunori; Nikaido, Mitsuru; Hara, Yoshinori; Tanizaki, Yoshie

    2012-01-01

    Both streaming potential and accumulated charge of water flowed out were measured simultaneously using a sandwich-type cell. The voltages generated in divided sections along flow direction satisfied additivity. The sign of streaming potential agreed with that of streaming electrification. The relation between streaming potential and streaming electrification was explained from a viewpoint of electrical double layer in glass-water interface.

  15. The impact of urban canopy meteorological forcing on summer photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszár, Peter; Karlický, Jan; Belda, Michal; Halenka, Tomáš; Pišoft, Petr

    2018-03-01

    The regional climate model RegCM4.4, including the surface model CLM4.5, was offline coupled to the chemistry transport model CAMx version 6.30 in order to investigate the impact of the urban canopy induced meteorological changes on the longterm summer photochemistry over central Europe for the 2001-2005 period. First, the urban canopy impact on the meteorological conditions was calculated performing a reference experiment without urban landsurface considered and an experiment with urban surfaces modeled with the urban parameterization within the CLM4.5 model. In accordance with expectations, strong increases of urban surface temperatures (up to 2-3 K), decreases of wind speed (up to -1 ms-1) and increases of vertical turbulent diffusion coefficient (up to 60-70 m2s-1) were found. For the impact on chemistry, these three components were considered. Additionally, we accounted for the effect of temperature enhanced biogenic emission increase. Several experiments were performed by adding these effects one-by-one to the total impact: i.e., first, only the urban temperature impact was considered driving the chemistry model; secondly, the wind impact was added and so on. We found that the impact on biogenic emission account for minor changes in the concentrations of ozone (O3), oxides of nitrogen NOx = NO + NO2 and nitric acid (HNO3). On the other hand, the dominating component acting is the increased vertical mixing, resulting in up to 5 ppbv increase of urban ozone concentrations while causing -2 to -3 ppbv decreases and around 1 ppbv increases of NOx and HNO3 surface concentrations, respectively. The temperature impact alone results in reduction of ozone, increase in NO, decrease in NO2 and increases of HNO3. The wind impact leads, over urban areas, to ozone decreases, increases of NOx and a slight increase in HNO3. The overall impact is similar to the impact of increased vertical mixing alone. The Process Analysis (PA) technique implemented in CAMx was adopted to

  16. Human impacts to mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    Mountain streams are here defined as channel networks within mountainous regions of the world. This definition encompasses tremendous diversity of physical and biological conditions, as well as history of land use. Human effects on mountain streams may result from activities undertaken within the stream channel that directly alter channel geometry, the dynamics of water and sediment movement, contaminants in the stream, or aquatic and riparian communities. Examples include channelization, construction of grade-control structures or check dams, removal of beavers, and placer mining. Human effects can also result from activities within the watershed that indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water, sediment, and contaminants into the channel. Deforestation, cropping, grazing, land drainage, and urbanization are among the land uses that indirectly alter stream processes. An overview of the relative intensity of human impacts to mountain streams is provided by a table summarizing human effects on each of the major mountainous regions with respect to five categories: flow regulation, biotic integrity, water pollution, channel alteration, and land use. This table indicates that very few mountains have streams not at least moderately affected by land use. The least affected mountainous regions are those at very high or very low latitudes, although our scientific ignorance of conditions in low-latitude mountains in particular means that streams in these mountains might be more altered than is widely recognized. Four case studies from northern Sweden (arctic region), Colorado Front Range (semiarid temperate region), Swiss Alps (humid temperate region), and Papua New Guinea (humid tropics) are also used to explore in detail the history and effects on rivers of human activities in mountainous regions. The overview and case studies indicate that mountain streams must be managed with particular attention to upstream/downstream connections, hillslope

  17. Water Level Controls on Sap Flux of Canopy Species in Black Ash Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Shannon; Matthew Van Grinsven; Joshua Davis; Nicholas Bolton; Nam Noh; Thomas Pypker; Randall Kolka

    2018-01-01

    Black ash (Fraxinus nigra Marsh.) exhibits canopy dominance in regularly inundated wetlands, suggesting advantageous adaptation. Black ash mortality due to emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) will alter canopy composition and site hydrology. Retention of these forested wetlands requires understanding black ash...

  18. Estimating Canopy Structure in an Amazon Forest from Laser Range Finder and IKONOS Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory P. Asner; Michael Palace; Michael Keller; Rodrigo Pereira Jr.; Jose N. M. Silva; Johan C. Zweede

    2002-01-01

    Canopy structural data can be used for biomass estimation and studies of carbon cycling, disturbance, energy balance, and hydrological processes in tropical forest ecosystems. Scarce information on canopy dimensions reflects the difficulties associated with measuring crown height, width, depth, and area in tall, humid tropical forests. New field and spaceborne...

  19. Automated detection of branch dimensions in woody skeletons of leafless fruit tree canopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucksch, A.; Fleck, S.

    2009-01-01

    Light driven physiological processes of tree canopies need to be modelled based on detailed 3Dcanopy structure – we explore the possibilities offered by terrestrial LIDAR to automatically represent woody skeletons of leafless trees as a basis for adequate models of canopy structure. The automatic

  20. Vines and canopy contact: a route for snake predation on parrot nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUSAN E. KOENIG; JOSEPH M. WUNDERLE; ERNESTO C. ENKERLINHOEFLICH

    2007-01-01

    Ornithologists have hypothesized that some tropical forest birds avoid snake predation by nesting in isolated trees that do not have vines and canopy contact with neighbouring trees. Here we review two complementary studies that support this hypothesis by demonstrating (1) that an abundance of vines and an interlocking canopy characterized Jamaican Black-billed Parrot...

  1. Modeling cotton (Gossypium spp) leaves and canopy using computer aided geometric design (CAGD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this research is to develop a geometrically accurate model of cotton crop canopies for exploring changes in canopy microenvironment and physiological function with leaf structure. We develop an accurate representation of the leaves, including changes in three-dimensional folding and orie...

  2. Comparing alternative tree canopy cover estimates derived from digital aerial photography and field-based assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey S. Frescino; Gretchen G. Moisen

    2012-01-01

    A spatially-explicit representation of live tree canopy cover, such as the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) percent tree canopy cover layer, is a valuable tool for many applications, such as defining forest land, delineating wildlife habitat, estimating carbon, and modeling fire risk and behavior. These layers are generated by predictive models wherein their accuracy...

  3. Influences of Herbivory and Canopy Opening Size on Forest Regeneration in a Southern Bottomland Hardwood Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven B. Castleberry; W. Mark Ford; Carl V. Miller; Winston P. Smith

    2000-01-01

    We examined the effects of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) browsing and canopy opening size on relative abundance and diversity of woody and herbaceous regeneration in various sized forest openings in a southern, bottomland hardwood forest over three growing seasons (1995-1997). We created 36 canopy openings (gaps), ranging from 7 to 40m...

  4. ForestCrowns: a transparency estimation tool for digital photographs of forest canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Winn; Jeff Palmer; S.-M. Lee; Philip Araman

    2016-01-01

    ForestCrowns is a Windows®-based computer program that calculates forest canopy transparency (light transmittance) using ground-based digital photographs taken with standard or hemispherical camera lenses. The software can be used by forest managers and researchers to monitor growth/decline of forest canopies; provide input for leaf area index estimation; measure light...

  5. Effect of vegetative canopy architecture on vertical transport of massless particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of large-eddy simulations were performed to examine the effect of canopy architecture on particle dispersion. A heterogeneous canopy geometry was simulated that consists of a set of infinitely repeating vegetation rows. Simulations in which row structure was approximately resolved were comp...

  6. Seasonal Canopy Temperatures for Normal and Okra Leaf Cotton under Variable Irrigation in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Mahan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Temperature affects a number of physiological factors in plants and is related to water use, yield and quality in many crop species. Seasonal canopy temperature, measured with infrared thermometers, is often used in conjunction with environmental factors (e.g., air temperature, humidity, solar radiation to assess crop stress and management actions in cotton. Normal and okra leaf shapes in cotton have been associated with differences in water use and canopy temperature. The okra leaf shape in cotton is generally expected to result in lower water use and lower canopy temperatures, relative to normal leaf, under water deficits. In this study canopy temperatures were monitored in okra and normal leaf varieties for a growing season at four irrigation levels. Differences in canopy temperature (<2 °C were measured between the two leaf shapes. As irrigation levels increased, canopy temperature differences between the leaf shapes declined. At the lowest irrigation level, when differences in sensible energy exchanges due to the okra leaf shape would be enhanced, the canopy temperature of the okra leaf was warmer than the normal leaf. This suggests that varietal differences that are not related to leaf shape may have more than compensated for leaf shape differences in the canopy temperature.

  7. Relationships between soil-based management zones and canopy sensing for corn nitrogen management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrating soil-based management zones (MZ) with crop-based active canopy sensors to direct spatially variable nitrogen (N) applications has been proposed for improving N fertilizer management of corn (Zea mays L.). Analyses are needed to evaluate relationships between canopy sensing and soil-based...

  8. Integrating soil information into canopy sensor algorithms for improved corn nitrogen rate recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop canopy sensors have proven effective at determining site-specific nitrogen (N) needs, but several Midwest states use different algorithms to predict site-specific N need. The objective of this research was to determine if soil information can be used to improve the Missouri canopy sensor algori...

  9. Seasonal variability of interception evaporation from the canopy of a mixed deciduous forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Mathias; Rosier, Paul T.W.; McNeil, David D.

    2008-01-01

    and the different aerodynamic properties of the canopy. Together with the lower average rainfall rate this counterbalanced the reduced storage capacity of the leafless canopy and maintained a relatively high interception loss throughout the year being 29% of the gross rainfall in the leafed period and 20...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1710 - Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric face equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-powered and electric face equipment, including shuttle cars, be provided with substantially constructed... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric... Miscellaneous § 75.1710 Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric face equipment. In any coal mine where the...

  11. The fauna and flora of a kelp bed canopy | Allen | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fauna and flora of the canopy of a kelp bed off Oudekraal, on the Cape Peninsula, Is surveyed. Four species of epiphytic algae occur In the kelp canopy, three restricted to Ecklonia maxima and the fourth to Laminaria pallida. Epiphyte biomass is equivalent to 4-9% of host standing crop amongst E. maxima, but less than ...

  12. High-Resolution Forest Canopy Height Estimation in an African Blue Carbon Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomasino, David; Fatoyinbo, Temilola; Lee, Seung-Kuk; Simard, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Mangrove forests are one of the most productive and carbon dense ecosystems that are only found at tidally inundated coastal areas. Forest canopy height is an important measure for modeling carbon and biomass dynamics, as well as land cover change. By taking advantage of the flat terrain and dense canopy cover, the present study derived digital surface models (DSMs) using stereophotogrammetric techniques on high-resolution spaceborne imagery (HRSI) for southern Mozambique. A mean-weighted ground surface elevation factor was subtracted from the HRSI DSM to accurately estimate the canopy height in mangrove forests in southern Mozambique. The mean and H100 tree height measured in both the field and with the digital canopy model provided the most accurate results with a vertical error of 1.18-1.84 m, respectively. Distinct patterns were identified in the HRSI canopy height map that could not be discerned from coarse shuttle radar topography mission canopy maps even though the mode and distribution of canopy heights were similar over the same area. Through further investigation, HRSI DSMs have the potential of providing a new type of three-dimensional dataset that could serve as calibration/validation data for other DSMs generated from spaceborne datasets with much larger global coverage. HSRI DSMs could be used in lieu of Lidar acquisitions for canopy height and forest biomass estimation, and be combined with passive optical data to improve land cover classifications.

  13. [Estimation of forest canopy chlorophyll content based on PROSPECT and SAIL models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi-guang; Fan, Wen-yi; Yu, Ying

    2010-11-01

    The forest canopy chlorophyll content directly reflects the health and stress of forest. The accurate estimation of the forest canopy chlorophyll content is a significant foundation for researching forest ecosystem cycle models. In the present paper, the inversion of the forest canopy chlorophyll content was based on PROSPECT and SAIL models from the physical mechanism angle. First, leaf spectrum and canopy spectrum were simulated by PROSPECT and SAIL models respectively. And leaf chlorophyll content look-up-table was established for leaf chlorophyll content retrieval. Then leaf chlorophyll content was converted into canopy chlorophyll content by Leaf Area Index (LAD). Finally, canopy chlorophyll content was estimated from Hyperion image. The results indicated that the main effect bands of chlorophyll content were 400-900 nm, the simulation of leaf and canopy spectrum by PROSPECT and SAIL models fit better with the measured spectrum with 7.06% and 16.49% relative error respectively, the RMSE of LAI inversion was 0. 542 6 and the forest canopy chlorophyll content was estimated better by PROSPECT and SAIL models with precision = 77.02%.

  14. Tree canopy types constrain plant distributions in ponderosa pine-Gambel oak forests, northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott R. Abella

    2009-01-01

    Trees in many forests affect the soils and plants below their canopies. In current high-density southwestern ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests, managers have opportunities to enhance multiple ecosystem values by manipulating tree density, distribution, and canopy cover through tree thinning. I performed a study in northern Arizona ponderosa...

  15. Heavy particle transport in a trellised agricultural canopy during non-row-aligned winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural systems are exposed to and influenced by particles of many types (e.g., pathogens, pollen, pests), the concentrations of which are typically highest in the regions immediately surrounding their sources. The intermittent nature of trellised canopies creates an unique canopy architecture ...

  16. Fire frequency and tree canopy structure influence plant species diversity in a forest-grassland ecotone

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Peterson; Peter B. Reich

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances and environmental heterogeneity are two factors thought to influence plant species diversity, but their effects are still poorly understood in many ecosystems. We surveyed understory vegetation and measured tree canopy cover on permanent plots spanning an experimental fire frequency gradient to test fire frequency and tree canopy effects on plant species...

  17. Analyzing transient closed chamber effects on canopy gas exchange for optimizing flux calculation timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langensiepen, M.; Kupisch, M.; Wijk, van M.T.; Ewert, F.

    2012-01-01

    Transient type canopy chambers are still the only currently available practical solution for rapid screening of gas-exchange in agricultural fields. The technique has been criticized for its effect on canopy microclimate during measurement which affects the transport regime and regulation of plant

  18. Regeneration in canopy gaps of tierra-firme forest in the Peruvian Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Rune Juelsborg; Jovanovic, Milos; Meilby, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    the regeneration dynamics of logging gaps with naturally occuring canopy gaps. In the concession of Consorcio Forestal Amazonico in the region of Ucayali in the Peruvian Amazon, a total of 210 circular sample plots were established in 35 gaps in unmanaged natural forest and 35 canopy gaps in forest managed...

  19. Effects of microhabitat and land use on stream salamander abundance in the southwest Virginia coalfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeten, Sara E.; Ford, W. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale land uses such as residential wastewater discharge and coal mining practices, particularly surface coal extraction and associated valley fills, are of particular ecological concern in central Appalachia. Identification and quantification of both alterations across scales are a necessary first-step to mitigate negative consequences to biota. In central Appalachian headwater streams absent of fish, salamanders are the dominant, most abundant vertebrate predator providing a significant intermediate trophic role. Stream salamander species are considered to be sensitive to aquatic stressors and environmental alterations, and past research has shown linkages among microhabitat parameters, large-scale land use such as urbanization and logging with salamander abundances. However, little is known about these linkages in the coalfields of central Appalachia. In the summer of 2013, we visited 70 sites (sampled three times each) in the southwest Virginia coalfields to survey salamanders and quantify stream and riparian microhabitat parameters. Using an information-theoretic framework we compared the effects of microhabitat and large-scale land use on salamander abundances. Our findings indicate that dusky salamander (Desmognathus spp.) abundances are more correlated to microhabitat parameters such as canopy cover than to subwatershed land uses. Brook salamander (Eurycea spp.) abundances show strong negative associations to the suspended sediments and stream substrate embeddedness. Neither Desmognathus spp. nor Eurycea spp. abundances were influenced by water conductivity. These suggest protection or restoration of riparian habitats and erosion control is an important conservation component for maintaining stream salamanders in the mined landscapes of central Appalachia.

  20. Ground-based thermal imaging of stream surface temperatures: Technique and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Scott A.; Petre, Sally J.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated a ground-based handheld thermal imaging system for measuring water temperatures using data from eight southwestern USA streams and rivers. We found handheld thermal imagers could provide considerably more spatial information on water temperature (for our unit one image = 19,600 individual temperature measurements) than traditional methods could supply without a prohibitive amount of effort. Furthermore, they could provide measurements of stream surface temperature almost instantaneously compared with most traditional handheld thermometers (e.g., >20 s/reading). Spatial temperature analysis is important for measurement of subtle temperature differences across waterways, and identification of warm and cold groundwater inputs. Handheld thermal imaging is less expensive and equipment intensive than airborne thermal imaging methods and is useful under riparian canopies. Disadvantages of handheld thermal imagers include their current higher expense than thermometers, their susceptibility to interference when used incorrectly, and their slightly lower accuracy than traditional temperature measurement methods. Thermal imagers can only measure surface temperature, but this usually corresponds to subsurface temperatures in well-mixed streams and rivers. Using thermal imaging in select applications, such as where spatial investigations of water temperature are needed, or in conjunction with stationary temperature data loggers or handheld electronic or liquid-in-glass thermometers to characterize stream temperatures by both time and space, could provide valuable information on stream temperature dynamics. These tools will become increasingly important to fisheries biologists as costs continue to decline.

  1. Spectral measurements at different spatial scales in potato: relating leaf, plant and canopy nitrogen status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongschaap, Raymond E. E.; Booij, Remmie

    2004-09-01

    Chlorophyll contents in vegetation depend on soil nitrogen availability and on crop nitrogen uptake, which are important management factors in arable farming. Crop nitrogen uptake is important, as nitrogen is needed for chlorophyll formation, which is important for photosynthesis, i.e. the conversion of absorbed radiance into plant biomass. The objective of this study was to estimate leaf and canopy nitrogen contents by near and remote sensing observations and to link observations at leaf, plant and canopy level. A theoretical base is presented for scaling-up leaf optical properties to whole plants and crops, by linking different optical recording techniques at leaf, plant and canopy levels through the integration of vertical nitrogen distribution. Field data come from potato experiments in The Netherlands in 1997 and 1998, comprising two potato varieties: Eersteling and Bintje, receiving similar nitrogen treatments (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg N ha -1) in varying application schemes to create differences in canopy nitrogen status during the growing season. Ten standard destructive field samplings were performed to follow leaf area index and crop dry weight evolution. Samples were analysed for inorganic nitrogen and total nitrogen contents. At sampling dates, spectral measurements were taken both at leaf level and at canopy level. At leaf level, an exponential relation between SPAD-502 readings and leaf organic nitrogen contents with a high correlation factor of 0.91 was found. At canopy level, an exponential relation between canopy organic nitrogen contents and red edge position ( λrep, nm) derived from reflectance measurements was found with a good correlation of 0.82. Spectral measurements (SPAD-502) at leaf level of a few square mm were related to canopy reflectance measurements (CropScan™) of approximately 0.44 m 2. Statistical regression techniques were used to optimise theoretical vertical nitrogen profiles that allowed scaling-up leaf chlorophyll measurements

  2. Hyperspectral data mining to identify relevant canopy spectral features for estimating durum wheat growth, nitrogen status, and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern hyperspectral sensors permit reflectance measurements of crop canopies in hundreds of narrow spectral wavebands. While these sensors describe plant canopy reflectance in greater detail than multispectral sensors, they also suffer from issues with data redundancy and spectral autocorrelation. ...

  3. Industrial-Strength Streaming Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgerakis, George; Waring, Becky

    1997-01-01

    Corporate training, financial services, entertainment, and education are among the top applications for streaming video servers, which send video to the desktop without downloading the whole file to the hard disk, saving time and eliminating copyrights questions. Examines streaming video technology, lists ten tips for better net video, and ranks…

  4. Data streams: algorithms and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muthukrishnan, S

    2005-01-01

    ... massive data sets in general. Researchers in Theoretical Computer Science, Databases, IP Networking and Computer Systems are working on the data stream challenges. This article is an overview and survey of data stream algorithmics and is an updated version of [175]. S. Muthukrishnan Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA, muthu@cs...

  5. What Can Hierarchies Do for Data Streams?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xuepeng; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    Much effort has been put into building data streams management systems for querying data streams. Here, data streams have been viewed as a flow of low-level data items, e.g., sensor readings or IP packet data. Stream query languages have mostly been SQL-based, with the STREAM and TelegraphCQ lang...

  6. Employing lidar to detail vegetation canopy architecture for prediction of aeolian transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Law, Darin J.; Breshears, David D.; Munson, Seth M.; Webb, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    The diverse and fundamental effects that aeolian processes have on the biosphere and geosphere are commonly generated by horizontal sediment transport at the land surface. However, predicting horizontal sediment transport depends on vegetation architecture, which is difficult to quantify in a rapid but accurate manner. We demonstrate an approach to measure vegetation canopy architecture at high resolution using lidar along a gradient of dryland sites ranging from 2% to 73% woody plant canopy cover. Lidar-derived canopy height, distance (gaps) between vegetation elements (e.g., trunks, limbs, leaves), and the distribution of gaps scaled by vegetation height were correlated with canopy cover and highlight potentially improved horizontal dust flux estimation than with cover alone. Employing lidar to estimate detailed vegetation canopy architecture offers promise for improved predictions of horizontal sediment transport across heterogeneous plant assemblages.

  7. Stream Deniable-Encryption Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Moldovyan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A method for stream deniable encryption of secret message is proposed, which is computationally indistinguishable from the probabilistic encryption of some fake message. The method uses generation of two key streams with some secure block cipher. One of the key streams is generated depending on the secret key and the other one is generated depending on the fake key. The key streams are mixed with the secret and fake data streams so that the output ciphertext looks like the ciphertext produced by some probabilistic encryption algorithm applied to the fake message, while using the fake key. When the receiver or/and sender of the ciphertext are coerced to open the encryption key and the source message, they open the fake key and the fake message. To disclose their lie the coercer should demonstrate possibility of the alternative decryption of the ciphertext, however this is a computationally hard problem.

  8. Stream Clustering of Growing Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Zaigham Faraz; Spiliopoulou, Myra

    We study incremental clustering of objects that grow and accumulate over time. The objects come from a multi-table stream e.g. streams of Customer and Transaction. As the Transactions stream accumulates, the Customers’ profiles grow. First, we use an incremental propositionalisation to convert the multi-table stream into a single-table stream upon which we apply clustering. For this purpose, we develop an online version of K-Means algorithm that can handle these swelling objects and any new objects that arrive. The algorithm also monitors the quality of the model and performs re-clustering when it deteriorates. We evaluate our method on the PKDD Challenge 1999 dataset.

  9. Pilot-Streaming: Design Considerations for a Stream Processing Framework for High-Performance Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Andre Luckow; Peter Kasson; Shantenu Jha

    2016-01-01

    This White Paper (submitted to STREAM 2016) identifies an approach to integrate streaming data with HPC resources. The paper outlines the design of Pilot-Streaming, which extends the concept of Pilot-abstraction to streaming real-time data.

  10. Coherence Effects in L-Band Active and Passive Remote Sensing of Quasi-Periodic Corn Canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utku, Cuneyt; Lang, Roger H.

    2011-01-01

    Due to their highly random nature, vegetation canopies can be modeled using the incoherent transport theory for active and passive remote sensing applications. Agricultural vegetation canopies however are generally more structured than natural vegetation. The inherent row structure in agricultural canopies induces coherence effects disregarded by the transport theory. The objective of this study is to demonstrate, via Monte-Carlo simulations, these coherence effects on L-band scattering and thermal emission from corn canopies consisting of only stalks.

  11. Effect of smoke on subcanopy shaded light, canopy temperature, and carbon dioxide uptake in an Amazon rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Doughty, C. E.; Flanner, M. G.; Goulden, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    Daytime Net Ecosystem CO2 uptake (NEE) in an Amazon forest has been shown to increase significantly during smoky periods associated with biomass burning. We investigated whether the increase in CO2 uptake is caused by increased irradiance in the lower canopy, which results from increased above-canopy diffuse light, or by decreased canopy temperature, which results from decreased above-canopy net radiation. We used Sun photometers measuring aerosol optical depth to find nonsmoky (Aerosol Optic...

  12. A New, Two-layer Canopy Module For The Detailed Snow Model SNOWPACK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttevin, I.; Lehning, M.; Jonas, T.; Gustafsson, D.; Mölder, M.

    2014-12-01

    A new, two-layer canopy module with thermal inertia for the detailed snow model SNOWPACK is presented. Compared to the old, one-layered canopy formulation with no heat mass, this module now offers a level of physical detail consistent with the detailed snow and soil representation in SNOWPACK. The new canopy model is designed to reproduce the difference in thermal regimes between leafy and woody canopy elements and their impact on the underlying snowpack energy balance. The new model is validated against data from an Alpine and a boreal site. Comparisons of modelled sub-canopy thermal radiations to stand-scale observations at Alptal, Switzerland, demonstrate the improvements induced by our new parameterizations. The main effect is a more realistic simulation of the canopy night-time drop in temperatures. The lower drop is induced by both thermal inertia and the two-layer representation. A specific result is that such a performance cannot be achieved by a single-layered canopy model. The impact of the new parameterizations on the modelled dynamics of the sub-canopy snowpack is analysed and yields consistent results, but the frequent occurrence of mixed-precipitation events at Alptal prevents a conclusive assessment of model performances against snow data.Without specific tuning, the model is also able to reproduce the measured summertime tree trunk temperatures and biomass heat storage at the boreal site of Norunda, Sweden, with an increased accuracy in amplitude and phase. Overall, the SNOWPACK model with its enhanced canopy module constitutes a unique (in its physical process representation) atmosphere-to-soil-through-canopy-and-snow modelling chain.

  13. Do Small Canopy Gaps Created by Japanese Black Bears Facilitate Fruiting of Fleshy-Fruited Plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Kaori; Washitani, Izumi

    2015-01-01

    Japanese black bears often break branches when climbing trees and feeding on fruit in canopies, thereby creating small canopy gaps. However, the role of black bear-created canopy gaps has not been evaluated in the context of multiple forest dynamics. Our hypothesis was that small canopy gaps created by black bears improve light conditions, which facilitates fruiting of adult fleshy-fruited plants located beneath the gaps, and also that this chain interaction depends on interactions among the size of gaps, improved light conditions, forest layers, and life form of plants. The rPPFD, size of black bear-created canopy gaps, and fruiting/non-fruiting of fleshy-fruited plants were investigated in five forest layers beneath black-bear-created canopy gaps and closed canopies of Mongolian oak (Quercus crispula). We found that light conditions improved beneath black bear-disturbed trees with canopy gaps of large size, and the effect of improvement of light conditions was reduced with descending forest layers. Fruiting of fleshy-fruited plants, especially woody lianas and trees, was facilitated by the improvement of light conditions accompanied by an increase in the size of black-bear-created gaps. Data from this study revealed that canopy disturbance by black bears was key for improving light conditions and accelerating fruiting of fleshy-fruited trees and woody lianas in the canopy layers in particular. Therefore, our hypothesis was mostly supported. Our results provide evidence that Japanese black bears have high potential as ecosystem engineers that increase the availability of resources (light and fruit in this study) to other species by causing physical state changes in biotic materials (branches of Q. crispula in this study).

  14. Waveform- and Terrestrial Lidar Assessment of the Usual (Structural) Suspects in a Forest Canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aardt, J. A.; Romanczyk, P.; Kelbe, D.; van Leeuwen, M.; Cawse-Nicholson, K.; Gough, C. M.; Kampe, T. U.

    2015-12-01

    Forest inventory has evolved from standard stem diameter-height relationships, to coarse canopy metrics, to more involved ecologically-meaningful variables, such as leaf area index (LAI) and even canopy radiative transfer as a function of canopy gaps, leaf clumping, and leaf angle distributions. Accurate and precise measurement of the latter set of variables presents a challenge to the ecological and modeling communities; however, relatively novel remote sensing modalities, e.g., waveform lidar (wlidar) and terrestrial lidar systems (TLS), have the potential to adress this challenge. Research teams at Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) and the Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) have been collaborating with the National Ecological Observation Network (NEON) to assess vegetation canopy structure and variation at the University of Michigan Biological Research Station and the NEON Northeast domain (Harvard Forest, MA). Airborne small-footprint wlidar data, in-situ TLS data, and first-principles, physics-based simulation tools are being used to study (i) the impact of vegetation canopy geometric elements on wlidar signals (twigs and petioles have been deemed negligible), (ii) the analysis of airborne wlidar data for top-down assessment of canopy metrics such as LAI, and (iii) our ability to extract "bottom-up" canopy structure from TLS using scans registered to each other using a novel marker-free registration approach (e.g., basal area: R2=0.82, RMSE=7.43 m2/ha). Such studies indicate that we can potentially assess radiative transfer through vegetation canopies remotely using a vertically-stratified approach with wlidar, and augment such an approach via rapid-scan TLS technology to gain a better understanding of fine-scale variation in canopy structure. This in turn is key to quantifying and modeling radiative transfer based on understanding of forest canopy structural change as a function of ecosystem development, climate, and anthropogenic drivers.

  15. Do Small Canopy Gaps Created by Japanese Black Bears Facilitate Fruiting of Fleshy-Fruited Plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuaki Takahashi

    Full Text Available Japanese black bears often break branches when climbing trees and feeding on fruit in canopies, thereby creating small canopy gaps. However, the role of black bear-created canopy gaps has not been evaluated in the context of multiple forest dynamics. Our hypothesis was that small canopy gaps created by black bears improve light conditions, which facilitates fruiting of adult fleshy-fruited plants located beneath the gaps, and also that this chain interaction depends on interactions among the size of gaps, improved light conditions, forest layers, and life form of plants. The rPPFD, size of black bear-created canopy gaps, and fruiting/non-fruiting of fleshy-fruited plants were investigated in five forest layers beneath black-bear-created canopy gaps and closed canopies of Mongolian oak (Quercus crispula. We found that light conditions improved beneath black bear-disturbed trees with canopy gaps of large size, and the effect of improvement of light conditions was reduced with descending forest layers. Fruiting of fleshy-fruited plants, especially woody lianas and trees, was facilitated by the improvement of light conditions accompanied by an increase in the size of black-bear-created gaps. Data from this study revealed that canopy disturbance by black bears was key for improving light conditions and accelerating fruiting of fleshy-fruited trees and woody lianas in the canopy layers in particular. Therefore, our hypothesis was mostly supported. Our results provide evidence that Japanese black bears have high potential as ecosystem engineers that increase the availability of resources (light and fruit in this study to other species by causing physical state changes in biotic materials (branches of Q. crispula in this study.

  16. The influence of current speed and vegetation density on flow structure in two macrotidal eelgrass canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Jessica R.; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    The influence of eelgrass (Zostera marina) on near-bed currents, turbulence, and drag was investigated at three sites in two eelgrass canopies of differing density and at one unvegetated site in the San Juan archipelago of Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Eelgrass blade length exceeded 1 m. Velocity profiles up to 1.5 m above the sea floor were collected over a spring-neap tidal cycle with a downward-looking pulse-coherent acoustic Doppler profiler above the canopies and two acoustic Doppler velocimeters within the canopies. The eelgrass attenuated currents by a minimum of 40%, and by more than 70% at the most densely vegetated site. Attenuation decreased with increasing current speed. The data were compared to the shear-layer model of vegetated flows and the displaced logarithmic model. Velocity profiles outside the meadows were logarithmic. Within the canopies, most profiles were consistent with the shear-layer model, with a logarithmic layer above the canopy. However, at the less-dense sites, when currents were strong, shear at the sea floor and above the canopy was significant relative to shear at the top of the canopy, and the velocity profiles more closely resembled those in a rough-wall boundary layer. Turbulence was strong at the canopy top and decreased with height. Friction velocity at the canopy top was 1.5–2 times greater than at the unvegetated, sandy site. The coefficient of drag CD on the overlying flow derived from the logarithmic velocity profile above the canopy, was 3–8 times greater than at the unvegetated site (0.01–0.023 vs. 2.9 × 10−3).

  17. Dynamical modeling of tidal streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovy, Jo

    2014-01-01

    I present a new framework for modeling the dynamics of tidal streams. The framework consists of simple models for the initial action-angle distribution of tidal debris, which can be straightforwardly evolved forward in time. Taking advantage of the essentially one-dimensional nature of tidal streams, the transformation to position-velocity coordinates can be linearized and interpolated near a small number of points along the stream, thus allowing for efficient computations of a stream's properties in observable quantities. I illustrate how to calculate the stream's average location (its 'track') in different coordinate systems, how to quickly estimate the dispersion around its track, and how to draw mock stream data. As a generative model, this framework allows one to compute the full probability distribution function and marginalize over or condition it on certain phase-space dimensions as well as convolve it with observational uncertainties. This will be instrumental in proper data analysis of stream data. In addition to providing a computationally efficient practical tool for modeling the dynamics of tidal streams, the action-angle nature of the framework helps elucidate how the observed width of the stream relates to the velocity dispersion or mass of the progenitor, and how the progenitors of 'orphan' streams could be located. The practical usefulness of the proposed framework crucially depends on the ability to calculate action-angle variables for any orbit in any gravitational potential. A novel method for calculating actions, frequencies, and angles in any static potential using a single orbit integration is described in the Appendix.

  18. Moderate water stress from regulated deficit irrigation decreases transpiration similarly to net carbon exchange in grapevine canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the effects of timing and extent of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on grapevine (Vitis vinifera) canopies, whole-canopy transpiration (TrV) and canopy conductance to water vapor (gc) were calculated from whole-vine gas exchange near key stages of fruit development. The vines were ma...

  19. Heat and mass exchange within the soil - plant canopy-atmosphere system : a theroretical approach and its validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Kilani, R.M.M.

    1997-01-01

    Heat, mass and momentum transfer between the canopy air layer and the layer of air above has a very intermittent nature. This intermittent nature is due to the passage at the canopy top of coherent structures which have a length scale at least as large as the canopy height. The periodic

  20. Germination and establishment of Tillandsia eizii (Bromeliaceae) in the canopy of an oak forest in Chiapas, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toledo-Aceves, T.; Wolf, J.H.D.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of repopulating the inner canopy and middle canopy of oak trees with seeds and seedlings of the epiphytic bromeliad Tillandsia eizii. Canopy germination was 4.7 percent, considerably lower than in vitro (92%). Of the tree-germinated seedlings, only 1.5 percent survived

  1. Percent Forest Adjacent to Streams (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept...

  2. Stream Habitat Reach Summary - NCWAP [ds158

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Stream Habitat - NCWAP - Reach Summary [ds158] shapefile contains in-stream habitat survey data summarized to the stream reach level. It is a derivative of the...

  3. Percent Agriculture Adjacent to Streams (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept...

  4. Canopy Level Chlorophyll Fluorescence and the PRI in a Cornfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Cheng, Yen-Ben; Corp, Lawrence A.; Campbell, Petya K. E.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Zhang, Qingyuan; Kustas, William P.

    2012-01-01

    Two bio-indicators, the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) and solar-induced red and far-red Chlorophyll Fluorescence (SIF), were derived from directional hyperspectral observations and studied in a cornfield on two contrasting days in the growing season. Both red and far-red SIF exhibited higher values on the day when the canopy in the early senescent stage, but only the far-red SIF showed sensitivity to viewing geometry. Consequently, the red/far-red SIF ratio varied greatly among azimuth positions while the largest values were obtained for the "hotspot" at both growth stages. This ratio was lower (approx.0.88 +/- 0.4) in early July than in August when the ratio approached equivalence (near approx.1). In concert, the PRI exhibited stronger responses to both zenith and azimuth angles and different values on the two growth stages. The potential of using these indices to monitor photosynthetic activities needs further investigation

  5. Bayesian analysis for uncertainty estimation of a canopy transpiration model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, S.; Mackay, D. S.; Clayton, M. K.; Kruger, E. L.; Ewers, B. E.

    2007-04-01

    A Bayesian approach was used to fit a conceptual transpiration model to half-hourly transpiration rates for a sugar maple (Acer saccharum) stand collected over a 5-month period and probabilistically estimate its parameter and prediction uncertainties. The model used the Penman-Monteith equation with the Jarvis model for canopy conductance. This deterministic model was extended by adding a normally distributed error term. This extension enabled using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations to sample the posterior parameter distributions. The residuals revealed approximate conformance to the assumption of normally distributed errors. However, minor systematic structures in the residuals at fine timescales suggested model changes that would potentially improve the modeling of transpiration. Results also indicated considerable uncertainties in the parameter and transpiration estimates. This simple methodology of uncertainty analysis would facilitate the deductive step during the development cycle of deterministic conceptual models by accounting for these uncertainties while drawing inferences from data.

  6. Modeling canopy CO2 exchange in the European Russian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiepe, Isabell; Friborg, Thomas; Herbst, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we use the coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model of Collatz et al. (1991) to simulate the current canopy carbon dioxide exchange of a heterogeneous tundra ecosystem in European Russia. For the parameterization, we used data obtained from in situ leaf level measurements...... in combination with meteorological data from 2008. The modeled CO2 fluxes were compared with net ecosystem exchange (NEE), measured by the eddy covariance technique during the snow-free period in 2008. The findings from this study indicated that the main state parameters of the exchange processes were leaf area...... index (LAI) and Rubisco capacity (v(cmax)). Furthermore, this ecosystem was found to be functioning close to its optimum temperature regarding carbon accumulation rates. During the modeling period from May to October, the net assimilation was greater than the respiration, leading to a net accumulation...

  7. Radiation and water use efficiencies of two coniferous forest canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamaud, E.; Brunet, Y.; Berbigier, P.

    1996-12-01

    Two experiments were performed in a confierous forest (maritime pine) in the southwest of France, one in 1994 and the other in 1995. Two sites were chosen, differing by age, height and structure of the trees, as well as the nature of the understorey. In both cases measurements of turbulent fluxes were made at two levels above and within the forest canopy, using sonic anemometers and open-path infrared CO 2-H 2O analysers. The flux differences derived from the two measurement levels allowed the Radiation and Water Use Efficiencies (RUE and WUE, respectively) to be evaluated for both canopy crowns. The results are based on the analysis of about ten days from each experiment. For both campaigns RUE is significantly larger during cloudy conditions when the fraction of diffuse radiation ( {Q id}/{Q i}) increases. An empirical linear relation between RUE and {Q id}/{Q i} is established for each site, with a smaller intercept and a larger slope for the older forest. In clear conditions ( {Q id}/{Q i} < 0.4 ), RUE is about 30 % lower for this forest. Tree photosynthesis, estimated as the net CO 2 flux of the foliated layer F c, appears poorly correlated (r 2 < 0.4) with transpiration (net water vapour flux E). This is shown to result from strong variations in the atmospheric saturation deficit D during both campaigns. At both sites WUE turns out to be a hyperbolic function of D ( {Fc}/{E} = {-k}/{D}). The coefficient k is 50 % larger for the younger forest. This is in agreement with the values obtained for RUE, and indicates that photosynthetic rates decrease with the age of the trees.

  8. Marsh canopy structure changes and the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina; Jones, Cathleen E.

    2016-01-01

    Marsh canopy structure was mapped yearly from 2009 to 2012 in the Barataria Bay, Louisiana coastal region that was impacted by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. Based on the previously demonstrated capability of NASA's UAVSAR polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) image data to map Spartina alterniflora marsh canopy structure, structure maps combining the leaf area index (LAI) and leaf angle distribution (LAD, orientation) were constructed for yearly intervals that were directly relatable to the 2010 LAI-LAD classification. The yearly LAI-LAD and LAI difference maps were used to investigate causes for the previously revealed dramatic change in marsh structure from prespill (2009) to postspill (2010, spill cessation), and the occurrence of structure features that exhibited abnormal spatial and temporal patterns. Water level and salinity records showed that freshwater releases used to keep the oil offshore did not cause the rapid growth from 2009 to 2010 in marsh surrounding the inner Bay. Photointerpretation of optical image data determined that interior marsh patches exhibiting rapid change were caused by burns and burn recovery, and that the pattern of 2010 to 2011 LAI decreases in backshore marsh and extending along some tidal channels into the interior marsh were not associated with burns. Instead, the majority of 2010 to 2011 shoreline features aligned with vectors displaying the severity of 2010 shoreline oiling from the DWH spill. Although the association is not conclusive of a causal oil impact, the coexistent pattern is a significant discovery. PolSAR marsh structure mapping provided a unique perspective of marsh biophysical status that enhanced detection of change and monitoring of trends important to management effectiveness.

  9. Estimating Canopy Nitrogen Concentration in Sugarcane Using Field Imaging Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Souris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The retrieval of nutrient concentration in sugarcane through hyperspectral remote sensing is widely known to be affected by canopy architecture. The goal of this research was to develop an estimation model that could explain the nitrogen variations in sugarcane with combined cultivars. Reflectance spectra were measured over the sugarcane canopy using a field spectroradiometer. The models were calibrated by a vegetation index and multiple linear regression. The original reflectance was transformed into a First-Derivative Spectrum (FDS and two absorption features. The results indicated that the sensitive spectral wavelengths for quantifying nitrogen content existed mainly in the visible, red edge and far near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Normalized Differential Index (NDI based on FDS(750/700 and Ratio Spectral Index (RVI based on FDS(724/700 are best suited for characterizing the nitrogen concentration. The modified estimation model, generated by the Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression (SMLR technique from FDS centered at 410, 426, 720, 754, and 1,216 nm, yielded the highest correlation coefficient value of 0.86 and Root Mean Square Error of the Estimate (RMSE value of 0.033%N (n = 90 with nitrogen concentration in sugarcane. The results of this research demonstrated that the estimation model developed by SMLR yielded a higher correlation coefficient with nitrogen content than the model computed by narrow vegetation indices. The strong correlation between measured and estimated nitrogen concentration indicated that the methods proposed in this study could be used for the reliable diagnosis of nitrogen quantity in sugarcane. Finally, the success of the field spectroscopy used for estimating the nutrient quality of sugarcane allowed an additional experiment using the polar orbiting hyperspectral data for the timely determination of crop nutrient status in rangelands without any requirement of prior

  10. Fragmented Canopies Control the Regimes of Gravity Current Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelona, Aina; Serra, Teresa; Colomer, Jordi

    2018-03-01

    Coastal ecosystems (marine littoral regions, wetlands, and deltas) are regions of high biological productivity. However, they are also one of the world's most threatened ecosystems. Wetlands are characterized by aquatic vegetation adapted to high salinity levels and climatic variations. Wetland canopies buffer these hydrodynamic and atmospheric variations and help retain sediment by reducing current velocity during sea storms or runoff after periods of rain. This work focuses on the effect of the presence of a gap (i.e., nonvegetated zone) parallel to the direction of the main current has on the sedimentation and hydrodynamics of a gravity current. The study aims to (1) address the behavior of a gravity current in a vegetated region compared to one without vegetation (i.e., the gap), (2) determine the effect gap size has on how a gravity current evolves, and 3) determine the effect gap sizes have on the sedimentary rates from a gravity current. Laboratory experiments were carried out in a flume using four different sediment concentrations, four different canopy densities (884, 354, 177, and 0 plants·m-2) and three different gap widths (H/2, H, and 1.5H, where H is the height of the water). This work shows that a gravity current's evolution and its sedimentary rates depend on the fractional volume occupied by the vegetation. While current dynamics in experiments with wider gaps are similar to the nonvegetated case, for smaller gaps the dynamics are closer to the fully vegetated case. Nonetheless, the gravity current exhibits the same behavior in both the vegetated region and the gap.

  11. Spring 5 & reactive streams

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Clozel, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Spring is a framework widely used by the world-wide Java community, and it is also extensively used at CERN. The accelerator control system is constituted of 10 million lines of Java code, spread across more than 1000 projects (jars) developed by 160 software engineers. Around half of this (all server-side Java code) is based on the Spring framework. Warning: the speakers will assume that people attending the seminar are familiar with Java and Spring’s basic concepts. Spring 5.0 and Spring Boot 2.0 updates (45 min) This talk will cover the big ticket items in the 5.0 release of Spring (including Kotlin support, @Nullable and JDK9) and provide an update on Spring Boot 2.0, which is scheduled for the end of the year. Reactive Spring (1h) Spring Framework 5.0 has been released - and it now supports reactive applications in the Spring ecosystem. During this presentation, we'll talk about the reactive foundations of Spring Framework with the Reactor project and the reactive streams specification. We'll al...

  12. Knowledge discovery from data streams

    CERN Document Server

    Gama, Joao

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Internet age and the increased use of ubiquitous computing devices, the large volume and continuous flow of distributed data have imposed new constraints on the design of learning algorithms. Exploring how to extract knowledge structures from evolving and time-changing data, Knowledge Discovery from Data Streams presents a coherent overview of state-of-the-art research in learning from data streams.The book covers the fundamentals that are imperative to understanding data streams and describes important applications, such as TCP/IP traffic, GPS data, sensor networks,

  13. Waste streams from reprocessing operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, B.; Ericsson, A.-M.

    1978-03-01

    The three main products from reprocessing operations are uranium, plutonium and vitrified high-level-waste. The purpose of this report is to identify and quantify additional waste streams containing radioactive isotops. Special emphasis is laid on Sr, Cs and the actinides. The main part, more than 99 % of both the fission-products and the transuranic elements are contained in the HLW-stream. Small quantities sometimes contaminate the U- and Pu-streams and the rest is found in the medium-level-waste

  14. Episodic Canopy Structural Transformations and Biological Invasion in a Hawaiian Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S. Balzotti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The remaining native forests on the Hawaiian Islands have been recognized as threatened by changing climate, increasing insect outbreak, new deadly pathogens, and growing populations of canopy structure-altering invasive species. The objective of this study was to assess long-term, net changes to upper canopy structure in sub-montane forests on the eastern slope of Mauna Kea volcano, Hawai‘i, in the context of continuing climate events, insect outbreaks, and biological invasion. We used high-resolution multi-temporal Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR data to quantify near-decadal net changes in forest canopy height and gap distributions at a critical transition between alien invaded lowland and native sub-montane forest at the end of a recent drought and host-specific insect (Scotorythra paludicola outbreak. We found that sub-montane forests have experienced a net loss in average canopy height, and therefore structure and aboveground carbon stock. Additionally, where invasive alien tree species co-dominate with native trees, the upper canopy structure became more homogeneous. Tracking the loss of forest canopy height and spatial variation with airborne LiDAR is a cost-effective way to monitor forest canopy health, and to track and quantify ecological impacts of invasive species through space and time.

  15. [Canopy conductance characteristics of poplar in agroforestry system in west Liaoning Province of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Niu, Li-Hua; Yuan, Feng-Hui; Guan, De-Xin; Wang, An-Zhi; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wu, Jia-Bing

    2012-11-01

    By using Granier' s thermal dissipation probe, the sap flow of poplar in a poplar-maize agroforestry system in west Liaoning was continuously measured, and as well, the environmental factors such as air temperature, air humidity, net radiation, wind speed, soil temperature, and soil moisture content were synchronically measured. Based on the sap flow data, the canopy conductance of poplar was calculated with simplified Penman-Monteith equation. In the study area, the diurnal variation of poplar' s canopy conductance showed a "single peak" curve, whereas the seasonal variation showed a decreasing trend. There was a negative logarithm relationship between the canopy conductance and vapor pressure deficit, with the sensitivity of canopy conductance to vapor pressure deficit change decreased gradually from May to September. The canopy conductance had a positive relationship with solar radiation. In different months, the correlation degree of canopy conductance with environmental factors differed. The vapor pressure deficit in the whole growth period of poplar was the most significant environmental factor correlated with the canopy conductance.

  16. Modeling of the radiative energy balance within a crop canopy for estimating evapotranspiration: Studies on a row planted soybean canopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Y.; Hirota, O.

    1990-01-01

    The spatial distribution and density of the leaf area within a crop canopy were used to estimate the radiational environment and evapotranspiration. Morphological measurements were pursued on the soybean stands in the early stage of growth when the two-dimensional foliage distribution pattern existed. The rectangular tube model was used to calculate the light absorption by parallel row of crops both short-wave radiation (direct and diffuse solar radiation, and scattered radiation by plant elements) and long-wave radiation (emanated radiation from the sky, ground and leaves). The simulated profiles are in close agreement with the experimentally measured short-wave and net radiation data. The evapotranspiration of a row was calcuated using a simulated net radiation. The model calculation also agreed well with the evapotranspiration estimated by the Bowen ratio method

  17. Temporal Variability of Canopy Light Use Efficiency and its Environmental Controls in a Subtropical Mangrove Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X.

    2016-12-01

    Mangrove wetlands play an important role in global carbon cycle due to their strong carbon sequestration resulting from high plant carbon assimilation and low soil respiration. However, temporal variability of carbon sequestration in mangrove wetlands is less understood since carbon processes of mangrove wetlands are influenced by many complicated and concurrent environmental controls including tidal activities, site climate and soil conditions. Canopy light use efficiency (LUE), is the most important plant physiological parameter that can be used to describe the temporal dynamics of canopy photosynthesis, and therefore a better characterization of temporal variability of canopy LUE will improve our understanding in mangrove photosynthesis and carbon balance. One of our aims is to study the temporal variability of canopy LUE and its environmental controls in a subtropical mangrove wetland. Half-hourly canopy LUE is derived from eddy covariance (EC) carbon flux and photosynthesis active radiation observations, and half-hourly environmental controls we measure include temperature, humidity, precipitation, radiation, tidal height, salinity, etc. Another aim is to explore the links between canopy LUE and spectral indices derived from near-surface tower-based remote sensing (normalized difference vegetation index, enhanced vegetation index, photochemical reflectance index, solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence, etc.), and then identify potential quantitative relationships for developing remote sensing-based estimation methods of canopy LUE. At present, some instruments in our in-situ observation system have not yet been installed (planned in next months) and therefore we don't have enough measurements to support our analysis. However, a preliminary analysis of our historical EC and climate observations in past several years indicates that canopy LUE shows strong temporal variability and is greatly affected by environmental factors such as tidal activity. Detailed and

  18. Canopy seed banks as time capsules of biodiversity in pasture-remnant tree crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Nalini M; Haber, Willam A

    2009-10-01

    Tropical pastures present multiple barriers to tree regeneration and restoration. Relict trees serve as "regeneration foci" because they ameliorate the soil microclimate and serve as safe spots for dispersers. Here, we describe another mechanism by which remnant trees may facilitate pasture regeneration: the presence of seed banks in the canopy soil that accumulates from decomposing epiphytes within the crowns of mature remnant trees in tropical cloud forest pastures. We compared seed banks of canopy soils (histosols derived from fallen leaves, fruits, flower, and twigs of host trees and epiphytes, dead bryophytes, bark, detritus, dead animals, and microorganisms, and dust that accumulate on trunks and the upper surfaces of large branches) in pastures, canopy soils in primary forest trees, and soil on the forest floor in Monteverde, Costa Rica. There were 5211 epiphytic and terrestrial plant seeds in the three habitats. All habitats were dominated by seeds in a relatively small number of plant families, most of which were primarily woody, animal pollinated, and animal dispersed. The density of seeds on the forest floor was greater than seed density in either pasture-canopy or forest-canopy soils; the latter two did not differ. Eight species in 44 families and 61 genera from all of the habitats were tallied. There were 37 species in the pasture-canopy soil, 33 in the forest-canopy soil, and 57 on the forest floor. Eleven species were common to all habitats. The mean species richness in the pasture canopy was significantly higher than the forest canopy (F =83.38; p banks of pasture trees can function as time capsules by providing propagules that are removed in both space and time from the primary forest. Their presence may enhance the ability of pastures to regenerate more quickly, reinforcing the importance of trees in agricultural settings.

  19. Canopy interaction with precipitation and sulphur deposition in two boreal forests of Quebec, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, C.; Houle, D.; Duchesne, L.; Gagnon, C.

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of atmospheric sulphur (S) was investigated within the canopies of two boreal forests in Québec, Canada. The net canopy exchange approach, i.e. the difference between S–SO 4 in throughfall and precipitation, suggests high proportion of dry deposition in winter (up to 53%) as compared to summer (1–9%). However, a 3.5‰ decrease in δ 18 O–SO 4 throughfall in summer compared to incident precipitation points towards a much larger proportion of dry deposition during the warm season. We suggest that a significant fraction of dry deposition (about 1.2 kg ha −1 yr −1 , representing 30–40% of annual wet S deposition) which contributed to the decreased δ 18 O–SO 4 in throughfall was taken up by the canopy. Overall, these results showed that, contrary to what is commonly considered, S interchanges in the canopy could be important in boreal forests with low absolute atmospheric S depositions. - Highlights: ► We investigated sulphur interactions with the canopy of two boreal forests, Québec. ► Sulphur interchanges within the canopy were large and vary with seasons. ► About 1.2 kg S–SO 4 ha −1 yr −1 was taken up by the canopy during warm seasons. ► This represents 30–40% of annual wet S–SO 4 deposition. ► Canopy uptake must be considered for sulphur budget estimations in boreal forests. - The equivalent of 30–40% of annual wet S–SO 4 deposition was taken up by the canopy of two boreal forests during warm seasons.

  20. Re-Meandering of Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Kristensen, Klaus Kevin; Friberg, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the restoration of physical habitats and its influence on macroinvertebrate community structure in 18 Danish lowland streams comprising six restored streams, six streams with little physical alteration and six channelized streams. We hypothesized that physical habitats...... and macroinvertebrate communities of restored streams would resemble those of natural streams, while those of the channelized streams would differ from both restored and near-natural streams. Physical habitats were surveyed for substrate composition, depth, width and current velocity. Macroinvertebrates were sampled...... along 100 m reaches in each stream, in edge habitats and in riffle/run habitats located in the center of the stream. Restoration significantly altered the physical conditions and affected the interactions between stream habitat heterogeneity and macroinvertebrate diversity. The substrate in the restored...

  1. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldfarb, Steven [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Collaboration: ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-23

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at the web portals, using the CERN SSO system.

  2. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfarb, Steven

    2011-01-01

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at the web portals, using the CERN SSO system.

  3. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfarb, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at th...

  4. STREAMS - Technology Programme. Yearbook 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The STREAMS Technology Programme addresses municipal waste. Municipal waste is composed of waste from households and small businesses. The programme focuses on five areas Waste prevention, Collection, transportation, and management of waste streams, Waste treatment technologies, Waste recycling into raw materials and new products, Landfill technologies. The development projects of the STREAMS Programme utilize a number of different technologies, such as biotechnology, information technology, materials technology, measurement and analysis, and automation technology. Finnish expertise in materials recycling technologies and related electronics and information technology is extremely high on a worldwide scale even though the companies represent SMEs. Started in 2001, the STREAMS programme has a total volume of 27 million euros, half of which is funded by Tekes. The programme runs through the end of 2004. (author)

  5. Cellular Subcompartments through Cytoplasmic Streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieuchot, Laurent; Lai, Julian; Loh, Rachel Ann; Leong, Fong Yew; Chiam, Keng-Hwee; Stajich, Jason; Jedd, Gregory

    2015-08-24

    Cytoplasmic streaming occurs in diverse cell types, where it generally serves a transport function. Here, we examine streaming in multicellular fungal hyphae and identify an additional function wherein regimented streaming forms distinct cytoplasmic subcompartments. In the hypha, cytoplasm flows directionally from cell to cell through septal pores. Using live-cell imaging and computer simulations, we identify a flow pattern that produces vortices (eddies) on the upstream side of the septum. Nuclei can be immobilized in these microfluidic eddies, where they form multinucleate aggregates and accumulate foci of the HDA-2 histone deacetylase-associated factor, SPA-19. Pores experiencing flow degenerate in the absence of SPA-19, suggesting that eddy-trapped nuclei function to reinforce the septum. Together, our data show that eddies comprise a subcellular niche favoring nuclear differentiation and that subcompartments can be self-organized as a consequence of regimented cytoplasmic streaming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. On-stream analysis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, W.J.; Watt, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    An outline of some commercially available on-stream analysis systems in given. Systems based on x-ray tube/crystal spectrometers, scintillation detectors, proportional detectors and solid-state detectors are discussed

  7. Estimating the relative water content of leaves in a cotton canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Kupinski, Meredith; Bradley, Christine; French, Andrew; Bronson, Kevin; Chipman, Russell; Dahlgren, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Remotely sensing plant canopy water status remains a long term goal of remote sensing research. Established approaches to estimating canopy water status — the Crop Water Stress Index, the Water Deficit Index and the Equivalent Water Thickness — involve measurements in the thermal or reflective infrared. Here we report plant water status estimates based upon analysis of polarized visible imagery of a cotton canopy measured by ground Multi-Spectral Polarization Imager (MSPI). Such estimators potentially provide access to the plant hydrological photochemistry that manifests scattering and absorption effects in the visible spectral region.

  8. Characterization and Modeling of Atmospheric Flow Within and Above Plant Canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Freire Grion, Livia

    The turbulent flow within and above plant canopies is responsible for the exchange of momentum, heat, gases and particles between vegetation and the atmosphere. Turbulence is also responsible for the mixing of air inside the canopy, playing an important role in chemical and biophysical processes occurring in the plants' environment. In the last fifty years, research has significantly advanced the understanding of and ability to model the flow field within and above the canopy, but important issues remain unsolved. In this work, we focus on (i) the estimation of turbulent mixing timescales within the canopy from field data; and (ii) the development of new computationally efficient modeling approaches for the coupled canopy-atmosphere flow field. The turbulent mixing timescale represents how quickly turbulence creates a well-mixed environment within the canopy. When the mixing timescale is much smaller than the timescale of other relevant processes (e.g. chemical reactions, deposition), the system can be assumed to be well-mixed and detailed modeling of turbulence is not critical to predict the system evolution. Conversely, if the mixing timescale is comparable or larger than the other timescales, turbulence becomes a controlling factor for the concentration of the variables involved; hence, turbulence needs to be taken into account when studying and modeling such processes. In this work, we used a combination of ozone concentration and high-frequency velocity data measured within and above the canopy in the Amazon rainforest to characterize turbulent mixing. The eddy diffusivity parameter (used as a proxy for mixing efficiency) was applied in a simple theoretical model of one-dimensional diffusion, providing an estimate of turbulent mixing timescales as a function of height within the canopy and time-of-day. Results showed that, during the day, the Amazon rainforest is characterized by well-mixed conditions with mixing timescales smaller than thirty minutes in the

  9. Detecting Canopy Water Status Using Shortwave Infrared Reflectance Data From Polar Orbiting and Geostationary Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fensholt, Rasmus; Huber Gharib, Silvia; Proud, Simon Richard

    2010-01-01

    -based canopy water status detection from geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) data as compared to polar orbiting environmental satellite (POES)-based moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. The EO-based SWIR water stress index...... (SIWSI) is evaluated against in situ measured canopy water content indicators at a semi-arid grassland savanna site in Senegal 2008. Daily SIWSI from both MODIS and SEVIRI data show an overall inverse relation to Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) throughout the growing season. SIWSI...... for SWIR-based canopy water status and stress monitoring in a semi-arid environment....

  10. Transfer of 7Be, 210Pb and 210Po in a forest canopy of Japanese cedar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaki, S.; Tagawa, Y.; Sugihara, S.; Maeda, Y.; Inokura, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The concentrations of 7 Be, 210 Pb and 210 Po of ca. 60 parts of a whole tree of Japanese cedar and of underlying litter and soil samples were determined for studying their transfer in a forest canopy. The results suggest that the mean residence times of 7 Be and 210 Pb in the forest canopy were ca. 20 and 900 days, respectively, and the dry deposition rate of 7 Be on the forest canopy was about a half of the total deposition rate. (author)

  11. Virtual Geographic Simulation of Light Distribution within Three-Dimensional Plant Canopy Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyu Tang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Virtual geographic environments (VGEs have been regarded as an important new means of simulating, analyzing, and understanding complex geological processes. Plants and light are major components of the geographic environment. Light is a critical factor that affects ecological systems. In this study, we focused on simulating light transmission and distribution within a three-dimensional plant canopy model. A progressive refinement radiosity algorithm was applied to simulate the transmission and distribution of solar light within a detailed, three-dimensional (3D loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. canopy model. The canopy was described in three dimensions, and each organ surface was represented by a set of triangular facets. The form factors in radiosity were calculated using a hemi-cube algorithm. We developed a module for simulating the instantaneous light distribution within a virtual canopy, which was integrated into ParaTree. We simulated the distribution of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR within a loquat canopy, and calculated the total PAR intercepted at the whole canopy scale, as well as the mean PAR interception per unit leaf area. The ParaTree-integrated radiosity model simulates the uncollided propagation of direct solar and diffuse sky light and the light-scattering effect of foliage. The PAR captured by the whole canopy based on the radiosity is approximately 9.4% greater than that obtained using ray tracing and TURTLE methods. The latter methods do not account for the scattering among leaves in the canopy in the study, and therefore, the difference might be due to the contribution of light scattering in the foliage. The simulation result is close to Myneni’s findings, in which the light scattering within a canopy is less than 10% of the incident PAR. Our method can be employed for visualizing and analyzing the spatial distribution of light within a canopy, and for estimating the PAR interception at the organ and canopy

  12. Abundance of Green Tree Frogs and Insects in Artificial Canopy Gaps in a Bottomland Hardwood Forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.; Ulyshen, Michael D.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT - We found more green tree frogs ( Hyla cinerea) n canopv gaps than in closed canopy forest. Of the 331 green tree frogs observed, 88% were in canopv gaps. Likewise, higher numbers and biomasses of insects were captured in the open gap habitat Flies were the most commonlv collected insect group accounting for 54% of the total capture. These data suggest that one reason green tree frogs were more abundant in canopy gaps was the increased availability of prey and that small canopy gaps provide early successional habitats that are beneficial to green tree frog populations.

  13. nitrogen saturation in stream ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Earl, S. R.; Valett, H. M.; Webster, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of nitrogen (N) saturation has organized the assessment of N loading in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we extend the concept to lotic ecosystems by coupling Michaelis-Menten kinetics and nutrient spiraling. We propose a series of saturation response types, which may be used to characterize the proximity of streams to N saturation. We conducted a series of short-term N releases using a tracer ((NO3)-N-15-N) to measure uptake. Experiments were conducted in streams spanning a gradient ...

  14. Plant science in forest canopies--the first 30 years of advances and challenges (1980-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Margaret D; Schowalter, Timothy D

    2012-04-01

    As an emerging subdiscipline of forest biology, canopy science has undergone a transition from observational, 'oh-wow' exploration to a more hypothesis-driven, experimental arena for rigorous field biology. Although efforts to explore forest canopies have occurred for a century, the new tools to access the treetops during the past 30 yr facilitated not only widespread exploration but also new discoveries about the complexity and global effects of this so-called 'eighth continent of the planet'. The forest canopy is the engine that fixes solar energy in carbohydrates to power interactions among forest components that, in turn, affect regional and global climate, biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem services. Climate change, biodiversity conservation, fresh water conservation, ecosystem productivity, and carbon sequestration represent important components of forest research that benefit from access to the canopy for rigorous study. Although some canopy variables can be observed or measured from the ground, vertical and horizontal variation in environmental conditions and processes within the canopy that determine canopy-atmosphere and canopy-forest floor interactions are best measured within the canopy. Canopy science has matured into a cutting-edge subset of forest research, and the treetops also serve as social and economic drivers for sustainable communities, fostering science education and ecotourism. This interdisciplinary context of forest canopy science has inspired innovative new approaches to environmental stewardship, involving diverse stakeholders. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. The Northeast Stream Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Coles, James F.

    2016-04-22

    In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) is assessing stream quality in the northeastern United States. The goal of the Northeast Stream Quality Assessment (NESQA) is to assess the quality of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life and evaluating the relation between these stressors and biological communities. The focus of NESQA in 2016 will be on the effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality in all or parts of eight states: Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont.Findings will provide the public and policymakers with information about the most critical factors affecting stream quality, thus providing insights about possible approaches to protect the health of streams in the region. The NESQA study will be the fourth regional study conducted as part of NAWQA and will be of similar design and scope to the first three, in the Midwest in 2013, the Southeast in 2014, and the Pacific Northwest in 2015 (http://txpub.usgs.gov/RSQA/).

  16. Restoration of a forested wetland ecosystem in a thermally impacted stream corridor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.A.; McKee, W.H. Jr.; Dulohery, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Savannah River Swamp is a 3,020 Ha forested wetland on the floodplain of the Savannah River and is located on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). Major impacts to the swamp hydrology occurred with the completion of the production reactors and one coal-fired powerhouse at the SRS in the early 1950's. Water was pumped from the Savannah River, through secondary heat exchangers of the reactors, and discharged into three of the tributary streams that flow into the swamp. This continued from 1954 to 1988 at various levels. The sustained increases in water volume resulted in overflow of the original stream banks and the creation of additional floodplains. Accompanying this was considerable erosion of the original stream corridor and deposition of a deep silt layer on the newly formed delta. Heated water was discharged directly into Pen Branch and water temperature in the stream often exceeded 50 C. The nearly continuous flood of the swamp, the thermal load of the water, and the heavy silting resulted in complete mortality of the original vegetation in large areas of the floodplain. Research has been ongoing to determine methods to reintroduce tree species characteristic of more mature forested wetlands. The goal of the restoration is to create structural and biological diversity in the forest canopy by establishing a mix of species typically present in riparian and wetland forests of the area

  17. Model for absorption and release of gaseous materials by forest canopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A model of the physical processes defining the absorption and release of materials by a forest canopy has been developed. The model deals with the turbulent transport of gaseous materials in the surface boundary layer near the canopy, the turbulent transport in the canopy atmosphere, the transport through the boundary layer near the leaf and soil surface, and the solution of the gaseous materials in intracellular fluids and subsequent diffusion into the leaf cells. The model is used to simulate the uptake of molecular tritium by the forest canopy and the subsequent release of tritiated water. Results of dynamic simulations of tritium uptake and release are compared with data collected at the time of a release of molecular tritium to the atmosphere

  18. Xylobolus subpileatus, a specialized basidiomycete functionally linked to old canopy gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudiere, A.; Bellanger, J. M.; Moreau, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    Documenting succession in forest canopy gaps provides insights into the ecological processes governing the temporal dynamics of species within communities. We analyzed the fruiting patterns of a rare but widely distributed saproxylic macromycete, Xylobolus subpileatus, during the ageing of natura...

  19. TREE STEM AND CANOPY BIOMASS ESTIMATES FROM TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Olofsson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study an automatic method for estimating both the tree stem and the tree canopy biomass is presented. The point cloud tree extraction techniques operate on TLS data and models the biomass using the estimated stem and canopy volume as independent variables. The regression model fit error is of the order of less than 5 kg, which gives a relative model error of about 5 % for the stem estimate and 10–15 % for the spruce and pine canopy biomass estimates. The canopy biomass estimate was improved by separating the models by tree species which indicates that the method is allometry dependent and that the regression models need to be recomputed for different areas with different climate and different vegetation.

  20. Upper canopy pollinators of Eucryphia cordifolia Cav., a tree of South American temperate rain forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Smith-Ramírez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ecological processes in the upper canopy of temperate forests have been seldom studied because of the limited accessibility. Here, we present the results of the first survey of the pollinator assemblage and the frequency of insect visits to flowers in the upper branches of ulmo, Eucryphia cordifolia Cav., an emergent 30-40 m-tall tree in rainforests of Chiloé Island, Chile. We compared these findings with a survey of flower visitors restricted to lower branches of E. cordifolia 1- in the forest understory, 2- in lower branches in an agroforestry area. We found 10 species of pollinators in canopy, and eight, 12 and 15 species in understory, depending of tree locations. The main pollinators of E. cordifolia in the upper canopy differed significantly from the pollinator assemblage recorded in lower tree branches. We conclude that the pollinator assemblages of the temperate forest canopy and interior are still unknown.

  1. Effect of Vertical Canopy Architecture on Transpiration, Thermoregulation and Carbon Assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirtha Banerjee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the impact of natural and anthropogenic disturbances such as deforestation, forest fires and vegetation thinning among others on net ecosystem—atmosphere exchanges of carbon dioxide, water vapor and heat—is an important aspect in the context of modeling global carbon, water and energy cycles. The absence of canopy architectural variation in horizontal and vertical directions is a major source of uncertainty in current climate models attempting to address these issues. This manuscript demonstrates the importance of considering the vertical distribution of foliage density by coupling a leaf level plant biophysics model with analytical solutions of wind flow and light attenuation in a horizontally homogeneous canopy. It is demonstrated that plant physiological response in terms of carbon assimilation, transpiration and canopy surface temperature can be widely different for two canopies with the same leaf area index (LAI but different leaf area density distributions, under several conditions of wind speed, light availability, soil moisture availability and atmospheric evaporative demand.

  2. ECHIDNA LIDAR Campaigns: Forest Canopy Imagery and Field Data, U.S.A., 2007-2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains forest canopy scan data from the Echidna Validation Instrument (EVI) and field measurements data from three campaigns conducted in...

  3. LiDAR-derived Vegetation Canopy Structure, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset provides multiple-return LiDAR-derived vegetation canopy structure at 30-meter spatial resolution for the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP)....

  4. CMS: Mangrove Canopy Height from High-resolution Stereo Image Pairs, Mozambique, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides canopy height estimates for mangrove forests at 0.6 x 0.6 m resolution in three study sites located in southeastern Mozambique, Africa: two...

  5. Soil characteristics under legume and non-legume tree canopies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %, 100% and 150% the distance from tree trunk to canopy edge of leguminous sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth.) and espinheiro (Machaerium aculeatum Raddi) and non-legume cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L.) and jaqueira ...

  6. CMS: LiDAR-derived Tree Canopy Cover for Pennsylvania, USA, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides estimated high-resolution (1-m) tree canopy cover for the state of Pennsylvania, USA, in 2008. The data were derived from 2006-2008...

  7. Tree Canopy Characterization for EO-1 Reflective and Thermal Infrared Validation Studies: Rochester, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Jerrell R., Jr.; Smith, James A.

    2002-01-01

    The tree canopy characterization presented herein provided ground and tree canopy data for different types of tree canopies in support of EO-1 reflective and thermal infrared validation studies. These characterization efforts during August and September of 2001 included stem and trunk location surveys, tree structure geometry measurements, meteorology, and leaf area index (LAI) measurements. Measurements were also collected on thermal and reflective spectral properties of leaves, tree bark, leaf litter, soil, and grass. The data presented in this report were used to generate synthetic reflective and thermal infrared scenes and images that were used for the EO-1 Validation Program. The data also were used to evaluate whether the EO-1 ALI reflective channels can be combined with the Landsat-7 ETM+ thermal infrared channel to estimate canopy temperature, and also test the effects of separating the thermal and reflective measurements in time resulting from satellite formation flying.

  8. CMS: Mangrove Canopy Height Estimates from Remote Imagery, Zambezi Delta, Mozambique

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides high resolution canopy height estimates for mangrove forests in the Zambezi Delta, Mozambique, Africa. The estimates were derived from three...

  9. Do changes in the azimuthal distribution of maize leaves over time affect canopy light absorption?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouet, J.L.; Moulia, B.; Bonhomme, R.

    1999-01-01

    In maize canopies, when modelling the architecture and light regime one usually assumes leaf azimuths are distributed uniformly. Once we had demonstrated azimuthal re-orientation of maize leaves during the vegetative phase, we tested the weight of this hypothesis on the light absorbed daily by the canopy. We thus modelled the three-dimensional (3D) geometry of maize canopies with various plant densities and at different developmental stages using plant digitizing under field conditions. We simulated radiative transfer using a volume-based approach within actual and hypothetical canopies, obtained by simply rearranging leaf azimuths. Simulations indicated that changes to horizontal heterogeneity have little effect on daily light absorption efficiency. It is concluded that changes in leaf azimuths do not have to be taken into account in crop-functioning models. (author) [fr

  10. Assimilating satellite-based canopy height within an ecosystem model to estimate aboveground forest biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joetzjer, E.; Pillet, M.; Ciais, P.; Barbier, N.; Chave, J.; Schlund, M.; Maignan, F.; Barichivich, J.; Luyssaert, S.; Hérault, B.; von Poncet, F.; Poulter, B.

    2017-07-01

    Despite advances in Earth observation and modeling, estimating tropical biomass remains a challenge. Recent work suggests that integrating satellite measurements of canopy height within ecosystem models is a promising approach to infer biomass. We tested the feasibility of this approach to retrieve aboveground biomass (AGB) at three tropical forest sites by assimilating remotely sensed canopy height derived from a texture analysis algorithm applied to the high-resolution Pleiades imager in the Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems Canopy (ORCHIDEE-CAN) ecosystem model. While mean AGB could be estimated within 10% of AGB derived from census data in average across sites, canopy height derived from Pleiades product was spatially too smooth, thus unable to accurately resolve large height (and biomass) variations within the site considered. The error budget was evaluated in details, and systematic errors related to the ORCHIDEE-CAN structure contribute as a secondary source of error and could be overcome by using improved allometric equations.

  11. The arthropod community of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) canopies in Norway

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thunes, K. H.; Skartveit, J.; Gjerde, I.; Starý, Josef; Solhoy, T.; Fjellberg, A.; Kobro, S.; Nakahara, S.; zur Strassen, R.; Vierbergen, G.; Szadziewski, R.; Hagan, D. V.; Grogan Jr., W. L.; Jonassen, T.; Aakra, K.; Anonby, J.; Greve, L.; Aukema, B.; Heller, K.; Michelsen, V.; Haenni, J.-P.; Emeljanov, A. F.; Douwes, P.; Berggren, K.; Franzen, J.; Disney, R. H. L.; Prescher, S.; Johanson, K. A.; Mamaev, B.; Podenas, S.; Andersen, S.; Gaimari, S. D.; Nartshuk, E.; Soli, G. E. E.; Papp, L.; Midtgaard, F.; Andersen, A.; von Tschirnhaus, M.; Bächli, G.; Olsen, K. M.; Olsvik, H.; Földvári, M.; Raastad, J. E.; Hansen, L. O.; Djursvoll, P.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2004), s. 65-90 ISSN 0785-8760 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : arthropod community * Scots pine * canopies Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.298, year: 2004

  12. Relative lack of regeneration of shade-intolerant canopy species in some South African forests

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Midgley, JJ

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Some species such as Celtis Africana, are experiencing relative recruitment bottlenecks, because there are usually fewer recruits [i.e. individuals <20 cm diameter at breast height, (dbh)] than canopy individuals. The species with low recruitment...

  13. Process for humidifying a gaseous fuel stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sederquist, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    A fuel gas stream for a fuel cell is humidified by a recirculating hot liquid water stream using the heat of condensation from the humidified stream as the heat to vaporize the liquid water. Humidification is accomplished by directly contacting the liquid water with the dry gas stream in a saturator to evaporate a small portion of water. The recirculating liquid water is reheated by direct contact with the humidified gas stream in a condenser, wherein water is condensed into the liquid stream. Between the steps of humidifying and condensing water from the gas stream it passes through the fuel cell and additional water, in the form of steam, is added thereto

  14. Contrasting germination responses to vegetative canopies experienced in pre- vs. post-dispersal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverett, Lindsay D.; Auge, Gabriela A.; Bali, Aman; Donohue, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Background Seeds adjust their germination based on conditions experienced before and after dispersal. Post-dispersal cues are expected to be more accurate predictors of offspring environments, and thus offspring success, than pre-dispersal cues. Therefore, germination responses to conditions experienced during seed maturation may be expected to be superseded by responses to conditions experienced during seed imbibition. In taxa of disturbed habitats, neighbours frequently reduce the performance of germinants. This leads to the hypotheses that a vegetative canopy will reduce germination in such taxa, and that a vegetative canopy experienced during seed imbibition will over-ride germination responses to a canopy experienced during seed maturation, since it is a more proximal cue of immediate competition. These hypotheses were tested here in Arabidopsis thaliana. Methods Seeds were matured under a simulated canopy (green filter) or white light. Fresh (dormant) seeds were imbibed in the dark, white light or canopy at two temperatures (10 or 22 °C), and germination proportions were recorded. Germination was also recorded in after-ripened (less dormant) seeds that were induced into secondary dormancy and imbibed in the dark at each temperature, either with or without brief exposure to red and far-red light. Key Results Unexpectedly, a maturation canopy expanded the conditions that elicited germination, even as seeds lost and regained dormancy. In contrast, an imbibition canopy impeded or had no effect on germination. Maturation under a canopy did not modify germination responses to red and far-red light. Seed maturation under a canopy masked genetic variation in germination. Conclusions The results challenge the hypothesis that offspring will respond more strongly to their own environment than to that of their parents. The observed relaxation of germination requirements caused by a maturation canopy could be maladaptive for offspring by disrupting germination responses

  15. Canopy structural alterations to nitrogen functions of the soil microbial community in a Quercus virginiana forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, L. D.; Van Stan, J. T., II; Rosier, C. L.; Gay, T. E.; Wu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Forest canopy structure controls the timing, amount and chemical character of precipitation supply to soils through interception and drainage along crown surfaces. Yet, few studies have examined forest canopy structural connections to soil microbial communities (SMCs), and none have measured how this affects SMC N functions. The maritime Quercus virginiana Mill. (southern live oak) forests of St Catherine's Island, GA, USA provide an ideal opportunity to examine canopy structural alterations to SMCs and their functioning, as their throughfall varies substantially across space due to dense Tillandsia usneoides L. (spanish moss) mats bestrewn throughout. To examine the impact of throughfall variability on SMC N functions, we examined points along the canopy coverage continuum: large canopy gaps (0%), bare canopy (50-60%), and canopy of heavy T. usneoides coverage (>=85%). Five sites beneath each of the canopy cover types were monitored for throughfall water/ions and soil leachates chemistry for one storm each month over the growing period (7 months, Mar-2014 to Sep-2014) to compare with soil chemistry and SMC communities sampled every two months throughout that same period (Mar, May, Jul, Sep). DGGE and QPCR analysis of the N functioning genes (NFGs) to characterize the ammonia oxidizing bacterial (AOB-amoA), archaea (AOA-amoA), and ammonification (chiA) communities were used to determine the nitrification and decomposition potential of these microbial communities. PRS™-probes (Western Ag Innovations Inc., Saskatoon, Canada) were then used to determine the availability of NO3-N and NH4+N in the soils over a 6-week period to evaluate whether the differing NFG abundance and community structures resulted in altered N cycling.

  16. The variation of apparent crown size and canopy heterogeneity across lowland Amazonian forests

    OpenAIRE

    Barbier, N.; Couteron, Pierre; Proisy, Christophe; Malhi, Y.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Aim The size structure of a forest canopy is an important descriptor of the forest environment that may yield information on forest biomass and ecology. However, its variability at regional scales is poorly described or understood because of the still prohibitive cost of very high-resolution imagery as well as the lack of an appropriate methodology. We here employ a novel approach to describe and map the canopy structure of tropical forests. Location Amazonia. Methods We apply Fourier transfo...

  17. Quantifying Ancient Maya Land Use Legacy Effects on Contemporary Rainforest Canopy Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica N. Hightower

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Human land use legacies have significant and long-lasting ecological impacts across landscapes. Investigating ancient (>400 years legacy effects can be problematic due to the difficulty in detecting specific, historic land uses, especially those hidden beneath dense canopies. Caracol, the largest (~200 km2 Maya archaeological site in Belize, was abandoned ca. A.D. 900, leaving behind myriad structures, causeways, and an extensive network of agricultural terraces that persist beneath the architecturally complex tropical forest canopy. Airborne LiDAR enables the detection of these below-canopy archaeological features while simultaneously providing a detailed record of the aboveground 3-dimensional canopy organization, which is indicative of a forest’s ecological function. Here, this remote sensing technology is used to determine the effects of ancient land use legacies on contemporary forest structure. Canopy morphology was assessed by extracting LiDAR point clouds (0.25 ha plots from LiDAR-identified terraced (n = 150 and non-terraced (n = 150 areas on low (0°–10°, medium (10°–20°, and high (>20° slopes. We calculated the average canopy height, canopy openness, and vertical diversity from the LiDAR returns, with topographic features (i.e., slope, elevation, and aspect as covariates. Using a PerMANOVA procedure, we determined that forests growing on agricultural terraces exhibited significantly different canopy structure from those growing on non-terraced land. Terraces appear to mediate the effect of slope, resulting in less structural variation between slope and non-sloped land and yielding taller, more closed, more vertically diverse forests. These human land uses abandoned >1000 years ago continue to impact contemporary tropical rainforests having implications related to arboreal habitat and carbon storage.

  18. Influence of Forest-Canopy Morphology and Relief on Spectral Characteristics of Taiga Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirin, V. M.; Knyazeva, S. V.; Eydlina, S. P.

    2017-12-01

    The article deals with the results of a statistical analysis reflecting tendencies (trends) of the relationship between spectral characteristics of taiga forests, indicators of the morphological structure of forest canopy and illumination of the territory. The study was carried out on the example of the model forest territory of the Priangarskiy taiga region of Eastern Siberia (Krasnoyarsk krai) using historical data (forest inventory 1992, Landsat 5 TM 16.06.1989) and the digital elevation model. This article describes a method for determining the quantitative indicator of morphological structure of forest canopy based on taxation data, and the authors propose to subdivide the morphological structure into high complexity, medium complexity, and relatively simple. As a result of the research, dependences of average values of spectral brightness in near and short-wave infrared channels of a Landsat 5 TM image for dark-coniferous, light-coniferous and deciduous forests from the degree of complexity of the forest-canopy structure are received. A high level of variance and maximum brightness average values are marked in green moss (hilocominosa) dark-coniferous and various-grass (larioherbosa) dark-coniferous forests and light-coniferous forests with a complex structure of canopy. The parvifoliate forests are characterized by high values of brightness in stands with a relatively simple structure of the canopy and by a small variance in brightness of any degree of the structure of the canopy complexity. The increase in brightness for the lit slopes in comparison with shaded ones in all stands with a difficult morphological canopy structure is revealed. However, the brightness values of the lit and shaded slopes do not differ for stands with a medium complexity of the structure. It is noted that, in addition to the indicator of the forest-canopy structure, the possible impact on increasing the variance of spectral brightness for the taxation plot has a variability of the

  19. Impact of Canopy Openness on Spider Communities: Implications for Conservation Management of Formerly Coppiced Oak Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Košulič

    Full Text Available Traditional woodland management created a mosaic of differently aged patches providing favorable conditions for a variety of arthropods. After abandonment of historical ownership patterns and traditional management and the deliberate transformation to high forest after World War II, large forest areas became darker and more homogeneous. This had significant negative consequences for biodiversity. An important question is whether even small-scale habitat structures maintained by different levels of canopy openness in abandoned coppiced forest may constitute conditions suitable for forest as well as open habitat specialists. We investigated the effect of canopy openness in former traditionally coppiced woodlands on the species richness, functional diversity, activity density, conservation value, and degree of rareness of epigeic spiders. In each of the eight studied locations, 60-m-long transect was established consisting of five pitfall traps placed at regular 15 m intervals along the gradient. Spiders were collected from May to July 2012. We recorded 90 spider species, including high proportions of xeric specialists (40% and red-listed threatened species (26%. The peaks of conservation indicators, as well as spider community abundance, were shifted toward more open canopies. On the other hand, functional diversity peaked at more closed canopies followed by a rapid decrease with increasing canopy openness. Species richness was highest in the middle of the canopy openness gradient, suggesting an ecotone effect. Ordinations revealed that species of conservation concern tended to be associated with sparse and partly opened canopy. The results show that the various components of biodiversity peaked at different levels of canopy openness. Therefore, the restoration and suitable forest management of such conditions will retain important diversification of habitats in formerly coppiced oak forest stands. We indicate that permanent presence of small

  20. Remote measurement of canopy water content in giant sequoias (Sequoiadendron giganteum) during drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Roberta E.; Asner, Gregory P.; Francis, Emily; Ambrose, Anthony; Baxter, Wendy; Das, Adrian J.; Vaughn, Nicolas R.; Paz-Kagan, Tarin; Dawson, Todd E.; Nydick, Koren R.; Stephenson, Nathan L.

    2018-01-01

    California experienced severe drought from 2012 to 2016, and there were visible changes in the forest canopy throughout the State. In 2014, unprecedented foliage dieback was recorded in giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) trees in Sequoia National Park, in the southern California Sierra Nevada mountains. Although visible changes in sequoia canopies can be recorded, biochemical and physiological responses to drought stress in giant sequoia canopies are not well understood. Ground-based measurements provide insight into the mechanisms of drought responses in trees, but are often limited to few individuals, especially in trees of tall stature such as giant sequoia. Recent studies demonstrate that remotely measured forest canopy water content (CWC) is a general indicator of canopy response to drought, but the underpinning leaf- to canopy-level causes of observed variation in CWC remain poorly understood. We combined field and airborne remote sensing measurements taken in 2015 and 2016 to assess the biophysical responses of giant sequoias to drought. In 49 study trees, CWC was related to leaf water potential, but not to the other foliar traits, suggesting that changes in CWC were made at whole-canopy rather than leaf scales. We found a non-random, spatially varying pattern in mapped CWC, with lower CWC values at lower elevation and along the outer edges of the groves. This pattern was also observed in empirical measurements of foliage dieback from the ground, and in mapped CWC across multiple sequoia groves in this region, supporting the hypothesis that drought stress is expressed in canopy-level changes in giant sequoias. The fact that we can clearly detect a relationship between CWC and foliage dieback, even without taking into account prior variability or new leaf growth, strongly suggests that remotely sensed CWC, and changes in CWC, are a useful measure of water stress in giant sequoia, and valuable for assessing and managing these iconic forests in drought.

  1. Flume experiments on intermittency and zero-crossing properties of canopy turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi, Davide; Katul, Gabriel

    2009-06-01

    How the presence of a canopy alters the clustering and the fine scale intermittency exponents and any possible connections between them remains a vexing research problem in canopy turbulence. To begin progress on this problem, detailed flume experiments in which the longitudinal and vertical velocity time series were acquired using laser Doppler anemometry within and above a uniform canopy composed of densely arrayed rods. The time series analysis made use of the telegraphic approximation (TA) and phase-randomization (PR) methods. The TA preserved the so-called zero-crossing properties in the original turbulent velocity time series but eliminated amplitude variations, while the PR generated surrogate data that preserved the spectral scaling laws in the velocity series but randomized the acceleration statistics. Based on these experiments, it was shown that the variations in the dissipation intermittency exponents were well described by the Taylor microscale Reynolds number (Reλ) within and above the canopy. In terms of clustering, quantified here using the variance in zero-crossing density across scales, two scaling regimes emerged. For spatial scales much larger than the canopy height hc, representing the canonical scale of the vortices dominating the flow, no significant clustering was detected. For spatial scales much smaller than hc, significant clustering was discernable and follows an extensive scaling law inside the canopy. Moreover, the canopy signatures on the clustering scaling laws were weak. When repeating these clustering measures on the PR data, the results were indistinguishable from the original series. Hence, clustering exponents derived from variances in zero-crossing density across scales primarily depended on the velocity correlation function and not on the distributional properties of the acceleration. In terms of the connection between dissipation intermittency and clustering exponents, there was no significant relationship. While the former

  2. Colonisation of epiphytic ferns by skinks and geckos in the high canopy of a Bornean rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Donald, J.; Clegg, J.; Ellwood, M. D. F.

    2017-01-01

    Nest site availability limits the fitness and survival of skinks and geckos, particularly in the canopy of tall tropical rainforests. We document the systematic colonisation and nest use of epiphytic bird’s nest ferns (Asplenium spp) by the gecko Hemiphyllodactylus typus and the skink Lipinia cf. vittigera. As part of a controlled experiment we placed 32 ferns of similar sizes in the high canopy of a lowland dipterocarp rainforest in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Half of these ferns, sampled after...

  3. Modelling Age- and Density-Related Gas Exchange of Picea abies Canopies in the Fichtelgebirge, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Falge, Eva; Tennhunen, John D.; Ryel, Ronald J.; Alsheimer, Martina; Köstner, Barbara

    2000-01-01

    International audience; Differences in canopy exchange of water and carbon dioxide that occur due to changes in tree structure and density in montane Norway spruce stands of Central Germany were analyzed with a three dimensional microclimate and gas exchange model STANDFLUX. The model was used to calculate forest radiation absorption, the net photosynthesis and transpiration of single trees, and gas exchange of tree canopies. Model parameterizations were derived for six stands of Picea abies ...

  4. Diurnal Patterns of Direct Light Extinction in Two Tropical Forest Canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, K.; Silva, C. E.; Kellner, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    The extent to which net ecosystem production is light-limited in Neotropical forests is poorly understood. This is due in part to our limited knowledge of how light moves through complex canopies to different layers of leaves, and the extent to which structural changes in canopies modify the amount of light absorbed by the landscape to drive photosynthesis. Systematic diurnal changes in solar angle, leaf angle, and wind speed suggest that patterns of light attenuation change over the course of the day in tropical forests. In this study, we characterize the extinction of direct light through the canopies of two forests in Panama using high-resolution, three-dimensional measurements from a small footprint, discrete return airborne laser scanner mounted on the gondola of a canopy crane. We hypothesized that light penetrates deeper into canopies during the middle of the day because changes in leaf angle by light-saturated leaves temporarily reduce effective canopy leaf area, and because greater wind speeds increase sunflecks. Also, we hypothesized that rates of light extinction are greater in the wetter forest that receives less direct sunlight because light saturation in upper leaves is less prevalent. We collected laser measurements with resolution of approximately 5,000 points per square meter of ground every 90 minutes over the course of one day each at Parque Natural Metropolitano (1740 mm annual rainfall) and Parque Nacional San Lorenzo (3300 mm annual rainfall) during the dry season in April, 2016. Using a voxel-based approach, we compared the actual versus potential distance traveled by laser beams through each volume of the canopy. We fit an exponential model to quantify the rate of light extinction. We found that rates of light extinction vary spatially, temporally, and by site. These results indicate that variation in forest structure changes patterns of light attenuation through the canopy over multiple scales.

  5. Summary of a Workshop on Plant Canopy Structure, 27-30 April 1981, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    relating canopy structure to amounts of water-conducting tissue have mostly been tried for woody trees and shrubs in which sapwood area is used as...Forest Service. 20 pp. Grier, C. C. and R. H. Waring. 1974. Conifer foliage mass related to sapwood area . Forest Sci. 20:205-206. Hallg, F., R. A. A...Plant Canopy Struc- ture was held at Oak Ridge, Tenn. Over 30 individuals representing a broad range of disciplines and specific areas of expertise were

  6. Polarization of sky light from a canopy atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannay, J H

    2004-01-01

    Light from the clear sky is produced by the scattering of unpolarized sunlight by molecules of the atmosphere and is partially linearly polarized in the process. Singly scattered light, for instance, is fully polarized in viewing directions perpendicular to the sun direction and less and less so towards the parallel and antiparallel directions, where it is unpolarized. The true, multiple, scattering is much less tractable, but importantly different, changing the polarization pattern's topology by splitting the unpolarized directions into pairs. The underlying cause of this 'symmetry breaking' is that the atmosphere is 'wider' than it is deep. Simplifying as much as possible while retaining this feature leads to the caricature atmosphere analysed here: a flattened sheet atmosphere in the sky, a canopy. The multiple scattering is fully tractable and leads to a simple polarization pattern in the sky: the ellipses and hyperbolas of standard confocal ellipsoidal coordinates. The model realizes physically a mathematical pattern of polarization in terms of a complex function proposed by Berry, Dennis and Lee (2004 New J. Phys.6 162) as the simplest one which captures the topology

  7. A photosynthesis-based two-leaf canopy stomatal ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model with single-layer sunlit and shaded leaf canopy scaling is implemented and evaluated in a diagnostic box model with the Pleim-Xiu land surface model (PX LSM) and ozone deposition model components taken directly from the meteorology and air quality modeling system—WRF/CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecast model and Community Multiscale Air Quality model). The photosynthesis-based model for PX LSM (PX PSN) is evaluated at a FLUXNET site for implementation against different parameterizations and the current PX LSM approach with a simple Jarvis function (PX Jarvis). Latent heat flux (LH) from PX PSN is further evaluated at five FLUXNET sites with different vegetation types and landscape characteristics. Simulated ozone deposition and flux from PX PSN are evaluated at one of the sites with ozone flux measurements. Overall, the PX PSN simulates LH as well as the PX Jarvis approach. The PX PSN, however, shows distinct advantages over the PX Jarvis approach for grassland that likely result from its treatment of C3 and C4 plants for CO2 assimilation. Simulations using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) leaf area index (LAI) rather than LAI measured at each site assess how the model would perform with grid averaged data used in WRF/CMAQ. MODIS LAI estimates degrade model performance at all sites but one site having exceptionally old and tall trees. Ozone deposition velocity and ozone flux along with LH

  8. Estimating cotton canopy ground cover from remotely sensed scene reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maas, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    Many agricultural applications require spatially distributed information on growth-related crop characteristics that could be supplied through aircraft or satellite remote sensing. A study was conducted to develop and test a methodology for estimating plant canopy ground cover for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) from scene reflectance. Previous studies indicated that a relatively simple relationship between ground cover and scene reflectance could be developed based on linear mixture modeling. Theoretical analysis indicated that the effects of shadows in the scene could be compensated for by averaging the results obtained using scene reflectance in the red and near-infrared wavelengths. The methodology was tested using field data collected over several years from cotton test plots in Texas and California. Results of the study appear to verify the utility of this approach. Since the methodology relies on information that can be obtained solely through remote sensing, it would be particularly useful in applications where other field information, such as plant size, row spacing, and row orientation, is unavailable

  9. Are temperate canopy spiders tree-species specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupepele, Anne-Christine; Müller, Tobias; Dittrich, Marcus; Floren, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Arboreal spiders in deciduous and coniferous trees were investigated on their distribution and diversity. Insecticidal knock-down was used to comprehensively sample spiders from 175 trees from 2001 to 2003 in the Białowieża forest and three remote forests in Poland. We identified 140 species from 9273 adult spiders. Spider communities were distinguished between deciduous and coniferous trees. The richest fauna was collected from Quercus where beta diversity was also highest. A tree-species-specific pattern was clearly observed for Alnus, Carpinus, Picea and Pinus trees and also for those tree species that were fogged in only four or three replicates, namely Betula and Populus. This hitherto unrecognised association was mainly due to the community composition of common species identified in a Dufrene-Legendre indicator species analysis. It was not caused by spatial or temporal autocorrelation. Explaining tree-species specificity for generalist predators like spiders is difficult and has to involve physical and ecological tree parameters like linkage with the abundance of prey species. However, neither did we find a consistent correlation of prey group abundances with spiders nor could differences in spider guild composition explain the observed pattern. Our results hint towards the importance of deterministic mechanisms structuring communities of generalist canopy spiders although the casual relationship is not yet understood.

  10. Nitrogen vertical distribution by canopy reflectance spectrum in winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W J; Yang, Q Y; Peng, D L; Huang, L S; Zhang, D Y; Yang, G J

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen is a key factor for plant photosynthesis, ecosystem productivity and leaf respiration. Under the condition of nitrogen deficiency, the crop shows the nitrogen deficiency symptoms in the bottom leaves, while excessive nitrogen will affect the upper layer leaves first. Thus, timely measurement of vertical distribution of foliage nitrogen content is critical for growth diagnosis, crop management and reducing environmental impact. This study presents a method using bi-directional reflectance difference function (BRDF) data to invert foliage nitrogen vertical distribution. We developed upper-layer nitrogen inversion index (ULNI), middle-layer nitrogen inversion index (MLNI) and bottom-layer nitrogen inversion index (BLNI) to reflect foliage nitrogen inversion at upper layer, middle layer and bottom layer, respectively. Both ULNI and MLNI were made by the value of the ratio of Modified Chlorophyll Absorption Ration Index to the second Modified Triangular Vegetation Index (MCARI/MTVI2) referred to as canopy nitrogen inversion index (CNII) in this study at ±40° and ±50°, and at ±30° and ±40° view angles, respectively. The BLNI was composed by the value of nitrogen reflectance index (NRI) at ±20° and ±30° view angles. These results suggest that it is feasible to measure foliage nitrogen vertical-layer distribution in a large scale by remote sensing

  11. Effects of microhabitat and large-scale land use on stream salamander occupancy in the coalfields of Central Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeten, Sara E.; Ford, W. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale coal mining practices, particularly surface coal extraction and associated valley fills as well as residential wastewater discharge, are of ecological concern for aquatic systems in central Appalachia. Identifying and quantifying alterations to ecosystems along a gradient of spatial scales is a necessary first-step to aid in mitigation of negative consequences to aquatic biota. In central Appalachian headwater streams, apart from fish, salamanders are the most abundant vertebrate predator that provide a significant intermediate trophic role linking aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Stream salamander species are considered to be sensitive to aquatic stressors and environmental alterations, as past research has shown linkages among microhabitat parameters, large-scale land use such as urbanization and logging, and salamander abundances. However, there is little information examining these relationships between environmental conditions and salamander occupancy in the coalfields of central Appalachia. In the summer of 2013, 70 sites (sampled two to three times each) in the southwest Virginia coalfields were visited to collect salamanders and quantify stream and riparian microhabitat parameters. Using an information-theoretic framework, effects of microhabitat and large-scale land use on stream salamander occupancy were compared. The findings indicate that Desmognathus spp. occupancy rates are more correlated to microhabitat parameters such as canopy cover than to large-scale land uses. However, Eurycea spp. occupancy rates had a strong association with large-scale land uses, particularly recent mining and forest cover within the watershed. These findings suggest that protection of riparian habitats is an important consideration for maintaining aquatic systems in central Appalachia. If this is not possible, restoration riparian areas should follow guidelines using quick-growing tree species that are native to Appalachian riparian areas. These types of trees

  12. Effects of Kaolin Application on Light Absorption and Distribution, Radiation Use Efficiency and Photosynthesis of Almond and Walnut Canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Adolfo; Metcalf, Samuel G.; Buchner, Richard P.; Fulton, Allan E.; Lampinen, Bruce D.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Kaolin applied as a suspension to plant canopies forms a film on leaves that increases reflection and reduces absorption of light. Photosynthesis of individual leaves is decreased while the photosynthesis of the whole canopy remains unaffected or even increases. This may result from a better distribution of light within the canopy following kaolin application, but this explanation has not been tested. The objective of this work was to study the effects of kaolin application on light distribution and absorption within tree canopies and, ultimately, on canopy photosynthesis and radiation use efficiency. Methods Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) incident on individual leaves within the canopy of almond (Prunus dulcis) and walnut (Juglans regia) trees was measured before and after kaolin application in order to study PAR distribution within the canopy. The PAR incident on, and reflected and transmitted by, the canopy was measured on the same day for kaolin-sprayed and control trees in order to calculate canopy PAR absorption. These data were then used to model canopy photosynthesis and radiation use efficiency by a simple method proposed in previous work, based on the photosynthetic response to incident PAR of a top-canopy leaf. Key Results Kaolin increased incident PAR on surfaces of inner-canopy leaves, although there was an estimated 20 % loss in PAR reaching the photosynthetic apparatus, due to increased reflection. Assuming a 20 % loss of PAR, modelled photosynthesis and photosynthetic radiation use efficiency (PRUE) of kaolin-coated leaves decreased by only 6·3 %. This was due to (1) more beneficial PAR distribution within the kaolin-sprayed canopy, and (2) with decreasing PAR, leaf photosynthesis decreases less than proportionally, due to the curvature of the photosynthesis response-curve to PAR. The relatively small loss in canopy PRUE (per unit of incident PAR), coupled with the increased incident PAR on the leaf surface on

  13. Assessment of Light Environment Variability in Broadleaved Forest Canopies Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitry Van der Zande

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Light availability inside a forest canopy is of key importance to many ecosystem processes, such as photosynthesis and transpiration. Assessment of light availability and within-canopy light variability enables a more detailed understanding of these biophysical processes. The changing light-vegetation interaction in a homogeneous oak (Quercus robur L. stand was studied at different moments during the growth season using terrestrial laser scanning datasets and ray tracing technology. Three field campaigns were organized at regular time intervals (24 April 2008; 07 May 2008; 23 May 2008 to monitor the increase of foliage material. The laser scanning data was used to generate 3D representations of the forest stands, enabling structure feature extraction and light interception modeling, using the Voxel-Based Light Interception Model (VLIM. The VLIM is capable of estimating the relative light intensity or Percentage of Above Canopy Light (PACL at any arbitrary point in the modeled crown space. This resulted in a detailed description of the dynamic light environments inside the canopy. Mean vertical light extinction profiles were calculated for the three time frames, showing significant differences in light attenuation by the canopy between April 24 on the one hand, and May 7 and May 23 on the other hand. The proposed methodology created the opportunity to link these within-canopy light distributions to the increasing amount of photosynthetically active leaf material and its distribution in the considered 3D space.

  14. Turbulent mixing and removal of ozone within an Amazon rainforest canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, L. S.; Gerken, T.; Ruiz-Plancarte, J.; Wei, D.; Fuentes, J. D.; Katul, G. G.; Dias, N. L.; Acevedo, O. C.; Chamecki, M.

    2017-03-01

    Simultaneous profiles of turbulence statistics and mean ozone mixing ratio are used to establish a relation between eddy diffusivity and ozone mixing within the Amazon forest. A one-dimensional diffusion model is proposed and used to infer mixing time scales from the eddy diffusivity profiles. Data and model results indicate that during daytime conditions, the upper (lower) half of the canopy is well (partially) mixed most of the time and that most of the vertical extent of the forest can be mixed in less than an hour. During nighttime, most of the canopy is predominantly poorly mixed, except for periods with bursts of intermittent turbulence. Even though turbulence is faster than chemistry during daytime, both processes have comparable time scales in the lower canopy layers during nighttime conditions. Nonchemical loss time scales (associated with stomatal uptake and dry deposition) for the entire forest are comparable to turbulent mixing time scale in the lower canopy during the day and in the entire canopy during the night, indicating a tight coupling between turbulent transport and dry deposition and stomatal uptake processes. Because of the significant time of day and height variability of the turbulent mixing time scale inside the canopy, it is important to take it into account when studying chemical and biophysical processes happening in the forest environment. The method proposed here to estimate turbulent mixing time scales is a reliable alternative to currently used models, especially for situations in which the vertical distribution of the time scale is relevant.

  15. Coupling Fine-Scale Root and Canopy Structure Using Ground-Based Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brady S. Hardiman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem physical structure, defined by the quantity and spatial distribution of biomass, influences a range of ecosystem functions. Remote sensing tools permit the non-destructive characterization of canopy and root features, potentially providing opportunities to link above- and belowground structure at fine spatial resolution in functionally meaningful ways. To test this possibility, we employed ground-based portable canopy LiDAR (PCL and ground penetrating radar (GPR along co-located transects in forested sites spanning multiple stages of ecosystem development and, consequently, of structural complexity. We examined canopy and root structural data for coherence (i.e., correlation in the frequency of spatial variation at multiple spatial scales ≤10 m within each site using wavelet analysis. Forest sites varied substantially in vertical canopy and root structure, with leaf area index and root mass more becoming even vertically as forests aged. In all sites, above- and belowground structure, characterized as mean maximum canopy height and root mass, exhibited significant coherence at a scale of 3.5–4 m, and results suggest that the scale of coherence may increase with stand age. Our findings demonstrate that canopy and root structure are linked at characteristic spatial scales, which provides the basis to optimize scales of observation. Our study highlights the potential, and limitations, for fusing LiDAR and radar technologies to quantitatively couple above- and belowground ecosystem structure.

  16. Comparison of infrared canopy temperature in a rubber plantation and tropical rain forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qing-Hai; Deng, Yun; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Deng, Xiao-Bao; Lin, You-Xing; Zhou, Li-Guo; Fei, Xue-Hai; Sha, Li-Qing; Liu, Yun-Tong; Zhou, Wen-Jun; Gao, Jin-Bo

    2017-10-01

    Canopy temperature is a result of the canopy energy balance and is driven by climate conditions, plant architecture, and plant-controlled transpiration. Here, we evaluated canopy temperature in a rubber plantation (RP) and tropical rainforest (TR) in Xishuangbanna, southwestern China. An infrared temperature sensor was installed at each site to measure canopy temperature. In the dry season, the maximum differences (Tc - Ta) between canopy temperature (Tc) and air temperature (Ta) in the RP and TR were 2.6 and 0.1 K, respectively. In the rainy season, the maximum (Tc - Ta) values in the RP and TR were 1.0 and -1.1 K, respectively. There were consistent differences between the two forests, with the RP having higher (Tc - Ta) than the TR throughout the entire year. Infrared measurements of Tc can be used to calculate canopy stomatal conductance in both forests. The difference in (Tc - Ta) at three gc levels with increasing direct radiation in the RP was larger than in the TR, indicating that change in (Tc - Ta) in the RP was relatively sensitive to the degree of stomatal closure.

  17. Soil types and forest canopy structures in southern Missouri: A first look with AIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, G. M.; Arvidson, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral reflectance properties of deciduous oak-hickory forests covering the eastern half of the Rolla Quadrangle were examined using Thematic Mapper (TM) data acquired in August and December, 1982 and Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data acquired in August, 1985. For the TM data distinctly high relative reflectance values (greater than 0.3) in the near infrared (Band 4, 0.73 to 0.94 micrometers) correspond to regions characterized by xeric (dry) forests that overlie soils with low water retention capacities. These soils are derived primarily from rhyolites. More mesic forests characterized by lower TM band 4 relative reflectances are associated with soils of higher retention capacities derived predominately from non-cherty carbonates. The major factors affecting canopy reflectance appear to be the leaf area index (LAI) and leaf optical properties. The Suits canopy reflectance model predicts the relative reflectance values for the xeric canopies. The mesic canopy reflectance is less well matched and incorporation of canopy shadowing caused by the irregular nature of the mesic canopy may be necessary. Preliminary examination of high spectral resolution AIS data acquired in August of 1985 reveals no more information than found in the broad band TM data.

  18. Sunscreening fungal pigments influence the vertical gradient of pendulous lichens in boreal forest canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färber, Leonie; Sølhaug, Knut Asbjorn; Esseen, Per-Anders; Bilger, Wolfgang; Gauslaa, Yngvar

    2014-06-01

    Pendulous lichens dominate canopies of boreal forests, with dark Bryoria species in the upper canopy vs. light Alectoria and Usnea species in lower canopy. These genera offer important ecosystem services such as winter forage for reindeer and caribou. The mechanism behind this niche separation is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that species-specific sunscreening fungal pigments protect underlying symbiotic algae differently against high light, and thus shape the vertical canopy gradient of epiphytes. Three pale species with the reflecting pigment usnic acid (Alectoria sarmentosa, Usnea dasypoga, U. longissima) and three with dark, absorbing melanins (Bryoria capillaris, B. fremontii, B. fuscescens) were compared. We subjected the lichens to desiccation stress with and without light, and assessed their performance with chlorophyll fluorescence. Desiccation alone only affected U. longissima. By contrast, light in combination with desiccation caused photoinhibitory damage in all species. Usnic lichens were significantly more susceptible to light during desiccation than melanic ones. Thus, melanin is a more efficient light-screening pigment than usnic acid. Thereby, the vertical gradient of pendulous lichens in forest canopies is consistent with a shift in type and functioning of sunscreening pigments, from high-light-tolerant Bryoria in the upper to susceptible Alectoria and Usnea in the lower canopy.

  19. NDVI as a predictor of canopy arthropod biomass in the Alaskan arctic tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Shannan K; Asmus, Ashley; Rich, Matthew E; Wingfield, John; Gough, Laura; Boelman, Natalie T

    2015-04-01

    The physical and biological responses to rapid arctic warming are proving acute, and as such, there is a need to monitor, understand, and predict ecological responses over large spatial and temporal scales. The use of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) acquired from airborne and satellite sensors addresses this need, as it is widely used as a tool for detecting and quantifying spatial and temporal dynamics of tundra vegetation cover, productivity, and phenology. Such extensive use of the NDVI to quantify vegetation characteristics suggests that it may be similarly applied to characterizing primary and secondary consumer communities. Here, we develop empirical models to predict canopy arthropod biomass with canopy-level measurements of the NDVI both across and within distinct tundra vegetation communities over four growing seasons in the Arctic Foothills region of the Brooks Range, Alaska, USA. When canopy arthropod biomass is predicted with the NDVI across all four growing seasons, our overall model that includes all four vegetation communities explains 63% of the variance in canopy arthropod biomass, whereas our models specific to each of the four vegetation communities explain 74% (moist tussock tundra), 82% (erect shrub tundra), 84% (riparian shrub tundra), and 87% (dwarf shrub tundra) of the observed variation in canopy arthropod biomass. Our field-based study suggests that measurements of the NDVI made from air- and spaceborne sensors may be able to quantify spatial and temporal variation in canopy arthropod biomass at landscape to regional scales.

  20. Modeling the radiation transfer of discontinuous canopies: results for gap probability and single-scattering contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Zou, Kai; Shang, Hong; Ji, Zheng; Zhao, Huijie; Huang, Wenjiang; Li, Cunjun

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we present an analytical model for the computation of radiation transfer of discontinuous vegetation canopies. Some initial results of gap probability and bidirectional gap probability of discontinuous vegetation canopies, which are important parameters determining the radiative environment of the canopies, are given and compared with a 3- D computer simulation model. In the model, negative exponential attenuation of light within individual plant canopies is assumed. Then the computation of gap probability is resolved by determining the entry points and exiting points of the ray with the individual plants via their equations in space. For the bidirectional gap probability, which determines the single-scattering contribution of the canopy, a gap statistical analysis based model was adopted to correct the dependence of gap probabilities for both solar and viewing directions. The model incorporates the structural characteristics, such as plant sizes, leaf size, row spacing, foliage density, planting density, leaf inclination distribution. Available experimental data are inadequate for a complete validation of the model. So it was evaluated with a three dimensional computer simulation model for 3D vegetative scenes, which shows good agreement between these two models' results. This model should be useful to the quantification of light interception and the modeling of bidirectional reflectance distributions of discontinuous canopies.

  1. Canopy Density Mapping on Ultracam-D Aerial Imagery in Zagros Woodlands, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanifard, Y.; Khodaee, Z.

    2013-09-01

    Canopy density maps express different characteristics of forest stands, especially in woodlands. Obtaining such maps by field measurements is so expensive and time-consuming. It seems necessary to find suitable techniques to produce these maps to be used in sustainable management of woodland ecosystems. In this research, a robust procedure was suggested to obtain these maps by very high spatial resolution aerial imagery. It was aimed to produce canopy density maps by UltraCam-D aerial imagery, newly taken in Zagros woodlands by Iran National Geographic Organization (NGO), in this study. A 30 ha plot of Persian oak (Quercus persica) coppice trees was selected in Zagros woodlands, Iran. The very high spatial resolution aerial imagery of the plot purchased from NGO, was classified by kNN technique and the tree crowns were extracted precisely. The canopy density was determined in each cell of different meshes with different sizes overlaid on the study area map. The accuracy of the final maps was investigated by the ground truth obtained by complete field measurements. The results showed that the proposed method of obtaining canopy density maps was efficient enough in the study area. The final canopy density map obtained by a mesh with 30 Ar (3000 m2) cell size had 80% overall accuracy and 0.61 KHAT coefficient of agreement which shows a great agreement with the observed samples. This method can also be tested in other case studies to reveal its capability in canopy density map production in woodlands.

  2. Algorithm for retrieving vegetative canopy and leaf parameters from multi- and hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Christoph

    2009-05-01

    In recent years hyper-spectral data has been used to retrieve information about vegetative canopies such as leaf area index and canopy water content. For the environmental scientist these two parameters are valuable, but there is potentially more information to be gained as high spatial resolution data becomes available. We developed an Amoeba (Nelder-Mead or Simplex) based program to invert a vegetative canopy radiosity model coupled with a leaf (PROSPECT5) reflectance model and modeled for the background reflectance (e.g. soil, water, leaf litter) to a measured reflectance spectrum. The PROSPECT5 leaf model has five parameters: leaf structure parameter Nstru, chlorophyll a+b concentration Cab, carotenoids content Car, equivalent water thickness Cw and dry matter content Cm. The canopy model has two parameters: total leaf area index (LAI) and number of layers. The background reflectance model is either a single reflectance spectrum from a spectral library() derived from a bare area pixel on an image or a linear mixture of soil spectra. We summarize the radiosity model of a layered canopy and give references to the leaf/needle models. The method is then tested on simulated and measured data. We investigate the uniqueness, limitations and accuracy of the retrieved parameters on canopy parameters (low, medium and high leaf area index) spectral resolution (32 to 211 band hyperspectral), sensor noise and initial conditions.

  3. LEAF MICROMORPHOMETRY OF Schinus molle L. (ANARCADIACEAE IN DIFFERENT CANOPY HEIGHTS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinês Ferreira Pires

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaf characterization of trees is essential for its identification and use, as well as to understand its relationships with environment. The objective of this work is to study the leaflet anatomy and leaf biometrical characteristics at different canopy heights of Schinus molle plants as a function of its environmental and physiological modifications. Leaves were collected at three different canopy heights: base, middle and upper canopy in a plantation of S. molle. Leaves were used for anatomical and biometrical analysis. For the anatomical analysis, leaves were fixed in FAA and stored in ethanol 70% and further submitted to transversal and paradermical sections. Slides were photomicrographed and image analysis was performed in UTHSCSA-Imagetool. For biometrical analysis leaf area, length, width, dry mass and specific leaf area were evaluated. The leaflets exhibited single layer epidermis, anomocytic and ciclocytic stomata, isobilateral mesophyll, subepidermal parenchyma layer in both adaxial and abaxial faces of epidermis, secretory vessels and lamellar collenchyma in midrib and leaf border. Leaf anatomy modifications occurred in cuticle and mesophyll thickness, vascular system, phloem thickness, and stomatal density in accordance with leaf canopy position. Leaves were smaller and with reduced leaf area at higher canopy positions. S. molle leaf anatomy is different from other species within Schinus genre with modifications under different environmental and physiological modifications promoted by its canopy height.

  4. Fish populations in Plynlimon streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Crisp

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In Plynlimon streams, brown trout (Salmo trutta L. are widespread in the upper Wye at population densities of 0.03 to 0.32 fish m-2 and show evidence of successful recruitment in most years. In the upper Severn, brown trout are found only in an area of c. 1670 -2 downstream of Blaenhafren Falls at densities of 0.03 to 0.24 fish -2 and the evidence suggests very variable year to year success in recruitment (Crisp & Beaumont, 1996. Analyses of the data show that temperature differences between afforested and unafforested streams may affect the rates of trout incubation and growth but are not likely to influence species survival. Simple analyses of stream discharge data suggest, but do not prove, that good years for recruitment in the Hafren population were years of low stream discharge. This may be linked to groundwater inputs detected in other studies in this stream. More research is needed to explain the survival of the apparently isolated trout population in the Hafren.

  5. Streaming Compression of Hexahedral Meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isenburg, M; Courbet, C

    2010-02-03

    We describe a method for streaming compression of hexahedral meshes. Given an interleaved stream of vertices and hexahedral our coder incrementally compresses the mesh in the presented order. Our coder is extremely memory efficient when the input stream documents when vertices are referenced for the last time (i.e. when it contains topological finalization tags). Our coder then continuously releases and reuses data structures that no longer contribute to compressing the remainder of the stream. This means in practice that our coder has only a small fraction of the whole mesh in memory at any time. We can therefore compress very large meshes - even meshes that do not file in memory. Compared to traditional, non-streaming approaches that load the entire mesh and globally reorder it during compression, our algorithm trades a less compact compressed representation for significant gains in speed, memory, and I/O efficiency. For example, on the 456k hexahedra 'blade' mesh, our coder is twice as fast and uses 88 times less memory (only 3.1 MB) with the compressed file increasing about 3% in size. We also present the first scheme for predictive compression of properties associated with hexahedral cells.

  6. Quantitative detection of settled coal dust over green canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Anna; Sahar, Nir

    2017-04-01

    The main task of environmental and geoscience applications are efficient and accurate quantitative classification of earth surfaces and spatial phenomena. In the past decade, there has been a significant interest in employing spectral unmixing in order to retrieve accurate quantitative information latent in in situ data. Recently, the ground-truth and laboratory measured spectral signatures promoted by advanced algorithms are proposed as a new path toward solving the unmixing problem in semi-supervised fashion. This study presents a practical implementation of field spectroscopy as a quantitative tool to detect settled coal dust over green canopy in free/open environment. Coal dust is a fine powdered form of coal, which is created by the crushing, grinding, and pulverizing of coal. Since the inelastic nature of coal, coal dust can be created during transportation, or by mechanically handling coal. Coal dust, categorized at silt-clay particle size, of particular concern due to heavy metals (lead, mercury, nickel, tin, cadmium, mercury, antimony, arsenic, isotopes of thorium and strontium) which are toxic also at low concentrations. This hazard exposes risk on both environment and public health. It has been identified by medical scientist around the world as causing a range of diseases and health problems, mainly heart and respiratory diseases like asthma and lung cancer. It is due to the fact that the fine invisible coal dust particles (less than 2.5 microns) long lodge in the lungs and are not naturally expelled, so long-term exposure increases the risk of health problems. Numerus studies reported that data to conduct study of geographic distribution of the very fine coal dust (smaller than PM 2.5) and related health impacts from coal exports, is not being collected. Sediment dust load in an indoor environment can be spectrally assessed using reflectance spectroscopy (Chudnovsky and Ben-Dor, 2009). Small amounts of particulate pollution that may carry a signature

  7. Incorporating Canopy Cover for Airborne-Derived Assessments of Forest Biomass in the Tropical Forests of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Minerva; Evans, Damian; Coomes, David A; Friess, Daniel A; Suy Tan, Boun; Samean Nin, Chan

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the role of canopy cover in influencing above ground biomass (AGB) dynamics of an open canopied forest and evaluates the efficacy of individual-based and plot-scale height metrics in predicting AGB variation in the tropical forests of Angkor Thom, Cambodia. The AGB was modeled by including canopy cover from aerial imagery alongside with the two different canopy vertical height metrics derived from LiDAR; the plot average of maximum tree height (Max_CH) of individual trees, and the top of the canopy height (TCH). Two different statistical approaches, log-log ordinary least squares (OLS) and support vector regression (SVR), were used to model AGB variation in the study area. Ten different AGB models were developed using different combinations of airborne predictor variables. It was discovered that the inclusion of canopy cover estimates considerably improved the performance of AGB models for our study area. The most robust model was log-log OLS model comprising of canopy cover only (r = 0.87; RMSE = 42.8 Mg/ha). Other models that approximated field AGB closely included both Max_CH and canopy cover (r = 0.86, RMSE = 44.2 Mg/ha for SVR; and, r = 0.84, RMSE = 47.7 Mg/ha for log-log OLS). Hence, canopy cover should be included when modeling the AGB of open-canopied tropical forests.

  8. Remote sensing of canopy nitrogen at regional scale in Mediterranean forests using the spaceborne MERIS Terrestrial Chlorophyll Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loozen, Yasmina; Rebel, Karin T.; Karssenberg, Derek; Wassen, Martin J.; Sardans, Jordi; Peñuelas, Josep; De Jong, Steven M.

    2018-05-01

    Canopy nitrogen (N) concentration and content are linked to several vegetation processes. Therefore, canopy N concentration is a state variable in global vegetation models with coupled carbon (C) and N cycles. While there are ample C data available to constrain the models, widespread N data are lacking. Remotely sensed vegetation indices have been used to detect canopy N concentration and canopy N content at the local scale in grasslands and forests. Vegetation indices could be a valuable tool to detect canopy N concentration and canopy N content at larger scale. In this paper, we conducted a regional case-study analysis to investigate the relationship between the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) Terrestrial Chlorophyll Index (MTCI) time series from European Space Agency (ESA) Envisat satellite at 1 km spatial resolution and both canopy N concentration (%N) and canopy N content (N g m-2, of ground area) from a Mediterranean forest inventory in the region of Catalonia, in the northeast of Spain. The relationships between the datasets were studied after resampling both datasets to lower spatial resolutions (20, 15, 10 and 5 km) and at the original spatial resolution of 1 km. The results at higher spatial resolution (1 km) yielded significant log-linear relationships between MTCI and both canopy N concentration and content: r2 = 0.32 and r2 = 0.17, respectively. We also investigated these relationships per plant functional type. While the relationship between MTCI and canopy N concentration was strongest for deciduous broadleaf and mixed plots (r2 = 0.24 and r2 = 0.44, respectively), the relationship between MTCI and canopy N content was strongest for evergreen needleleaf trees (r2 = 0.19). At the species level, canopy N concentration was strongly related to MTCI for European beech plots (r2 = 0.69). These results present a new perspective on the application of MTCI time series for canopy N detection.

  9. Effects of structural complexity on within-canopy light environments and leaf traits in a northern mixed deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotis, Alexander T; Curtis, Peter S

    2017-10-01

    Canopy structure influences forest productivity through its effects on the distribution of radiation and the light-induced changes in leaf physiological traits. Due to the difficulty of accessing and measuring forest canopies, few field-based studies have quantitatively linked these divergent scales of canopy functioning. The objective of our study was to investigate how canopy structure affects light profiles within a forest canopy and whether leaves of mature trees adjust morphologically and biochemically to the light environments characteristic of canopies with different structural complexity. We used a combination of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data and hemispherical photographs to quantify canopy structure and light environments, respectively, and a telescoping pole to sample leaves. Leaf mass per area (LMA), nitrogen on an area basis (Narea) and chlorophyll on a mass basis (Chlmass) were measured in red maple (Acer rubrum), american beech (Fagus grandifolia), white pine (Pinus strobus), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra) at different heights in plots with similar leaf area index but contrasting canopy complexity (rugosity). We found that more complex canopies had greater porosity and reduced light variability in the midcanopy while total light interception was unchanged relative to less complex canopies. Leaf phenotypes of F. grandifolia, Q. rubra and P. strobus were more sun-acclimated in the midstory of structurally complex canopies while leaf phenotypes of A. rubrum were more shade-acclimated (lower LMA) in the upper canopy of more complex stands, despite no differences in total light interception. Broadleaf species showed further differences in acclimation with increased Narea and reduced Chlmass in leaves with higher LMA, while P. strobus showed no change in Narea and Chlmass with higher LMA. Our results provide new insight on how light distribution and leaf acclimation in mature trees might be altered when natural and anthropogenic

  10. Forest canopy structural controls over throughfall affect soil microbial community structure in an epiphyte-laden maritime oak stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, J. T., II; Rosier, C. L.; Schrom, J. O.; Wu, T.; Reichard, J. S.; Kan, J.

    2014-12-01

    Identifying spatiotemporal influences on soil microbial community (SMC) structure is critical to understanding of patterns in nutrient cycling and related ecological services. Since forest canopy structure alters the spatiotemporal patterning of precipitation water and solute supplies to soils (via the "throughfall" mechanism), is it possible changes in SMC structure variability could arise from modifications in canopy elements? Our study investigates this question by monitoring throughfall water and dissolved ion supply to soils beneath a continuum of canopy structure: from a large gap (0% cover) to heavy Tillandsia usneoides L. (Spanish moss) canopy (>90% cover). Throughfall water supply diminished with increasing canopy cover, yet increased washoff/leaching of Na+, Cl-, PO43-, and SO42- from the canopy to the soils (p < 0.01). Presence of T. usneoides diminished throughfall NO3-, but enhanced NH4+, concentrations supplied to subcanopy soils. The mineral soil horizon (0-10 cm) from canopy gaps, bare canopy, and T. usneoides-laden canopy significantly differed (p < 0.05) in soil chemistry parameters (pH, Ca2+, Mg2+, CEC). PCR-DGGE banding patterns beneath similar canopy covers (experiencing similar throughfall dynamics) also produced high similarities per ANalyses Of SIMilarity (ANO-SIM), and clustered together when analyzed by Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS). Correlation analysis of DGGE banding patterns, throughfall dynamics, and soil chemistry yielded significant correlations (p < 0.05) between fungal communities and soil chemical properties significantly differing between canopy cover types (pH: r2 = 0.50; H+ %-base saturation: r2 = 0.48; Ca2+ %-base saturation: r2 = 0.43). Bacterial community structure correlated with throughfall NO3-, NH4+, and Ca2+ concentrations (r2 = 0.37, p = 0.16). These results suggest that modifications of forest canopy structures are capable of affecting mineral-soil horizon SMC structure via the throughfall mechanism when

  11. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfarb, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using the SCALA digital signage software system. The system is robust and flexible, allowing for the usage of scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intrascreen divisibility. The video is made available to the collaboration or public through the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video t...

  12. Stream ciphers and number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cusick, Thomas W; Renvall, Ari R

    2004-01-01

    This is the unique book on cross-fertilisations between stream ciphers and number theory. It systematically and comprehensively covers known connections between the two areas that are available only in research papers. Some parts of this book consist of new research results that are not available elsewhere. In addition to exercises, over thirty research problems are presented in this book. In this revised edition almost every chapter was updated, and some chapters were completely rewritten. It is useful as a textbook for a graduate course on the subject, as well as a reference book for researchers in related fields. · Unique book on interactions of stream ciphers and number theory. · Research monograph with many results not available elsewhere. · A revised edition with the most recent advances in this subject. · Over thirty research problems for stimulating interactions between the two areas. · Written by leading researchers in stream ciphers and number theory.

  13. Streaming simplification of tetrahedral meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Huy T; Callahan, Steven P; Lindstrom, Peter; Pascucci, Valerio; Silva, Cláudio T

    2007-01-01

    Unstructured tetrahedral meshes are commonly used in scientific computing to represent scalar, vector, and tensor fields in three dimensions. Visualization of these meshes can be difficult to perform interactively due to their size and complexity. By reducing the size of the data, we can accomplish real-time visualization necessary for scientific analysis. We propose a two-step approach for streaming simplification of large tetrahedral meshes. Our algorithm arranges the data on disk in a streaming, I/O-efficient format that allows coherent access to the tetrahedral cells. A quadric-based simplification is sequentially performed on small portions of the mesh in-core. Our output is a coherent streaming mesh which facilitates future processing. Our technique is fast, produces high quality approximations, and operates out-of-core to process meshes too large for main memory.

  14. Spatial Structure of Soil Macrofauna Diversity and Tree Canopy in Riparian Forest of Maroon River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Sayad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sustainability and maintenance of riparian vegetation or restoring of degraded sites is critical to sustain inherent ecosystem function and values. Description of patterns in species assemblages and diversity is an essential step before generating hypotheses in functional ecology. If we want to have information about ecosystem function, soil biodiversity is best considered by focusing on the groups of soil organisms that play major roles in ecosystem functioning when exploring links with provision of ecosystem services. Information about the spatial pattern of soil biodiversity at the regional scale is limited though required, e.g. for understanding regional scale effects of biodiversity on ecosystem processes. The practical consequences of these findings are useful for sustainable management of soils and in monitoring soil quality. Soil macrofauna play significant, but largely ignored roles in the delivery of ecosystem services by soils at plot and landscape scales. One main reason responsible for the absence of information about biodiversity at regional scale is the lack of adequate methods for sampling and analyzing data at this dimension. An adequate approach for the analysis of spatial patterns is a transect study in which samples are taken in a certain order and with a certain distance between samples. Geostatistics provide descriptive tools such as variogram to characterize the spatial pattern of continuous and categorical soil attributes. This method allows assessment of consistency of spatial patterns as well as the scale at which they are expressed. This study was conducted to analyze spatial patterns of soil macrofauna in relation to tree canopy in the riparian forest landscape of Maroon. Materilas and Methods: The study was carried out in the Maroon riparian forest of the southeasternIran (30o 38/- 30 o 39/ N and 50 o 9/- 50 o 10/ E. The climate of the study area is semi-arid. Average yearly rainfall is about 350.04 mm

  15. Pollutant transport in natural streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckner, M.R.; Hayes, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to estimate the downstream effect of chemical and radioactive pollutant releases to tributary streams and rivers. The one-dimensional dispersion model was employed along with a dead zone model to describe stream transport behavior. Options are provided for sorption/desorption, ion exchange, and particle deposition in the river. The model equations are solved numerically by the LODIPS computer code. The solution method was verified by application to actual and simulated releases of radionuclides and other chemical pollutants. (U.S.)

  16. Temperature of the Gulf Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Gulf Stream is one of the strong ocean currents that carries warm water from the sunny tropics to higher latitudes. The current stretches from the Gulf of Mexico up the East Coast of the United States, departs from North America south of the Chesapeake Bay, and heads across the Atlantic to the British Isles. The water within the Gulf Stream moves at the stately pace of 4 miles per hour. Even though the current cools as the water travels thousands of miles, it remains strong enough to moderate the Northern European climate. The image above was derived from the infrared measurements of the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on a nearly cloud-free day over the east coast of the United States. The coldest waters are shown as purple, with blue, green, yellow, and red representing progressively warmer water. Temperatures range from about 7 to 22 degrees Celsius. The core of the Gulf Stream is very apparent as the warmest water, dark red. It departs from the coast at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. The cool, shelf water from the north entrains the warmer outflows from the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays. The north wall of the Gulf Stream reveals very complex structure associated with frontal instabilities that lead to exchanges between the Gulf Stream and inshore waters. Several clockwise-rotating warm core eddies are evident north of the core of the Gulf Stream, which enhance the exchange of heat and water between the coastal and deep ocean. Cold core eddies, which rotate counter clockwise, are seen south of the Gulf Stream. The one closest to Cape Hatteras is entraining very warm Gulf Stream waters on its northwest circumference. Near the coast, shallower waters have warmed due to solar heating, while the deeper waters offshore are markedly cooler (dark blue). MODIS made this observation on May 8, 2000, at 11:45 a.m. EDT. For more information, see the MODIS-Ocean web page. The sea surface temperature image was created at the University of Miami using

  17. Measuring nutrient spiralling in streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newbold, J D; Elwood, J W; O' Neill, R V; Van Winkle, W

    1981-01-01

    Nutrient cycling in streams involves some downstream transport before the cycle is completed. Thus, the path traveled by a nutrient atom in passing through the cycle can be visualized as a spiral. As an index of the spiralling process, we introduce spiralling length, defined as the average distance associated with one complete cycle of a nutrient atom. This index provides a measure of the utilization of nutrients relative to the available supply from upstream. Using /sup 32/p as a tracer, we estimated a spiralling length of 193 m for phosphorus in a small woodland stream.

  18. Vegetation Indices for Mapping Canopy Foliar Nitrogen in a Mixed Temperate Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral remote sensing serves as an effective tool for estimating foliar nitrogen using a variety of techniques. Vegetation indices (VIs are a simple means of retrieving foliar nitrogen. Despite their popularity, few studies have been conducted to examine the utility of VIs for mapping canopy foliar nitrogen in a mixed forest context. In this study, we assessed the performance of 32 vegetation indices derived from HySpex airborne hyperspectral images for estimating canopy mass-based foliar nitrogen concentration (%N in the Bavarian Forest National Park. The partial least squares regression (PLSR was performed for comparison. These vegetation indices were classified into three categories that are mostly correlated to nitrogen, chlorophyll, and structural properties such as leaf area index (LAI. %N was destructively measured in 26 broadleaf, needle leaf, and mixed stand plots to represent the different species and canopy structure. The canopy foliar %N is defined as the plot-level mean foliar %N of all species weighted by species canopy foliar mass fraction. Our results showed that the variance of canopy foliar %N is mainly explained by functional type and species composition. The normalized difference nitrogen index (NDNI produced the most accurate estimation of %N (R2CV = 0.79, RMSECV = 0.26. A comparable estimation of %N was obtained by the chlorophyll index Boochs2 (R2CV = 0.76, RMSECV = 0.27. In addition, the mean NIR reflectance (800–850 nm, representing canopy structural properties, also achieved a good accuracy in %N estimation (R2CV = 0.73, RMSECV = 0.30. The PLSR model provided a less accurate estimation of %N (R2CV = 0.69, RMSECV = 0.32. We argue that the good performance of all three categories of vegetation indices in %N estimation can be attributed to the synergy among plant traits (i.e., canopy structure, leaf chemical and optical properties while these traits may converge across plant species for evolutionary reasons. Our

  19. Modeling canopy-level productivity: is the "big-leaf" simplification acceptable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprintsin, M.; Chen, J. M.

    2009-05-01

    The "big-leaf" approach to calculating the carbon balance of plant canopies assumes that canopy carbon fluxes have the same relative responses to the environment as any single unshaded leaf in the upper canopy. Widely used light use efficiency models are essentially simplified versions of the big-leaf model. Despite its wide acceptance, subsequent developments in the modeling of leaf photosynthesis and measurements of canopy physiology have brought into question the assumptions behind this approach showing that big leaf approximation is inadequate for simulating canopy photosynthesis because of the additional leaf internal control on carbon assimilation and because of the non-linear response of photosynthesis on leaf nitrogen and absorbed light, and changes in leaf microenvironment with canopy depth. To avoid this problem a sunlit/shaded leaf separation approach, within which the vegetation is treated as two big leaves under different illumination conditions, is gradually replacing the "big-leaf" strategy, for applications at local and regional scales. Such separation is now widely accepted as a more accurate and physiologically based approach for modeling canopy photosynthesis. Here we compare both strategies for Gross Primary Production (GPP) modeling using the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) at local (tower footprint) scale for different land cover types spread over North America: two broadleaf forests (Harvard, Massachusetts and Missouri Ozark, Missouri); two coniferous forests (Howland, Maine and Old Black Spruce, Saskatchewan); Lost Creek shrubland site (Wisconsin) and Mer Bleue petland (Ontario). BEPS calculates carbon fixation by scaling Farquhar's leaf biochemical model up to canopy level with stomatal conductance estimated by a modified version of the Ball-Woodrow-Berry model. The "big-leaf" approach was parameterized using derived leaf level parameters scaled up to canopy level by means of Leaf Area Index. The influence of sunlit

  20. Stream-processing pipelines: processing of streams on multiprocessor architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavaldjiev, N.K.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Jansen, P.G.

    In this paper we study the timing aspects of the operation of stream-processing applications that run on a multiprocessor architecture. Dependencies are derived for the processing and communication times of the processors in such a system. Three cases of real-time constrained operation and four

  1. CAMS: OLAPing Multidimensional Data Streams Efficiently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzocrea, Alfredo

    In the context of data stream research, taming the multidimensionality of real-life data streams in order to efficiently support OLAP analysis/mining tasks is a critical challenge. Inspired by this fundamental motivation, in this paper we introduce CAMS (C ube-based A cquisition model for M ultidimensional S treams), a model for efficiently OLAPing multidimensional data streams. CAMS combines a set of data stream processing methodologies, namely (i) the OLAP dimension flattening process, which allows us to obtain dimensionality reduction of multidimensional data streams, and (ii) the OLAP stream aggregation scheme, which aggregates data stream readings according to an OLAP-hierarchy-based membership approach. We complete our analytical contribution by means of experimental assessment and analysis of both the efficiency and the scalability of OLAPing capabilities of CAMS on synthetic multidimensional data streams. Both analytical and experimental results clearly connote CAMS as an enabling component for next-generation Data Stream Management Systems.

  2. Worldwide variation in within-canopy photosynthetic acclimation: differences in temporal and environmental controls among plant functional types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinemets, Ülo; Keenan, Trevor

    2017-04-01

    Major light gradients, characteristically 10- to 50-fold, constitute the most prominent feature of plant canopies. These gradients drive within-canopy variation in foliage structural, chemical and physiological traits. As a key acclimation response to variation in light availability, foliage photosynthetic capacity per area (Aarea) increases with increasing light availability within the canopy, maximizing whole canopy photosynthesis. Recently, a worldwide database including 831 within-canopy gradients with standardized light estimates for 304 species belonging to major vascular plant functional types was constructed and within-canopy variation in photosynthetic acclimation was characterized (Niinemets Ü, Keenan TF, Hallik L (2015) Tansley review. A worldwide analysis of within-canopy variations in leaf structural, chemical and physiological traits across plant functional types. The New Phytologist 205: 973-993). However, the understanding of how within-canopy photosynthetic gradients vary during the growing season and in response to site and stand characteristics is still limited. Here we analyzed temporal, environmental and site (nutrient availability, stand density, ambient CO2 concentration, water availability) sources of variation in within-canopy photosynthetic acclimation in different plant functional types. Variation in key structural (leaf dry mass per unit area, MA), chemical (nitrogen content per dry mass, NM, and area, NA) and physiological (photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency, EN) photosynthetic capacity per dry mass, Amass and area, Aarea) was examined. The analysis demonstrates major, typically 1.5-2-fold, time-, environment and site-dependent modifications in within-canopy variation in foliage photosynthetic capacity. However, the magnitude and direction of temporal and environmental variations in plasticity significantly varied among functional types. Species with longer leaf life span and low rates of canopy expansion or flush-type canopy

  3. Salamander occupancy in headwater stream networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, E.H.C.; Green, L.E.; Lowe, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    1. Stream ecosystems exhibit a highly consistent dendritic geometry in which linear habitat units intersect to create a hierarchical network of connected branches. 2. Ecological and life history traits of species living in streams, such as the potential for overland movement, may interact with this architecture to shape patterns of occupancy and response to disturbance. Specifically, large-scale habitat alteration that fragments stream networks and reduces connectivity may reduce the probability a stream is occupied by sensitive species, such as stream salamanders. 3. We collected habitat occupancy data on four species of stream salamanders in first-order (i.e. headwater) streams in undeveloped and urbanised regions of the eastern U.S.A. We then used an information-theoretic approach to test alternative models of salamander occupancy based on a priori predictions of the effects of network configuration, region and salamander life history. 4. Across all four species, we found that streams connected to other first-order streams had higher occupancy than those flowing directly into larger streams and rivers. For three of the four species, occupancy was lower in the urbanised region than in the undeveloped region. 5. These results demonstrate that the spatial configuration of stream networks within protected areas affects the occurrences of stream salamander species. We strongly encourage preservation of network connections between first-order streams in conservation planning and management decisions that may affect stream species.

  4. Separating the diffuse and direct component of global radiation and its implications for modeling canopy photosynthesis Part II. Calculation of canopy photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spitters, C.J.T.

    1986-01-01

    In a preceding paper, a method was presented to estimate the diurnal courses of total, direct and diffuse radiation from total daily radiation only. In the present paper, these relations are introduced into a simulation model for daily canopy assimilation. With the assimilation—light response of

  5. Canopy uptake of atmospheric N deposition at a conifer forest: part I -canopy N budget, photosynthetic efficiency and net ecosystem exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievering, H.; Tomaszewski, T.; Torizzo, J.

    2007-01-01

    Global carbon cycle assessments of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition influences on carbon sequestration often assume enhanced sequestration results. This assumption was evaluated at a Rocky Mountains spruce-fir forest. Forest canopy N uptake (CNU) of atmospheric N deposition was estimated by combining event wet and throughfall N fluxes with gradient measured HNO 3 and NH 3 as well as inferred (NO x and particulate N) dry fluxes. Approximately 80% of the growing-season 3 kg N/ha total deposition is retained in canopy foliage and branches. This CNU constitutes ∼1/3 of canopy growing season new N supply at this conifer forest site. Daytime net ecosystem exchange (NEE) significantly (P = 0.006) and negatively (CO 2 uptake) correlated with CNU. Multiple regression indicates ∼20% of daytime NEE may be attributed to CNU (P < 0.02); more than soil water content. A wet deposition N-amendment study (Tomaszewski and Sievering), at canopy spruce branches, increased their growing-season CNU by 40-50% above ambient. Fluorometry and gas exchange results show N-amended spruce branches had greater photosynthetic efficiency and higher carboxylation rates than control and untreated branches. N-amended branches had 25% less photoinhibition, with a 5-9% greater proportion of foliar-N-in-Rubisco. The combined results provide, partly, a mechanistic explanation for the NEE dependence on CNU

  6. Specifics of soil temperature under winter oilseed rape canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krčmářová, Jana; Středa, Tomáš; Pokorný, Radovan

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the course of soil temperature under the winter oilseed rape canopy and to determine relationships between soil temperature, air temperature and partly soil moisture. In addition, the aim was to describe the dependence by means of regression equations usable for pests and pathogens prediction, crop development, and yields models. The measurement of soil and near the ground air temperatures was performed at the experimental field Žabiče (South Moravia, the Czech Republic). The course of temperature was determined under or in the winter oilseed rape canopy during spring growth season in the course of four years (2010 - 2012 and 2014). In all years, the standard varieties (Petrol, Sherpa) were grown, in 2014 the semi-dwarf variety PX104 was added. Automatic soil sensors were positioned at three depths (0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 m) under soil surface, air temperature sensors in 0.05 m above soil surfaces. The course of soil temperature differs significantly between standard (Sherpa and Petrol) and semi-dwarf (PX104) varieties. Results of the cross correlation analysis showed, that the best interrelationships between air and soil temperature were achieved in 2 hours delay for the soil temperature in 0.05 m, 4 hour delay for 0.10 m and 7 hour delay for 0.20 m for standard varieties. For semi-dwarf variety, this delay reached 6 hour for the soil temperature in 0.05 m, 7 hour delay for 0.10 m and 11 hour for 0.20 m. After the time correction, the determination coefficient (R2) reached values from 0.67 to 0.95 for 0.05 m, 0.50 to 0.84 for 0.10 m in variety Sherpa during all experimental years. For variety PX104 this coefficient reached values from 0.51 to 0.72 in 0.05 m depth and from 0.39 to 0.67 in 0.10 m depth in the year 2014. The determination coefficient in the 0.20 m depth was lower for both varieties; its values were from 0.15 to 0.65 in variety Sherpa. In variety PX104 the values of R2 from 0.23 to 0.57 were determined. When using

  7. Nutrient and chlorophyll relations in selected streams of the New England Coastal Basins in Massachusetts and New Hampshire, June-September 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Melissa L.; Deacon, J.R.; Liebman, M.L.; Robinson, K.W.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is developing guidance to assist states with defining nutrient criteria for rivers and streams and to better describe nutrient-algal relations. As part of this effort, 13 wadeable stream sites were selected, primarily in eastern Massachusetts, for a nutrient-assessment study during the summer of 2001. The sites represent a range of water-quality impairment conditions (reference, moderately impaired, impaired) based on state regulatory agency assessments and previously assessed nitrogen, phosphorus, and dissolved-oxygen data. In addition, a combination of open- and closed-canopy locations were sampled at six of the sites to investigate the effect of sunlight on algal growth. Samples for nutrients and for chlorophyll I from phytoplankton and periphyton were collected at all stream sites. Total nitrogen (dissolved nitrite + nitrate + total ammonia + organic nitrogen) and total phosphorus (phosphorus in an unfiltered water sample) concentrations were lowest at reference sites and highest at impaired sites. There were statistically significant differences (p phytoplankton were not significantly different among site impairment designations. Concentrations of chlorophyll a from periphyton were highest at nutrient-impaired open-canopy sites. Chlorophyll a concentrations from periphyton samples were positively correlated with total nitrogen and total phosphorus at the open- and closed-canopy sites. Correlations were higher at open-canopy sites (p periphyton samples were observed between the open- and closed-canopy sites (p relations between total nitrogen and total phosphorus to periphyton chlorophyll a in wadeable streams from this study were quantified to present potential techniques for determining nutrient concentrations. Linear regression was used to estimate the total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations that corresponded to various chlorophyll a concentrations. On the basis of this relation, a median concentration for

  8. Parameterization and sensitivity analyses of a radiative transfer model for remote sensing plant canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Carlton Raden

    A major objective of remote sensing is determination of biochemical and biophysical characteristics of plant canopies utilizing high spectral resolution sensors. Canopy reflectance signatures are dependent on absorption and scattering processes of the leaf, canopy properties, and the ground beneath the canopy. This research investigates, through field and laboratory data collection, and computer model parameterization and simulations, the relationships between leaf optical properties, canopy biophysical features, and the nadir viewed above-canopy reflectance signature. Emphasis is placed on parameterization and application of an existing irradiance radiative transfer model developed for aquatic systems. Data and model analyses provide knowledge on the relative importance of leaves and canopy biophysical features in estimating the diffuse absorption a(lambda,m-1), diffuse backscatter b(lambda,m-1), beam attenuation alpha(lambda,m-1), and beam to diffuse conversion c(lambda,m-1 ) coefficients of the two-flow irradiance model. Data sets include field and laboratory measurements from three plant species, live oak (Quercus virginiana), Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) sampled on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center Florida in March and April of 1997. Features measured were depth h (m), projected foliage coverage PFC, leaf area index LAI, and zenith leaf angle. Optical measurements, collected with a Spectron SE 590 high sensitivity narrow bandwidth spectrograph, included above canopy reflectance, internal canopy transmittance and reflectance and bottom reflectance. Leaf samples were returned to laboratory where optical and physical and chemical measurements of leaf thickness, leaf area, leaf moisture and pigment content were made. A new term, the leaf volume correction index LVCI was developed and demonstrated in support of model coefficient parameterization. The LVCI is based on angle adjusted leaf

  9. Missing Peroxy Radical Sources Within a Rural Forest Canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, G. M.; Cantrell, C.; Kim, S.; Mauldin, R. L., III; Karl, T.; Harley, P.; Turnipseed, A.; Zheng, W.; Flocke, F.; Apel, E. C.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Organic peroxy (RO2) and hydroperoxy (HO2) radicals are key intermediates in the photochemical processes that generate ozone, secondary organic aerosol and reactive nitrogen reservoirs throughout the troposphere. In regions with ample biogenic hydrocarbons, the richness and complexity of peroxy radical chemistry presents a significant challenge to current-generation models, especially given the scarcity of measurements in such environments. We present peroxy radical observations acquired within a Ponderosa pine forest during the summer 2010 Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics and Nitrogen - Rocky Mountain Organic Carbon Study (BEACHON-ROCS). Total peroxy radical mixing ratios reach as high as 180 pptv and are among the highest yet recorded. Using the comprehensive measurement suite to constrain a near-explicit 0-D box model, we investigate the sources, sinks and distribution of peroxy radicals below the forest canopy. The base chemical mechanism underestimates total peroxy radicals by as much as a factor of 3. Since primary reaction partners for peroxy radicals are either measured (NO) or under-predicted (HO2 and RO2, i.e. self-reaction), missing sources are the most likely explanation for this result. A close comparison of model output with observations reveals at least two distinct source signatures. The first missing source, characterized by a sharp midday maximum and a strong dependence on solar radiation, is consistent with photolytic production of HO2. The diel profile of the second missing source peaks in the afternoon and suggests a process that generates RO2 independently of sun-driven photochemistry, such as ozonolysis of reactive hydrocarbons. The maximum magnitudes of these missing sources (approximately 120 and 50 pptv min-1, respectively) are consistent with previous observations alluding to unexpectedly intense oxidation within forests. We conclude that a similar mechanism may underlie many such observations.

  10. Bromeliad catchments as habitats for methanogenesis in tropical rainforest canopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana K. Goffredi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropical epiphytic plants within the family Bromeliaceae are unusual in that they possess foliage capable of retaining water and impounded material. This creates an acidic (pH 3.5-6.5 and anaerobic (< 1 ppm O2 environment suspended in the canopy. Results from a Costa Rican rainforest show that most bromeliads (n = 75/86 greater than ~20 cm in plant height or ~4-5 cm tank depth, showed presence of methanogens within the lower anoxic horizon of the tank. Archaea were dominated by methanogens (77-90% of recovered ribotypes and community structure, although variable, was generally comprised of a single type, closely related to either hydrogenotrophic Methanoregula or Methanocella, a specific clade of aceticlastic Methanosaeta, or Methanosarcina. Juvenile bromeliads, or those species, such as Guzmania, with shallow tanks, generally did not possess methanogens, as assayed by PCR specific for methanogen 16S rRNA genes, nor did artificial catchments (~ 100 ml volume, in place 6-12 months prior to sample collection. Methanogens were not detected in soil (n = 20, except in one case, in which the dominant ribotype was different from nearby bromeliads. Recovery of methyl coenzyme M reductase genes supported the occurrence of hydrogenotrophic and aceticlastic methanogens within bromeliad tanks, as well as the trend, via QPCR analysis of mcrA, of increased methanogenic capacity with increased plant height. Methane production rates of up to 300 nmol CH4 ml tank water -1 day-1 were measured in microcosm experiments. These results suggest that bromeliad-associated archaeal communities may play an important role in the cycling of carbon in neotropical forests.

  11. Canopy transpiration for two Japanese cypress forests with contrasting structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, K.; Komatsu, H.; Kume, T.; Shinohara, Y.; Otsuki, K.

    2012-12-01

    Canopy transpiration (EC) could have large variations among stands with different structures. To evaluate a difference in EC between stands with different structures for Japanese cypress, we observed EC using the sap flow technique in two stands with contrasting structures (age was 19 year and 99 year, mean diameter at breast height was 13.5 cm and 44.6 cm, stem density was 2100 trees ha-1 and 350 trees ha-1, respectively) for 5 months under the same meteorological condition. The mean stand sap flux density (JS) for measurement period and stand sapwood area (AS_stand) for the old stand (0.43 m3 m-2 day-1 and 15.2 m2 ha-1) were lower than those for the young stand (0.62 m3 m-2 day-1 and 20.4 m2 ha-1) by 31.1 % and 25.4 %, respectively. EC is calculated as a product of JS and AS_stand. Therefore the EC in the old stand was lower than that in the young stand by 50 %. We calculated the contribution of the reference JS for a given meteorological conditions (JSref) and the response of JS to the meteorological conditions (JSresp) in the two stands, and examined which is a primary factor for the difference of EC between the two studied stands. The JSresp for the young stand were not considerably different from that for the old stand, whereas JSref for the young stand was greater than that for the old stand. This indicates that JSref (not JSresp) was the primary cause for the difference of EC between the two stands. Further studies observing EC from stands with various structures are needed to generalize our conclusions.

  12. Quantitative detection of settled dust over green canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Anna

    2016-04-01

    The main task of environmental and geoscience applications are efficient and accurate quantitative classification of earth surfaces and spatial phenomena. In the past decade, there has been a significant interest in employing hyperspectral unmixing in order to retrieve accurate quantitative information latent in hyperspectral imagery data. Recently, the ground-truth and laboratory measured spectral signatures promoted by advanced algorithms are proposed as a new path toward solving the unmixing problem of hyperspectral imagery in semi-supervised fashion. This paper suggests that the sensitivity of sparse unmixing techniques provides an ideal approach to extract and identify dust settled over/upon green vegetation canopy using hyperspectral airborne data. Atmospheric dust transports a variety of chemicals, some of which pose a risk to the ecosystem and human health (Kaskaoutis, et al., 2008). Many studies deal with the impact of dust on particulate matter (PM) and atmospheric pollution. Considering the potential impact of industrial pollutants, one of the most important considerations is the fact that suspended PM can have both a physical and a chemical impact on plants, soils, and water bodies. Not only can the particles covering surfaces cause physical distortion, but particles of diverse origin and different chemistries can also serve as chemical stressors and cause irreversible damage. Sediment dust load in an indoor environment can be spectrally assessed using reflectance spectroscopy (Chudnovsky and Ben-Dor, 2009). Small amounts of particulate pollution that may carry a signature of a forthcoming environmental hazard are of key interest when considering the effects of pollution. According to the most basic distribution dynamics, dust consists of suspended particulate matter in a fine state of subdivision that are raised and carried by wind. In this context, it is increasingly important to first, understand the distribution dynamics of pollutants, and

  13. Rapid assessment of forest canopy and light regime using smartphone hemispherical photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Simone; Cahalan, Christine; Hale, Sophie; Gibbons, James Michael

    2017-12-01

    Hemispherical photography (HP), implemented with cameras equipped with "fisheye" lenses, is a widely used method for describing forest canopies and light regimes. A promising technological advance is the availability of low-cost fisheye lenses for smartphone cameras. However, smartphone camera sensors cannot record a full hemisphere. We investigate whether smartphone HP is a cheaper and faster but still adequate operational alternative to traditional cameras for describing forest canopies and light regimes. We collected hemispherical pictures with both smartphone and traditional cameras in 223 forest sample points, across different overstory species and canopy densities. The smartphone image acquisition followed a faster and simpler protocol than that for the traditional camera. We automatically thresholded all images. We processed the traditional camera images for Canopy Openness (CO) and Site Factor estimation. For smartphone images, we took two pictures with different orientations per point and used two processing protocols: (i) we estimated and averaged total canopy gap from the two single pictures, and (ii) merging the two pictures together, we formed images closer to full hemispheres and estimated from them CO and Site Factors. We compared the same parameters obtained from different cameras and estimated generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) between them. Total canopy gap estimated from the first processing protocol for smartphone pictures was on average significantly higher than CO estimated from traditional camera images, although with a consistent bias. Canopy Openness and Site Factors estimated from merged smartphone pictures of the second processing protocol were on average significantly higher than those from traditional cameras images, although with relatively little absolute differences and scatter. Smartphone HP is an acceptable alternative to HP using traditional cameras, providing similar results with a faster and cheaper methodology. Smartphone

  14. Improving representation of canopy temperatures for modeling subcanopy incoming longwave radiation to the snow surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Clare; Rutter, Nick; Jonas, Tobias

    2017-09-01

    A comprehensive analysis of canopy surface temperatures was conducted around a small and large gap at a forested alpine site in the Swiss Alps during the 2015 and 2016 snowmelt seasons (March-April). Canopy surface temperatures within the small gap were within 2-3°C of measured reference air temperature. Vertical and horizontal variations in canopy surface temperatures were greatest around the large gap, varying up to 18°C above measured reference air temperature during clear-sky days. Nighttime canopy surface temperatures around the study site were up to 3°C cooler than reference air temperature. These measurements were used to develop a simple parameterization for correcting reference air temperature for elevated canopy surface temperatures during (1) nighttime conditions (subcanopy shortwave radiation is 0 W m-2) and (2) periods of increased subcanopy shortwave radiation >400 W m-2 representing penetration of shortwave radiation through the canopy. Subcanopy shortwave and longwave radiation collected at a single point in the subcanopy over a 24 h clear-sky period was used to calculate a nighttime bulk offset of 3°C for scenario 1 and develop a multiple linear regression model for scenario 2 using reference air temperature and subcanopy shortwave radiation to predict canopy surface temperature with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.7°C. Outside of these two scenarios, reference air temperature was used to predict subcanopy incoming longwave radiation. Modeling at 20 radiometer locations throughout two snowmelt seasons using these parameterizations reduced the mean bias and RMSE to below 10 W m s-2 at all locations.

  15. Effects of diffuse radiation on canopy gas exchange processes in a forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knohl, Alexander; Baldocchi, Dennis D.

    2008-06-01

    Forest ecosystems across the globe show an increase in ecosystem carbon uptake efficiency under conditions with high fraction of diffuse radiation. Here, we combine eddy covariance flux measurements at a deciduous temperate forest in central Germany with canopy-scale modeling using the biophysical multilayer model CANVEG to investigate the impact of diffuse radiation on various canopy gas exchange processes and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Increasing diffuse radiation enhances canopy photosynthesis by redistributing the solar radiation load from light saturated sunlit leaves to nonsaturated shade leaves. Interactions with atmospheric vapor pressure deficit and reduced leaf respiration are only of minor importance to canopy photosynthesis. The response strength of carbon uptake to diffuse radiation depends on canopy characteristics such as leaf area index and leaf optical properties. Our model computations shows that both canopy photosynthesis and transpiration increase initially with diffuse fraction, but decrease after an optimum at a diffuse fraction of 0.45 due to reduction in global radiation. The initial increase in canopy photosynthesis exceeds the increase in transpiration, leading to a rise in water-use-efficiency. Our model predicts an increase in carbon isotope discrimination with water-use-efficiency resulting from differences in the leaf-to-air vapor pressure gradient and atmospheric vapor pressure deficit. This finding is in contrast to those predicted with simple big-leaf models that do not explicitly calculate leaf energy balance. At an annual scale, we estimate a decrease in annual carbon uptake for a potential increase in diffuse fraction, since diffuse fraction was beyond the optimum for 61% of the data.

  16. Chlorophyll fluorescence tracks seasonal variations of photosynthesis from leaf to canopy in a temperate forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hualei; Yang, Xi; Zhang, Yongguang; Heskel, Mary A; Lu, Xiaoliang; Munger, J William; Sun, Shucun; Tang, Jianwu

    2017-07-01

    Accurate estimation of terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) remains a challenge despite its importance in the global carbon cycle. Chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) has been recently adopted to understand photosynthesis and its response to the environment, particularly with remote sensing data. However, it remains unclear how ChlF and photosynthesis are linked at different spatial scales across the growing season. We examined seasonal relationships between ChlF and photosynthesis at the leaf, canopy, and ecosystem scales and explored how leaf-level ChlF was linked with canopy-scale solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) in a temperate deciduous forest at Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, USA. Our results show that ChlF captured the seasonal variations of photosynthesis with significant linear relationships between ChlF and photosynthesis across the growing season over different spatial scales (R 2  = 0.73, 0.77, and 0.86 at leaf, canopy, and satellite scales, respectively; P chlorophyll content (R 2  = 0.65 for canopy GPP SIF and chlorophyll content; P < 0.0001), leaf area index (LAI) (R 2  = 0.35 for canopy GPP SIF and LAI; P < 0.0001), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) (R 2  = 0.36 for canopy GPP SIF and NDVI; P < 0.0001). Our results suggest that ChlF can be a powerful tool to track photosynthetic rates at leaf, canopy, and ecosystem scales. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Mapping Forest Canopy Height Across Large Areas by Upscaling ALS Estimates with Freely Available Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Wilkes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Operational assessment of forest structure is an on-going challenge for land managers, particularly over large, remote or inaccessible areas. Here, we present an easily adopted method for generating a continuous map of canopy height at a 30 m resolution, demonstrated over 2.9 million hectares of highly heterogeneous forest (canopy height 0–70 m in Victoria, Australia. A two-stage approach was utilized where Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS derived canopy height, captured over ~18% of the study area, was used to train a regression tree ensemble method; random forest. Predictor variables, which have a global coverage and are freely available, included Landsat Thematic Mapper (Tasselled Cap transformed, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Normalized Difference Vegetation Index time series, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation data and other ancillary datasets. Reflectance variables were further processed to extract additional spatial and temporal contextual and textural variables. Modeled canopy height was validated following two approaches; (i random sample cross validation; and (ii with 108 inventory plots from outside the ALS capture extent. Both the cross validation and comparison with inventory data indicate canopy height can be estimated with a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE of ≤ 31% (~5.6 m at the 95th percentile confidence interval. Subtraction of the systematic component of model error, estimated from training data error residuals, rescaled canopy height values to more accurately represent the response variable distribution tails e.g., tall and short forest. Two further experiments were carried out to test the applicability and scalability of the presented method. Results suggest that (a no improvement in canopy height estimation is achieved when models were constructed and validated for smaller geographic areas, suggesting there is no upper limit to model scalability; and (b training data can be captured over a small

  18. [Effects of canopy density on the functional group of soil macro fauna in Pinus massoniana plantations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong Yang; Zhang, Dan Ju; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yan Bo; Zhao, Bo; Wei, Da Ping; Zhang, Jian

    2017-06-18

    In order to understand the effects of canopy density on the functional group characteristics of soil macrofauna in Pinus massoniana plantations, we divided the captured soil fauna into five types including xylophages, predators, saprophages, omnivores and fungal feeders. The results showed that 1) Saprozoic feeders had the highest percentage of total individuals, and the omnivores and xylophages occupied higher percentages of total taxa. 2) The individual and group number of the predators, and the group number of xylophages did not change significantly under 0.5-0.6 and then decreased significantly under 0.6-0.9 canopy density. 3) With the increasing canopy density, the individual an dgroup number of predators in litter layer decreased significantly, the saprozoic individual number in 5-10 cm soil layer represented irregular trends. The individual number of xylophage increased with the depth of soil, and the group number in litter layer, the individual and group number in 5-10 cm soil layer decreased significantly. 4) Pielou evenness of xylophage had no significant changes with the canopy density, all the other diversity index of xylophage and saprophage were various with the increasing canopy density. The predatory Simpson index was stable under 0.5-0.8, and then decreased significantly under 0.8-0.9 canopy density. 5) The CCA (canonical correlation analysis) indicated that soil bulk density and moisture content were the main environmental factors affecting functional groups of soil macro fauna. Moisture content greatly impacted on the number of saprophagous individuals. But xylophage and predators were mostly affected by soil bulk density, and the predatory Simpson index was mainly affected by soil pH value and total phosphorus. Our research indicated that the structure of soil macro faunal functional group under 0.7 canopy density was comparatively stable, which would facilitate the maintenance of soil fertility and ecological function in Pinus massoniana

  19. Leaf and Canopy Level Detection of Fusarium Virguliforme (Sudden Death Syndrome in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ittai Herrmann

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pre-visual detection of crop disease is critical for food security. Field-based spectroscopic remote sensing offers a method to enable timely detection, but still requires appropriate instrumentation and testing. Soybean plants were spectrally measured throughout a growing season to assess the capacity of leaf and canopy level spectral measurements to detect non-visual foliage symptoms induced by Fusarium virguliforme (Fv, which causes sudden death syndrome. Canopy reflectance measurements were made using the Piccolo Doppio dual field-of-view, two-spectrometer (400 to 1630 nm system on a tractor. Leaf level measurements were obtained, in different plots, using a handheld spectrometer (400 to 2500 nm. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA was applied to the spectroscopic data to discriminate between Fv-inoculated and control plants. Canopy and leaf spectral data allowed identification of Fv infection, prior to visual symptoms, with classification accuracy of 88% and 91% for calibration, 79% and 87% for cross-validation, and 82% and 92% for validation, respectively. Differences in wavelengths important to prediction by canopy vs. leaf data confirm that there are different bases for accurate predictions among methods. Partial least square regression (PLSR was used on a late-stage canopy level data to predict soybean seed yield, with calibration, cross-validation and validation R2 values 0.71, 0.59 and 0.62 (p < 0.01, respectively, and validation root mean square error of 0.31 t·ha−1. Spectral data from the tractor mounted system are thus sensitive to the expression of Fv root infection at canopy scale prior to canopy symptoms, suggesting such systems may be effective for precision agricultural research and management.

  20. Evaluating Uncertainties in Sap Flux Scaled Estimates of Forest Transpiration, Canopy Conductance and Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, E. J.; Bell, D. M.; Clark, J. S.; Kim, H.; Oren, R.

    2009-12-01

    Thermal dissipation probes (TDPs) are a common method for estimating forest transpiration and canopy conductance from sap flux rates in trees, but their implementation is plagued by uncertainties arising from missing data and variability in the diameter and canopy position of trees, as well as sapwood conductivity within individual trees. Uncertainties in estimates of canopy conductance also translate into uncertainties in carbon assimilation in models such as the Canopy Conductance Constrained Carbon Assimilation (4CA) model that combine physiological and environmental data to estimate photosynthetic rates. We developed a method to propagate these uncertainties in the scaling and imputation of TDP data to estimates of canopy transpiration and conductance using a state-space Jarvis-type conductance model in a hierarchical Bayesian framework. This presentation will focus on the impact of these uncertainties on estimates of water and carbon fluxes using 4CA and data from the Duke Free Air Carbon Enrichment (FACE) project, which incorporates both elevated carbon dioxide and soil nitrogen treatments. We will also address the response of canopy conductance to vapor pressure deficit, incident radiation and soil moisture, as well as the effect of treatment-related stand structure differences in scaling TDP measurements. Preliminary results indicate that in 2006, a year of normal precipitation (1127 mm), canopy transpiration increased in elevated carbon dioxide ~8% on a ground area basis. In 2007, a year with a pronounced drought (800 mm precipitation), this increase was only present in the combined carbon dioxide and fertilization treatment. The seasonal dynamics of water and carbon fluxes will be discussed in detail.

  1. Canopy storage capacity and wettability of leaves and needles: The effect of water temperature changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamerus-Iwan, Anna; Błońska, Ewa

    2018-04-01

    The canopy storage capacity (S) is a major component of the surface water balance. We analysed the relationship between the tree canopy water storage capacity and leaf wettability under changing simulated rainfall temperature. We estimated the effect of the rain temperature change on the canopy storage capacity and contact angle of leave and needle surfaces based on two scenarios. Six dominant forest trees were analysed: English oak (Quercus roburL.), common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill), silver fir (Abies alba), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.),and Norway spruce (Picea abies L.). Twigs of these species were collected from Krynica Zdrój, that is, the Experimental Forestry unit of the University of Agriculture in Cracow (southern Poland). Experimental analyses (simulations of precipitation) were performed in a laboratory under controlled conditions. The canopy storage capacity and leaf wettability classification were determined at 12 water temperatures and a practical calculator to compute changes of S and contact angles of droplets was developed. Among all species, an increase of the rainfall temperature by 0.7 °C decreases the contact angle between leave and needle surfaces by 2.41° and increases the canopy storage capacity by 0.74 g g-1; an increase of the rain temperature by 2.7 °C decreases the contact angle by 9.29° and increases the canopy storage capacity by 2.85 g g-1. A decreased contact angle between a water droplet and leaf surface indicates increased wettability. Thus, our results show that an increased temperature increases the leaf wettability in all examined species. The comparison of different species implies that the water temperature has the strongest effect on spruce and the weakest effect on oak. These data indicate that the rainfall temperature influences the canopy storage capacity.

  2. Air temperature and canopy cover of impacted and conserved mangrove ecosystems: a study of a subtropical estuary in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Beserra de Lima, Nadia Gilma; Galvani, Emerson; Falcao, Rita Monteiro; Cunha-Lignon, Marilia [UNIFESP

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the variation of air temperature between impacted and conserved mangrove areas by monitoring the microclimate and canopy cover of mangrove forests in the southern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. Data were collected from September 2011 to August 2012 using meteorological towers installed below the canopy at a height of 2 m. Hemispherical photographs were processed to acquire the canopy opening and Leaf Area Index, which quantifies the area wit...

  3. Stomatal Conductance, Plant Hydraulics, and Multilayer Canopies: A New Paradigm for Earth System Models or Unnecessary Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonan, G. B.

    2016-12-01

    Soil moisture stress is a key regulator of canopy transpiration, the surface energy budget, and land-atmosphere coupling. Many land surface models used in Earth system models have an ad-hoc parameterization of soil moisture stress that decreases stomatal conductance with soil drying. Parameterization of soil moisture stress from more fundamental principles of plant hydrodynamics is a key research frontier for land surface models. While the biophysical and physiological foundations of such parameterizations are well-known, their best implementation in land surface models is less clear. Land surface models utilize a big-leaf canopy parameterization (or two big-leaves to represent the sunlit and shaded canopy) without vertical gradients in the canopy. However, there are strong biometeorological and physiological gradients in plant canopies. Are these gradients necessary to resolve? Here, I describe a vertically-resolved, multilayer canopy model that calculates leaf temperature and energy fluxes, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and leaf water potential at each level in the canopy. In this model, midday leaf water stress manifests in the upper canopy layers, which receive high amounts of solar radiation, have high leaf nitrogen and photosynthetic capacity, and have high stomatal conductance and transpiration rates (in the absence of leaf water stress). Lower levels in the canopy become water stressed in response to longer-term soil moisture drying. I examine the role of vertical gradients in the canopy microclimate (solar radiation, air temperature, vapor pressure, wind speed), structure (leaf area density), and physiology (leaf nitrogen, photosynthetic capacity, stomatal conductance) in determining above canopy fluxes and gradients of transpiration and leaf water potential within the canopy.

  4. Analysis of streaming media systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Multimedia services have been popping up at tremendous speed in recent years. A large number of these multimedia streaming systems are introduced to the consumer market. Internet Service Providers, Telecommunications Operators, Service/Content Providers, and end users are interested in the

  5. Stretch-minimising stream surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael; Kosinka, Jin; Calo, Victor M.

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of finding stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a divergence-free vector field. These surfaces are generated by motions of seed curves that propagate through the field in a stretch minimising manner, i.e., they move without stretching or shrinking, preserving the length of their arbitrary arc. In general fields, such curves may not exist. How-ever, the divergence-free constraint gives rise to these 'stretch-free' curves that are locally arc-length preserving when infinitesimally propagated. Several families of stretch-free curves are identified and used as initial guesses for stream surface generation. These surfaces are subsequently globally optimised to obtain the best stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a given divergence-free vector field. Our algorithm was tested on benchmark datasets, proving its applicability to incompressible fluid flow simulations, where our stretch-minimising stream surfaces realistically reflect the flow of a flexible univariate object. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. ALIENS IN WESTERN STREAM ECOSYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program conducted a five year probability sample of permanent mapped streams in 12 western US states. The study design enables us to determine the extent of selected riparian invasive plants, alien aquatic vertebrates, and some ...

  7. Stretch-minimising stream surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael

    2015-05-01

    We study the problem of finding stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a divergence-free vector field. These surfaces are generated by motions of seed curves that propagate through the field in a stretch minimising manner, i.e., they move without stretching or shrinking, preserving the length of their arbitrary arc. In general fields, such curves may not exist. How-ever, the divergence-free constraint gives rise to these \\'stretch-free\\' curves that are locally arc-length preserving when infinitesimally propagated. Several families of stretch-free curves are identified and used as initial guesses for stream surface generation. These surfaces are subsequently globally optimised to obtain the best stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a given divergence-free vector field. Our algorithm was tested on benchmark datasets, proving its applicability to incompressible fluid flow simulations, where our stretch-minimising stream surfaces realistically reflect the flow of a flexible univariate object. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nuclear reactor cavity streaming shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, R.J.; Stephen, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    The upper portion of a nuclear reactor vessel supported in a concrete reactor cavity has a structure mounted below the top of the vessel between the outer vessel wall and the reactor cavity wall which contains hydrogenous material which will attenuate radiation streaming upward between vessel and the reactor cavity wall while preventing pressure buildup during a loss of coolant accident

  9. Video Streaming in Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartsell, Taralynn; Yuen, Steve Chi-Yin

    2006-01-01

    The use of video in teaching and learning is a common practice in education today. As learning online becomes more of a common practice in education, streaming video and audio will play a bigger role in delivering course materials to online learners. This form of technology brings courses alive by allowing online learners to use their visual and…

  10. Continuous sampling from distributed streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Cormode; Muthukrishnan, S.; Yi, Ke

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental problem in data management is to draw and maintain a sample of a large data set, for approximate query answering, selectivity estimation, and query planning. With large, streaming data sets, this problem becomes particularly difficult when the data is shared across multiple distribu......A fundamental problem in data management is to draw and maintain a sample of a large data set, for approximate query answering, selectivity estimation, and query planning. With large, streaming data sets, this problem becomes particularly difficult when the data is shared across multiple...... distributed sites. The main challenge is to ensure that a sample is drawn uniformly across the union of the data while minimizing the communication needed to run the protocol on the evolving data. At the same time, it is also necessary to make the protocol lightweight, by keeping the space and time costs low...... for each participant. In this article, we present communication-efficient protocols for continuously maintaining a sample (both with and without replacement) from k distributed streams. These apply to the case when we want a sample from the full streams, and to the sliding window cases of only the W most...

  11. UPSCALING OF SOLAR INDUCED CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE FROM LEAF TO CANOPY USING THE DART MODEL AND A REALISTIC 3D FOREST SCENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Solar induced chlorophyll a fluorescence (SIF has been shown to be an excellent proxy of photosynthesis at multiple scales. However, the mechanical linkages between fluorescence and photosynthesis at the leaf level cannot be directly applied at canopy or field scales, as the larger scale SIF emission depends on canopy structure. This is especially true for the forest canopies characterized by high horizontal and vertical heterogeneity. While most of the current studies on SIF radiative transfer in plant canopies are based on the assumption of a homogeneous canopy, recently codes have been developed capable of simulation of fluorescence signal in explicit 3-D forest canopies. Here we present a canopy SIF upscaling method consisting of the integration of the 3-D radiative transfer model DART and a 3-D object model BLENDER. Our aim was to better understand the effect of boreal forest canopy structure on SIF for a spatially explicit forest canopy.

  12. Aeroacoustics of Three-Stream Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda S.

    2012-01-01

    Results from acoustic measurements of noise radiated from a heated, three-stream, co-annular exhaust system operated at subsonic conditions are presented. The experiments were conducted for a range of core, bypass, and tertiary stream temperatures and pressures. The nozzle system had a fan-to-core area ratio of 2.92 and a tertiary-to-core area ratio of 0.96. The impact of introducing a third stream on the radiated noise for third-stream velocities below that of the bypass stream was to reduce high frequency noise levels at broadside and peak jet-noise angles. Mid-frequency noise radiation at aft observation angles was impacted by the conditions of the third stream. The core velocity had the greatest impact on peak noise levels and the bypass-to-core mass flow ratio had a slight impact on levels in the peak jet-noise direction. The third-stream jet conditions had no impact on peak noise levels. Introduction of a third jet stream in the presence of a simulated forward-flight stream limits the impact of the third stream on radiated noise. For equivalent ideal thrust conditions, two-stream and three-stream jets can produce similar acoustic spectra although high-frequency noise levels tend to be lower for the three-stream jet.

  13. Streaming Visual Analytics Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Kristin A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burtner, Edwin R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kritzstein, Brian P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brisbois, Brooke R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mitson, Anna E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    How can we best enable users to understand complex emerging events and make appropriate assessments from streaming data? This was the central question addressed at a three-day workshop on streaming visual analytics. This workshop was organized by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for a government sponsor. It brought together forty researchers and subject matter experts from government, industry, and academia. This report summarizes the outcomes from that workshop. It describes elements of the vision for a streaming visual analytic environment and set of important research directions needed to achieve this vision. Streaming data analysis is in many ways the analysis and understanding of change. However, current visual analytics systems usually focus on static data collections, meaning that dynamically changing conditions are not appropriately addressed. The envisioned mixed-initiative streaming visual analytics environment creates a collaboration between the analyst and the system to support the analysis process. It raises the level of discourse from low-level data records to higher-level concepts. The system supports the analyst’s rapid orientation and reorientation as situations change. It provides an environment to support the analyst’s critical thinking. It infers tasks and interests based on the analyst’s interactions. The system works as both an assistant and a devil’s advocate, finding relevant data and alerts as well as considering alternative hypotheses. Finally, the system supports sharing of findings with others. Making such an environment a reality requires research in several areas. The workshop discussions focused on four broad areas: support for critical thinking, visual representation of change, mixed-initiative analysis, and the use of narratives for analysis and communication.

  14. Testing the Suitability of a Terrestrial 2D LiDAR Scanner for Canopy Characterization of Greenhouse Tomato Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Llop

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Canopy characterization is essential for pesticide dosage adjustment according to vegetation volume and density. It is especially important for fresh exportable vegetables like greenhouse tomatoes. These plants are thin and tall and are planted in pairs, which makes their characterization with electronic methods difficult. Therefore, the accuracy of the terrestrial 2D LiDAR sensor is evaluated for determining canopy parameters related to volume and density and established useful correlations between manual and electronic parameters for leaf area estimation. Experiments were performed in three commercial tomato greenhouses with a paired plantation system. In the electronic characterization, a LiDAR sensor scanned the plant pairs from both sides. The canopy height, canopy width, canopy volume, and leaf area were obtained. From these, other important parameters were calculated, like the tree row volume, leaf wall area, leaf area index, and leaf area density. Manual measurements were found to overestimate the parameters compared with the LiDAR sensor. The canopy volume estimated with the scanner was found to be reliable for estimating the canopy height, volume, and density. Moreover, the LiDAR scanner could assess the high variability in canopy density along rows and hence is an important tool for generating canopy maps.

  15. Exploring canopy structure and function as a potential mechanism of sustain carbon sequestration in aging forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotis, A. T.; Curtis, P.; Ricart, R.

    2013-12-01

    The notion that old-growth forests reach carbon neutrality has recently been challenged, but the mechanisms responsible for continued productivity have remained elusive. Increases in canopy structural complexity, defined by high horizontal and vertical variability in leaf distribution (rugosity), has been proposed as a mechanism for sustained high rates of above ground net primary production (ANPPw) in forests up to ~170 years by enhancing light use efficiency (LUE) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). However, a detailed understanding of how rugosity affects resource distribution within and among trees leading to greater LUE and NUE is not known. We propose that leaves in high rugosity plots receive greater photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) than leaves in low rugosity plots, causing shifts from shade- to sun- adapted leaves into deeper portions of the canopy, which is thought to increase the photosynthetic capacity of individuals and lead to higher carbon assimilation in forests. The goal of this research was to: 1) quantify different canopy structural characteristics using a portable canopy LiDAR (PCL) and; 2) assess how these structural characteristics affect resource distribution and subsequent changes in leaf morphological, physiological and biochemical traits in three broadleaf species (e.g., Acer rubrum, Quercus rubra and Fagus grandifolia) and one conifer species (e.g., Pinus strobus) at different levels in the canopy in plots with similar leaf are index (LAI) but highly contrasting rugosity levels. We found that gap fraction had a strong positive correlation with rugosity. High rugosity plots had a bimodal distribution of LAI that was concentrated at the top and bottom of the canopy with an open midstory (between 10-50% of total canopy height) whereas low rugosity plots had a more even distribution of leaves. Leaf mass per area (LMA) of all broadleaved species had a strong positive correlation with cumulative gap fraction (P. strobus had a relatively

  16. Efecto de la estructuración por macrófitas y por recursos alimentarios en la distribución horizontal de tecamebas y rotíferos en un lago andino patagónico Effect of macrophytes and food resources on the horizontal distribution of testate amoebae and rotifers in an Andean-Patagonian lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELA BASTIDAS-NAVARRO

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de macrófitas en la zona litoral lacustre trae aparejada condiciones diferentes con respecto a la zona pelágica, en particular en la disponibilidad de recursos. Por esta razón, las zonas litorales pueden presentar una mayor biodiversidad. En este trabajo se analizó la distribución horizontal de tecamebas y rotíferos en el lago Escondido (Argentina, vinculándola con los recursos alimentarios presentes en las diferentes zonas. Se tomaron muestras para el estudio del fitoplancton y zooplancton durante verano y primavera (2001-2003 en cuatro estaciones litorales y una pelágica. Se realizó el recuento de rotíferos y tecamebas y se determinó la abundancia y la biomasa fitoplanctónica. Los recursos alimentarios fueron clasificados en nanoplancton ( 20 μm. El nanoplancton estuvo compuesto por nanoflagelados y el fitoplancton de red por diatomeas, cianófitas y clorófitas. La biomasa de estas fracciones varió significativamente, observándose una predominancia del nanoplancton en la zona pelágica y del fitoplancton de red en la zona litoral. Los mayores valores de riqueza y de diversidad de tecamebas y rotíferos fueron observados en las estaciones litorales, no hallándose diferencias significativas entre las zonas con diferentes macrófitas. El análisis de ACC evidenció cuatro grupos. Por un lado, Keratella cochlearis, Synchaeta spp., Polyarthra vulgaris y Collotheca mutabilis, asociadas a las muestras pelágicas, se relacionaron con una alta abundancia de nanoplancton. Por otro lado, los rotíferos Trichocerca spp., Lecane spp. y Euchlanis spp., y las tecamebas Dijflugia pyriformis y Trinema enchelys se relacionaron con el fitoplancton de red y las muestras litorales. Además, un tercer grupo reunió a especies (Lecane spp. y Arcella spp. presentes en ambas zonas y en relación con una baja abundancia del fitoplancton de red. Por último, el rotífero Synchaeta spp. y las muestras pelágicas de primavera se relacionaron con el aumento de la abundancia de la cianofita Coelosphaerium kuetzingianum. Las diferencias señaladas indican que los recursos alimentarios serían un factor determinante en la distribución de especies de tecamebas y rotíferos en el lago Escondido. Para estos zoopláncteres de pequeño tamaño las macrófitas litorales brindarían alimento al favorecer el incremento del fitoplancton de redThe presence of macrophytes in the littoral zone of lakes produces particular conditions including higher resource availability for consumers. For this reason, the littoral zone is generally the area with the highest diversity of lakes and rivers. In this work we studied the horizontal distribution of testate amoebae and rotifers in Lago Escondido (Argentina in relation to food resources availability. The study was carried out along a north-south transect that includes the littoral and the pelagic zone of the lake. Phytoplankton and zooplankton were sampled during summer and spring (2001-2003 in five sampling stations: one pelagic and four littoral. Rotifers and testate amoebae, as well as phytoplanktonic algae abundance and biomass were estimated. Food resources were classified as nanoplankton ( 20 μm and the biovolume of these fractions varied significantly within the pelagic and littoral zones of the lake. Nanoplankon dominated the pelagic zone and was mainly composed by nanoflagellates while net phytoplankton prevailed in the littoral zone and was composed by diatoms, cyanophytes and chlorophytes. The highest number of species and diversity of testate amoebae and rotifers were observed in the littoral stations; nevertheless, no significant differences between the zones colonized by different macrophytes were observed. The CCA analysis showed four different groups. Keratella cochlearis, Synchaeta spp., Polyarthra vulgaris and Collotheca mutabilis characterized the pelagic samples and were related with a high abundance of nanoplankton. On the other hand, rotifers like Trichocerca spp., Lecane spp. and Euchlanis spp. and the testate amoebae Dijflugia pyriformis and Trinema enchelys associated with the littoral samples were related with high abundances of net phytoplankton. Besides, a third group of species {Lecane spp. and Arcella spp., presented in both zones, was mainly related with a decrease in abundance of net phytoplankton. Finally, the rotifer Synchaeta spp. was associated with the spring pelagic samples when the cyanophyte Coelosphaerium kuetzingianum increased its abundance. Summarizing, in Lago Escondido, food resources could be an important factor driving testate amoeba and rotifer distribution. Therefore the major role of macrophytes for this small-bodied zooplankton is food supply through an increment of net phytoplankton

  17. Classification of Snowfall Events and Their Effect on Canopy Interception Efficiency in a Temperate Montane Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, T. R.; Nolin, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    Forest canopies intercept as much as 60% of snowfall in maritime environments, while processes of sublimation and melt can reduce the amount of snow transferred from the canopy to the ground. This research examines canopy interception efficiency (CIE) as a function of forest and event-scale snowfall characteristics. We use a 4-year dataset of continuous meteorological measurements and monthly snow surveys from the Forest Elevation Snow Transect (ForEST) network that has forested and open sites at three elevations spanning the rain-snow transition zone to the upper seasonal snow zone. Over 150 individual storms were classified by forest and storm type characteristics (e.g. forest density, vegetation type, air temperature, snowfall amount, storm duration, wind speed, and storm direction). The between-site comparisons showed that, as expected, CIE was highest for the lower elevation (warmer) sites with higher forest density compared with the higher elevation sites where storm temperatures were colder, trees were smaller and forests were less dense. Within-site comparisons based on storm type show that this classification system can be used to predict CIE.Our results suggest that the coupling of forest type and storm type information can improve estimates of canopy interception. Understanding the effects of temperature and storm type in temperate montane forests is also valuable for future estimates of canopy interception under a warming climate.

  18. A Comparison of Mangrove Canopy Height Using Multiple Independent Measurements from Land, Air, and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomasino, David; Fatoyinbo, Temilola; Lee, SeungKuk; Feliciano, Emanuelle; Trettin, Carl; Simard, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Canopy height is one of the strongest predictors of biomass and carbon in forested ecosystems. Additionally, mangrove ecosystems represent one of the most concentrated carbon reservoirs that are rapidly degrading as a result of deforestation, development, and hydrologic manipulation. Therefore, the accuracy of Canopy Height Models (CHM) over mangrove forest can provide crucial information for monitoring and verification protocols. We compared four CHMs derived from independent remotely sensed imagery and identified potential errors and bias between measurement types. CHMs were derived from three spaceborne datasets; Very-High Resolution (VHR) stereophotogrammetry, TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement (DEM), and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (TanDEM-X), and lidar data which was acquired from an airborne platform. Each dataset exhibited different error characteristics that were related to spatial resolution, sensitivities of the sensors, and reference frames. Canopies over 10 meters were accurately predicted by all CHMs while the distributions of canopy height were best predicted by the VHR CHM. Depending on the guidelines and strategies needed for monitoring and verification activities, coarse resolution CHMs could be used to track canopy height at regional and global scales with finer resolution imagery used to validate and monitor critical areas undergoing rapid changes.

  19. Analysis of polarization characteristics of plant canopies using ground-based remote sensing measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sid’ko, A.F.; Botvich, I.Yu.; Pisman, T.I.; Shevyrnogov, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents results and analysis of a study on polarized characteristics of the reflectance factor of different plant canopies under field conditions, using optical remote sensing techniques. Polarization characteristics were recorded from the elevated work platform at heights of 10–18 m in June and July. Measurements were performed using a double-beam spectrophotometer with a polarized light filter attachment, within the spectral range from 400 to 820 nm. The viewing zenith angle was below 20 degree. Birch (Betila pubescens), pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), wheat (Triticum acstivum) [L.] crops, corn (Zea mays L. ssp. mays) crops, and various grass canopies were used in this study. The following polarization characteristics were studied: the reflectance factor of the canopy with the polarizer adjusted to transmit the maximum and minimum amounts of light (R max and R min ), polarized component of the reflectance factor (R q ), and the degree of polarization (P). Wheat, corn, and grass canopies have higher R max and R min values than forest plants. The R q and P values are higher for the birch than for the pine within the wavelength range between 430 and 740 nm. The study shows that polarization characteristics of plant canopies may be used as an effective means of decoding remote sensing data. - Highlights: • The reflection and polarization properties of plant were studied. • The compiled electronic database of the spectrophotometric information of plant. • Polarization characteristics are a source of useful data on the state of plants

  20. Natural canopy bridges effectively mitigate tropical forest fragmentation for arboreal mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Tremaine; Carrasco-Rueda, Farah; Alonso, Alfonso; Kolowski, Joseph; Deichmann, Jessica L

    2017-06-20

    Linear infrastructure development and resulting habitat fragmentation are expanding in Neotropical forests, and arboreal mammals may be disproportionately impacted by these linear habitat clearings. Maintaining canopy connectivity through preservation of connecting branches (i.e. natural canopy bridges) may help mitigate that impact. Using camera traps, we evaluated crossing rates of a pipeline right-of-way in a control area with no bridges and in a test area where 13 bridges were left by the pipeline construction company. Monitoring all canopy crossing points for a year (7,102 canopy camera nights), we confirmed bridge use by 25 mammal species from 12 families. With bridge use beginning immediately after exposure and increasing over time, use rates were over two orders of magnitude higher than on the ground. We also found a positive relationship between a bridge's use rate and the number of species that used it, suggesting well-used bridges benefit multiple species. Data suggest bridge use may be related to a combination of bridge branch connectivity, multiple connections, connectivity to adjacent forest, and foliage cover. Given the high use rate and minimal cost, we recommend all linear infrastructure projects in forests with arboreal mammal populations include canopy bridges.

  1. Physiological characteristics of high yield under cluster planting: photosynthesis and canopy microclimate of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-ting Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton produces more biomass and economic yield when cluster planting pattern (three plants per hole than in a traditional planting pattern (one plant per hole, even at similar plant densities, indicating that individual plant growth is promoted by cluster planting. The causal factors for this improved growth induced by cluster planting pattern, the light interception, canopy microclimate and photosynthetic rate of cotton were investigated in an arid region of China. The results indicated that the leaf area index and light interception were higher in cluster planting, and significantly different from those in traditional planting during the middle and late growth stages. Cotton canopy humidity at different growth stages was increased but canopy temperatures were reduced by cluster planting. In the later growth stage of cluster planting, the leaf chlorophyll content was higher and the leaf net photosynthetic rate and canopy photosynthetic rate were significantly increased in comparing with traditional planting pattern. We concluded that differences in canopy light interception and photosynthetic rate were the primary factors responsible for increased biomass production and economic yield in cluster planting compared with the traditional planting of cotton.

  2. Effects of Corn Canopy on Seedling Emergence of Seven Weed Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Kordbacheh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research corn were planted in 3 densities (8, 12, 16 plant/m2 in two planting patterns (single and double-row with seven summer weed species, including redroot pigweed, green foxtail, annual bluegrass, common lambsquarter, jimsonweed, black nightshade and johnsongrass were planted. Temperature, quality and quantity of light reaching to soil surface were measured and the number of emerged seedlings for each weed species was countered in three sampling dates. Temperature fluctuation wasn't affected by density and planting patterns and was reduced with canopy formation. In all weed species 3 seedling emergence patterns were observed. In small seed species, redroot pigweed had one germination flush, so it was not respond to crop canopy. The number of emerged weed seedlings of annual bluegrass, common lambsquarter and green foxtail were significantly higher in bareground than under corn canopy. In double-row planting pattern was higher compared to the single-row and had three germination flushes. The number of emerged seedlings in the species with relatively large seeds had no significant difference between bareground and under corn canopy in jimsonweed and black nightshade. But it increased in johnsongrass under corn canopy compare to the bare ground. In all three species it was higher in double-row compare to single-row pattern. Jimsonweed had three germination flushes but blacknightshade and johnsongrass had 1 germination flush.

  3. Impact of 3D Canopy Structure on Remote Sensing Vegetation Index and Solar Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y.; Berry, J. A.; Jing, L.; Qinhuo, L.

    2017-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem plays a critical role in removing CO2 from atmosphere by photosynthesis. Remote sensing provides a possible way to monitor the Gross Primary Production (GPP) at the global scale. Vegetation Indices (VI), e.g., NDVI and NIRv, and Solar Induced Fluorescence (SIF) have been widely used as a proxy for GPP, while the impact of 3D canopy structure on VI and SIF has not be comprehensively studied yet. In this research, firstly, a unified radiative transfer model for visible/near-infrared reflectance and solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence has been developed based on recollision probability and directional escape probability. Then, the impact of view angles, solar angles, weather conditions, leaf area index, and multi-layer leaf angle distribution (LAD) on VI and SIF has been studied. Results suggest that canopy structure plays a critical role in distorting pixel-scale remote sensing signal from leaf-scale scattering. In thin canopy, LAD affects both of the remote sensing estimated GPP and real GPP, while in dense canopy, SIF variations are mainly due to canopy structure, instead of just due to physiology. At the microscale, leaf angle reflects the plant strategy to light on the photosynthesis efficiency, and at the macroscale, a priori knowledge of leaf angle distribution for specific species can improve the global GPP estimation by remote sensing.

  4. Temporal and spatial variations of canopy temperature over a C3C4 mixture grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, S.; Oikawa, T.

    2006-10-01

    This study discusses the photosynthetic pathway types involved in canopy temperature measurements on a mixed grassland consisting of C3 and C4 plants (dominant species in biomass were Solidago altissima (C3), Miscanthus sinensis (C4), and Imperata cylindrica (C4)). In the wet conditions immediately after the rainy season, the mean canopy temperature for S. altissima was the lowest among the dominant species, mainly due to its leaf conductance being twice as large as the other two species. Despite using the same C4 photosynthetic pathway, M. sinensis had a lower apparent canopy temperature than I. cylindrica due to a smaller proportion of sunlit elements in the field of view. In the dry conditions during late July, the mean canopy temperatures of the three dominant species were within 0.3 °C of one another. These results can be explained by poor water conditions for C3 species (S. altissima). The simultaneous survey of vegetation and thermal imaging can help clarify characteristics of C3 and C4 canopy temperature over complicated grassland.

  5. Effects of Fetch on Turbulent Flow and Pollutant Dispersion Within a Cubical Canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michioka, Takenobu; Takimoto, Hiroshi; Ono, Hiroki; Sato, Ayumu

    2018-03-01

    The effects of fetch on turbulent flow and pollutant dispersion within a canopy formed by regularly-spaced cubical objects is investigated using large-eddy simulation. Six tracer gases are simultaneously released from a ground-level continuous pollutant line source placed parallel to the spanwise axis at the first, second, third, fifth, seventh and tenth rows. Beyond the seventh row, the standard deviations of the fluctuations in the velocity components and the Reynolds shear stresses reach nearly equivalent states. Low-frequency turbulent flow is generated near the bottom surface around the first row and develops as the fetch increases. The turbulent flow eventually passes through the canopy at a near-constant interval. The mean concentration within the canopy reaches a near-constant value beyond the seventh row. In the first and second rows, narrow coherent structures frequently affect the pollutant escape from the top of the canopy. These structures increase in width as the fetch increases, and they mainly affect the removal of pollutants from the canopy.

  6. Four things we don't know about scalar transfer from plant canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnigan, J. J.

    2009-04-01

    In terrestrial plant canopies, turbulent exchange of water through evapotranspiration is intimately bound up with exchange of other scalars, heat and carbon dioxide in particular. Turbulent transport is rarely the process limiting exchange of these scalars between the biosphere and the atmosphere. However, in measurement programs like FLUXNET or when we parameterise surface exchange at the canopy scale in climate or weather models we must understand the mechanism of turbulent exchange in detail. In this talk we survey four current obstacles to extending our understanding of canopy turbulence from the idealised case of homogeneous flow in neutral stratification to complex flows in stable and unstable conditions. 1. Canopy eddy structure and the hydrodynamic instability Recent analysis of canopy LES and wind tunnel simulations has revealed the ‘two hairpin' structure of a characteristic canopy eddy. This structure explains a large body of results from a wide range of canopies and redefines the Roughness Sub Layer (RSL) as an asymptotic layer similar to the logarithmic and outer layers of the Planetary Boundary Layer. However, the nature of the non-linear ‘mixing-layer' instability process that gives canopy/RSL eddies their coherence and enhanced transport efficiency (as compared to eddies in the logarithmic layer above) is poorly understood so we do not know how resilient this instability and the eddies that depend upon it are to large scale flow perturbations or to changes in stability. 2. Turbulent Schmidt and Prandtl Numbers The scalar RSL can be defined as the layer across which the turbulent Schmidt (Sc) and Prandtl (Pr) numbers in neutral stratification change from their canopy top values of ~0.5, typical of mixing layers, to their logarithmic layer values of ~1.0, typical of boundary layers. The value of Sc or Pr is a critical parameter when adjusting Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) for the proximity of the canopy. The need for such adjustments has

  7. A model for backscattering characteristics of tall prairie grass canopies at microwave frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtiari, S.; Zoughi, R.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a discrete microwave scattering model, describing the radar backscattering coefficient from two treatments (burned and unburned) of tall prairie grass canopies at VV (electric field vector of the transmitted and received signals are vertically oriented) and HH (electric field vector of the transmitted and received signals and horizontally oriented) polarizations, based on the physical, biophysical, and geometrical characteristics of such canopies. Grass blades are modeled as thin and finite dielectric ellipsoids with arbitrary orientations. Scattering by an individual grass blade is formulated using a generalization of the Rayleigh—Gans approximation with a quasistatic solution for the expansion of the interior field. By associating, with each grass blade, various appropriate distribution functions, the relative orientation, location, height, cross section, and permittivity of each grass blade is taken into account. This makes for a more realistic overall description of the canopy. Kirchhoff's surface scattering is used to model the backscatter from the soil surface. An incoherent summation of the effect of grass blades and soil surface is adopted to obtain the total canopy backscattering coefficient, taking into account the attenuation experienced by the signal as it travels through the canopy. The results of this model are given for 1.5, 5, and 10 GHz (L-, C-, and X-band). Although for the shorter wavelengths (X-band) the Rayleigh—Gans criteria is not totally satisfied, nevertheless, the limited available measured X-band data compare relatively well with the results of this model both quantitatively and qualitatively. (author)

  8. Olive Actual "on Year" Yield Forecast Tool Based on the Tree Canopy Geometry Using UAS Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola-Guirado, Rafael R; Castillo-Ruiz, Francisco J; Jiménez-Jiménez, Francisco; Blanco-Roldan, Gregorio L; Castro-Garcia, Sergio; Gil-Ribes, Jesus A

    2017-07-30

    Olive has a notable importance in countries of Mediterranean basin and its profitability depends on several factors such as actual yield, production cost or product price. Actual "on year" Yield (AY) is production (kg tree -1 ) in "on years", and this research attempts to relate it with geometrical parameters of the tree canopy. Regression equation to forecast AY based on manual canopy volume was determined based on data acquired from different orchard categories and cultivars during different harvesting seasons in southern Spain. Orthoimages were acquired with unmanned aerial systems (UAS) imagery calculating individual crown for relating to canopy volume and AY. Yield levels did not vary between orchard categories; however, it did between irrigated orchards (7000-17,000 kg ha -1 ) and rainfed ones (4000-7000 kg ha -1 ). After that, manual canopy volume was related with the individual crown area of trees that were calculated by orthoimages acquired with UAS imagery. Finally, AY was forecasted using both manual canopy volume and individual tree crown area as main factors for olive productivity. AY forecast only by using individual crown area made it possible to get a simple and cheap forecast tool for a wide range of olive orchards. Finally, the acquired information was introduced in a thematic map describing spatial AY variability obtained from orthoimage analysis that may be a powerful tool for farmers, insurance systems, market forecasts or to detect agronomical problems.

  9. A recirculating stream aquarium for ecological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon H. Reeves; Fred H. Everest; Carl E. McLemore

    1983-01-01

    Investigations of the ecological behavior of fishes often require studies in both natural and artificial stream environments. We describe a large, recirculating stream aquarium and its controls, constructed for ecological studies at the Forestry Sciences Laboratory in Corvallis.

  10. Comparison of active and passive stream restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Esben Astrup; Thodsen, Hans; Dehli, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    Modification and channelization of streams and rivers have been conducted extensively throughout the world during the past century. Subsequently, much effort has been directed at re-creating the lost habitats and thereby improving living conditions for aquatic organisms. However, as restoration...... methods are plentiful, it is difficult to determine which one to use to get the anticipated result. The aim of this study was to compare two commonly used methods in small Danish streams to improve the physical condition: re-meandering and passive restoration through cease of maintenance. Our...... investigation included measurement of the physical conditions in 29 stream reaches covering four different groups: (1) re-meandered streams, (2) LDC streams (the least disturbed streams available), (3) passively restored streams (>10 years stop of aintenance) and (4) channelized and non-restored streams. The in...

  11. A survey on Big Data Stream Mining

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... huge amount of stream like telecommunication systems. So, there ... streams have many challenges for data mining algorithm design like using of ..... A. Bifet and R. Gavalda, "Learning from Time-Changing Data with. Adaptive ...

  12. Cytoplasmic Streaming in the Drosophila Oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Margot E

    2016-10-06

    Objects are commonly moved within the cell by either passive diffusion or active directed transport. A third possibility is advection, in which objects within the cytoplasm are moved with the flow of the cytoplasm. Bulk movement of the cytoplasm, or streaming, as required for advection, is more common in large cells than in small cells. For example, streaming is observed in elongated plant cells and the oocytes of several species. In the Drosophila oocyte, two stages of streaming are observed: relatively slow streaming during mid-oogenesis and streaming that is approximately ten times faster during late oogenesis. These flows are implicated in two processes: polarity establishment and mixing. In this review, I discuss the underlying mechanism of streaming, how slow and fast streaming are differentiated, and what we know about the physiological roles of the two types of streaming.

  13. Stream Tables and Watershed Geomorphology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillquist, Karl D.; Kinner, Patricia W.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews copious stream tables and provides a watershed approach to stream table exercises. Results suggest that this approach to learning the concepts of fluvial geomorphology is effective. (Contains 39 references.) (DDR)

  14. AIRBORNE X-HH INCIDENCE ANGLE IMPACT ON CANOPY HEIGHT RETREIVAL: IMPLICATIONS FOR SPACEBORNE X-HH TANDEM-X GLOBAL CANOPY HEIGHT MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Tighe

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To support international climate change mitigation efforts, the United Nations REDD+ initiative (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation seeks to reduce land use induced greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. It requires independent monitoring of forest cover and forest biomass information in a spatially explicit form. It is widely recognised that remote sensing is required to deliver this information. Synthetic Aperture Radar interferometry (InSAR techniques have gained traction in the last decade as a viable technology from which vegetation canopy height and bare earth elevations can be derived. The viewing geometry of a SAR sensor is side-looking where the radar pulse is transmitted out to one side of the aircraft or satellite, defining an incidence angle (θ range. The incidence angle will change from near-range (NR to far-range (FR across of the track of the SAR platform. InSAR uses image pairs and thus, contain two set of incidence angles. Changes in the InSAR incidence angles can alter the relative contributions from the vegetation canopy and the ground surface and thus, affect the retrieved vegetation canopy height. Incidence angle change is less pronounced in spaceborne data than in airborne data and mitigated somewhat when multiple InSAR-data takes are combined. This study uses NEXTMap® single- and multi-pass X-band HH polarized InSAR to derive vegetation canopy height from the scattering phase centre height (hspc. Comparisons with in situ vegetation canopy height over three test sites (Arizona-1, Minnesota-2; the effect of incidence angle changes across swath on the X-HH InSAR hspc was examined. Results indicate at steep incidence angles (θ = 35º, more exposure of lower vegetation canopy structure (e.g. tree trunks led to greater lower canopy double bounce, increased ground scattering, and decreased volume scattering. This resulted in a lower scattering phase centre height (hspc or a greater underestimation of

  15. Reconfigurable Multicore Architectures for Streaming Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Rauwerda, G.K.; Jacobs, J.W.M.; Nicolescu, G.; Mosterman, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter addresses reconfigurable heterogenous and homogeneous multicore system-on-chip (SoC) platforms for streaming digital signal processing applications, also called DSP applications. In streaming DSP applications, computations can be specified as a data flow graph with streams of data items

  16. Stream dynamics: An overview for land managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard H. Heede

    1980-01-01

    Concepts of stream dynamics are demonstrated through discussion of processes and process indicators; theory is included only where helpful to explain concepts. Present knowledge allows only qualitative prediction of stream behavior. However, such predictions show how management actions will affect the stream and its environment.

  17. Energy from streaming current and potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthuis, Wouter; Schippers, Bob; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert

    2005-01-01

    It is investigated how much energy can be delivered by a streaming current source. A streaming current and subsequent streaming potential originate when double layer charge is transported by hydrodynamic flow. Theory and a network model of such a source is presented and initial experimental results

  18. Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

  19. Olefin Recovery from Chemical Industry Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.R. Da Costa; R. Daniels; A. Jariwala; Z. He; A. Morisato; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans

    2003-11-21

    The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process to separate olefins from paraffins in waste gas streams as an alternative to flaring or distillation. Flaring these streams wastes their chemical feedstock value; distillation is energy and capital cost intensive, particularly for small waste streams.

  20. Academic Self-Concepts in Ability Streams: Considering Domain Specificity and Same-Stream Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Gregory Arief D.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Yeung, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the relations between academic achievement and self-concepts in a sample of 1,067 seventh-grade students from 3 core ability streams in Singapore secondary education. Although between-stream differences in achievement were large, between-stream differences in academic self-concepts were negligible. Within each stream, levels of…

  1. The long term response of stream flow to climatic warming in headwater streams of interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy B. Jones; Amanda J. Rinehart

    2010-01-01

    Warming in the boreal forest of interior Alaska will have fundamental impacts on stream ecosystems through changes in stream hydrology resulting from upslope loss of permafrost, alteration of availability of soil moisture, and the distribution of vegetation. We examined stream flow in three headwater streams of the Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed (CPCRW) in...

  2. Ecophysiological Remote Sensing of Leaf-Canopy Photosynthetic Characteristics in a Cool-Temperate Deciduous Forest in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, H. M.; Muraoka, H.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing of structure and function of canopy is crucial to detect temporal and spatial distributions of forest ecosystems dynamics in changing environments. The spectral reflectance of the canopy is determined by optical properties (spectral reflectance and transmittance) of single leaves and their spatial arrangements in the canopy. The optical properties of leaves reflect their pigments contents and anatomical structures. Thus detailed information and understandings of the consequence between ecophysiological traits and optical properties from single leaf to canopy level are essential for remote sensing of canopy ecophysiology. To develop the ecophysiological remote sensing of forest canopy, we have been promoting multiple and cross-scale measurements in "Takayama site" belonging to AsiaFlux and JaLTER networks, located in a cool-temperate deciduous broadleaf forest on a mountainous landscape in Japan. In this forest, in situ measurement of canopy spectral reflectance has been conducted continuously by a spectroradiometer as part of the "Phenological Eyes Network (PEN)" since 2004. To analyze the canopy spectral reflectance from leaf ecophysiological viewpoints, leaf mass per area, nitrogen content, chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic capacities and the optical properties have been measured for dominant canopy tree species Quercus crispla and Betula ermanii throughout the seasons for multiple years.Photosynthetic capacity was largely correlated with chlorophyll contents throughout the growing season in both Q. crispla and B. ermanii. In these leaves, the reflectance at "red edge" (710 nm) changed by corresponding to the changes of chlorophyll contents throughout the seasons. Our canopy-level examination showed that vegetation indices obtained by red edge reflectance have linear relationship with leaf chlorophyll contents and photosynthetic capacity. Finally we apply this knowledge to the Rapid Eye satellite imagery around Takayama site to scale

  3. Regional and historical factors supplement current climate in shaping global forest canopy height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jian; Nielsen, Scott; Mao, Lingfeng

    2016-01-01

    on Light Detection and Ranging-derived maximum forest canopy height (Hmax) to test hypotheses relating Hmax to current climate (water availability, ambient energy and water–energy dynamics), regional evolutionary and biogeographic history, historical climate change, and human disturbance. We derived Hmax...... biogeographic regions, supporting the role of regional evolutionary and biogeographic history in structuring broad-scale patterns in canopy height. Furthermore, there were divergent relationships between climate and Hmax between the Southern and Northern Hemispheres, consistent with historical evolutionary...... contingencies modulating these relationships. Historical climate change was also related to Hmax, albeit not as strongly, with shorter canopy heights where late-Quaternary climate has been less stable. In contrast, human disturbance was only weakly related to Hmax at the scale (55 km) examined here. Synthesis...

  4. High-dose therapy improved the bone remodelling compartment canopy and bone formation in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinge, Maja; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Plesner, Torben

    2015-01-01

    transplantation, and from 20 control patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance were histomorphometrically investigated. This investigation confirmed that MM patients exhibited uncoupled bone formation to resorption and reduced canopy coverage. More importantly, this study revealed......Bone loss in multiple myeloma (MM) is caused by an uncoupling of bone formation to resorption trigged by malignant plasma cells. Increasing evidence indicates that the bone remodelling compartment (BRC) canopy, which normally covers the remodelling sites, is important for coupled bone remodelling....... Loss of this canopy has been associated with bone loss. This study addresses whether the bone remodelling in MM is improved by high-dose therapy. Bone marrow biopsies obtained from 20 MM patients, before and after first-line treatment with high-dose melphalan followed by autologous stem cell...

  5. STREAM: A First Programming Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard; Kölling, Michael

    2009-01-01

    to derive a programming process, STREAM, designed specifically for novices. STREAM is a carefully down-scaled version of a full and rich agile software engineering process particularly suited for novices learning object-oriented programming. In using it we hope to achieve two things: to help novice......Programming is recognized as one of seven grand challenges in computing education. Decades of research have shown that the major problems novices experience are composition-based—they may know what the individual programming language constructs are, but they do not know how to put them together....... Despite this fact, textbooks, educational practice, and programming education research hardly address the issue of teaching the skills needed for systematic development of programs. We provide a conceptual framework for incremental program development, called Stepwise Improvement, which unifies best...

  6. The significance of small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2017-09-01

    Headwaters, defined here as first- and secondorder streams, make up 70%‒80% of the total channel length of river networks. These small streams exert a critical influence on downstream portions of the river network by: retaining or transmitting sediment and nutrients; providing habitat and refuge for diverse aquatic and riparian organisms; creating migration corridors; and governing connectivity at the watershed-scale. The upstream-most extent of the channel network and the longitudinal continuity and lateral extent of headwaters can be difficult to delineate, however, and people are less likely to recognize the importance of headwaters relative to other portions of a river network. Consequently, headwaters commonly lack the legal protections accorded to other portions of a river network and are more likely to be significantly altered or completely obliterated by land use.

  7. Carbon isotope discrimination, ash, and canopy temperature in three wheatgrass species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, A.B.; Ray, I.M.; Berdahl, R.D.; Karn, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Soil water is the main factor influencing forage production in the semiarid Northern Great Plains. Developing germplasm that uses limited water more efficiently would benefit forage production for hay and livestock grazing. Development of selection criteria suited to screening large breeding populations for water-use efficiency (WUE) are needed to enhance this effort. This study evaluated carbon isotope discrimination (delta), tissue ash concentration, and canopy temperature of populations of diploid crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum L.), tetraploid crested wheatgrass [A. desertorum (Fisch. ex. Link) Schult.], and western wheatgrass [Pascopyrum smithii (Rybd.) Love] to determine the utility of using ash concentration and canopy temperature as alternative criteria to delta for selecting plants with high WUE. Tissue ash concentration, canopy temperature, and delta were measured on half-sib families from genetically broad-based populations of each species across two field growing seasons. Sufficient genetic variation was present for delta and ash concentration among families within each species to suggest possible use of these traits as criteria for selecting plants with higher WUE. Differences in canopy temperature among families were present only in 1994. Correlations between ash and delta were greatest for tetraploid crested wheatgrass and least for western wheatgrass. Correlation of canopy temperature with delta was significant for tetraploid crested wheatgrass both years and for diploid crested wheatgrass in 1993, but neither year for western wheatgrass. Ash concentration and delta were moderately heritable in all three grass populations, indicating that both traits are under genetic control and could likely be altered through breeding. Using ash and canopy temperature as criteria for selecting plants with greater WUE would provide a relatively low-cost, simple approach to develop cultivars with improved WUE

  8. Portable and Airborne Small Footprint LiDAR: Forest Canopy Structure Estimation of Fire Managed Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M.C.S. Listopad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study used an affordable ground-based portable LiDAR system to provide an understanding of the structural differences between old-growth and secondary-growth Southeastern pine. It provided insight into the strengths and weaknesses in the structural determination of portable systems in contrast to airborne LiDAR systems. Portable LiDAR height profiles and derived metrics and indices (e.g., canopy cover, canopy height were compared among plots with different fire frequency and fire season treatments within secondary forest and old growth plots. The treatments consisted of transitional season fire with four different return intervals: 1-yr, 2-yr, 3-yr fire return intervals, and fire suppressed plots. The remaining secondary plots were treated using a 2-yr late dormant season fire cycle. The old growth plots were treated using a 2-yr growing season fire cycle. Airborne and portable LiDAR derived canopy cover were consistent throughout the plots, with significantly higher canopy cover values found in 3-yr and fire suppressed plots. Portable LiDAR height profile and metrics presented a higher sensitivity in capturing subcanopy elements than the airborne system, particularly in dense canopy plots. The 3-dimensional structures of the secondary plots with varying fire return intervals were dramatically different to old-growth plots, where a symmetrical distribution with clear recruitment was visible. Portable LiDAR, even though limited to finer spatial scales and specific biases, is a low-cost investment with clear value for the management of forest canopy structure.

  9. Patterns of Canopy and Surface Layer Consumption in a Boreal Forest Fire from Repeat Airborne Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Michael; Morton, Douglas C.; Cook, Bruce D.; Andersen, Hans-Erik; Babcock, Chad; Pattison, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Fire in the boreal region is the dominant agent of forest disturbance with direct impacts on ecosystem structure, carbon cycling, and global climate. Global and biome-scale impacts are mediated by burn severity, measured as loss of forest canopy and consumption of the soil organic layer. To date, knowledge of the spatial variability in burn severity has been limited by sparse field sampling and moderate resolution satellite data. Here, we used pre- and post-fire airborne lidar data to directly estimate changes in canopy vertical structure and surface elevation for a 2005 boreal forest fire on Alaskas Kenai Peninsula. We found that both canopy and surface losses were strongly linked to pre-fire species composition and exhibited important fine-scale spatial variability at sub-30m resolution. The fractional reduction in canopy volume ranged from 0.61 in lowland black spruce stands to 0.27 in mixed white spruce and broad leaf forest. Residual structure largely reflects standing dead trees, highlighting the influence of pre-fire forest structure on delayed carbon losses from above ground biomass, post-fire albedo, and variability in understory light environments. Median loss of surface elevation was highest in lowland black spruce stands (0.18 m) but much lower in mixed stands (0.02 m), consistent with differences in pre-fire organic layer accumulation. Spatially continuous depth-of-burn estimates from repeat lidar measurements provide novel information to constrain carbon emissions from the surface organic layer and may inform related research on post-fire successional trajectories. Spectral measures of burn severity from Landsat were correlated with canopy (r = 0.76) and surface (r = -0.71) removal in black spruce stands but captured less of the spatial variability in fire effects for mixed stands (canopy r = 0.56, surface r = -0.26), underscoring the difficulty in capturing fire effects in heterogeneous boreal forest landscapes using proxy measures of burn severity

  10. Canopy structure and physiology related to rootstock vigour in early-ripening peach cultivar Flordastar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motisi, A.; Grutta, I.; Pernice, F.; Caruso, T.

    2005-01-01

    Canopy architectural and eco-physiological traits were measured on five-year-old early-ripening peach cv Flordastar trees grafted on GF 677 and MrS 2/5 rootstocks. Data are reported both on measurements performed directly on the trees, for branches and twigs characters, and on the fractal dimension (D), estimated by the 'box counting' method taken from digital images of Winter-dormant trees, adopted as an indicator of canopy complexity. Results are discussed in relation to the modification of the canopy microclimate as a consequence of the effects of rootstock on tree architecture and water consumption, the latter measured by using sap flow (HPV) probes. A lower degree of canopy complexity was observed in trees grafted onto MrS 2/5 and this, in turn, was related to a higher degree of aerodynamic contact of the tree with the atmosphere (expressed in terms of leaf boundary conductance) and to a higher solar radiation intensity along the canopy profile. These differences did not affect fruit quality in terms of size, red skin over-colour and soluble solid content. In MrS 2/5, the higher light availability at all levels along canopy profile was related to a moderate water deficit status, even under full-irrigation conditions, as evidenced by the lower stem water potential (below -1.3 MPa) and by a lower transpiration rate (about one-half of the values observed on GF 677). At tree-level, MrS 2/5 had a daily water consumption that, also in relation to the lower leaf area per tree, resulted as low as 25% of the values observed on GF 677. The latter, even carrying a significantly higher leaf area and higher water consumption, never showed apparent symptoms of water deficit [it

  11. El Niño drought increased canopy turnover in Amazon forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitold, Veronika; Morton, Douglas C; Longo, Marcos; Dos-Santos, Maiza Nara; Keller, Michael; Scaranello, Marcos

    2018-03-25

    Amazon droughts, including the 2015-2016 El Niño, may reduce forest net primary productivity and increase canopy tree mortality, thereby altering both the short- and the long-term net forest carbon balance. Given the broad extent of drought impacts, inventory plots or eddy flux towers may not capture regional variability in forest response to drought. We used multi-temporal airborne Lidar data and field measurements of coarse woody debris to estimate patterns of canopy turnover and associated carbon losses in intact and fragmented forests in the central Brazilian Amazon between 2013-2014 and 2014-2016. Average annualized canopy turnover rates increased by 65% during the drought period in both intact and fragmented forests. The average size and height of turnover events was similar for both time intervals, in contrast to expectations that the 2015-2016 El Niño drought would disproportionally affect large trees. Lidar-biomass relationships between canopy turnover and field measurements of coarse woody debris were modest (R 2  ≈ 0.3), given similar coarse woody debris production and Lidar-derived changes in canopy volume from single tree and multiple branch fall events. Our findings suggest that El Niño conditions accelerated canopy turnover in central Amazon forests, increasing coarse woody debris production by 62% to 1.22 Mg C ha -1  yr -1 in drought years . No claim to original US Government works New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Towards a High Temporal Frequency Grass Canopy Thermal IR Model for Background Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Jerrell R., Jr.; Smith, James A.; Koenig, George G.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present our first results towards understanding high temporal frequency thermal infrared response from a dense plant canopy and compare the application of our model, driven both by slowly varying, time-averaged meteorological conditions and by high frequency measurements of local and within canopy profiles of relative humidity and wind speed, to high frequency thermal infrared observations. Previously, we have employed three-dimensional ray tracing to compute the intercepted and scattered radiation fluxes and for final scene rendering. For the turbulent fluxes, we employed simple resistance models for latent and sensible heat with one-dimensional profiles of relative humidity and wind speed. Our modeling approach has proven successful in capturing the directional and diurnal variation in background thermal infrared signatures. We hypothesize that at these scales, where the model is typically driven by time-averaged, local meteorological conditions, the primary source of thermal variance arises from the spatial distribution of sunlit and shaded foliage elements within the canopy and the associated radiative interactions. In recent experiments, we have begun to focus on the high temporal frequency response of plant canopies in the thermal infrared at 1 second to 5 minute intervals. At these scales, we hypothesize turbulent mixing plays a more dominant role. Our results indicate that in the high frequency domain, the vertical profile of temperature change is tightly coupled to the within canopy wind speed In the results reported here, the canopy cools from the top down with increased wind velocities and heats from the bottom up at low wind velocities. .

  13. Canopy and leaf composition drive patterns of nutrient release from pruning residues in a coffee agroforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Katherine L; Lawrence, Deborah

    2012-06-01

    In a coffee agroforest, the crop is cultivated under the shade of fruit-bearing and nitrogen (N)-fixing trees. These trees are periodically pruned to promote flowering and fruiting as well as to make nutrients stored in tree biomass available to plants. We investigated the effect of canopy composition and substrate quality on decomposition rates and patterns of nutrient release from pruning residues in a coffee agroforest located in Costa Rica's Central Valley. Initial phosphorus (P) release was enhanced under a canopy composed solely of N-fixing, Erythrina poeppigiana compared to a mixed canopy of Erythrina and Musa acuminata (banana). Both initial and final N release were similar under the two canopy types. However, after five months of decomposition, a higher proportion of initial N had been released under the single canopy. Although patterns of decomposition and nutrient release were not predicted by initial substrate quality, mass loss in leaf mixtures rates were well predicted by mean mass loss of their component species. This study identifies specific pruning regimes that may regulate N and P release during crucial growth periods, and it suggests that strategic pruning can enhance nutrient availability. For example, during the onset of rapid fruit growth, a two-species mixture may release more P than a three-species mixture. However, by the time of the harvest, the two- and three-species mixtures have released roughly the same amount of N and P. These nutrients do not always follow the same pattern, as N release can be maximized in single-species substrates, while P release is often facilitated in species mixtures. Our study indicates the importance of management practices in mediating patterns of nutrient release. Future research should investigate how canopy composition and farm management can also mediate on-farm nutrient losses.

  14. Radiative transfer within seagrass canopies: impact on carbon budgets and light requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Richard C.; Mobley, Curtis D.

    1997-02-01

    Seagrasses are ecologically important but extremely vulnerable to anthropogenic modifications of the coastal zone that affect light availability within these unique ecosystems. Strongly pigmented seagrass leaves can extend for more than 1 m above the substrate and biomass is distributed unevenly throughout the canopy. in this study, light attenuation in a 7 m water column that contained a seagrass canopy extending 1.5 m above the bottom was calculated by the radiative transfer model Hydrolight using the spectral absorbance of eelgrass leaves and a non-uniform vertical distribution of biomass. Runs were performed in clear and turbid water columns, over san d and mud substrates, and with shoot densities ranging from 25 to 200 m-2 using solar angles for both winter and summer solstices. The flux of photosynthetically active irradiance (EPAR) reaching the top of the seagrass canopy was twice as high in summer compared to winter, and in clear water compared to turbid water. Sediment type had a measurable effect on EPAR only within the bottom third of the canopy. Light penetration within the canopy was inversely proportional to shoot density. Introduction of daylength and a sinusoidal distribution of EPAR throughout the day greatly increased the importance of solar elevation on daily integrated production relative to water column turbidity and sediment type. Shoot-specific productivity decreased and the position of maximum shoot productivity within the canopy shallowed as shoot density increased. Positive net photosynthesis for entire shoots was possible only when plant density was lower than 100 shoots m-2 in winter; values consistent with field observations. Although very simplistic with regard to inherent optical properties of real seagrass leaves, this model was able to generate estimates of maximum sustainable shoot density that were fully testable by, and wholly consistent with, field observations.

  15. Interplanetary stream magnetism: Kinematic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlaga, L.F.; Barouch, E.

    1976-01-01

    The particle density, and the magnetic field intensity and direction, are calculated for volume elements of the solar wind as a function of the initial magnetic field direction, Phi 0 , and the initial speed gradient, (deltaV/deltaR) 0 . It is assumed that the velocity is constant and radial. These assumptions are approximately valid between approx.0.1 and 1.0 AU for many streams. Time profiles of n, B, and V are calculated for corotating streams, neglecting effects of pressure gradients. The compression and rarefaction of B depend sensitively on Phi 0 . By averaging over a typical stream, it is found that approx.r -2 , whereas does not vary in a simple way, consistent with deep space observations. Changes of field direction may be very large, depending on the initial angle; but when the initial angle at 0.1 Au is such that the base of the field line corotates with the Sun, the spiral angle is the preferred direction at 1 AU. The theory is also applicable to nonstationary flows

  16. StreamStats, version 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Kernell G.; Newson, Jeremy K.; Smith, Martyn J.; Guthrie, John D.; Steeves, Peter A.; Haluska, Tana L.; Kolb, Katharine R.; Thompson, Ryan F.; Santoro, Richard D.; Vraga, Hans W.

    2017-10-30

    IntroductionStreamStats version 4, available at https://streamstats.usgs.gov, is a map-based web application that provides an assortment of analytical tools that are useful for water-resources planning and management, and engineering purposes. Developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the primary purpose of StreamStats is to provide estimates of streamflow statistics for user-selected ungaged sites on streams and for USGS streamgages, which are locations where streamflow data are collected.Streamflow statistics, such as the 1-percent flood, the mean flow, and the 7-day 10-year low flow, are used by engineers, land managers, biologists, and many others to help guide decisions in their everyday work. For example, estimates of the 1-percent flood (which is exceeded, on average, once in 100 years and has a 1-percent chance of exceedance in any year) are used to create flood-plain maps that form the basis for setting insurance rates and land-use zoning. This and other streamflow statistics also are used for dam, bridge, and culvert design; water-supply planning and management; permitting of water withdrawals and wastewater and industrial discharges; hydropower facility design and regulation; and setting of minimum allowed streamflows to protect freshwater ecosystems. Streamflow statistics can be computed from available data at USGS streamgages depending on the type of data collected at the stations. Most often, however, streamflow statistics are needed at ungaged sites, where no streamflow data are available to determine the statistics.

  17. Streaming potential of superhydrophobic microchannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hung Mok; Kim, Damoa; Kim, Se Young

    2017-03-01

    For the purpose of gaining larger streaming potential, it has been suggested to employ superhydrophobic microchannels with a large velocity slip. There are two kinds of superhydrophobic surfaces, one having a smooth wall with a large Navier slip coefficient caused by the hydrophobicity of the wall material, and the other having a periodic array of no- shear slots of air pockets embedded in a nonslip wall. The electrokinetic flows over these two superhydrophobic surfaces are modelled using the Navier-Stokes equation and convection-diffusion equations of the ionic species. The Navier slip coefficient of the first kind surfaces and the no-shear slot ratio of the second kind surfaces are similar in the sense that the volumetric flow rate increases as these parameter values increase. However, although the streaming potential increases monotonically with respect to the Navier slip coefficient, it reaches a maximum and afterward decreases as the no-shear ratio increases. The results of the present investigation imply that the characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces employing only the measurement of volumetric flow rate against pressure drop is not appropriate and the fine structure of the superhydrophobic surfaces must be verified before predicting the streaming potential and electrokinetic flows accurately. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Animal models for auditory streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itatani, Naoya

    2017-01-01

    Sounds in the natural environment need to be assigned to acoustic sources to evaluate complex auditory scenes. Separating sources will affect the analysis of auditory features of sounds. As the benefits of assigning sounds to specific sources accrue to all species communicating acoustically, the ability for auditory scene analysis is widespread among different animals. Animal studies allow for a deeper insight into the neuronal mechanisms underlying auditory scene analysis. Here, we will review the paradigms applied in the study of auditory scene analysis and streaming of sequential sounds in animal models. We will compare the psychophysical results from the animal studies to the evidence obtained in human psychophysics of auditory streaming, i.e. in a task commonly used for measuring the capability for auditory scene analysis. Furthermore, the neuronal correlates of auditory streaming will be reviewed in different animal models and the observations of the neurons’ response measures will be related to perception. The across-species comparison will reveal whether similar demands in the analysis of acoustic scenes have resulted in similar perceptual and neuronal processing mechanisms in the wide range of species being capable of auditory scene analysis. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Auditory and visual scene analysis’. PMID:28044022

  19. Spatial and diurnal below canopy evaporation in a desert vineyard: Measurements and modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Kool, D; Ben-Gal, A; Agam, N; Šimůnek, J; Heitman, JL; Sauer, TJ; Lazarovitch, N

    2014-01-01

    Evaporation from the soil surface (E) can be a significant source of water loss in arid areas. In sparsely vegetated systems, E is expected to be a function of soil, climate, irrigation regime, precipitation patterns, and plant canopy development and will therefore change dynamically at both daily and seasonal time scales. The objectives of this research were to quantify E in an isolated, drip-irrigated vineyard in an arid environment and to simulate below canopy E using the HYDRUS (2-D/3-D) ...

  20. Ozone Flux Measurement and Modelling on Leaf/Shoot and Canopy Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludger Grünhage

    Full Text Available The quantitative study of the ozone effects on agricultural and forest vegetation requires the knowledge of the pollutant dose absorbed by plants via leaf stomata, i.e. the stomatal flux. Nevertheless, the toxicologically effective dose can differ from the stomatal flux because a pool of scavenging and detoxification processes reduce the amount of pollutant responsible of the expression of the harmful effects. The measurement of the stomatal flux is not immediate and the quantification of the effective dose is still troublesome. The paper examines the conceptual aspects of ozone flux measurement and modelling in agricultural and ecological research. The ozone flux paradigm is conceptualized into a toxicological frame and faced at two different scales: leaf/shoot and canopy scales. Leaf and shoot scale flux measurements require gas-exchange enclosure techniques, while canopy scale flux measurements need a micrometeorological approach including techniques such as eddy covariance and the aerodynamical gradient. At both scales, not all the measured ozone flux is stomatal flux. In fact, a not negligible amount of ozone is destroyed on external plant surfaces, like leaf cuticles, or by gas phase reaction with biogenic volatile compounds. The stomatal portion of flux can be calculated from concurrent measurements of water vapour fluxes at both scales. Canopy level flux measurements require very fast sensors and the fulfilment of many conditions to ensure that the measurements made above the canopy really reflect the canopy fluxes (constant flux hypothesis. Again, adjustments are necessary in order to correct for air density fluctuations and sensor-surface alignment break. As far as regards flux modelling, at leaf level the stomatal flux is simply obtained by multiplying the ozone concentration on the leaf with the stomatal conductance predicted by means of physiological models fed by meteorological parameter. At canopy level the stomatal flux is

  1. Analytical Modelling of Canopy Interception Loss from a Juvenile Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlyle-Moses, D. E.; Lishman, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    In the central interior of British Columbia (BC), Canada, the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) (MPB) has severely affected the majority of pine species in the region, especially lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson). The loss of mature lodgepole pine stands, including those lost to salvage logging, has resulted in an increase in the number of juvenile pine stands in the interior of BC through planting and natural regrowth. With this change from mature forests to juvenile forests at such a large spatial scale, the water balance of impacted areas may be altered, although the magnitude of such change is uncertain. Previous studies of rainfall partitioning by lodgepole pine and lodgepole pine dominated canopies have focused on mature stands. Thus, rainfall, throughfall and stemflow were measured and canopy interception loss was derived during the growing season of 2010 in a juvenile lodgepole pine dominated stand located approximately 60 km NNW of Kamloops, BC at 51°12'49" N 120°23'43" W, 1290 m above mean sea level. Scaling up from measurements for nine trees, throughfall, stemflow and canopy interception loss accounted for 87.7, 1.8 and 10.5 percent of the 252.9 mm of rain that fell over 38 events during the study period, respectively. The reformulated versions of the Gash and Liu analytical interception loss models estimated cumulative canopy interception loss at 24.7 and 24.6 mm, respectively, compared with the observed 26.5 mm; an underestimate of 1.8 and 1.9 mm or 6.8 and 7.2% of the observed value, respectively. Our results suggest that canopy interception loss is reduced in juvenile stands compared to their mature counterparts and that this reduction is due to the decreased storage capacity offered by these younger canopies. Evaporation during rainfall from juvenile canopies is still appreciable and may be a consequence of the increased proportion of the canopy exposed to wind during events.

  2. Measurements of canopy chemistry with 1992 AVIRIS data at Blackhawk Island and Harvard Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Mary E.; Aber, John D.

    1993-01-01

    The research described in this paper was designed to determine if high spectral resolution imaging spectrometer data can be used to measure the chemical composition of forest foliage, specifically nitrogen and lignin concentration. Information about the chemical composition of forest canopies can be used to determine nutrient cycling rates and carbon balances in forest ecosystems. This paper will describe the results relating data from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) to field measured canopy chemistry at Blackhawk Island, WI and Harvard Forest, MA.

  3. Mapping forest canopy fuels in Yellowstone National Park using lidar and hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halligan, Kerry Quinn

    The severity and size of wildland fires in the forested western U.S have increased in recent years despite improvements in fire suppression efficiency. This, along with increased density of homes in the wildland-urban interface, has resulted in high costs for fire management and increased risks to human health, safety and property. Crown fires, in comparison to surface fires, pose an especially high risk due to their intensity and high rate of spread. Crown fire models require a range of quantitative fuel parameters which can be difficult and costly to obtain, but advances in lidar and hyperspectral sensor technologies hold promise for delivering these inputs. Further research is needed, however, to assess the strengths and limitations of these technologies and the most appropriate analysis methodologies for estimating crown fuel parameters from these data. This dissertation focuses on retrieving critical crown fuel parameters, including canopy height, canopy bulk density and proportion of dead canopy fuel, from airborne lidar and hyperspectral data. Remote sensing data were used in conjunction with detailed field data on forest parameters and surface reflectance measurements. A new method was developed for retrieving Digital Surface Model (DSM) and Digital Canopy Models (DCM) from first return lidar data. Validation data on individual tree heights demonstrated the high accuracy (r2 0.95) of the DCMs developed via this new algorithm. Lidar-derived DCMs were used to estimate critical crown fire parameters including available canopy fuel, canopy height and canopy bulk density with linear regression model r2 values ranging from 0.75 to 0.85. Hyperspectral data were used in conjunction with Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA) to assess fuel quality in the form of live versus dead canopy proportions. Severity and stage of insect-caused forest mortality were estimated using the fractional abundance of green vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation and shade obtained from

  4. Principles of the radiosity method versus radiative transfer for canopy reflectance modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstl, Siegfried A. W.; Borel, Christoph C.

    1992-01-01

    The radiosity method is introduced to plant canopy reflectance modeling. We review the physics principles of the radiosity method which originates in thermal radiative transfer analyses when hot and cold surfaces are considered within a given enclosure. The radiosity equation, which is an energy balance equation for discrete surfaces, is described and contrasted with the radiative transfer equation, which is a volumetric energy balance equation. Comparing the strengths and weaknesses of the radiosity method and the radiative transfer method, we conclude that both methods are complementary to each other. Results of sample calculations are given for canopy models with up to 20,000 discrete leaves.

  5. Relationship of transpiration and evapotranspiration to solar radiation and spectral reflectance in soybean [Glycine max] canopies: A simple method for remote sensing of canopy transpiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, E.N.; Inoue, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The study investigated diurnal and seasonal dynamics of evapotranspiration (ET) and transpiration (Tr) in a soybean canopy, as well as the relationships among ET, Tr, solar radiation and remotely sensed spectral reflectance. The eddy covariance method (ECM) and stem heat balance method (SHBM) were used for independent measurement of ET and Tr, respectively. Micrometeorological, soil, and spectral reflectance data were acquired for the entire growing season. The instantaneous values of canopy-Tr estimated by SHBM and ET by ECM were well synchronized with each other, and both were strongly affected by the solar radiation. The daily values canopy-Tr increased rapidly with increasing leaf area index (LAI), and got closer to the ET even at a low value of LAI such as 1.5-2. The daily values of ET were moderately correlated with global solar radiation (Rs), and more closely with the potential evapotranspiration (ETp), estimated by the 'radiation method.' This fact supported the effectiveness of the simple radiation method in estimation of evapotranspiration. The ratio of Tr/ET as well as the ratio of ground heat flux (G) to Rs (G/Rs) was closely related to LAI, and LAI was a key variable in determining the energy partitioning to soil and vegetation. It was clearly shown that a remotely sensed vegetation index such as SAVI (soil adjusted vegetation index) was effective for estimating LAI, and further useful for directly estimating energy partitioning to soil and vegetation. The G and Tr/ET were both well estimated by the vegetation index. It was concluded that the combination of a simple radiation method with remotely sensed information can provide useful information on energy partitioning and Tr/ET in vegetation canopies

  6. Global perspectives on the urban stream syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Allison; Booth, Derek B.; Capps, Krista A.; Smith, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Urban streams commonly express degraded physical, chemical, and biological conditions that have been collectively termed the “urban stream syndrome”. The description of the syndrome highlights the broad similarities among these streams relative to their less-impaired counterparts. Awareness of these commonalities has fostered rapid improvements in the management of urban stormwater for the protection of downstream watercourses, but the focus on the similarities among urban streams has obscured meaningful differences among them. Key drivers of stream responses to urbanization can vary greatly among climatological and physiographic regions of the globe, and the differences can be manifested in individual stream channels even through the homogenizing veneer of urban development. We provide examples of differences in natural hydrologic and geologic settings (within similar regions) that can result in different mechanisms of stream ecosystem response to urbanization and, as such, should lead to different management approaches. The idea that all urban streams can be cured using the same treatment is simplistic, but overemphasizing the tremendous differences among natural (or human-altered) systems also can paralyze management. Thoughtful integration of work that recognizes the commonalities of the urban stream syndrome across the globe has benefitted urban stream management. Now we call for a more nuanced understanding of the regional, subregional, and local attributes of any given urban stream and its watershed to advance the physical, chemical, and ecological recovery of these systems.

  7. Canopy structure and tree condition of young, mature, and old-growth Douglas-fir/hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.B. Bingham; J.O. Sawyer

    1992-01-01

    Sixty-two Douglas-fir/hardwood stands ranging from 40 to 560 years old were used to characterize the density; diameter, and height class distributions of canopy hardwoods and conifers in young (40 -100 yr), mature (101 - 200 yr) and old-growth (>200 yr) forests. The crown, bole, disease, disturbance, and cavity conditions of canopy conifers and hardwoods were...

  8. Applications of urban tree canopy assessment and prioritization tools: supporting collaborative decision making to achieve urban sustainability goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter H. Locke; J. Morgan Grove; Michael Galvin; Jarlath P.M. ONeil-Dunne; Charles. Murphy

    2013-01-01

    Urban Tree Canopy (UTC) Prioritizations can be both a set of geographic analysis tools and a planning process for collaborative decision-making. In this paper, we describe how UTC Prioritizations can be used as a planning process to provide decision support to multiple government agencies, civic groups and private businesses to aid in reaching a canopy target. Linkages...

  9. A Photogrammetric Workflow for the Creation of a Forest Canopy Height Model from Small Unmanned Aerial System Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Lejeune

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of operational small unmanned aerial systems (UASs opens the door for their extensive use in forest mapping, as both the spatial and temporal resolution of UAS imagery better suit local-scale investigation than traditional remote sensing tools. This article focuses on the use of combined photogrammetry and “Structure from Motion” approaches in order to model the forest canopy surface from low-altitude aerial images. An original workflow, using the open source and free photogrammetric toolbox, MICMAC (acronym for Multi Image Matches for Auto Correlation Methods, was set up to create a digital canopy surface model of deciduous stands. In combination with a co-registered light detection and ranging (LiDAR digital terrain model, the elevation of vegetation was determined, and the resulting hybrid photo/LiDAR canopy height model was compared to data from a LiDAR canopy height model and from forest inventory data. Linear regressions predicting dominant height and individual height from plot metrics and crown metrics showed that the photogrammetric canopy height model was of good quality for deciduous stands. Although photogrammetric reconstruction significantly smooths the canopy surface, the use of this workflow has the potential to take full advantage of the flexible revisit period of drones in order to refresh the LiDAR canopy height model and to collect dense multitemporal canopy height series.

  10. Long-term fragmentation effects on the distribution and dynamics of canopy gaps in a tropical montane forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas R. Vaughn; Gregory P. Asner; Christian P. Giardina

    2015-01-01

    Fragmentation alters forest canopy structure through various mechanisms, which in turn drive subsequent changes to biogeochemical processes and biological diversity. Using repeated airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) mappings, we investigated the size distribution and dynamics of forest canopy gaps across a topical montane forest landscape in Hawaii naturally...

  11. Responses of Two Litter-Based Invertebrate Communities to Changes in Canopy Cover in a Forest Subject to Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara Richardson; Michael Richardson; Grizelle González

    2018-01-01

    Tropical forests are subject to seasonal hurricanes resulting in cycles of canopy opening and deposition of litter, followed by periods of recovery and canopy closure. Herein, we review two studies of litter-based communities in Puerto Rico; (i) a survey of bromeliad invertebrates in three montane forest types along an elevational gradient in 1993–1997, during a period...

  12. Architecture of the Black Moshannon forest canopy measured by hemispherical photographs and a LI-COR LAI-2000 sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. S. Wang; J. Welles; D. R. Miller; D. E. Anderson; G. Heisler; M. McManus

    1991-01-01

    Non-destructive measurements of light penetration were made at 10 heights in the canopy on twelve different sites in the PA oak forest where the Blackmo 88 spray-micrometeorological experiment was conducted. Vertical profiles of Leaf Area Index, LAI, were calculated from these measurements, and the data were used to define the spatial variability of the forest canopy...

  13. Evaluation of an ARPS-based canopy flow modeling system for use in future operational smoke prediction efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. T. Kiefer; S. Zhong; W. E. Heilman; J. J. Charney; X. Bian

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to develop a canopy flow modeling system based on the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) model are discussed. The standard version of ARPS is modified to account for the effect of drag forces on mean and turbulent flow through a vegetation canopy, via production and sink terms in the momentum and subgrid-scale turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) equations....

  14. Cascading Effects of Canopy Opening and Debris Deposition from a Large-Scale Hurricane Experiment in a Tropical Rain Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron B. Shiels; Grizelle Gonzalez; D. Jean Lodge; Michael R Willig; Jess K. Zimmerman

    2015-01-01

    Intense hurricanes disturb many tropical forests, but the key mechanisms driving post-hurricane forest changes are not fully understood. In Puerto Rico, we used a replicated factorial experiment to determine the mechanisms of forest change associated with canopy openness and organic matter (debris) addition. Cascading effects from canopy openness accounted for...

  15. Retrieval of savanna vegetation canopy height from ICESat-GLAS spaceborne LiDAR with terrain correction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khalefa, E

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available variability (slope) and canopy height within the GLAS footprints. The canopy height retrievals were validated with field observations in 23 GLAS footprints and show that the direct method works well over flat areas (Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0.70, p...

  16. Exploring the spatial distribution of light interception and photosynthesis of canopies by means of a functional-structural plant model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarlikioti, V.; Visser, de P.H.B.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims - At present most process-based models and the majority of three-dimensional models include simplifications of plant architecture that can compromise the accuracy of light interception simulations and, accordingly, canopy photosynthesis. The aim of this paper is to analyse canopy

  17. Canopy BRF simulation of forest with different crown shape and height in larger scale based on Radiosity method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinling; Qu, Yonghua; Wang, Jindi; Wan, Huawei; Liu, Xiaoqing

    2007-06-01

    Radiosity method is based on the computer simulation of 3D real structures of vegetations, such as leaves, branches and stems, which are composed by many facets. Using this method we can simulate the canopy reflectance and its bidirectional distribution of the vegetation canopy in visible and NIR regions. But with vegetations are more complex, more facets to compose them, so large memory and lots of time to calculate view factors are required, which are the choke points of using Radiosity method to calculate canopy BRF of lager scale vegetation scenes. We derived a new method to solve the problem, and the main idea is to abstract vegetation crown shapes and to simplify their structures, which can lessen the number of facets. The facets are given optical properties according to the reflectance, transmission and absorption of the real structure canopy. Based on the above work, we can simulate the canopy BRF of the mix scenes with different species vegetation in the large scale. In this study, taking broadleaf trees as an example, based on their structure characteristics, we abstracted their crowns as ellipsoid shells, and simulated the canopy BRF in visible and NIR regions of the large scale scene with different crown shape and different height ellipsoids. Form this study, we can conclude: LAI, LAD the probability gap, the sunlit and shaded surfaces are more important parameter to simulate the simplified vegetation canopy BRF. And the Radiosity method can apply us canopy BRF data in any conditions for our research.

  18. Water use in forest canopy black cherry trees and its relationship to leaf gas exchange and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. J. Joyce; K. C. Steiner; J. M. Skelly

    1996-01-01

    Models of canopy gas exchange are needed to connect leaf-level measurement to higher scales. Because of the correspondence between leaf gas exchange and water use, it may be possible to predict variation in leaf gas exchange at the canopy level by monitoring rates of branch water use.

  19. Travelling waves above the canopy of aquatic vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubimov, D.; Lyubimova, T.; Baidina, D.

    2012-04-01

    When fluid moves over a saturated porous medium with high permeability and porosity, the flow partially involves the fluid in porous medium, however, because of the great resistance force there arises sharp drop of tangential velocity. This leads to the development of instability similar to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability on discontinuity surface of the tangential velocities of homogeneous fluids. Analogy becomes even more complete if we take into account the deformability of porous medium under the influence of pressure changes. Intensive vortices above the canopy of aquatic vegetation can lead to the coherent oscillations of vegetation, such traveling waves are called monami [1]. In the present paper we investigate stability of steady flow over a saturated porous medium. The importance of this problem is related to the applications to the dynamics of pollutants in the bottom layer of vegetation: the accumulation at low flow and salvo emissions with increasing velocity. We consider a two-layer system consisting of a layer of a viscous incompressible fluid and porous layer saturated with the same fluid located underneath. The lower boundary of the system is assumed to be rigid, the upper boundary - free and non-deformable. Weak slope of the river is taken into account. The problem is solved within the framework of single approach in which a two-layer system is described by a single system of equations for saturated porous medium and the presence of two layers is modeled by introducing variable permeability and porosity, depending on vertical coordinate. The flow in a saturated porous medium is described by the Brinkman model. Solution of the problem for steady flow shows that the velocity profile has two inflection points, which leads to the instability. The neutral curves are obtained for different values of the ratio d of porous layer thickness to full thickness. It is found that the dependence of critical Reynolds number on d is non-monotonic and the wave

  20. Leaf Phenology of Amazonian Canopy Trees as Revealed by Spectral and Physiochemical Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavana-Bryant, C.; Gerard, F. F.; Malhi, Y.; Enquist, B. J.; Asner, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    The phenological dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems reflect the response of the Earth's biosphere to inter- and intra-annual dynamics of climatic and hydrological regimes. Some Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (GDVMs) have predicted that by 2050 the Amazon rainforest will begin to dieback (Cox et al. 2000, Nature) or that the ecosystem will become unsustainable (Salazar et al. 2007, GRL). One major component in DGVMs is the simulation of vegetation phenology, however, modelers are challenged with the estimation of tropical phenology which is highly complex. Current modeled phenology is based on observations of temperate vegetation and accurate representation of tropical phenology is long overdue. Remote sensing (RS) data are a key tool in monitoring vegetation dynamics at regional and global scales. Of the many RS techniques available, time-series analysis of vegetation indices (VIs) has become the most common approach in monitoring vegetation phenology (Samanta et al. 2010, GRL; Bradley et al. 2011, GCB). Our research focuses on investigating the influence that age related variation in the spectral reflectance and physiochemical properties of leaves may have on VIs of tropical canopies. In order to do this, we collected a unique leaf and canopy phenological dataset at two different Amazonian sites: Inselberg, French Guyana (FG) and Tambopata, Peru (PE). Hyperspectral reflectance measurements were collected from 4,102 individual leaves sampled to represent different leaf ages and vertical canopy positions (top, mid and low canopy) from 20 different canopy tree species (8 in FG and 12 in PE). These leaf spectra were complemented with 1) leaf physical measurements: fresh and dry weight, area and thickness, LMA and LWC and 2) leaf chemical measurements: %N, %C, %P, C:N and d13C. Canopy level observations included top-of-canopy reflectance measurements obtained using a multispectral 16-band radiometer, leaf demography (tot. number and age distribution) and branch