WorldWideScience

Sample records for andean uplift ocean

  1. Rapid uplift in Laguna del Maule volcanic field of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (Chile) measured by satellite radar interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigl, K.; Ali, T.; Singer, B. S.; Pesicek, J. D.; Thurber, C. H.; Jicha, B. R.; Lara, L. E.; Hildreth, E. W.; Fierstein, J.; Williams-Jones, G.; Unsworth, M. J.; Keranen, K. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Laguna del Maule (LdM) volcanic field of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone extends over 500 square kilometers and comprises more than 130 individual vents. As described by Hildreth et al. (2010), the history has been defined from sixty-eight Ar/Ar and K-Ar dates. Silicic eruptions have occurred throughout the past 3.7 Ma, including welded ignimbrite associated with caldera formation at 950 ka, small rhyolitic eruptions between 336 and 38 ka, and a culminating ring of 36 post-glacial rhyodacite and rhyolite coulees and domes that encircle the lake. Dating of five post-glacial flows implies that these silicic eruptions occurred within the last 25 kyr. Field relations indicate that initial eruptions comprised modest volumes of mafic rhyodacite magma that were followed by larger volumes of high silica rhyolite. The post-glacial flare-up of silicic magmatism from vents distributed around the lake, is unprecedented in the history of this volcanic field. Using satellite radar interferometry (InSAR), Fournier et al. (2010) measured uplift at a rate of more than 180 mm/year between 2007 and 2008 in a round pattern centered on the west side of LdM. More recent InSAR observations suggest that rapid uplift has continued from 2008 through early 2011. In contrast, Fournier et al. found no measurable deformation in an interferogram spanning 2003 through 2004. In this study, we model the deformation field using the General Inversion of Phase Technique (GIPhT), as described by Feigl and Thurber (2009). Two different models fit the data. The first model assumes a sill at ~5 km depth has been inflating at a rate of more than 20 million cubic meters per year since 2007. The second model assumes that the water level in the lake dropped at a rate of 20 m/yr from January 2007 through February 2010, thus reducing the load on an elastic simulation of the crust. The rate of intrusion inferred from InSAR is an order of magnitude higher than the average rate derived from well-dated arc

  2. Transpressive mantle uplift at large offset oceanic transform faults

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    Maia, M.; Briais, A.; Brunelli, D.; Ligi, M.; Sichel, S. E.; Campos, T.

    2017-12-01

    Large-offset transform faults deform due to changes in plate motions and local processes. At the St. Paul transform, in the Equatorial Atlantic, a large body of ultramafic rocks composed of variably serpentinized and mylonitized peridotites is presently being tectonically uplifted. We recently discovered that the origin of the regional mantle uplift is linked to long-standing compressive stresses along the transform fault (1). A positive flower structure, mainly made of mylonitized mantle rocks, can be recognized on the 200 km large push-up ridge. Compressive earthquakes mechanisms reveal seismically active thrust faults on the southern flank of the ridge . The regional transpressive stress field affects a large portion of the ridge segment south of the transform, as revealed by the presence of faults and dykes striking obliquely to the direction of the central ridge axis. A smaller thrust, affecting recent sediments, was mapped south of this segment, suggesting a regional active compressive stress field. The transpressive stress field is interpreted to derive from the propagation of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) segment into the transform domain as a response to the enhanced melt supply at the ridge axis. The propagation forced the migration and segmentation of the transform fault southward and the formation of restraining step-overs. The process started after a counterclockwise change in plate motion at 11 Ma initially resulting in extensive stress of the transform domain. A flexural transverse ridge formed in response. Shortly after plate reorganization, the MAR segment started to propagate southwards due to the interaction of the ridge and the Sierra Leone thermal anomaly. 1- Maia et al., 2016. Extreme mantle uplift and exhumation along a transpressive transform fault Nat. Geo. doi:10.1038/ngeo2759

  3. Surface Uplift Rate Constrained by Multiple Terrestrial Cosmogenic Nuclides: Theory and Application from the Central Andean Plateau

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    McPhillips, D. F.; Hoke, G. D.; Niedermann, S.; Wittmann, H.

    2015-12-01

    There is widespread interest in quantifying the growth and decay of topography. However, prominent methods for quantitative determinations of paleoelevation rely on assumptions that are often difficult to test. For example, stable isotope paleoaltimetry relies on the knowledge of past lapse rates and moisture sources. Here, we demonstrate how cosmogenic 10Be - 21Ne and/or 10Be - 26Al sample pairs can be applied to provide independent estimates of surface uplift rate using both published data and new data from the Atacama Desert. Our approach requires a priori knowledge of the maximum age of exposure of the sampled surface. Ignimbrite surfaces provide practical sampling targets. When erosion is very slow (roughly, ≤1 m/Ma), it is often possible to constrain paleo surface uplift rate with precision comparable to that of stable isotopic methods (approximately ±50%). The likelihood of a successful measurement is increased by taking n samples from a landscape surface and solving for one regional paleo surface uplift rate and n local erosion rates. In northern Chile, we solve for surface uplift and erosion rates using three sample groups from the literature (Kober et al., 2007). In the two lower elevation groups, we calculate surface uplift rates of 110 (+60/-12) m/Myr and 160 (+120/-6) m/Myr and estimate uncertainties with a bootstrap approach. The rates agree with independent estimates derived from stream profile analyses nearby (Hoke et al., 2007). Our calculated uplift rates correspond to total uplift of 1200 and 850 m, respectively, when integrated over appropriate timescales. Erosion rates were too high to reliably calculate the uplift rate in the third, high elevation group. New cosmogenic nuclide analyses from the Atacama Desert are in progress, and preliminary results are encouraging. In particular, a replicate sample in the vicinity of the first Kober et al. (2007) group independently yields a surface uplift rate of 110 m/Myr. Compared to stable isotope

  4. Munroa argentina, a Grass of the South American Transition Zone, Survived the Andean Uplift, Aridification and Glaciations of the Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarilla, Leonardo D.; Anton, Ana M.; Chiapella, Jorge O.; Manifesto, María M.; Angulo, Diego F.; Sosa, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The South American Transition Zone (SATZ) is a biogeographic area in which not only orogeny (Andes uplift) and climate events (aridification) since the mid-Miocene, but also Quaternary glaciation cycles had an important impact on the evolutionary history of the local flora. To study this effect, we selected Munroa argentina, an annual grass distributed in the biogeographic provinces of Puna, Prepuna and Monte. We collected 152 individuals from 20 localities throughout the species’ range, ran genetic and demographic analyses, and applied ecological niche modeling. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses based on cpDNA and AFLP data identified three phylogroups that correspond to the previously identified subregions within the SATZ. Molecular dating suggests that M. argentina has inhabited the SATZ since approximately 3.4 (4.2–1.2) Ma and paleomodels predict suitable climate in these areas during the Interglacial period and the Last Glacial Maximum. We conclude that the current distribution of M. argentina resulted from the fragmentation of its once continuous range and that climate oscillations promoted ecological differences that favored isolation by creating habitat discontinuity. PMID:26110533

  5. Munroa argentina, a Grass of the South American Transition Zone, Survived the Andean Uplift, Aridification and Glaciations of the Quaternary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo D Amarilla

    Full Text Available The South American Transition Zone (SATZ is a biogeographic area in which not only orogeny (Andes uplift and climate events (aridification since the mid-Miocene, but also Quaternary glaciation cycles had an important impact on the evolutionary history of the local flora. To study this effect, we selected Munroa argentina, an annual grass distributed in the biogeographic provinces of Puna, Prepuna and Monte. We collected 152 individuals from 20 localities throughout the species' range, ran genetic and demographic analyses, and applied ecological niche modeling. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses based on cpDNA and AFLP data identified three phylogroups that correspond to the previously identified subregions within the SATZ. Molecular dating suggests that M. argentina has inhabited the SATZ since approximately 3.4 (4.2-1.2 Ma and paleomodels predict suitable climate in these areas during the Interglacial period and the Last Glacial Maximum. We conclude that the current distribution of M. argentina resulted from the fragmentation of its once continuous range and that climate oscillations promoted ecological differences that favored isolation by creating habitat discontinuity.

  6. Munroa argentina, a Grass of the South American Transition Zone, Survived the Andean Uplift, Aridification and Glaciations of the Quaternary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarilla, Leonardo D; Anton, Ana M; Chiapella, Jorge O; Manifesto, María M; Angulo, Diego F; Sosa, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The South American Transition Zone (SATZ) is a biogeographic area in which not only orogeny (Andes uplift) and climate events (aridification) since the mid-Miocene, but also Quaternary glaciation cycles had an important impact on the evolutionary history of the local flora. To study this effect, we selected Munroa argentina, an annual grass distributed in the biogeographic provinces of Puna, Prepuna and Monte. We collected 152 individuals from 20 localities throughout the species' range, ran genetic and demographic analyses, and applied ecological niche modeling. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses based on cpDNA and AFLP data identified three phylogroups that correspond to the previously identified subregions within the SATZ. Molecular dating suggests that M. argentina has inhabited the SATZ since approximately 3.4 (4.2-1.2) Ma and paleomodels predict suitable climate in these areas during the Interglacial period and the Last Glacial Maximum. We conclude that the current distribution of M. argentina resulted from the fragmentation of its once continuous range and that climate oscillations promoted ecological differences that favored isolation by creating habitat discontinuity.

  7. Quantification of surface uplift by using paleo beach deposits (Oman, Northern Indian Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Gösta; Schneider, Bastian; Monschau, Martin; Mechernich, Silke

    2017-04-01

    The study focusses on a coastal area along the Arabian Sea in Oman. Here, a staircase of marine terraces is seen as geomorphological evidence suggesting sub-recent uplift of a crustal block in the northeast of the Arabian Peninsula. The erosional terraces are cut into Paleocene to Early Eocene limestone formations. These limestone formations are underlain by allochtonous ophiolites. We mapped the terraces over a distance of 60 km and identified at least 8 terrace levels in elevations up to 350 m above present sea level. The uppermost terraces are erosional, whereas the lower ones are depositional in style. Mollusc and coral remains as well as beach-rock are encountered on the terrace surfaces. The formations are dissected by NW-SE trending faults. Some of the terraces are very pronounced features in the landscape and easy to trace, others are partly eroded and preserved as remnants only. The deposit along the shoreline angle act as a datum making use of the fact that the rocks formed in a defined horizontal level which is the paleo-sea level. Hence, any offset from the primary depositional level is evidence for neotectonic movements. We utilise differential GPS to map the elevation of beachrock deposits. Age constraints on terrace formation is derived by sampling the beachrock deposits and dating using cosmogenic nuclii. The results indicate ongoing uplift in the range of less than a millimetre per year. The uplift is differential as the terraces are tilted. We mapped oblique normal and strike-slip faults in the younger terraces. We hypothesise that the mechanism responsible for the uplift is not tectonics but driven by the serpentinisation of the ophiolite that underlie the limestone formations. One process during the serpentinisation is the hydration of the mantle rocks which is responsible for a decrease in density. The resulting buoyancy and significant solid volume increase lead to the observed deformation including uplift.

  8. From ocean depths to mountain tops: uplift of the Troodos Massif (Cyprus) constrained by (U-Th)/He thermochronology and geomorphic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morag, N.; Haviv, I.; Katzir, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The Troodos Massif of Cyprus, rising to nearly 2000 meters above sea level, encompasses one of the world's classic ophiolites. Following its formation at a seafloor spreading center in Late Cretaceous times, this slice of the NeoTethyan oceanic lithosphere was uplifted and eventually exposed on mountain tops during the Neogene. The final uplift and exhumation of the Troodos was previously assigned to Pleistocene age by observations in the circum-Troodos sedimentary strata. However, quantitative thermochronological and geomorphological data from the Massif itself were not available. Here we use apatite (U-Th)/He low-temperature thermochronology complemented by zircon (U-Th)/He and apatite fission track data, and combined with geomorphic analysis to constrain the exhumation and uplift history of the Troodos ophiolite. Apatite (U-Th)/He ages vary with depth from ~ 22 Ma at the top of the Gabbro sequence to ~ 6 Ma at the bottom of the sequence. The deepest sample from a Gabbro pegmatitic dyke intruding the ultramafic sequence yielded an age of ~ 3 Ma. Thermal modeling of apatite (U-Th)/He and fission track data delineates Plio - Pleistocene initiation of rapid uplift and exhumation of the Troodos ophiolite. The estimated cumulative exhumation since its initiation is 2-3 km. No evidence was found for significant uplift of the central Troodos area prior to that time. The geomorphic analysis delineates a bull's-eye zone at the center of the Troodos Massif, where local relief and channel steepness index are highest. The boundaries of this zone roughly correspond with the Mt. Olympus mantle outcrop and suggest recent, differential uplift of this zone relative to its surroundings. The most likely mechanism, which could drive such a focused bull's-eye uplift pattern is hydration of ultramafic rocks (serpentinization) leading to a decrease in rock density and subsequent diapiric uplift of the serpentinized lithospheric mantle.

  9. Geomorphic evidence for post-10 Ma uplift of the western flank of the central Andes 18°30'-22°S

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    Hoke, Gregory D.; Isacks, Bryan L.; Jordan, Teresa E.; Blanco, NicoláS.; Tomlinson, Andrew J.; Ramezani, Jahandar

    2007-10-01

    The western Andean mountain front forms the western edge of the central Andean Plateau. Between 18.5° and 22°S latitude, the mountain front has ˜3000 m of relief over ˜50 km horizontal distance that has developed in the absence of major local Neogene deformation. Models of the evolution of the plateau, as well as paleoaltimetry estimates, all call for continued large-magnitude uplift of the plateau surface into the late Miocene (i.e., younger than 10 Ma). Longitudinal river profiles from 20 catchments that drain the western Andean mountain front contain several streams with knickpoint-bounded segments that we use to reconstruct the history of post-10 Ma surface uplift of the western flank of the central Andean Plateau. The generation of knickpoints is attributed to tectonic processes and is not a consequence of base level change related to Pacific Ocean capture, eustatic change, or climate change as causes for creating the knickpoint-bounded stream segments observed. Minor valley-filling alluvial gravels intercalated with the 5.4 Ma Carcote ignimbrite suggest uplift related river incision was well under way by 5.4 Ma. The maximum age of river incision is provided by the regionally extensive, approximately 10 Ma El Diablo-Altos de Pica paleosurface. The river profiles reveal that relative surface uplift of at least1 km occurred after 10 Ma.

  10. Uplifting Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Andy; Boyle, Alan

    2015-01-01

    To find out how organizations turn failure into success, Andrew Hargreaves and his colleagues studied more than 15 business, sports, and education organizations. They found that the secret to these organizations' success came down to just two words: uplifting leadership. Uplifting leadership, write Hargreaves and Boyle in this article, raises the…

  11. Desert dust,Ocean spray,Volcanoes,Biomass burning: Pathways of nutrients into Andean rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, P.; Rollenbeck, R.; Spichtinger, N.; Dominguez, G.; Brothers, L.; Thiemens, M.

    2009-04-01

    Regular rain and fogwater sampling in the Podocarpus National Park, along an altitude profile between 1800 and 3185 m, has been carried out since 2002.The research area located in southern Ecuador on the wet eastern slopes of the Andes is dominated by trade winds from easterly directions. The samples, generally accumulated over 1-week intervals, have been analysed for pH,conductivity and major ions(K+,Na+,NH4+,Ca2+,Mg 2+,SO42-,NO3-,PO43). For all components a strong seasonal variation is observed,while the altitudinal gradient is less pronounced. About 35 % of the weekly samples had very low ion contents,at or below the detection limit, with pH generally above 5 and conductivity below 10 uS/cm.10 days back trajectories (FLEXTRA) showed that respective air masses originated in pristine continental areas,with little or no obvious pollution sources. About 65 %,however,were significantly loaded with cations and anions,with pH often as low as 3.5 to 4.0 and conductivity up to 50 uS/cm.Back trajectories showed that respective air masses had passed over areas of intense biomass burning,volcanoes,and the ocean,with even episodic Sahara and/or Namib desert dust interference. Enhanced SO4 2-and NO3- were identified,by combining satellite-based fire pixels with back trajectories,as predominantly resulting from biomass burning. Analyses of oxygen isotopes 16O ,17O ,and 18O of nitrate show that nitrate in fog samples is a product of atmospheric conversion of precursors.For most cases,by using emission inventories, anthropogenic precursor sources other than forest fires could be ruled out,thus leaving biomass burning as the main source of nitrate and sulphate in rain and fogwater. Some SO4 2- ,about 10 % of the total input,could be identified to originate from active volcanoes, whose plumes were sometimes encountered by the respective back trajectories. Enhanced Na +, K + ,and Cl - was found to originate from ocean spray sources.They were associated with strong winds providing

  12. Sahara dust, ocean spray, volcanoes, biomass burning: pathways of nutrients into Andean rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, P.; Rollenbeck, R.; Spichtinger, N.; Brothers, L.; Dominguez, G.; Thiemens, M.

    2009-10-01

    Regular rain and fogwater sampling in the Podocarpus National Park, on the humid eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes, along an altitude profile between 1960 and 3180 m, has been carried out since 2002. The samples, accumulated over about 1-week intervals, were analysed for pH, conductivity and major ions (K+, Na+, NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, PO43-). About 35% of the weekly samples had very low ion contents, with pH mostly above 5 and conductivity below 10 μS/cm. 10-days back trajectories (FLEXTRA) showed that respective air masses originated in pristine continental areas, with little or no obvious pollution sources. About 65%, however, were significantly loaded with cations and anions, with pH as low as 3.5 to 4.0 and conductivity up to 50 μS/cm. The corresponding back trajectories clearly showed that air masses had passed over areas of intense biomass burning, active volcanoes, and the ocean, with episodic Sahara and/or Namib desert dust interference. Enhanced SO42- and NO3+ were identified, by combining satellite-based fire pixel observations with back trajectories, as predominantly resulting from biomass burning. Analyses of oxygen isotopes 16O, 17O, and 18O in nitrate show that nitrate in the samples is indeed a product of atmospheric conversion of precursors. Some SO42-, about 10% of the total input, could be identified to originate from active volcanoes, whose plumes were encountered by about 10% of all trajectories. Enhanced Na+, K+, and Cl- were found to originate from ocean spray sources. They were associated with winds providing Atlantic air masses to the receptor site within less than 5 days. Episodes of enhanced Ca2+ and Mg2+ were found to be associated with air masses from African deserts. Satellite aerosol data confirm desert sources both on the Northern (Sahara) as on the Southern Hemisphere (Namib), depending on the season. A few significant PO43- peaks are related with air masses originating from North African phosphate mining fields.

  13. Sahara dust, ocean spray, volcanoes, biomass burning: pathways of nutrients into Andean rainforests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fabian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Regular rain and fogwater sampling in the Podocarpus National Park, on the humid eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes, along an altitude profile between 1960 and 3180 m, has been carried out since 2002. The samples, accumulated over about 1-week intervals, were analysed for pH, conductivity and major ions (K+, Na+, NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl, SO42−, NO3, PO43−.

    About 35% of the weekly samples had very low ion contents, with pH mostly above 5 and conductivity below 10 μS/cm. 10-days back trajectories (FLEXTRA showed that respective air masses originated in pristine continental areas, with little or no obvious pollution sources.

    About 65%, however, were significantly loaded with cations and anions, with pH as low as 3.5 to 4.0 and conductivity up to 50 μS/cm. The corresponding back trajectories clearly showed that air masses had passed over areas of intense biomass burning, active volcanoes, and the ocean, with episodic Sahara and/or Namib desert dust interference.

    Enhanced SO42− and NO3+ were identified, by combining satellite-based fire pixel observations with back trajectories, as predominantly resulting from biomass burning. Analyses of oxygen isotopes 16O, 17O, and 18O in nitrate show that nitrate in the samples is indeed a product of atmospheric conversion of precursors. Some SO42−, about 10% of the total input, could be identified to originate from active volcanoes, whose plumes were encountered by about 10% of all trajectories.

    Enhanced Na+, K+, and Cl were found to originate from ocean spray sources. They were associated with winds providing Atlantic air masses to the receptor site within less than 5 days. Episodes of

  14. Gravimetric structure for the abyssal mantle massif of Saint Peter and Saint Paul peridotite ridge, Equatorial Atlantic Ocean, and its relation to active uplift

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    KENJI F. MOTOKI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents gravimetric and morphologic analyses based on the satellite-derived data set of EGM2008 and TOPEX for the area of the oceanic mantle massif of the Saint Peter and Saint Paul peridotite ridge, Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. The free-air anomaly indicates that the present plate boundary is not situated along the longitudinal graben which cuts peridotite ridge, but about 20 km to the north of it. The high Bouguer anomaly of the peridotite ridge suggests that it is constituted mainly by unserpentinised ultramafic rocks. The absence of isostatic compensation and low-degree serpentinisation of the ultramafic rocks indicate that the peridotite ridge is sustained mainly by active tectonic uplift. The unparallel relation between the transform fault and the relative plate motion generates near north-south compression and the consequent tectonic uplift. In this sense, the peridotite massif is a pressure ridge due to the strike-slip displacement of the Saint Paul Transform Fault.

  15. Spatial and temporal uplift history of South America from calibrated drainage analysis

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    Rodríguez Tribaldos, V.; White, N. J.; Roberts, G. G.; Hoggard, M. J.

    2017-06-01

    A multidisciplinary approach is used to analyze the Cenozoic uplift history of South America. Residual depth anomalies of oceanic crust abutting this continent help to determine the pattern of present-day dynamic topography. Admittance analysis and crustal thickness measurements indicate that the elastic thickness of the Borborema and Altiplano regions is ≤10 km with evidence for sub-plate support at longer wavelengths. A drainage inventory of 1827 river profiles is assembled and used to investigate landscape development. Linear inverse modeling enables river profiles to be fitted as a function of the spatial and temporal history of regional uplift. Erosional parameters are calibrated using observations from the Borborema Plateau and tested against continent-wide stratigraphic and thermochronologic constraints. Our results predict that two phases of regional uplift of the Altiplano plateau occurred in Neogene times. Regional uplift of the southern Patagonian Andes also appears to have occurred in Early Miocene times. The consistency between observed and predicted histories for the Borborema, Altiplano, and Patagonian plateaux implies that drainage networks record coherent signals that are amenable to simple modeling strategies. Finally, the predicted pattern of incision across the Amazon catchment constrains solid sedimentary flux at the Foz do Amazonas. Observed and calculated flux estimates match, suggesting that erosion and deposition were triggered by regional Andean uplift during Miocene times.

  16. Birds of Two Oceans? Trans-Andean and Divergent Migration of Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger cinerascens) from the Peruvian Amazon.

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    Davenport, Lisa C; Goodenough, Katharine S; Haugaasen, Torbjørn

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal flooding compels some birds that breed in aquatic habitats in Amazonia to undertake annual migrations, yet we know little about how the complex landscape of the Amazon region is used seasonally by these species. The possibility of trans-Andes migration for Amazonian breeding birds has largely been discounted given the high geographic barrier posed by the Andean Cordillera and the desert habitat along much of the Pacific Coast. Here we demonstrate a trans-Andes route for Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger cinerascens) breeding on the Manu River (in the lowlands of Manu National Park, Perú), as well as divergent movement patterns both regionally and across the continent. Of eight skimmers tracked with satellite telemetry, three provided data on their outbound migrations, with two crossing the high Peruvian Andes to the Pacific. A third traveled over 1800 km to the southeast before transmissions ended in eastern Paraguay. One of the two trans-Andean migrants demonstrated a full round-trip migration back to its tagging location after traveling down the Pacific Coast from latitude 9° South to latitude 37° S, spending the austral summer in the Gulf of Arauco, Chile. This is the first documentation of a trans-Andes migration observed for any bird breeding in lowland Amazonia. To our knowledge, this research also documents the first example of a tropical-breeding waterbird migrating out of the tropics to spend the non-breeding season in the temperate summer, this being the reverse pattern with respect to seasonality for austral migrants in general.

  17. Andean waterways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    Andean Waterways explores the politics of natural resource use in the Peruvian Andes in the context of climate change and neoliberal expansion. It does so through careful ethnographic analysis of the constitution of waterways, illustrating how water becomes entangled in a variety of political......, social, and cultural concerns. Set in the highland town of Recuay in Ancash, the book traces the ways in which water affects political and ecological relations as glaciers recede. By looking at the shared waterways of four villages located in the foothills of Cordillera Blanca, it addresses pertinent...

  18. Andean waterways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    , social, and cultural concerns. Set in the highland town of Recuay in Ancash, the book traces the ways in which water affects political and ecological relations as glaciers recede. By looking at the shared waterways of four villages located in the foothills of Cordillera Blanca, it addresses pertinent......Andean Waterways explores the politics of natural resource use in the Peruvian Andes in the context of climate change and neoliberal expansion. It does so through careful ethnographic analysis of the constitution of waterways, illustrating how water becomes entangled in a variety of political...... questions concerning water governance and rural lives....

  19. Uplifting the Iwasawa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, A.; Kaura, P.; Ray, R.; Misra, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Iwasawa manifold is uplifted to seven-folds of either G 2 holonomy or SU(3) structure, explicit new metrics for the same having been constructed in this work. We uplift the Iwasawa manifold to a G 2 manifold through ''size'' deformation (of the Iwasawa metric), via Hitchin's Flow equations, showing also the impossibility of the uplift for ''shape'' and ''size'' deformations (of the Iwasawa metric). Using results of Dall'Agata and Prezas, Phys. Rev. D 69, 066004 (2004) [arXiv:hep-th/0311146] [1], we also uplift the Iwasawa manifold to a 7-fold with SU(3) structure through ''size'' and ''shape'' deformations via generalisation of Hitchin's Flow equations. For seven-folds with SU(3)-structure, the result could be interpreted as M5-branes wrapping two-cycles embedded in the seven-fold (as in [1]) - a warped product of either a special hermitian six-fold or a balanced six-fold with the unit interval. There can be no uplift to seven-folds of SU(3) structure involving non-trivial ''size'' and ''shape'' deformations (of the Iwasawa metric) retaining the ''standard complex structure'' - the uplift generically makes one move in the space of almost complex structures such that one is neither at the standard complex structure point nor at the ''edge''. Using the results of Konopelchenko and Landolfi, J. Geom. Phys. 29, 319 (1999) [arXiv:math.DG/9804144] [2], we show that given two ''shape deformation'' functions, and the dilaton, one can construct a Riemann surface obtained via Weierstrass representation for the conformal immersion of a surface in R l , for a suitable l, with the condition of having conformal immersion being a quadric in CP l-1 . (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Constraints on Dbar uplifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwis, S.P. de

    2016-01-01

    We discuss constraints on KKLT/KKLMMT and LVS scenarios that use anti-branes to get an uplift to a deSitter vacuum, coming from requiring the validity of an effective field theory description of the physics. We find these are not always satisfied or are hard to satisfy.

  1. Phylogeny and historical biogeography of trans-Andean cichlid fishes (Teleostei: Cichlidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musilová, Zuzana; Říčan, O.; Říčanová, Š.; Janšta, P.; Gahura, O.; Novák, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 3 (2015), s. 333-350 ISSN 1864-5755 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Andean uplift * Andinoacara * Mesoheros Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.722, year: 2015

  2. Andean region study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    New opportunities for climate change mitigation arising from a higher energy integration among Andean Pact nations were analysed within the framework of the UNEP/GEF Project. Apart from the search for regional mitigation actions, the study was mainly aimed at detecting methodological problems which arise when passing from a strictly national view to the co-ordination of regional actions to deal with climate change. In accordance with the available resources and data, and in view of the mainly methodological nature of the project, it was decided to analyse the opportunities to delve into the energy integration of the Region as regards electricity and natural gas industries and their eventual impact on the emission of greenhouse gases. Although possibilities of setting up electricity and natural gas markets are real, their impacts on GHG emission from the energy system would not prove substantially higher than those which the nations could achieve through the use of their own energy resources, in view that the Andean systems are competitive rather than complementary. More in-depth studies and detail information will be required - unavailable for the present study - to be able to properly evaluate all benefits associated with higher energy integration. Nevertheless, the supply of natural gas to Ecuador seems to be the alternative with the highest impact on GHG emission. If we were to analyse the supply and final consumption of energy jointly, we would most certainly detect additional mitigation options resulting from higher co-operation and co-ordination in the energy field. (EHS)

  3. Foreland sedimentary record of Andean mountain building during advancing and retreating subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Brian K.

    2016-04-01

    As in many ocean-continent (Andean-type) convergent margins, the South American foreland has long-lived (>50-100 Myr) sedimentary records spanning not only protracted crustal shortening, but also periods of neutral to extensional stress conditions. A regional synthesis of Andean basin histories is complemented by new results from the Mesozoic Neuquén basin system and succeeding Cenozoic foreland system of west-central Argentina (34-36°S) showing (1) a Late Cretaceous shift from backarc extension to retroarc contraction and (2) an anomalous mid-Cenozoic (~40-20 Ma) phase of sustained nondeposition. New detrital zircon U-Pb geochronological results from Jurassic through Neogene clastic deposits constrain exhumation of the evolving Andean magmatic arc, retroarc thrust belt, foreland basement uplifts, and distal eastern craton. Abrupt changes in sediment provenance and distal-to-proximal depositional conditions can be reconciled with a complex Mesozoic-Cenozoic history of extension, post-extensional thermal subsidence, punctuated tectonic inversion involving thick- and thin-skinned shortening, alternating phases of erosion and rapid accumulation, and overlapping igneous activity. U-Pb age distributions define the depositional ages of several Cenozoic stratigraphic units and reveal a major late middle Eocene-earliest Miocene (~40-20 Ma) hiatus in the Malargüe foreland basin. This boundary marks an abrupt shift in depositional conditions and sediment sources, from Paleocene-middle Eocene distal fluviolacustrine deposition of sediments from far western volcanic sources (Andean magmatic arc) and subordinate eastern cratonic basement (Permian-Triassic Choiyoi igneous complex) to Miocene-Quaternary proximal fluvial and alluvial-fan deposition of sediments recycled from emerging western sources (Malargüe fold-thrust belt) of Mesozoic basin fill originally derived from basement and magmatic arc sources. Neogene eastward advance of the fold-thrust belt involved thick

  4. Sediment budget in the Ucayali River basin, an Andean tributary of the Amazon River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Santini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Formation of mountain ranges results from complex coupling between lithospheric deformation, mechanisms linked to subduction and surface processes: weathering, erosion, and climate. Today, erosion of the eastern Andean cordillera and sub-Andean foothills supplies over 99% of the sediment load passing through the Amazon Basin. Denudation rates in the upper Ucayali basin are rapid, favoured by a marked seasonality in this region and extreme precipitation cells above sedimentary strata, uplifted during Neogene times by a still active sub-Andean tectonic thrust. Around 40% of those sediments are trapped in the Ucayali retro-foreland basin system. Recent advances in remote sensing for Amazonian large rivers now allow us to complete the ground hydrological data. In this work, we propose a first estimation of the erosion and sedimentation budget of the Ucayali River catchment, based on spatial and conventional HYBAM Observatory network.

  5. Quaternary Tectonic and Climatic Processes shaping the Central Andean hyperarid forearc (southern Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audin, Laurence; Benavente, Carlos; Zerathe, Swann; Saillard, Marianne; Hall, Sarah R.; Farber, Daniel L.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the forearc structure and processes related to Quaternary evolution and uplift of the Western Andean Cordillera remains an outstanding scientific issue. Models of Andean Plateau evolution based on Tertiary volcanic stratigraphy since 5Ma suggest that the deformation was focused along the eastern margin of the plateau and that minimal uplift occurred along the Pacific margin. On the contrary, new tectonic data and Quaternary surface 10Be dating highlight the presence of recently active deformation, incision and alluvial processes within the upper Andean forearc together with a regional uplift of the coastal zone. Additionally, the high obliquity observed in the northern Arica Bend region makes it an ideal target to discuss whether partitioning of the oblique convergence is accommodated by the neotectonic features that dissect the Quaternary forearc. Our goals are both to decipher the Quaternary tectonic and climatic processes shaping the hyperarid forearc along strike and across strike. Finally, we aim to quantify the respective influence of these factors in the overall uplift of the Western Andes. Indeed, sequences of pediment surfaces, landslide products, paleolake deposits and marine terraces found along the oblique Peruvian margin are a unique set of datable markers that can be used to quantify the rates of Quaternary processes. In this study, we focus on the southern Peru hyperarid Atacama area where regional surfaces and tectonic markers (scarps, folds, temporary streams and paleolake levels offsets…) are well preserved for the Quaternary timescale. Numerous landsliding events align on the major fault segments and reflect Plio-Pleistocene climatic and tectonic activity together with filled and strath terraces. As the present day sea-level is one of the highest levels recorded for Quaternary time span, any emerged marine terrace is preserved by tectonic coastal uplift. In particular, the geomorphic and chronologic correlation between marine and

  6. Miocene block uplift and basin formation in the Patagonian foreland: The Gastre Basin, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilmes, A.; D'Elia, L.; Franzese, J. R.; Veiga, G. D.; Hernández, M.

    2013-08-01

    The intraplate fault-block mountains and intermontane deposits of the Gastre Basin, which are recorded more than 550 km east of the Andean trench in central Patagonia, Argentina, are analyzed. The Gastre Basin is one of the largest Patagonian intermontane basins, limited by uplifted blocks strongly oblique to the Andean chain. It was originated by reverse faulting and inversion of pre-existing normal faults associated with a Mesozoic rift basin and defined by older crustal heterogeneities. The deformational event occurred during the middle Miocene, related to a short contractional episode (16.1-14.86 Ma), probably in response to an eastward migration of the Andean fold and thrust belt. During Pliocene to Quaternary times, neither younger fault-block uplifts nor reconfigurations of the basin occurred. Similarities between the study area and other parts of the Patagonian foreland - such as the presence of Miocene reverse or inversion tectonics, as well as the accommodation of the Miocene sedimentary successions - suggest that the Gastre Basin is part of a major late early to middle Miocene broken foreland system (i.e. the Patagonian broken foreland) that exhumed discrete fault-block mountains and generated contemporary basins along more than 950 km parallel to the Andean trench (i.e. between 40°00' and 48°00' south latitude). Based on recent studies on the southern Andean Margin, this continental-scale contractional episode may be the result of a flat-slab subduction segment. Nevertheless, such a hypothesis is very difficult to support when analyzing such a large flat subduction segment along the entire Patagonian trench. This suggests the need to consider alternative flat-slab trigger mechanisms or other factors in the generation of broken foreland systems.

  7. Episodic swell growth inferred from variable uplift of the Cape Verde hotspot islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, R.; Helffrich, G.; Cosca, M.; Vance, D.; Hoffmann, D.; Schmidt, D.N.

    2010-01-01

    On the Beagle voyage, Charles Darwin first noted the creation and subsidence of ocean islands, establishing in geology's infancy that island freeboard changes with time. Hotspot ocean islands have an obvious mechanism for freeboard change through the growth of the bathymetric anomaly, or swell, on which the islands rest. Models for swell development indicate that flexural, thermal or dynamic pressure contributions, as well as spreading of melt residue from the hotspot, can all contribute to island uplift. Here we test various models for swell development using the uplift histories for the islands of the Cape Verde hotspot, derived from isotopic dating of marine terraces and subaerial to submarine lava-flow morphologies. The island uplift histories, in conjunction with inter-island spacing, uplift rate and timing differences, rule out flexural, thermal or dynamic pressure contributions. We also find that uplift cannot be reconciled with models that advocate the spreading of melt residue in swell development unless swell growth is episodic. Instead, we infer from the uplift histories that two processes have acted to raise the islands during the past 6 Myr. During an initial phase, mantle processes acted to build the swell. Subsequently, magmatic intrusions at the island edifice caused 350 m of local uplift at the scale of individual islands. Finally, swell-wide uplift contributed a further 100 m of surface rise.

  8. Hemoglobin affinity in Andean rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HRVOJ OSTOJIC

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood hemoglobin oxygen affinity (P50 was measured in three Andean species and in the laboratory rat (control, all raised near sea level. Chinchilla lanigera (Molina, 1792 has an altitudinal habitat range from low Andean slopes up to 3000 m., while Chinchilla brevicaudata (Waterhouse, 1848 has an altitudinal range from 3000 to 5000 m. The laboratory type guinea pig, wild type guinea pig (Cavia porcellus, (Waterhouse, 1748, and laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus were also raised at sea level. The Andean species had high hemoglobin oxygen affinities (low P50 compared with the rat. Chinchilla brevicaudata had a higher affinity than Chinchilla lanigera. The wild type guinea pig had a higher affinity than the laboratory type. As has been shown in other species, this is another example of an inverse correlation between the altitude level and the P50 values. This is the first hemoglobin oxygen affinity study in Chinchilla brevicaudata.

  9. Tracking spatial variation in river load from Andean highlands to inter-Andean valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio, Gustavo E.; Vanacker, Veerle; Campforts, Benjamin; Álvarez, Lenín; Zhiminaicela, Santiago; Vercruysse, Kim; Molina, Armando; Govers, Gerard

    2018-05-01

    Mountains play an important role in the denudation of continents and transfer erosion and weathering products to lowlands and oceans. The rates at which erosion and weathering processes take place in mountain regions have a substantial impact on the morphology and biogeochemistry of downstream reaches and lowlands. The controlling factors of physical erosion and chemical weathering and the coupling between the two processes are not yet fully understood. In this study, we report physical erosion and chemical weathering rates for five Andean catchments located in the southern Ecuadorian Andes and investigate their mutual interaction. During a 4-year monitoring period, we sampled river water at biweekly intervals, and we analyzed water samples for major ions and suspended solids. We derived the total annual dissolved, suspended sediment, and ionic loads from the flow frequency curves and adjusted rating curves and used the dissolved and suspended sediment yields as proxies for chemical weathering and erosion rates. In the 4-year period of monitoring, chemical weathering exceeds physical erosion in the high Andean catchments. Whereas physical erosion rates do not exceed 30 t km-2 y-1 in the relict glaciated morphology, chemical weathering rates range between 22 and 59 t km-2 y-1. The variation in chemical weathering is primarily controlled by intrinsic differences in bedrock lithology. Land use has no discernible impact on the weathering rate but leads to a small increase in base cation concentrations because of fertilizer leaching in surface water. When extending our analysis with published data on dissolved and suspended sediment yields from the northern and central Andes, we observe that the river load composition strongly changes in the downstream direction, indicating large heterogeneity of weathering processes and rates within large Andean basins.

  10. Dispersal, isolation and diversification with continued gene flow in an Andean tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toby Pennington, R; Lavin, Matt

    2017-07-01

    The Andes are the world's longest mountain chain, and the tropical Andes are the world's richest biodiversity hot spot. The origin of the tropical Andean cordillera is relatively recent because the elevation of the mountains was relatively low (400-2500 m palaeoelevations) only 10 MYA with final uplift being rapid. These final phases of the Andean orogeny are thought to have had a fundamental role in shaping processes of biotic diversification and biogeography, with these effects reaching far from the mountains themselves by changing the course of rivers and deposition of mineral-rich Andean sediments across the massive Amazon basin. In a recent issue of Molecular Ecology, Oswald, Overcast, Mauck, Andersen, and Smith (2017) investigate the biogeography and diversification of bird species in the Andes of Peru and Ecuador. Their study is novel in its focus on tropical dry forests (Figure 1) rather than more mesic biomes such as rain forests, cloud forests and paramos, which tend to be the focus of science and conservation in the Andean hot spot. It is also able to draw powerful conclusions via the first deployment of genomic approaches to a biogeographic question in the threatened dry forests of the New World. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Plio-Pleistocene paleo-erosion rates as a recorder of orographic barrier uplift in the NW-Argentine Andes (Humahuaca Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingel, Heiko; Schildgen, Taylor; Wittmann, Hella

    2017-04-01

    As an integral part of the Eastern Cordillera, the intermontane Humahuaca Basin in the NW Argentine Andes is located in transition between the arid and internally drained Puna Plateau to the west and the humid broken foreland to the east. In combination with moisture-bearing air masses sourced in the Atlantic Ocean and the Amazon Basin, the present-day topographic gradient of the eastern Andean margin comprises an efficient orographic barrier that results in a strong precipitation gradient, with rainfall of more than 2,000 mm/a along the eastern flanks and history of the basin highlights important changes of the depositional system, apparently associated with the transformation from a humid foreland to a fluvially restricted and semi-arid intermontane basin. Similarly, our terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide-derived data indicate an order-of-magnitude decrease in erosion rates at ca. 3 Ma, which suggests a causal link between the onset of uplift-induced semi-arid conditions and decreasing sediment flux into the basin. Ultimately, this dataset may enable a systematic investigation of the long-term causes and consequences of orogenic growth and hydrological changes on spatio-temporal erosion patterns in active mountain areas.

  12. Accidental inflation from Kaehler uplifting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Dayan, Ido; Westphal, Alexander; Wieck, Clemens; Jing, Shenglin; Toronto Univ., ON

    2013-09-01

    We analyze the possibility of realizing inflation with a subsequent dS vacuum in the Kaehler uplifting scenario. The inclusion of several quantum corrections to the 4d effective action evades previous no-go theorems and allows for construction of simple and successful models of string inflation. The predictions of several benchmark models are in accord with current observations, i.e., a red spectral index, negligible non-gaussianity, and spectral distortions similar to the simplest models of inflation. A particularly interesting subclass of models are ''left-rolling'' ones, where the overall volume of the compactified dimensions shrinks during inflation. We call this phenomenon ''inflation by deflation'' (IBD), where deflation refers to the internal manifold. This subclass has the appealing features of being insensitive to initial conditions, avoiding the overshooting problem, and allowing for observable running α -5 . The latter results differ significantly from many string inflation models.

  13. Glacial isostatic uplift of the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mey, Jürgen; Scherler, Dirk; Wickert, Andrew D.; Egholm, David L.; Tesauro, Magdala; Schildgen, Taylor F.; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2016-01-01

    Following the last glacial maximum (LGM), the demise of continental ice sheets induced crustal rebound in tectonically stable regions of North America and Scandinavia that is still ongoing. Unlike the ice sheets, the Alpine ice cap developed in an orogen where the measured uplift is potentially attributed to tectonic shortening, lithospheric delamination and unloading due to deglaciation and erosion. Here we show that ∼90% of the geodetically measured rock uplift in the Alps can be explained by the Earth’s viscoelastic response to LGM deglaciation. We modelled rock uplift by reconstructing the Alpine ice cap, while accounting for postglacial erosion, sediment deposition and spatial variations in lithospheric rigidity. Clusters of excessive uplift in the Rhône Valley and in the Eastern Alps delineate regions potentially affected by mantle processes, crustal heterogeneity and active tectonics. Our study shows that even small LGM ice caps can dominate present-day rock uplift in tectonically active regions. PMID:27830704

  14. Exploring the potential of an Andean fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivares Tenorio, Mary Luz

    2017-01-01

    Cape gooseberry is a fruit cultivated in Andean countries. Currently it is available some international markets, besides the domestic Andean market. Colombia is the major producer and export country at the moment. The value chain of cape gooseberry faces several barriers of technological and

  15. Seismic imaging of the upper mantle beneath the northern Central Andean Plateau: Implications for surface topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, K. M.; Zandt, G.; Beck, S. L.; Wagner, L. S.

    2015-12-01

    Extending over 1,800 km along the active South American Cordilleran margin, the Central Andean Plateau (CAP) as defined by the 3 km elevation contour is second only to the Tibetan Plateau in geographic extent. The uplift history of the 4 km high Plateau remains uncertain with paleoelevation studies along the CAP suggesting a complex, non-uniform uplift history. As part of the Central Andean Uplift and the Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) project, we use surface waves measured from ambient noise and two-plane wave tomography to image the S-wave velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle to investigate the upper mantle component of plateau uplift. We observe three main features in our S-wave velocity model including (1), a high velocity slab (2), a low velocity anomaly above the slab where the slab changes dip from near horizontal to a normal dip, and (3), a high-velocity feature in the mantle above the slab that extends along the length of the Altiplano from the base of the Moho to a depth of ~120 km with the highest velocities observed under Lake Titicaca. A strong spatial correlation exists between the lateral extent of this high-velocity feature beneath the Altiplano and the lower elevations of the Altiplano basin suggesting a potential relationship. Non-uniqueness in our seismic models preclude uniquely constraining this feature as an uppermost mantle feature bellow the Moho or as a connected eastward dipping feature extending up to 300 km in the mantle as seen in deeper mantle tomography studies. Determining if the high velocity feature represents a small lithospheric root or a delaminating lithospheric root extending ~300 km into the mantle requires more integration of observations, but either interpretation shows a strong geodynamic connection with the uppermost mantle and the current topography of the northern CAP.

  16. Large-Scale Deformation and Uplift Associated with Serpentinization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanovich, L. N.; Lowell, R. P.; Smith, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Geologic and geophysical data suggest that partially serpentinized peridotites and serpentinites are a significant part of the oceanic lithosphere. All serpentinization reactions are exothermic and result in volume expansion as high as 40%. Volume expansion beneath the seafloor will lead to surface uplift and elevated stresses in the neighborhood of the region undergoing serpentinization. The serpentinization-induced stresses are likely to result in faulting or tensile fracturing that promote the serpentinization process by creating new permeability and allowing fluid access to fresh peridotite. To explore these issues, we developed a first-order model of crustal deformation by considering an inclusion undergoing transformation strain in an elastic half-space. Using solutions for inclusions of different shapes, orientations, and depths, we calculate the surface uplift and mechanical stresses generated by the serpentinization processes. We discuss the topographic features at the TAG hydrothermal field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 26°N), uplift of the Miyazaki Plain (Southwestern Japan), and tectonic history of the Atlantic Massif (inside corner high of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 30°N, and the Atlantis Transform Fault). Our analysis suggests that an anomalous salient of 3 km in diameter and 100 m high at TAG may have resulted from approximately 20% transformational strain in a region beneath the footwall of the TAG detachment fault. This serpentinization process tends to promote slip along some overlying normal faults, which may then enhance fluid pathways to the deeper crust to continue the serpentinization process. The serpentinization also favors slip and seismicity along the antithetic faults identified below the TAG detachment fault. Our solution for the Miyazaki Plain above the Kyushu-Palau subduction zone explains the observed uplift of 120 m, but the transformational strain needs only be 3%. Transformational strains associated with serpentinization in this region may

  17. Accidental inflation from Kaehler uplifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Dayan, Ido; Westphal, Alexander; Wieck, Clemens [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Jing, Shenglin [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Canadian Inst. for Theoretical Astrophysics; Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics

    2013-09-15

    We analyze the possibility of realizing inflation with a subsequent dS vacuum in the Kaehler uplifting scenario. The inclusion of several quantum corrections to the 4d effective action evades previous no-go theorems and allows for construction of simple and successful models of string inflation. The predictions of several benchmark models are in accord with current observations, i.e., a red spectral index, negligible non-gaussianity, and spectral distortions similar to the simplest models of inflation. A particularly interesting subclass of models are ''left-rolling'' ones, where the overall volume of the compactified dimensions shrinks during inflation. We call this phenomenon ''inflation by deflation'' (IBD), where deflation refers to the internal manifold. This subclass has the appealing features of being insensitive to initial conditions, avoiding the overshooting problem, and allowing for observable running {alpha}<{proportional_to}0.012 and enhanced tensor-to-scalar ratio r{proportional_to}10{sup -5}. The latter results differ significantly from many string inflation models.

  18. 77 FR 31039 - Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    .... 332-352, Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-352] Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication AGENCY: United States International Trade...

  19. On the Relationship of Dynamic Forearc Processes in Southern Peru to the Development and Preservation of Andean Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, S. R.; Farber, D. L.; Audin, L.; Saillard, M.; Finkel, R. C.

    2008-12-01

    After more than 40 years of study, the timing and nature of Andean uplift remains an area of great scientific debate. The forearc of the Andean margin is of particular neotectonic interest, as previous models of Andean orogenesis attributed little-no Neogene deformation to the western margin of Altiplano. However, using the combination of remote sensing with high-resolution data, in situ cosmogenic isotope concentrations and thermochronology, in recent years the community has made important advances in addressing the rates, timings, styles, and locations of active deformation within the forearc of the Andean margin. To first order, we find that - both in terms of tectonics and climate - since 10Ma, the Andean forearc has been quite a dynamic region. Neotectonic studies in this region have been facilitated by the high degree of geomorphic surface preservation that the hyperarid (for at least the last 3My) coastal Atacama Desert has provided. Specifically, in southern Peru (14°-18°S), vast pediment surfaces have been abandoned through incision along the major river drainages that carve the deep canyons into the Precordillera and Western Cordillera. While the exact timing of the periods of more intense incision plausibly correspond with climate events, the total amount of incision integrated over many climate cycles is a useful indicator of tectonic activity. In this region, we find a number of geomorphic and structural features that provide strong evidence for distributed crustal deformation along range-sub-parallel contractile and strike-slip structures. Specifically, we see 1) ancient surfaces reflecting erosion rates as low as chronologies, and 6) Pleistocene mass-wasting events accommodating the redistribution of ~109-1010 m3 of material per event. Furthermore, the observation that Pleistocene incision rates are comparable with Late Miocene and Pliocene rates, suggests to us, that the rates and style of surface uplift within the forearc of southern Peru has

  20. Origins of The Paleolandslide of Tarapaca (north Chile, Andean Belt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrozes, J.; Pinto, L.; Ingles, J.; Soula, J.-C.; Maire, E.; Courjault-Radé, P.; Hérail, G.

    Landslides are an important and potentially rate-limiting process in the topographic evolution of active orogens like the Andean Belt. Various processes are responsi- ble for triggering landslides, including hillslope baselevel lowering, seismic events (Keefer, 1999); climate changes (Coriminas and Moya, 1999), anthropic effects (Sah and Mazari, 1998) and each of these triggers may be spatially heterogeneous in strength and effectiveness. Present work seeks to identify and constrain the domi- nant mechanism of a Tarapaca PaleoLandslide in order to determine the influence of the overall tectonic uplift of the Andean belt, and the seismicity of the area. The zone of interest is located near Iquique, along the Atacama Desert in the Tarapaca (N. Chile) domain (1955S, 6935W). The climate of the region became dry at 15 Ma (Gregory-Wodzicki, 2000) and remain today one of driest in the world. One of the most significant characteristic of the Atacama Desert landslides is to be located on the western limb of N-S trending flexures. At Tarapaca, the studied landslide is located on the front limb of a fault propagation anticline, the Moquella flexure, of Cenozoic age. The slope in this part increases weakly to reach a value close to 10 degrees. The main scarp of Tarapaca landslide has a length of ≈ 7 km and an elevation close to 200 m. This corresponds to the thickness of an ignimbritic formation which constitutes the load of the landslide. As in most of the Atacama desert, the lateral boundaries of the landslide are two antecedent paleorivers (Suca &Lataguella) which created free edges to the landslide and thus greatly facilitating landsliding. A smaller secondary landslide formed in the foot zone because of the local increase in the slope, which was responsible for the instability of the overlapping mass. The analysis of the safety factor and morphologic features shows that weathering, uplift, water pressure and load are not enough important for creating the slide. It is

  1. Neogene stratigraphy and Andean geodynamics of southern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerbühler, Dominik; Steinmann, Michael; Winkler, Wilfried; Seward, Diane; Egüez, Arturo; Peterson, Dawn E.; Helg, Urs; Hammer, Cliff

    2002-01-01

    and arc domain of the Ecuadorian subduction system. During the Pacific Coastal stage, northward displacement of the coastal forearc block along the Calacali-Pallatanga fault zone has driven crustal collapse in the Inter-Andean region. As a result, extensional subsidence drove the eastward ingression of shallow seas into the Cuenca and Loja Embayments from the Manabí and Progreso Basins to the west. Tectonic inversion in the forearc area during the early late Miocene (at ≈9.5 Ma) reflects the initiation of W-E oriented compression and uplift in the Inter-Andean region and the establishment of smaller Intermontane stage basins, which host the continental sequences. Coeval topographic rise of the Cordillera Occidental is indicated by the onset of clastic input from the west. The small Intermontane Basin of Nabón (≈8.5-7.9 Ma) formed during the period of maximum compression. The present data prove that the Neogene Andean forearc and arc area in southern Ecuador was a site of important but variable tectonic activity, which was presumably driven by the collision and coupling of the Carnegie Ridge with the Ecuadorian margin since ≈15-9 Ma.

  2. Andean contributions to the biogeochemistry of the amazon river system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Atlántico. Un nuevo programa colaborativo de investigación se inició en 1994 con el propósito de caracterizar de una manera más completa la biogeoquímica de los ríos andinos. Contributions from Andean rivers may play a significant role in determining the basin-wide biogeochemistry integrated into the mainstem Amazon River of Brazil. Concentration data for organic C, NO3-, and PO43- in Andean rivers are highly variable and reveal no clear spatial or altitudinal patterns. Concentrations measured in Andean rivers are similar to those reported in the mainstem Amazon river and its major tributaries. Explanations of processes which alter Andean-derived particulates and solutes as they exit the Cordillera are only speculative at this time, but their net effect is to diminish Andean signals through decomposition and dilution by lowland inputs. The 13C of particulate and dissolved organic matter in the mainstem Amazon provides evidence that some fraction of Andean derived material persists within the river system, ultimately to be discharged to the Atlantic Ocean. In 1994 a new collaborative research program was launched to further characterize the biogeochemistry of Andean rivers.

  3. Andean settlers rush for Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-vega, J

    1990-01-01

    Governments of Andean countries (Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela) have encouraged migration to the Amazon Basin, which has contributed to its destruction. Population pressure, landlessness, and poverty are the inducements to migrate. Efforts to populate the Amazon forest were begun as early as 1964 in Peru without international notice. By 1980, logging was allowed in Peru, and Brazil considered colonization of the Amazon essential to national sovereignty. By 1986, outside of Lima, Peru, a development project originally funded by the World Bank, the InterAmerican Development Bank, and the US, resulted in conflicts between settlers and Indians, in loggers indiscriminately cutting, and in farmers using slash and burn techniques to clear forests. Elsewhere the Peruvian Amazon, in San Ignacio, the population was growing by 5.5%/year. The jungle road that had been started but never completed, Carretera Marginal, destroyed 5 million hectares of primary forest, and much of the 600,000 hectares of arable land gained by the road suffered from inappropriate farming practices which caused massive erosion and laterization of the soils. Food crop production declined, and production of coca for cocaine increased. Coca crops are controlled by the Shining Path guerrillas, who are trying to overthrow the Peruvian government. Devastation of Ecuador around Lago Agrio continues. In Colombia, east of Bogota, forests have disappeared and hills have eroded and silted up rivers and dams. The Andean piedmont in Bolivia has also been devastated by loggers and by slash and burn farming. Southeastern Bolivian forests have been cleared for soya bean cultivation on poor soils. Social and economic crises propel people into the remaining forests. The solution is to ease foreign debt, transfer appropriate technology at affordable prices, refuse to finance destructive development, and help to educate and train scientific researchers. Family planning services are also urgently needed

  4. Exhumation of the Cordillera de Domeyko: Implications for Andean retroarc evolution between the Late Cretaceous and the Oligocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez, S.; Carrapa, B.; DeCelles, P. G.

    2017-12-01

    In Cordilleran-type orogens, exhumation of the thrust belt records the kinematic history of the orogenic system. In the Central Andes, the widest and thickest part of this orogen, several authors have documented the exhumation of the thrust belt in the modern forearc (Chile) and retroarc region (Bolivia and Argentina) showing an overall eastward propagation of deformation since the late Eocene. However, the exhumation of earlier Andean retroarc tectonic events remains poorly documented. In the forearc, the Cordillera de Domeyko and Salar de Atacama basin exhibit multiple pieces of evidence for earlier Andean orogenesis. The goal of this study is to document the thermal record of Late Cretaceous to Eocene retroarc deformation. To this end, this study investigates the cooling history of the easternmost basement uplift of the Cordillera de Domeyko. We couple this record with detrital thermochronology from cobbles in the Late Cretaceous to Miocene sedimentary units from the Salar de Atacama basin which records the unroofing history of this uplift. We employed a multi-dating approach combining apatite fission track (AFT) and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He (AHe) thermochronology to constrain the timing and amount of exhumation in the early Andean retroarc region. Our results show episodic cooling ca. 90-80, 65-60 and 45-40 Ma. This new data provides a thermochronologic record of Late Cretaceous and Paleocene deformation in the retroarc region as well as of the widely recognized Eocene deformation event. The cooling signal is interpreted to reflect exhumation controlled by uplift and erosion in the retroarc region. These exhumation events reflect episodes of internal deformation, crustal thickening, and roughly similar amounts of local erosion. Exhumation in this region decreased by the late Oligocene; by this time the orogenic front was established to the east, in the Eastern Cordillera.

  5. F-theory uplifts and GUTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Jurke, Benjamin; Grimm, Thomas W.; Weigand, Timo

    2009-01-01

    We study the F-theory uplift of Type IIB orientifold models on compact Calabi-Yau threefolds containing divisors which are del Pezzo surfaces. We consider two examples defined via del Pezzo transitions of the quintic. The first model has an orientifold projection leading to two disjoint O7-planes and the second involution acts via an exchange of two del Pezzo surfaces. The two uplifted fourfolds are generically singular with minimal gauge enhancements over a divisor and, respectively, a curve in the non-Fano base. We study possible further degenerations of the elliptic fiber leading to F-theory GUT models based on subgroups of E 8 .

  6. Two new Cystoderma species from high Andean Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saar, I.; Læssøe, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Two new agaric species, Cystoderma andinum and C. papallactae are described from high Andean Ecuador.......ABSTRACT: Two new agaric species, Cystoderma andinum and C. papallactae are described from high Andean Ecuador....

  7. Investigation on dynamic response with foundation uplift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtomo, Keizo; Iwatate, Hisahiro

    1987-01-01

    In order to rationalize the aseismatic design of nuclear power stations, it is necessary to elucidate the characteristics of effective input when the earthquake motion for the design is inputted in the foundations of nuclear power stations. In this study, among the research subjects concerning the reduction of effective earthquake input, regarding the uplift of foundations, its response characteristics and the method of the rational evaluation of earth contact ratio were experimentally examined, and the method of analysis which can evaluate the damping effect due to the uplift was proposed. The experimental method is reported. It was found that accompanying the uplift of foundations, vertical motion was induced, and horizontal motion showed nonlinear response. It was confirmed that the nonlinear response accompanying the uplift can be approximately evaluated by the conventional analysis technique using the S-R model. The current equation for evaluating earth contact ratio is adequate for a soft ground model, and tends to undervaluate for a hard ground model. The S-R analysis model introducing the experimentally obtained characteristics in the dampling coefficient of a nonlinear rocking spring was newly made. (Kako, I.)

  8. Rapid Crustal Uplift at Birch Bay, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, B. L.; Kelsey, H. M.; Blakely, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    Geomorphology and coastal marsh stratigraphy suggest late Holocene uplift of the shoreline at Birch Bay, located northwest of Bellingham, Washington, during an earthquake on a shallow fault. LiDAR images show a raised, late Holocene shoreline along Birch Bay, with ~1 m of elevation difference between the modern shoreline and the inferred paleoshoreline. Commercial seismic reflection images reveal an anticline in Tertiary and possibly Quaternary deposits underlying Birch Bay. NW-trending magnetic anomalies are likely associated with the Birch Bay anticline and other nearby structures. Taken together, the geophysical data and lidar images suggest uplift of young deposits along a NW-trending blind reverse fault. Stratigraphy from Terrell Creek marsh, located just south of Birch Bay, shows freshwater peat buried by lower intertidal muds, indicating local submergence ~1300 yr BP. Stratigraphy of a 70-cm sediment core from Birch Bay marsh, sitting astride the anticline imaged with seismic reflection data, shows mud buried by detrital peat. One radiocarbon age from the core places the abrupt change from mud to peat prior to 1520-1700 yr BP. We divide fossil diatom assemblages straddling the mud-peat contact at Birch Bay into three zones. The oldest zone consists primarily of intertidal and marine diatoms, dominated by Paralia sulcata, Scoleoneis tumida, Grammataphora oceanica, and Gyrosigma balticum. An intermediate zone, beginning at the sharp contact between mud and overlying peat, consists of a mixture of brackish marsh and freshwater species, dominated by Diploneis interrupta, with lesser amounts of Aulacoseira sp., Pinnularia viridis, Eunotia pectinalis, and Paralia sulcata. A third and youngest zone lies in the upper half of the peat and is dominated by poorly preserved freshwater diatoms, mostly Aulacoseira cf. crassapuntata, Pinnularia viridis, P. maior, Eunotia pectinalis, and E. praerupta. Paleoecological inferences, based on distributions of modern diatoms

  9. 75 FR 24967 - Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication. DATES: June 24, 2010... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-352] Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication AGENCY: United States International Trade...

  10. Forms of memory in Andean queros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Cordiviola

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In colonial times, queros were used to drink chicha and to formalize pacts in ritual ceremonies by the indigenous Andean elites. They had been manufactured for centuries, long before the Incas dominated the region, and continued to be made after Spanish domination and compulsory evangelization had been established. During the Inca empire, the surface of the queros was covered just with incisions and geometric forms; in the viceroyalty of Peru they were covered instead with figurative images. In this work we analyze the evolution of these forms and the different ways in which these ceremonial vessels were used to evoke the Andean pasts.

  11. Administrative Law in the Andean Community of Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Santos Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the contemporary tendencies of Administrative Law is the recognition of its existence beyond the borders of a State. Under such premise, this paper aims to demonstrate that in the Andean Community of Nations sufficient elements to consider the existence of an Andean administrative Law. In the Andean statutes and rules, it is possible to identify an administrative function, as well as an administrative organization inside the Andean Integration System; and a system of Andean administrative rules and an administrative justice system.

  12. Seismic response of uplifting concrete gravity dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, P.; Sauve, G.; Bhattacharjee, S.

    1992-01-01

    The foundation interaction effects on the seismic response of dam-foundation systems have generally been studied using the linear elastic finite element models. In reality, the foundation can not develop effective tensile stresses to a significant degree along the interface. A two-dimensional finite element model, in which nonlinear gap elements are used at the dam-foundation interface to determine the uplift response of concrete gravity dams subjected to seismic loads, is presented. Time domain analyses were performed for a wide range of modelling assumptions such as dam height, interface uplift pressure, interface mesh density, and earthquake input motions, that were systematically varied to find their influence on the seismic response. The nonlinear interface behavior generally reduces the seismic response of dam-foundation systems acting as a seismic isolation mechanism, and may increase the safety against sliding by reducing the base shear transmitted to the foundation. 4 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  13. An Andean tectonic cycle: From crustal thickening to extension in a thin crust (34°–37°SL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor A. Ramos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Several orogenic cycles of mountain building and subsequent collapse associated with periods of shallowing and steepening of subduction zones have been recognized in recent years in the Andes. Most of them are characterized by widespread crustal delamination expressed by large calderas and rhyolitic flare-up produced by the injection of hot asthenosphere in the subduction wedge. These processes are related to the increase of the subduction angle during trench roll-back. The Payenia paleoflat-slab, in the southern Central Andes of Argentina and Chile (34°–37°S recorded a complete cycle from crustal thickening and mountain uplift to extensional collapse and normal faulting, which are related to changes in the subduction geometry. The early stages are associated with magmatic expansion and migration, subsequent deformation and broken foreland. New ages and geochemical data show the middle to late Miocene expansion and migration of arc volcanism towards the foreland region was associated with important deformation in the Andean foothills. However, the main difference of this orogenic cycle with the previously described cycles is that the steepening of the oceanic subducted slab is linked to basaltic flooding of large areas in the retroarc under an extensional setting. Crustal delamination is concentrated only in a narrow central belt along the cordilleran axis. The striking differences between the two types of cycles are interpreted to be related to the crustal thickness when steepening the subducting slab. The crustal thickness of the Altiplano is over 60–80 km, whereas Payenia is less than 42 km in the axial part, and near 30 km in the retroarc foothills. The final extensional regime associated with the slab steepening favors the basaltic flooding of more than 8400 km3 in an area larger than 40,000 km2, through 800 central vents and large fissures. These characteristics are unique in the entire present-day Andes.

  14. Effects of Flat Slab Subduction on Andean Thrust Kinematics and Foreland Basin Evolution in Western Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, B. K.; Fuentes, F.; McKenzie, N. R.; Constenius, K. N.; Alvarado, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Debate persists over the effects of flat-slab subduction on the kinematics of overriding plate deformation and the evolution of retroarc sedimentary basins. In western Argentina, major spatial and temporal variations in the geometry of the subducting Nazca slab since ~15 Ma provide opportunities to evaluate the late Cenozoic response of the Andean fold-thrust belt and foreland basin to subhorizontal subduction. Preliminary results from several structural and sedimentary transects spanning the frontal thrust belt and foreland basin system between 31°S and 35°S reveal Oligocene-middle Miocene hinterland exhumation during normal-slab subduction followed thereafter by progressive slab shallowing with initial rapid cratonward propagation of ramp-flat thrust structures (prior to basement-involved foreland uplifts) and accompanying wholesale exhumation and recycling of the early Andean foreland basin (rather than regional dynamic subsidence). Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronologic data prove instrumental for revealing shifts in thrust-belt exhumation, defining depositional ages within the foreland basin, and constraining the timing of activity along frontal thrust structures. In both the San Juan (31-32°S) and Malargüe (34-35°S) segments of the fold-thrust belt, geochronological results for volcaniclastic sandstones and syndeformational growth strata are consistent with a major eastward advance in shortening at 12-9 Ma. This episode of rapid thrust propagation precedes the reported timing of Sierras Pampeanas basement-involved foreland uplifts and encompasses modern regions of both normal- and flat-slab subduction, suggesting that processes other than slab dip (such as inherited crustal architecture, critical wedge dynamics, and arc magmatism) are additional regulators of thrust-belt kinematics and foreland basin evolution.

  15. Volcanism and associated hazards: the Andean perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilling, R. I.

    2009-12-01

    Andean volcanism occurs within the Andean Volcanic Arc (AVA), which is the product of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctica Plates beneath the South America Plate. The AVA is Earth's longest but discontinuous continental-margin volcanic arc, which consists of four distinct segments: Northern Volcanic Zone, Central Volcanic Zone, Southern Volcanic Zone, and Austral Volcanic Zone. These segments are separated by volcanically inactive gaps that are inferred to indicate regions where the dips of the subducting plates are too shallow to favor the magma generation needed to sustain volcanism. The Andes host more volcanoes that have been active during the Holocene (past 10 000 years) than any other volcanic region in the world, as well as giant caldera systems that have produced 6 of the 47 largest explosive eruptions (so-called "super eruptions") recognized worldwide that have occurred from the Ordovician to the Pleistocene. The Andean region's most powerful historical explosive eruption occurred in 1600 at Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru). The impacts of this event, whose eruptive volume exceeded 11 km3, were widespread, with distal ashfall reported at distances >1000 km away. Despite the huge size of the Huaynaputina eruption, human fatalities from hazardous processes (pyroclastic flows, ashfalls, volcanogenic earthquakes, and lahars) were comparatively small owing to the low population density at the time. In contrast, lahars generated by a much smaller eruption (Colombia) killed about 25 000 people - the worst volcanic disaster in the Andean region as well as the second worst in the world in the 20th century. The Ruiz tragedy has been attributed largely to ineffective communications of hazards information and indecisiveness by government officials, rather than any major deficiencies in scientific data. Ruiz's disastrous outcome, however, together with responses to subsequent hazardous eruptions in Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru has spurred significant

  16. Oroclinal Bending and Mountain Uplift in the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpodozis, C.; Arriagada, C.; Roperch, P.

    2007-05-01

    The large paleomagnetic database now available for the Central Andes permits a good understanding of the overall spatial and temporal variations of rotations. Mesozoic to Early Paleogene rocks along the forearc of northern Chile (23°-28°S) record significant clockwise rotations (>25°) [Arriagada et al., 2006, Tectonics, doi:10.1029/2005TC001923]. Along the forearc of southern Peru, counterclockwise rotations recorded within flat lying red-beds (Moquegua Formation) increase from about -30° at 17.5°S to - 45° at15.5°S and decrease through time from the late Eocene to the late Oligocene-early Miocene [Roperch et al., 2006, Tectonics, doi:10.1029/2005TC001882]. Recently published thermo-chronological studies show evidence for strong exhumation within Bolivian Eastern Cordillera and the Puna plateau starting in the Eocene while structural studies indicate that the majority of crustal shortening in the Eastern Cordillera occurred during the Eocene-Oligocene, although the final stages of deformation may have continued through the Early Miocene. Rotations in the Peruvian and north Chilean forearc thus occurred at the same time than deformation and exhumation/uplift within the Eastern Cordillera. In contrast Neogene forearc rocks in southern Peru and northern Chile do not show evidences of rotation but low magnitude (10°) counterclockwise rotations are usually found in mid to late Miocene rocks from the northern Altiplano. These Neogene rotations are concomitant with shortening in the Sub-Andean zone and sinistral strike-slip faulting along the eastern edge of the northern Altiplano. We interpret the rotation pattern along the southern Peru and north Chile forearc as a result of strong late Eocene- late Oligocene oroclinal bending of the Central Andes associated with shortening gradients along the Eastern Cordillera associated both with the Abancay deflection and the Arica bend. The amount and spatial distribution of pre-Neogene shortening needed to account for

  17. The fabrication of andean particularism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1989-01-01

    original culture through resistance, it focuses on the fabrication of tradition within the disciplinary strategies of the colonial order and on the local re-employment of those productions in political mobilizations. The discussion of this major issue within the field of Andean history is undertaken against the horizon of a case of resistance focusing on the Inca from the Audiencia of Quito in the seventeenth century. Such an incident affords a privileged field for the investigation of the connections between colonial authority and origins, since it stages the recall, simulation and reinstatement of the past.

  18. D-term uplifted racetrack inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brax, P. [Unite de Recherche associee au CNRS, Gif sur Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique, CEA/DSM/SPhT; Davis, A.C. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences; Davis, S.C. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies; Jeannerot, R. [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Leiden (Netherlands); Postma, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-10-15

    It is shown that racetrack inflation can be implemented in a moduli stabilisation scenario with a supersymmetric uplifting D-term. The resulting model is completely described by an effective supergravity theory, in contrast to the original racetrack models. We study the inflationary dynamics and show that the gaugino condensates vary during inflation. The resulting spectral index is n{sub s} {approx}0.95 as in the original racetrack inflation model. Hence extra fields do not appear to alter the predictions of the model. An equivalent, simplified model with just a single field is presented. (orig.)

  19. The Andean Swallow (Orochelidon andecola) in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Mazar Barnett, Juan; Pugnali, Germán D.; Pearman Morrison, Mark; Bodrati, Alejandro; Moschione, Flavio; Clark, Ricardo; Roesler, Carlos Ignacio; Monteleone, Diego; Casañas, Hernán; Burgos Gallardo, Freddy; Segovia, José; Pagano, Luis; Povedano, Hernán; Areta, Juan Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    During ornithological studies in the provinces of Jujuy, Salta, and San Juan, we recorded the Andean Swallow Orochelidon andecola at 40 localities. These are the first records in Argentina, and also represent the southernmost for the species. Some of these localities are up to 1500 m lower than the previously known elevational limit (now 800 masl), and up to 1100 km southwards. This is a relatively poorly known swallow, and we present novel natural history data. We found evidence of breeding ...

  20. Detrital Zircon Provenance Record of Pre-Andean to Modern Tectonics in the Northern Andes: Examples from Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, S. W. M.; Jackson, L. J.; Horton, B. K.

    2015-12-01

    Detrital zircon U-Pb age distributions from modern rivers and Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin fill in the northern Andes provide insights into pre-Andean, Andean, and active uplift and exhumation of distinctive sediment source regions. Diagnostic age signatures enable straightforward discrimination of competing sediment sources within the Andean magmatic arc (Western Cordillera-Central Cordillera), retroarc fold-thrust belt (Eastern Cordillera-Subandean Zone), and Amazonian craton (composed of several basement provinces). More complex, however, are the mid/late Cenozoic provenance records generated by recycling of basin fill originally deposited during early/mid Mesozoic extension, late Mesozoic thermal subsidence, and early Cenozoic shortening. Although subject to time-transgressive trends, regionally significant provenance patterns in Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia reveal: (1) Triassic-Jurassic growth of extensional subbasins fed by local block uplifts (with commonly unimodal 300­-150 Ma age peaks); (2) Cretaceous deposition in an extensive postrift setting fed by principally cratonic sources (with common 1800-900 Ma ages); and (3) Cenozoic growth of a broad flexural basin fed initially fed by magmatic-arc rocks (100-0 Ma), then later dominance by thrust-belt sedimentary rocks with progressively greater degrees of basin recycling (yielding diverse and variable age populations from the aforementioned source regions). U-Pb results from modern rivers and smaller subbasins prove useful in evaluating source-to-sink relationships, downstream mixing relationships, hinterland-foreland basin connectivity, paleodrainage integration, and tectonic/paleotopographic reconstructions. Most but not all of the elevated intermontane basins in the modern hinterland of the northern Andes contain provenance records consistent with genesis in a broader foreland basin developed at low elevation. Downstream variations within modern axial rivers and Cenozoic axial basins inform predictive models of

  1. The central uplift of Ritchey crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ning; Bray, Veronica J.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Mattson, Sarah S.; Okubo, Chris H.; Chojnacki, Matthew; Tornabene, Livio L.

    2015-01-01

    Ritchey crater is a ∼79 km diameter complex crater near the boundary between Hesperian ridged plains and Noachian highland terrain on Mars (28.8°S, 309.0°E) that formed after the Noachian. High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images of the central peak reveal fractured massive bedrock and megabreccia with large clasts. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) spectral analysis reveals low calcium pyroxene (LCP), olivine (OL), hydrated silicates (phyllosilicates) and a possible identification of plagioclase bedrock. We mapped the Ritchey crater central uplift into ten units, with 4 main groups from oldest and originally deepest to youngest: (1) megabreccia with large clasts rich in LCP and OL, and with alteration to phyllosilicates; (2) massive bedrock with bright and dark regions rich in LCP or OL, respectively; (3) LCP and OL-rich impactites draped over the central uplift; and (4) aeolian deposits. We interpret the primitive martian crust as igneous rocks rich in LCP, OL, and probably plagioclase, as previously observed in eastern Valles Marineris. We do not observe high-calcium pyroxene (HCP) rich bedrock as seen in Argyre or western Valles Marineris. The association of phyllosilicates with deep megabreccia could be from impact-induced alteration, either as a result of the Richey impact, or alteration of pre-existing impactites from Argyre basin and other large impacts that preceded the Ritchey impact, or both.

  2. The central uplift of Ritchey crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ning; Bray, Veronica J.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Mattson, Sarah S.; Okubo, Chris H.; Chojnacki, Matthew; Tornabene, Livio L.

    2015-05-01

    Ritchey crater is a ∼79 km diameter complex crater near the boundary between Hesperian ridged plains and Noachian highland terrain on Mars (28.8°S, 309.0°E) that formed after the Noachian. High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images of the central peak reveal fractured massive bedrock and megabreccia with large clasts. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) spectral analysis reveals low calcium pyroxene (LCP), olivine (OL), hydrated silicates (phyllosilicates) and a possible identification of plagioclase bedrock. We mapped the Ritchey crater central uplift into ten units, with 4 main groups from oldest and originally deepest to youngest: (1) megabreccia with large clasts rich in LCP and OL, and with alteration to phyllosilicates; (2) massive bedrock with bright and dark regions rich in LCP or OL, respectively; (3) LCP and OL-rich impactites draped over the central uplift; and (4) aeolian deposits. We interpret the primitive martian crust as igneous rocks rich in LCP, OL, and probably plagioclase, as previously observed in eastern Valles Marineris. We do not observe high-calcium pyroxene (HCP) rich bedrock as seen in Argyre or western Valles Marineris. The association of phyllosilicates with deep megabreccia could be from impact-induced alteration, either as a result of the Richey impact, or alteration of pre-existing impactites from Argyre basin and other large impacts that preceded the Ritchey impact, or both.

  3. Marking behavior of Andean bears in an Ecuadorian cloud forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filipczyková, Eva; Heitkonig, Ignas; Castellanos, Armando; Hantson, Wouter; Steyaert, Sam M.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Very little is known about marking behavior of the endangered Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus). Here, we present a first detailed description of Andean bear marking behavior obtained using camera traps. From November 2012 to April 2013, we inspected 16 bear trails in the Napo province of eastern

  4. 77 FR 28620 - Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-352] Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication AGENCY: United States International Trade... to report biennially to the Congress by September 30 of each reporting year on the economic impact of...

  5. Unity and Difference in Andean Songs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Maurice Pigott

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the concepts of “unity” and “difference” in Andean songs. The verses pertain to the Masha ritual enacted annually in Mangas, central Peru, and combine Quechua (the indigenous language with Spanish. Through detailed exegesis of the texts, this essay argues that, far from being irreconcilable, “unity” and “difference” are best understood as mutually informing since the recognition of difference opens up the parameters of potential exchange. This optic is informed by a worldview that emphasizes “relation” over “entities.”

  6. Litho-structural and geophysics features of the Alto Paranaiba Uplift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasui, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The Alto Paranaiba Uplift (APU) is an almost elliptical tectonic feature of the Western Minas Gerais/Southern Goias region, which was active mostly during the Cretaceous. It separated the Parana Basin, during the formation of the Sao Bento, Uberaba and Bauru sequences, from the Alto-Sanfranciscana Basin, at the time of formation of the Areado, Patos, Capacete and Urucuia sequences. The Bouguer anomaly data indicate that the APU developed at the southwestern border of the ancient Brasilia crustal block and is represented by an almost elliptical gravity high of 15 mgal, locally disturbed by positive and negative the presence of important lineaments of a NW-SE set, mostly crossing the southwestern half of the APU. The APU development, the magmatism and the lateral basin formation involved reactivation of preexisting discontinuities and are related to a mantle plume. The tectonic development was aborted at the uplift stage during Cretaceous, after the deposition of the Bauru and Urucuia sequences, as is indicated by the Pratinha peneplane, now elevated at about 1.100 m altitude, which sculpture ended at the beginning of the Tertiary. The APU is one tectonic feature like other similar anomalies also aborted in the uplift stage or in the rift stage, which developed in Southern Brazil during the time of Atlantic Ocean opening. (author)

  7. Integrating river incision rates over timescales in the Ecuadorian Andes: from uplift history to current erosion rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campforts, Benjamin; Govers, Gerard; Vanacker, Veerle; Tenorio, Gustavo

    2013-04-01

    River profile development is studied at different timescales, from the response to uplift over millions of years over steady state erosion rates over millennia to the response to a single event, such as a major landslide. At present, few attempts have been made to compare data obtained over various timescales. Therefore we do not know to what extent data and model results are compatible: do long-term river profile development models yield erosion rates that are compatible with information obtained over shorter time spans, both in terms of absolute rates and spatial patterns or not? Such comparisons could provide crucial insights into the nature of river development and allow us to assess the confidence we may have when predicting river response at different timescales (e.g. Kirchner et al., 2001). A major issue hampering such comparison is the uncertainty involved in the calibration of long-term river profile development models. Furthermore, calibration data on different timescales are rarely available for a specific region. In this research, we set up a river profile development model similar to the one used by Roberts & White (2010) and successfully calibrated it for the northern Ecuadorian Andes using detailed uplift and sedimentological data. Subsequently we used the calibrated model to simulate river profile development in the southern Ecuadorian Andes. The calibrated model allows to reconstruct the Andean uplift history in southern Ecuador, which is characterized by a very strong uplift phase during the last 5 My. Erosion rates derived from the modeled river incision rates were then compared with 10Be derived basin-wide erosion rates for a series of basins within the study area. We found that the model-inferred erosion rates for the last millennia are broadly compatible with the cosmogenic derived denudation rates, both in terms of absolute erosion rates as well as in terms of their spatial distribution. Hence, a relatively simple river profile development

  8. Uplift, Emergence, and Subsidence of the Gorda Escarpment Basement Ridge Offshore Cape Mendocino, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Susan M.; Tréhu, Anne M.

    2017-12-01

    The Gorda Escarpment is a topographic step that characterizes the south side of the Mendocino Transform Fault east of 126oW and forms the northern edge of the Vizcaino Block. Seismic reflection data suggest that the basement beneath the northern edge of the Vizcaino is composed of east-west trending slivers of oceanic crust that form a 15 km wide band of buried ridges we call the Gorda Escarpment Basement Ridge (GEBR) to distinguish it from the northwest-trending basement structure that characterizes most of the Vizcaino Block. The history of uplift and subsidence of the GEBR is reconstructed by combining the seismic reflection profiles with age and lithological constraints from ODP Site 1022, gravity cores, and grab samples from the northern face of the Escarpment recovered using a remotely operated vehicle. Uplift of the GEBR began prior to 6 Ma, and it was above sea level 3.7-2.5 Ma. GEBR uplift and emergence coincided with sediment deposition on the southern flank of the GEBR that we interpret as indicative of strong upwelling and turbulence in the lee of a shallow ridge and island chain. A bright reflection, interpreted to be a sill, is observed south of the shallowest part of the GEBR. We speculate that this sill may reflect a larger, hidden intrusion at depth and that thermal expansion of the crust combined with tectonic forces to drive enhanced uplift of this segment of the plate boundary. The GEBR has been subsiding since 2.7 Ma, and its shallowest point is now 1,400 m below sea level.

  9. Diversification rates, host plant shifts and an updated molecular phylogeny of Andean Eois moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Strutzenberger

    Full Text Available Eois is one of the best-investigated genera of tropical moths. Its close association with Piper plants has inspired numerous studies on life histories, phylogeny and evolutionary biology. This study provides an updated view on phylogeny, host plant use and temporal patterns of speciation in Eois. Using sequence data (2776 bp from one mitochondrial (COI and one nuclear gene (Ef1-alpha for 221 Eois species, we confirm and reinforce previous findings regarding temporal patterns of diversification. Deep diversification within Andean Eois took place in the Miocene followed by a sustained high rate of diversification until the Pleistocene when a pronounced slowdown of speciation is evident. In South America, Eois diversification is very likely to be primarily driven by the Andean uplift which occurred concurrently with the entire evolutionary history of Eois. A massively expanded dataset enabled an in-depth look into the phylogenetic signal contained in host plant usage. This revealed several independent shifts from Piper to other host plant genera and families. Seven shifts to Peperomia, the sister genus of Piper were detected, indicating that the shift to Peperomia was an easy one compared to the singular shifts to the Chloranthaceae, Siparunaceae and the Piperacean genus Manekia. The potential for close co-evolution of Eois with Piper host plants is therefore bound to be limited to smaller subsets within Neotropical Eois instead of a frequently proposed genus-wide co-evolutionary scenario. In regards to Eois systematics we confirm the monophyly of Neotropical Eois in relation to their Old World counterparts. A tentative biogeographical hypothesis is presented suggesting that Eois originated in tropical Asia and subsequently colonized the Neotropics and Africa. Within Neotropical Eois we were able to identify the existence of six clades not recognized in previous studies and confirm and reinforce the monophyly of all 9 previously delimited

  10. Accidental inflation from Kähler uplifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Dayan, Ido; Westphal, Alexander; Wieck, Clemens [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Theory Group, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Jing, Shenglin, E-mail: ido.bendayan@desy.de, E-mail: shenglin.jing@utoronto.ca, E-mail: alexander.westphal@desy.de, E-mail: clemens.wieck@desy.de [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St.George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2014-03-01

    We analyze the possibility of realizing inflation with a subsequent dS vacuum in the Käahler uplifting scenario. The inclusion of several quantum corrections to the 4d effective action evades previous no-go theorems and allows for construction of simple and successful models of string inflation. The predictions of several benchmark models are in accord with current observations, i.e., a red spectral index, negligible non-gaussianity, and spectral distortions similar to the simplest models of inflation. A particularly interesting subclass of models are ''left-rolling'' ones, where the overall volume of the compactified dimensions shrinks during inflation. We call this phenomenon ''inflation by deflation'' (IBD), where deflation refers to the internal manifold. This subclass has the appealing features of being insensitive to initial conditions, avoiding the overshooting problem, and allowing for observable running α ∼ 0.012 and enhanced tensor-to-scalar ratio r ∼ 10{sup −5}. The latter results differ significantly from many string inflation models.

  11. Impact of livestock in uplifting rural livelihood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvi, J.; Ashraf, I.; Mehmood, K.; Iftikhar, M.

    2015-01-01

    The global population is increasing by creating high demand for food and improved livestock and crop farming initiatives. The livestock sector plays a key role in boosting the national economy and improving the citizens' livelihoods. The study focused on the potential contribution of the livestock sector in uplifting livelihoods. Data were collected through face to face interview using interview schedule from 120 randomly selected livestock producers in Sub- District Jaranwala of District Faisalabad. Data showed that, livestock farming on small level was found widely adopted for income generation. More than 22 percentage respondents earned a maximum income of more than Rs.15000. Livestock have dominant effect on domestic needs fulfillment. Farmers were spending income on family chores, education, health and other aspects of life. Informal discussions and observation dictated the lower productivity than the potential and inadequate awareness and adoption of precise dairy farming practices. Livestock keepers demanded provision of location specific best management practices, training on livestock management and market aspects. Essential veterinary services enabling the livestock extension should be disseminated on the door step to boost productivity. (author)

  12. Analytical solutions for peak and residual uplift resistance of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, J.F. [Nixon Geotech Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Oswell, J.M. [Naviq Consulting Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Frost heave can occur on cold pipelines that traverse unfrozen, non permafrost terrain. The stresses experienced by the pipeline are partly a function of the strength of the soil on the non heaving side of the frozen-unfrozen interface. This paper proposed three analytical solutions to estimate the soil uplift resistance by considering the pipeline and soil to act similar to a strip footing, a punching shear failure, and by considering the formation of horizontal crack emanating from the spring line of the pipe. Peak uplift resistance and residual uplift resistance were discussed. Results for full scale pipe and for laboratory scale model pipes were presented, with particular reference to cover depth, temperature and crack width; and limits to residual uplift resistance. It was concluded that the peak uplift resistance and the residual uplift resistance are generally independent and controlled by different factors. The peak resistance is related directly to pipe diameter, and less strongly dependent on springline depth. It is also strongly dependent on soil temperature. However, the residual uplift resistance is strongly dependent on burial depth, weakly dependent on pipe displacement rate and also on soil temperature. 15 refs., 19 figs.

  13. Competition between uplift and transverse sedimentation in an experimental delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaud, Jean-Louis; Paola, Chris; Ellis, Chris

    2017-07-01

    Mass is commonly injected into alluvial systems either laterally by transport from source regions or vertically from below via local uplift. We report results on the competition between these two fundamental processes, using an experimental basin with a deformable substrate. The lateral supply is via two alluvial fans on orthogonal walls of the basin; the uplifting region is downstream of one of the fans (axial) and opposite to the other (transverse). We show that the presence of a transverse sediment input increases the erosion rate of the uplifting region by pushing the mixing zone between the two alluvial sources against the uplifting mass. However, increase in sediment delivery to the transverse fan does not cause a proportional increase in erosion rate of the uplifting region. Instead, the system reaches a steady state balance between uplift and erosion induced by the transverse fan, such that there is no change in the total mass above the active alluvial surface—a lateral analog of the classical steady state between vertical erosion and uplift. We also show that the mixing zone is instrumental in limiting upstream aggradation and funneling sediments to the shore, resulting in limited river lateral mobility and increased shoreline progradation. Hence, the interaction between alluvial sources buffers river erosion and leads to consistent deviations from predictions of the area of influence of each fan based on simple mass-balance arguments. In the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta, we suggest that similar dynamics help stabilize the Brahmaputra River course in the Jamuna Valley during Holocene time.

  14. Soil organic matter dynamics at the paramo and puna highlands in the Andean mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángeles Muñoz, M.; Faz, Ángel; Mermut, Ahmet R.; Zornoza, Raúl

    2014-05-01

    Mountains and uplands represent the most diverse and fragile ecosystems in the world, cover about 20% of the terrestrial surface and are distributed across all continents and major ecoregions. The Andean Plateau is the main mountain range of the American continent and one of the largest in the world with more than 7,500 km. The soil organic matter is a corner stone in the fertility management of the Andean agriculture as well as in the erosion control. However, its role is still much unknown in these ecosystems. Moreover, the influence of current global climatic change on soil organic C reservoirs and dynamics is still not clearly understood. The aim of this work was to review the soil C dynamics and the implication of the soil organic matter in the fertility management, erosion control, conservation of biodiversity and global climate change to improve the knowledge on the mountain Andean highlands. Climate, landscape, soil C pools, biomass and management were studied. In general, the Andean climate is affected by three main factors: ocean currents, winds and orography characterized by an abrupt topography. The entire Andean belt is segmented into the Northern, Central and Southern Andes. Northern Andes are called paramo and are characterized by humid climate while Central and Southern Andes dryer zones are called puna. Most of the region is tectonically and volcanically active. Sedimentary rocks predominated in the paramo while sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic ones prevailed in the puna. The most common soils were Andosols, Regosols, Umbrisols and Histosols. The cold and wet climate and the low atmospheric pressure favored organic matter accumulation in the soil. The accumulation of organic matter is further enhanced by the formation of organomineral complexes strongly resistant to the microbial breakdown mainly in the paramo. High organic C contents were observed in the paramo (10%) oppositely to the low contents found in the dryer puna (1%). The C/N ratio

  15. Zonation of uplifted pleistocene coral reefs on barbados, west indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesolella, K J

    1967-05-05

    The coral species composition of uplifted Pleistocene reefs on Barbados is very similar to Recent West Indian reefs. Acropora palmata, Acropora cervicornis, and Montastrea annularis are qtuantitatively the most important of the coral species.

  16. Uplifting of the Jiamusi Block in the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NE China: evidence from basin provenance and geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongjiang; Wen, Quanbo; Han, Guoqing; Li, Wei

    2010-05-01

    The main part of Jiamusi Block, named as Huanan-Uplift, is located in the northeastern Heilongjiang, China. The Huanan-Uplift is surrounded by many relatively small Mesozoic-Cenozoic basins, e.g. Sanjiang Basin, Hulin Basin, Boli Basin, Jixi Basin, Shuangyashan Basin and Shuanghua Basin. However previous research works were mainly focused on stratigraphy and palaeontology of the basins, therefore, the coupling relation between the uplift and the surrounding basins have not been clear. Based on the field investigations, conglomerate provenance studies of the Houshigou Formation in Boli Basin, geochronology of the Huanan-Uplift basement, we have been studied the relationships between Huanan-Uplift and the surrounding basins. The regional stratigraphic correlations indicates that the isolated basins in the area experienced the same evolution during the period of the Chengzihe and the Muling Formations (the Early Cretaceous). The paleogeography reconstructions suggest that the area had been a large-scale basin as a whole during the Early Cretaceous. The Huanan-Uplift did not exist. The paleocurrent directions, sandstone and conglomerate provenance analyses show that the Huanan-Uplift started to be the source area of the surrounding basins during the period of Houshigou Formation (early Late Cretaceous), therefore, it suggests that the Jiamusi Block commenced uplift in the early Late Cretaceous. The granitic gneisses in Huanan-Uplift give 494-415 Ma monazite U-Th-total Pb ages, 262-259 Ma biotite and 246-241 Ma K-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar ages. The cooling rates of 1-2 ℃/Ma from 500-260 Ma and 10-11 ℃/Ma from 260-240 Ma have been calculated based on the ages. This suggests that the Jiamusi Block had a rapid exhumation during late Permian, which should be related to the closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean between the Siberian and North China continents. It is concluded that during the late Paleozoic the Jiamusi Block was stable with a very slow uplifting. With the closure of

  17. The new Andean Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Char, Farid; Forero-Romero, Jaime

    2015-08-01

    The Andean Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD) is a new effort in South America to serve several goals in astronomical development. Six countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador, Perú and Venezuela) will work together, representing a common language block in the Andean region and focusing on develop strategies to strengthen the professional research, education and popularization of astronomy. Our current Working Structure comprises a ROAD Coordinator and Coordinators per Task Force, as well as Organizing Committees, Collaborators and Volunteers.The participating institutions of this new ROAD have been involved in many projects involving each of the current OAD’s Task Forces: research, schools and children and public, exploring educational activities/material to be shared among the Andean countries, standardizing the knowledge and creating inspirational experiences. We expect to generate many efforts in order to bring a more homogeneous activity in each Andean country, taking into account the special role of Chile in global astronomy, due to its great conditions for astronomy and the involvement of many professional observatories, universities and astronomy institutions.Our current (and upcoming) most relevant activities includes: Andean Schools on Astronomy, Andean Graduate Program and Massive Open Online Courses (TF1); Virtual Training Sessions and Teaching material for the visually impaired students; Annual TF2 meeting to gather all the collaborators (TF2); Development for planetariums and Communicating Astronomy with the Public (TF3). The Andean region, in the other hand, will also be involved in at least two important events: the CAP Meeting in May 2016 and the XV LARIM in October 2016 (both in Colombia); and Chile will bid to host the XXXI IAU GA in 2021, with the aim of show the great advances in astronomical development from the Andean region and South America.

  18. Control of paleoshorelines by trench forebulge uplift, Loyalty Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, William R.

    2013-07-01

    Unlike most tropical Pacific islands, which lie along island arcs or hotspot chains, the Loyalty Islands between New Caledonia and Vanuatu owe their existence and morphology to the uplift of pre-existing atolls on the flexural forebulge of the New Hebrides Trench. The configuration and topography of each island is a function of distance from the crest of the uplifted forebulge. Both Maré and Lifou are fully emergent paleoatolls upon which ancient barrier reefs form highstanding annular ridges that enclose interior plateaus representing paleolagoon floors, whereas the partially emergent Ouvea paleoatoll rim flanks a drowned remnant lagoon. Emergent paleoshoreline features exposed by island uplift include paleoreef flats constructed as ancient fringing reefs built to past low tide levels and emergent tidal notches incised at past high tide levels. Present paleoshoreline elevations record uplift rates of the islands since last-interglacial and mid-Holocene highstands in global and regional sea levels, respectively, and paleoreef stratigraphy reflects net Quaternary island emergence. The empirical uplift rates vary in harmony with theoretical uplift rates inferred from the different positions of the islands in transit across the trench forebulge at the trench subduction rate. The Loyalty Islands provide a case study of island environments controlled primarily by neotectonics.

  19. Uplift of quaternary shorelines in eastern Patagonia: Darwin revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedoja, Kevin; Regard, Vincent; Husson, Laurent; Martinod, Joseph; Guillaume, Benjamin; Fucks, Enrique; Iglesias, Maximiliano; Weill, Pierre

    2011-04-01

    During his journey on the Beagle, Darwin observed the uniformity in the elevation of coastal Eastern Patagonia along more than 2000 km. More than one century later, the sequences of Quaternary shorelines of eastern Patagonia have been described and their deposits dated but not yet interpreted in terms of geodynamics. Consequently, we i) mapped the repartition of the Quaternary coastal sequences in Argentinean Patagonia, ii) secured accurate altitudes of shoreline angles associated with erosional morphologies (i.e. marine terraces and notches), iii) took into account previous chrono-stratigraphical interpretations in order to calculate mean uplift rates since ~ 440 ka (MIS 11) and proposed age ranges for the higher and older features (up to ~ 180 m), and iv) focused on the Last Interglacial Maximum terrace (MIS 5e) as the best constrained marine terrace (in terms of age and altitude) in order to use it as a tectonic benchmark to quantify uplift rates along the entire passive margin of Eastern South America. Our results show that the eastern Patagonia uplift is constant through time and twice the uplift of the rest of the South American margin. We suggest that the enhanced uplift along the eastern Patagonian coast that interested Darwin during his journey around South America on the Beagle could originate from the subduction of the Chile ridge and the associated dynamic uplift.

  20. The Andean Geotrail (1): A scientific adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassier, C.; Galland, O.; Raufaste, C.; Mair, K.

    2009-12-01

    The role of Geosciences in our society is of primary importance. Its implications for humanity relate to major challenges such as climate change, managing energy resources, natural hazard mitigation, and water scarcity. Despite these issues being familiar to specialists, this is in general not the case for the public. In a world, where the impact of human activity is beginning to be seen on the environment, knowledge of the Earth and its history is paramount to make informed decisions that will influence our future. The necessity to educate the global population and raise awareness of Geosciences has led UNESCO to designate 2009 the International Year of the Planet Earth. In this context and with the label of the UNESCO, we organized and performed a popular science adventure that was followed in real time by both school children and many adults around the world. The Andean Geotrail consisted of a cycling expedition through a spectacular geological environment, the Andean Cordillera. During the nine month expedition, we cycled 8000 km and walked 400 km from Ushuaia in the Southern tip of Argentina to Nazca in Peru to encounter a rich variety of geological environments: active volcanoes, earthquakes, mineral and hydrocarbon deposits, and fantastic geological scenery. All this makes the Andes a great pedagogical natural laboratory. During the expedition, we visited spectacular geological localities that illustrate key Earth Science phenomena (such as mines and hydrocarbon deposits, erupting volcanoes and seismogenically active areas, and national parks) and discovered their implications for the local people. Along the way, we interviewed local geologists and scientists who helped us understand the geology of their areas. We gathered our own observations with those of the local specialists and published essays, articles and photographs on our website and blog (www.georouteandine.fr/English, http://georouteandine.blogspot.com). Seventeen schools in France and Norway

  1. The rigid Andean sliver hypothesis challenged : impact on interseismic coupling on the Chilean subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metois, M.

    2017-12-01

    Convergence partitioning between subduction zones and crustal active structures has been widely evidenced. For instance, the convergence between the Indian and Sunda plates is accommodated both by the Sumatra subduction zone and the Great Sumatran strike-slip fault, that defines a narrow sliver. In Cascadia, small-scale rotating rigid blocks bounded by active faults have been proposed (e.g. McCaffrey et al. 2007). Recent advances in geodetic measurements along the South-American margin especially in Ecuador, Peru and Chile and the need for precise determination of the coupling amount on the megathrust interface in particular for seismic hazard assessment, led several authors to propose the existence of large-scale Andean slivers rotating clockwise and counter-clockwise South and North of the Arica bend, respectively (e.g. Chlieh et al. 2011, Nocquet et al. 2014, Métois et al. 2013). In Chile, one single large Andean sliver bounded to the west by the subduction thrust and to the east by the subandean fold-an-thrust belt active front is used to mimic the velocities observed in the middle to far field that are misfitted by elastic coupling models on the megathrust interface alone (Métois et al. 2016). This rigid sliver is supposed to rotate clockwise around a Euler pole located in the South Atlantic ocean, consistently with long-term observed rotations detected by paleomagnetism (e.g. Arriagada et al. 2008). However, recent GPS data acquired in the Taltal area ( 26°S, Klein et al. submitted) show higher than expected middle-field eastward velocities and question the first-order assumption of a rigid Andean sliver. Mis-modeling the fore-arc deformation has a direct impact on the inverted coupling amount and distribution, and could therefore bias significantly the megathrust rupture scenarios. Correctly estimating the current-day deformation of the Andes is therefore required to properly assess for coupling on the plate interface and is challenging since crustal

  2. Colorado Plateau magmatism and uplift by warming of heterogeneous lithosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mousumi; Jordan, Thomas H; Pederson, Joel

    2009-06-18

    The forces that drove rock uplift of the low-relief, high-elevation, tectonically stable Colorado Plateau are the subject of long-standing debate. While the adjacent Basin and Range province and Rio Grande rift province underwent Cenozoic shortening followed by extension, the plateau experienced approximately 2 km of rock uplift without significant internal deformation. Here we propose that warming of the thicker, more iron-depleted Colorado Plateau lithosphere over 35-40 Myr following mid-Cenozoic removal of the Farallon plate from beneath North America is the primary mechanism driving rock uplift. In our model, conductive re-equilibration not only explains the rock uplift of the plateau, but also provides a robust geodynamic interpretation of observed contrasts between the Colorado Plateau margins and the plateau interior. In particular, the model matches the encroachment of Cenozoic magmatism from the margins towards the plateau interior at rates of 3-6 km Myr(-1) and is consistent with lower seismic velocities and more negative Bouguer gravity at the margins than in the plateau interior. We suggest that warming of heterogeneous lithosphere is a powerful mechanism for driving epeirogenic rock uplift of the Colorado Plateau and may be of general importance in plate-interior settings.

  3. Andean tectonics: Implications for Satellite Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allenby, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Current knowledge and theories of large scale Andean tectonics as they relate to site planning for the NASA Crustal Dynamics Program's proposed high precision geodetic measurements of relative motions between the Nazca and South American plates are summarized. The Nazca Plate and its eastern margin, the Peru-Chile Trench, is considered a prototype plate marked by rapid motion, strong seismicity and well defined boundaries. Tectonic activity across the Andes results from the Nazca Plate subducting under the South American plate in a series of discrete platelets with different widths and dip angles. This in turn, is reflected in the tectonic complexity of the Andes which are a multitutde of orogenic belts superimposed on each other since the Precambrian. Sites for Crustal Dynamics Program measurements are being located to investigate both interplate and extraplate motions. Observing operations have already been initiated at Arequipa, Peru and Easter Island, Santiago and Cerro Tololo, Chile. Sites under consideration include Iquique, Chile; Oruro and Santa Cruz, Bolivia; Cuzco, Lima, Huancayo and Bayovar, Peru; and Quito and the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. Based on scientific considerations, Santa Cruz, Huancayo (or Lima), Quito and the Galapagos Islands should be replaced by Isla San Felix, Chile; Brazilia or Petrolina, Brazil; and Guayaquil, Ecuador. If resources permit, additional important sites would be Buenaventura and Villavicencio or Puerto La Concordia, Colombia; and Mendoza and Cordoba, Argentina.

  4. Environment, vulnerability, and gender in Andean ethnomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larme, A C

    1998-10-01

    In Cuyo Cuyo, in the southern Peruvian highlands, ethnomedicine is rife with images of human vulnerability to a hostile and unpredictable environment. This is represented in the ethnomedical system by a focus on wayras, air- or wind-borne illnesses that enter through vulnerable body openings such as the head, orifices, lower back, and feet. Women are viewed to be more vulnerable, or débil, than men to illness because they have an extra orifice, the vagina, they lose copious amounts of blood, which is thought to be irreplaceable, during childbirth. and because they suffer more negative emotions, which are thought to attract wayras and other illnesses to the body. The relationship of ethnomedical beliefs to the Andean physical and political economic environment is explored within the context of social and economic change. Negative beliefs about women's bodies have negative effects on women's roles and position vis-à-vis men in present day Cuyo Cuyo. Ethnomedical beliefs reflect and reinforce gender inequalities in present day Peru and are part of a cultural ideology that in general devalues women. This case study demonstrates that power is a key dimension in the cultural construction of medical knowledge. whether in non-Western or Western societies.

  5. Experimental studies of pipeline uplift resistance in frozen ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, B.; Crooks, J. [Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Nixon, J.F. [Nixon Geotech Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Zhou, J. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Gas pipelines buried in permafrost are subjected to the mechanisms of frost heave and thaw settlement which induce movement in the pipe. The magnitude of loads depend on the relative displacement and the load-displacement characteristics of the surrounding soils. This paper presented the results of laboratory tests that investigated the geomechanical properties and uplift resistance of frozen Calgary silt. Compacted soil was frozen 24 hours prior to the uplift testing. A thick-wall steel pipe was laid down and more soil was subsequently placed and compacted around and above the pipe until the desired burial depth was achieved. The temperature of the frozen soil was monitored along with deformations of the soil surface in order to determine the impact of loading rate, ice content and freezing direction. The geomechanical tests included triaxial compression tests as well as tensile and creep tests. The stiffness, tensile strain limits and time dependent behaviour of the frozen soil were also defined. The issue of crack development in the frozen soil was addressed and a numerical model was developed based on measured load-displacement relationships and geomechanical properties of the frozen soil. Bilinear stress-strain relationships were consistently noted for the frozen samples under triaxial compression. The stress-strain behaviour was found to be independent of the confining stress. The measured tensile limits were found to be in good agreement with published literature. Peak uplift resistance and post-peak decreases were consistently noted in the uplift resistance. Tensile fractures were observed vertically above the crown of the pipe. Uplift resistance was highly affected by the loading rate, but the load-displacement curve prior to the peak was not affected by radial freezing or ice lenses. A new peak uplift resistance was reached following the freeze/thaw cycle, suggesting the healing of the tensile fractures. 9 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  6. An estimation method for basemat uplift behavior of NPP buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, N.; Ino, S.; Kurimoto, O.; Miake, M.

    2005-01-01

    It is important to accurately estimate the effects of strong earthquake motions on the basemat uplift behavior and structural responses for the seismic design of nuclear power plant buildings. In this paper, an analysis model which describes the soil part using the 3 dimensional FEM was proposed to be used when the ground contact ratio is low, and the validity of this model was confirmed. Furthermore, investigations using the model were carried out where the attaching force under the basemat was taken into account, in order to more realistically estimate the basemat uplift behavior. The effects in the case of the building being embedded were also investigated. (authors)

  7. Cenozoic uplift and subsidence in the North Atlantic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anell, Ingrid Anna Margareta; Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina

    2009-01-01

    and the surrounding areas. (2) A regional increase in subsidence in the offshore marginal areas of Norway, the northern North Sea, the northern British Isles and west Greenland took place in the Eocene (ca 57-35 Ma). (3) The Oligocene and Miocene (35-5 Ma) were characterized by regional tectonic quiescence, with only...... localised uplift, probably related to changes in plate dynamics. (4) The second major phase of regional uplift that affected all marginal areas of the North Atlantic occurred in the Plio-Pleistocene (5-0 Ma). Its amplitude was enhanced by erosion-driven glacio-isostatic compensation. Despite inconclusive...

  8. On the Nature of Cross-Linguistic Transfer: A Case Study of Andean Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntendam, Antje G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on cross-linguistic transfer in Andean Spanish word order. In Andean Spanish the object appears in preverbal position more frequently than in non-Andean Spanish, which has been attributed to an influence from Quechua (a Subject-Object-Verb language). The high frequency of preverbal objects could be…

  9. Origins of the Asian-Australian monsoons related to Cenozoic plate movement and Tibetan Plateau uplift - A modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Dong, B.; Yin, Z. Y.; Smith, R. S.; Guo, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The origin of monsoon is a subject that has attracted much attention in the scientific community and even today it is still controversial. According to geological records, there is conflicting evidence regarding the timings of establishment of the monsoon climates in South Asia, East Asia, and northern Australia. Additionally, different explanations for the monsoon origins have been derived from various numerical simulations. To further investigate the origin and evolution of the Asian and Australian monsoons, we designed a series of numerical experiments using a coupled atmospheric-oceanic general circulation model. Since the Indian-Australian plate has shifted its position significantly during the Cenozoic, together with the large-scale uplift of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), in these experiments we considered the configurations of ocean-land masses and large topographic features based on geological evidence of plate motion and TP uplift in 5 typical Cenozoic geological periods: mid-Paleocene ( 60Ma), late-Eocene ( 40Ma), late-Oligocene ( 25Ma), late-Miocene ( 10Ma), and present day. These experiments allowed us to examine the combined effects of the changes in the land-ocean configuration due to plate movement and TP uplift, they also provided insight into the effects of the high CO2 levels during the Eocene. The simulations revealed that during the Paleocene, the Indian Subcontinent was still positioned in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) and, therefore, its climate behaved as the SH tropical monsoon. By the late Eocene, it moved into the tropical Northern Hemisphere, which allowed the establishment of the South Asian monsoon. In contrast, the East Asian and Australian monsoon did not exist in the late Oligocene. These monsoon systems were established in the Miocene and then enhanced thereafter. Establishments of the low-latitude monsoons in South Asia and Australia were entirely determined by the position of the Indian-Australian plate and not related to the TP uplift

  10. Deep mantle forces and the uplift of the Colorado Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moucha, R; Forte, A M; Rowley, D B; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P

    2009-06-23

    Since the advent of plate tectonics, it has been speculated that the northern extension of the East Pacific Rise, specifically its mantle source, has been over-ridden by the North American Plate in the last 30 Myrs. Consequently, it has also been postulated that the opening of the Gulf of California, the extension in the Basin and Range province, and the uplift of the Colorado Plateau are the resulting continental expressions of the over-ridden mantle source of the East Pacific Rise. However, only qualitative models based solely on surface observations and heuristic, simplified conceptions of mantle convection have been used in support or against this hypothesis. We introduce a quantitative model of mantle convection that reconstructs the detailed motion of a warm mantle upwelling over the last 30 Myrs and its relative advance towards the interior of the southwestern USA. The onset and evolution of the crustal uplift in the central Basin and Range province and the Colorado Plateau is determined by tracking the topographic swell due to this mantle upwelling through time. We show that (1) the extension and magmatism in the central Basin and Range province between 25 and 10 Ma coincides with the reconstructed past position of this focused upwelling, and (2) the southwestern portion of the Colorado Plateau experienced significant uplift between 10 Ma and 5 Ma that progressed towards the northeastern portion of the plateau. These uplift estimates are consistent with a young, ca. 6 Ma, Grand Canyon model and the recent commencement of mafic magmatism.

  11. Alpine glacial topography and the rate of rock column uplift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Vivi Kathrine; Egholm, D.L.; Nielsen, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates the influence of alpine glacial erosion on the morphology and relief distribution of mountain regions associated with varying rock column uplift rates. We take a global approach and analyse the surface area distribution of all mountain regions affected by glacial er...

  12. Enhancing rates of erosion and uplift through glacial perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Kevin; Schlunegger, Fritz; Abbühl, Luca

    2010-05-01

    Research over the past decade has shown that the pattern of modern rock uplift in the Swiss Alps correlates with both long-term (thermochronometers) and short-term (cosmogenic nuclide-derived denudation rates, sediment loads, lake fills) measures of erosion. This correlation has been attributed alternately to isostatic causes (compensation to erosion and/or glacial unloading) and tectonic forces (ongoing collision and partial delamination). Of these potential driving forces, only isostatic compensation to erosion fits all available structural, geodetic, and flexural models. We explore this uplift-erosion relationship by analyzing river channel steepness for Alpine rivers. Zones of oversteepening, and hence enhanced stream power, are associated with glacial erosion and deposition during LGM and earlier glaciations, resulting in the focusing of erosion into the inner gorges which connect hanging tributary valleys to the main glacial trunk valley. These inner gorges are transient zones in which fluvial and hillslope processes are in the process of re-adjusting this glacially perturbed landscape. Bedrock properties also play a major role in the response time of these adjustments. Glacially generated knickzones are located within 5 km of the trunk stream in the Rhone valley where resistant lithologies dominate (gneiss), whereas the knickzones have migrated as much as 10 km or further in the less resistant rocks (buendnerschists) of the Rhine valley. We suggest that the rock uplift pattern is controlled by surface denudation as set by the glacial-interglacial history of the Alps. Rapid, focused erosion results in rapid rock uplift rates in the Central Swiss Alps, where glaciers were most active. An interesting ramification of this reasoning is that in the absence of glacial perturbation, both rock uplift rates and denudation rates would be substantially lower in this isostatically compensated mountain belt.

  13. Vertical Motions of Oceanic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Moore, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    Oceanic volcanoes offer abundant evidence of changes in their elevations through time. Their large-scale motions begin with a period of rapid subsidence lasting hundreds of thousands of years caused by isostatic compensation of the added mass of the volcano on the ocean lithosphere. The response is within thousands of years and lasts as long as the active volcano keeps adding mass on the ocean floor. Downward flexure caused by volcanic loading creates troughs around the growing volcanoes that eventually fill with sediment. Seismic surveys show that the overall depression of the old ocean floor beneath Hawaiian volcanoes such as Mauna Loa is about 10 km. This gross subsidence means that the drowned shorelines only record a small part of the total subsidence the islands experienced. In Hawaii, this history is recorded by long-term tide-gauge data, the depth in drill holes of subaerial lava flows and soil horizons, former shorelines presently located below sea level. Offshore Hawaii, a series of at least 7 drowned reefs and terraces record subsidence of about 1325 m during the last half million years. Older sequences of drowned reefs and terraces define the early rapid phase of subsidence of Maui, Molokai, Lanai, Oahu, Kauai, and Niihau. Volcanic islands, such as Maui, tip down toward the next younger volcano as it begins rapid growth and subsidence. Such tipping results in drowned reefs on Haleakala as deep as 2400 m where they are tipped towards Hawaii. Flat-topped volcanoes on submarine rift zones also record this tipping towards the next younger volcano. This early rapid subsidence phase is followed by a period of slow subsidence lasting for millions of years caused by thermal contraction of the aging ocean lithosphere beneath the volcano. The well-known evolution along the Hawaiian chain from high to low volcanic island, to coral island, and to guyot is due to this process. This history of rapid and then slow subsidence is interrupted by a period of minor uplift

  14. Seismotectonics of thin- and thick-skinned deformation in the Andean foreland from local network data - Evidence for a seismogenic lower crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, Robert, Jr.; Isacks, Bryan L.

    1990-01-01

    Local network data from San Juan, Argentina, provides new information about crustal seismicity in the Andean foreland above a horizontal segment of the subducted Nazca Plate. Two areas of foreland seismicity are found, one associated with the Sierras Pampeanas basement uplifts, and the other beneath, but not within, the Precordillera foreland fold-thrust belt. The Precordillera seismicity provides direct evidence for basement deformation beneath the sediments of the thrust belt and supports the idea that its eastern part is significantly modified by underlying basement deformation. In both areas, events are concentrated between 15 and 35 km depth and have volumetric, rather than planar, faultlike distributions. The depth distribution is unusually deep for intraplate earthquakes and suggests a brittle-ductile transition near 30-35 km.

  15. The interaction of prehistoric human settlement, sea level change and tectonic uplift of the Coastal Range, eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H.; Chen, W. S.

    2017-12-01

    The late Cenozoic mountain belt of Taiwan, resulting from the collision between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea plates, is known for its rapid tectonic uplift. As postglacial sea level rose ca. 15,000 yr ago, the eastern coast of Taiwan, due to the rapid tectonic uplift rate, displayed a totally different scenario comparing with most of the coastal plains around the world. At the beginning of postglacial era, the sea level rising rate was greater than the tectonic uplift rate which induced the original piedmont alluvial fan or coastal plain to be overwhelmed by sea water rapidly. Around 13.5 ka, the tectonic uplift rate caught up with the sea level rising and broad wave-cut platform formed. The approximation of tectonic uplift and sea level rising rates was lasting from 13.5 to 5ka, but shoreline progradation may have been enhanced by increased slope erosion which resulted in the alluvial fan forming at the later time of this period. As soon as the eustasy stabilized, the landmass continued to uplift which might have enhanced the river incising and wave erosion rapidly. Therefore the topographic expression along the eastern fringing of Coastal Range forms extended alluvial-fan, stream, and marine terraces and are covered by late Holocene colluvium and marine deposits. 88 archaeological sites were chosen in this study based on surface survey where the archaeological chronology of cultural stage is established primarily through examining pottery series and associated manual excavation. It is interesting that most of the archaeological sites were located on the alluvial fan although the Holocene marine terraces have formed after 5ka. There are no clear evidences to support a shore-oriented settlement, but the abundant alluvial depositional structures observed from the overlaying formation reveals the stream depositional system was still active at this time. If the Neolithic people wanted to come to the "new born" coastal region for the abundant ocean resources, they

  16. Crust-mantle contribution to Andean magmatism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, J; Hildreth, W; Chesley, J

    2001-01-01

    There has long been great interest in quantifying the contributions of the continental crust to continental arc magmas, such as those of the Andes using osmium isotopes (Alves et al., 1999; Borg et al., 2000; Brandon et al., 1996; McInnes et al., 1999). In general, Andean volcanic rocks of all compositions show relatively low Sr-isotope ratios and positive to mildly negative epsilon Nd values. Nonetheless, in the Southern Volcanic Zone of central Chile, basalt-andesite-dacite volcanoes along the Quaternary volcanic front were shown (by Hildreth and Moorbath, 1988) to have latitudinally systematic chemical variations, as well as a monotonic increase in 87Sr/Sr86 from ca. 0.7035 to 0.7055 and a decrease in epsilon Nd values from ca. +3 to -1. The isotopic variations correlate with basement elevation of the volcanic edifices and with Bouguer gravity anomalies, both of which are thought to reflect along-arc variations in thickness and average age of the underlying crust. Volcanoes with the most evolved isotopic signatures were fed through the thickest crust. Correlation of chemical and isotopic variations with crustal thickness was interpreted to be caused by Melting (of deep-crustal host rocks), Assimilation, Storage, and Homogenization (MASH) of mantle-derived magmas in long-lived lower-crustal reservoirs beneath each center prior to eruption. We have now determined Os-isotope ratios for a sample suite from these volcanoes (33-36 S lat.), representing a range of crustal thickness from ca. 60-35 km. The samples range in MgO from ca. 8-4% and in SiO2 from 51-57%. The most evolved eruptive products occur above the thickest crust and have 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7054 and epsilon Nd values of -1.5. The 187Os/188Os ratios correlate with the other isotopic systems and with crustal thickness. Volcanoes on the thinnest crust have 187Os/188Os ratios of 0.18-0.21. Those on the thickest crust have 187Os/188Os ratios as high as 0.64. All the Os values are much too radiogenic to

  17. Postmodern Anthropology: Reflections from Andean Ethnohistory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villarías-Robles, Juan J. R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The postmodern perspective, which began its influence on studies of Prehispanic Peru in the 1980s, has resulted —as chief positive effect— in reflection and debate concerning the written sources for apprehending such cultural otherness, the so-called “Chronicles of the West Indies”: a perspective accompanied by new editions of these texts. The author of the present article expresses his own reflection on such change in theory and method. He argues that, with regard to self-reflectivity on its epistemological foundations, the new perspective is not entirely original in the long history of Andean ethnohistory; in effect, this approach is almost as old as the field itself. What is indeed original is the cognitive relativism that surfaced in some extreme forms of the discussion. It was an unfortunate development, however: when not denying, as a matter of principle, the very possibility of understanding that cultural otherness, arguments masked actual interpretations or explanations of its features that were protected, ipso facto, from a rigorous process of validation.

    La perspectiva posmoderna, que empezó a ser influyente en los estudios del Perú prehispánico en la década de 1980, ha tenido como principal efecto positivo la reflexión y el debate sobre las fuentes originales de conocimiento de esa alteridad cultural, las llamadas genéricamente “Crónicas de Indias”: una perspectiva acompañada de nuevas ediciones de tales textos. El autor del presente artículo hace aquí su propia reflexión sobre este cambio teórico y metodológico. Plantea que, en lo que tiene de discusión sobre sus bases epistemológicas, no es del todo original en la larga historia de la etnohistoria peruanista. Es, de hecho, casi tan antiguo como ella. Lo que sí ha sido original es el relativismo cognitivo que ha acompañado a algunas expresiones extremas de la discusión. Pero fue ésta una novedad desafortunada: cuando no negaba por principio la

  18. Interrill and rill erodibility in the northern andean highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, C.; Stroosnijder, L.; Baigorria, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    There is a lack of quantitative information describing the physical processes causing soil erosion in the Andean Highlands, especially those related to interrill and rill erodibility factors. To assess how susceptible are soils to erosion in this region, field measurements of interrill (Ki) and rill

  19. Andean shrublands of Moquegua, South Peru: Prepuna plant communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos, D.B.; Cleef, A.M.; Sykora, K.V.

    2012-01-01

    A syntaxonomic overview of shrubland vegetation in the southern Andean regions of Peru is presented. For each plant community, information is given on physiognomy, floristic diversity, ecology and geographical distribution. The shrub vegetation on the slopes of the upper Tambo river valley includes

  20. The Andean Common Market: An Experiment in Regional Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Reynold E.

    The Grupo Andino (GRAN) was formed in 1969 as an effort at economic integration by six Latin American countries (Bolivia, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela). It was an outgrowth of its predecessor, the Latin American Free Trade Association (LAFTA), which had been formed in 1960 with eleven member countries. The Andean Group (GRAN) from…

  1. Does slab-window opening cause uplift of the overriding plate? A case study from the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Chris; Chew, David; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2017-11-01

    Complete subduction of an oceanic plate results in slab-window opening. A key uncertainty in this process is whether the higher heat flux and asthenospheric upwelling conventionally associated with slab-window opening generate a detectable topographic signature in the overriding plate. We focus on the Baja California Peninsula, which incorporates the western margin of the Gulf of California rift. The topography and tectonics of the rift flank along the peninsula are strongly bimodal. North of the Puertecitos accommodation zone, the primary drainage divide attains a mean elevation of ca. 1600 m above sea level (asl), above an asthenospheric slab-window opened by Pacific-Farallon spreading ridge subduction along this section of the trench at ca. 17-15 Ma. To the south, mean topography decreases abruptly to ca. 800 m asl (excluding the structurally distinct Los Cabos block at the southern tip of the peninsula), above fragments of the oceanic Farallon slab which stalled following slab tear-off at ca. 15-14 Ma. Along the peninsula, a low-relief surface established atop Miocene subduction-related volcaniclastic units has been incised by a west-draining canyon network in response to uplift. These canyons exhibit cut-and-fill relationships with widespread post-subduction lavas. Here, we utilise LANDSAT and digital elevation model (DEM) data, integrated with previously published K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar lava crystallisation ages, to constrain the onset of rift flank uplift to ca. 9-5 Ma later than slab-window formation in the north and ca. 11-10 Ma later in the south. These greatly exceed response time estimates of ca. 2 Ma or less for uplift triggered by slab-window opening. Instead, uplift timing of the high-elevation northern region is consistent with lower-lithospheric erosion driven by rift-related convective upwelling. To the south, stalled slab fragments likely inhibited convective return flow, preventing lithospheric erosion and limiting uplift to the isostatic response

  2. Harmonic Structure Predicts the Enjoyment of Uplifting Trance Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agres, Kat; Herremans, Dorien; Bigo, Louis; Conklin, Darrell

    2016-01-01

    An empirical investigation of how local harmonic structures (e.g., chord progressions) contribute to the experience and enjoyment of uplifting trance (UT) music is presented. The connection between rhythmic and percussive elements and resulting trance-like states has been highlighted by musicologists, but no research, to our knowledge, has explored whether repeated harmonic elements influence affective responses in listeners of trance music. Two alternative hypotheses are discussed, the first highlighting the direct relationship between repetition/complexity and enjoyment, and the second based on the theoretical inverted-U relationship described by the Wundt curve. We investigate the connection between harmonic structure and subjective enjoyment through interdisciplinary behavioral and computational methods: First we discuss an experiment in which listeners provided enjoyment ratings for computer-generated UT anthems with varying levels of harmonic repetition and complexity. The anthems were generated using a statistical model trained on a corpus of 100 uplifting trance anthems created for this purpose, and harmonic structure was constrained by imposing particular repetition structures (semiotic patterns defining the order of chords in the sequence) on a professional UT music production template. Second, the relationship between harmonic structure and enjoyment is further explored using two computational approaches, one based on average Information Content, and another that measures average tonal tension between chords. The results of the listening experiment indicate that harmonic repetition does in fact contribute to the enjoyment of uplifting trance music. More compelling evidence was found for the second hypothesis discussed above, however some maximally repetitive structures were also preferred. Both computational models provide evidence for a Wundt-type relationship between complexity and enjoyment. By systematically manipulating the structure of chord

  3. Effects of perceived stress and uplifts on inflammation and coagulability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shamini; Mills, Paul J; von Känel, Roland; Hong, Suzi; Dimsdale, Joel E

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether depressed mood and chronic hassles and uplifts predicted levels of hemostasis markers D-Dimer and type-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), as well as the proinflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) in 108 healthy individuals. One hundred eight African-American and Euro-American men and women were studied (58 men, 50 women; mean age = 36.5 +/- 8 years). D-Dimer, PAI-1, IL-6, and sICAM-1 plasma levels were analyzed from fasting venous blood samples. Data were analyzed via hierarchical linear regression and followed with partial correlation analysis. Regression analyses combined with partial correlation analyses suggested that increases in hassle frequency predicted elevated levels of sICAM-1 (p= .034), and increases in hassle severity predicted elevated levels of D-Dimer (p= .017). Increases in uplift intensity predicted lower levels of PAI-1 (p= .004) as well as showed a trend for decreased IL-6 (p= .069). Depressed mood did not significantly predict any dependent variable. These results were independent of sociodemographic, biological, and other related mood variables. The findings suggest that for even relatively healthy persons, increased perceptions of hassles are independently associated with greater inflammation and hypercoagulability, whereas increased perceptions of uplifts are independently associated with decreased hypercoagulability.

  4. The role of collisional tectonics in the metallogeny of the Central Andean tin belt [rapid communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynarczyk, Michael S. J.; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.

    2005-12-01

    The Inner Arc of the Central Andes, broadly corresponding to the Eastern Cordillera, is the location of a rich Tertiary and Triassic Sn-W-(Ag-base metal) metallogenic province, commonly referred to as the Bolivian tin belt. We propose that the Tertiary metallogeny, which generated most of the tin ores, was a direct consequence of discrete "collisions" between the South American plate and the Nazca slab and sub-slab mantle, during the ongoing Andean orogeny. Evidence supporting this proposal include: (1) the coincidence of the tin province and the Inner Arc in a marked "hump" in the Andean orogen, which may represent tectonic indentation; (2) the symmetry of the tin province with respect to the Bolivian orocline, the axis of which corresponds to the direction of highest compression; (3) the relative symmetry of the magmatism and tin mineralization with respect to this axis; (4) the concurrent timing of mineralization and compressional pulses; (5) the similar host rock geochemistry and ore lead isotope data, testifying to a common crustal reservoir; and (6) the striking similarity of the igneous suites, associated with the ore deposits to those from "typical" collisional orogens. A number of studies have called upon a persistent tin anomaly to explain the metallogeny of the region. We propose, instead, that the latter is better explained by periodic compressional interaction between the Farallon/Nazca oceanic plate and the South American continent. This led to the generation of peraluminous magmas, which during fractional crystallization exsolved the fluids responsible for the voluminous Sn-W mineralization.

  5. Uplift and Subsidence Associated with the Great Aceh-Andaman Earthquake of 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The magnitude 9.2 Indian Ocean earthquake of December 26, 2004, produced broad regions of uplift and subsidence. In order to define the lateral extent and the downdip limit of rupture, scientists from Caltech, Pasadena, Calif.; NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.; Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif.; the U.S. Geological Survey, Pasadena, Calif.; and the Research Center for Geotechnology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Bandung, Indonesia; first needed to define the pivot line separating those regions. Interpretation of satellite imagery and a tidal model were one of the key tools used to do this. These pre-Sumatra earthquake (a) and post-Sumatra earthquake (b) images of North Sentinel Island in the Indian Ocean, acquired from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft, show emergence of the coral reef surrounding the island following the earthquake. The tide was 30 plus or minus 14 centimeters lower in the pre-earthquake image (acquired November 21, 2000) than in the post-earthquake image (acquired February 20, 2005), requiring a minimum of 30 centimeters of uplift at this locality. Observations from an Indian Coast Guard helicopter on the northwest coast of the island suggest that the actual uplift is on the order of 1 to 2 meters at this site. In figures (c) and (d), pre-earthquake and post-earthquake ASTER images of a small island off the northwest coast of Rutland Island, 38 kilometers east of North Sentinel Island, show submergence of the coral reef surrounding the island. The tide was higher in the pre-earthquake image (acquired January 1, 2004) than in the post-earthquake image (acquired February 4, 2005), requiring subsidence at this locality. The pivot line must run between North Sentinel and Rutland islands. Note that the scale for the North Sentinel Island images differs from that for the Rutland Island images. The tidal model used for this study was

  6. Evidence of Himalayan uplift as seen in Neogene records of Indian monsoon variability from ODP Hole 722B, NW Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, Prakasam; Gupta, Anil K.; Saini, Naresh K.

    2013-04-01

    The Indian monsoon is one of the most interesting climatic features on Earth impacting most populous countries of South and East Asia. It is marked by seasonal reversals of wind direction with southwesterly winds in summer (June-September) and northeasterly winds in winter (December-February). The monsoon not only impacts socioeconomic conditions of Asia but also brings important changes in fauna and flora, ocean upwelling and primary productivity in the Arabian Sea. The Himalaya has undergone several phases of rapid uplift and exhumation since the early Miocene which led to major intensification of the Indian monsoon. The monsoon is driven by the thermal contrast between land and sea, and is intimately linked with the latitudinal movement of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The effect of Indian monsoon variability and the Himalayan uplift can be seen in numerous proxy records across the region. In this study we discussed about the Indian monsoon intensification and the Himalayan uplift since the early Miocene based on multi proxy records such as planktic foraminiferal relative abundances (Globigerina bulloides, Globigerinita glutinata and mixed layer species), total organic carbon (TOC), CaCO3 and elemental data from ODP Hole 722B (2028 mbsf), northwestern Arabian Sea. The TOC, CaCO3 and elemental variations of the ODP Hole 722B suggest multi phase of monsoonal intensification and Himalayan uplifts. Our results suggest that in the early Miocene (23.03 Ma) to ~15Ma, the wind strength and productivity were low. A major change is observed at ~15 Ma, during which time numerous proxies show abrupt changes. TOC, CaCO3 and Elemental analyses results reveal that a major change in the productivity, wind strength and chemical weathering starts around 15 Ma and extends up to 10 Ma. This suggests that a major Himalayan uplift occurred during ~15-10 Ma that drove Indian monsoon intensification. A similar change is also observed during 5 to 1 Ma. These long

  7. Sediment provenance in contractional orogens: The detrital zircon record from modern rivers in the Andean fold-thrust belt and foreland basin of western Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaldi, Tomas N.; Horton, Brian K.; McKenzie, N. Ryan; Stockli, Daniel F.; Odlum, Margaret L.

    2017-12-01

    This study analyzes detrital zircon U-Pb age populations from Andean rivers to assess whether active synorogenic sedimentation accurately records proportional contributions from varied bedrock source units across different drainage areas. Samples of modern river sand were collected from west-central Argentina (28-33°S), where the Andes are characterized by active uplift and deposition in diverse contractional provinces, including (1) hinterland, (2) wedge-top, (3) proximal foreland, and (4) distal broken foreland basin settings. Potential controls on sediment provenance were evaluated by comparing river U-Pb age distributions with predicted age spectra generated by a sediment mixing model weighted by relative catchment exposure (outcrop) areas for different source units. Several statistical measures (similarity, likeness, and cross-correlation) are employed to compare how well the area-weighted model predicts modern river age populations. (1) Hinterland basin provenance is influenced by local relief generated along thrust-bounded ranges and high zircon fertility of exposed crystalline basement. (2) Wedge-top (piggyback) basin provenance is controlled by variable lithologic durability among thrust-belt bedrock sources and recycled basin sediments. (3) Proximal foreland (foredeep) basin provenance of rivers and fluvial megafans accurately reflect regional bedrock distributions, with limited effects of zircon fertility and lithologic durability in large (>20,000 km2) second-order drainage systems. (4) In distal broken segments of the foreland basin, regional provenance signatures from thrust-belt and hinterland areas are diluted by local contributions from foreland basement-cored uplifts.

  8. Slope instabilities along the Western Andean Escarpment and the main canyons in Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, G.; Hermanns, R. L.; Valbuzzi, E.; Dehls, J.; Yugsi Molina, F. X.; Sepulveda, S.

    2012-04-01

    The western slope of the Andes of northern Chile - southern Perù is generally subdivided from the west to the east into the morphological units of: the Coastal Cordillera, Central Depression, the Western Escarpment-Precordillera and the Western Andean Cordillera. The western escarpment and Precordillera are formed by the Azapa coarse-grained clastic formation (sandstones, conglomerates, mudstones) and the Oxaya (rhyodacitic ignimbrites) and Diablo volcanoclastic formations (Oligocene and Miocene). Important uplift has been suggested between the deposition of the Oxaya and Diablo formations. The entire area has been characterized by a long-term hyperaridity (Atacama desert), initially established between 20 and 15 Ma, and this caused a strong difference between the long term continuous uplift and low denudation rates. This long sector of the central western escarpment and Precordillera is incised by deep canyons and subparallel drainage network in the upper part. The drainage network developed in two main phases: a lower-middle Miocene phase with formation of a parallel poorly structured drainage network cutting into the Oxaya formation, and presently well preserved; the canyons have been incised in the initial topography starting around 9 Ma and up to about 3.8 Ma with subsequent refilling episodes. Valley incision (ave. rate of 0.2 mm yr-1) has been controlled by topographic uplift and less arid climate (after 7 Ma). As a consequence of these geologic and climatic settings the evolution of this area has been characterized by canyon incision and extremely large slope instabilities. These slope instabilities occur in the "interfluvial" sectors of the western escarpment and Precordillera and along the canyon flanks. Landslides affecting the preserved paleosurfaces, interested by the parallel drainage network in the Oxaya formation, involve volumes of various cubic kilometres (Lluta collapse, Latagualla Landslide) and can control the drainage network. These mega

  9. Social inequality and child malnutrition in four Andean countries

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Larrea; Wilma Freire

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the effects of socioeconomic, regional, and ethnic conditions on chronic malnutrition in four Andean countries of South America: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Methods. The study was based on Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for Colombia (1995), Peru (1996), and Bolivia (1997), and on a Living Standard Measurement Survey for Ecuador (1998). We developed an index of household socioeconomic status using categorical principal components analysis. We broke down th...

  10. Adaptation and convergent evolution within the Jamesonia-Eriosorus complex in high-elevation biodiverse Andean hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Baracaldo, Patricia; Thomas, Gavin H

    2014-01-01

    The recent uplift of the tropical Andes (since the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene) provided extensive ecological opportunity for evolutionary radiations. We test for phylogenetic and morphological evidence of adaptive radiation and convergent evolution to novel habitats (exposed, high-altitude páramo habitats) in the Andean fern genera Jamesonia and Eriosorus. We construct time-calibrated phylogenies for the Jamesonia-Eriosorus clade. We then use recent phylogenetic comparative methods to test for evolutionary transitions among habitats, associations between habitat and leaf morphology, and ecologically driven variation in the rate of morphological evolution. Páramo species (Jamesonia) display morphological adaptations consistent with convergent evolution in response to the demands of a highly exposed environment but these adaptations are associated with microhabitat use rather than the páramo per se. Species that are associated with exposed microhabitats (including Jamesonia and Eriorsorus) are characterized by many but short pinnae per frond whereas species occupying sheltered microhabitats (primarily Eriosorus) have few but long pinnae per frond. Pinnae length declines more rapidly with altitude in sheltered species. Rates of speciation are significantly higher among páramo than non-páramo lineages supporting the hypothesis of adaptation and divergence in the unique Páramo biodiversity hotspot.

  11. Genetic diversity and germplasm conservation of three minor Andean tuber crop species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malice M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Andean agrosystems, three minor tuber crop species are of regional or local importance: oca (Oxalis tuberosa Molina, ulluco (Ullucus tuberosus Caldas and mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz and Pav.. Genetic diversity within these species is very large and could result from the high ecological and cultural variability that characterizes the Andean area. Nowadays, many anthropic or ecological factors cause the loss of diversity and contribute to genetic erosion. The development of conservation strategies for genetic resources of Andean tubers, in situ as well as ex situ, includes a better knowledge of diversity in addition to the study of Andean farming strategies linked to this genetic diversity.

  12. Predicting Polylepis distribution: vulnerable and increasingly important Andean woodlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Zutta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Polylepis woodlands are a vital resource for preserving biodiversity and hydrological functions, which will be altered by climate change and challenge the sustainability of local human communities. However, these highaltitude Andean ecosystems are becoming increasingly vulnerable due to anthropogenic pressure including fragmentation, deforestation and the increase in livestock. Predicting the distribution of native woodlands has become increasingly important to counteract the negative effects of climate change through reforestation and conservation. The objective of this study was to develop and analyze the distribution models of two species that form extensive woodlands along the Andes, namely Polylepis sericea and P. weberbaueri. This study utilized the program Maxent, climate and remotely sensed environmental layers at 1 km resolution. The predicted distribution model for P. sericea indicated that the species could be located in a variety of habitats along the Andean Cordillera, while P. weberbaueri was restricted to the high elevations of southern Peru and Bolivia. For both species, elevation and temperature metrics were the most significant factors for predicted distribution. Further model refinement of Polylepis and other Andean species using increasingly available satellite data demonstrate the potential to help define areas of diversity and improve conservation strategies for the Andes.

  13. The Under-side of the Andes: Using Receiver Functions to Map the North Central Andean Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. C.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Wagner, L. S.; Minaya, E.; Tavera, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Central Andean Uplift and Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) project is an interdisciplinary project to investigate connections between lithospheric removal, crustal shortening and surface uplift in the northern Bolivia and southern Peru region of the South American Andean orogen. The central Andes are defined by six major tectonomorphic provinces; the forearc, the volcanically active Western Cordillera (WC, ~6 km elevation), the internally drained Altiplano (~4 km elevation), an inactive fold and thrust belt in the Eastern Cordillera (EC, ~6 km elevation), a lower elevation active fold and thrust belt in the Subandean (SA) zone and the Beni, a foreland basin. Forty seismic stations installed for the CAUGHT project were deployed between 13° and 18° S latitude, covering the transition zone where the Altiplano region pinches out in southern Peru, in an effort to better constrain the changing character of the crust and mantle lithosphere. Geologic studies across the northern Bolivian portion of the eastern Andean margin (15-17° S) have documented a total of 275 km of upper crustal shortening (McQuarrie et al, Tectonics, v27, 2008), which may be associated with crustal thickening and/or the removal of lithospheric material as a thickened lithosphere root becomes unstable. For this receiver function (converted wave) study, we have little coverage in the forearc and foreland, ~75 km spacing in most of the array, and a relatively dense ~20 km spaced profile along the Charaña-La Paz-Yucumo transect, the eastern portion of which is nearly coincident with the balanced cross-section of McQuarrie et al. (2008). Using the first year of available data, more than 1200 receiver functions have been calculated using an iterative deconvolution method, and stacked using the common conversion point (CCP) method, along profiles parallel to and nearly coincident to those used for the geologic shortening estimates. We identified arrivals for the Moho and generated a 3D map of

  14. Terreneuvian stratigraphy and faunas from the Anabar Uplift, Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Kouchinsky

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Assemblages of mineralized skeletal fossils are described from limestone rocks of the lower Cambrian Nemakit-Daldyn, Medvezhya, Kugda-Yuryakh, Manykay, and lower Emyaksin formations exposed on the western and eastern flanks of the Anabar Uplift of the northern Siberian Platform. The skeletal fossil assemblages consist mainly of anabaritids, molluscs, and hyoliths, and also contain other taxa such as Blastulospongia, Chancelloria, Fomitchella, Hyolithellus, Platysolenites, Protohertzina, and Tianzhushanella. The first tianzhushanellids from Siberia, including Tianzhushanella tolli sp. nov., are described. The morphological variation of Protohertzina anabarica and Anabarites trisulcatus from their type locality is documented. Prominent longitudinal keels in the anabaritid Selindeochrea tripartita are demonstrated. Among the earliest molluscs from the Nemakit-Daldyn Formation, Purella and Yunnanopleura are interpreted as shelly parts of the same species. Fibrous microstructure of the outer layer and a wrinkled inner layer of mineralised cuticle in the organophosphatic sclerites of Fomitchella are reported. A siliceous composition of the globular fossil Blastulospongia is reported herein and a possible protistan affinity similar to Platysolenites is discussed. New carbon isotope data facilitate correlation both across the Anabar Uplift and with the Terreneuvian Series of the IUGS chronostratigraphical scheme for the Cambrian System. The base of Cambrian Stage 2 is provisionally placed herein within the Fortunian‒Cambrian Stage 2 transitional interval bracketed by the lowest appearance of Watsonella crosbyi and by a slightly higher horizon at the peak of carbon isotope excursion Iʹ from western flank of the Anabar Uplift. Correlation across the Siberian Platform of the fossiliferous Medvezhya and lower Emyaksin formations showing δ13Ccarb excursion Iʹ with the upper Sukharikha Formation containing excursion 5p and upper Ust’-Yudoma Formation

  15. North America as an exotic terrane'' and the origin of the Appalachian--Andean Mountain system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalziel, I.W.D; Gahagan, L.M. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Geophysics); Dalla Salda, L.H. (Univ. Nacional de La Plata, La Plata (Argentina). Centro de Investigaciones Geologicas)

    1992-01-01

    North America was sutured to Gondwana in the terminal Alleghanian event of Appalachian orogenesis, thus completing the late Paleozoic assembly of Pangea. The suggestion that the Pacific margins of East Antarctica-Australia and Laurentia may have been juxtaposed during the Neoproterozoic prompts reevaluation of the widely held assumptions that the ancestral Appalachian margin rifted from northwestern Africa during the earliest Paleozoic opening of Iapetus, and remained juxtaposed to that margin, even though widely separated from it at times, until the assembly of Pangea. The lower Paleozoic carbonate platform of northwestern Argentina has been known for a long time to contain Olenellid trilobites of the Pacific or Columbian realm. Although normally regarded as some kind of far-travelled terrane that originated along the Appalachian margin of Laurentia, it has recently been interpreted as a fragment detached from the Ouachita embayment of Laurentia following Taconic-Famatinian collision with Gondwana during the Ordovician. The Oaxaca terrane of Mexico, on the other hand, contains a Tremadocian trilobite fauna of Argentine-Bolivian affinities, and appears to have been detached from Gondwana following the same collision. The Wilson cycle'' of Iapetus ocean basin opening and closing along the Appalachian and Andean orogens may have involved more than one such continental collision during clockwise drift of Laurentia around South America following late Neoproterozoic to earliest Cambrian separation. Together with the collisions of baltic and smaller terranes with Laurentia, this could explain the protracted Paleozoic orogenic history of both the Appalachian and proto-Andean orogens.

  16. Colluvial deposits as a possible weathering reservoir in uplifting mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Carretier

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of mountain uplift in the evolution of the global climate over geological times is controversial. At the heart of this debate is the capacity of rapid denudation to drive silicate weathering, which consumes CO2. Here we present the results of a 3-D model that couples erosion and weathering during mountain uplift, in which, for the first time, the weathered material is traced during its stochastic transport from the hillslopes to the mountain outlet. To explore the response of weathering fluxes to progressively cooler and drier climatic conditions, we run model simulations accounting for a decrease in temperature with or without modifications in the rainfall pattern based on a simple orographic model. At this stage, the model does not simulate the deep water circulation, the precipitation of secondary minerals, variations in the pH, below-ground pCO2, and the chemical affinity of the water in contact with minerals. Consequently, the predicted silicate weathering fluxes probably represent a maximum, although the predicted silicate weathering rates are within the range of silicate and total weathering rates estimated from field data. In all cases, the erosion rate increases during mountain uplift, which thins the regolith and produces a hump in the weathering rate evolution. This model thus predicts that the weathering outflux reaches a peak and then falls, consistent with predictions of previous 1-D models. By tracking the pathways of particles, the model can also consider how lateral river erosion drives mass wasting and the temporary storage of colluvial deposits on the valley sides. This reservoir is comprised of fresh material that has a residence time ranging from several years up to several thousand years. During this period, the weathering of colluvium appears to sustain the mountain weathering flux. The relative weathering contribution of colluvium depends on the area covered by regolith on the hillslopes. For mountains

  17. Colluvial deposits as a possible weathering reservoir in uplifting mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretier, Sébastien; Goddéris, Yves; Martinez, Javier; Reich, Martin; Martinod, Pierre

    2018-03-01

    The role of mountain uplift in the evolution of the global climate over geological times is controversial. At the heart of this debate is the capacity of rapid denudation to drive silicate weathering, which consumes CO2. Here we present the results of a 3-D model that couples erosion and weathering during mountain uplift, in which, for the first time, the weathered material is traced during its stochastic transport from the hillslopes to the mountain outlet. To explore the response of weathering fluxes to progressively cooler and drier climatic conditions, we run model simulations accounting for a decrease in temperature with or without modifications in the rainfall pattern based on a simple orographic model. At this stage, the model does not simulate the deep water circulation, the precipitation of secondary minerals, variations in the pH, below-ground pCO2, and the chemical affinity of the water in contact with minerals. Consequently, the predicted silicate weathering fluxes probably represent a maximum, although the predicted silicate weathering rates are within the range of silicate and total weathering rates estimated from field data. In all cases, the erosion rate increases during mountain uplift, which thins the regolith and produces a hump in the weathering rate evolution. This model thus predicts that the weathering outflux reaches a peak and then falls, consistent with predictions of previous 1-D models. By tracking the pathways of particles, the model can also consider how lateral river erosion drives mass wasting and the temporary storage of colluvial deposits on the valley sides. This reservoir is comprised of fresh material that has a residence time ranging from several years up to several thousand years. During this period, the weathering of colluvium appears to sustain the mountain weathering flux. The relative weathering contribution of colluvium depends on the area covered by regolith on the hillslopes. For mountains sparsely covered by regolith

  18. Moduli stabilization and uplifting with dynamically generated F-terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudas, Emilian; Papineau, Chloe; Pokorski, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    We use the F-term dynamical supersymmetry breaking models with metastable vacua in order to uplift the vacuum energy in the KKLT moduli stabilization scenario. The main advantage compared to earlier proposals is the manifest supersymmetric treatment and the natural coexistence of a TeV gravitino mass with a zero cosmological constant. We argue that it is generically difficult to avoid anti de-Sitter supersymmetric minima, however the tunneling rate from the metastable vacuum with zero vacuum energy towards them can be very suppressed. We briefly comment on the properties of the induced soft terms in the observable sector

  19. Moduli stabilization and uplifting with dynamically generated F-terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudas, Emilian [CERN Theory Division, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Papineau, Chloe [CPhT, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Pokorski, Stefan [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Univ. of Warsaw, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)

    2007-02-15

    We use the F-term dynamical supersymmetry breaking models with metastable vacua in order to uplift the vacuum energy in the KKLT moduli stabilization scenario. The main advantage compared to earlier proposals is the manifest supersymmetric treatment and the natural coexistence of a TeV gravitino mass with a zero cosmological constant. We argue that it is generically difficult to avoid anti de-Sitter supersymmetric minima, however the tunneling rate from the metastable vacuum with zero vacuum energy towards them can be very suppressed. We briefly comment on the properties of the induced soft terms in the observable sector.

  20. SCANLIPS - A Study of Epirogenic Uplift of Scandinavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, R. W.; Ebbing, J.

    2007-12-01

    Thermochronology data and geomorphological interpretation indicate that parts of the Scandinavian mountains have risen by over 1 km since the Miocene. This permanent uplift, the cause of which is still disputed, varies across Norway, being greatest in southern and northern areas and least in the central region. To investigate this the SCANLIPS project employs passive seismology, coupled with modelling of potential field data to determine variations in crustal properties and structure across Norway and Sweden. Initially we intend to test whether lateral variations in crustal structure and properties are correlated with the uplift pattern. This would suggest that the cause of the differential uplift lies in a modification of the crust. If the test of this hypothesis is null we will use the data to investigate the present day upper mantle structure for the cause. Between April and October 2006 28 seismometers were deployed at sites along a c. 600 km long profile between Trondheim in Norway and Harnosand in Sweden to record teleseismic arrivals. Receiver Functions have been calculated for teleseismic events recorded at these stations and then modelled to determine crustal velocity structure, estimate Vp/Vs and depth to Moho. Preliminary results suggest that crustal thickness increases eastward beneath Norway and then remains deep beneath the lower topography of central Sweden. Along the profile a gradual eastward increase in seismic velocity, including a very high velocity lower crust beneath Sweden explains the compensation of shallow topography by thick crust. Forward density and isostatic modelling shows that the introduction of the high-density lower crust adjusts both the gravity field and the isostatic compensation. Beneath Norway the crust thins rapidly toward the continental margin at a rate that is faster than the topography decreases. This suggests that at least part of the topography is supported by the flexural strength of the crust in the footwall of the

  1. Direct gauge mediation of uplifted metastable supersymmetry breaking in supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maru, Nobuhito

    2010-01-01

    We propose a direct gauge mediation model based on an uplifted metastable supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking coupled to supergravity. A constant superpotential plays an essential role to fix the moduli as well as breaking SUSY and R symmetry and the cancellation of the cosmological constant. Gaugino masses are generated at leading order of SUSY breaking scale, and comparable to the sfermion masses as in the ordinary gauge mediation. The Landau pole problem for QCD coupling can be easily solved since more than half of messengers become superheavy, which are heavier than the grand unified theory (GUT) scale.

  2. Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (Andean-CL, uta) in Peru and Ecuador: the causative Leishmania parasites and clinico-epidemiological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Gomez, Eduardo A L; Cáceres, Abraham G; Velez, Lenin N; Villegas, Nancy V; Hashiguchi, Kazue; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Kato, Hirotomo

    2018-01-01

    This study provides comprehensive information on the past and current status of the Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (Andean-CL, uta) in Peru and Ecuador, mainly focusing on the causative Leishmania parasites and clinico-epidemiological features. Available information and data including our unpublished works were analyzed thoroughly. Endemic regions of the Andean-CL (uta) in Peru run from the north Piura/Cajamarca to the south Ayacucho at a wide range of the Pacific watersheds of the Andes through several departments, while in Ecuador those exist at limited and spotted areas in the country's mid-southwestern two provinces, Azuay and Chimborazo. The principal species of the genus Leishmania are completely different at subgenus level, L. (Viannia) peruviana in Peru, and L. (Leishmania) mexicana and L. (L.) major-like (infrequent occurrence) in Ecuador. The Peruvian uta is now prevalent in different age and sex groups, being not clearly defined as found in the past. The precise reasons are not known and should be elucidated further, though probable factors, such as emergence of other Leishmania parasites, non-immune peoples' migration into the areas, etc., were discussed briefly in the text. The Andean-CL cases in Ecuador are more rural than before, probably because of a rapid development of the Leishmania-positive communities and towns, and the change of life-styles of the inhabitants, including newly constructed houses and roads in the endemic areas. Such information is helpful for future management of the disease, not only for Leishmania-endemic areas in the Andes but also for other endemic areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Uplift, thermal unrest and magma intrusion at Yellowstone caldera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Charles W; Thatcher, Wayne; Dzurisin, Daniel; Svarc, Jerry

    2006-03-02

    The Yellowstone caldera, in the western United States, formed approximately 640,000 years ago when an explosive eruption ejected approximately 1,000 km3 of material. It is the youngest of a series of large calderas that formed during sequential cataclysmic eruptions that began approximately 16 million years ago in eastern Oregon and northern Nevada. The Yellowstone caldera was largely buried by rhyolite lava flows during eruptions that occurred from approximately 150,000 to approximately 70,000 years ago. Since the last eruption, Yellowstone has remained restless, with high seismicity, continuing uplift/subsidence episodes with movements of approximately 70 cm historically to several metres since the Pleistocene epoch, and intense hydrothermal activity. Here we present observations of a new mode of surface deformation in Yellowstone, based on radar interferometry observations from the European Space Agency ERS-2 satellite. We infer that the observed pattern of uplift and subsidence results from variations in the movement of molten basalt into and out of the Yellowstone volcanic system.

  4. Flexurally-resisted uplift of the Tharsis Province, Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, R.J.; Sleep, N.H.

    1987-01-01

    The tectonic style of Mars is dominated by vertical motion, perhaps more than any of the terrestrial planets. The imprint of this tectonic activity has left a surface widely faulted even though younger volcanism has masked the expression of tectonism in many places. Geological activity associated with the Tharsis and, to a lesser extent, Elysium provinces is responsible for a significant portion of this faulting, while the origins of the remaining features are enigmatic in many cases. The origin and evolution of the Tharsis and Elysium provinces, in terms of their great elevation, volcanic activity, and tectonic style, has sparked intense debate over the last fifteen years. Central to these discussions are the relative roles of structural uplift and volcanic construction in the creation of immense topographic relief. For example, it is argued that the presence of very old and cratered terrain high on the Tharsis rise, in the vicinity of Claritas Fossae, points to structural uplift of an ancient crust. Others have pointed out, however, that there is no reason that this terrain could not be of volcanic origin and thus part of the constructional mechanism

  5. Is It Safe to Uplift This Patch? An Empirical Study on Mozilla Firefox

    OpenAIRE

    Castelluccio, Marco; An, Le; Khomh, Foutse

    2017-01-01

    In rapid release development processes, patches that fix critical issues, or implement high-value features are often promoted directly from the development channel to a stabilization channel, potentially skipping one or more stabilization channels. This practice is called patch uplift. Patch uplift is risky, because patches that are rushed through the stabilization phase can end up introducing regressions in the code. This paper examines patch uplift operations at Mozilla, with the aim to ide...

  6. Finite temperature behaviour of the ISS-uplifted KKLT model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papineau, Chloe

    2008-01-01

    We study the static phase structure of the ISS-KKLT model for moduli stabilisation and uplifting to a zero cosmological constant. Since the supersymmetry breaking sector and the moduli sector are only gravitationally coupled, we expect negligible quantum effects of the modulus upon the ISS sector, and the other way around. Under this assumption, we show that the ISS fields end up in the metastable vacua. The reason is not only that it is thermally favoured (second order phase transition) compared to the phase transition towards the supersymmetric vacua, but rather that the metastable vacua form before the supersymmetric ones. This nice feature is exclusively due to the presence of the KKLT sector. We also show that supergravity effects are negligible around the origin of the field space. Finally, we turn to the modulus sector and show that there is no destabilisation effect coming from the ISS sector.

  7. Dynamically sequestered F-term uplifting in extra dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hiroyuki; Higaki, Tetsutaro; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Omura, Yuji

    2008-01-01

    We study moduli stabilization, the dynamical supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking, the uplifting of SUSY anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacuum and the sequestering of hidden sector in a five-dimensional supergravity model, where all modes of the visible sector and the hidden sector are originated from bulk fields. We clarify couplings between the visible and hidden sectors. The expressions for the visible sector soft SUSY breaking terms as well as the hidden sector potential are shown explicitly in our model. The sequestering is achieved dynamically by a wavefunction localization in extra dimension. We find that the tree-level soft scalar mass and the A-term can be suppressed at a SUSY breaking Minkowski minimum where the radius modulus is stabilized, while gaugino masses would be a mirage type

  8. East Antarctic rifting triggers uplift of the Gamburtsev Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraccioli, F.; Finn, Carol A.; Jordan, Tom A.; Bell, Robin E.; Anderson, Lester M.; Damaske, Detlef

    2011-01-01

    The Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains are the least understood tectonic feature on Earth, because they are completely hidden beneath the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Their high elevation and youthful Alpine topography, combined with their location on the East Antarctic craton, creates a paradox that has puzzled researchers since the mountains were discovered in 1958. The preservation of Alpine topography in the Gamburtsevs may reflect extremely low long-term erosion rates beneath the ice sheet, but the mountains’ origin remains problematic. Here we present the first comprehensive view of the crustal architecture and uplift mechanisms for the Gamburtsevs, derived from radar, gravity and magnetic data. The geophysical data define a 2,500-km-long rift system in East Antarctica surrounding the Gamburtsevs, and a thick crustal root beneath the range. We propose that the root formed during the Proterozoic assembly of interior East Antarctica (possibly about 1 Gyr ago), was preserved as in some old orogens and was rejuvenated during much later Permian (roughly 250 Myr ago) and Cretaceous (roughly 100 Myr ago) rifting. Much like East Africa, the interior of East Antarctica is a mosaic of Precambrian provinces affected by rifting processes. Our models show that the combination of rift-flank uplift, root buoyancy and the isostatic response to fluvial and glacial erosion explains the high elevation and relief of the Gamburtsevs. The evolution of the Gamburtsevs demonstrates that rifting and preserved orogenic roots can produce broad regions of high topography in continental interiors without significantly modifying the underlying Precambrian lithosphere.

  9. Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (Andean-CL, uta) in Peru and Ecuador: the vector Lutzomyia sand flies and reservoir mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Gomez L, Eduardo A; Cáceres, Abraham G; Velez, Lenin N; Villegas, Nancy V; Hashiguchi, Kazue; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Kato, Hirotomo

    2018-02-01

    The vector Lutzomyia sand flies and reservoir host mammals of the Leishmania parasites, causing the Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (Andean-CL, uta) in Peru and Ecuador were thoroughly reviewed, performing a survey of literatures including our unpublished data. The Peruvian L. (V.) peruviana, a principal Leishmania species causing Andean-CL in Peru, possessed three Lutzomyia species, Lu. peruensis, Lu. verrucarum and Lu. ayacuchensis as vectors, while the Ecuadorian L. (L.) mexicana parasite possessed only one species Lu. ayacuchensis as the vector. Among these, the Ecuadorian showed a markedly higher rate of natural Leishmania infections. However, the monthly and diurnal biting activities were mostly similar among these vector species was in both countries, and the higher rates of infection (transmission) reported, corresponded to sand fly's higher monthly-activity season (rainy season). The Lu. tejadai sand fly participated as a vector of a hybrid parasite of L. (V.) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana in the Peruvian Andes. Dogs were considered to be principal reservoir hosts of the L. (V.) peruviana and L. (L.) mexicana parasites in both countries, followed by other sylvatic mammals such as Phyllotis andium, Didelphis albiventris and Akodon sp. in Peru, and Rattus rattus in Ecuador, but information on the reservoir hosts/mammals was extremely poor in both countries. Thus, the Peruvian disease form demonstrated more complicated transmission dynamics than the Ecuadorian. A brief review was also given to the control of vector and reservoirs in the Andes areas. Such information is crucial for future development of the control strategies of the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Can footwall unloading explain late Cenozoic uplift of the Sierra Nevada crest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, G.A.; Parsons, T.

    2009-01-01

    Globally, normal-fault displacement bends and warps rift flanks upwards, as adjoining basins drop downwards. Perhaps the most evident manifestations are the flanks of the East African Rift, which cuts across the otherwise minimally deformed continent. Flank uplift was explained by Vening Meinesz (1950, Institut Royal Colonial Belge, Bulletin des Seances, v. 21, p. 539-552), who recognized that isostasy should cause uplift of a normal-faulted footwall and subsidence of its hanging wall. Uplift occurs because slip on a dipping normal fault creates a broader root of less-dense material beneath the footwall, and a narrowed one beneath the hanging wall. In this paper, we investigate the potential influence of this process on the latest stages of Sierra Nevada uplift. Through theoretical calculations and 3D finite element modelling, we find that cumulative slip of about 4km on range-front faults would have produced about 1.3km peak isostatic uplift at the ridge crest. Numerical models suggest that the zone of uplift is narrow, with the width controlled by bending resistance of the seismogenic crust. We conclude that footwall unloading cannot account for the entire elevation of the Sierran crest above sea level, but if range-front faulting initiated in an already elevated plateau like the adjacent Basin and Range Province, then a hybrid model of pre-existing regional uplift and localized footwall unloading can account for the older and newer uplift phases suggested by the geologic record.

  11. Numerical modelling study on the flexural uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamasaki, T.; Miura, H.; Nogi, Y.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, based on a 2-D thermomechanical finite element model, the uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) is discussed in relation to the flexural uplift of a rheologically layered lithosphere, which is described by Vening-Meinesz's cantilever kinematics. The general model behaviour

  12. Spatial and temporal variation of tectonic uplift in the southeastern Ethiopian Plateau from morphotectonic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Liang; Alemu, Tadesse; Gani, Nahid D.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.

    2018-05-01

    We use morphotectonic analysis to study the tectonic uplift history of the southeastern Ethiopian Plateau (SEEP). Based on studies conducted on the Northwestern Ethiopian Plateau, steady-state and pulsed tectonic uplift models were proposed to explain the growth of the plateau since 30 Ma. We test these two models for the largely unknown SEEP. We present the first quantitative morphotectonic study of the SEEP. First, in order to infer the spatial distribution of the tectonic uplift rates, we extract geomorphic proxies including normalized steepness index ksn, hypsometric integral HI, and chi integral χ from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) digital elevation model (DEM). Second, we compare these rates with the thickness of flood basalt that we estimated from geological maps. Third, to constrain the timing of regional tectonic uplift, we develop a knickpoint celerity model. Fourth, we compare our results to those from the Northwestern Ethiopian Plateau to suggest a possible mechanism to explain regional tectonic uplift of the entire Ethiopian Plateau. We find an increase in tectonic uplift rates from the southeastern escarpments of the Afar Depression in the northeast to that of the Main Ethiopian Rift to the southwest. We identify three regional tectonic uplift events at 11.7, 6.5, and 4.5 Ma recorded by the development of regionally distributed knickpoints. This is in good agreement with ages of tectonic uplift events reported from the Northwestern Ethiopian Plateau.

  13. Modeling the uplift in the Ardennes-Rhenish Massif: Mechanical weakening under the Eifel?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Castellanos, D.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; van Balen, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    Middle Pleistocene uplift in the Eifel has been interpreted as the isostatic response of the lithosphere to a deep buoyant hot body. The spatial and temporal distribution of the uplift in the Ardennes-Rhenish Massif Region has recently been constrained by new data of river incision that have been

  14. Ratings uplifts and bank characteristics in the Eurozone 2002-2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores which characteristics define banks that are too-big-to-fail in the Eurozone over the period 2002-2011. These banks are identified through ratings uplift data from Moody’s. Higher ratings uplifts are associated with higher degrees of interest income and lower degrees of commission

  15. Climate change forces new ecological states in tropical Andean lakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Michelutti

    Full Text Available Air temperatures in the tropical Andes have risen at an accelerated rate relative to the global average over recent decades. However, the effects of climate change on Andean lakes, which are vital to sustaining regional biodiversity and serve as an important water resource to local populations, remain largely unknown. Here, we show that recent climate changes have forced alpine lakes of the equatorial Andes towards new ecological and physical states, in close synchrony to the rapid shrinkage of glaciers regionally. Using dated sediment cores from three lakes in the southern Sierra of Ecuador, we record abrupt increases in the planktonic thalassiosiroid diatom Discostella stelligera from trace abundances to dominance within the phytoplankton. This unprecedented shift occurs against the backdrop of rising temperatures, changing atmospheric pressure fields, and declining wind speeds. Ecological restructuring in these lakes is linked to warming and/or enhanced water column stratification. In contrast to seasonally ice-covered Arctic and temperate alpine counterparts, aquatic production has not increased universally with warming, and has even declined in some lakes, possibly because enhanced thermal stability impedes the re-circulation of hypolimnetic nutrients to surface waters. Our results demonstrate that these lakes have already passed important ecological thresholds, with potentially far-reaching consequences for Andean water resources.

  16. Andean rural children's views of the environment: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurial, Mahia

    Andean rural children's drawings and narratives about their crops and the immediate biological environment are rich tools to understand local views of the environment. Children's drawings and narratives were collected and linked to interviews as well as participant observation gathered from parents, leaders and teachers. The research sites are the community of Willca and the school of Mayu. Fieldwork was completed in 1998. In the conceptual framework I distinguish between two dissimilar knowledges, school knowledge and local knowledge. These knowledges produce two dissimilar views of the environment. I further analyze relationships of knowledge and power and argue that school knowledge overpowers local knowledge. Concomitantly, I studied set of ideas associated with two knowledges aforementioned: superacion (surpass) and regeneration (Apffel-Marglin 1995). Although these ideas coexist in peoples' minds they are not linked or effectively connected. In order to link local knowledge and school knowledge together, I propose the integration of environmental studies and art education to enhance a local sense of place (Blandy et. al 1993) in Andean and other schools. This will contribute to grassroots educational policy.

  17. The evolution of witchcraft and the meaning of healing in colonial Andean society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverblatt, I

    1983-12-01

    This paper explores the ways in which traditional beliefs of Andean peoples regarding health and sickness were transformed by the process of Spanish colonization. It also examines how the colonial context devolved new meanings and powers on native curers. The analysis of these transformations in Andean systems of meanings and role structures relating to healing depends on an examination of the European witchcraze of the 16th-17th centuries. The Spanish conquest of the Inca empire in the mid-1500's coincided with the European witch hunts; it is argued that the latter formed the cultural lens through which the Spanish evaluated native religion--the matrix through which Andean concepts of disease and health were expressed--as well as native curers. Andean religion was condemned as heresy and curers were condemned as witches. Traditional Andean cosmology was antithetical to 16th century European beliefs in the struggle between god and the devil, between loyal Christians and the Satan's followers. Consequently, European concepts of disease and health based on the power of witches, Satan's adherents, to cause harm and cure were alien to pre-Columbian Andean thought. Ironically European concepts of Satan and the supposed powers of witches began to graft themselves onto the world view of Andean peoples. The ensuing dialectic of ideas as well as the creation of new healers/witches forged during the imposition of colonial rule form the crux of this analysis.

  18. Continuous uplift near the seaward edge of the Prince William Sound megathrust: Middleton Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, James C.; Plafker, George; Svarc, Jerry L.; Lisowski, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Middleton Island, located at the seaward edge of the continental shelf 50 km from the base of the inner wall of the Aleutian Trench, affords an opportunity to make land-based measurements of uplift near the toe of the Prince William Sound megathrust, site of the 1964, M = 9.2, Alaska earthquake. Leveling surveys (1973–1993) on Middleton Island indicate roughly uniform tilting (~1 µrad/a down to the northwest) of the island, and GPS surveys (1993–2012) show an uplift rate of 14 mm/a of the island relative to fixed North America. The data are consistent with a combined (coseismic and postseismic) uplift (in meters) due to the 1964 earthquake as a function of time τ (years after the earthquake) u(τ) = (3.5 + 1.21 log10 [1 + 1.67 τ]) H(τ) where 3.5 is the coseismic uplift and H(τ) is 0 for τ < 0 and 1 otherwise. The current uplift on Middleton Island is attributed to continuous slip on a fault splaying off from the megathrust, and the long-term uplift is the superposition of the effects of past earthquakes, each earthquake being similar to the 1964 event. Then, the predicted uplift at time t due to a sequence of earthquakes at times tiwould be . From studies of strandlines associated with the uplifted terraces on Middleton Island, Plafker et al. (1992) estimated the occurrence times of the last six earthquakes and measured the present-day elevations of those strandlines. The predicted uplift is in rough agreement with those measurements. About half of the predicted uplift is due to postseismic relaxation from previous earthquakes.

  19. Quantification of Net Erosion and Uplift Experienced by the Barmer Basin, Rajasthan Using Sonic Log

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, K.; Schulz, S.; Sarkar, A.

    2015-12-01

    Barmer Basin of Rajasthan, Western India is a hydrocarbon rich sedimentary basin currently being explored by Cairn India Limited. The hydrocarbon bearing Fatehgarh Formation is being found at different depths in different oil fields (e.g. From south to north: Guda, Vijaya & Vandana, Air field High) of the basin. The net uplift and erosion in the Barmer Basin has been quantified using compaction methodology. The sonic log, which is strongly controlled by porosity, is an appropriate indicator of compaction, and hence used for quantification of net uplift and erosion from compaction. The compaction methodology has been applied to the shale rich Dharvi Dungar Formation of Barmer Basin of Late Paleocene age. The net uplift and erosion is also being checked with the help of AFTA-VR and seismic sections. The results show relatively no uplift in the southernmost part of the basin and a Guda field well is thus taken to be the reference well with respect to which the uplifts in different parts of the basin have been calculated. The northern part of the basin i.e. Air Field High wells experienced maximum uplift (~2150m). Interestingly, a few wells further south of the reference well show evidence for uplift. The study was able to point out errors in the report produced with the help of AFTA-VR which found out less uplift in Vijaya & Vandana oil fields as opposed to sonic log data. The process of finding out uplift using sonic log has a standard deviation of 200m as compared to about 500m error in AFTA-VR method. This study has major implications for hydrocarbon exploration. Maturation of source rock will be higher for any given geothermal history if net uplift and erosion is incorporated in maturation modeling. They can also be used for porosity predictions of reservoir units in undrilled targets.

  20. The effects of subduction termination on the continental lithosphere: Linking volcanism, deformation, surface uplift, and slab tearing in central Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delph, Jonathan R.; Abgarmi, Bijan; Ward, Kevin M.; Beck, Susan L.; Arda Ozacar, A.; Zandt, George; Sandvol, Eric; Turkelli, Niyazi; Kalafat, Dogan

    2017-04-01

    The lithospheric evolution of Anatolia is largely defined by processes associated with the terminal stages of subduction along its southern margin. Central Anatolia represents the transition from the subduction of oceanic lithosphere at the Aegean trench in the west to the Arabian - Eurasian continental collision in the east. In the overriding plate, this complicated transition is contemporaneous with uplift along the southern margin of central Anatolia (2 km in 6 Myr), voluminous felsic-intermediate ignimbrite eruptions (>1000 km3), extension, and tectonic deformation reflected by abundant low-magnitude seismic activity. The addition of 72 seismic stations as part of the Continental Dynamics - Central Anatolian Tectonics project, along with development of a new approach to the joint inversion of receiver functions and dispersion data, enables us obtain a high-resolution 3D shear wave velocity model of central Anatolia down to 150 km. This new velocity model has important implications for the complex interactions between the downgoing, segmenting African lithosphere and the overriding Anatolian Plate. These results reveal that the lithosphere of central Anatolia and the northern Arabian Plate is thin (4.5 km/s), indicating the presence of the Cyprean slab beneath central Anatolia. Thus, uplift of the Central Taurus Mountains may be due to slab rebound after the detachment of the oceanic portion of the Cyprean slab beneath Anatolia rather than the presence of shallow asthenospheric material. These fast velocities extend to the northern margin of the Central Taurus Mountains, giving way to a NE-SW trend of very slow upper mantle shear wave velocities (interpreted to be shallow, warm asthenosphere in which melt is present. The combination of a shallow asthenosphere and lithospheric-scale weaknesses associated with relict tectonic structures formed during the assembly of Anatolia are responsible for the spatial distribution of volcanism in the Central Anatolian

  1. The Quaternary uplift history of central southern England: evidence from the terraces of the Solent River system and nearby raised beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaway, Rob; Bridgland, David; White, Mark

    2006-09-01

    We have used fluvial (Solent River system) and marine terraces to reconstruct the uplift history of central southern England. In the case of the former, we make the assumption that fluvial incision has been a direct response to surface uplift, with its precise timing controlled by climatic forcing of fluvial activity, such that height of terrace gravel above modern river is a consequence of uplift since deposition. In the case of the marine sequence, we take the height of interglacial raised beaches above a calculated contemporaneous sea-level as a measure of uplift, the calculation involving an adjustment from modern sea-level using the deep oceanic oxygen isotope signal as an indication of global ice volume at the time of deposition. This exercise requires some degree of dating constraint, which is problematic for both environments. The Solent terraces have yielded little biostratigraphical evidence, whereas the south coast raised beaches have either been poorly exposed in recent years or their ages have been controversial because of disputes between biostratigraphy and geochronological data. We have supplemented the evidence available from these sources by using key aspects of the archaeological record as dating constraints, in particular the first appearances of Levallois technique (a marker for MIS 9-8) and of bout coupé handaxes (MIS 3). The first of these has been particularly useful in modelling of the Middle Pleistocene parts of the river terrace staircases of the Solent system. In undertaking this reappraisal, we have noted several inconsistencies and disagreements between past correlation schemes for the terraces of the Solent and its various tributaries. We find that versions involving shallower downstream gradients in the main Solent River are most likely to be correct and that revisions on this basis solve a number of problems in interpretation encountered previously. Our results show that most of this region has uplifted by ˜70 m since the late

  2. Regional polyphase deformation of the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas (Argentina Andean foreland): strengths and weaknesses of paleostress inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traforti, Anna; Zampieri, Dario; Massironi, Matteo; Viola, Giulio; Alvarado, Patricia; Di Toro, Giulio

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern Sierras Pampeanas of central Argentina are composed of a series of basement-cored ranges, located in the Andean foreland c. 600 km east of the Andean Cordillera. Although uplift of the ranges is partly attributed to the regional Neogene evolution (Ramos et al. 2002), many questions remain as to the timing and style of deformation. In fact, the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas show compelling evidence of a long lasting brittle history (spanning the Early Carboniferous to Present time), characterised by several deformation events reflecting different tectonic regimes. Each deformation phase resulted in further strain increments accommodated by reactivation of inherited structures and rheological anisotropies (Martino 2003). In the framework of such a polyphase brittle tectonic evolution affecting highly anisotropic basement rocks, the application of paleostress inversion methods, though powerful, suffers from some shortcomings, such as the likely heterogeneous character of fault slip datasets and the possible reactivation of even highly misoriented structures, and thus requires careful analysis. The challenge is to gather sufficient fault-slip data, to develop a proper understanding of the regional evolution. This is done by the identification of internally consistent fault and fracture subsets (associated to distinct stress states on the basis of their geometric and kinematic compatibility) in order to generate a chronologically-constrained evolutionary conceptual model. Based on large fault-slip datasets collected in the Sierras de Cordoba (Eastern Sierras Pampeanas), reduced stress tensors have been generated and interpreted as part of an evolutionary model by considering the obtained results against: (i) existing K-Ar illite ages of fault gouges in the study area (Bense et al. 2013), (ii) the nature and orientation of pre-existing anisotropies and (iii) the present-day stress field due to the convergence of the Nazca and South America plates (main shortening

  3. Ocean Acidification | Smithsonian Ocean Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural History Blog For Educators At The Museum Media Archive Ocean Life & Ecosystems Mammals Sharks Mangroves Poles Census of Marine Life Planet Ocean Tides & Currents Waves & Storms The Seafloor ocean is affected. Such a relatively quick change in ocean chemistry doesn't give marine life, which

  4. Genetic, cytogenetic and morphological trends in the evolution of the Rhodnius (Triatominae: Rhodniini) trans-Andean group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Sebastián; Panzera, Francisco; Jaramillo-O, Nicolás; Pérez, Ruben; Fernández, Rosina; Vallejo, Gustavo; Saldaña, Azael; Calzada, Jose E; Triana, Omar; Gómez-Palacio, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    The Rhodnius Pacific group is composed of three species: Rhodnius pallescens, R. colombiensis and R. ecuadoriensis, which are considered important vectors of trypanosomes (Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli) infecting humans. This group is considered as a recent trans-Andean lineage derived from the widespread distributed sister taxa R. pictipes during the later uplift of northern Andes mountain range. The widest spread species R. pallescens may be a complex of two divergent lineages with different chromosomal attributes and a particular biogeographical distribution across Central America and Colombia with several southern populations in Colombia occupying the same sylvatic habitat as its sister species R. colombiensis. Although the taxonomy of Rhodnius Pacific group has been well studied, the unresolved phylogenetic and systematic issues are the target of this paper. Here we explore the molecular phylogeography of this species group analyzing two mitochondrial (ND4 and cyt b) and one nuclear (D2 region of ribosomal 28S gene) gene sequences. The molecular analyses suggest an early divergence of the species R. ecuadoriensis and R. colombiensis, followed by a recent expansion of R. pallescens lineages. The phylogenetic relationship between sympatric R. pallescens Colombian lineage and R. colombiensis was further explored using wing morphometry, DNA genome size measurements, and by analyzing chromosomal behavior of hybrids progeny obtained from experimental crosses. Our results suggest that the diversification of the two R. pallescens lineages was mainly influenced by biogeographical events such as (i) the emergence of the Panama Isthmus, while the origin and divergence of R. colombiensis was associated with (ii) the development of particular genetic and chromosomal features that act as isolation mechanisms from its sister species R. pallescens (Colombian lineage). These findings provide new insights into the evolution of the Rhodnius Pacific group and the underlying

  5. Internal circle uplifts, transversality and stratified G-structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babalic, Elena Mirela [Department of Theoretical Physics, National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering,Str. Reactorului no.30, P.O.BOX MG-6, Postcode 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Department of Physics, University of Craiova,13 Al. I. Cuza Str., Craiova 200585 (Romania); Lazaroiu, Calin Iuliu [Center for Geometry and Physics, Institute for Basic Science,Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-24

    We study stratified G-structures in N=2 compactifications of M-theory on eight-manifolds M using the uplift to the auxiliary nine-manifold M̂=M×S{sup 1}. We show that the cosmooth generalized distribution D̂ on M̂ which arises in this formalism may have pointwise transverse or non-transverse intersection with the pull-back of the tangent bundle of M, a fact which is responsible for the subtle relation between the spinor stabilizers arising on M and M̂ and for the complicated stratified G-structure on M which we uncovered in previous work. We give a direct explanation of the latter in terms of the former and relate explicitly the defining forms of the SU(2) structure which exists on the generic locus U of M to the defining forms of the SU(3) structure which exists on an open subset Û of M̂, thus providing a dictionary between the eight- and nine-dimensional formalisms.

  6. Do hassles and uplifts change with age? Longitudinal findings from the VA normative aging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldwin, Carolyn M; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Igarashi, Heidi; Spiro, Avron

    2014-03-01

    To examine emotion regulation in later life, we contrasted the modified hedonic treadmill theory with developmental theories, using hassles and uplifts to assess emotion regulation in context. The sample was 1,315 men from the VA Normative Aging Study aged 53 to 85 years, who completed 3,894 observations between 1989 and 2004. We computed 3 scores for both hassles and uplifts: intensity (ratings reflecting appraisal processes), exposure (count), and summary (total) scores. Growth curves over age showed marked differences in trajectory patterns for intensity and exposure scores. Although exposure to hassles and uplifts decreased in later life, intensity scores increased. Group-based modeling showed individual differences in patterns of hassles and uplifts intensity and exposure, with relative stability in uplifts intensity, normative nonlinear changes in hassles intensity, and complex patterns of individual differences in exposure for both hassles and uplifts. Analyses with the summary scores showed that emotion regulation in later life is a function of both developmental change and contextual exposure, with different patterns emerging for hassles and uplifts. Thus, support was found for both hedonic treadmill and developmental change theories, reflecting different aspects of emotion regulation in late life. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Continuous uplift near the seaward edge of the Prince William Sound megathrust: Middleton Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, J. C.; Plafker, G.; Svarc, J. L.; Lisowski, M.

    2014-07-01

    Middleton Island, located at the seaward edge of the continental shelf 50 km from the base of the inner wall of the Aleutian Trench, affords an opportunity to make land-based measurements of uplift near the toe of the Prince William Sound megathrust, site of the 1964, M = 9.2, Alaska earthquake. Leveling surveys (1973-1993) on Middleton Island indicate roughly uniform tilting ( 1 µrad/a down to the northwest) of the island, and GPS surveys (1993-2012) show an uplift rate of 14 mm/a of the island relative to fixed North America. The data are consistent with a combined (coseismic and postseismic) uplift (in meters) due to the 1964 earthquake as a function of time τ (years after the earthquake) u(τ) = (3.5 + 1.21 log10 [1 + 1.67 τ]) H(τ) where 3.5 is the coseismic uplift and H(τ) is 0 for τ ∑iut-ti. From studies of strandlines associated with the uplifted terraces on Middleton Island, Plafker et al. (1992) estimated the occurrence times of the last six earthquakes and measured the present-day elevations of those strandlines. The predicted uplift is in rough agreement with those measurements. About half of the predicted uplift is due to postseismic relaxation from previous earthquakes.

  8. Regional cenozoic uplift and subsidence events in the southeastern North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordt, H.

    1995-12-31

    The Paleocene topography of the Fennoscandian Shield is indicated by outbuilding towards the Central Trough and the Ringkoebing-Fyn High. From Eocene until Pliocene time three events of relative vertical movements are indicated by changes in outbuilding directions and reflection termination patterns in the central North Sea. The firs event of uplift was in the Eocene and resulted in relative uplift of the Mid North Sea High and contemporary subsidence east of it, indicated by a change in outbuilding from north to west. A second event of uplift is indicated to the north of the study area at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary by renewed southward outbuilding in the Norwegian-Danish Basin. In Miocene until Early Pliocene time a relatively stationary, almost east-west striking, basin margin was probably located to the north along the Tornquist Zone as indicated by the continued outbuilding towards the Ringkoebing-Fyn High. A third event of relative uplift is indicated east of the study area by changes in the Pliocene outbuilding pattern. After the first event of uplift it appears that the deepest parts of the Eocene North Sea Basin was located more easterly than the deepest part are today. Apparently the two latest uplift events north and east of the study area were related to movements of, or along the Tornquist Zone or to regional uplift of the Fennoscandian Shield finally resulting in the present-day configuration of the North Sea. (au) 11 refs.

  9. Continent-Ocean Interactions Within East Asian Marginal Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clift, Peter; Kuhnt, Wolfgang; Wang, Pinxian; Hayes, Dennis

    The study of the complex interactions between continents and oceans has become a leading area for 21st century earth cience. In this volume, continent—ocean interactions in tectonics, arc-continent collision, sedimentology, and climatic volution within the East Asian Marginal Seas take precedence. Links between oceanic and continental climate, the sedimentology of coastal and shelf areas, and the links between deformation of continental and oceanic lithosphere are also discussed. As an introduction to the science presented throughout the volume, Wang discusses many of the possible interactions between the tectonic evolution of Asia and both regional and global climate. He speculates that uplift of central Asia in the Pliocene may have triggered the formation of many of the major rivers that drain north through Siberia into the Arctic Ocean. He also argues that it is the delivery of this fresh water that allows the formation of sea ice in that area and triggered the start of Northern Hemispheric glaciation. This may be one of the most dramatic ways in which Asia has shaped the Earth's climate and represents an alternative to the other competing models that have previously emphasized the role of oceanic gateway closure in Central America. Moreover, his proposal for major uplift of at least part of Tibet and Mongolia as late as the Pliocene, based on the history of drainage evolution in Siberia, supports recent data from the southern Tarim Basin and from the Qilian Shan and Qaidam and Jiuxi Basins in northeast Tibet that indicate surface uplift at that time. Constraining the timing and patterns of Tibetan surface uplift is crucial to testing competing models for strain accommodation in Asia following India—Asia collision.

  10. A new minute Andean Pristimantis (Anura: Strabomantidae from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César L. Barrio-Amorós

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Pristimantis is described from the Venezuelan Andes. The new species is the smallest in its genus known in Venezuela and belongs to the Pristimantis unistrigatus Group. It differs from the rest of Venezuelan Andean congeners in body size (mean male SVL < 21.3 mm, female SVL < 26.3 mm, expanded discs on fingers and toes, absence of dorsolateral folds, and a distinctivecall consisting in 2–5 cricket-like short notes. The new species inhabits the southwestern part of the Cordillera de Mérida in Venezuela and the Venezuelan side of the Cordillera Oriental deColombia, and could be present on the Colombian portion of the cordillera as well.

  11. Biodegradability and mechanical properties of starch films from Andean crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, F G; Troncoso, O P; Torres, C; Díaz, D A; Amaya, E

    2011-05-01

    Different Andean crops were used to obtain starches not previously reported in literature as raw material for the production of biodegradable polymers. The twelve starches obtained were used to prepare biodegradable films by casting. Water and glycerol were used as plasticizers. The mechanical properties of the starch based films were assessed by means of tensile tests. Compost tests and FTIR tests were carried out to assess biodegradability of films. The results show that the mechanical properties (UTS, Young's modulus and elongation at break) of starch based films strongly depend on the starch source used for their production. We found that all the starch films prepared biodegrade following a three stage process and that the weight loss rate of all the starch based films tested was higher than the weight loss rate of the cellulose film used as control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Bioactive Potential of Andean Fruits, Seeds, and Tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, David; Chirinos, Rosana; Gálvez Ranilla, Lena; Pedreschi, Romina

    2018-01-01

    The Andes is considered the longest continental mountain range in the world. It covers 7000km long and about 200-700km wide and an average height of about 4000m. Very unique plant species are endemic of this area including fruits (e.g., lucuma, cherimoya, sweet pepino, sauco), roots and tubers (potatoes, sweet potatoes, yacón, chicuru, mashua, olluco, etc.), and seeds (quinoa, amaranth, tarwi, etc.). These crops have been used for centuries by the native population and relatively recently have gained the world attention due to the wide range of nutrients and/or phytochemicals they possess. In this chapter, main Andean fruits, seeds, and roots and tubers have been selected and detailed nutritional and functional information is provided. In addition, traditional and current uses are provided and their bioactive potential is reported based on published scientific literature. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Centrifuge Testing and Seismic Response Analysis for Uplift Behavior of Spread Foundation Structures on Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Suzuki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The uplift behavior of structures subjected to severe seismic motion has not been clarified. This paper presents experimental and analytical studies conducted for clarifying this problem of spread foundation structures on rock. First, centrifugal loading tests are conducted to determine the uplift behavior of these structures, and the uplift behavior of these structures is confirmed. Then, simulation analyses are performed using a three-dimensional FE model and the accuracy of these analyses is confirmed. A comparison between test and analyses results clarified the important analytical conditions required for maintaining analysis precision and the limit of analysis precision.

  14. Elastic uplift in southeast Greenland due to rapid ice mass loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Van dam, Tonie; Hamilton, Gordon S.

    2007-01-01

    The rapid unloading of ice from the southeastern sector of the Greenland ice sheet between 2001 and 2006 caused an elastic uplift of 35 mm at a GPS site in Kulusuk. Most of the uplift results from ice dynamic-induced volume losses on two nearby outlet glaciers. Volume loss from Helheim Glacier...... between 62N and 66N. Citation: Khan, S. A., J. Wahr, L. A. Stearns, G. S. Hamilton, T. van Dam, K. M. Larson, and O. Francis (2007), Elastic uplift in southeast Greenland due to rapid ice mass loss....

  15. [Elaboration and evaluation of infant food based on Andean crops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repo-Carrasco, R; Hoyos, N L

    1993-06-01

    The Andes mountain range of South America is one of the most important centres for crop domestication, potato, corn, and lesser known grains such as quinua, cañihua, kiwicha and tarwi are indigenous of these highlands. These Andean grains have adapted perfectly to the climatic and geographical conditions present, whereas other grains have not been able to survive. In addition to their hardiness, they also have a high nutritional value. Bearing in mind on one hand, the high nutritional value of these indegenous products, and on the other hand the high rate of child malnutrition prevalent in the population, it was considered important to look for new variations in their processing which would facilitate their consumption by the poor working classes, especially the children. Accordingly three different flour mixtures were developed based on these Andean grains, the mixtures were then subjected to bromatological and biological analysis. The three new flour mixtures were: Quinua-Cañihua-Broad Bean (Q-C-B), Quinua-Kiwicha-Bean (Q-K-B) and Kiwicha-Rice (K-R). The protein content of these mixtures varied between 11.35-15.46 g/100g, the mixture K-R having the lowest protein level and the Q-C-B having the highest. The Q-K-B mixture had the highest chemical score, PER and NPU value. This PER value of 2.59 was higher than the value of casein which was 2.50. In addition this mixture had a chemical score of 0.94 and a NPU value of 59.38. The Q-C-B mixture had a chemical score of 0.88 and its PER, NPU and Digestibility values were 2.36, 47.24 and 79.2 respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Genetic diversity of Phytophthora infestans in the Northern Andean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Martha; Grajales, Alejandro; Sierra, Roberto; Rojas, Alejandro; González-Almario, Adriana; Vargas, Angela; Marín, Mauricio; Fermín, Gustavo; Lagos, Luz E; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Bernal, Adriana; Salazar, Camilo; Restrepo, Silvia

    2011-02-09

    Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, the causal agent of potato late blight, is responsible for tremendous crop losses worldwide. Countries in the northern part of the Andes dedicate a large proportion of the highlands to the production of potato, and more recently, solanaceous fruits such as cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) and tree tomato (Solanum betaceum), all of which are hosts of this oomycete. In the Andean region, P. infestans populations have been well characterized in Ecuador and Peru, but are poorly understood in Colombia and Venezuela. To understand the P. infestans population structure in the Northern part of the Andes, four nuclear regions (ITS, Ras, β-tubulin and Avr3a) and one mitochondrial (Cox1) region were analyzed in isolates of P. infestans sampled from different hosts in Colombia and Venezuela. Low genetic diversity was found within this sample of P. infestans isolates from crops within several regions of Colombia and Venezuela, revealing the presence of clonal populations of the pathogen in this region. We detected low frequency heterozygotes, and their distribution patterns might be a consequence of a high migration rate among populations with poor effective gene flow. Consistent genetic differentiation exists among isolates from different regions. The results here suggest that in the Northern Andean region P. infestans is a clonal population with some within-clone variation. P. infestans populations in Venezuela reflect historic isolation that is being reinforced by a recent self-sufficiency of potato seeds. In summary, the P. infestans population is mainly shaped by migration and probably by the appearance of variants of key effectors such as Avr3a.

  17. Genetic diversity of Phytophthora infestans in the Northern Andean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grünwald Niklaus J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary, the causal agent of potato late blight, is responsible for tremendous crop losses worldwide. Countries in the northern part of the Andes dedicate a large proportion of the highlands to the production of potato, and more recently, solanaceous fruits such as cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana and tree tomato (Solanum betaceum, all of which are hosts of this oomycete. In the Andean region, P. infestans populations have been well characterized in Ecuador and Peru, but are poorly understood in Colombia and Venezuela. To understand the P. infestans population structure in the Northern part of the Andes, four nuclear regions (ITS, Ras, β-tubulin and Avr3a and one mitochondrial (Cox1 region were analyzed in isolates of P. infestans sampled from different hosts in Colombia and Venezuela. Results Low genetic diversity was found within this sample of P. infestans isolates from crops within several regions of Colombia and Venezuela, revealing the presence of clonal populations of the pathogen in this region. We detected low frequency heterozygotes, and their distribution patterns might be a consequence of a high migration rate among populations with poor effective gene flow. Consistent genetic differentiation exists among isolates from different regions. Conclusions The results here suggest that in the Northern Andean region P. infestans is a clonal population with some within-clone variation. P. infestans populations in Venezuela reflect historic isolation that is being reinforced by a recent self-sufficiency of potato seeds. In summary, the P. infestans population is mainly shaped by migration and probably by the appearance of variants of key effectors such as Avr3a.

  18. From Dearth to El Dorado: Andean Nature, Plate Tectonics, and the Ontologies of Ecuadorian Resource Wealth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kneas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, the Ecuadorian government has pledged to convert the nation into a “mining country” of global standing. Contemporary claims of mineral wealth, however, stand in stark contrast to previous assessments. Indeed, through much of the 20th century, geologists described Ecuador as a country of mineral dearth. Exploring the process through which Ecuador seemingly transitioned from a nation of resource scarcity to one of mineral plenty, I demonstrate how assessments of Ecuador’s resource potential relate to ideas of Andean nature. Promoters of resource abundance have emphasized Andean uniformity and equivalence—the notion that Ecuador’s mineral wealth is inevitable by virtue of the resource richness of its Andean neighbors. Geologists who have questioned Ecuador’s mineral content, on the other hand, have emphasized Andean heterogeneity. In the recent promotion of Ecuador’s resource potential, notions of Andean uniformity have been bolstered by models of subsoil copper that emerged in the in 1970s in the context of plate-tectonic theory. In highlighting the linkage between ideas of Andean nature and appraisals of Ecuadorian resource potential since the late 19th century, I outline the dialectics between nature and natural resources that underpin processes of resource becoming.

  19. Bee pollen as non-wood forest product in the eastern Andean highlands of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín José Chamorro García

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Andean forests of the Eastern Andean high-lands of Colombia have a high conservation priority given the vulnerable condition of species such as Quercus humboldtii (Fagaceae that inhabit these ecosystems. Beekeeping is regarded as an alternative activity that could play a role in the conservation of Andean forests, but little is known about how the floras of these ecosystems contribute to honey and bee pollen production. We analyzed the contribution of Andean forests to bee pollen production, given the productive potential and commercial importance of this product. Pollen analyses were performed on 25 samples from apiaries near Andean forests located in the states of Cundinamarca, Boyacá and Santander. We found that Q. humboldtii is an important source of pollen with high potential for monofloral bee pollen production. In addition, bees collect pollen from other Andean forests species such as Weinmannia tomentosa, Viburnum spp. and Morella spp. Utilization of bee pollen could lead to incentives to carry out forest conservation practices through beekeeping management.

  20. Wind uplift of radioactive dust from the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhon'ko, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    Near nuclear power plants the recontamination of the atmosphere near the ground becomes dangerous, if a radioactive zone has formed at the site. Wind can easily carry toxic dust from the polluted territory of neighboring industrial enterprises. Moreover, wind erosion of the soil during the summer or transport of radioactive snow by a snowstorm during the winter can displace the boundaries of the contaminated radioactive zone. In Russia the investigation of wind pickup of radioactive dust from the ground began after a radiation accident occurred at a storage facility in the Southern Urals in 1957, as a result of which a contaminated zone formed in the area. Since the direct mechanism of detachment of dust particles from the ground is not important in studying the results of the raising of radioactive dust into the atmosphere by wind, the authors do not distinguish between wind pickup and wind erosion, and the entire process wind pickup of radioactivity from the ground. After the radiation accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant a new generation of investigators began to study wind pickup of radioactive dust from the ground, and the process under consideration was sometimes referred to as wind uplift. The intensity of the process of wind pickup of radioactive dust from the ground is characterized by the wind pickup coefficient α, which is the coefficient of proportionality between the upward flux Q of radioactivity from the ground and the density A of radioactive contamination of the ground: α = Q/A. Physically, the coefficient α is the upward flux of the impurity from the ground with unit contamination density, i.e., the intensity of dust contamination or the fraction of radioactivity picked up by the wind from the ground per unit time. The greatest difficulty in determining α experimentally under dusty conditions is measuring correctly the upward radioactivity flux Q. The author discusses three methods for determining this quantity

  1. Ocean tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendershott, M. C.

    1975-01-01

    A review of recent developments in the study of ocean tides and related phenomena is presented. Topics briefly discussed include: the mechanism by which tidal dissipation occurs; continental shelf, marginal sea, and baroclinic tides; estimation of the amount of energy stored in the tide; the distribution of energy over the ocean; the resonant frequencies and Q factors of oceanic normal modes; the relationship of earth tides and ocean tides; and numerical global tidal models.

  2. Uplifting behavior of shallow buried pipe in liquefiable soil by dynamic centrifuge test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; Liu, Jingwen; Lin, Peng; Ling, Daosheng

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines are widely applied in the so-called lifeline engineerings. It shows according to seismic surveys that the damage from soil liquefaction to underground pipelines was the most serious, whose failures were mainly in the form of pipeline uplifting. In the present study, dynamic centrifuge model tests were conducted to study the uplifting behaviors of shallow-buried pipeline subjected to seismic vibration in liquefied sites. The uplifting mechanism was discussed through the responses of the pore water pressure and earth pressure around the pipeline. Additionally, the analysis of force, which the pipeline was subjected to before and during vibration, was introduced and proved to be reasonable by the comparison of the measured and the calculated results. The uplifting behavior of pipe is the combination effects of multiple forces, and is highly dependent on the excess pore pressure.

  3. Abrupt uplift within the past 1700 years at Southern Puget Sound, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucknam, R.C.; Hemphill-Haley, E.; Leopold, E.B.

    1992-01-01

    Shorelines rose as much as 7 meters along southern Puget Sound and Hood Canal between 500 and 1700 years ago. Evidence for this uplift consists of elevated wave-cut shore platforms near Seattle and emerged, peat-covered tidal flats as much as 60 kilometers to the southwest. The uplift was too rapid for waves to leave intermediate shorelines on even the best preserved platform. The tidal flats also emerged abruptly; they changed into freshwater swamps and meadows without first becoming tidal marshes. Where uplift was greatest, it adjoined an inferred fault that crosses Puget Sound at Seattle and it probably accompanied reverse slip on that fault 1000 to 1100 years ago. The uplift and probable fault slip show that the crust of the North America plate contains potential sources of damaging earthquakes in the Puget Sound region.

  4. Uplifting Behavior of Shallow Buried Pipe in Liquefiable Soil by Dynamic Centrifuge Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground pipelines are widely applied in the so-called lifeline engineerings. It shows according to seismic surveys that the damage from soil liquefaction to underground pipelines was the most serious, whose failures were mainly in the form of pipeline uplifting. In the present study, dynamic centrifuge model tests were conducted to study the uplifting behaviors of shallow-buried pipeline subjected to seismic vibration in liquefied sites. The uplifting mechanism was discussed through the responses of the pore water pressure and earth pressure around the pipeline. Additionally, the analysis of force, which the pipeline was subjected to before and during vibration, was introduced and proved to be reasonable by the comparison of the measured and the calculated results. The uplifting behavior of pipe is the combination effects of multiple forces, and is highly dependent on the excess pore pressure.

  5. Uplifting Behavior of Shallow Buried Pipe in Liquefiable Soil by Dynamic Centrifuge Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingwen; Ling, Daosheng

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines are widely applied in the so-called lifeline engineerings. It shows according to seismic surveys that the damage from soil liquefaction to underground pipelines was the most serious, whose failures were mainly in the form of pipeline uplifting. In the present study, dynamic centrifuge model tests were conducted to study the uplifting behaviors of shallow-buried pipeline subjected to seismic vibration in liquefied sites. The uplifting mechanism was discussed through the responses of the pore water pressure and earth pressure around the pipeline. Additionally, the analysis of force, which the pipeline was subjected to before and during vibration, was introduced and proved to be reasonable by the comparison of the measured and the calculated results. The uplifting behavior of pipe is the combination effects of multiple forces, and is highly dependent on the excess pore pressure. PMID:25121140

  6. A late Eocene palynological record of climate change and Tibetan Plateau uplift (Xining Basin, China)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, C.; Straathof, J.; Abels, H.A.; Xu, Y.; Utescher, T.; Dupont-Nivet, G.

    2012-01-01

    Climate models suggest that Asian paleoenvironments, monsoons and continental aridification were primarily governed by tectonic uplift and sea retreat since the Eocene with potential contribution of global climate changes. However, the cause and timing of these paleoenvironmental changes remain

  7. Segmented Coastal Uplift Along an Erosional Subduction Margin, Northern Hikurangi Fore Arc, North Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J. S.; Litchfield, N. J.; Berryman, K. R.; Clark, K.; Cochran, U. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Hikurangi subduction margin along North Island, New Zealand accommodates oblique convergence of the Pacific plate westward beneath the Australian plate at 45 mm/yr. Along the southern margin, frontal accretion and pronounced forearc uplift occur inboard of the subducting Hikurangi plateau. In the north, subduction erosion and segmented uplift occur inboard of subducting seamounts along the plateau flank. Prior workers have established a robust foundation for coastal terrace studies along the northern Hikurangi margin (e.g., Berryman et al., 1989; Ota et al., 1992; Berryman, 1993; Wilson et al., 2006, 2007; Clark et al., 2010; Litchfield et al, 2007, 2010). New field observations presented here provide additional constraints on terrace uplift along this erosional subduction margin. Along Raukumara Peninsula (north of Poverty Bay), multiple Holocene to late Pleistocene marine and fluvial terraces occur at varying elevations, recording differential uplift across six coastal segments from Gisborne to East Cape (Ota et al., 1992; Wilson et al., 2007). In this study, two to three late Pleistocene terraces were observed on rocky headlands within the first segment (Gisborne to Whangara) at elevations of 80-185 m above msl. Preliminary correlation with OIS 5a-e sea level high stands (80-125 ka) indicates net uplift at 1.2-1.5 m/ky. Uplifted Holocene wavecut platforms occur in steps along the seaward edge of these terraces, consistent with coseismic uplift. At Makorori Point, an uplifted bench occurs along the modern seacliff at 2.3 m above the cliff base. A fossil gastropod shell from paleo-beach gravels on the platform inner edge yielded a calibrated radiocarbon age of 1680 ×110 ybp. At Turihaua Point, a ≥1 m thick deposit of Holocene beach sands overlies an uplifted wavecut platform at ≥1.5 m above mean sea level. Carbonate-cemented beachrock at the base of the sand deposit yields a calibrated radiocarbon age of 2990 ×70 ybp. At Mahia Peninsula (between Poverty

  8. Greenland uplift and regional sea level changes from ICESat observations and GIA modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spada, G.; Ruggieri, G.; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg

    2012-01-01

    ‐resolution GrIS mass balance, we study the time‐variations of various geophysical quantities in response to the current mass loss. They include vertical uplift and subsidence, geoid height variations, global patterns of sea level change (or fingerprints), and regional sea level variations along the coasts...... of Greenland. Long‐wavelength uplifts and gravity variations in response to current or past ice thickness variations are obtained solving the sea level equation, which accounts for both the elastic and the viscoelastic components of deformation. To capture the short‐wavelength components of vertical uplift...... in response to current ice mass loss, which is not resolved by satellite gravity observations, we have specifically developed a high‐resolution regional elastic rebound (ER) model. The elastic component of vertical uplift is combined with estimates of the viscoelastic displacement fields associated...

  9. GPS Imaging of vertical land motion in California and Nevada: Implications for Sierra Nevada uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewitt, Geoffrey; Kreemer, Corné

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We introduce Global Positioning System (GPS) Imaging, a new technique for robust estimation of the vertical velocity field of the Earth's surface, and apply it to the Sierra Nevada Mountain range in the western United States. Starting with vertical position time series from Global Positioning System (GPS) stations, we first estimate vertical velocities using the MIDAS robust trend estimator, which is insensitive to undocumented steps, outliers, seasonality, and heteroscedasticity. Using the Delaunay triangulation of station locations, we then apply a weighted median spatial filter to remove velocity outliers and enhance signals common to multiple stations. Finally, we interpolate the data using weighted median estimation on a grid. The resulting velocity field is temporally and spatially robust and edges in the field remain sharp. Results from data spanning 5–20 years show that the Sierra Nevada is the most rapid and extensive uplift feature in the western United States, rising up to 2 mm/yr along most of the range. The uplift is juxtaposed against domains of subsidence attributable to groundwater withdrawal in California's Central Valley. The uplift boundary is consistently stationary, although uplift is faster over the 2011–2016 period of drought. Uplift patterns are consistent with groundwater extraction and concomitant elastic bedrock uplift, plus slower background tectonic uplift. A discontinuity in the velocity field across the southeastern edge of the Sierra Nevada reveals a contrast in lithospheric strength, suggesting a relationship between late Cenozoic uplift of the southern Sierra Nevada and evolution of the southern Walker Lane. PMID:27917328

  10. Ice Shell Thickness and Endogenic Processes on Europa from Mapping and Topographic Analyses of Pits, Uplifts and Small Chaos Features (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, K. N.; McKinnon, W. B.; Schenk, P.

    2013-12-01

    Constraining the thickness of the ice shell on Europa and the geological processes occurring in it are keys to understanding this icy world and its potential habitability. We focus on circular-to-subcircular features generally agreed to have been created by endogenic processes in Europa's ice shell or ocean: pits, uplifts, and subcircular chaos. Pits and uplifts are defined by their negative or positive topographic expression, respectively. Pits and uplifts generally retain pre-existing surface structures such as ridges, while chaos specifically refers to areas where the surface is broken up, in some cases to the point of destroying all original surface topography. We have mapped all features plausibly created by upwellings or other endogenic processes in the size range of 1 to 50 km in diameter, and incorporated previously unavailable topographic data as an aid to mapping and characterization of features. Topography was derived from albedo-controlled photoclinometry and crosschecked with stereo data where possible. Mapping was carried out over the medium-resolution Galileo regional maps (RegMaps) covering approximately 9% of Europa's surface, as well as over available high-resolution regions. While limited in extent, the latter are extremely valuable for detecting smaller features and for overall geomorphological analysis. Results of this new mapping show decreasing numbers of small features, and a peak in the size distribution for all features at approximately 5-6 km in diameter. No pits smaller than 3.3 km in diameter were found in high resolution imagery. Topography was used to find the depths and heights of pits and uplifts in the mapped regions. A general trend of increasing pit depth with increasing pit size was found, a correlation more easily understood in the context of a diapiric hypothesis for feature formation (as opposed to purely non-diapiric, melt-through models). Based on isostasy, maximum pit depths of ~0.3-to-0.48 km imply a minimum shell

  11. Observations and modeling of post-midnight uplifts near the magnetic equator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Nicolls

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We report here on post-midnight uplifts near the magnetic equator. We present observational evidence from digital ionosondes in Brazil, a digisonde in Peru, and other measurements at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory that show that these uplifts occur fairly regularly in the post-midnight period, raising the ionosphere by tens of kilometers in the most mild events and by over a hundred kilometers in the most severe events. We show that in general the uplifts are not the result of a zonal electric field reversal, and demonstrate instead that the uplifts occur as the ionospheric response to a decreasing westward electric field in conjunction with sufficient recombination and plasma flux. The decreasing westward electric field may be caused by a change in the wind system related to the midnight pressure bulge, which is associated with the midnight temperature maximum. In order to agree with observations from Jicamarca and Palmas, Brazil, it is shown that there must exist sufficient horizontal plasma flux associated with the pressure bulge. In addition, we show that the uplifts may be correlated with a secondary maximum in the spread-F occurrence rate in the post-midnight period. The uplifts are strongly seasonally dependent, presumably according to the seasonal dependence of the midnight pressure bulge, which leads to the necessary small westward field in the post-midnight period during certain seasons. We also discuss the enhancement of the uplifts associated with increased geomagnetic activity, which may be related to disturbance dynamo winds. Finally, we show that it is possible using simple numerical techniques to estimate the horizontal plasma flux and the vertical drift velocity from electron density measurements in the post-midnight period.

  12. Observations and modeling of post-midnight uplifts near the magnetic equator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Nicolls

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We report here on post-midnight uplifts near the magnetic equator. We present observational evidence from digital ionosondes in Brazil, a digisonde in Peru, and other measurements at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory that show that these uplifts occur fairly regularly in the post-midnight period, raising the ionosphere by tens of kilometers in the most mild events and by over a hundred kilometers in the most severe events. We show that in general the uplifts are not the result of a zonal electric field reversal, and demonstrate instead that the uplifts occur as the ionospheric response to a decreasing westward electric field in conjunction with sufficient recombination and plasma flux. The decreasing westward electric field may be caused by a change in the wind system related to the midnight pressure bulge, which is associated with the midnight temperature maximum. In order to agree with observations from Jicamarca and Palmas, Brazil, it is shown that there must exist sufficient horizontal plasma flux associated with the pressure bulge. In addition, we show that the uplifts may be correlated with a secondary maximum in the spread-F occurrence rate in the post-midnight period. The uplifts are strongly seasonally dependent, presumably according to the seasonal dependence of the midnight pressure bulge, which leads to the necessary small westward field in the post-midnight period during certain seasons. We also discuss the enhancement of the uplifts associated with increased geomagnetic activity, which may be related to disturbance dynamo winds. Finally, we show that it is possible using simple numerical techniques to estimate the horizontal plasma flux and the vertical drift velocity from electron density measurements in the post-midnight period.

  13. Changing Hydrology in Glacier-fed High Altitude Andean Peatbogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayback, D. A.; Yager, K.; Baraer, M.; Mohr, K. I.; Argollo, J.; Wigmore, O.; Meneses, R. I.; Mark, B. G.

    2012-12-01

    Montane peatbogs in the glacierized Andean highlands of Peru and Bolivia provide critical forage for camelids (llama and alpaca) in regionally extensive pastoral agriculture systems. During the long dry season, these wetlands often provide the only available green forage. A key question for the future of these peatbog systems, and the livelihoods they support, is the impact of climate change and glacier recession on their hydrology, and thus forage production. We have already documented substantial regional glacier recession, of, on average, approximately 30% of surface area over the past two decades. As glaciers begin to retreat under climate change, there is initially a period of increased meltwater outflow, culminating in a period of "peak water", and followed by a continual decline in outflows. Based on previous work, we know that some glaciers in the region have already passed peak water conditions, and are now declining. To better understand the impacts of these processes on peatbog hydrology and productivity, we have begun collecting a variety of surface data at several study sites in both Bolivia and Peru. These include precipitation, stream flow, water levels, water chemistry and isotope analyses, and peatbog biodiversity and biomass. These measurements will be used in conjunction with a regional model driven by satellite data to predict likely future impacts. We will present the results from these initial surface measurements, and an overview of satellite datasets to be used in the regional model.

  14. Polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis by oxalotrophic bacteria from high Andean soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger David Castillo-Arteaga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxalate is a highly oxidized organic acid anion used as a carbon and energy source by oxalotrophic bacteria. Oxalogenic plants convert atmospheric CO2 into oxalic acid and oxalic salts. Oxalate-salt formation acts as a carbon sink in terrestrial ecosystems via the oxalate-carbonate pathway (OCP. Oxalotrophic bacteria might be implicated in other carbon-storage processes, including the synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs. More recently, a variety of bacteria from the Andean region of Colombia in Nariño have been reported for their PHA-producing abilities. These species can degrade oxalate and participate in the oxalate-carbonate pathway. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize oxalotrophic bacteria with the capacity to accumulate PHA biopolymers. Plants of the genus Oxalis were collected and bacteria were isolated from the soil adhering to the roots. The isolated bacterial strains were characterized using biochemical and molecular biological methods. The consumption of oxalate in culture was quantified, and PHA production was monitored in batch fermentation. The polymeric composition was characterized using gas chromatography. Finally, a biosynthetic pathway based on our findings and on those from published sources is proposed. Strains of Bacillus spp. and Serratia sp. were found to metabolize calcium oxalate and synthesize PHA.

  15. The epidemiology and control of leishmaniasis in Andean countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Clive Richard

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current knowledge of leishmaniasis epidemiology in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. In all 5 countries leishmaniasis is endemic in both the Andean highlands and the Amazon basin. The sandfly vectors belong to subgenera Helcocyrtomyia, Nyssomiya, Lutzomyia, and Psychodopygus, and the Verrucarum group. Most human infections are caused by Leishmania in the Viannia subgenus. Human Leishmania infections cause cutaneous lesions, with a minority of L. (Viannia infections leading to mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis are both rare. In each country a significant proportion of Leishmania transmission is in or around houses, often close to coffee or cacao plantations. Reservoir hosts for domestic transmission cycles are uncertain. The paper first addresses the burden of disease caused by leishmaniasis, focusing on both incidence rates and on the variability in symptoms. Such information should provide a rational basis for prioritizing control resources, and for selecting therapy regimes. Secondly, we describe the variation in transmission ecology, outlining those variables which might affect the prevention strategies. Finally, we look at the current control strategies and review the recent studies on control.

  16. From Subordinate Marker to Discourse Marker: que in Andean Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna María Escobar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an analysis of a redundant use of que ('that' found in Andean Spanish as an expression which has undergone a grammaticalization process. Evidence suggests that the function of que as subordinate marker is much more generalized in this variety than in other dialects of Spanish. que is found to be used as a marker introducing both nominal and adjectival clauses, suggesting that adjectival subordinates behave as nominal subordinates in this variety of Spanish. An intrusive que appears in restricted syntactic and semantic contexts with clauses that have nominal and adjectival functions, and even appears replacing adverbial expressions in some adverbial subordinates (temporal, spatial, and manner. Furthermore, it is found to be sensitive to the degree of the argument’s thematic/semantic function in the subordinate clause. In particular, it seems to occur more often with low-agency arguments in adjectival and nominal contexts, and, in nominal subordinates, tends to appear with a restricted set of epistemic and evidential main verbs (e.g. creer 'to believe', saber 'to know', decir 'to say'. The analysis suggests that que has developed a new function in this variety of Spanish, namely, one of indicating that the information contained in the subordinate clause does not constitute background information (as would be expected in non-contact varieties of Spanish but instead contains information relevant to the discourse.

  17. Phoretic mites identified on andean hummingbirds (Trochilidae of Caldas, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia López-Orozco

    Full Text Available Within the bird-plant-mite system, the relationship between hummingbirds, flowers, and mites remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the degree of association between nasal mites and eight species of Andean hummingbirds in Colombia (Amazilia saucerrottei,A. tzacatl, Chalybura buffonii,Chlorostilbon mellisugus, Florisuga mellivora, Glaucis hirsutus, Phaethornis guy and P. striigularis. Over a five-month period (trapping effort 360 hours/month, a total of 178 birds were captured, from which 81 mite specimens were collected and identified as belonging to three genera (Proctolaelaps, Rhinoseius andTropicoseius spanning eleven species. This is the first report of its kind from Colombia on the identification of the mite speciesP. rabulatus, R. luteyni, R. rafinskii, T. berryi, T. colwelli, T. erro and T. uniformisand the first record of P. guy as phoretic host forProctolaelaps rabulatus. Morphological characteristics (length of the dorsal plate, width of the dorsal plate and setae z5 length alone failed to distinguish between mite species. The ecologic impact of this relationship on flowers with respect to nectar and pollen availability and the effect of mites on pollination by hummingbirds needs to be determined.

  18. Phoretic mites identified on Andean hummingbirds (Trochilidae) of Caldas, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Orozco, Natalia; Cañón-Franco, William Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Within the bird-plant-mite system, the relationship between hummingbirds, flowers, and mites remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the degree of association between nasal mites and eight species of Andean hummingbirds in Colombia (Amazilia saucerrottei, A. tzacatl, Chalybura buffonii, Chlorostilbon mellisugus, Florisuga mellivora, Glaucis hirsutus, Phaethornis guy and P. striigularis). Over a five-month period (trapping effort 360 hours/month), a total of 178 birds were captured, from which 81 mite specimens were collected and identified as belonging to three genera (Proctolaelaps, Rhinoseius and Tropicoseius) spanning eleven species. This is the first report of its kind from Colombia on the identification of the mite species P. rabulatus, R. luteyni, R. rafinskii, T. berryi, T. colwelli, T. erro and T. uniformis and the first record of P. guy as phoretic host for Proctolaelaps rabulatus. Morphological characteristics (length of the dorsal plate, width of the dorsal plate and setae z5 length) alone failed to distinguish between mite species. The ecologic impact of this relationship on flowers with respect to nectar and pollen availability and the effect of mites on pollination by hummingbirds needs to be determined.

  19. The epidemiology and control of leishmaniasis in Andean countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Richard Davies

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current knowledge of leishmaniasis epidemiology in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. In all 5 countries leishmaniasis is endemic in both the Andean highlands and the Amazon basin. The sandfly vectors belong to subgenera Helcocyrtomyia, Nyssomiya, Lutzomyia, and Psychodopygus, and the Verrucarum group. Most human infections are caused by Leishmania in the Viannia subgenus. Human Leishmania infections cause cutaneous lesions, with a minority of L. (Viannia infections leading to mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis are both rare. In each country a significant proportion of Leishmania transmission is in or around houses, often close to coffee or cacao plantations. Reservoir hosts for domestic transmission cycles are uncertain. The paper first addresses the burden of disease caused by leishmaniasis, focusing on both incidence rates and on the variability in symptoms. Such information should provide a rational basis for prioritizing control resources, and for selecting therapy regimes. Secondly, we describe the variation in transmission ecology, outlining those variables which might affect the prevention strategies. Finally, we look at the current control strategies and review the recent studies on control.

  20. Assessment of terrain slope influence in SWAT modeling of Andean watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, C.; Pérez-Foguet, A.

    2009-04-01

    Hydrological processes in the Andean Region are difficult to model. Large range of altitudes involved (from over 4000 meters above sea level, masl, to zero) indicates the high variability of rainfall, temperature and other climate variables. Strong runoff and extreme events as landslides and floods are the consequence of high slopes of terrain, especially in the upper part of the basins. Strong seasonality of rain and complex ecosystems (vulnerable to climate changes and anthropogenic activities) helps these processes. Present study focuses in a particular watershed from Peruvian Andes, the Jequetepeque River. The distributed watershed simulation model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is applied to model run-off and sediments transport through the basin with data from 1997 to 2006. Specifically, the study focuses in the assessment of the influence of considering terrain slope variation in the definition of Hydrographical Response Units within SWAT. The Jequetepeque watershed (4 372.5 km2) is located in the north part of Peru. River flows east to west, to the Pacific Ocean. Annual average precipitation ranges from 0 to 1100 mm and altitude from 0 to 4188 masl. The "Gallito Ciego" reservoir (400 masl) separates upper-middle part from lower part of the watershed. It stores water for supplying the people from the big cities on the coast and for extensive agriculture uses. Upper-middle part of the watershed covers 3564.8 km2. It ranges from 400 to 4188 masl in no more that 80 km, with slopes up to 20%. Main activities are agricultural and livestock and mining and about 80% of the population are rural. Annual mean temperature drops from 25.4 °C at the reservoir to less than 4 °C in the upper part. Also the highest rainfall variability is found in the upper-middle part of the watershed. Erosion produced by extreme events like 1997/98 "el Niño" Phenomenon is silting the reservoir faster than expected. Moreover, anthropogenic activities like agriculture and

  1. Oceanic archipelagos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantis, Kostas A.; Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María

    2016-01-01

    Since the contributions of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, oceanic archipelagos have played a central role in the development of biogeography. However, despite the critical influence of oceanic islands on ecological and evolutionary theory, our focus has remained limited to either the i...... of the archipelagic geological dynamics that can affect diversity at both the island and the archipelagic level. We also reaffirm that oceanic archipelagos are appropriate spatiotemporal units to frame analyses in order to understand large scale patterns of biodiversity....

  2. Use of spatial capture–recapture to estimate density of Andean bears in northern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Santiago; Fuller, Angela K.; Morin, Dana J.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) is the only extant species of bear in South America and is considered threatened across its range and endangered in Ecuador. Habitat loss and fragmentation is considered a critical threat to the species, and there is a lack of knowledge regarding its distribution and abundance. The species is thought to occur at low densities, making field studies designed to estimate abundance or density challenging. We conducted a pilot camera-trap study to estimate Andean bear density in a recently identified population of Andean bears northwest of Quito, Ecuador, during 2012. We compared 12 candidate spatial capture–recapture models including covariates on encounter probability and density and estimated a density of 7.45 bears/100 km2 within the region. In addition, we estimated that approximately 40 bears used a recently named Andean bear corridor established by the Secretary of Environment, and we produced a density map for this area. Use of a rub-post with vanilla scent attractant allowed us to capture numerous photographs for each event, improving our ability to identify individual bears by unique facial markings. This study provides the first empirically derived density estimate for Andean bears in Ecuador and should provide direction for future landscape-scale studies interested in conservation initiatives requiring spatially explicit estimates of density.

  3. Lost crops of the Incas: Origins of domestication of the Andean pulse crop tarwi, Lupinus mutabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, Guy W; Nevado, Bruno; Eastwood, Ruth J; Contreras-Ortiz, Natalia; Reynel, Carlos; Madriñán, Santiago; Filatov, Dmitry A; Hughes, Colin E

    2016-09-01

    The Andean highlands are a hotspot of domestication, yet our understanding of the origins of early Andean agriculture remains fragmentary. Key questions of where, when, how many times, and from what progenitors many Andean crops were domesticated remain unanswered. The Andean lupine crop tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis) is a regionally important pulse crop with exceptionally high seed protein and oil content and is the focus of modern breeding efforts, but its origins remain obscure. A large genome-wide DNA polymorphism data set was generated using nextRADseq to infer relationships among more than 200 accessions of Andean Lupinus species, including 24 accessions of L. mutabilis and close relatives. Phylogenetic and demographic analyses were used to identify the likely progenitor of tarwi and elucidate the area and timing of domestication in combination with archaeological evidence. We infer that tarwi was domesticated once in northern Peru, most likely in the Cajamarca region within, or adjacent to the extant distribution of L. piurensis, which is the most likely wild progenitor. Demographic analyses suggest that tarwi split from L. piurensis around 2600 BP and suffered a classical domestication bottleneck. The earliest unequivocal archaeological evidence of domesticated tarwi seeds is from the Mantaro Valley, central Peru ca. 1800 BP. A single origin of tarwi from L. piurensis in northern Peru provides a robust working hypothesis for the domestication of this regionally important crop and is one of the first clear-cut examples of a crop originating in the highlands of northern Peru. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  4. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... This analysis starts with a review of ocean transportation demand and supply including projections of ship capacity demand and world shipbuilding capacity under various economic and political assumptions...

  5. The Sedimentary History of Southern Central Crete: Implications for Neogene Uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, K.; Brachert, T. C.; Reuter, M.

    2003-04-01

    The tectonic setting of Crete was largely extensional since Lower Miocene uplift and exhumation of HP/LT rocks. Erosion of uplifted areas resulted in the deposition of terrestrial to marine sediments in the Messara and Iraclion Basins. There are several concurring models that discuss Late Neogene uplift of the basinal margins. Neogene near shore sediments in the south of the Messara Basin record fault movements contemporaneous to sedimentation and sedimentary input from the hinterland. Therefore they provide information on the paleogeographic situation and the resulting amount of subsidence and uplift of mountain areas since the Upper Miocene. The studied sediments consist of terrestrial to shallow marine, floodplain related sediments of the Upper Miocene Ambelouzos Formation that are overlain by platform limestones of the Upper Miocene Varvara Formation. In the Messara Basin these units are overlain by the Pliocene Kourtes Formation. The stratigraphic architecture of these deposits indicates fragmentation of the basinal margin. Proximal boulder conglomerates and reworked blocks of the Ambelouzos formation indicate fault activity during the deposition of the Varvara Formation. Contents of terrigenous clastics, provided by rivers and distributed by longshore currents, are high in the Ambelouzos and the lower Varvara Formations but decrease rapidly upsection within the Varvara Formation. This indicates drowning of the fault bounded blocks and little topography of the hinterland (Asteroussia Mountains) at that time. The Pliocene marls at the southern margin of the Messara Basin contain lithoclasts of the Upper Miocene limestones and thus indicate uplift of the carbonate platform. The modern topographic elevation of formerly drowned fault bounded blocks requires a minimum uplift of 400m. Main uplift occurred at approximately orthogonal NW-SE and SW-NE striking normal to oblique faults. The present elevation of the Asteroussia Mountains indicates net uplift of at least

  6. Reconciling plate kinematic and seismic estimates of lithospheric convergence in the central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bull, J.M.; DeMets, C.; Krishna, K.S.; Sanderson, D.J.; Merkouriev, S.

    The far-field signature of the India-Asia collision and history of uplift in Tibet are recorded by sediment input into the Indian Ocean and the strain accumulation history across the diffuse plate boundary between the Indian and Capricorn plates. We...

  7. Thermal history of the Kunlun batholith, N. Tibet, and implications for uplift of the Tibetan plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Preliminary Rb-Sr and 40 Ar/ 39 Ar biotite ages combined with zircon and apatite fission track dates from the Hunlun batholith in northern Tibet allow for comparison with the previously established uplift history of southern Tibet, and inferences to be made about uplift of the plateau as a whole. Across a major divide at the Golmud Fault, apatite ages decrease from 100 Ma in the north to 20 Ma in the south. This is believed to be as a result of a thrusting event at 120 Ma which uplifted the Northern block and overthrust the Southern block to the south. Subsequent to this event, surface approach rates of less than 70 m Ma -1 from biotite closure at 120 Ma to apatite cooling at 20 Ma in the Southern block, indicate a long uninterrupted period of thermal equilibration in an essentially static continental block. Mean confined track lengths of 12.5-13.5 μm in apatites suggest that samples exposed at the surface today resided in the fission track partial annealing zone prior to the onset of uplift which must have occurred subsequent to 20 Ma. This indicates that at least 3-4 km have been uplifted since this time and that the onset of this phase could have been as recent as 8 Ma. (author)

  8. A Methodology to Detect and Characterize Uplift Phenomena in Urban Areas Using Sentinel-1 Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Bonì

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology to exploit the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI time series acquired by Sentinel-1 sensors for the detection and characterization of uplift phenomena in urban areas. The methodology has been applied to the Tower Hamlets Council area of London (United Kingdom using Sentinel-1 data covering the period 2015–2017. The test area is a representative high-urbanized site affected by geohazards due to natural processes such as compaction of recent deposits, and also anthropogenic causes due to groundwater management and engineering works. The methodology has allowed the detection and characterization of a 5 km2 area recording average uplift rates of 7 mm/year and a maximum rate of 18 mm/year in the period May 2015–March 2017. Furthermore, the analysis of the Sentinel-1 time series highlights that starting from August 2016 uplift rates began to decrease. A comparison between the uplift rates and urban developments as well as geological, geotechnical, and hydrogeological factors suggests that the ground displacements occur in a particular geological context and are mainly attributed to the swelling of clayey soils. The detected uplift could be attributed to a transient effect of the groundwater rebound after completion of dewatering works for the recent underground constructions.

  9. Geomorphic indices and relative tectonic uplift in the Guerrero sector of the Mexican forearc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gaidzik

    2017-07-01

    The results of the applied landscape analysis reveal considerable variations in relief, topography and geomorphic indices values along the Guerrero sector of the Mexican subduction zone. We argue that the reported differences are indicative of tectonic deformation and of variations in relative tectonic uplift along the studied forearc. A significant drop from central and eastern parts of the study area towards the west in values of RVA (from ∼500 to ∼300, SL (from ∼500 to ca. 400, maximum SL (from ∼1500–2500 to ∼1000 and ksn (from ∼150 to ∼100 denotes a decrease in relative tectonic uplift in the same direction. We suggest that applied geomorphic indices values and forearc topography are independent of climate and lithology. Actual mechanisms responsible for the observed variations and inferred changes in relative forearc tectonic uplift call for further studies that explain the physical processes that control the forearc along strike uplift variations and that determine the rates of uplift. The proposed methodology and results obtained through this study could prove useful to scientists who study the geomorphology of forearc regions and active subduction zones.

  10. Seed production differences of the Andean oak Quercus Humboldtii Bonpl. in two Andean forests of the Colombian Eastern Cordillera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Melo, Andres; Parrado Rosselli Angela

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of mechanisms of tree species reproduction under natural situations including fruit and seed production patterns is very important for forest management strategies. Considering the influence of abiotic factors such as soil characteristics, humidity and rainfall on fruiting phenology, we studied fruit production patterns of the Andean oak (Quercus humboldtii: Fagaceae) in two forest sites of the Colombian Eastern Cordillera (Cachalu and Patios Altos), under contrasting environmental conditions. At both sites, we monitored monthly fruit production of 15 trees in Cachalu and 11 in Patios Altos using fruit/seed traps placed under the tree crowns. In each site soil cores were extracted below the litter layer 20 cm depth, and soil characteristics and nutrients were analyzed. In general, trees in Cachalu produced more fruits than in Patios Altos, as well as mean fruit mass (wet and dry weight) was significantly higher in Cachalu. At both sites, oak fruiting peaked from April to May, when the highest rainfall occurs. We found positive correlations between fruit production and rainfall one month prior. High phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) were the main variables for explaining the high production. In contrast, high aluminum (Al) contents explained the low production found in Patios Altos. We discuss the importance of including fruit production for oak management strategies, such as restoration and reforestation programs.

  11. Ocean technology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Peshwe, V.B.

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Voices_Oceans_1996_113.pdf.txt stream_source_info Voices_Oceans_1996_113.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  12. Ocean acidification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gattuso, J.P; Hansson, L

    2011-01-01

    The fate of much of the CO 2 we produce will be to enter the ocean. In a sense, we are fortunate that ocean water is endowed with the capacity to absorb far more CO 2 per litre than were it salt free...

  13. 3-D velocity structures, seismicity patterns, and their tectonic implications across the Andean Foreland of San Juan Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmerom, Biniam Beyene

    Three-dimensional velocity structures and seismicity patterns have been studied across the Andean Foreland of San Juan Argentina using data acquired by PANDA deployment. Distinct velocity variations are revealed between Precordillera in the west and Pie de Palo in the east. The low velocity anomaly beneath Precordillera is associated with the presence of thick sedimentary rocks and thick sediment cover of Matagusanos valley. Similarly, the high velocity anomaly east of Eastern Precordillera is correlated with the presence of basement rocks. These anomalies are observed from the station corrections of Joint Hypocentral Determination (JHD) analysis. A northeast trending west dipping high velocity anomaly is imaged beneath the southern half of Pie de Palo. This anomaly represents a Grenvillian suture zone formed when Pie de Palo collided with the Precordillera. Relocated seismicity using 3-D Vp and Vs models obtained in this study revealed crustal scale buried faults beneath the Eastern Precordillera and Sierra Pie de Palo. The fault defined by the seismicity extend down to a depth of ˜ 40 km and ~35 km beneath Precordillera and Pie de Palo, respectively, defining the lower bound of the brittle to ductile transition of the crust. These results confirm that present day active crustal thickening involves the entire crust in the tectonic process and results in thick-skinned deformation beneath both the Eastern Precordillera and Pie de Palo. Based on the seismicity pattern, geomorphology, and velocity structures, Sierra Pie de Palo, a basement uplift block, can be divided into two separate semi-blocks separated by a northeast trending fracture zone. The northern block is characterized by a well-defined west dipping fault and low Vp/Vs ratio particularly at a depth of 12 to 16 km, while the southern block shows a poorly-defined east dipping fault with high Vp/Vs ratio at a depth of 20 to 26 km. Spatial distribution of the well-relocated crustal earthquakes along these

  14. Land uplift in the Olkiluoto-Pyhaejaervi area, southwestern Finland, during the last 8000 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eronen, M.; Glueckert, G.; Rantala, P.; Plassche, O. van de; Plicht, J. van der

    1995-12-01

    Land is rising in relation to sea level several millimetres per year on the coast of southwestern Finland. The aim of the study was to gather information about the land uplift process. Sediment samples were collected from 14 lakes lying at different altitudes in the area between Olkiluoto and Lake Pyhaejaervi in southwestern Finland to study the relative sea-level changes and land uplift. The present-day lakes had once been below the waters of the Baltic, but due to uplift they had been isolated from the sea one after another. The isolation points in the sediments were determined by preliminary diatom analyses. They show the change from brackish to fresh-water conditions, and these horizons were then dated by two radiocarbon assays. (37 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.)

  15. Satellite drag effects due to uplifted oxygen neutrals during super magnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhina, Gurbax S.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    2017-12-01

    During intense magnetic storms, prompt penetration electric fields (PPEFs) through E × B forces near the magnetic equator uplift the dayside ionosphere. This effect has been called the dayside super-fountain effect. Ion-neutral drag forces between the upward moving O+ (oxygen ions) and oxygen neutrals will elevate the oxygen atoms to higher altitudes. This paper gives a linear calculation indicating how serious the effect may be during an 1859-type (Carrington) superstorm. It is concluded that the oxygen neutral densities produced at low-Earth-orbiting (LEO) satellite altitudes may be sufficiently high to present severe satellite drag. It is estimated that with a prompt penetrating electric field of ˜ 20 mV m-1 turned on for 20 min, the O atoms and O+ ions are uplifted to 850 km where they produce about 40-times-greater satellite drag per unit mass than normal. Stronger electric fields will presumably lead to greater uplifted mass.

  16. Surface uplift in the Central Andes driven by growth of the Altiplano Puna Magma Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jonathan P; Ward, Kevin M; de Silva, Shanaka L; Zandt, George; Beck, Susan L; Finnegan, Noah J

    2016-10-25

    The Altiplano-Puna Magma Body (APMB) in the Central Andes is the largest imaged magma reservoir on Earth, and is located within the second highest orogenic plateau on Earth, the Altiplano-Puna. Although the APMB is a first-order geologic feature similar to the Sierra Nevada batholith, its role in the surface uplift history of the Central Andes remains uncertain. Here we show that a long-wavelength topographic dome overlies the seismically measured extent of the APMB, and gravity data suggest that the uplift is isostatically compensated. Isostatic modelling of the magmatic contribution to dome growth yields melt volumes comparable to those estimated from tomography, and suggests that the APMB growth rate exceeds the peak Cretaceous magmatic flare-up in the Sierran batholith. Our analysis reveals that magmatic addition may provide a contribution to surface uplift on par with lithospheric removal, and illustrates that surface topography may help constrain the magnitude of pluton-scale melt production.

  17. Paired Magmatic-Metallogenic Belts in Myanmar - an Andean Analogue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Nicholas; Robb, Laurence; Searle, Michael; Morley, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    contrasting minerals endowment. The Mogok-Mandalay-Mergui (MMM) Belt hosts crustal-melt S-type granites with significant tin-tungsten mineralization, and contains the historically major tungsten deposit of Mawchi. The Wuntho-Popa Arc comprises I-type granites and granodiorites with porphyry-type copper-gold and epithermal gold mineralization, and includes the world-class Monywa copper mine. Recent U-Pb radiometric age dating has shown the potential for the two belts to be both active from the Late Cretaceous to Eocene. The spatial juxtaposition of these two sub-parallel belts, the implication of contemporary magmatism, and their distinct but consistent metallogenic endowment bears strong similarities to the metallogenic belts of the South American Cordillera. Here we investigate whether they together represent the magmatic and metallogenic expression of an Andean-type setting in Myanmar during the subduction of Neo-Tethys. In this analogue the Wuntho-Popa Arc represents a proximal I-type magmatic belt sited immediately above the eastwards-verging Neo-Tethys subduction zone. Exhibiting porphyry-type copper-gold and epithermal gold mineralization, this would therefore be the Myanmar equivalent of the Andean coastal copper belts. Conversely, the parallel MMM Belt, comprised of more distal crustal-melt S-type tin granites, would have an analogue in the Bolivian tin belt.

  18. [Structural recovering in Andean successional forests from Porce (Antioquia, Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes, Adriana P; del Valle, Jorge I; Jaramillo, Sandra L; Orrego, Sergio A

    2010-03-01

    Places subjected to natural or human disturbance can recover forest through an ecological process called secondary succession. Tropical succession is affected by factors such as disturbances, distance from original forest, surface configuration and local climate. These factors determine the composition of species and the time trend of the succession itself. We studied succession in soils used for cattle ranching over various decades in the Porce Region of Colombia (Andean Colombian forests). A set of twenty five permanent plots was measured, including nine plots (20 x 50 m) in primary forests and sixteen (20 x 25 m) in secondary forests. All trees with diameter > or =1.0 cm were measured. We analyzed stem density, basal area, above-ground biomass and species richness, in a successional process of ca. 43 years, and in primary forests. The secondary forests' age was estimated in previous studies, using radiocarbon dating, aerial photographs and a high-resolution satellite image analysis (7 to >43 years). In total, 1,143 and 1,766 stems were measured in primary and secondary forests, respectively. Basal area (5.7 to 85.4 m2 ha(-1)), above-ground biomass (19.1 to 1,011.5 t ha(-1)) and species richness (4 to 69) directly increased with site age, while steam density decreased (3,180 to 590). Diametric distributions were "J-inverted" for primary forests and even-aged size-class structures for secondary forests. Three species of palms were abundant and exclusive in old secondary forests and primary forests: Oenocarpus mapora, Euterpe precatoria and Oenocarpus bataua. These palms happened in cohorts after forest disturbances. Secondary forest structure was 40% in more than 43 years of forest succession and indicate that many factors are interacting and affecting the forests succession in the area (e.g. agriculture, cattle ranching, mining, etc.).

  19. Social inequality and child malnutrition in four Andean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrea, Carlos; Freire, Wilma

    2002-01-01

    To analyze the effects of socioeconomic, regional, and ethnic conditions on chronic malnutrition in four Andean countries of South America: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. The study was based on Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for Colombia (1995), Peru (1996), and Bolivia (1997), and on a Living Standard Measurement Survey for Ecuador (1998). We developed an index of household socioeconomic status using categorical principal components analysis. We broke down the prevalence of stunting by socioeconomic status (SES), ethnicity, place of residence (large cities, small cities, towns, and countryside), and region (highland region versus other areas of the country). We applied smoothed regression curves and linear functions to analyze SES effects on stunting, with specific models for Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru. Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru have similar characteristics, with high stunting prevalences overall; higher stunting prevalences in their highland areas, particularly among indigenous populations; and strong socioeconomic disparities. Colombia, in contrast, has a lower stunting prevalence and smaller regional disparities. The socioeconomic gradient of stunting is strong in all four countries, with prevalence rates in the poorest deciles at least three times as high as those in the top decile. The sharp contrast between the conditions found in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru and those in Colombia may be the result of specific ethnic factors affecting indigenous groups; a particular diet profile in the highland areas, with low protein and micronutrient intake; and differences in the long-term economic and social development paths that the countries have taken. Along with the strong socioeconomic gradient in all the countries, the weight of ethnic and regional factors suggests the need to reduce inequality as well as to comprehensively improve education and housing, better target health and nutrition programs, and implement participatory programs integrated into

  20. Social inequality and child malnutrition in four Andean countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Larrea

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the effects of socioeconomic, regional, and ethnic conditions on chronic malnutrition in four Andean countries of South America: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Methods. The study was based on Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS for Colombia (1995, Peru (1996, and Bolivia (1997, and on a Living Standard Measurement Survey for Ecuador (1998. We developed an index of household socioeconomic status using categorical principal components analysis. We broke down the prevalence of stunting by socioeconomic status (SES, ethnicity, place of residence (large cities, small cities, towns, and countryside, and region (highland region versus other areas of the country. We applied smoothed regression curves and linear functions to analyze SES effects on stunting, with specific models for Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru. Results. Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru have similar characteristics, with high stunting prevalences overall; higher stunting prevalences in their highland areas, particularly among indigenous populations; and strong socioeconomic disparities. Colombia, in contrast, has a lower stunting prevalence and smaller regional disparities. The socioeconomic gradient of stunting is strong in all four countries, with prevalence rates in the poorest deciles at least three times as high as those in the top decile. Discussion. The sharp contrast between the conditions found in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru and those in Colombia may be the result of specific ethnic factors affecting indigenous groups; a particular diet profile in the highland areas, with low protein and micronutrient intake; and differences in the long-term economic and social development paths that the countries have taken. Along with the strong socioeconomic gradient in all the countries, the weight of ethnic and regional factors suggests the need to reduce inequality as well as to comprehensively improve education and housing, better target health and nutrition programs

  1. Diverging responses of tropical Andean biomes under future climate conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Tovar

    Full Text Available Observations and projections for mountain regions show a strong tendency towards upslope displacement of their biomes under future climate conditions. Because of their climatic and topographic heterogeneity, a more complex response is expected for biodiversity hotspots such as tropical mountain regions. This study analyzes potential changes in the distribution of biomes in the Tropical Andes and identifies target areas for conservation. Biome distribution models were developed using logistic regressions. These models were then coupled to an ensemble of 8 global climate models to project future distribution of the Andean biomes and their uncertainties. We analysed projected changes in extent and elevational range and identified regions most prone to change. Our results show a heterogeneous response to climate change. Although the wetter biomes exhibit an upslope displacement of both the upper and the lower boundaries as expected, most dry biomes tend to show downslope expansion. Despite important losses being projected for several biomes, projections suggest that between 74.8% and 83.1% of the current total Tropical Andes will remain stable, depending on the emission scenario and time horizon. Between 3.3% and 7.6% of the study area is projected to change, mostly towards an increase in vertical structure. For the remaining area (13.1%-17.4%, there is no agreement between model projections. These results challenge the common believe that climate change will lead to an upslope displacement of biome boundaries in mountain regions. Instead, our models project diverging responses, including downslope expansion and large areas projected to remain stable. Lastly, a significant part of the area expected to change is already affected by land use changes, which has important implications for management. This, and the inclusion of a comprehensive uncertainty analysis, will help to inform conservation strategies in the Tropical Andes, and to guide similar

  2. The flux-scaling scenario. De Sitter uplift and axion inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Damian, Cesar; Herschmann, Daniela; Sun, Rui [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Muenchen (Germany); Font, Anamaria [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Non-geometric flux-scaling vacua provide promising starting points to realize axion monodromy inflation via the F-term scalar potential. We show that these vacua can be uplifted to Minkowski and de Sitter by adding an D3-brane or a D-term containing geometric and non-geometric fluxes. These uplifted non-supersymmetric models are analyzed with respect to their potential to realize axion monodromy inflation self-consistently. Admitting rational values of the fluxes, we construct examples with the required hierarchy of mass scales. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Neogene Uplift and Magmatism of Anatolia: New Insights from Drainage Analysis and Basalt Geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, F.; Ball, P.; Hoggard, M.; White, N.

    2017-12-01

    The origin of Anatolia's high elevation and low relief plateaux has been the subject of much recent debate. Marine sedimentary rocks distributed across Central and Eastern Anatolia require significant regional uplift in Neogene times. This uplift cannot be explained by the present-day pattern of crustal deformation which, particularly across Central and Western Anatolia, is dominanted by strike-slip and extensional faulting. Positive long wavelength free-air gravity anomalies combined with slow upper mantle seismic wave speeds suggest that the sub-lithospheric mantle provides substantial topographic support. A range of geodynamic processes have been invoked, including complex slab fragmentation and lithospheric delamination. The temporal and spatial evolution of the Anatolian landscape should be recorded by drainage networks. Indeed, major catchments contain prominent knickzones with heights of hundreds of meters and length scales of several hundred kilometers. The stream power formulation for fluvial erosion permits these knickzones to be interpreted in terms of uplift history along a river's length. Here, we jointly invert an inventory of 1,844 river profiles to determine a spatial and temporal uplift rate history. When calibrated against independent observations of uplift rate, the resultant history provides significant new constraints for the evolution of Anatolian topography. In our model, the bulk of this topography appears to grow in Neogene times. Uplift initiates in Eastern Anatolia and propagates westward at uplift rates of up to 0.5 mm/yr. Coeval with this phase of uplift, abundant basaltic magmatism has occurred throughout Anatolia. We have compiled an extensive database of published geochemical analyses. Using this database, we analyse spatial and temporal patterns of basaltic compositions to discriminate between different modes of melt generation. Two independent techniques for estimating asthenospheric potential temperatures from the compositions of

  4. The flux-scaling scenario. De Sitter uplift and axion inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Damian, Cesar; Herschmann, Daniela; Sun, Rui; Font, Anamaria

    2016-01-01

    Non-geometric flux-scaling vacua provide promising starting points to realize axion monodromy inflation via the F-term scalar potential. We show that these vacua can be uplifted to Minkowski and de Sitter by adding an D3-brane or a D-term containing geometric and non-geometric fluxes. These uplifted non-supersymmetric models are analyzed with respect to their potential to realize axion monodromy inflation self-consistently. Admitting rational values of the fluxes, we construct examples with the required hierarchy of mass scales. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine Trolley Seismic Uplift Constraint Design Loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SWENSON, C.E.

    2000-01-01

    The MCO Handling Machine (MHM) trolley moves along the top of the MHM bridge girders on east-west oriented rails. To prevent trolley wheel uplift during a seismic event, passive uplift constraints are provided as shown in Figure 1-1. North-south trolley wheel movement is prevented by flanges on the trolley wheels. When the MHM is positioned over a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) storage tube, east-west seismic restraints are activated to prevent trolley movement during MCO handling. The active seismic constraints consist of a plunger, which is inserted into slots positioned along the tracks as shown in Figure 1-1. When the MHM trolley is moving between storage tube positions, the active seismic restraints are not engaged. The MHM has been designed and analyzed in accordance with ASME NOG-1-1995. The ALSTHOM seismic analysis (Reference 3) reported seismic uplift restraint loading and EDERER performed corresponding structural calculations. The ALSTHOM and EDERER calculations were performed with the east-west seismic restraints activated and the uplift restraints experiencing only vertical loading. In support of development of the CSB Safety Analysis Report (SAR), an evaluation of the MHM seismic response was requested for the case where the east-west trolley restraints are not engaged. For this case, the associated trolley movements would result in east-west lateral loads on the uplift constraints due to friction, as shown in Figure 1-2. During preliminary evaluations, questions were raised as to whether the EDERER calculations considered the latest ALSTHOM seismic analysis loads (See NCR No. 00-SNFP-0008, Reference 5). Further evaluation led to the conclusion that the EDERER calculations used appropriate vertical loading, but the uplift restraints would need to be re-analyzed and modified to account for lateral loading. The disposition of NCR 00-SNFP-0008 will track the redesign and modification effort. The purpose of this calculation is to establish bounding seismic

  6. Ocean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This annual evaluation is a synthesis of works published in 2006. Comparisons are presented between the wind power performances and European Commission White Paper and Biomass action plan objectives. The sector covers the energy exploitation of all energy flows specifically supplied by the seas and oceans. At present, most efforts in both research and development and in experimental implementation are concentrated on tidal currents and wave power. 90% of today worldwide ocean energy production is represented by a single site: the Rance Tidal Power Plant. Ocean energies must face up two challenges: progress has to be made in finalizing and perfecting technologies and costs must be brought under control. (A.L.B.)

  7. Oxygen Isotopes in Intra-Back Arc Basalts from the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, B. H.; Wang, Z.; Saal, A. E.; Frey, F. A.; Blusztajn, J.

    2013-12-01

    The chemical compositions of volcanic rocks from the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ) reflect complex and dynamic interactions among the subducting oceanic lithosphere, the mantle wedge, and the overlying continental crust. Oxygen isotope ratios of olivine phenocrysts can be a useful means to identifying their relative contributions to the arc magmatism. In this study, we report high-precision oxygen-isotope ratios of olivine phenocrysts in a set of intra-back arc basalts from the SVZ. The samples were collected from monogenetic cinder cones east of the volcanic front (35-39 degrees S), and have been geochemically well-characterized with major and trace element contents, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions. Compared to lavas from the volcanic front, these intra-back arc lavas have similar radiogenic isotope, and a more alkalic and primitive (higher MgO content) chemical composition. We determined the oxygen-isotope ratios using the CO2-laser-fluorination method set up at the Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University following the techniques reported in Wang et al (2011). The samples were analyzed with standards of Gore Mountain Garnet (5.77×0.12‰ 1σ; Valley et al., 1995) and Kilbourne Hole Olivine (5.23×0.07‰ 1σ; Sharp, 1990) in order to account for minor changes in the vacuum line during analyses. The obtained δ18OSMOW values of olivine phenocrysts from the intra-back arc basalts vary from 4.98×0.01 to 5.34×0.01‰. This range, surprisingly, is similar to the δ18O values of olivines from mantle peridotites (5.2×0.2‰). Preliminary results indicate significant correlations of 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd and trace element ratios of the basaltic matrix with the δ18O values of olivine phenocrysts, indicating at least three components involved in the formation of the arc volcanism. By comparing the δ18O with the variations of major and trace element contents (e.g., MgO, TiO2 and Ni), and trace element ratios (e.g. Ba/Nb), we evaluate the effects

  8. Porphyry copper deposits distribution along the western Tethyan and Andean subductions: insights from a paleogeographic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, G.

    2012-12-01

    The genesis of many types of mineral deposits is closely linked to tectonic and petrographic conditions resulting from specific geodynamic contexts. Porphyry deposits, for instance, are associated to calc-alkaline magmatism of subduction zones. In order to better understand the relationships between ore deposit distribution and their tectonic context, and help identifying geodynamic-related criteria of favorability that would, in turn, help mineral exploration, we propose a paleogeographic approach. Paleogeographic reconstructions, based on global or regional plate tectonic models, are crucial tools to assess tectonic and kinematic contexts of the past. We use this approach to study the distribution of porphyry copper deposits along the western Tethyan and Andean subductions since Lower Cretaceous and Paleocene, respectively. For both convergent contexts, databases of porphyry copper deposits, including, among other data, their age and location, were compiled. Spatial and temporal distribution of the deposits is not random and show that they were emplaced in distinct clusters. Five clusters are identified along the western Tethyan suture, from Lower Cretaceous to Pleistocene, and at least three along the Andes, from Paleocene to Miocene. Two clusters in the Aegean-Balkan-Carpathian area, that were emplaced in Upper Cretaceous and Oligo-Miocene, and two others in the Andes, that were emplaced in late Eocene and Miocene, are studied in details and correlated with the past kinematics of the Africa-Eurasia and Nazca-South America plate convergences, respectively. All these clusters are associated with a similar polyphased kinematic context that is closely related to the dynamics of the subductions. This context is characterized by 1) a relatively fast convergence rate, shortly followed by 2) a drastic decrease of this rate. To explain these results, we propose a polyphased genetic model for porphyry copper deposits with 1) a first stage of rapid subduction rate

  9. Assessment of the Relationship between Andean Ice Core Precipitation Indicators and Amazon River Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N.; Alsdorf, D.; Thompson, L.; Mosley-Thompson, E.; Melack, J.

    2006-12-01

    Prior to the last 100 years, there is a significant lack of hydrologic knowledge for the Amazon Basin. A 100- year record of discharge from the city of Manaus, located at the confluence of the Solimoes and Negro rivers, is the most complete record for the basin. Inundated wetlands play a key role in carbon out-gassing to the atmosphere whereas discharge from the Amazon River contributes about 20% of the total freshwater flux delivered to the world's oceans. As discharge (Q) and inundation are directly related to precipitation, we are developing a method to extend our understanding of Q and inundation into the 19^{th} century. Using proxy data preserved in Andean glaciers and ice caps and recovered from ice cores, annually resolved histories of δ^{18)O and mass accumulation are available. The latter is a proxy for local precipitation amount whereas δ18O is influenced by continental scale processes (i.e., evaporation, convection) as well as by temperature and hence, by varying climate regimes. We have correlated the accumulation and δ18O records from Core 1 drilled on the Quelccaya ice-cap in the southern Andes of Peru with the Manaus discharge data. As ice core annual layers correspond to the thermal year (in Peru, July to June of the following year) and the discharge records are kept daily (January to December), we averaged 365 days of Q data seeking the optimal correlation for each start and end date. The best statistical relationship between δ18O and Q (r = -0.41, p = < 0.001) is attained when Q is averaged from March 16 to March 15 of the following year. We also correlated 23 years of ENSO events, which are linked to both Amazon River discharge and ice core δ18O (r = -0.60, p = < 0.001). These linear relationships are used to create Amazon discharge for the 20^{th} century and to extrapolate Q into the 19^{th} century. Previously developed relationships between Q and mainstem inundated area are then used to estimate inundated area along the main Amazon

  10. Late Cretaceous tectonothermal evolution of the southern Lhasa terrane, South Tibet: Consequence of a Mesozoic Andean-type orogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xin; Zhang, Ze-ming; Klemd, Reiner; He, Zhen-yu; Tian, Zuo-lin

    2018-04-01

    The Lhasa terrane of the southern Tibetan Plateau participated in a Mesozoic Andean-type orogeny caused by the northward subduction of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. However, metamorphic rocks, which can unravel details of the geodynamic evolution, are rare and only exposed in the south-eastern part of the Lhasa terrane. Therefore, we conducted a detailed petrological, geochemical and U-Pb zircon geochronological study of the late Cretaceous metamorphic rocks and associated gabbros from the Nyemo inlier of the southern Lhasa terrane. The Nyemo metamorphic rocks including gneisses, schists, marbles and calc-silicate rocks, experienced peak amphibolite-facies contact metamorphism under P-T conditions of 3.5-4.0 kbar and 642-657 °C with a very high geothermal gradient of 45-50 °C/km, revealing a distinct deflection from the steady-state geotherm during low-pressure metamorphism. Inherited magmatic zircon cores from the metamorphic rocks yielded protolith ages of 197-194 Ma, while overgrowth zircon rims yielded metamorphic ages of ca. 86 Ma. Whole-rock chemistry and zircon Hf isotopes suggest that the protoliths of the gneisses and schists are andesites and tuffs of the early Jurassic Sangri Group, which were derived from a depleted mantle source of a continental arc affinity. The coeval intimately-associated gabbro (ca. 86 Ma) crystallized under P-T conditions of 3.5-5.3 kbar and 914-970 °C, supplying the heat flux high enough to cause the contact metamorphism of the Sangri Group rock types. We propose that the intrusion of the gabbro and a simultaneous pressure increase of up to 4.0 kbar, which is related to crustal thickening due to crustal overthrusting and the intrusion of mafic material, resulted in the late Cretaceous metamorphism of the early Jurassic Sangri Group during an Andean-type orogeny. Furthermore the Nyemo metamorphic rocks, which have previously been considered to represent slivers of the Precambrian metamorphic basement of the Lhasa terrane

  11. Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocean and coastal acidification is an emerging issue caused by increasing amounts of carbon dioxide being absorbed by seawater. Changing seawater chemistry impacts marine life, ecosystem services, and humans. Learn what EPA is doing and what you can do.

  12. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... The discussion of technology considers the ocean transportation system as a whole, and the composite subsystems such as hull, outfit, propulsion, cargo handling, automation, and control and interface technology...

  13. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... In ocean transportation economics we present investment and operating costs as well as the results of a study of financing of shipping. Similarly, a discussion of government aid to shipping is presented.

  14. Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite-derived Ocean Color Data sets from historical and currently operational NASA and International Satellite missions including the NASA Coastal Zone Color...

  15. Ocean Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Brevik, Roy Schjølberg; Jordheim, Nikolai; Martinsen, John Christian; Labori, Aleksander; Torjul, Aleksander Lelis

    2017-01-01

    Bacheloroppgave i Internasjonal Markedsføring fra ESADE i Spania, 2017 In this thesis we were going to answer the problem definition “which segments in the Spanish market should Ocean Quality target”. By doing so we started to collect data from secondary sources in order to find information about the industry Ocean Quality are operating in. After conducting the secondary research, we still lacked essential information about the existing competition in the aquaculture industry o...

  16. An Andean type Palaeozoic convergence in the Bohemian Massif

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schulmann, K.; Konopásek, J.; Janoušek, V.; Lexa, O.; Lardeaux, J.-M.; Edel, J.-B.; Štípská, P.; Ulrich, Stanislav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 341, č. 2-3 (2009), s. 266-286 ISSN 1631-0713 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : Bohemian Massif * Saxothuringian oceanic subduction * building of Variscan orogenic root system * channel flow Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.931, year: 2009

  17. Assessment of satellite rainfall products over the Andean plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satgé, Frédéric; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Gosset, Marielle; Molina, Jorge; Hernan Yuque Lima, Wilson; Pillco Zolá, Ramiro; Timouk, Franck; Garnier, Jérémie

    2016-01-01

    Nine satellite rainfall estimations (SREs) were evaluated for the first time over the South American Andean plateau watershed by comparison with rain gauge data acquired between 2005 and 2007. The comparisons were carried out at the annual, monthly and daily time steps. All SREs reproduce the salient pattern of the annual rain field, with a marked north-south gradient and a lighter east-west gradient. However, the intensity of the gradient differs among SREs: it is well marked in the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis 3B42 (TMPA-3B42), Precipitation Estimation from remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN) and Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP) products, and it is smoothed out in the Climate prediction center MORPHing (CMORPH) products. Another interesting difference among products is the contrast in rainfall amounts between the water surfaces (Lake Titicaca) and the surrounding land. Some products (TMPA-3B42, PERSIANN and GSMaP) show a contradictory rainfall deficit over Lake Titicaca, which may be due to the emissivity contrast between the lake and the surrounding lands and warm rain cloud processes. An analysis differentiating coastal Lake Titicaca from inland pixels confirmed this trend. The raw or Real Time (RT) products have strong biases over the study region. These biases are strongly positive for PERSIANN (above 90%), moderately positive for TMPA-3B42 (28%), strongly negative for CMORPH (- 42%) and moderately negative for GSMaP (- 18%). The biases are associated with a deformation of the rain rate frequency distribution: GSMaP underestimates the proportion of rainfall events for all rain rates; CMORPH overestimates the proportion of rain rates below 2 mm day- 1; and the other products tend to overestimate the proportion of moderate to high rain rates. These biases are greatly reduced by the gauge adjustment in the TMPA-3B42, PERSIANN and CMORPH products, whereas a

  18. Characterization of Two Microbial Isolates from Andean Lakes in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demergasso, C.; Blamey, J.; Escudero, L.; Chong, G.; Casamayor, E. O.; Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; Hock, A.; Kiss, A.; Borics, G.

    2004-01-01

    We are currently investigating the biological population present in the highest and least explored perennial lakes on earth in the Bolivian and Chilean Andes, including several volcanic crater lakes of more than 6000 m elevation, in combination of microbiological and molecular biological methods. Our samples were collected in saline lakes of the Laguna Blanca Laguna Verde area in the Bolivian Altiplano and in the Licancabur volcano crater (27 deg. 47 min S/67 deg. 47 min. W) in the ongoing project studying high altitude lakes. The main goal of the project is to look for analogies with Martian paleolakes. These Bolivian lakes can be described as Andean lakes following the classification of Chong. We have attempted to isolate pure cultures and phylogenetically characterize prokaryotes that grew under laboratory conditions. Sediment samples taken from the Licancabur crater lake (LC), Laguna Verde (LV), and Laguna Blanca (LB) were analyzed and cultured using enriched liquid media under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. All cultures were incubated at room temperature (15 to 20 C) and under light exposure. For the reported isolates, 36 hours incubation were necessary for reaching optimal optical densities to consider them viable cultures. Ten serial dilutions starting from 1% inoculum were required to obtain a suitable enriched cell culture to transfer into solid media. Cultures on solid medium were necessary to verify the formation of colonies in order to isolate pure cultures. Different solid media were prepared using several combinations of both trace minerals and carbohydrates sources in order to fit their nutrient requirements. The microorganisms formed individual colonies on solid media enriched with tryptone, yeast extract and sodium chloride. Cells morphology was studied by optical and electronic microscopy. Rodshape morphologies were observed in most cases. Total bacterial genomic DNA was isolated from 50 ml late-exponential phase culture by using the CTAB

  19. Phytoregionalisation of the Andean páramo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendolyn Peyre

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The páramo is a high-elevation biogeographical province in the northern Andes, known for its great biodiversity and ecosystem services. Because there have been very few biogeographic studies encompassing the entire province to date, this study aimed at conducting a phytogeographical regionalisation of the páramo. Specifically, (1 clustering analyses were conducted to identify the main phytogeographical units in the three altitudinal belts: sub-páramo, mid-páramo and super-páramo, and examine their diagnostic flora, (2 an ordination complemented the geo-climatic characterization of the obtained units and (3 a hierarchical classification transformation was obtained to evaluate the relationships between units. Methods The study area included the entire Andean páramo range in northern Peru, Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela. The analyses were based on 1,647 phytosociological plots from the VegPáramo database. The K-means non-hierarchical clustering technique was used to obtain clusters identifiable as phytogeographical units, and the Ochiai fidelity index was calculated to identify their diagnostic species. A principal component analysis was conducted to obtain the geo-climatic characterization of each unit. Finally, the relationships between clusters were traced using a hierarchical plot-based classification. Results Fifteen clusters were obtained, 13 natural and two artificial, of which two represented the sub-páramo, nine the mid-páramo and four the super-páramo. Even though data representativeness was a potential limitation to segregate certain sub-páramo and super-páramo units, the overall bioregionalisation was robust and represented important latitudinal, altitudinal and climatic gradients. Discussion This study is the first to bioregionalise the páramo province based on a substantial widely distributed biological dataset, and therefore provides important novel scientific insight on its biogeography. The obtained

  20. Advancement Staff and Alumni Advocates: Cultivating LGBTQ Alumni by Promoting Individual and Community Uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Jason C.; Drezner, Noah D.

    2013-01-01

    Using a constructivist case-study analysis, we explore philanthropy toward higher education among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) alumni, examining the role of advancement staff and alumni advocates in engaging LGBTQ alumni to promote individual and community uplift. Data come from focus groups with 37 advancement staff and…

  1. Respite Care, Stress, Uplifts, and Marital Quality in Parents of Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Michelle; Dyches, Tina Taylor; Harper, James M.; Roper, Susanne Olsen; Caldarella, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Parents of children with disabilities are at risk for high stress and low marital quality; therefore, this study surveyed couples (n = 112) of children with Down syndrome (n = 120), assessing whether respite hours, stress, and uplifts were related to marital quality. Structural equation modeling indicated that respite hours were negatively related…

  2. The role of tectonic uplift, climate, and vegetation in the long-term terrestrial phosphorous cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Buendía

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is a crucial element for life and therefore for maintaining ecosystem productivity. Its local availability to the terrestrial biosphere results from the interaction between climate, tectonic uplift, atmospheric transport, and biotic cycling. Here we present a mathematical model that describes the terrestrial P-cycle in a simple but comprehensive way. The resulting dynamical system can be solved analytically for steady-state conditions, allowing us to test the sensitivity of the P-availability to the key parameters and processes. Given constant inputs, we find that humid ecosystems exhibit lower P availability due to higher runoff and losses, and that tectonic uplift is a fundamental constraint. In particular, we find that in humid ecosystems the biotic cycling seem essential to maintain long-term P-availability. The time-dependent P dynamics for the Franz Josef and Hawaii chronosequences show how tectonic uplift is an important constraint on ecosystem productivity, while hydroclimatic conditions control the P-losses and speed towards steady-state. The model also helps describe how, with limited uplift and atmospheric input, as in the case of the Amazon Basin, ecosystems must rely on mechanisms that enhance P-availability and retention. Our novel model has a limited number of parameters and can be easily integrated into global climate models to provide a representation of the response of the terrestrial biosphere to global change.

  3. Variable uplift rate through time: Holocene coral reef and neotectonics of Lutao, eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chuan-Chou; Wu, Chung-Che; Dai, Chang-Feng; Gong, Shou-Yeh

    2018-05-01

    Significant discrepancies have existed regarding rate and timing of the uplift of Lutao (Green Island), located at the border of the ongoing collision between the Eurasia continental plate and the Philippine Sea Plate. To document its neotectonic history, two cores were drilled into Holocene coral reefs exposed at the southeastern coast of Lutao. Twelve pristine fossil corals, nine taken from cores and three on the surface, were 230Th dated. The results show that the coral reefs started to develop at 8,736 ± 56 yr BP (before 1950 CE) with uplift rate varying from 3.6 mm/yr during 8.7-6.0 kyr BP to 1.2 mm/yr in the past six thousand years. Our study strongly suggests that the uplift rate can vary significantly on millennial time scale. Caution should be used when extrapolating uplift rate estimates based on Mid-late Holocene corals to early times for tectonic active locations, such as Lutao.

  4. Societal Uplift and Productive Efficiency: Corporate Use of Vocational Education in Ellsworth, Pennsylvania, 1900-1915.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyser, Raymond M.

    About 1900, James W. Ellsworth created the educational system of Ellsworth, Pennsylvania. His aim was to have the system serve a dual purpose: the societal uplift of foreign miners to make them better citizens and the improvement of the company's productive efficiency. Ellsworth's school offered traditional courses along with training in English…

  5. Tiotropium as a first maintenance drug in COPD: secondary analysis of the UPLIFT trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troosters, T; Celli, B; Lystig, T

    2010-01-01

    -term Impacts on Function with Tiotropium (UPLIFT) was conducted. Analysis focused on the effect of tiotropium versus matching placebo in the 810 (13.5%) COPD patients not on other maintenance treatment (long-acting beta-agonists, inhaled corticosteroids, theophyllines or anticholinergics) at randomisation...

  6. Modelling the impact of regional uplift and local tectonics on fluvial terrace preservation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveen, W.; Schoorl, J.M.; Veldkamp, A.; Balen, van R.T.

    2014-01-01

    A terrace formation model (TERRACE) combined with a longitudinal river profile model (FLUVER) was used to simulate fluvial terrace formation and preservation in the northwest Iberian lower Miño River basin under the influence of three tectonic conditions; namely regional vertical uplift, local basin

  7. 230Th/234U dating of coral limestones and vertical uplift at Djibouti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, Hugues; Hoang, C.T.; Lalou, Claude

    1980-01-01

    Coral limestones sampled from marine terraces along the Afar coast have been dated by the 230 Th/ 234 U method. The ages confirm the stratigraphic unity of these formations and the existence of the paleo sea level dated 124 000 years ago in this region. These results permit to deduce the uplift rates of this littoral [fr

  8. Family Caregiver Uplift and Burden: Associations with Aggressive Behavior in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Gemma; Deb, Shoumitro

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the experience of family caregivers caring for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) who display aggressive behavior in terms of associations with caregiver burden and uplift. The family caregivers of 44 people with ID and aggressive behavior were interviewed using a suite of questionnaires and…

  9. Uplift along the western margin of the Deccan Basalt Province: Is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and Planetary Change 58 310–334. Powar K B 1981 Lineament fabric and dyke pattern in the western part of the Deccan Volcanic Province; Geol. Soc. India Memoir 3 45–57. Powar K B 1993 Geomorphological evolution of Konkan coastal belt and adjoining Sahyadri uplands with refer- ence to Quaternary uplift; Curr. Sci.

  10. Middel Pleistocene to Holocene fluvial terrace development and uplift-driven valley incision in the SE Carpathians, Romania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Necea, D.; Fielitz, W.; Andriessen, P.A.M.; Dinu, C.

    2013-01-01

    This study reveals that in the SE Carpathians terrace development and fluvial incision during the Middle Pleistocene-Holocene are predominantly controlled by tectonic uplift as shown by terrace distributions and uplift amounts and rates. The work focuses on a transect from the internal nappes and

  11. Modelling the Middle Pleistocene uplift in the Ardennes-Rhenish Massif: Thermo-mechanical weakening under the Eifel?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Castellanos, D.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; van Balen, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    Middle Pleistocene uplift in the Eifel has been interpreted as the isostatic response of the lithosphere to a deep buoyant hot body. The spatial and temporal distribution of the uplift in the Ardennes-Rhenish Massif Region has recently been constrained by new data of river incision that have been

  12. Successional position of dry Andean dwarf forest species as a basis for restoration trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, J.P.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.; Cleef, A.M.; Rietman, N.

    2005-01-01

    The successional affinity of nine woody species was inferred from the structure, diversity and disturbance history of the vegetation where these occurred. This was done in order to obtain a basis for a restoration experiment, currently in execution, in the dry Andean dwarf forest zone on the edge of

  13. Regional water resources management in the Andean region with numerical models and satellite remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menenti, M.; Mulders, C.W.B.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the development and adaptation of distributed numerical simulation models of hydrological processes in complex watersheds typical of the Andean region. These distributed models take advantage of the synoptic capabilities of sensors on-board satellites and GIS procedures have

  14. 78 FR 15031 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Andean Trade Preferences Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... Management and Budget (OMB) approval. All comments will become a matter of public record. In this document..., Andean Trade Promotion and Drug Eradication Act (ATPDEA) Certificate of Origin. This form can be used... 17. Type of Review: Extension (without change). Affected Public: Businesses. ATPA Certificate of...

  15. Trade in Andean Condor Vulture gryphus feathers and body parts in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    body parts in the city of Cusco and the Sacred Valley,. Cusco region, Peru. Robert S. R. ... The sale of Andean Condor feathers and body parts is undertaken openly in the tourist markets of Cusco and the Sacred .... and shops. Prices in local currency – Nuevo Sol and US Dollar equivalent given in parentheses). Feather.

  16. The Rise and Fall of Andean Empires: El Nino History Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth R.

    2000-01-01

    Provides information on El Nino and the methods for investigating ancient climate record. Traces the rise and fall of the Andean empires focusing on the climatic forces that each empire (Tiwanaku, Wari, Moche, and Inca) endured. States that modern societies should learn from the experiences of these ancient civilizations. (CMK)

  17. Contrasting patterns of Andean diversification among three diverse clades of Neotropical clearwing butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazot, Nicolas; De-Silva, Donna Lisa; Willmott, Keith R; Freitas, André V L; Lamas, Gerardo; Mallet, James; Giraldo, Carlos E; Uribe, Sandra; Elias, Marianne

    2018-04-01

    The Neotropical region is the most biodiverse on Earth, in a large part due to the highly diverse tropical Andean biota. The Andes are a potentially important driver of diversification within the mountains and for neighboring regions. We compared the role of the Andes in diversification among three subtribes of Ithomiini butterflies endemic to the Neotropics, Dircennina, Oleriina, and Godyridina. The diversification patterns of Godyridina have been studied previously. Here, we generate the first time-calibrated phylogeny for the largest ithomiine subtribe, Dircennina, and we reanalyze a published phylogeny of Oleriina to test different biogeographic scenarios involving the Andes within an identical framework. We found common diversification patterns across the three subtribes, as well as major differences. In Dircennina and Oleriina, our results reveal a congruent pattern of diversification related to the Andes with an Andean origin, which contrasts with the Amazonian origin and multiple Andean colonizations of Godyridina. In each of the three subtribes, a clade diversified in the Northern Andes at a faster rate. Diversification within Amazonia occurred in Oleriina and Godyridina, while virtually no speciation occurred in Dircennina in this region. Dircennina was therefore characterized by higher diversification rates within the Andes compared to non-Andean regions, while in Oleriina and Godyridina, we found no difference between these regions. Our results and discussion highlight the importance of comparative approaches in biogeographic studies.

  18. Studies on Colombian Cryptogams VI. High Andean species of Radula (Hepaticae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jans, Els

    1979-01-01

    This study deals with the genus Radula (Hepaticae) from the high Andean forests and paramos of Colombia, above 2500 m, and is based on the determination of Colombian collections gathered by H. Bischler and by A. M. Cleef and collaborators. A key to the 8 species known from the area is given and

  19. Genome-wide association study of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans ...

  20. Marcos Zapata's "Last Supper": a feast of European religion and Andean culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendt, Christina

    2010-01-01

    In Marcos Zapata's 1753 painting of the Last Supper in Cuzco, Peru, Christian symbolism is filtered through Andean cultural tradition. Zapata was a late member of the Cuzco School of Painting, a group comprised of few European immigrants and handfuls of mestizo and Indian artists. The painters in Cuzco learned mostly from prints of European paintings, and their style tends to blend local culture into the traditional painting of their conquistadors. Imagery was the most successful tool used by the Spaniards in their quest to Christianize the Andean population. By teaching locals to paint Christian subjects, they were able to infuse Christianity into Andean traditions. Zapata's rendering of the Last Supper utilizes this cultural blending while staying true to the Christian symbolism within the subject. Instead of the traditional lamb, Zapata's Last Supper features a platter of cuy, or guinea pig, an Andean delicacy stocked with protein as well as cultural significance. Cuy was traditionally a sacrificial animal at Inca agricultural festivals and in this way it offers poignant parallel to the lamb, as a traditional Christian sacrificial animal.

  1. Forests of the tropical eastern Andean flank during the middle Pleistocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cárdenas, M.L.; Gosling, W.D.; Pennington, R.T.; Poole, I.; Sherlock, S.C.; Mothes, P.

    2014-01-01

    Inter-bedded volcanic and organic sediments from Erazo (Ecuador) indicate the presence of four different forest assemblages on the eastern Andean flank during the middle Pleistocene. Radiometric dates (40Ar-39Ar) obtained from the volcanic ash indicate that deposition occurred between 620,000 and

  2. Uplifting model of the Longmenshan mountain in the eastern margin of Tibetan plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Ding, R.; Mao, C.

    2010-12-01

    Longmenshan mountain is a vivid manifestation of the Cenozoic orogenesis in the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau, and a key to understand the geodynamics of eastward extending of the plateau. Thus the uplift mechanism of Longmenshan mountain became a hot spot issue of geosciences about the Tibetan plateau. Two entirely different hypotheses, i.e., crustal shortening and lower crustal channel flow, were put forward, but the solution is open. Further discussion need our deeper understanding about the uplifting features of the Longmenshan mountain. Fortunately, the uplifting processes were recorded objectively by peneplains and river landforms. We first analysed the peneplains and pediplanes of Longmenshan mountain and its surrounding areas, and surveyed the terraces of Dadu river running across the mountain. Then we studied the uplifting features of the study areas in late Cenozoic time on the basis of landform geometries. Finaly we discussed the possible mechanisms for the uplifting. There are two levels of peneplains whose peneplanations may begin in early Cenozoic time and end at late Miocene when the final fluctuations of elevations were possibly less than one kilometers. The valley of Dadu river is incised into the peneplains and has a staircase of no less than ten levels of terraces. The highest terrace is a strath which was contemporary with the pediplane in the piedmont formed in late Pliocene or in early Pleistocene. Due to their originally flat features, the peneplains and the strath terraces were used as datum planes for judging neotectonic deformations. Since late Miocene, the southeastern side of Longmenshan mountain has been dominated by thrust-faulting with a total vertical displacement of about 4500 m against the Sichuan basin, meantime the northwest side has been maintained flexural uplift with syncline hinge approximately following the Longriba fault. As a landform barrier between Tibetan plateau and Sichuan basin, the crest lines of the

  3. Identifying signatures of natural selection in Tibetan and Andean populations using dense genome scan data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Bigham

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude hypoxia (reduced inspired oxygen tension due to decreased barometric pressure exerts severe physiological stress on the human body. Two high-altitude regions where humans have lived for millennia are the Andean Altiplano and the Tibetan Plateau. Populations living in these regions exhibit unique circulatory, respiratory, and hematological adaptations to life at high altitude. Although these responses have been well characterized physiologically, their underlying genetic basis remains unknown. We performed a genome scan to identify genes showing evidence of adaptation to hypoxia. We looked across each chromosome to identify genomic regions with previously unknown function with respect to altitude phenotypes. In addition, groups of genes functioning in oxygen metabolism and sensing were examined to test the hypothesis that particular pathways have been involved in genetic adaptation to altitude. Applying four population genetic statistics commonly used for detecting signatures of natural selection, we identified selection-nominated candidate genes and gene regions in these two populations (Andeans and Tibetans separately. The Tibetan and Andean patterns of genetic adaptation are largely distinct from one another, with both populations showing evidence of positive natural selection in different genes or gene regions. Interestingly, one gene previously known to be important in cellular oxygen sensing, EGLN1 (also known as PHD2, shows evidence of positive selection in both Tibetans and Andeans. However, the pattern of variation for this gene differs between the two populations. Our results indicate that several key HIF-regulatory and targeted genes are responsible for adaptation to high altitude in Andeans and Tibetans, and several different chromosomal regions are implicated in the putative response to selection. These data suggest a genetic role in high-altitude adaption and provide a basis for future genotype/phenotype association

  4. Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador: Geographic Distribution, Population Size and Extinction Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveda-Rodríguez, Adrián; Vargas, Félix Hernán; Kohn, Sebastián; Zapata-Ríos, Galo

    2016-01-01

    The Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador is classified as Critically Endangered. Before 2015, standardized and systematic estimates of geographic distribution, population size and structure were not available for this species, hampering the assessment of its current status and hindering the design and implementation of effective conservation actions. In this study, we performed the first quantitative assessment of geographic distribution, population size and population viability of Andean Condor in Ecuador. We used a methodological approach that included an ecological niche model to study geographic distribution, a simultaneous survey of 70 roosting sites to estimate population size and a population viability analysis (PVA) for the next 100 years. Geographic distribution in the form of extent of occurrence was 49 725 km2. During a two-day census, 93 Andean Condors were recorded and a population of 94 to 102 individuals was estimated. In this population, adult-to-immature ratio was 1:0.5. In the modeled PVA scenarios, the probability of extinction, mean time to extinction and minimum population size varied from zero to 100%, 63 years and 193 individuals, respectively. Habitat loss is the greatest threat to the conservation of Andean Condor populations in Ecuador. Population size reduction in scenarios that included habitat loss began within the first 15 years of this threat. Population reinforcement had no effects on the recovery of Andean Condor populations given the current status of the species in Ecuador. The population size estimate presented in this study is the lower than those reported previously in other countries where the species occur. The inferences derived from the population viability analysis have implications for Condor management in Ecuador. This study highlights the need to redirect efforts from captive breeding and population reinforcement to habitat conservation.

  5. Seismological observations at the Northern Andean region of Colombia: Evidence for a shallowly subducting Caribbean Slab and an extensional regime in the upper plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsalve, G.; Cardona, A.; Yarce, J.; Alvira, D.; Poveda, E.

    2013-05-01

    A number of seismological observations, among which we can mention teleseismic travel time residuals, P to S receiver functions and Pn velocity quantification, suggest a clear distinction between the seismic structure of the crust and uppermost mantle between the plains on the Caribbean coast of Colombia and the mountains at the Northern Andean region. Absolute and relative travel time residuals indicate the presence of a seismically fast material in the upper mantle beneath northern Colombia; preliminary results of Pn studies show a region of relatively slow Pn velocities (between 7.8 and 7.9 km/s) underneath the Caribbean coast, contrasting with values greater than 8 km/s beneath the Central and Western cordilleras of Colombia, and the Pacific coast; receiver functions suggest a significantly thinner crust beneath the Caribbean coast, with a crustal thickness between 25 and 30 km, than beneath the Northern Andean zone at the cordilleras of Colombia, where it exceeds 40 km and reaches about 57 km at the location of Bogota. Besides the obviuos discrepancies that appear in response to different topography, we think that the seismological observations are a consequence of the presence of two very distinct slab segments beneath Colombia and contrasting behaviors of the upper plate, which correspond to Caribbean and Nazca subductions. Our seismic observations can be explained by a shallowly subducting Caribbean Plate, in the absence of an asthenospheric wedge, that steepens at about the location of the Bucaramanga nest, and a thinned continental crust that reflects an extensional component linked to oblique convergence of the Caribbean, which contrasts with the crustal thickening in the Andean Cordillera linked to crustal shortening and Nazca plate subuction. These new data are consistent with the idea of of a relatively warm Nazca slab of Neogene age which seems to have a relatively frontal convergence, and a colder, more buoyant Caribbean slab which represents an

  6. Oceans Past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Based on research for the History of Marine Animal Populations project, Oceans Past examines the complex relationship our forebears had with the sea and the animals that inhabit it. It presents eleven studies ranging from fisheries and invasive species to offshore technology and the study of marine...... environmental history, bringing together the perspectives of historians and marine scientists to enhance understanding of ocean management of the past, present and future. In doing so, it also highlights the influence that changes in marine ecosystems have upon the politics, welfare and culture of human...

  7. Ocean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    There are 5 different ways of harnessing ocean energy: tides, swells, currents, osmotic pressure and deep water thermal gradients. The tidal power sector is the most mature. A single French site - The Rance tidal power station (240 MW) which was commissioned in 1966 produces 90% of the world's ocean energy. Smaller scale power stations operate around the world, 10 are operating in the European Union and 5 are being tested. Underwater generators and wave energy converters are expanding. In France a 1 km 2 sea test platform is planned for 2010. (A.C.)

  8. Molecular phylogeography of the Andean alpine plant, Gunnera magellanica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, M.; Fujii, N.; Ito, M.; Asakawa, T.; Nishida, H.; Suyama, C.; Ueda, K.

    2015-12-01

    that the populations of G. magellanica that were distributed along the Andes have been divided into the two local populations of the northern and southern Andes during the uplift of the Andes.

  9. Phenotypic, Molecular, and Pathological Characterization of Colletotrichum acutatum Associated with Andean Lupine and Tamarillo in the Ecuadorian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falconi, C.; Visser, R.G.F.; Heusden, van A.W.

    2013-01-01

    Anthracnose is a serious problem of both Andean lupine and tamarillo in Ecuador. Morphological features, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, and host specificity were used to characterize Colletotrichum isolates from lupine and tamarillo. Based on phenotypic and molecular characterization,

  10. Precise leveling determination of surface uplift patterns at the New Hydraulic Fracturing Facility, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, C.S.; Stow, S.H.

    1988-05-01

    Surface uplift patterns were determined for five grout injections at the New Hydrofracture Facility (NHF) during the period July 1983 through January 1984. The uplift patterns are complex. In plan view, they are elliptical to almost circular and exhibit varying degrees of cross-sectional asymmetry with one side steeper than the other. The long axis of the ellipse is more or less parallel to geological strike. The uplift patterns vary in size, shape and asymmetry from injection to injection. The region of maximum uplift is typically offset with respect to the injection point, suggesting that most hydrofracture injections dip to the south-southeast. Approximately 40 to 60% of the uplift measured 5 days after an injection subsided within 30 to 45 days. In one case, all of the uplift subsided within 70 days of injection. Modeling of the uplift patterns by simple models, based on homogeneous, isotropic subsurface conditions, suggests that hydrofractures produced by the injections are either horizontal or have shallow dips to the south-southeast. Such orientations are consistent with the hydrofracture orientations determined by gamma-ray logging in observation wells surrounding the NHF site. 19 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab

  11. Role of erosion and isostasy in the Cordillera Blanca uplift: Insights from landscape evolution modeling (northern Peru, Andes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margirier, Audrey; Braun, Jean; Robert, Xavier; Audin, Laurence

    2018-03-01

    The processes driving uplift and exhumation of the highest Peruvian peaks (the Cordillera Blanca) are not well understood. Uplift and exhumation seem closely linked to the formation and movement on the Cordillera Blanca normal fault (CBNF) that delimits and shapes the western flank of the Cordillera Blanca. Several models have been proposed to explain the presence of this major normal fault in a compressional setting, but the CBNF and the Cordillera Blanca recent rapid uplift remain enigmatic. Whereas the Cordillera Blanca morphology demonstrates important erosion and thus a significant mass of rocks removal, the impact of erosion and isostasy on the evolution of the Cordillera Blanca uplift rates has never been explored. We address the role of erosion and associated flexural rebound in the uplift and exhumation of the Cordillera Blanca with numerical modeling of landscape evolution. We perform inversions of the broad features of the present-day topography, total exhumation and thermochronological data using a landscape evolution model (FastScape) to provide constraints on the erosion efficiency factor, the uplift rate and the temperature gradient. Our results evidence the not negligible contribution of erosion and associated flexural rebound to the uplift of the Cordillera Blanca and allow us to question the models previously proposed for the formation of the CBNF.

  12. Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Claudia; Orellana, Mónica V.; DeVault, Megan; Simon, Zac; Baliga, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    The curriculum module described in this article addresses the global issue of ocean acidification (OA) (Feely 2009; Figure 1). OA is a harmful consequence of excess carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) in the atmosphere and poses a threat to marine life, both algae and animal. This module seeks to teach and help students master the cross-disciplinary…

  13. Observations of mesoscale and boundary-layer scale circulations affecting dust transport and uplift over the Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Marsham

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Observations of the Saharan boundary layer, made during the GERBILS field campaign, show that mesoscale land surface temperature variations (which were related to albedo variations induced mesoscale circulations. With weak winds along the aircraft track, land surface temperature anomalies with scales of greater than 10 km are shown to significantly affect boundary-layer temperatures and winds. Such anomalies are expected to affect the vertical mixing of the dusty and weakly stratified Saharan Residual Layer (SRL. Mesoscale variations in winds are also shown to affect dust loadings in the boundary layer.

    Using the aircraft observations and data from the COSMO model, a region of local dust uplift, with strong along-track winds, was identified in one low-level flight. Large eddy model (LEM simulations based on this location showed linearly organised boundary-layer convection. Calculating dust uplift rates from the LEM wind field showed that the boundary-layer convection increased uplift by approximately 30%, compared with the uplift rate calculated neglecting the convection. The modelled effects of boundary-layer convection on uplift are shown to be larger when the boundary-layer wind is decreased, and most significant when the mean wind is below the threshold for dust uplift and the boundary-layer convection leads to uplift which would not otherwise occur.

    Both the coupling of albedo features to the atmosphere on the mesoscale, and the enhancement of dust uplift by boundary-layer convection are unrepresented in many climate models, but may have significant impacts on the vertical transport and uplift of desert dust. Mesoscale effects in particular tend to be difficult to parametrise.

  14. Shape and amount of the Quaternary uplift of the western Rhenish shield and the Ardennes (western Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, A.; Hallot, E.

    2009-09-01

    A good evaluation of the Quaternary uplift of the Rhenish shield is a key element for the understanding of the Cenozoic geodynamics of the western European platform in front of the alpine arc. Previous maps of the massif uplift relied on fluvial incision data since the time of the rivers' Younger Main Terrace to infer a maximum post-0.73 Ma uplift of ~ 290 m in the SE Eifel. Here, we propose a new interpretation of the incision data of the intra-massif streams, where anomalies in the terrace profiles would result from knickpoint retreat in the tributaries of the main rivers rather than from tectonic deformation. We also use additional geomorphological data referring to (1) deformed Tertiary planation surfaces, (2) the history of stream piracy that severely affected the Meuse basin in the last 1 Ma, and (3) incision data outside the Rhenish shield. A new map of the post-0.73 Ma uplift of the Rhenish shield is drawn on the basis of this enlarged dataset. It reduces the maximum amount of tectonic uplift in the SE Eifel to ~ 140 m and modifies the general shape of the uplift, namely straightening its E-W profile. It is also suggested that an uplift wave migrated across the massif, starting from its southern margin in the early Pleistocene and currently showing the highest intensity of uplift in the northern Ardennes and Eifel. These features seem to favour an uplift mechanism chiefly related to lithospheric folding and minimize the impact on the topography of a more local Eifel plume.

  15. Evaluation of Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine Uplift Restraint for a Seismic Event During Repositioning Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SWENSON, C.E.

    2000-01-01

    Insertion of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) assemblies into the Canister Storage Building (CSB) storage tubes involves the use of the MCO Handling Machine (MHM). During MCO storage tube insertion operations, inadvertent movement of the MHM is prevented by engaging seismic restraints (''active restraints'') located adjacent to both the bridge and trolley wheels. During MHM repositioning operations, the active restraints are not engaged. When the active seismic restraints are not engaged, the only functioning seismic restraints are non-engageable (''passive'') wheel uplift restraints which function only if the wheel uplift is sufficient to close the nominal 0.5-inch gap at the uplift restraint interface. The MHM was designed and analyzed in accordance with ASME NOG-1-1995. The ALSTHOM seismic analysis reported seismic loads on the MHM uplift restraints and EDERER performed corresponding structural calculations to demonstrate structural adequacy of the seismic uplift restraint hardware. The ALSTHOM and EDERER calculations were performed for a parked MHM with the active seismic restraints engaged, resulting in uplift restraint loading only in the vertical direction. In support of development of the CSB Safety Analysis Report (SAR), an evaluation of the MHM seismic response was requested for the case where the active seismic restraints are not engaged. If a seismic event occurs during MHM repositioning operations, a moving contact at a seismic uplift restraint would introduce a friction load on the restraint in the direction of the movement. These potential horizontal friction loads on the uplift restraints were not included in the existing restraint hardware design calculations. One of the purposes of the current evaluation is to address the structural adequacy of the MHM seismic uplift restraints with the addition of the horizontal friction associated with MHM repositioning movements

  16. Ocean energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlier, R.H.; Justus, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    This timely volume provides a comprehensive review of current technology for all ocean energies. It opens with an analysis of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), with and without the use of an intermediate fluid. The historical and economic background is reviewed, and the geographical areas in which this energy could be utilized are pinpointed. The production of hydrogen as a side product, and environmental consequences of OTEC plants are considered. The competitiveness of OTEC with conventional sources of energy is analysed. Optimisation, current research and development potential are also examined. Separate chapters provide a detailed examination of other ocean energy sources. The possible harnessing of solar ponds, ocean currents, and power derived from salinity differences is considered. There is a fascinating study of marine winds, and the question of using the ocean tides as a source of energy is examined, focussing on a number of tidal power plant projects, including data gathered from China, Australia, Great Britain, Korea and the USSR. Wave energy extraction has excited recent interest and activity, with a number of experimental pilot plants being built in northern Europe. This topic is discussed at length in view of its greater chance of implementation. Finally, geothermal and biomass energy are considered, and an assessment of their future is given. The authors also distinguished between energy schemes which might be valuable in less-industrialized regions of the world, but uneconomical in the developed countries. A large number of illustrations support the text. This book will be of particular interest to energy economists, engineers, geologists and oceanographers, and to environmentalists and environmental engineers

  17. Sombrero uplift above the Altiplano-Puna Magma Body: evidence of a ballooning mid-crustal diapir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialko, Yuri; Pearse, Jill

    2012-10-12

    The Altiplano-Puna ultralow-velocity zone in the central Andes, South America, is the largest active magma body in Earth's continental crust. Space geodetic observations reported an uplift in the Altiplano-Puna proper at a rate of ~10 mm/year; however, the nature of the inferred inflation source has been uncertain. We present data showing that the uplift has persisted at a nearly constant rate over the past two decades, and is surrounded by a broad zone of subsidence. We show that the ongoing uplift and peripheral subsidence may result from a large mid-crustal diapir fed by partial melt from the Altiplano-Puna Magma Body.

  18. Tectonic and erosion-driven uplift in the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains of East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraccioli, Fausto; Jordan, Tom; Watts, Tony; Bell, Robin; Jamieson, Stewart; Finn, Carol; Damaske, Detlef

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the mechanisms leading to intraplate mountain building remains a significant challenge in Earth Sciences compared to ranges formed along plate margins. The most enigmatic intraplate mountain range on Earth is the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains (GSM) located in the middle of the Precambrian East Antarctic Craton. During the International Polar Year, the AGAP project acquired 120,000 line km of new airborne geophysical data (Bell et al., 2011, Science) and seismological observations (Hansen et al., 2010, EPSL) across central East Antarctica. Models derived from these datasets provide new geophysical perspectives on crustal architecture and possible uplift mechanisms for the enigmatic GSM (Ferraccioli et al., 2011, Nature). The geophysical data define a 2,500-km-long Paleozoic to Mesozoic rift system in East Antarctica surrounding the GSM. A thick high-density lower crustal root is partially preserved beneath the range and has been interpreted as formed during the Proterozoic assembly of East Antarctica. Rifting could have triggered phase/density changes at deep crustal levels, perhaps restoring some of the latent root buoyancy, as well as causing rift-flank uplift. Permian rifting is well-established in the adjacent Lambert Rift, and was followed by Cretaceous strike-slip faulting and transtension associated with Gondwana break-up; this phase may have provided a more recent tectonic trigger for the initial uplift of the modern GSM. The Cretaceous rift-flank uplift model for the Gamburtsevs is appealing because it relates the initiation of intraplate mountain-building to large-scale geodynamic processes that led to the separation of Greater India from East Antarctica. It is also consistent with several geological and geophysical interpretations within the Lambert Rift. However, recent detrital thermochrology results from Oligocene-Quaternary sediments in Prydz Bay (Tochlin et al., 2012, G3) argue against the requirement for major Cretaceous rift

  19. Glacial erosion, rock, and peak uplift within the central Transantarctic Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, T.A.; Baxter, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    About 1500 m of peak elevation can be ascribed to the isostatic response of valley incision within the central Transantarctic Mountains. This estimate, based on a 3D analysis of topography, and on rock uplift history, represents c. 33% of the maximum peak elevation within the Transantarctic Mountains. Input to the calculation includes a previoulsy published estimate for the variation of flexural rigidity across the western margin of East Antarctica, and a lithospheric free-edge at the Transantarctic Mountains Front. The rebound response is a complex function of lithospheric rigidity, wavelength or erosion, and lithospheric boundary conditions. We also calculate a maximum 4000 m of total rebound due to both valley incision and erosion of mountain tops. This represents 60% of the maximum rock uplift inferred for the mountain front on the bases of fission track data and flexure analysis. (author). 34 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Rapid bedrock uplift in the Antarctic Peninsula explained by viscoelastic response to recent ice unloading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nield, Grace A.; Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Bordoni, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Since 1995 several ice shelves in the Northern Antarctic Peninsula have collapsed and triggered ice-mass unloading, invoking a solid Earth response that has been recorded at continuous GPS (cGPS) stations. A previous attempt to model the observation of rapid uplift following the 2002 breakup...... of the Palmer cGPS station since 2002 cannot be explained by elastic deformation alone. We apply a viscoelastic model with linear Maxwell rheology to predict uplift since 1995 and test the fit to the Palmer cGPS time series, finding a well constrained upper mantle viscosity but less sensitivity to lithospheric...... thickness. We further constrain the best fitting Earth model by including six cGPS stations deployed after 2009 (the LARISSA network), with vertical velocities in the range 1.7 to 14.9 mm/yr. This results in a best fitting Earth model with lithospheric thickness of 100–140 km and upper mantle viscosity of 6...

  1. Burial, Uplift and Exhumation History of the Atlantic Margin of NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japsen, Peter; Bonow, Johan M.; Green, Paul F.; Cobbold, Peter R.; Chiossi, Dario; Lilletveit, Ragnhild

    2010-05-01

    We have undertaken a regional study of landscape development and thermo-tectonic evo-lution of NE Brazil. Our results reveal a long history of post-Devonian burial and exhuma-tion across NE Brazil. Uplift movements just prior to and during Early Cretaceous rifting led to further regional denudation, to filling of rift basins and finally to formation of the Atlantic margin. The rifted margin was buried by a km-thick post-rift section, but exhumation began in the Late Cretaceous as a result of plate-scale forces. The Cretaceous cover probably extended over much of NE Brazil where it is still preserved over extensive areas. The Late Cretaceous exhumation event was followed by events in the Paleogene and Neogene. The results of these events of uplift and exhumation are two regional peneplains that form steps in the landscape. The plateaux in the interior highlands are defined by the Higher Surface at c. 1 km above sea level. This surface formed by fluvial erosion after the Late Cretaceous event - and most likely after the Paleogene event - and thus formed as a Paleogene pene-plain near sea level. This surface was reburied prior to the Neogene event, in the interior by continental deposits and along the Atlantic margin by marine and coastal deposits. Neo-gene uplift led to reexposure of the Palaeogene peneplain and to formation of the Lower Surface by incision along rivers below the uplifted Higher Surface that characterise the pre-sent landscape. Our results show that the elevated landscapes along the Brazilian margin formed during the Neogene, c. 100 Myr after break-up. Studies in West Greenland have demonstrated that similar landscapes formed during the late Neogene, c. 50 Myr after break-up. Many passive continental margins around the world are characterised by such elevated plateaus and it thus seems possible, even likely, that they may also post-date rifting and continental separation by many Myr.

  2. 10D massive type IIA supergravities as the uplift of parabolic M2-brane torus bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia del Moral, Maria Pilar [Universidad de Antofagasta (Chile). Dept. de Fisica; Restuccia, Alvaro [Universidad de Antofagasta (Chile). Dept. de Fisica; Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Dept. de Fisica

    2016-04-15

    We remark that the two 10D massive deformations of the N = 2 maximal type IIA supergravity (Romans and HLW supergravity) are associated to the low energy limit of the uplift to 10D of M2-brane torus bundles with parabolic monodromy linearly and non-linearly realized respectively. Romans supergravity corresponds to M2-brane compactified on a twice-punctured torus bundle. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. THE VITALITY AND ROLE OF SELF HELP GROUPS (SHGS) IN WOMEN UPLIFTMENT: SPECIAL REFERENCE TO KASHMIR

    OpenAIRE

    Irshad Ahmad Irshad; Altaf Ahmad Bhat

    2017-01-01

    The prosperity and the stability of a family incomplete until a woman are not empowered. Empowerment means the raising of spiritual, political, social, gender or economic strength of individuals and communities, if a women is educated she can then rightly participate, organize, make others aware of the various programmes which is necessary for the upliftment of women. The women can understand and better coordinate with other women. The women folk especially belonging to rural areas had develo...

  4. Repair Works for Uplift and Seepage Control in Existing Concrete Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    weathered and therefore where the presence of soil mterials is likely to occur in joints and fractures. Fig.5 - Varosa dam. Main results of mechanical...situations are associated with: emptying of reservoir by hot summer; water effects due to hydrostatic pressure and uplift; winter, spring and autumn...design stage were supported by tests of three-dimensional plaster- diatomite models, carried out at LNEC (1971c). The models were built in a scale of 1

  5. Numerical modeling and experimental validation of seismic uplift pressure variations in cracked concrete dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javanmardi, F.; Leger, P. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Civil, Mining and Geological Engineering; Tinawi, R. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Concrete dams could sustain cracking and damage during maximum design earthquakes (MDE). Dam safety guidelines are established so that dams maintain a stable condition following MDE oscillatory motions. In this study, a theoretical model was developed to calculate the uplift pressure variations along concrete cracks with moving walls. The proposed model was verified using experimental crack test data. The model was applied in a finite element computer program for dynamic analysis of gravity dams considering hydro-mechanical water-crack coupling. An analysis of a typical 90 metre dam subjected to low and high frequency sinusoidal accelerations demonstrated that water can penetrate into part of a seismically initiated crack. Pressure tends to develop in a region close to the crack mouth, therefore detrimental effects for the global dam stability are unlikely to occur. The study showed that the seismic uplift force during the heel crack opening mode is small compared to the dam weight. This preliminary study suggests that the critical sliding safety factors (SSF) of the dam against downstream sliding could be computed by considering zero uplift pressure in the crack region subjected to tensile opening. 14 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  6. The effect of vertical earthquake component on the uplift of the nuclear reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Toshio

    1986-01-01

    During a strong earthquake, the base mat of a nuclear reactor building may be lifted partially by the response overturning moment. And it causes geometrical nonlinear interaction between the base mat and rock foundation beneath it. In order to avoid this uplift phenomena, the base mat and/or plan of the building is enlarged in some cases. These special design need more cost and/or time in construction. In the evaluation of the uplift phenomena, a parameter ''η'' named ''contact ratio'' is used defined as the ratio of compression stress zone area of base mat for total area of base mat. Usually this contact ratio is calculated under the combination of the maximum overturning moment obtained by the linear earthquake response analysis and the normal force by the gravity considering the effect of the vertical earthquake component. In this report, the effect of vertical earthquake component for the uplift phenomena is studied and it concludes that the vertical earthquake component gives little influence on the contact ratio. In order to obtain more reasonable contact retio, the nonlinear rocking analysis subjected to horizontal and vertical earthquake motions simultaneously is proposed in this report. As the second best method, the combination of the maximum overturning moment obtained by linear analysis and the normal force by only the gravity without the vertical earthquake effect is proposed. (author)

  7. Warm-cold colonization: response of oaks to uplift of the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hong-Hu; Su, Tao; Gao, Xiao-Yang; Li, Jie; Jiang, Xiao-Long; Sun, Hang; Zhou, Zhe-Kun

    2017-06-01

    Clarifying the relationship between distribution patterns of organisms and geological events is critical to understanding the impact of environmental changes on organismal evolution. Quercus sect. Heterobalanus is now distributed across the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (HHM) and warm lowland in East China, yet how the distribution patterns of this group changed in response to the HHM uplift remains largely unknown. This study examines the effect of tectonic events in the HHM region on the oaks, providing a biological perspective on the geological history of this region. Fifty-six populations of Quercus sect. Heterobalanus were genotyped using four chloroplast DNA regions and nine nuclear simple sequence repeat loci to assess population structure and diversity, supplemented by molecular dating and ancestral area reconstructions. The underlying demographic dynamics were compared using ecological niche models of the species distributions during the last glacial maximum and the present. These analyses illustrate that Quercus sect. Heterobalanus diversified as the HHM uplifted and climatic cooling during the mid-Miocene, colonizing the cold habitats from warm broadleaf mixed forests. Lineages in cold highlands and warm lowlands have diverged as a consequence of local adaptation to diverging climates since the late Miocene. Our results suggest that continuous uplift of the HHM in the late Miocene to early Pliocene accompanied by simultaneous cooling triggered the differentiation of oaks. The biogeography of Quercus sect. Heterobalanus illuminates the geological events responsible for the modern-day HHM. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Satellite drag effects due to uplifted oxygen neutrals during super magnetic storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Lakhina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During intense magnetic storms, prompt penetration electric fields (PPEFs through E  ×  B forces near the magnetic equator uplift the dayside ionosphere. This effect has been called the dayside super-fountain effect. Ion-neutral drag forces between the upward moving O+ (oxygen ions and oxygen neutrals will elevate the oxygen atoms to higher altitudes. This paper gives a linear calculation indicating how serious the effect may be during an 1859-type (Carrington superstorm. It is concluded that the oxygen neutral densities produced at low-Earth-orbiting (LEO satellite altitudes may be sufficiently high to present severe satellite drag. It is estimated that with a prompt penetrating electric field of ∼ 20 mV m−1 turned on for 20 min, the O atoms and O+ ions are uplifted to 850 km where they produce about 40-times-greater satellite drag per unit mass than normal. Stronger electric fields will presumably lead to greater uplifted mass.

  9. Uplift-driven diversification in the Hengduan Mountains, a temperate biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yaowu; Ree, Richard H

    2017-04-25

    A common hypothesis for the rich biodiversity found in mountains is uplift-driven diversification-that orogeny creates conditions favoring rapid in situ speciation of resident lineages. We tested this hypothesis in the context of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and adjoining mountain ranges, using the phylogenetic and geographic histories of multiple groups of plants to infer the tempo (rate) and mode (colonization versus in situ diversification) of biotic assembly through time and across regions. We focused on the Hengduan Mountains region, which in comparison with the QTP and Himalayas was uplifted more recently (since the late Miocene) and is smaller in area and richer in species. Time-calibrated phylogenetic analyses show that about 8 million y ago the rate of in situ diversification increased in the Hengduan Mountains, significantly exceeding that in the geologically older QTP and Himalayas. By contrast, in the QTP and Himalayas during the same period the rate of in situ diversification remained relatively flat, with colonization dominating lineage accumulation. The Hengduan Mountains flora was thus assembled disproportionately by recent in situ diversification, temporally congruent with independent estimates of orogeny. This study shows quantitative evidence for uplift-driven diversification in this region, and more generally, tests the hypothesis by comparing the rate and mode of biotic assembly jointly across time and space. It thus complements the more prevalent method of examining endemic radiations individually and could be used as a template to augment such studies in other biodiversity hotspots.

  10. The topographic signature of Quaternary tectonic uplift in the Ardennes massif (Western Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sougnez, N.; Vanacker, V.

    2011-04-01

    Geomorphic processes that produce and transport sediment, and incise river valleys are complex; and often difficult to quantify over longer timescales of 103 to 105 y. Morphometric indices that describe the topography of hill slopes, valleys and river channels have commonly been used to compare morphological characteristics between catchments and to relate them to hydrological and erosion processes. This study aims to analyze the link between tectonic uplift rates and landscape morphology based on slope and channel morphometric indexes. To achieve this objective, we selected 10 catchments of about 150 to 250 km2 across the Ardennes Massif (a Palaeozoic massif of NW Europe, principally located in Belgium) that cover various tectonic domains with uplift rates ranging from about 0.06 to 0.20 mm yr-1 since mid-Pleistocene times. The morphometric analysis indicates that the slope and channel morphology of third-order catchments is not yet in topographic steady-state, and exhibits clear convexities in slope and river profiles. Our analysis indicates that the fluvial system is the main driver of topographic evolution and that the spatial pattern of uplift rates is reflected in the distribution of channel steepness and convexity. The spatial variation that we observe in slope and channel morphology between the 10 third-order catchments suggests that the response of the fluvial system was strongly diachronic, and that a transient signal of adjustment is migrating from the Meuse valley towards the Ardennian headwaters.

  11. Seismic Performance of CAP1400 Nuclear Power Station considering Foundation Uplift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Yun Peng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Under earthquake action, the reinforced concrete structure at the edge of the CAP1400 nuclear power plant foundation slab will be uplifted. In order to determine the seismic performance of this structure, a 1 : 12 scale shaking table test model was fabricated using gypsum as simulated concrete in order to meet scaled design requirements. By testing this model, the seismic response of the structure with consideration of the foundation uplift was obtained. Numerical analyses of the test model and the prototype structure were conducted to gain a better understanding of the structural seismic performance. When subjected to earthquakes, the foundation slab of the nuclear power plant experiences a slight degree of uplift but remains in the elastic stage due to the weight of the structure above, which provides an antioverturning moment. The numerical simulation is in general agreement with the test results, suggesting numerical simulations could be accurately employed in place of physical tests. The superstructure displacement response was found not to affect the safety of adjacent structures, and the seismic performance of the structure was shown to meet the relevant design requirements, demonstrating that this approach to modelling can serve as a design basis for the CAP1400 nuclear power demonstration project.

  12. Proceedings of oceans '91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Oceans '91 Conference. Topics addressed include: ocean energy conversion, marine communications and navigation, ocean wave energy conversion, environmental modeling, global climate change, ocean minerals technology, oil spill technology, and submersible vehicles

  13. Active avoidance from a crude oil soluble fraction by an Andean paramo copepod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Cristiano V M; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Sousa, José P; Ochoa-Herrera, Valeria; Encalada, Andrea C; Ribeiro, Rui

    2014-09-01

    Several oil spills due to ruptures in the pipeline oil systems have occurred at the Andean paramo. A sample of this crude oil was mixed with water from a nearby Andean lagoon and the toxicity of the soluble fraction was assessed through lethal and avoidance assays with a locally occurring copepod (Boeckella occidentalis intermedia). The integration of mortality and avoidance aimed at predicting the immediate decline of copepod populations facing an oil leakage. The 24-h median lethal PAH concentration was 42.7 (26.4-91.6) µg L(-1). In the 12-h avoidance assay, 30% avoidance was recorded at the highest PAH concentration (19.4 µg L(-1)). The mortality at this PAH concentration would be of 25% and, thus, the population immediate decline would be of 55%. The inclusion of non-forced exposure testing with the quantification of the avoidance response in environmental risk assessments is, therefore, supported due to underestimation of the lethal assays.

  14. Forecasting Andean rainfall and crop yield from the influence of El Nino on Pleiades visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlove; Chiang; Cane

    2000-01-06

    Farmers in drought-prone regions of Andean South America have historically made observations of changes in the apparent brightness of stars in the Pleiades around the time of the southern winter solstice in order to forecast interannual variations in summer rainfall and in autumn harvests. They moderate the effect of reduced rainfall by adjusting the planting dates of potatoes, their most important crop. Here we use data on cloud cover and water vapour from satellite imagery, agronomic data from the Andean altiplano and an index of El Nino variability to analyse this forecasting method. We find that poor visibility of the Pleiades in June-caused by an increase in subvisual high cirrus clouds-is indicative of an El Nino year, which is usually linked to reduced rainfall during the growing season several months later. Our results suggest that this centuries-old method of seasonal rainfall forecasting may be based on a simple indicator of El Nino variability.

  15. Diversity and ecological ranges of plant species from dry inter-Andean valleys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintana, Catalina

    found on steep slopes and in ravines. These areas of original dry valley vegetation preserve many wild relatives of cultivated plants on the one hand and old lineages of other wild plant groups. Dry inter-Andean valleys (DIAVs) in Ecuador therefore makeup a biodiversity hot spot for both plants......Dry valleys in the American Andes and other mountains have provided excellent agricultural lands since millennia. Besides agriculture, wood extraction and the establishment of urban areas have diminished the native vegetation of these valleys. Consequently the original vegetation is now mostly...... and animals, but unfortunately only very few botanical studies have been carried out in these areas. This thesis intends to shed light on the vegetation of the Dry Ecuadorean Inter-Andean Valleys in four chapters, each with a different focus. 1) A review paper that summarizes all scientific knowledge...

  16. Ocean acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soubelet, Helene; Veyre, Philippe; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence

    2017-09-01

    This brief publication first recalls and outlines that ocean acidification is expected to increase, and will result in severe ecological impacts (more fragile coral reefs, migration of species, and so on), and therefore social and economic impacts. This issue is particularly important for France who possesses the second exclusive maritime area in the world. The various impacts of ocean acidification on living species is described, notably for phytoplankton, coral reefs, algae, molluscs, and fishes. Social and economic impacts are also briefly presented: tourism, protection against risks (notably by coral reefs), shellfish aquaculture and fishing. Issues to be addressed by scientific research are evoked: interaction between elements of an ecosystem and between different ecosystems, multi-stress effects all along organism lifetime, vulnerability and adaptability of human societies

  17. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N

    2012-01-01

    Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1) There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2) There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3) Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics.

  18. MORPHOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS AND NECTAR ROBBING IN THREE ANDEAN BUMBLE BEE SPECIES (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE, BOMBINI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIVEROS ANDRE J.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We report differences in foraging behavior of three Andean bumblebee species onflowers of Digitalis purpurea (Scrophulariaceae. Bombus atratus was a potentialpollinator while B. hortulanus and B. rubicundus collected nectar by robbing throughholes. We attribute behavioral differences to physical constraints. B. atratus has alonger glossa and a larger body size and is able to reach the nectaries, whereas B.hortulanus and B. rubicundus have shorter glossae and smaller bodies and probablymust rob nectar through holes at the base of flowers.

  19. Maternal Knowledge and Use of Galactagogues in Andean Communities of Cusco, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalena Monteban

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A commonly reported reason for early breastfeeding cessation is inadequate milk production. In response, women across the globe turn to galactagogues – substances used to increase the milk supply. Andean women have traditional knowledge about the medicinal and nutritional properties of plants and animals that are considered good to eat during breastfeeding. This research explores the maintenance and use of galactagogues, and specifically the use of the Andean flicker bird, within the wider framework of breastfeeding and nutrition policies in Peru. To elicit maternal knowledge and use of galactagogues, semi-structured and free-listing interviews were conducted with 33 mothers. Data analysis calculated the frequency and percentage of women reporting each type of galactagogue. In addition, thematic codes and relevant text passages were used in an iterative analytic process to document emerging themes. Identified galactagogues included five plants and six animals. Several galactagogues included protein-rich foods such as lamb meat and the Andean flicker bird. The use of protein-rich galactagogues as solid food is reinforced by public health messages. However, galactagogues in the research communities are usually consumed as soups or drinks, which are less rich in proteins than solid meals. The potential role of liquid galactagogues in the maintenance of appropriate hydration levels during breastfeeding in an environment where safe drinking water is scarce is a new contribution to the existing literature. The results are relevant to the design of maternal and child health policies that comply with intercultural health premises that value and respect the knowledge and practices of Andean Peoples.

  20. Coca: The History and Medical Significance of an Ancient Andean Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Sue Biondich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coca leaf products are an integral part of the lives of the Andean peoples from both a cultural and traditional medicine perspective. Coca is also the whole plant from which cocaine is derived. Coca products are thought to be a panacea for health troubles in regions of South America. This review will examine the toxicology of whole coca and will also look at medicinal applications of this plant, past, present, and future.

  1. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Finer

    Full Text Available Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1 There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2 There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3 Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics.

  2. Morphological and molecular diversity in a collection of the Andean tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.)

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta-Quezada, P.G.; Martinez-Laborde, J.B.; Vilanova Navarro, Santiago; Prohens Tomás, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrarias y Agroalimentarias (RF2008-00008-00-00) Acosta-Quezada, P.; Martinez-Laborde, J.; Vilanova Navarro, S.; Prohens Tomás, J. (2011). Morphological and molecular diversity in a collection of the Andean tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.). Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Horticulture. 68(1):500-501. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/63083 Senia 500 501 68 1

  3. Study on the estimation method of uplift during the late Quaternary by using river terraces (3). Tectonic movement described by last 100,000 years uplift distribution in an inland area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hataya, Ryuta

    2006-01-01

    Uplift for the last 100,000 years, which is estimated in both side of the Ayashi fault in Miyagi prefecture and the Sekiya fault in Tochigi Prefecture by using the relative height of river terraces is almost equal to vertical displacements of these faults for the last 100,000 years. Hence, the method using fluvial terraces is available for estimating the uplift for the last 100,000 years in an inland area quantatively. Furthermore, significance of the uplift obtained by the proposed methodology in this study is emphasized. It is possible to find the geotectonic feature that were so far overlooked as deformed zones along active fault, tectonic style of uplift and subsidence by obtaining the 3-dimensional distribution of uplift in last 100,000 years. Methodology and concept proposed in this study give practical survey method of late Quaternary 3-dimensional uplift characteristics for the long-term safety of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. By applying this method to Quaternary research, new insights on the Quaternary tectonic movement may be given. (author)

  4. Seismic influence in the Quaternary uplift of the Central Chile coastal margin, preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, D.; del Valle, F.; Marquardt, C.; Elgueta, S.

    2017-12-01

    In order to quantify the influence of NW striking potentially seismogenic normal faults over the longitudinal variation of the Central Chile Coastal margin uplift, we measured Quaternary marine terraces, which represent the tectonic uplift of the coastal margin. Movement in margin oblique normal faults occurs by co-seismic extension of major subduction earthquakes and has occurred in the Pichilemu fault, generating a 7.0 Mw earthquake after the 2010 8.8 Mw Maule earthquake.The coastal area between 32° and 34° S was selected due to the presence of a well-preserved sequence of 2 to 5 Quaternary marine terraces. In particular, the margin oblique normal NW-trending, SW-dipping Laguna Verde fault, south of Valparaiso (33° S) puts in contact contrasting morphologies: to the south, a flat coast with wide marine terraces is carved in both, Jurassic plutonic rocks and Neogene semi-consolidated marine sediments; to the north, a steeper scarp with narrower marine terraces, over 120 m above the corresponding ones in the southern coast, is carved in Jurassic plutonic rocks.We have collected over 6 months microseimic data, providing information on seismic activity and underground geometry of the Laguna Verde fault. We collected ca. 100 systematic measurements of fringes at the base of paleo coastal scarps through field mapping and a 5 m digital elevation model. These fringes mark the maximum sea level during the terrace's carving.The heights of these fringes range between 0 and 250 masl. We estimate a 0.7 mm/yr slip rate for the Laguna Verde fault based on the height difference between corresponding terraces north- and southward, with an average uplift rate of 0.3 mm/yr for the whole area.NW striking normal faults, besides representing a potential seismic threat to the near population on one of the most densely populated areas of Chile, heavily controls the spatial variation of the coastal margin uplift. In Laguna Verde, the uplift rate differs more than three times northward

  5. Natural Selection on Genes Related to Cardiovascular Health in High-Altitude Adapted Andeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jacob E; Amaru, Ricardo; Song, Jihyun; Julian, Colleen G; Racimo, Fernando; Cheng, Jade Yu; Guo, Xiuqing; Yao, Jie; Ambale-Venkatesh, Bharath; Lima, João A; Rotter, Jerome I; Stehlik, Josef; Moore, Lorna G; Prchal, Josef T; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-11-02

    The increase in red blood cell mass (polycythemia) due to the reduced oxygen availability (hypoxia) of residence at high altitude or other conditions is generally thought to be beneficial in terms of increasing tissue oxygen supply. However, the extreme polycythemia and accompanying increased mortality due to heart failure in chronic mountain sickness most likely reduces fitness. Tibetan highlanders have adapted to high altitude, possibly in part via the selection of genetic variants associated with reduced polycythemic response to hypoxia. In contrast, high-altitude-adapted Quechua- and Aymara-speaking inhabitants of the Andean Altiplano are not protected from high-altitude polycythemia in the same way, yet they exhibit other adaptive features for which the genetic underpinnings remain obscure. Here, we used whole-genome sequencing to scan high-altitude Andeans for signals of selection. The genes showing the strongest evidence of selection-including BRINP3, NOS2, and TBX5-are associated with cardiovascular development and function but are not in the response-to-hypoxia pathway. Using association mapping, we demonstrated that the haplotypes under selection are associated with phenotypic variations related to cardiovascular health. We hypothesize that selection in response to hypoxia in Andeans could have vascular effects and could serve to mitigate the deleterious effects of polycythemia rather than reduce polycythemia itself. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Organochlorine compounds in soils and sediments of the mountain Andean Lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghini, Francesca; Grimalt, Joan O.; Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C.; Barra, Ricardo; Garcia, Carlos J. Torres; Focardi, Silvano

    2005-01-01

    Semi-volatile organochlorine compounds (OC) were analyzed in remote Andean soils and lake sediments. The sampling sites covered a wide latitudinal gradient from 18 deg. S to 46 deg. S along Chile and an altitudinal gradient (10-4500 m). The concentrations were in the order of background levels, involving absence of major pollution sources in the high mountain areas. Significant correlations were found between log-transformed concentrations of hexachlorobenzene, α- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane in soils and total organic content (TOC). In addition, TOC-normalized concentrations of the most volatile OC showed a significant linear dependence with air temperature. This good agreement points to temperature as a significant factor for the retention of long range transported OC in remote ecosystems such as the Andean mountains, although other variables should not be totally excluded. The highest concentrations of OCs were achieved in the sites located at highest altitude and lowest temperature of the dataset. - Distribution of persistent organochlorine compounds in the Andean Mountain lakes is influenced by temperature

  7. Agronomic performance and stability of andean common bean lines with white grains in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Santos Pereira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of genotype by environment interaction in Andean common bean lines with white grains, in Central Southern Brazil, to identify lines with high agronomic performance, stability and adaptability, aiming to meet domestic demand and to increase the Brazilian participation in the foreign market of common bean. Nineteen trials with twelve Andean lines were conducted in 2007, 2008 and 2009, in Central Southern Brazil. Grain yield and other agronomic traits were evaluated. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and of adaptability/stability using Annicchiarico and modified AMMI methods. Significant differences were found between lines for all traits evaluated. Genotype by environment interaction was important for lines with Andean origin and white seed. The utilization of weighted mean of absolute scores and yield with the AMMI results enabled the identification of the most stable and adapted lines. Lines Poroto Alubia, CNFB 16211, Ouro Branco and WAF 160 were stable and adapted, using both methods. CNFB 16211 line presented high agronomic performance, stability and adaptability and therefore this line may be a new cultivar. USWA 70 and WAF 75 lines presented grain size similar to that required by the foreign market and superior to the Brazilian cultivars, besides favorable agronomic traits, and thus these lines may be indicated as new cultivars.

  8. Pathogenicity evaluation of native isolates of entomopathogenic fungí against andean weevil, Premnotrypes vorax (Hustache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Rivera

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was pathogenicity evaluation of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae native isolates, obtained from natural habitats and stocked potato, against potato andean weevil, Premnotrypes vorax (Hustache (COLEOPTERA: Curculionidae, and important potato insect pest in Colombia and other Andean countries. Patogenicity was determined by laboratory bioassays, using either reared insects or field captured insects. Insect rearing data are presented. Pathogenicity evaluation was express as mortality against time, estimating LT50 and LT90 for all the fungal isolates, and mortality against spore concentration, estimating CL50 for two selected isolates. In all cases, total mortality percentils were above 45%. Differences between reared and field captured insects were evident. According to obtained data one of the fungal isolates: B. bassiana 9770, obtained from R vorax larva (TL50: 4.7 days - 9.8 days; TL90: 14.1 days - 20.8 days; CL50:7.03 x 104spores/ml appears as a promisory fungal isolate for further studies. Out of this study, differences in the andean weevil, P. vorax, adult mortality, with regard to entomopathogenic fungal isolate and insect origin were manifest.

  9. The TF1 Radio Astronomy Working Group in the Andean ROAD: goals and challenges for 2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro Molano, G.

    2017-07-01

    Since the creation of the Andean Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) of the International Astronomical Union, one of the main goals has been to foster a scientific culture of radio astronomy in countries of the central and northern Andes (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú, and Venezuela). For this reason, Andean ROAD Task Force 1 (Research and Education in Universities) created the Radio Astronomy Working Group to set a path along which collaborative endeavors can grow and yield scientific results. The first official meeting of the Working Group took place in Bogotá, Colombia during the 2nd Astronomá en los Andes Workshop (2015) where scientists actively developing projects in radio astronomy set goals for the near future, such as improving mobility for researchers and students, developing collaborations in related areas such as engineering and data science, and building transnational collaborations aiming at developing VLBI across the countries of the Andean ROAD and beyond. In this poster, I present current projects and associated research groups (ROAS - Perú, SiAMo - Colombia, Alfa-Orion UTP - Colombia, RAIG - Chile) and discuss goalposts and current challenges in the development of transnational radioastronomical projects. As a case study, I present the development and early astronomical results of the privately funded UECCI 4m Radio Telescope for 21 cm line observations in Bogotá, Colombia.

  10. Preliminary phylogenetic analysis of the Andean clade and the placement of new Colombian blueberries (Ericaceae, Vaccinieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Pedraza-Penalosa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The blueberry tribe Vaccinieae (Ericaceae is particularly diverse in South America and underwent extensive radiation in Colombia where many endemics occur. Recent fieldwork in Colombia has resulted in valuable additions to the phylogeny and as well in the discovery of morphologically noteworthy new species that need to be phylogenetically placed before being named. This is particularly important, as the monophyly of many of the studied genera have not been confirmed. In order to advance our understanding of the relationships within neotropical Vaccinieae and advice the taxonomy of the new blueberry relatives, here we present the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis for the Andean clade. Anthopterus, Demosthenesia, and Pellegrinia are among the putative Andean genera recovered as monophyletic, while other eight Andean genera were not. The analyses also showed that genera that have been traditionally widely defined are non-monophyletic and could be further split into more discrete groups. Four newly discovered Colombian Vaccinieae are placed in the monophyletic Satyria s.s. and the Psammisia I clade. Although these new species are endemic to the Colombian Western Cordillera and Chocó biogeographic region and three are not known outside of Las Orquídeas National Park, they do not form sister pairs.

  11. Estimating Aboveground Biomass and Carbon Stocks in Periurban Andean Secondary Forests Using Very High Resolution Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Clerici

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Periurban forests are key to offsetting anthropogenic carbon emissions, but they are under constant threat from urbanization. In particular, secondary Neotropical forest types in Andean periurban areas have a high potential to store carbon, but are currently poorly characterized. To address this lack of information, we developed a method to estimate periurban aboveground biomass (AGB—a proxy for multiple ecosystem services—of secondary Andean forests near Bogotá, Colombia, based on very high resolution (VHR GeoEye-1, Pleiades-1A imagery and field-measured plot data. Specifically, we tested a series of different pre-processing workflows to derive six vegetation indices that were regressed against in situ estimates of AGB. Overall, the coupling of linear models and the Ratio Vegetation Index produced the most satisfactory results. Atmospheric and topographic correction proved to be key in improving model fit, especially in high aerosol and rugged terrain such as the Andes. Methods and findings provide baseline AGB and carbon stock information for little studied periurban Andean secondary forests. The methodological approach can also be used for integrating limited forest monitoring plot AGB data with very high resolution imagery for cost-effective modelling of ecosystem service provision from forests, monitoring reforestation and forest cover change, and for carbon offset assessments.

  12. Adding seismic broadband analysis to characterize Andean backarc seismicity in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, P.; Giuliano, A.; Beck, S.; Zandt, G.

    2007-05-01

    Characterization of the highly seismically active Andean backarc is crucial for assessment of earthquake hazards in western Argentina. Moderate-to-large crustal earthquakes have caused several deaths, damage and drastic economic consequences in Argentinean history. We have studied the Andean backarc crust between 30°S and 36°S using seismic broadband data available from a previous ("the CHARGE") IRIS-PASSCAL experiment. We collected more than 12 terabytes of continuous seismic data from 22 broadband instruments deployed across Chile and Argentina during 1.5 years. Using free software we modeled full regional broadband waveforms and obtained seismic moment tensor inversions of crustal earthquakes testing for the best focal depth for each event. We also mapped differences in the Andean backarc crustal structure and found a clear correlation with different types of crustal seismicity (i.e. focal depths, focal mechanisms, magnitudes and frequencies of occurrence) and previously mapped terrane boundaries. We now plan to use the same methodology to study other regions in Argentina using near-real time broadband data available from the national seismic (INPRES) network and global seismic networks operating in the region. We will re-design the national seismic network to optimize short-period and broadband seismic station coverage for different network purposes. This work is an international effort that involves researchers and students from universities and national government agencies with the goal of providing more information about earthquake hazards in western Argentina.

  13. Production and use of the pastures of the Colombia high Andean areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotero Cadavid, J.

    1993-01-01

    A relationship of the most common pastures is made in the Andean high area between the 2000 and 3000 m.s.n.m. and of their native vegetable associations, as well as of the invaders plants and overgrowths. The gramineae germoplasm and leguminous is indicated that has been proven lower those conditions. Data of yield average of dry matter are presented for native and introduced grasses of cold climate in Colombia. Equally it is indicated the daily earnings by animal, the load capacity and the animal production with different fertilization systems and some parameters of productivity are shown of gramineous and leguminous introduced in the high areas of Colombia. The nutritious value of gramineous and leguminous of cold climate and its chemical composition are made. A description is made of the ecological areas of the Andean high area and the pastures types that prevail in them. The factors are described that they impact in the degree of deterioration of the pastures like the environment, the same grass, the handling, the livestock, the type of exploitation, the holding of the earth and the administration. The agricultural production systems are mentioned that are associate the Andean pastures, as well as the main obstacles to increase the production of the systems and pastures and their possible solutions

  14. Sedimentary tectonic evolution and reservoir-forming conditions of the Dazhou–Kaijiang paleo-uplift, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueming Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Great breakthrough recently achieved in the Sinian–Lower Paleozoic gas exploration in the Leshan–Longnüsi paleo-uplift, Sichuan Basin, has also made a common view reached, i.e., large-scale paleo-uplifts will be the most potential gas exploration target in the deep strata of this basin. Apart from the above-mentioned one, the other huge paleo-uplifts are all considered to be the ones formed in the post-Caledonian period, the impact of which, however, has rarely ever been discussed on the Sinian–Lower Paleozoic oil and gas reservoir formation. In view of this, based on outcrops, drilling and geophysical data, we analyzed the Sinian–Lower Paleozoic tectonic setting and sedimentary background in the East Sichuan Basin, studied the distribution rules of reservoirs and source rocks under the control of paleo-uplifts, and finally discussed, on the basis of structural evolution analysis, the conditions for the formation of Sinian–Lower Paleozoic gas reservoirs in this study area. The following findings were achieved. (1 The Dazhou–Kaijiang inherited uplift in NE Sichuan Basin which was developed before the Middle Cambrian controlled a large area of Sinian and Cambrian beach-facies development. (2 Beach-facies reservoirs were developed in the upper part of the paleo-uplift, while in the peripheral depression belts thick source rocks were developed like the Upper Sinian Doushantuo Fm and Lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi Fm, so there is a good source–reservoir assemblage. (3 Since the Permian epoch, the Dazhou–Kaijiang paleo-uplift had gradually become elevated from the slope zone, where the Permian oil generation peak occurred in the slope or lower and gentle uplift belts, while the Triassic gas generation peak occurred in the higher uplift belts, both with a favorable condition for hydrocarbon accumulation. (4 The lower structural layers, including the Lower Cambrian and its underlying strata, in the East Sichuan Basin, are now equipped with a

  15. A possible cause of the Miocene uplift and volcanism in the central Anatolian plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartol, J.; Govers, R. M.; Wortel, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    During the middle and late Miocene (13-5Ma) several seemingly unrelated events occurred in central Anatolia, Turkey; (1) a new epoch of widespread volcanic activity with a mantle signature, (2) sudden uplift and disruption of a Oligocene-lower Miocene palaeo drainage system in the Western Taurus (southwest Turkey) and (3) a regional regression across southern Turkey (Antalya, Adana, Mut) coeval with volcanic activity. These observations suggest an uplift (>1000 meters) of the central Anatolian plateau by a mechanism which also triggered widespread volcanic activity. In eastern Anatolia, similar events are attributed to delamination of the lithospheric mantle [e.g. Keskin et al., 2003]. Results from tomography [W.Spakman, pers. com]) suggest that the (deeper) Bitlis slab was laterally continuous below the eastern and central Anatolian plateau. We therefore propose that the scenario developed for eastern Anatolian plateau also applies to the central Anatolian plateau. In this scenario, delamination started along the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone and was possibly induced by remnants of a northern Neotethys slab or continental collision between Arabia and Eurasia. As the lithospheric mantle separated from the crust it sank into the asthenosphere and was replaced by hot mantle material. If true, delamination is expected to have had a thermal and isostatic imprint. Using a three-dimensional thermal-flexural model and taking changes of the effective elastic thickness due to thermal perturbation into account, we aim to quantify the possible imprints in the geological record of the central and eastern Anatolian plateau. Our model results show that delamination of the lithospheric mantle can explain the present day elevation (1500 m) of the central Anatolian plateau. For the eastern Anatolian plateau, however, delamination of the lithospheric mantle alone can only explain half (1000 m) of the present day elevation. Thickening of the eastern Anatolia crust by 1-5 km (β=1

  16. The estimation of future surface water bodies at Olkiluoto area based on statistical terrain and land uplift models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohjola, J.; Turunen, J.; Lipping, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland); Ikonen, A.

    2014-03-15

    In this working report the modelling effort of future landscape development and surface water body formation at the modelling area in the vicinity of the Olkiluoto Island is presented. Estimation of the features of future surface water bodies is based on probabilistic terrain and land uplift models presented in previous working reports. The estimation is done using a GIS-based toolbox called UNTAMO. The future surface water bodies are estimated in 10 000 years' time span with 1000 years' intervals for the safety assessment of disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the Olkiluoto site. In the report a brief overview on the techniques used for probabilistic terrain modelling, land uplift modelling and hydrological modelling are presented first. The latter part of the report describes the results of the modelling effort. The main features of the future landscape - the four lakes forming in the vicinity of the Olkiluoto Island - are identified and the probabilistic model of the shoreline displacement is presented. The area and volume of the four lakes is modelled in a probabilistic manner. All the simulations have been performed for three scenarios two of which are based on 10 realizations of the probabilistic digital terrain model (DTM) and 10 realizations of the probabilistic land uplift model. These two scenarios differ from each other by the eustatic curve used in the land uplift model. The third scenario employs 50 realizations of the probabilistic DTM while a deterministic land uplift model, derived solely from the current land uplift rate, is used. The results indicate that the two scenarios based on the probabilistic land uplift model behave in a similar manner while the third model overestimates past and future land uplift rates. The main features of the landscape are nevertheless similar also for the third scenario. Prediction results for the volumes of the future lakes indicate that a couple of highly probably lake formation scenarios can be identified

  17. The estimation of future surface water bodies at Olkiluoto area based on statistical terrain and land uplift models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohjola, J.; Turunen, J.; Lipping, T.; Ikonen, A.

    2014-03-01

    In this working report the modelling effort of future landscape development and surface water body formation at the modelling area in the vicinity of the Olkiluoto Island is presented. Estimation of the features of future surface water bodies is based on probabilistic terrain and land uplift models presented in previous working reports. The estimation is done using a GIS-based toolbox called UNTAMO. The future surface water bodies are estimated in 10 000 years' time span with 1000 years' intervals for the safety assessment of disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the Olkiluoto site. In the report a brief overview on the techniques used for probabilistic terrain modelling, land uplift modelling and hydrological modelling are presented first. The latter part of the report describes the results of the modelling effort. The main features of the future landscape - the four lakes forming in the vicinity of the Olkiluoto Island - are identified and the probabilistic model of the shoreline displacement is presented. The area and volume of the four lakes is modelled in a probabilistic manner. All the simulations have been performed for three scenarios two of which are based on 10 realizations of the probabilistic digital terrain model (DTM) and 10 realizations of the probabilistic land uplift model. These two scenarios differ from each other by the eustatic curve used in the land uplift model. The third scenario employs 50 realizations of the probabilistic DTM while a deterministic land uplift model, derived solely from the current land uplift rate, is used. The results indicate that the two scenarios based on the probabilistic land uplift model behave in a similar manner while the third model overestimates past and future land uplift rates. The main features of the landscape are nevertheless similar also for the third scenario. Prediction results for the volumes of the future lakes indicate that a couple of highly probably lake formation scenarios can be identified with other

  18. Rb-Sr and K-Ar age of globular phyllosilicates and biostratigraphy of the Riphean deposits of the Olenek Uplift (North Siberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseva, T. S.; Gorokhov, I. M.; Semikhatov, M. A.; Ivanovskaya, T. A.; Kuznetsov, A. B.; Dorzhieva, O. V.

    2017-11-01

    This work presents results of the complex mineralogical, geochemical, and isotope-geochronological investigation of globular dioctahedral 2: 1 phyllosilicates (GPS) of the illite-glauconite series from the Riphean sequences of the Olenek Uplift. It is established that GPS (glauconite, Al-glauconite, Fe-illite) in deposits of the Arymass, Debengda, and Khaipakh formations are represented by mixed-layer varieties of two types: (1) with relatively low (cell of minerals varies from 9.18 to 9.72 Å. The Rb-Sr age dating of GPS was first carried out in combination with the calculation of theoretical pattern of the cation distribution in the mineral structure and comparison of the calculation results obtained with the Mössbauer and IR spectroscopy data. This approach is based on the assumption that development and evolution of isotope systems in GPS are synchronous with the evolution of the crystalline structure of the mineral at various stages of the geological and geochemical history of the development of sedimentary units. Analysis of the obtained data allows us to state that the structural features of the Riphean GPS from the Olenek section reflect the early diagenetic stages of the formation of the minerals studied. The 87Sr/86Sr initial ratios in the studied sediments are consistent with the range of variations in this ratio in the Middle Riphean Ocean (0.7049-0.7061). The Rb-Sr and K-Ar ages of the GPS of the Arymass (1305 ± 8 and 1302 Ma, respectively), Debengda (1265 ± 12 and 1284 ± 22 Ma), and Khaipakh (1172 ± 18 and 1112 ± 24 Ma) formations in the Olenek Uplift section are close to the accumulation time of corresponding deposits and, correspondingly, have significance for stratigraphic correlations.

  19. Geomorphic Response to Spatial and Temporal Tectonic uplift on the Kenya Rift of East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, L.; Abdelsalam, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    Tectonic uplifts of the shoulders of the East Africa Rift System (EARS) have significant impact on the geological record by reorganizing drainage systems, increasing sediment supply, and changing climate and biogeography. Recent studies in geochronology, geomorphology and geophysics have provided some understanding of the timing of tectonic uplift and its distribution pattern of the (EARS). We do not know how the vertical motion is localized along the rift axis and the relative roles of upwelling of magma and rift extensional processes play in tectonic uplift history. This work presents detailed morphometric study of the fluvial landscape response to the tectonic uplift and climate shifting of the Kenya Rift shoulders in order to reconstruct their incision history, with special attention to timing, location, and intensity of uplift episodes. This work compiles the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and Sentinel-2A data, summarized previous 39Ar-40Ar and thermochronology data, and calculates long-term incision rate and geomorphic proxies (normalized steepness and chi-integral) along the Kenya Rift. It also models the age of tectonic/climatic events by using knickpoint celerity model and R/SR integrative approach. It found that the maximum long-term incision rates of 300 mm/kyr to be at the central Kenya Rift, possibly related to the mantle-driven process and rapid tectonic uplift. The geomorphic proxies indicate southward decreasing pattern of the short-term incision rate, possibly related to the migration of the mantle plume.

  20. Insights into evolution in Andean Polystichum (Dryopteridaceae) from expanded understanding of the cytosolic phosphoglucose isomerase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Brendan M; McHenry, Monique A; Barrington, David S

    2017-07-01

    Cytosolic phosphoglucose isomerase (pgiC) is an enzyme essential to glycolysis found universally in eukaryotes, but broad understanding of variation in the gene coding for pgiC is lacking for ferns. We used a substantially expanded representation of the gene for Andean species of the fern genus Polystichum to characterize pgiC in ferns relative to angiosperms, insects, and an amoebozoan; assess the impact of selection versus neutral evolutionary processes on pgiC; and explore evolutionary relationships of selected Andean species. The dataset of complete sequences comprised nine accessions representing seven species and one hybrid from the Andes and Serra do Mar. The aligned sequences of the full data set comprised 3376 base pairs (70% of the entire gene) including 17 exons and 15 introns from two central areas of the gene. The exons are highly conserved relative to angiosperms and retain substantial homology to insect pgiC, but intron length and structure are unique to the ferns. Average intron size is similar to angiosperms; intron number and location in insects are unlike those of the plants we considered. The introns included an array of indels and, in intron 7, an extensive microsatellite array with potential utility in analyzing population-level histories. Bayesian and maximum-parsimony analysis of 129 variable nucleotides in the Andean polystichums revealed that 59 (1.7% of the 3376 total) were phylogenetically informative; most of these united sister accessions. The phylogenetic trees for the Andean polystichums were incongruent with previously published cpDNA trees for the same taxa, likely the result of rapid evolutionary change in the introns and contrasting stability in the exons. The exons code a total of seven amino-acid substitutions. Comparison of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions did not suggest that the pgiC gene is under selection in the Andes. Variation in pgiC including two additional accessions represented by incomplete sequences

  1. Delineating priority habitat areas for the conservation of Andean bears in northern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralvo, M.F.; Cuesta, F.; Van Manen, F.

    2005-01-01

    We sought to identify priority areas for the conservation of Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) habitat in the northern portion of the eastern Andean cordillera in Ecuador. The study area included pa??ramo and montane forest habitats within the Antisana and Cayambe-Coca ecological reserves, and unprotected areas north of these reserves with elevations ranging from 1,800 to 4,300 m. We collected data on bear occurrence along 53 transects during 2000-01 in the Oyacachi River basin, an area of indigenous communities within the Cayambe-Coca Ecological Reserve. We used those data and a set of 7 environmental variables to predict suitability of Andean bear habitat using Mahalanobis distance, a multivariate measure of dissimilarity. The Mahalanobis distance values were classified into 5 classes of habitat suitability and generalized to a resolution of 1,650-m ?? 1,650-m grid cells. Clusters of grid cells with high suitability values were delineated from the generalized model and denned as important habitat areas (IHAs) for conservation. The IHAs were ranked using a weighted index that included factors of elevation range, influence from disturbed areas, and current conservation status. We identified 12 IHAs, which were mainly associated with pa??ramo and cloud forest habitats; 2 of these areas have high conservation priorities because they are outside existing reserves and close to areas of human pressure. The distribution of the IHAs highlighted the role of human land use as the main source of fragmentation of Andean bear habitat in this region, emphasizing the importance of preserving habitat connectivity to allow the seasonal movements among habitat types that we documented for this species. Furthermore, the existence of areas with high habitat suitability close to areas of intense human use indicates the importance of bear-human conflict management as a critical Andean bear conservation strategy. We suggest that a promising conservation opportunity for this species is

  2. Captivity Shapes the Gut Microbiota of Andean Bears: Insights into Health Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Borbón-García

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Andean bear is an endemic species of the tropical Andes who has an almost exclusively plant-based diet. Since herbivorous mammals do not carry enzymes for fiber degradation, the establishment of symbiosis with cellulolytic microorganisms in their gastrointestinal (GI tract is necessary to help them fulfill their nutritional needs. Furthermore, as described for other mammals, a stable, diverse, and balanced gut microbial composition is an indicator of a healthy status of the host; under disturbances this balance can be lost, leading to potential diseases of the host. The goal of this study was to describe the gut microbiota of wild and captive Andean bears and determine how habitat status influences the composition and diversity of the gut symbiotic community. Fecal samples from wild (n = 28 and captive (n = 8 Andean bears were collected in “Reserva Pantano de Martos” and “Fundación Bioandina”, Colombia. Composition and diversity analyses were performed using amplicons from the V4 region of the 16S rDNA gene sequenced using the Ion PGM platform. PICRUSt algorithm was applied to predict the gene content of the gut microbiome of wild and captive Andean bears. A total of 5,411 and 838 OTUs were identified for wild and captive bears, respectively. Captive bears contained a lower number of bacterial phyla (n = 7 compared to wild individuals (n = 9. Proteobacteria (59.03% and Firmicutes (14.03% were the phyla that contributed the most to differences between wild and captive bears (overall dissimilarity = 87.72%. At family level, Enterobacteriaceae drove the main differences between the two groups (13.7%. PICRUSt metagenomics predictions suggested a similar pattern of relative abundance of gene families associated with the metabolism of carbohydrates across samples in wild individuals, despite the taxonomic differences of their gut microbiota. Captivity alters the availability and diversity of food resources, which likely reduces microbiota

  3. Transitions between Andean and Amazonian centers of endemism in the radiation of some arboreal rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The tropical Andes and Amazon are among the richest regions of endemism for mammals, and each has given rise to extensive in situ radiations. Various animal lineages have radiated ex situ after colonizing one of these regions from the other: Amazonian clades of dendrobatid frogs and passerine birds may have Andean ancestry, and transitions from the Amazon to Andes may be even more common. To examine biogeographic transitions between these regions, we investigated the evolutionary history of three clades of rodents in the family Echimyidae: bamboo rats (Dactylomys-Olallamys-Kannabateomys), spiny tree-rats (Mesomys-Lonchothrix), and brush-tailed rats (Isothrix). Each clade is distributed in both the Andes and Amazonia, and is more diverse in the lowlands. We used two mitochondrial (cyt-b and 12S) and three nuclear (GHR, vWF, and RAG1) markers to reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships. Tree topologies and ancestral geographic ranges were then used to determine whether Andean forms were basal to or derived from lowland radiations. Results Four biogeographic transitions are identified among the generic radiations. The bamboo rat clade unambiguously originated in the Amazon ca. 9 Ma, followed by either one early transition to the Andes (Olallamys) and a later move to the Amazon (Dactylomys), or two later shifts to the Andes (one in each genus). The Andean species of both Dactylomys and Isothrix are sister to their lowland species, raising the possibility that highland forms colonized the Amazon Basin. However, uncertainty in their reconstructed ancestral ranges obscures the origin of these transitions. The lone Andean species of Mesomys is confidently nested within the lowland radiation, thereby indicating an Amazon-to-Andes transition ca. 2 Ma. Conclusions Differences in the timing of these biogeographic transitions do not appear to explain the different polarities of these trees. Instead, even within the radiation of a single family, both Andean and

  4. Impact into the earth's ocean floor - Preliminary experiments, a planetary model, and possibilities for detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckinnon, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    Impact processes and plate tectonics are invoked in an experimental study of craters larger than 100 km in diameter on the ocean floor. Although the results obtained from 22-caliber (383 m/sec) ammunition experiments using dense, saturated sand as a target medium cannot be directly scaled to large events, the phenomenology exhibited is that expected of actual craters on the ocean floor: steep, mixed ejecta plume, gravitational adjustment of the crater to form a shallow basin, and extensive reworking of the ejecta, rim, and floor materials by violent collapse of the transient water cavity. Excavation into the mantle is predicted, although asthenospheric influence on outer ring formation is not. The clearest geophysical signature of such a crater is not topography; detection should instead be based on gravity and geoid anomalies due to uplift of the Moho, magnetic anomalies, and seismic resolution of the Moho uplift and crater formation fault planes.

  5. Biomass burning: A significant source of nutrients for Andean rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, P. F.; Rollenbeck, R.; University Of Marburg, Germany

    2010-12-01

    Regular rain and fogwater sampling in the Podocarpus National Park,on the humid eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes,has been carried out since 2002.The samples,accumulated over about 1-week intervals,were analysed for pH,conductivity,and major ions (K+, Na+, NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO4 2-, NO3-, PO4 3- ).Annual deposition rates of these ions which, due to poor acidic soils with low mineralization rates,constitute the dominant nutrient supply to the mountaineous rainforests, and major ion sources could be determined using back trajectories,along with satellite data. While most of the Na, Cl, and K as well as Ca and Mg input was found to originate from natural oceanic and desert dust sources,respectively (P.Fabian et al.,Adv.Geosci.22,85-94, 2009), NO3, NH4, and about 90% of SO4 (about 10 % is from active volcanoes) are almost entirely due to anthropogenic sources,most likely biomass burning. Industrial and transportation emissions and other pollutants,however,act in a similar way as the precursors produced by biomass burning.For quantifying the impacts of biomass burning vs. those of anthropogenic sources other than biomass burning we used recently established emission inventories,along with simplified model calculations on back trajectories.First results yielding significant contributions of biomass burning will be discussed.

  6. Ca isotopes reveal weak control of tectonic uplift on long-term climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.; Jacobson, A. D.; Holmden, C. E.; Craw, D.

    2010-12-01

    Ca-Mg silicate weathering consumes atmospheric CO2 over geological timescales (≥106 yr) whereas carbonate weathering has no effect. High Ca fluxes from active orogens have been used to argue that mountain uplift is a disproportionately large CO2 sink. To test this hypothesis, it is essential to determine proportions of Ca from silicate versus carbonate weathering. High precision measurement of Ca isotopes (δ44/40Ca) provides a novel method to directly quantify Ca sources. To this end, we examined δ44/40Ca in rivers draining the Southern Alps of New Zealand. The Southern Alps have large tectonic and climatic gradients but nearly constant bedrock chemistry. West of the main topographic divide, uplift and precipitation rates are high, and steep, fast-flowing rivers drain schist. East of the divide, uplift and precipitation rates are low, and low-gradient, braided rivers drain either schist or greywacke. Both schist and greywacke contain up to 3% hydrothermal and metamorphic calcite. Glaciers feed several schist and greywacke catchments. Examined as δ44/40Ca versus Sr/Ca, values measured for carbonate and silicate end-members define two-component mixing envelopes. Rivers west of the divide plot within the envelope, ruling out isotopic fractionation as a factor for these streams. Several rivers east of the divide are 40Ca enriched relative to the envelope. In-situ fractionation of stream water Ca cannot explain this pattern because fractionation is expected to preferentially remove 40Ca. We measured δ42/44Ca ratios to test if chemical weathering preferentially releases 40Ca. When examined as δ40/44Ca versus δ42/44Ca, the data only display mass-dependent isotope effects. Ca in grass and the exchangeable pool of shallow soils is enriched in 40Ca relative to waters and bedrock. This Ca defines a third mixing end-member that contributes 15-30% of the Ca in rivers east of the divide. Evidence of the plant-fractionated signal likely reflects water residence times

  7. Rock Uplift above the Yakutat Megathrust on Montague Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, K.; Armstrong, P. A.; Haeussler, P. J.; Arkle, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The Yakutat microplate is subducting shallowly (~6°) beneath the North American Plate at a rate of approximately 53 mm/yr to the northwest. Deformation from this flat- slab subduction extends >600 km inland and has resulted in regions of focused rock uplift and exhumation in the Alaska Range, central Chugach Mountains, and St. Elias Mountains. Many questions still remain about how strain is partitioned between these regions of focused uplift, particularly in the Prince William Sound (southern Chugach Mountains) on Montague Island. Montague Island (and adjacent Hinchinbrook Island) are ~20 km above the megathrust where there is a large degree of coupling between the subducting Yakutat microplate and overriding North American Plate. Montague Island is of particular interest because it lies between two areas of rapid rock uplift focused in the St. Elias/eastern Chugach Mountains and the western Chugach Mountains. In the St. Elias/eastern Chugach Mountains, faulting related to collisional processes and bending of fault systems causes rapid rock uplift. About 200 km farther northwest in the western Chugach Mountains, recent rock uplift is caused by underplating along the megathrust that is focused within a syntaxial bend of major fault systems and mountain ranges. Montague Island bounds the southern margin of Prince William Sound, and is steep, narrow, and elongate (81 km long and ~15 km wide). The maximum relief is 914 m, making for very steep, mountainous topography considering the narrow width of the island. During the Mw 9.2 earthquake in 1964, the Patton Bay and Hanning Bay reverse faults were reactivated, with 7 and 5 m of vertical offset, respectively. Both faults dip ~60° NW and strike NE-SW parallel to the long-axis of the island and parallel to geomorphic features including lineaments, elongate valleys, and escarpments. Prominent ~450 m high escarpments are present along the SE-facing side of the island, which suggests rapid and sustained uplift. New apatite

  8. Uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains and the bedrock beneath the East Antarctic ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Hackney, R.I.; Bannister, S.; Stern, T.A.; Makovsky, Y.

    1997-01-01

    In recent years the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM), the largest noncontractional mountain belt in the world, have become the focus of modelers who explained their uplift by a variety of isostatic and thermal mechanisms. A problem with these models is a lack of available data to compare with model predictions. We report here the results of a 312-km-long geophysical traverse conducted in 1993/1994 in the hinterland of the TAM. Using detailed subglacial topography and gravity measurements, we confirm the origin of the TAM as a flexural uplift of the edge of East Antarctica. Using an elastic model with a free edge, we can jointly fit the topography and the gravity with a plate having an elastic thickness of 85 ?? 15 km and a preuplift elevation of 700 ?? 50 m for East Antarctica. Using a variety of evidence, we argue that the uplift is coincident with a relatively minor tectonic event of transtensional motion between East and West Antarctica during the Eocene rather than the Late Cretaceous rifting event that created the Ross Embayment. We suggest that this transtensional motion caused the continuous plate to break, which created an escarpment that significantly increased the rates of erosion and exhumation. Results from the geophysical traverse also extend our knowledge of the bedrock geology from the exposures within the TAM to the ice covered interior. Our interpretation suggests that the Ferrar flood basalts extend at least 100 km westward under the ice. The Beacon Supergroup of Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments thins gradually under the ice and its reconstructed thickness is reminiscent of profiles of foreland basins. Finally, there is no indication in the gravity field for an incomplete rebound due to significant melting of the East Antarctic ice sheet since the last glacial period.

  9. Interferograms showing land subsidence and uplift in Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, 1992-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelko, Michael T.; Hoffmann, Jörn; Damar, Nancy A.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Nevada Department of Conservation and Natural Resources-Division of Water Resources and the Las Vegas Valley Water District, compiled 44 individual interferograms and 1 stacked interferogram comprising 29 satellite synthetic aperture radar acquisitions of Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, from 1992 to 1999. The interferograms, which depict short-term, seasonal, and long-term trends in land subsidence and uplift, are viewable with an interactive map. The interferograms show that land subsidence and uplift generally occur in localized areas, are responsive to ground-water pumpage and artificial recharge, and, in part, are fault controlled. Information from these interferograms can be used by water and land managers to mitigate land subsidence and associated damage. Land subsidence attributed to ground-water pumpage has been documented in Las Vegas Valley since the 1940s. Damage to roads, buildings, and other engineered structures has been associated with this land subsidence. Land uplift attributed to artificial recharge and reduced pumping has been documented since the 1990s. Measuring these land-surface changes with traditional benchmark and Global Positioning System surveys can be costly and time consuming, and results typically are spatially and temporally sparse. Interferograms are relatively inexpensive and provide temporal and spatial resolutions previously not achievable. The interferograms are viewable with an interactive map. Landsat images from 1993 and 2000 are viewable for frames of reference to locate areas of interest and help determine land use. A stacked interferogram for 1992-99 is viewable to visualize the cumulative vertical displacement for the period represented by the individual interferograms. The interactive map enables users to identify and estimate the magnitude of vertical displacement, visually analyze deformation trends, and view interferograms and Landsat images side by side. The

  10. The topographic signature of Quaternary tectonic uplift in the Ardennes massif (Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sougnez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphic processes that produce and transport sediment, and incise river valleys are complex; and often difficult to quantify over longer timescales of 103 to 105 y. Morphometric indices that describe the topography of hill slopes, valleys and river channels have commonly been used to compare morphological characteristics between catchments and to relate them to hydrological and erosion processes. This study aims to analyze the link between tectonic uplift rates and landscape morphology based on slope and channel morphometric indexes. To achieve this objective, we selected 10 catchments of about 150 to 250 km2 across the Ardennes Massif (a Palaeozoic massif of NW Europe, principally located in Belgium that cover various tectonic domains with uplift rates ranging from about 0.06 to 0.20 mm yr−1 since mid-Pleistocene times. The morphometric analysis indicates that the slope and channel morphology of third-order catchments is not yet in topographic steady-state, and exhibits clear convexities in slope and river profiles. Our analysis indicates that the fluvial system is the main driver of topographic evolution and that the spatial pattern of uplift rates is reflected in the distribution of channel steepness and convexity. The spatial variation that we observe in slope and channel morphology between the 10 third-order catchments suggests that the response of the fluvial system was strongly diachronic, and that a transient signal of adjustment is migrating from the Meuse valley towards the Ardennian headwaters.

  11. Seafloor Uplift in Middle Valley, Juan de Fuca Ridge: New High-Resolution Pressure Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inderbitzen, K. E.; Becker, K.; Davis, E. E.

    2011-12-01

    Currently, in-situ seafloor and basement pressures are continuously monitored and recorded by an ODP subseafloor hydrogeological observatory (CORK) located in Middle Valley, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Hole 857D was drilled in 1991 in thickly sedimented crust to a depth of 936 mbsf and instrumented with an original CORK that was replaced in 1996. A large hydrothermal field (Dead Dog) lies roughly 1.7 km north of the hole, and two isolated chimneys and several diffuse flow sites are located ~800 meters northeast. The borehole and the vent fields have been visited periodically by submersible/ROV since 1999. Recent results from the CORK at 857D have shown apparent seafloor uplift, supported by depth records from the submersible Alvin. A constant rate of pressure change of ~6 kPa/yr, from its initiation in 2005 to the visit in 2010, has reduced mean seafloor pressure by ~28 kPa, equivalent to nearly 3 meters of head. This uplift rate is several times the typical pre-eruption inflation rates observed at Axial Seamount further south along the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Initially, the apparent uplift at 857D did not seem to have any effect on local high-temperature hydrothermal venting, however recent operations in Middle Valley revealed distinct changes at not only the hydrothermal field to the northeast, but also a shutdown of high-temperature venting to the north of 857D. We will present new data from Middle Valley, including the first year of data collected by a high-resolution pressure data logger deployed at 857D in June, 2010.

  12. Deformation and failure mechanism of excavation in clay subjected to hydraulic uplift

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Yi

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the latest experimental and numerical analysis work in the field of ground deformation and base instability of deep excavations in soft clay subjected to hydraulic uplift. The authors’ latest research findings, based on dimensional analyses, well-instrumented full-scale field tests, systematic coupled-consolidation finite element analyses and centrifuge tests are reported. This book shows how to systematically approach a complex geotechnical problem, from identifying existing problems, reviewing literature, to dimensional and numerical analyses, validation through full-scale testing and centrifuge model testing. The methodologies are also introduced as major tools adopted in geotechnical research.

  13. Phanerozoic burial, uplift and denudation of the Equatorial Atlantic margin of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japsen, Peter; Bonow, Johan M.; Green, Paul F.; dall'Asta, Massimo; Roig, Jean-Yves; Theveniaut, Hervé

    2017-04-01

    We have initiated a study aimed at understanding the history of burial, uplift and denudation of the South American Equatorial Atlantic Margin (SAEAM Uplift) including the Guiana Shield to provide a framework for investigating the hydrocarbon prospectivity of the offshore region. We report first results including observations from fieldwork at the northern and southern flank of the Guiana Shield. The study combines apatite fission-track analysis (AFTA) and vitrinite reflectance data from samples of outcrops and drillcores, sonic velocity data from drill holes and stratigraphic landscape analysis (mapping of peneplains) - all constrained by geological evidence, following the methods of Green et al. (2013). The study will thus combine the thermal history from AFTA data with the denudation history from stratigraphic landscape analysis to provide magnitudes and timing of vertical movements (Japsen et al. 2012, 2016). Along the Atlantic margin of Suriname and French Guiana, tilted and truncated Lower Cretaceous strata rest on Precambrian basement (Sapin et al. 2016). Our AFTA data show that the basement underwent Mesozoic exhumation prior to deposition of the Lower Cretaceous cover. Sub-horizontal peneplains define the landscape of the Guiana Shield at elevations up to 500 m a.s.l. As these sub-horizontal peneplains truncate the tilted, sub-Cretaceous surface along the Atlantic margin, these peneplains were therefore formed and uplifted in post-Cretaceous time. This interpretation is in good agreement with our AFTA data that define Paleogene exhumation along the margin and with the results of Theveniaut and Freyssinet (2002) who used palaeomagnetic data to conclude that bauxitic surfaces across basement at up to 400 m a.s.l. on the Guiana Shield formed during the Palaeogene. Integration of the results from AFTA with stratigraphic landscape analysis (currently in progress) and geological evidence will provide a robust reconstruction of the tectonic development of the

  14. Planet Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Isabel

    2014-05-01

    A more adequate name for Planet Earth could be Planet Ocean, seeing that ocean water covers more than seventy percent of the planet's surface and plays a fundamental role in the survival of almost all living species. Actually, oceans are aqueous solutions of extraordinary importance due to its direct implications in the current living conditions of our planet and its potential role on the continuity of life as well, as long as we know how to respect the limits of its immense but finite capacities. We may therefore state that natural aqueous solutions are excellent contexts for the approach and further understanding of many important chemical concepts, whether they be of chemical equilibrium, acid-base reactions, solubility and oxidation-reduction reactions. The topic of the 2014 edition of GIFT ('Our Changing Planet') will explore some of the recent complex changes of our environment, subjects that have been lately included in Chemistry teaching programs. This is particularly relevant on high school programs, with themes such as 'Earth Atmosphere: radiation, matter and structure', 'From Atmosphere to the Ocean: solutions on Earth and to Earth', 'Spring Waters and Public Water Supply: Water acidity and alkalinity'. These are the subjects that I want to develop on my school project with my pupils. Geographically, our school is located near the sea in a region where a stream flows into the sea. Besides that, our school water comes from a borehole which shows that the quality of the water we use is of significant importance. This project will establish and implement several procedures that, supported by physical and chemical analysis, will monitor the quality of water - not only the water used in our school, but also the surrounding waters (stream and beach water). The samples will be collected in the borehole of the school, in the stream near the school and in the beach of Carcavelos. Several physical-chemical characteristics related to the quality of the water will

  15. Land uplift and relative sea-level changes in the Loviisa area, southeastern Finland, during the last 8000 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miettinen, A.; Eronen, M.; Hyvaerinen, H.

    1999-09-01

    Southeastern Finland belongs to the area covered by the Weichselian ice sheet, where the release of the ice load caused a rapid isostatic rebound during the postglacial time. While the mean overall apparent uplift is of the order of 2 mm/yr today, in the early Holocene time it was several times higher. A marked decrease in the rebound rate occurred around 8500 BP, however, since then the uplift rate has remained high until today, with a slightly decreasing trend towards the present time. According to current understanding there have neither been temporary increases nor decreases in the rate of uplift during the postglacial time. Even so, it is not known for sure whether there are regional irregularities on the rebound in Finland. Concurrently with land uplift, relative sea-level changes in the Baltic basin were also strongly affected by the global eustatic rise of sea-level. During the early Litorina Sea stage on the southern coast of Finland around 7000 BP, the rise in sea-level exceeded the rate of land uplift, and resulted in a short-lived transgression. The most accurate information on relative sea-level changes in an uplifting area may be obtained from radiocarbon dated events of isolation in small lake basins, as they were cut off from larger bodies of water. The isolations of such basins from the sea may be reliably determined by the recorded changes in the diatom flora in the sediment sequences, at horizons which may be radiometrically dated. In the present study, the isolation-horizons of 13 basins were dated by 26 conventional and 2 AMS radiocarbon dates. According to the available sets of dates, the time span of emergence extends from 8300 BP to the past few hundred years, for lakes from c. 30 m to 1.1 m above the present sea-level. Due to the global rise in sea-level, during the period of 7500-6500 BP, the sea-level rise clearly exceeded the rate of uplift, and resulted in the Litorina transgression, which had an amplitude of around one metre. The

  16. Land uplift and relative sea-level changes in the Loviisa area, southeastern Finland, during the last 8000 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miettinen, A.; Eronen, M.; Hyvaerinen, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Geology

    1999-09-01

    Southeastern Finland belongs to the area covered by the Weichselian ice sheet, where the release of the ice load caused a rapid isostatic rebound during the postglacial time. While the mean overall apparent uplift is of the order of 2 mm/yr today, in the early Holocene time it was several times higher. A marked decrease in the rebound rate occurred around 8500 BP, however, since then the uplift rate has remained high until today, with a slightly decreasing trend towards the present time. According to current understanding there have neither been temporary increases nor decreases in the rate of uplift during the postglacial time. Even so, it is not known for sure whether there are regional irregularities on the rebound in Finland. Concurrently with land uplift, relative sea-level changes in the Baltic basin were also strongly affected by the global eustatic rise of sea-level. During the early Litorina Sea stage on the southern coast of Finland around 7000 BP, the rise in sea-level exceeded the rate of land uplift, and resulted in a short-lived transgression. The most accurate information on relative sea-level changes in an uplifting area may be obtained from radiocarbon dated events of isolation in small lake basins, as they were cut off from larger bodies of water. The isolations of such basins from the sea may be reliably determined by the recorded changes in the diatom flora in the sediment sequences, at horizons which may be radiometrically dated. In the present study, the isolation-horizons of 13 basins were dated by 26 conventional and 2 AMS radiocarbon dates. According to the available sets of dates, the time span of emergence extends from 8300 BP to the past few hundred years, for lakes from c. 30 m to 1.1 m above the present sea-level. Due to the global rise in sea-level, during the period of 7500-6500 BP, the sea-level rise clearly exceeded the rate of uplift, and resulted in the Litorina transgression, which had an amplitude of around one metre. The

  17. Evidence for Late Pleistocene uplift at the Somma-Vesuvius apron near Pompeii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marturano, Aldo; Aiello, Giuseppe; Barra, Diana

    2011-05-01

    Detailed stratigraphic and micropalaeontological analyses of samples from boreholes at the Somma-Vesuvius apron, between Pompeii and the sea, allowed reconstruction of Late Quaternary palaeoenvironmental evolution of the Sarno coastal plain. In all, 116 samples were recovered from seven boreholes drilled from 2-10 m a.s.l. to 16.5-26 m b.s.l. Microfossil assemblages, with special regard to benthic foraminifers and ostracods, were used to reconstruct the depositional palaeoenvironment. Fossil remains show that all the pre-79 AD fossiliferous sediments from 2 to - 24 m a.s.l. were deposited in shallow marine waters for a long time despite an appreciable sea level rise. The data indicate alternation of both shallow marine and subaerial conditions during the last ~ 15 kyr, evidencing ground uplift of the area of about 75 m at a rate of ~ 5 mm/year. Marine sediment accumulation (~ 6 m/kyr) and tectonic uplift long offset the sea level rise, and as a consequence, submerged areas remained the same as well.

  18. Seismicity and neotectonic uplift in the Augrabies Falls National Park, Namaqualand, Northern Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madi, Kakaba

    2016-10-01

    Gneissic rocks in the Augrabies Falls National Park are part of the Proterozoic Namaqua-Natal mobile belt. Finding neotectonic evidence in old terranes is always not an easy task. In South Africa, the mid-Miocene is believed to be the beginning of neotectonics. This study investigated the occurrence and recurrence of earthquake activity, occurrence of faulting, jointing, uplift, and potholes in the gneisses cropping out around the Augrabies Falls area that may account for neotectonics. A historic seismic event obtained from the United States Geological Survey (USGS), and seismic epicenters downloaded in October 2015 from IRIS earthquake browser and overlaid on a satellite image with digitised faults and lineaments, indicates that the area is seismically active and is a zone of seismic risk. Potholes occurring today on a dry surface at approximately 613 m above sea level are a direct consequence of the Griqualand-Transvaal neotectonic uplift, which generated a major fault along which water flows continuously. It is concluded that the Augrabies Falls National Park area is a zone of neotectonics. This zone should not be considered for the storage of nuclear wastes.

  19. Researches on tectonic uplift and denudation with relation to geological disposal of HLW in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Osamu; Sanga, Tomoji; Moriya, Toshifumi

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the present state of researches on tectonic uplift and denudation, and shows perspective goals and direction of future researches from the viewpoint of geological disposal of HLW in Japan. Detailed history of tectonics and denudation in geologic time scale, including the rates, temporal and spatial distributions and processes, reconstructed from geologic and geomorphologic evidences will enable us to make the geological predictions. Improvements of the analytic methods for the geological histories, e.g. identification of the tectonic and denudational imprints and age determinations, are indispensable for the accurate prediction. Developments of the tools and methodologies for assessments of the degree and extension of influences by the tectonic uplift, subsidence and denudation on the geological environments such as ground water flows are also fundamental problem in the study field of the geological disposal of HLW. Collaboration of scientific researches using the geological and geomorphological methods and applied technology, such as numerical simulations of ground water flows, is important in improving the safety and accuracy of the geological disposal of HLW. (author)

  20. Numerical Study on the Seismic Response of Structure with Consideration of the Behavior of Base Mat Uplift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Bo Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The foundation might be separated from the supporting soil if the earthquake is big enough, which is known as base mat uplift. This paper proposed a simplified calculation model in which spring element is adopted to simulate the interaction between soil and structure. The load-deformation curve (F-D curve of the spring element can be designated to represent the base mat uplift, in which the pressure can be applied while tensile forces are not allowed. Key factors, such as seismic wave types, seismic wave excitation directions, seismic wave amplitudes, soil shear velocities, structure stiffness, and the ratio of structure height to width (H/B, were considered in the analysis. It is shown that (1 seismic wave type has significant influence on structure response due to different frequency components it contained; (2 the vertical input of seismic wave greatly affected structure response in vertical direction, while it has little impacts in horizontal direction; (3 base mat uplift is easier to take place in soil with higher shear velocity; (4 structure H/B value has complicated influence on base mat uplift. The outcome of this research is assumed to provide some references for the seismic design of the structure due to base mat uplift.

  1. Phased uplift of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau inferred from a pollen record from Yinchuan Basin, northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinling; Hao, Qingzhen; Wei, Mingjian; Andreev, Andrei A; Wang, Junping; Tian, Yanyan; Li, Xiaolei; Cai, Maotang; Hu, Jianmin; Shi, Wei

    2017-12-21

    The uplift of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) significantly affected both regional and global climates. Although there is evidence that the Tibetan Plateau experienced uplift during the Quaternary, the timing and amplitude are poorly constrained. However, the increased availability of long sedimentary records of vegetation change provides an opportunity to reconstruct the timing of the uplift. Here, we present a well-dated, high-resolution pollen record for the last 2.6 Ma from the Yinchuan Basin, which was incised by the Yellow River with its source in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. Variations in the Artemisia/Chenopodiaceae (A/C) ratio of the reveal changes in moisture conditions in the Yinchuan Basin during glacial-interglacial cycles, as well as a gradual long-term aridification trend which is consistent with progressive global cooling. However, fluctuations in the percentages of Picea and Abies differ from those of the A/C ratio and we propose that they reflect changes in the vegetation and environment of high elevation areas. The Picea and Abies records reveal two phases of increased representation, at 2.1 and 1.2 Ma, which may indicate phases in the uplift of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. Thus, they provide independent evidence for the timing of the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau during the Quaternary.

  2. Deforestation and benthic indicators: how much vegetation cover is needed to sustain healthy Andean streams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-Armijos, Carlos; Leiva, Adrián; Frede, Hans-Georg; Hampel, Henrietta; Breuer, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Deforestation in the tropical Andes is affecting ecological conditions of streams, and determination of how much forest should be retained is a pressing task for conservation, restoration and management strategies. We calculated and analyzed eight benthic metrics (structural, compositional and water quality indices) and a physical-chemical composite index with gradients of vegetation cover to assess the effects of deforestation on macroinvertebrate communities and water quality of 23 streams in southern Ecuadorian Andes. Using a geographical information system (GIS), we quantified vegetation cover at three spatial scales: the entire catchment, the riparian buffer of 30 m width extending the entire stream length, and the local scale defined for a stream reach of 100 m in length and similar buffer width. Macroinvertebrate and water quality metrics had the strongest relationships with vegetation cover at catchment and riparian scales, while vegetation cover did not show any association with the macroinvertebrate metrics at local scale. At catchment scale, the water quality metrics indicate that ecological condition of Andean streams is good when vegetation cover is over 70%. Further, macroinvertebrate community assemblages were more diverse and related in catchments largely covered by native vegetation (>70%). Our results suggest that retaining an important quantity of native vegetation cover within the catchments and a linkage between headwater and riparian forests help to maintain and improve stream biodiversity and water quality in Andean streams affected by deforestation. This research proposes that a strong regulation focused to the management of riparian buffers can be successful when decision making is addressed to conservation/restoration of Andean catchments.

  3. Ocean Uses: Hawaii (PROUA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Pacific Regional Ocean Uses Atlas (PROUA) Project is an innovative partnership between NOAA and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) designed to...

  4. Macrophyte Communities of Andean Rivers: Composition and Relation with Environmental Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Alida Marcela Gómez Rodríguez; Luz Teresa Valderrama Valderrama; Carlos A. Rivera-Rondón

    2017-01-01

    Small streams of tropical Andes have been poorly studied. Therefore, there is little information about the structure, dynamics and function of their macrophyte communities. In this research, aquatic plant communities of 18 Andean streams of La Vieja (Quindío) and Otún (Risaralda) river basins were studied; those are some of the basins most affected by anthropic activities in the country. Streams were selected according to their association with the main land’s uses of the region in both basin...

  5. Physics in the Andean Countries: A Perspective from Condensed Matter, Novel Materials and Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, P.

    2009-05-01

    We will discuss the current state of R&D in the fields of condensed matter, novel materials, and nanotechnology in the Andean nations. We will initially consider Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) to then visualize individual developments, as well as those for the region as a whole in these fields of knowledge in each of the nations constituting the Andean Region (Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile, Venezuela, Peru, and Colombia). Based on Science & Technology watch exercises in the countries involved, along with the Iberian American and Inter-American Science & Technology Network of Indicators (Red de indicadores de Ciencia y Tecnolog'ia (RICYT) iberoamericana e interamericana)1, we will reveal statistical data that will shed light on the development in the fields mentioned. As will be noted, total R&D investment in Latin American and Caribbean countries remained constant since 1997. In spite of having reached a general increase in publications without international collaboration in LAC nations, the countries with greatest research productivity in Latin America (Argentina, Mexico, Brazil, and Chile) have strengthened their international collaboration with the United States, France, Germany, and Italy through close links associated with the formation processes of their researchers. Academic and research integration is evaluated through joint authorship of scientific articles, evidencing close collaboration in fields of research. This principle has been used in the creation of cooperation networks among participating nations. As far as networks of research on condensed matter, novel materials, and nanotechnology, the Andean nations have not consolidated a regional network allowing permanent and effective cooperation in research and technological development; as would be expected, given their idiomatic and cultural similarities, their historical background, and geographical proximity, which have been integrating factors in other research areas or socio-economic aspects. This

  6. [Decriminalizing traditional Andean medicine: an interview with Walter Álvarez Quispe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Walter Álvarez; Loza, Carmen Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Walter Álvarez Quispe, a Kallawaya healer and biomedical practitioner specializing in general surgery and gynecology, presents the struggle of traditional and alternative healers to get their Andean medical systems depenalized between 1960 and 1990. Bolivia was the first country in Latin America and the Caribbean to decriminalize traditional medicine before the proposals of the International Conference on Primary Health Care (Alma-Ata, 1978). The data provided by the interviewee show that the successes achieved, mainly by the Kallawayas, stem from their own independent initiative. These victories are not the result of official policies of interculturality in healthcare, although the successes achieved tend to be ascribed to them.

  7. Understanding the uplift pattern in Mesozoic and Cenozoic,, eastern Dabie area, China using fission track dating of apatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qianhong; Liu Shunsheng

    2002-01-01

    By using the fission track dating technique, a preliminary study was carried out on the fission track ages (FTA) of apatite, their distribution patterns and hints over the tectonics activities during Mesozoic and Cenozoic in the east Dabie area. Attempts were also made to improve the conventional statistical method for the tracks. Ranging from 59.4 +- 3.4 Ma to 105.6 +- 9.8 Ma, the FTA results of apatite spread in the wide range and increased rapidly from the east to the west area. Sine 95 Ma, the uplift rate has been quite slow and asymmetry. The FTA value in the middle area of Xiaotian-Mozitan Fault may imply its uplift in Cretaceous. The faulting should be the main control factor for the uplift of this area

  8. Review of Bothnian Sea shore-level displacement data and use of a GIS tool to estimate isostatic uplift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorela, A.; Penttinen, T.; Lahdenperae, A.-M.

    2009-02-01

    The aim and approach of the study were to produce source data estimates necessary for modelling the future biosphere. The study updated the list of 14 C datings of sea-level index points, which show when lakes and mires were isolated from the Baltic Sea due to isostatic uplift. The study concentrated on the Bothnian Sea, especially the Olkiluoto area. The older Finnish datings (a list of 260 sea-level index points determined in 1995) were checked and revised as needed. New data was available for 56 Finnish and 41 Swedish index points. State-of-the-art 14 C calibration methods were applied. Various available data were used to estimate the parameters of the glacio-isostatic uplift model's slow component. The component describes the uplift in relation to time using parameters B s , which is related to the uplift's total duration, and A s , which is half of the total uplift possible in the period lasting from the Last Glacial Maximum to the distant future. The B s values were estimated by means of 1) crustal thickness and 2) shoreline displacement curves. In applying method 1, this study revised the function describing the relationship between crustal thickness and B s and created a new derivative-based method that also estimates the parameter A s without radiocarbon datings and using only crustal thickness and current uplift maps. In method 2, sea-level index point subsets along the Finnish and Swedish coasts of the Bothnian Sea were selected from the revised database, and their datings and elevations were used to determine the corresponding land uplift parameters. The parameter value distributions were used to produce maps. The values of the inertia factor B s are on average 6% higher than those calculated in 2001 but they are 10% lower in the Olkiluoto region. According to the interpolations of the new and old data, the estimated uplift at Olkiluoto for AD 12000 is 2.8 m (7%) less than calculated previously. The derivative-based method predicts an uplift for AD

  9. Two Extreme Climate Events of the Last 1000 Years Recorded in Himalayan and Andean Ice Cores: Impacts on Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L. G.; Mosley-Thompson, E. S.; Davis, M. E.; Kenny, D. V.; Lin, P.

    2013-12-01

    In the last few decades numerous studies have linked pandemic influenza, cholera, malaria, and viral pneumonia, as well as droughts, famines and global crises, to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Two annually resolved ice core records, one from Dasuopu Glacier in the Himalaya and one from the Quelccaya Ice Cap in the tropical Peruvian Andes provide an opportunity to investigate these relationships on opposite sides of the Pacific Basin for the last 1000 years. The Dasuopu record provides an annual history from 1440 to 1997 CE and a decadally resolved record from 1000 to 1440 CE while the Quelccaya ice core provides annual resolution over the last 1000 years. Major ENSO events are often recorded in the oxygen isotope, insoluble dust, and chemical records from these cores. Here we investigate outbreaks of diseases, famines and global crises during two of the largest events recorded in the chemistry of these cores, particularly large peaks in the concentrations of chloride (Cl-) and fluoride (Fl-). One event is centered on 1789 to 1800 CE and the second begins abruptly in 1345 and tapers off after 1360 CE. These Cl- and F- peaks represent major droughts and reflect the abundance of continental atmospheric dust, derived in part from dried lake beds in drought stricken regions upwind of the core sites. For Dasuopu the likely sources are in India while for Quelccaya the sources would be the Andean Altiplano. Both regions are subject to drought conditions during the El Niño phase of the ENSO cycle. These two events persist longer (10 to 15 years) than today's typical ENSO events in the Pacific Ocean Basin. The 1789 to 1800 CE event was associated with a very strong El Niño event and was coincidental with the Boji Bara famine resulting from extended droughts that led to over 600,000 deaths in central India by 1792. Similarly extensive droughts are documented in Central and South America. Likewise, the 1345 to 1360 CE event, although poorly documented

  10. Active basement uplift as seen with cosmogenic lenses: the Sierra Pie de Palo case (Western Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siame, L. L.; Sébrier, M.; Costa, C. H.; Ahumada, E. A.; Bellier, O.

    2013-12-01

    The Andean foreland of western Argentina (28°S-33°S) corresponds to retroarc deformations associated with the ongoing flat subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American lithosphere, and associated with high levels of seismic activity and crustal active faulting. To improve earthquake source identification and characterization in the San Juan region, data from seismology, structural geology and quantitative geomorphology can be integrated and combined to provide a seismotectonic model. In this model, the Andean back-arc of western Argentina has to be regarded as an obliquely converging foreland where Plio-Quaternary deformations are partitioned between strike-slip and thrust motions that are localized on the E-verging, thin-skinned Argentine Precordillera, and the W-verging thick-skinned Sierras Pampeanas, respectively. In this domain, the Sierra Pie de Palo is a key structure playing a major role in the partitioning of the Plio-Quaternary deformations. Located in the westernmost Sierras Pampeanas, the Sierra Pie de Palo forms a NNE striking, 80 km-long and 35-40 km-wide, ellipsoid range that reaches elevation as high as 3162 m. This mountain range is an actively growing basement fold associated with a high level of seismic activity (e.g., the November 23, 1977, Caucete, Mw 7.4 earthquake). To evaluate the degree of tectonic activity around the Sierra Pie de Palo, we combined a detailed morphometric analysis of the topography together with in situ-produced cosmogenic 10Be concentrations measured in (1) bedrock outcrops corresponding to the exhumed erosional regional surface, (2) surface boulders abandoned on alluvial fans deformed by active faults, and (3) in fluvial sediments sampled at the outlets of selected watersheds that drains out from the Sierra Pie de Palo. All together, our results allows: (1) assessing quantitative constraints on the rate of tectonic and denudation processes that are responsible for the active growth and erosion of the Sierra

  11. Proceedings of a seminar on sea level displacement and bedrock uplift, 10-11 June 2010, Pori, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipping, T.; Ikonen, A.T.K.

    2011-01-01

    This working report is the proceedings of a seminar on Sea level displacement and bedrock uplift held on 10-11 June 2010 in Pori, Finland. The seminar included invited oral presentations, as well as poster presentations, addressing the causes and mechanisms, observations, modelling and implications of the sea level change and crustal uplift still continuing after the last glaciation in the Baltic Sea region. In the proceedings, a total of 14 papers are included, in addition to foreword and a summary of seminar discussions. (orig.)

  12. Rapid ice unloading in the Fleming Glacier region, southern Antarctic Peninsula, and its effect on bedrock uplift rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chen; King, Matt A.; Watson, Christopher S.

    2017-01-01

    deformation. We subtract modeled elastic deformation rates, and a suite of modeled viscous rates, from GPS-derived three-dimensional bedrock velocities at sites to the south of Fleming Glacier to infer properties of Earth rheology. Assuming the pre-breakup bedrock uplift was positive due to post-Last Glacial...... Maximum (LGM) ice retreat, our viscoelastic-corrected GPS uplift rates suggest upper mantle viscosities are >2×1019 Pas and likely >1×1020 Pas in this region, 1–2 orders of magnitude greater than previously found for the northern Antarctic Peninsula. Horizontal velocities at the GPS site nearest...

  13. LiDAR Mapping of Earthquake Uplifted Paleo-shorelines, Southern Wairarapa Coast, North Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenciano, J.; Angenent, J.; Marshall, J. S.; Clark, K.; Litchfield, N. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Hikurangi subduction margin along the east coast of the North Island, New Zealand accommodates oblique convergence of the Pacific Plate westward beneath the Australian plate at 45 mm/yr. Pronounced forearc uplift occurs at the southern end of the margin along the Wairarapa coast, onshore of the subducting Hikurangi plateau. Along a narrow coastal lowland, a series of uplifted Holocene marine terraces and beach ridges preserve a geologic record of prehistoric coseismic uplift events. In January 2017, we participated in the Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program of the NSF SHIRE Project (Subduction at Hikurangi Integrated Research Experiment). We visited multiple coastal sites for reconnaissance fieldwork to select locations for future in-depth study. For the coastline between Flat Point and Te Kaukau Point, we used airborne LiDAR data provided by Land Information New Zealand (LINZ) to create ArcGIS digital terrain models for mapping and correlating uplifted paleo-shorelines. Terrace elevations derived from the LiDAR data were calibrated through the use of Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS surveying at one field site (Glenburn Station). Prior field mapping and radiocarbon dating results (Berryman et al., 2001; Litchfield and Clark, 2015) were used to guide our LiDAR mapping efforts. The resultant maps show between four and seven uplifted terraces and associated beach ridges along this coastal segment. At some sites, terrace mapping and lateral correlation are impeded by discontinuous exposures and the presence of landslide debris, alluvial fan deposits, and sand dunes. Tectonic uplift along the southern Hikurangi margin is generated by a complex interaction between deep megathrust slip and shallow upper-plate faulting. Each uplifted Holocene paleo-shoreline is interpreted to represent a single coseismic uplift event. Continued mapping, surveying, and age dating may help differentiate between very large margin-wide megathrust earthquakes (M8.0-9.0+) and

  14. Raised marine terraces in the Northern Calabrian Arc (Southern Italy: a ~ 600 kyr-long geological record of regional uplift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cucci

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Sibari Plain in the Northeastern Calabrian Arc displays a well-developed suite of marine terraces. This paper deals with i the identification and correlation of the terraces; ii their age assignment and a tentative reconstruction of the uplift history of the area; iii the relationships between terraces and major faults in the study area and between uplift in the Plain and pattern of Quaternary uplift throughout the Calabrian Arc. Identifying wavecut platforms and inner-edge fragments over a linear extent of ~ 100 km was achieved by photo interpretation, 1:25 000 scale map analyses and field survey. Morphological evidence led to the correlation of the identified fragments into five complete strandlines (numbered #1 to #5 lowest to highest, at elevations ranging from 60 m to ~ 650 m. Analysis of two parameters of the emerged platform-cliff systems, namely the platform-cliff ratio and the dissection percentage, further testifies that the two lowest terraces are strongly correlative. A 130 kyr AAR age of in situ fossil samples of Glycymeris collected at 114 m elevation within the deposit of Terrace #2 indicates a key correlation of T#2 with MIS 5.5 (the peak of the last interglacial, 124 kyr, i.e. an uplift rate of ~ 0.98 mm/yr for this strandline. The other four terraces have been tentatively associated with MIS 5.3, 7, 9 and 15. Geological observations independent of geochronological evidence provide consistent lower age boundaries for the terraces and supply further constraints to this interpretation. Investigating the relations between setting of the terraces and location of major tectonic structures in the region is suggestive of no recent activity of two previously recognized faults, the «Sangineto Line» and the «Corigliano-Rossano Line». Instead, some limited anomalies that affect the terraces are tentatively associated with the activity of the Castrovillari Fault. Therefore, sustained uplift has been the long-term dominant

  15. Test on the splitting failure capacity of the bottom rail due to uplift in partially anchored shear walls

    OpenAIRE

    Caprolu, Giuseppe; Girhammar, Ulf Arne; Källsner, Bo; Johnsson, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Källsner and Girhammar have developed a new plastic design method for wood-frame shear walls at ultimate limit state. The method is capable of calculating the load-carrying capacity of partially anchored shear walls, where the leading stud is not necessarily anchored against uplift. In fully anchored shear walls, the leading stud needs to be anchored using some kind of hold-downs to resist uplift and the bottom rail needs to be fixed by anchor bolts to resist horizontal shear forces. In parti...

  16. Recognizing rural territorial heritage: characterization of Andean tuber production systems in Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clavijo Ponce Neidy Lorena

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available

    In the municipalities Ventaquemada and Turmequé (Boyacá- Colombia, we identified 20 small agricultures by their production systems including the following Andean tubers: Ullucus tuberosus Caldas (ulluco, Oxalis tuberosa Molina (oca, and Tropaeolum tuberosum R. & P. (Mashua, which were important in their family meals and culture, however, their use has declined and the area has not seen research and development processes that provide alternatives for handling, conservation, use and marketing, and now are at the risk of disappearing. This research conducted participatory assessment processes for the characterization of production systems and initiated reassessment processes of territorial heritage, identifying common sub-farm agrobiodiversity and projects for these traditional Andean tuber crops in order to enhance the special and knowhow knowledge surrounding the production.

  17. [Key to chironomid pupal exuviae (Diptera: Chironomidae) of tropical high Andean streams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Narcís; González-Trujillo, Juan David; Ospina-Torres, Rodulfo

    2014-12-01

    The Chironomidae is a cosmopolitan family of Nematoceran flies with more than 20,000 species described. However the diversity of genera and species of the family in the Andean region beyond the 2,000 m.a.s.l are scarcely known. We conducted faunal surveys and biomonitoring research in different streams of Colombia, Ecuador and Peru from May 2005 to October 2011. Based on specimens collections, a taxonomic key was developed to identify pupae and pupal exuviae of 46 genera of midges (Diptera, Chironomidae) collected from streams at high altitude areas on the Andean tropical mountains. We included illustrations and brief taxonomic descriptions for all genera, of which several ones have not yet been formally described; in this latter case we used the nomenclature of Roback & Coffman (1983). For two genera, Cricotopus and Genus 1, keys to the most com- mon morphospecies were provided. Results showed that in this area the chironomid assemblages are dominated by the members of the subfamily Orthocladiinae (22 genera) followed by the Chironominae (13). Six genera of Tanypodinae were identified, while only three and two genera were present from subfamilies Podonominae and Diamesinae. This key may be very useful for both studies about drift in streams, and for biomonitoring purposes.

  18. A multinational Andean genetic and health program: growth and development in an hypoxic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, W H; Schull, V N; Schull, W J; Soto, P; Rothhammer, F

    1978-07-01

    In 1972 a multidisciplinary study sought to assess the health status of the indigenous peoples of the Department of Arica in northern Chile, the Aymara, and to relate disease, morphological, physiological and biochemical variation, to the wide changes in altitude of the region. Presented here are the morphological changes which accompany age, altitude and ethnicity amoung 1047 children and adults, permanent residents of the coast, sierra and altiplano. At comparable ages, high-altitude residents were shorter, lighter and leaner but with more expansive and rounder chests than sea-level controls. None of these effects was systematically related to ethnicity (Spanish-Aymara surname), although when stature was held constant, children with greater Aymara ancestry had largest chest circumferences and longer bones. These results suggest that (1) altitude confers allometric growth changes (expensive growth of the chest and diminished growth of the structures less related to oxygen transport); and (2) size changes associated with altitude are acquired during development while shape changes may be under genetic control. Altitude appears to account for less of the variation in growth in this relatively homogeneous Chilean sample than has been reported for other Andean samples, suggesting other concomitants confounding the effects of hypoxia in Andean South America.

  19. The Andean Paepalanthus pilosus complex (Eriocaulaceae): a revision with three new taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensold, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A herbarium-based revision is provided for Paepalanthus pilosus and allies, five commonly confused species of cushion plants native to Andean paramo. These are placed in the recircumscribed Paepalanthus subsect. Cryptanthella Suess. The group includes Paepalanthus pilosus, Paepalanthus dendroides, and Paepalanthus lodiculoides. An additional two species and one variety are newly described: Paepalanthus caryonauta, Paepalanthus huancabambensis, and Paepalanthus pilosus var. leoniae. The latter two are Peruvian endemics, while Paepalanthus caryonauta is known from four countries, and has long been confused with other species. An additional, possibly undescribed taxon is noted from the Serrania de Perijá, Colombia. Five new synonyms and three lectotypes are proposed, and the common misapplication of some names is noted. Within the Paepalanthus pilosus complex, species differences were found in timing of peduncle elongation, sex ratio, and leaf, perianth, diaspore and nectary morphology. Ecological differences are suggested by specimen data and a review of ecological literature. Descriptions, photographs and maps are provided for all species, as is a key to the groups of eriocaulaceous cushion plants from Andean South America. PMID:27489483

  20. Composition and diversity of High Andean in the Fauna Production Reserve Chimborazo, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Caranqui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study inquire the floristic diversity of 9 sampling in four plots of 1 m² of high andean in several locations in the “Reserva de Producción de Fauna Chimborazo”. For the development of this study, we used an adaptation of the method of plots “Gloria”. With coverage (% in each of the plots, Further the diversity indices and similarity with respective analysis were obtained. The data obtained reflect a diversity that can range from medium to low, believe that this is due to anthropogenic activities that have taken place in these ecosistems. With the presence mostly Calamagrostis intermedia, it could establish that the type of vegetation is herbaceous in high andean is higher percentage; is the species that is almost always present in most types of vegetation of the RPF Chimborazo and high dominance that influences the results of low floristic diversity indices was found in the analysis. As a result the most abundant family Asteraceae is well Poaceae.

  1. Two new trans-Andean species of Imparfinis Eigenmann & Norris, 1900 (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Ortega-Lara

    Full Text Available Two new species of Imparfinis are described from the trans-Andean region of Colombia. Imparfinis timana is diagnosed by having longer anal fin base (12.4-15.5% in SL, in combination with long adipose fin (24.6-31.3% in SL, 5-6 gill rakers on the first ceratobranchial, 42-43 vertebrae and additional measurements. Imparfinis usmai is distinguished by the combination of first ray of dorsal fin longest, but not projected as a long filament, long adipose fin (21.1-27.0% in SL, maxillary barbel exceeding pelvic-fin base, 39-40 vertebrae, upper caudal-fin lobe pointed and longer than lower lobe, lower lobe rounded, 7-8 gill rakers on the first ceratobranchial, as well as additional measurements. Imparfinis timana is only known from río Guarapas, a small tributary of the upper course of the río Magdalena. Imparfinis usmai is broadly distributed in the upper basin of ríos Cauca and Magdalena, and in the lower Patía river basin. The restricted distribution of I. nemacheir to trans-Andean drainages (Atrato, Magdalena, and Lago de Maracaibo is also discussed.

  2. Research Priorities for the Conservation and Sustainable Governance of Andean Forest Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah-Lan Mathez-Stiefel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The long-term survival of Andean forest landscapes (AFL and of their capacity to contribute to sustainable development in a context of global change requires integrated adaptation and mitigation responses informed by a thorough understanding of the dynamic and complex interactions between their ecological and social components. This article proposes a research agenda that can help guide AFL research efforts for the next 15 years. The agenda was developed between July 2015 and June 2016 through a series of workshops in Ecuador, Peru, and Switzerland and involved 48 researchers and development experts working on AFL from different disciplinary perspectives. Based on our review of current research and identification of pressing challenges for the conservation and sustainable governance of AFL, we propose a conceptual framework that draws on sustainability sciences and social–ecological systems research, and we identify a set of high-priority research goals and objectives organized into 3 broad categories: systems knowledge, target knowledge, and transformation knowledge. This paper is intended to be a reference for a broad array of actors engaged in policy, research, and implementation in the Andean region. We hope it will trigger collaborative research initiatives for the continued conservation and sustainable governance of AFL.

  3. The Higgs vacuum uplifted. Revisiting the electroweak phase transition with a second Higgs doublet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorsch, G.C. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Huber, S.J. [Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Mimasu, K. [Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Louvain Univ. Catholique, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Center for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology; No, J.M. [King' s College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2017-05-25

    The existence of a second Higgs doublet in Nature could lead to a cosmological first order electroweak phase transition and explain the origin of the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Universe. We explore the parameter space of such a two-Higgs-doublet-model and show that a first order electroweak phase transition strongly correlates with a significant uplifting of the Higgs vacuum w.r.t. its Standard Model value. We then obtain the spectrum and properties of the new scalars H{sub 0}, A{sub 0} and H{sup ±} that signal such a phase transition, showing that the decay A{sub 0}→H{sub 0}Z at the LHC and a sizable deviation in the Higgs self-coupling λ{sub hhh} from its SM value are sensitive indicators of a strongly first order electroweak phase transition in the 2HDM.

  4. A resposta broncodilatadora em doentes com DPOC (dados do estudo UPLIFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tashkin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: No início do estudo, foi realizada espirometria antes e depois de 80 μg de ipratrópio e 400 μg de salbutamol, administrados 90 e 30 minutos antes, respectivamente. A administração de dois broncodilatadores e a sua temporalidade teve como objectivo atingir a broncodilatação máxima ou quase máxima. O FEV1 basal após esta broncodilatação, no estudo UPLIFT, permitiu: - examinar a resposta broncodilatadora aguda numa grande coorte de doentes com DPOC moderada a muito grave; - determinar o que pode ser considerado critério de resposta usando vários critérios de reversibilidade; - avaliar as características dos doentes com e sem reversibilidade.

  5. Analysis of uplift loads of precast-concrete piles in porous soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stélio Maia Menezes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of uplift load tests in three precast-concrete piles carried out in a collapsible sandy soil. The piles with 12 meters (m length and 0.17 x 0.17 square meter (m2 cross section were instrumented with strain gauges, in order to know the load transfer in depth. Three tests performed in a slow maintained load way were conducted in a natural condition of moisture content soil. A fourth test was carried out after the previous soaking of the soil around the pile head. The tests were performed in the experimental research site at the Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (Unesp. The results obtained were evaluated by analytical and empirical methods.

  6. Apatite fission track evidence on the uplifting of eastern Kunlun mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuang Wanming; Dong Jinquan; Tang Yunhui; Wang Shicheng

    2004-01-01

    A series of samples were collected from about south-north section through Buqingshan and Dulan, eastern Kunlun mountains, China. The 41 apatite fission track ages (FTA) of these samples lie between 25.2 and 130.4 Ma, all of the apatite fission track ages are significantly younger than the host rocks. There are similar evolution trends for Middle-Kunlun zone and North-Kunlun zone, i.e. the FTA becomes less with slow increase of elevations and their uplifting rates are about 2.22 m/Ma. Differently, the FTA in South-Kunlun zone positively correlates to elevation, decreasing 11 m/Ma. It may be shown that South-Kunlun fault play a different and/or more important role on incontinent evolution than Middle-Kunlun fault. (author)

  7. Oxygen ion uplift and satellite drag effects during the 30 October 2003 daytime superfountain event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Tsurutani

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The prompt penetration of interplanetary electric fields (IEFs to the dayside low-latitude ionosphere during the first ~2 h of a superstorm is estimated and applied to a modified NRL SAMI2 code for the 30 October 2003 event. In our simulations, the dayside ionospheric O+ is convected to higher altitudes (~600 km and higher latitudes (~±25° to 30°, forming highly displaced equatorial ionospheric anomaly (EIA peaks. This feature plus others are consistent with previously published CHAMP electron (TEC measurements and with the dayside superfountain model. The rapid upward motion of the O+ ions causes neutral oxygen (O uplift due to ion-neutral drag. It is estimated that above ~400 km altitude the O densities within the displaced EIAs can be increased substantially over quiet time values. The latter feature will cause increased drag for low-altitude satellites. This newly predicted phenomenon is expected to be typical for superstorm/IEF events.

  8. Tiotropium as a first maintenance drug in COPD: secondary analysis of the UPLIFT trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troosters, T; Celli, B; Lystig, T

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was investigate the long-term effect of tiotropium as first maintenance respiratory medication in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A 4-yr, randomised, multicentre, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial (Understanding Potential Long......-term Impacts on Function with Tiotropium (UPLIFT) was conducted. Analysis focused on the effect of tiotropium versus matching placebo in the 810 (13.5%) COPD patients not on other maintenance treatment (long-acting beta-agonists, inhaled corticosteroids, theophyllines or anticholinergics) at randomisation....... Spirometry, health-related quality of life (St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score), exacerbations of COPD and mortality were also analysed. 403 patients (mean+/-sd age 63+/-8 yrs, post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) 53+/-12% predicted) received tiotropium and 407 (64...

  9. Opening of the Gulf of Guayaquil: quantifying the motion from the trench to the Andean Cordillera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, E.; Dumont, J. F.; Vilema, W.; Pedoja, K.

    2003-04-01

    The Gulf of Guayaquil is a complex pull-apart opened at the south tip of the North Andean Block. The Guayaquil-Caracas Megashear (i.e. Dolores-Guayaquil Megashear) which bounds the North Andean Block to the east crosses the Western Andean Cordillera along the Pallatanga fault, and joins southwestward the Ecuadorian trench. According to paleogeographic data the Gulf of Guayaquil began to open about 9 Ma ago, which is evidenced now by about 100 km offset of the Early Neogene Progresso and Loja basins. A lesser post orogenic offset of about 60 km is observed along the Pallatanga fault, coherent with the offset of the piedmont of the Western Andean Cordillera. The discrepancy suggests a partition of the deformation at the south tip of the North Andean Block, part of the motion being accommodated by other small faults north of the Pallatanga fault zone and resulting in a pull apart motion and subsidence of the Daule-Babahoyo basin. The main curve of the Tallara Arc described by the trend of the trench from north Peru to north Ecuador shows a significant anomaly in front of the Gulf of Guayaquil. A 60 to 70 km minimum right hand deviation of the curve is observed, displayed in three segments delimited by faults. Neotectonic studies in the Santa Clara and Puná Islands located in the Gulf of Guayaquil show a regional E-W shortening during the Pleistocene, characterised by right lateral motion along the Zambapala Cordillera in Puná. Offset of river drainage and morphostructures in South Puná gives evidence of 3 km dextral offset which post-date marine terraces with an estimated age of M.I.S. 9 or 11, giving mean offset rates of 9 mm/y or 6.8 mm/y respectively. The conclusion underlines the following points: (1) These data suggest that the offset rate inside the Gulf of Guayaquil during the Late Quaternary is lower than the mean rate observed since 9 Ma. The apparent slow down may be due to the partition of the deformation of the Gulf of Guayaquil towards the Guayas

  10. Ocean Prediction Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Media Facebook Twitter YouTube Search Search For Go NWS All NOAA Weather Analysis & Forecasts of Commerce Ocean Prediction Center National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Analysis & Unified Surface Analysis Ocean Ocean Products Ice & Icebergs NIC Ice Products NAIS Iceberg Analysis

  11. Ordovician gas exploration breakthrough in the Gucheng lower uplift of the Tarim Basin and its enlightenment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhaoming

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A steady high yield natural gas flow was tapped in the Ordovician strata of Well Gucheng 6 drilled in the Gucheng lower uplift in the Tarim Basin in 2012, marking the discovery of another carbonate gas exploration field after the other two fields in the middle and northern Tarim Basin (the so called Tazhong and Tabei in the industry. The exploration in the Gucheng lower uplift has experienced three stages: the first stage, marine facies clastic exploration from 1995 to 2003, focusing on the Devonian Donghe sandstone lithologic traps, the Silurian overlapping lithologic traps, and the Upper Ordovician shelf slope turbidites; the second stage focusing on the reef shoal carbonate reservoirs from 2003 to 2006, during which oil and gas were first discovered in Well Gucheng 4; the third stage can be divided into two periods, in the first period, deeper insight into interbed karstification reservoir exploration, intense research on tricky seismic issues, selection of favorable zones, and 3D seismic deployment in advance laid a robust foundation for breakthroughs in oil and gas exploration; and during 2009–2012, through an in-depth investigation, Well Gucheng 6 was drilled, bringing about the major breakthrough in oil and gas exploration in this study area. This success proves that the Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks in the Gucheng area have good geological conditions and broad prospect for oil and gas exploration, which give us enlightenment in three aspects: a. new insight into geologic understanding is the prerequisite of exploration breakthrough; b. addressing bottleneck technologies, and acquiring 3D seismic data are the guarantees of exploration breakthrough; and c. emancipation of mind and persistent exploration are key to the findings in new domains.

  12. Rock uplift above the subduction megathrust at Montague and Hinchinbrook Islands, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kelly M.

    Deformation related to the transition from strike-slip to convergent slip during flat-slab subduction of the Yakutat microplate has resulted in regions of focused rock uplift and exhumation. In the St. Elias and Chugach Mountains, faulting related to transpressional processes and bending of fault systems coupled with enhanced glacial erosion causes rapid exhumation. Underplating below the syntaxial bend farther west in the Chugach Mountains and central Prince William Sound causes focused, but less rapid, exhumation. Farther south in the Prince William Sound, plate boundary deformation transitions from strike-slip to nearly full convergence in the Montague Island and Hinchinbrook Island region, which is ˜20 km above the megathrust between the Yakutat microplate and overriding North American Plate. Montague and Hinchinbrook Islands are narrow, elongate, and steep, with a structural grain formed by several megathrust fault splays, some of which slipped during the 1964 M9.2 earthquake. Presented here are 32 new apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) and 28 new apatite fission-track (AFT) ages from the Montague and Hinchinbrook Island regions. Most AHe ages are Hanning Bay and Patton Bay faults during the 1964 earthquake. AFT ages range from ˜5 Ma to ˜20 Ma and are also younger at the SW end of Montague Island. These ages and corresponding exhumation rates indicate that the Montague and Hinchinbrook Island region is a narrow zone of intense deformation probably related to duplex thrusting along one or more megathrust fault splays. I interpret the rates of rock uplift and exhumation to have increased in the last ˜5 My, especially at the southwest end of the island system and farthest from the region dominated by strike-slip and transpressional deformation to the northeast. The narrow band of deformation along these islands likely represents the northwestern edge of a broader swath of plate boundary deformation between the Montague-Hinchinbrook Island region and the Kayak Island

  13. The Likelihood of Confusion in the United State Ninth Circuit and the doctrine of Confusable Marks in the Andean Tribunal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Cabrera Perdomo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analysis the most important cases within the jurisdiction of California regarding the trademark infringement and its prerogative of the likelihood of confusion. Finally, it compares the conclusion with the confusable marks theory within the Andean community’s recent cases solving the issue.

  14. Solar UVR-induced DNA damage and inhibition of photosynthesis in phytoplankton from Andean lakes of Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villafane, VE; Buma, AGJ; Boelen, P; Helbling, EW

    2004-01-01

    During January 1999, studies were carried out in temperate lakes of the Andean region of Argentina (41degreesS, 71degreesW) to determine the short-term effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280-400 nm) upon natural phytoplankton assemblages. Organisms from one 'clear' (Lake Moreno) and two

  15. Phenolic compound contents and antioxidant activity in plants with nutritional and/or medicinal properties form the Peruvian Andean region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chirinos, R.; Pedreschi Plasencia, R.P.; Rogez, H.

    2013-01-01

    Total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant activities using different assays (DPPH, ABTS and ORAC) in fruits, grains, leaves, seeds, roots and tubers from 27 different Peruvian Andean plants used in folk medicine or/and as food by the native population were evaluated in order to use these as

  16. Extreme High Prevalence of a Defective Mannose-Binding Lectin (MBL2) Genotype in Native South American West Andean Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandoval, José Raul; Madsen, Hans O; De Stefano, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    communities of the Lake Titicaca), but lower frequencies of 0.22 in Junin (Central Andean highland) and Ucayali (Central Amazonian forest), as well as 0.27 and 0.24 in the Congoma and Cayapa/Chachis populations in the Amazonian forest in Ecuador were also observed. Our results suggest that the high prevalence...

  17. Response of the Andean diversity panel to root rot in a root rot nursery in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Andean Diversity Panel (ADP) was evaluated under low-fertility and root rot conditions in two trials conducted in 2013 and 2015 in Isabela, Puerto Rico. About 246 ADP lines were evaluated in the root rot nursery with root rot and stem diseases caused predominantly by Fusarium solani, which cause...

  18. Vegetation composition and altitudinal distribution of Andean rain forests in El Angel and Guandera reserves, northern Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moscol Olivera, M.C.; Cleef, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Patterns of vascular plant species composition and structure of the remaining rain forest of the Andean Cordillera in northern Ecuador were studied in two reserves: Guandera and El Angel. Thirty three plots located between 3300 and 3700 in were examined along two altitudinal transects crossing the

  19. Carbon storage and long-term rate of accumulation in high-altitude Andean peatlands of Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Hribljan; D.J. Cooper; J. Sueltenfuss; E.C. Wolf; K.A. Heckman; Erik Lilleskov; R.A. Chimner

    2015-01-01

    The high-altitude (4,500+ m) Andean mountain range of north-western Bolivia contains many peatlands. Despite heavy grazing pressure and potential damage from climate change, little is known about these peatlands. Our objective was to quantify carbon pools, basal ages and long-term peat accumulation rates in peatlands in two areas of the arid puna ecoregion of Bolivia:...

  20. Studies on Colombian cryptogams. IIA. Hepaticae – Oil body structure and ecological distribution of selected species of tropical Andean Jungermanniales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradstein, S.R.; Cleef, A.M.; Fulford, M.H.

    1977-01-01

    This paper is the second (Florschütz & Florschütz-de Waard 1974) in the series of reports on cryptogams of Colombia, especially the high Andean bryophytes and lichens, in the framework of recent phytosociological and ecological studies in the area by A. M. Cleef and T. van der Hammen (Amsterdam) and

  1. Vegetation composition and altitudinal distribution of Andean rain forests in El Angel and Guandera reserves, northern Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moscol Olivera, M.C.; Cleef, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Patterns of vascular plant species composition and structure of the remaining rain forest of the Andean Cordillera in northern Ecuador were studied in two reserves: Guandera and El Angel. Thirty three plots located between 3300 and 3700 m were examined along two altitudinal transects crossing the

  2. Landscape-scale drivers of glacial ecosystem change in the montane forests of the eastern Andean flank, Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loughlin, N.J.D.; Gosling, W.D.; Coe, A.L.; Gulliver, P.; Mothes, P.; Montoya, E.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the impact of landscape-scale disturbance events during the last glacial period is vital in accurately reconstructing the ecosystem dynamics of montane environments. Here, a sedimentary succession from the tropical montane cloud forest of the eastern Andean flank of Ecuador provides

  3. Contextual Analysis of the Decision To Adopt a Regional Satellite System: The Case of the Andean CONDOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Leonardo; Mody, Bella

    Acknowledging the importance of communications in economic development, this paper discusses the rationale behind the decision of the Andean Pact nations of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela to develop a regional satellite communication system to be known as CONDOR. The application of contextual theorizing to the decision-making…

  4. Intense uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau triggered rapid diversification of Phyllolobium (Leguminosae) in the Late Cenozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Li Zhang; Yun Kang; Yang Zhong; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2012-01-01

    Phyllolobium, a recently established genus from subgenus Pogonophace of Astragalus, contains about 20 species and four sections, mostly endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). The uplift of the QTP undoubtedly affected organismic evolution in the region, but further molecular dating in a phylogenetic context is required to test whether diversification is linked...

  5. PROPOSING A DIGITAL INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR THE MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION OF THE QHAPAQ ÑAN – ANDEAN ROAD SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Duperré

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The ancient network of roads in the Andean region is one of the most important works of infrastructure in South America. The extensive territory where the main exchanges between their communities were locally performed is previous to the expansion of the Inca Empire. In the year 2014, the region was included on the World Heritage List by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. This communication network is the Qhapaq Ñan, Andean Road System. The Incas planned their route in the diverse landscape of the Andes to promote social and economic ties among the Andean communities. The routes originated in the central square of Cusco, creating cross-connections in a wide geographical area. The Tawantinsuyu depended on this sole route to link very distant production and worship centers. The Qhapaq Ñan was the result of a political project. Even nowadays, it continues to articulate the development of cultural traditions in the Andean region. The present contribution analyzes its transcendental importance as a Cultural Heritage and the singularity of its nomination by the UNESCO, as for the first time six countries are sharing common objectives towards guaranteeing its protection. Furthermore, this research explores the sense of timing in Latin American countries and the implicit challenges in the implementation of the new information technologies for the dissemination of information on Main Andean Road and for its conservation. Although many of the countries have already incorporated the necessary digital tools in this matter, we conclude that there is a need to implement an Integrated Digital Model for the coordinated management in the countries that form the region.

  6. Proposing a Digital Information System for the Management and Conservation of the Qhapaq ÑAN - Andean Road System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duperré, G. N.

    2017-08-01

    The ancient network of roads in the Andean region is one of the most important works of infrastructure in South America. The extensive territory where the main exchanges between their communities were locally performed is previous to the expansion of the Inca Empire. In the year 2014, the region was included on the World Heritage List by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. This communication network is the Qhapaq Ñan, Andean Road System. The Incas planned their route in the diverse landscape of the Andes to promote social and economic ties among the Andean communities. The routes originated in the central square of Cusco, creating cross-connections in a wide geographical area. The Tawantinsuyu depended on this sole route to link very distant production and worship centers. The Qhapaq Ñan was the result of a political project. Even nowadays, it continues to articulate the development of cultural traditions in the Andean region. The present contribution analyzes its transcendental importance as a Cultural Heritage and the singularity of its nomination by the UNESCO, as for the first time six countries are sharing common objectives towards guaranteeing its protection. Furthermore, this research explores the sense of timing in Latin American countries and the implicit challenges in the implementation of the new information technologies for the dissemination of information on Main Andean Road and for its conservation. Although many of the countries have already incorporated the necessary digital tools in this matter, we conclude that there is a need to implement an Integrated Digital Model for the coordinated management in the countries that form the region.

  7. The niche and phylogeography of a passerine reveal the history of biological diversification between the Andean and the Atlantic forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Arias, Natalia; Dantas, Gisele P M; Arbeláez-Cortés, Enrique; Naoki, Kazuya; Gómez, Maria I; Santos, Fabricio R; Miyaki, Cristina Y; Aleixo, Alexandre; Tubaro, Pablo L; Cabanne, Gustavo S

    2017-07-01

    The Atlantic Forest is separated from the Andean tropical forest by dry and open vegetation biomes (Chaco and Cerrado). Despite this isolation, both rainforests share closely related lineages, which suggest a past connection. This connection could have been important for forest taxa evolution. In this study, we used the Saffron-billed Sparrow (Arremon flavirostris) as a model to evaluate whether the Andean and the Atlantic forests act as a refugia system, as well as to test for a history of biogeographic connection between them. In addition, we evaluated the molecular systematic of intraspecific lineages of the studied species. We modeled the current and past distribution of A. flavirostris, performed phylogeographic analyses based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes, and used Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) analyses to test for biogeographic scenarios. The major phylogeographic disjunction within A. flavirostris was found between the Andean and the Atlantic forests, with a divergence that occurred during the Mid-Pleistocene. Our paleodistribution models indicated a connection between these forest domains in different periods and through both the Chaco and Cerrado. Additionally, the phylogeographic and ABC analyses supported that the Cerrado was the main route of connection between these rainforests, but without giving decisive evidence against a Chaco connection. Our study with A. flavirostris suggest that the biodiversity of the Andean and of the Atlantic forests could have been impacted (and perhaps enriched?) by cycles of connections through the Cerrado and Chaco. This recurrent cycle of connection between the Andean and the Atlantic Forest could have been important for the evolution of Neotropical forest taxa. In addition, we discussed taxonomic implications of the results and proposed to split the studied taxon into two full species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Paleokarst on the top of the Maokou Formation: Further evidence for domal crustal uplift prior to the Emeishan flood volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bin; Xu, Yi-Gang; Guan, Jun-Peng; Zhong, Yu-Ting

    2010-09-01

    The ~ 260 Ma Emeishan Large Igneous Province (ELIP) in southwest China has previously been demonstrated to provide compelling evidence for pre-volcanic crustal doming in support of the mantle plume hypothesis. However this has been questioned by Ukstins-Peate and Bryan (2008) by showing hydrothermal magmatic activity at the Daqiao section. To solve this argument, a detailed characterization of the contact between the Emeishan basalts and the Maokou Formation was carried out. The contact is shown to be an unconformity, which is characterized by paleokarst on top of the Maokou Formation, including paleokarst relief, sinkholes, caves, tower karst and its corresponding rocks (such as kaolinite, bauxite and ferruginous duricrust and collapsed breccias, etc.). This paleokarst unconformity was in turn covered or infilled by the Emeishan basalts and tuffs, suggesting that uplift and erosion occurred prior to the eruption of the ELIP. The extent of erosion of the Maokou Formation indicates the ELIP can be divided into three roughly concentric zones: the inner, intermediate, and outer zones. The paleokarst features on the top of Maokou Formation vary across the ELIP. In the inner zone, a likely sinkhole and an incision valley with 450 m relief in height are found. In the intermediate zone, various paleokarst landforms such as karst relief, sinkholes and tower karsts are well developed. Some sinkholes that developed in the Qixia Formation below the Maokou Formation imply that the paleorelief is more than 350 m in height. In the outer zone, the paleokarstic surface is a paleo-weathering layer with minor karstification and development of caves at 10-50 m. This spatial variation of the paleokarst reflects variation of uplift height across the ELIP. The extent of minimal uplift is estimated to be at least 450 m in the inner zone, 350 m in the intermediate zone, whereas uplift is minor (tens-50 m) in the outer zone. The magnitude and shape of the uplift is roughly consistent with

  9. Studying ocean acidification in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) partnership with the U.S. Coast Guard Ice Breaker Healey and its United Nations Convention Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) cruises has produced new synoptic data from samples collected in the Arctic Ocean and insights into the patterns and extent of ocean acidification. This framework of foundational geochemical information will help inform our understanding of potential risks to Arctic resources due to ocean acidification.

  10. The Characteristics on the Terrace and Uplift around the South-eastern part of Korean Peninsula for a Suitability of High level Radioactive Waste Disposal in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Yong Kwon; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Kim, Geon Young; Park, Kyung Woo; Ji, Sung Hoon; Ryu, Ji Hoon

    2009-08-01

    The result of existing studies on the uplift in Korean peninsula would be regarded as high variety and rough uplifting range because of different approach method and various geologic formation with some location. As the results of this studies, the uplift around the southern part of Korean peninsula was estimated as the range from 0.0096mm to 1.4mm/year according to a geologic formation and location. It could be For the applying to HLW disposal project, the study on the uplift characteristics should be conducted according to the following guidelines: - should be a master program for the characterization of uplift in Korean peninsula considering long-term and systematic - should be applied scientific and quantitative approach methods and made subjective results - should be required an effective approach focused on limited area such as eastern, southern and western part of peninsula

  11. Integración regional andina en salud Health in Andean regional integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Agudelo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar su historia compartida, los países de la Región Andina presentan una diversidad social y política que genera realidades sanitarias heterogéneas y procesos de integración complejos. Se han dado por décadas procesos generales, como la Asociación Latinoamericana de Libre Comercio y la Asociación Latinoamericana de Integración, o de alcance regional como la Comunidad Andina de Naciones, la Comunidad del Caribe y el Mercado Común Centroamericano. En el campo específico de la salud se cuenta con un instrumento en la Región Andina, el Convenio Hipólito Unánue, creado en 1971. Estos procesos de integración se han concentrado en los aspectos económicos, con base en acuerdos de preferencias arancelarias, los cuales han generado, en el largo plazo, un intercambio comercial apreciable. En el campo de la salud se ha avanzado menos, en términos de procesos que ponen en común experiencias nacionales, conocimientos y capacidades. El análisis de las experiencias de integración en salud muestra que esta depende de las fortalezas de cada país y, en gran parte, de los procesos políticos nacionales.Despite their shared history, the Andean countries are socially and politically diverse, with heterogeneous health realities and complex integration processes. General developments such as the Latin American Free Trade Association and Latin American Integration Association have existed for decades, along with others of a regional scope, like the Andean Community of Nations, Caribbean Community, and Central American Common Market. The health field has a specific instrument in the Andean Region called the Hipólito Unánue Agreement, created in 1971. Integration processes have concentrated on economic aspects, based on preferential customs agreements that have led to an important long-term increase in trade. Less progress has been made in the field of health in terms of sharing national experiences, knowledge, and capabilities. Analysis of

  12. Nonlinear soil-structure interaction due to base slab uplift on the seismic response of an HTGR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.; Short, S.A.; Wesley, D.A.; Lee, T.H.

    1975-01-01

    The importance of the nonlinear soil-structure interaction effects resulting from substantial base slab uplift occurring during a seismic excitation are evaluated. The structure considered consisted of the containment building and prestressed concrete reactor vessel for a typical HTGR plant. A simplified dynamic mathematical model was utilized consisting of a conventional lumped mass structure with soil-structure interaction accounted for by translational and rotational springs whose properties are determined by elastic half space theory. Three different site soil conditions (a rock site, a moderately stiff soil and a soft soil site) and two levels of horizontal ground motion (0.3g and 0.5g earthquakes) were considered. It may be concluded that linear analysis can be used to conservatively estimate the important behavior of the base slab, even under conditions of substantial base slab uplift. For all cases investigated, linear analysis resulted in higher base overturning moments, greater toe pressures, and greater heel uplift distances than nonlinear analyses. It may also be concluded that the nonlinear effect of uplift does not result in any significant lengthening of the fundamental period of the structure. Also, except in the short period region only negligible differences exist between instructure response spectra based on linear analysis and those based on nonlinear analysis. Finally, for sites in which soil-structure interaction is not significant, as for the rock site, the peak structural response at all locations above the base mat are not significantly influenced by the nonlinear effects of base slab uplift. However, for the two soil sites, the peak shears and moments are, in a few instances, significantly different between linear and nonlinear analyses

  13. Late Quaternary uplift rate inferred from marine terraces, Muroto Peninsula, southwest Japan: Forearc deformation in an oblique subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsu'ura, Tabito

    2015-04-01

    Tectonic uplift rates across the Muroto Peninsula, in the southwest Japan forearc (the overriding plate in the southwest Japan oblique subduction zone), were estimated by mapping the elevations of the inner edges of marine terrace surfaces. The uplift rates inferred from marine terraces M1 and M2, which were correlated by tephrochronology with marine isotope stages (MIS) 5e and 5c, respectively, include some vertical offset by local faults but generally decrease northwestward from 1.2-1.6 m ky- 1 on Cape Muroto to 0.3-0.7 m ky- 1 in the Kochi Plain. The vertical deformation of the Muroto Peninsula since MIS 5e and 5c was interpreted as a combination of regional uplift and folding related to the arc-normal offshore Muroto-Misaki fault. A regional uplift rate of 0.46 m ky- 1 was estimated from terraces on the Muroto Peninsula, and the residual deformation of these terraces was attributed to fault-related folding. A mass-balance calculation yielded a shortening rate of 0.71-0.77 m ky- 1 for the Muroto Peninsula, with the Muroto-Misaki fault accounting for 0.60-0.71 m ky- 1, but these rates may be overestimated by as much as 10% given variations of several meters in the elevation difference between the buried shoreline angles and terrace inner edges in the study area. A thrust fault model with flat (5-10° dip) and ramp (60° dip) components is proposed to explain the shortening rate and uplift rate of the Muroto-Misaki fault since MIS 5e. Bedrock deformation also indicates that the northern extension of this fault corresponds to the older Muroto Flexure.

  14. Modulation of the erosion rate of an uplifting landscape by long-term climate change: An experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussirou, Bérangé; Bonnet, Stéphane

    2018-02-01

    Whether or not climatic variations play a major role in setting the erosion rate of continental landscapes is a key factor in demonstrating the influence of climate on the tectonic evolution of mountain belts and understanding how clastic deposits preserved in sedimentary basins may record climatic variations. Here, we investigate how a change in precipitation influences the erosional dynamics of laboratory-scale landscapes that evolved under a combination of uplift and rainfall forcings. We consider here the impact of a decrease in the precipitation rate of finite duration on the erosive response of a landscape forced by a constant uplift and initially at a steady state (SS1). We performed several experiments with the same amplitude but different durations of precipitation decrease (Tp). We observe that the decrease in precipitation induces a phase of surface uplift of landscapes to a new steady state condition (SS2); however, the details of the uplift histories (timing, rate) differ between the experiments according to Tp. We also observe a decrease in the erosion rate induced by the precipitation change; however, the timing and amplitude of this decrease vary according to Tp, defining a delayed and damped erosion signal. Our data show that the landscape response to precipitation change is dictated by a critical water-to-rock ratio (ratio of precipitation over uplift) that likely corresponds to a geomorphic threshold. Our study suggests that variations in precipitation that occur at a geological time scale (> 106 years) may have a weak impact on the erosion of landscapes and on the delivery of siliciclastic material to large rivers and sedimentary basins.

  15. A Cambrian mixed carbonate-siliciclastic platform in SW Gondwana: evidence from the Western Sierras Pampeanas (Argentina) and implications for the early Paleozoic paleogeography of the proto-Andean margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramacciotti, Carlos D.; Casquet, César; Baldo, Edgardo G.; Galindo, Carmen; Pankhurst, Robert J.; Verdecchia, Sebastián O.; Rapela, Carlos W.; Fanning, Mark

    2018-05-01

    The Western Sierras Pampeanas (WSP) of Argentina record a protracted geological history from the Mesoproterozoic assembly of the Rodinia supercontinent to the early Paleozoic tectonic evolution of SW Gondwana. Two well-known orogenies took place at the proto-Andean margin of Gondwana in the Cambrian and the Ordovician, i.e., the Pampean (545-520 Ma) and Famatinian (490-440 Ma) orogenies, respectively. Between them, an extensive continental platform was developed, where mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation occurred. This platform was later involved in the Famatinian orogeny when it underwent penetrative deformation and metamorphism. The platform apparently extended from Patagonia to northwestern Argentina and the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas, and has probable equivalents in SW Africa, Peru, and Bolivia. The WSP record the outer (deepest) part of the platform, where carbonates were deposited in addition to siliciclastic sediments. Detrital zircon U-Pb SHRIMP ages from clastic metasedimentary successions and Sr-isotope compositions of marbles from the WSP suggest depositional ages between ca. 525 and 490 Ma. The detrital zircon age patterns further suggest that clastic sedimentation took place in two stages. The first was sourced mainly from re-working of the underlying Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks and the uplifted core of the early Cambrian Pampean orogen, without input from the Paleoproterozoic Río de la Plata craton. Sediments of the second stage resulted from the erosion of the still emerged Pampean belt and the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano orogen in the NE with some contribution from the Río de la Plata craton. An important conclusion is that the WSP basement was already part of SW Gondwana in the early Cambrian, and not part of the exotic Precordillera/Cuyania terrane, as was previously thought.

  16. New paleomagnetic poles from Arctic Siberia support Indian Ocean option for the Neoproterozoic APWP of the Siberian craton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasenko, A.; Malyshev, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    Quantity and quality of paleomagnetic poles obtained so far for Neoproterozoic of Siberia are still insufficient even to outline the general trend of APWP of Siberia for this huge and very interesting time interval. Meanwhile, the solution of this problem is crucial for choice of polarity option for Siberian proterozoic paleomagnetic directions, for construction and testing of world paleotectonic and paleogeographic reconstructions. For example, whether or not the Siberian craton could be connected with Laurentia within the supercontinent Rodinia depends directly on paleomagnetic polarity option choice, which , in its turn, is determined by either we choose for neoproterozoic drift of Siberian paleomagnetic poles Pacific ocean trend [Smethurst et al., 1998] or Indian ocean [Pavlov et al., 2015] trend. To advance in solution of this problem we have carried out the paleomagnetic investigations of several sedimentary sections and sills of Arctic Siberia considered to be meso-neoproterozoic in age. In particular we have studied the terrigenous Udza and Unguohtah Formations and basic sills of the Udzha Uplift; the carbonate Khaipakh Formation of the Olenek Uplift; the carbonate Burovaya Formation of the Turukhansk Uplift; basic sills of the Kparaulakh Mountains.In this report we present the paleomagnetic poles obtained, discuss their bearing on construction of the adequate Siberian neoproterozoic APWP and show that our new data rather support the Indian ocean option.This research were supported by Grant from RF President #MK-739.2017.5

  17. ANDEAN COSMOLOGY AND RELIGION: A HISTORICAL DYNAMICS OF ENCOUNTERS, MISSED CONNECTIONS AND REUNIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelar Araujo Santos Junior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Religiosity of contemporary Andean indigenous peoples is constituted by a complex interaction between theology and the original items from the Christianized and ideologies historically produced phenomena such as taxation, interpenetration, removal, syncretism, resistance and reinvention. Embedded in this context was developed as a way of enhancing identity particular worldview is quite representative of their feelings and attitudes about the world, mainly in what it says respect to their territory and their community experiences and patterns of reciprocity in the socialization of traditions. Thus, our proposal in this article is to analyze some of the different elements of the symbolic representation, mythological and ritualistic of these communities, characterized by persistent conflict between a hegemonic dominance of the creative and creative autonomy.

  18. Size class structure, growth rates, and orientation of the central Andean cushion Azorella compacta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Kleier

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Azorella compacta (llareta; Apiaceae forms dense, woody, cushions and characterizes the high elevation rocky slopes of the central Andean Altiplano. Field studies of an elevational gradient of A. compacta within Lauca National Park in northern Chile found a reverse J-shape distribution of size classes of individuals with abundant small plants at all elevations. A new elevational limit for A. compacta was established at 5,250 m. A series of cushions marked 14 years earlier showed either slight shrinkage or small degrees of growth up to 2.2 cm yr−1. Despite their irregularity in growth, cushions of A. compacta show a strong orientation, centered on a north-facing aspect and angle of about 20° from horizontal. This exposure to maximize solar irradiance closely matches previous observations of a population favoring north-facing slopes at a similar angle. Populations of A. compacta appear to be stable, or even expanding, with young plants abundant.

  19. "It Is Not Natural Anymore": Nutrition, Urbanization, and Indigenous Identity on Bolivia's Andean Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipus, Adam C; Leon, Juan S; Calle, Susana C; Andes, Karen L

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this article was to characterize how urbanization and indigenous identity shape nutrition attitudes and practices in El Alto, a rapidly urbanizing and predominantly indigenous (Aymara) community on Bolivia's Andean plateau. We took a qualitative ethnographic approach, interviewing health care providers ( n = 11) and conducting focus groups with mothers of young children ( n = 4 focus groups with 25 mothers total [age = 18-43 years, 60% Aymara]). Participants generally described their urban environment as being problematic for nutrition, a place where unhealthy "junk foods" and "chemicals" have supplanted healthy, "natural," "indigenous" foods from the countryside. Placing nutrition in El Alto within a broader context of cultural identity and a struggle to harmonize different lifestyles and worldviews, we propose how an intercultural framework for nutrition can harmonize Western scientific perspectives with rural and indigenous food culture.

  20. Attitudes towards Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination in the Latin American Andean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwanodi, Oroma

    2017-09-08

    This commentary explores the distribution of human papilloma virus (HPV) and HPV-related diseases, and factors affecting attitudes towards HPV, HPV-related diseases, and HPV vaccination in the Latin American Andean region. Lack of knowledge of HPV, known negative attitudes or incorrect assumptions about HPV, HPV-related diseases, and HPV vaccination provide a basis upon which to develop targeted HPV awareness and preventive health media campaigns. For maximal effect, media campaigns should use the internet, radio, and television to address health care providers, parents, and students. Additional programming can be developed for clinics to use in-house with their clients. Ministries of Education, Finance, and Health all have roles to play to increase national HPV, HPV-related diseases, and HPV vaccination awareness.

  1. Study of Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp., Andean crop with therapeutic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Sifuentes-Penagos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The maca is a native product of the Central Andes of Peru, it is resistant to hail, to frost and to prolonged droughts. It is cultivated from the Inca period in altitudes between 3800 - 4500 meters above sea level. This herbaceous plant, has not only a high nutritional value, but it is also valued for its medicinal role. Among the chemical components of this andean crop that have been related with therapeutic actions the increasing fertility and the energy levels, the antioxidant actions, the improving sexual desire and the growth rate. There are glucosinolates, sterols, fatty acids (macaene and their corresponding amides (macamides, alkaloids (lepidilines A and B, macaridine and polyphenols. This article presents a compilation of the researches that has been performed on the therapeutic properties of maca and its compounds responsible of them.

  2. The Sabethines of Northern Andean Coffee-Growing Regions of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaza-Vasco, Juan; López-Rubio, Andrés; Galeano, Juan; Uribe, Sandra; Vélez, Iván; Porter, Charles

    2015-06-01

    Sampling for sabethine mosquitoes occurred intermittently from September 2007 to April 2013 in 17 municipalities, located in 5 departments (divisions) in the northern Andean coffee-growing regions of Colombia. Of the 9 genera within the Sabethini tribe known to occur in the Neotropical region, 6 were encountered including 15 species: Jonhbelkinia ulopus, Limatus durhamii, Sabethes ignotus, Sa. luxodens, Sa. undosus, Shannoniana fluviatilis, Trichoprosopon compressum, Tr. digitatum, Tr. evansae, Tr. pallidiventer s.l., Tr. pallidiventer s.s., Wyeomyia arthrostigma, Wy. oblita, Wy. ulocoma, and Wy. undulata. The species Sa. luxodens and Wy. undulata constitute new records for Colombia. These records broaden the knowledge of this important group that includes some important species related to the arbovirus transmission. Records are from the northern Colombian Andes, a region noted for coffee cultivation and ecotourism.

  3. Attitudes towards Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination in the Latin American Andean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oroma Nwanodi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This commentary explores the distribution of human papilloma virus (HPV and HPV-related diseases, and factors affecting attitudes towards HPV, HPV-related diseases, and HPV vaccination in the Latin American Andean region. Lack of knowledge of HPV, known negative attitudes or incorrect assumptions about HPV, HPV-related diseases, and HPV vaccination provide a basis upon which to develop targeted HPV awareness and preventive health media campaigns. For maximal effect, media campaigns should use the internet, radio, and television to address health care providers, parents, and students. Additional programming can be developed for clinics to use in-house with their clients. Ministries of Education, Finance, and Health all have roles to play to increase national HPV, HPV-related diseases, and HPV vaccination awareness.

  4. History aspects and ecology of the biodiversity nor Andean and Amazonic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Hammen, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    The mega-biodiversity of the neotropics is type result of the geological and environmental history. A considerable biodiversity, higher than at present, existed in the Miocene in the low-elevation tropics. The progressive upheaval of the Andes created new life zones that were populated by adaptive evolution and immigration from the austral-Antarctic and laurasiatic-holartic regions. The cooling of the earth during the Neogene and the glacial- interglacial cycles of the quaternary, and the consonant changes of temperature and rainfall, in combination with the topography, had a profound effect on vegetation, flora and fauna, the distribution of species and endemism, both in the low tropical area and in the Andean zones. Presently there is a positive relation of species-density with temperature (altitude) and with rainfall, and partly with relative humidity

  5. Scope of fossil energy resources in Mexico and the Andean Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa Vega, F. de la; Boesl, B.

    1997-01-01

    The article focuses on fossil energy resources in the Andean Group and Mexico, and argues for a dynamic approach to calculating reserves to production ratios. Individual countries are surveyed in terms of estimated reserves of fossil energy, resources, current production rates and future prospects; energy policy options for individual countries are analysed. As a primary objective of energy policy is to ensure security of supply, it is important that that calculations of reserves to production ratios accurately, estimate the desired level of investment in exploration. The calculations need to take into account a variety of parameters, including different energy sources, availability and risk; geographic considerations including proximity, transport, storage capacity and commercial aspects; the competitive and environmental implications of developing indigenous resources; and the use of instruments to establish contingency plans for emergencies

  6. Diversity patterns, environmental drivers and changes in vegetation composition in dry inter-Andean valleys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintana, Catalina; Girardello, Marco; Barfod, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Aims We studied diversity, patterns of endemism and turnover of vegetation composition in dry inter-Andean valleys (DIAVs) where little is known about the influence of the abiotic drivers controlling plant species composition and occurrences, and the life forms that contribute most to α- and β...... species with low abundance (e.g. 30 individuals ha−1), including four endemic species. Most of the endemic species were locally rare, and most of them were restricted to southern valleys...... results further highlight the influence of disturbance, water availability and low temperature on plant species composition and occurrence. We also found significant, contrasting patterns in responses to environmental drivers, when analyzing our data separately by life form. Our results show...

  7. Collaborative networks and patent production in Andean Community of Nations universities (UCANS, 2005-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Agüero Aguilar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness and technological development of a region are measured by the degree of innovation supporting them. The quantity and quality of patents generated and applied in production dynamics serve as an element for evaluation. In this sense, universities play a role as generators and transmitters of knowledge. So it is important to identify the level of their collaboration and the trends in terms of technology application in order to establish future policies for development in this sector. This article identifies the degree of collaboration, types of patents, actors (primary and secondary and dynamics of patents produced at the Andean Community of Nations universities during the period 2005-2015 and present in the European Patent Office database. In conclusion, there is a great disparity between CAN universities regarding patent production, so it is necessary to strengthen the collaborative level among universities in this community. Nevertheless, an increase is seen in the production of patents.

  8. Mercury Contamination in an Indicator Fish Species from Andean Amazonian Rivers Affected by Petroleum Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jena; Coomes, Oliver T; Mainville, Nicolas; Mergler, Donna

    2015-09-01

    Elevated mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish from Amazonia have been associated with gold-mining, hydroelectric dams and deforestation but few studies consider the role of petroleum extraction. Hg levels were determined in fish samples collected in three river basins in Ecuador and Peru with contrasting petroleum exploitation and land-use characteristics. The non-migratory, piscivorous species, Hoplias malabaricus, was used as a bioindicator. The rate of Hg increase with body weight for this species was significantly higher on the Corrientes River, near the site of a recent oil spill, than on the other two rivers. In the absence of substantial deforestation and other anthropogenic sources in the Corrientes River basin, this finding suggests that oil contamination in Andean Amazonia may have a significant impact on Hg levels in fish.

  9. The effects of governance modes on the energy matrix of Andean countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the consequences of different modes of energy governance on the energy matrix. Energy governance is understood as a regulation system of the energy related interplays between the State, the society and the economy. The energy matrix is a useful instrument for comparative policy analysis, since it informs us about production and consumption trends, by sources and sectors. Our central argument is that energy governance follows two different patterns, one hierarchical and the other cooperative, that are not necessarily determined by the initial factors allocation, and produce different effects on the energy matrix. Hierarchical governance is based on centralized decision-making and State-centered development, while co-governance is based on decentralized decision-making and market-oriented development. To develop this argument, we compare the energy matrix from the five Andean countries (Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia).

  10. The effects of governance modes on the energy matrix of Andean countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, Guillaume, E-mail: gfontaine@flacso.org.e [Latin American Faculty for Social Sciences (FLACSO), Research Laboratory on Governance, Quito (Ecuador)

    2011-05-15

    This article addresses the consequences of different modes of energy governance on the energy matrix. Energy governance is understood as a regulation system of the energy related interplays between the State, the society and the economy. The energy matrix is a useful instrument for comparative policy analysis, since it informs us about production and consumption trends, by sources and sectors. Our central argument is that energy governance follows two different patterns, one hierarchical and the other cooperative, that are not necessarily determined by the initial factors allocation, and produce different effects on the energy matrix. Hierarchical governance is based on centralized decision-making and State-centered development, while co-governance is based on decentralized decision-making and market-oriented development. To develop this argument, we compare the energy matrix from the five Andean countries (Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia).

  11. International comparison of resistance thermometers between NMIs from Spain, Mexico and Andean countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campo, D.; Ruiz, V. C.; Méndez-Lango, E.; Córdova, L.; von Borries, E.; Sánchez, C. A.; Arévalo, A.; Aguilera, B.; Guillén, E.; Cabrera, C.; Quintana, L.

    2013-09-01

    An international comparison on semi-standard Platinum Resistance Thermometers (PRTs) among the National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) of Spain, Mexico and the Andean Countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela) began in 2004 and was successfully completed in 2005. Two PRTs were circulated (hand carried) and compared from -40 °C up to 250 °C. The Centro Español de Metrología (Spanish NMI), CEM, was the pilot laboratory and the Centro Nacional de Metrología (Mexican NMI), CENAM, was the co-pilot laboratory. This paper shows the details of the comparison and the final results as they were presented in the approved final report of the comparison in September of 2005.

  12. Surface Evolution and Uplift History of the Central Apennines, Italy: New Constraints from Thermochronology and Paleoaltimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    San José, M.; Faccenna, C.; Fellin, M. G.; Willett, S.; Funiciello, F.; Caves Rugenstein, J. K.

    2017-12-01

    The topography of mountain belts results from interactions between surface processes, lithospheric thickening, and mantle dynamics. However, the contributions of each mechanism have yet to be clearly quantified. The Apennines (Italy) provide a study area where all of these processes are at play. The central part of the Apennines is an orogenic wedge formed by the westward subducting Adriatic microplate during Miocene-Pliocene, and overlies an area of local slab detachment. Recent studies indicate anomalously high uplift rates in this area (Faccenna et al., 2015), as well as a simultaneous onset of post-orogenic extension across the Central Apennines at ̴ 2 Ma (Cosentino et al., 2017). These observations have been interpreted as an expression of dynamic topography due to the slab break-off and inherent mantle upwelling. In order to test this hypothesis and further constrain the topographic evolution of the orogen, we use low-temperature thermochronology to date the exhumation, and stable isotope paleoaltimetry (18O/16O on carbonates) to reconstruct paleoelevations. We couple this paleotopographic dataset with geomorphological analysis of the present day topography. Here we present a set of 30 new (U-Th)/He cooling ages on apatites (AHe) sampled from widespread syn-orogenic flysch basin deposits (including one high-resolution vertical profile), as well as preliminary isotopic measurements. Initial results show mean AHe ages ranging from 1.62 (± 0.38 ) Ma to 2.6 (±0.02) Ma, suggesting a regionally uniform exhumation during Pleistocene. Denudation rates inferred from our vertical profile are extremely high (>1 mm/year from 2 to 1 Ma). Some samples have not been thermally reset due to insufficient burial, and yield exhumation ages older than stratigraphic depositional ages (generally > 5 Ma). These results support the hypothesis that exhumation is mainly controlled by rapid regional scale uplift related to the opening of the Adriatic slab window at the end of the

  13. Nutrient uplift in a cyclonic eddy increases diversity, primary productivity and iron demand of microbial communities relative to a western boundary current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina A. Doblin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of western boundary currents in the global ocean will potentially influence meso-scale eddy generation, and redistribute microbes and their associated ecological and biogeochemical functions. To understand eddy-induced changes in microbial community composition as well as how they control growth, we targeted the East Australian Current (EAC region to sample microbes in a cyclonic (cold-core eddy (CCE and the adjacent EAC. Phototrophic and diazotrophic microbes were more diverse (2–10 times greater Shannon index in the CCE relative to the EAC, and the cell size distribution in the CCE was dominated (67% by larger micro-plankton $(\\geq 20\\lrm{\\mu }\\mathrm{m}$ ≥ 20 μ m , as opposed to pico- and nano-sized cells in the EAC. Nutrient addition experiments determined that nitrogen was the principal nutrient limiting growth in the EAC, while iron was a secondary limiting nutrient in the CCE. Among the diazotrophic community, heterotrophic NifH gene sequences dominated in the EAC and were attributable to members of the gamma-, beta-, and delta-proteobacteria, while the CCE contained both phototrophic and heterotrophic diazotrophs, including Trichodesmium, UCYN-A and gamma-proteobacteria. Daily sampling of incubation bottles following nutrient amendment captured a cascade of effects at the cellular, population and community level, indicating taxon-specific differences in the speed of response of microbes to nutrient supply. Nitrogen addition to the CCE community increased picoeukaryote chlorophyll a quotas within 24 h, suggesting that nutrient uplift by eddies causes a ‘greening’ effect as well as an increase in phytoplankton biomass. After three days in both the EAC and CCE, diatoms increased in abundance with macronutrient (N, P, Si and iron amendment, whereas haptophytes and phototrophic dinoflagellates declined. Our results indicate that cyclonic eddies increase delivery of nitrogen to the upper ocean to potentially

  14. The Ocean Literacy Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoedinger, S. E.; Strang, C.

    2008-12-01

    "Ocean Literacy is an understanding of the ocean's influence on you and your influence on the ocean." This simple statement captures the spirit of a conceptual framework supporting ocean literacy (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework comprises 7 essential principles and 44 fundamental concepts an ocean literate person would know (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework is the result of an extensive grassroots effort to reach consensus on (1) a definition for ocean literacy and (2) an articulation of the most important concepts to be understood by ocean-literate citizen (Cava et al., 2005). In the process of reaching consensus on these "big ideas" about the ocean, what began as a series of workshops has emerged as a campaign "owned" by an ever-expanding community of individuals, organizations and networks involved in developing and promoting the framework. The Ocean Literacy Framework has provided a common language for scientists and educators working together and serves as key guidance for the ocean science education efforts. This presentation will focus on the impact this Ocean Literacy Campaign has had to date as well as efforts underway to provide additional tools to enable educators and educational policy makers to further integrate teaching and learning about the ocean and our coasts into formal K-12 education and informal education. COSEE, National Geographic Society, NOAA, College of Exploration (2005). Ocean Literacy: The Essential Principles of Ocean Sciences Grades K-12, a jointly published brochure, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OceanLitChart.pdf Cava, F., S. Schoedinger , C. Strang, and P. Tuddenham (2005). Science Content and Standards for Ocean Literacy: A Report on Ocean Literacy, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OLit2004-05_Final_Report.pdf.

  15. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthracnose Resistance in Andean Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grady H Zuiderveen

    Full Text Available Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans comprised of multiple seed types and market classes from the Americas, Africa, and Europe, and explore the genetic basis of this resistance using genome-wide association mapping analysis (GWAS. Twenty-eight of the 230 lines tested were resistant to six out of the eight races screened, but only one cultivar Uyole98 was resistant to all eight races (7, 39, 55, 65, 73, 109, 2047, and 3481 included in the study. Outputs from the GWAS indicated major quantitative trait loci (QTL for resistance on chromosomes, Pv01, Pv02, and Pv04 and two minor QTL on Pv10 and Pv11. Candidate genes associated with the significant SNPs were detected on all five chromosomes. An independent QTL study was conducted to confirm the physical location of the Co-1 locus identified on Pv01 in an F4:6 recombinant inbred line (RIL population. Resistance was determined to be conditioned by the single dominant gene Co-1 that mapped between 50.16 and 50.30 Mb on Pv01, and an InDel marker (NDSU_IND_1_50.2219 tightly linked to the gene was developed. The information reported will provide breeders with new and diverse sources of resistance and genomic regions to target in the development of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans.

  16. Inorganic mercury (Hg2+ uptake by different plankton fractions of Andean Patagonian lakes (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diéguez M.C.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The species composition and the size structure of natural planktonic food webs may provide essential information to understand the fate of mercury and, in particular, the bioaccumulation pattern of Hg2+ in the water column of lake ecosystems. Heterotrophic and autotrophic picoplankton and phytoplankton are the most important entry points for Hg in aquatic ecosystems since they concentrate Hg2+ and MeHg from ambient water, making them available to planktonic consumers at higher trophic levels of lake food webs. In this investigation we studied the uptake of 197Hg2+ in natural plankton assemblages from four Andean lakes (Nahuel Huapi National Park, Patagonia, Argentina, comprised in the size fractions 0.2-2.7 μm (picoplankton, 0.2-20 μm (pico and nanoplankton and 20-50 μm (microplankton through experiments using Hg2+ labeled with 197Hg2+. The experimental results showed that the uptake of Hg2+ was highest in the smallest plankton fractions (0.2-2.7 μm and 0.2-20 μm compared to the larger fraction comprising microplankton (20-50 um. This pattern was consistent in all lakes, reinforcing the idea that among pelagic organisms, heterotrophic and autotrophic bacteria with the contribution of nanoflagellates and dinoflagellates constitute the main entry point of Hg2+ to the pelagic food web. Moreover, a significant direct relationship was found between the Hg2+ uptake and surface index of the planktonic fractions (SIf. Thus, the smaller planktonic fractions which bore the higher SI were the major contributors to the Hg2+ passing from the abiotic to the biotic pelagic compartments of these Andean lakes.

  17. TREATMENT SUCCESS IN THREE ANDEAN BEARS (TREMARCTOS ORNATUS) WITH ALOPECIA SYNDROME USING OCLACITINIB MALEATE (APOQUEL®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Gabby J; Nuttall, Tim; López, Javier; Magnone, William; Leclerc, Antoine; Potier, Romain; Lécu, Alexis; Guézénec, Maëlle; Kolter, Lydia; Nicolau, Amélie; Lemberger, Karin; Pin, Didier; Cosgrove, Sallie B

    2017-09-01

    Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) alopecia syndrome (ABAS) commonly affects captive bears, particularly sexually mature females. ABAS is characterized by bilaterally symmetrical predominantly flank alopecia with or without profound pruritus and secondary bacterial and Malassezia infections. There is no effective treatment and severely affected bears have been euthanized. This paper describes the successful management of ABAS in three female Andean bears. Skin biopsies and cytology revealed a mixed dermal inflammatory infiltrate, alopecia, hyperkeratosis, and Malassezia dermatitis. Allergen specific serology was positive for environmental allergens in one case. Hematology, serum biochemistry, and thyroid and adrenal function were normal in all cases. There was no consistent response to novel diet trials, antifungals, antihistamines, allergen specific immunotherapy, or topical antimicrobials. There was a partial response to ciclosporin (Atopica® cat, Novartis Animal Health; 5 mg/kg po, sid) in one case and oral glucocorticoids in all cases (dexamethasone sodium phosphate, [Colvasone 0.2%, Norbrook], 0.15 mg/kg po, sid or prednisolone [Deltacortene, Bruno Farmaceutici, and Megasolone 20, Coophavet], 0.3-1.2 mg/kg po, sid), but treatment was withdrawn following adverse effects. Treatment with oclacitinib maleate (Apoquel®, Zoetis; 0.46-0.5 mg/kg po, bid) resulted in rapid and complete resolution of the pruritus with subsequent improvement in demeanor and fur regrowth. After 5 mo, the bears were almost fully furred and off all other medication. Treatment was tapered to the lowest dose that prevented relapse of the pruritus (0.23-0.4 mg/kg po, sid). No adverse effects have been noted. ABAS is usually an intractable condition, and, to our knowledge, oclacitinib is the first treatment shown to result in sustained clinical improvement. Further studies on the etiology of ABAS, and on efficacy and long-term safety of oclacitinib are needed.

  18. Phytosynthesis and photocatalytic activity of magnetite (Fe_3O_4) nanoparticles using the Andean blackberry leaf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Brajesh; Smita, Kumari; Cumbal, Luis; Debut, Alexis; Galeas, Salome; Guerrero, Victor H.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a simple, low cost, and ecofriendly synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles (Fe_3O_4 NPs) has been developed using Andean blackberry leaf extract. UV–vis spectroscopy technique were used to study the initial formation of Fe_3O_4 NPs. Morphology, crystallinity and surface properties of nanoparticles were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Thermal gravimetric (TG) techniques. TEM and DLS characterization indicated the formation of spherical Fe_3O_4 NPs of average size 54.5 ± 24.6 nm. XRD and FTIR studies confirmed the existence of the cubic spinel phase of Fe_3O_4 NPs and Fe−O peak at 570 cm"−"1, whereas TG analysis indicated that the nanoparticles contain 94% metal and 6% capping ligand. It has been observed that, as-synthesized Fe_3O_4 NPs exhibited photocatalytic activity for degradation of organic dyes such as methylene blue (k = 0.0105475 min"−"1), congo red (k = 0.0043240 min"−"1), and methyl orange (k = 0.0028930 min"−"1), efficiently. The antioxidant activity of Fe_3O_4 NPs against 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl were also evaluated. - Highlights: • We report extracellular phytosynthesis of Fe_3O_4 nanoparticles using the Andean blackberry leaf. • The synthesized Fe_3O_4 nanoparticles are spherical and average size is 54.5 ± 24.6 nm. • It showed enhanced photocatalytic activity and weak antioxidant efficacy. • Environmentally benign, non-toxic and cost-effective method is suggested.

  19. Acceleration and novelty: community restoration speeds recovery and transforms species composition in Andean cloud forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah Jane; Rhemtulla, Jeanine M

    2016-01-01

    Community-based tropical forest restoration projects, often promoted as a win-win solution for local communities and the environment, have increased dramatically in number in the past decade. Many such projects are underway in Andean cloud forests, which, given their extremely high biodiversity and history of extensive clearing, are understudied. This study investigates the efficacy of community-based tree-planting projects to accelerate cloud forest recovery, as compared to unassisted natural regeneration. This study takes place in northwest Andean Ecuador, where the majority of the original, highly diverse cloud forests have been cleared, in five communities that initiated tree-planting projects to restore forests in 2003. In 2011, we identified tree species along transects in planted forests (n = 5), naturally regenerating forests (n = 5), and primary forests (n = 5). We also surveyed 120 households about their restoration methods, tree preferences, and forest uses. We found that tree diversity was higher in planted than in unplanted secondary forest, but both were less diverse than primary forests. Ordination analysis showed that all three forests had distinct species compositions, although planted forests shared more species with primary forests than did unplanted forests. Planted forests also contained more animal-dispersed species in both the planted canopy and in the unplanted, regenerating understory than unplanted forests, and contained the highest proportion of species with use value for local people. While restoring forest increased biodiversity and accelerated forest recovery, restored forests may also represent novel ecosystems that are distinct from the region's previous ecosystems and, given their usefulness to people, are likely to be more common in the future.

  20. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthracnose Resistance in Andean Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuiderveen, Grady H; Padder, Bilal A; Kamfwa, Kelvin; Song, Qijian; Kelly, James D

    2016-01-01

    Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans comprised of multiple seed types and market classes from the Americas, Africa, and Europe, and explore the genetic basis of this resistance using genome-wide association mapping analysis (GWAS). Twenty-eight of the 230 lines tested were resistant to six out of the eight races screened, but only one cultivar Uyole98 was resistant to all eight races (7, 39, 55, 65, 73, 109, 2047, and 3481) included in the study. Outputs from the GWAS indicated major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance on chromosomes, Pv01, Pv02, and Pv04 and two minor QTL on Pv10 and Pv11. Candidate genes associated with the significant SNPs were detected on all five chromosomes. An independent QTL study was conducted to confirm the physical location of the Co-1 locus identified on Pv01 in an F4:6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Resistance was determined to be conditioned by the single dominant gene Co-1 that mapped between 50.16 and 50.30 Mb on Pv01, and an InDel marker (NDSU_IND_1_50.2219) tightly linked to the gene was developed. The information reported will provide breeders with new and diverse sources of resistance and genomic regions to target in the development of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans.

  1. Neurocognitive screening of lead-exposed andean adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counter, S Allen; Buchanan, Leo H; Ortega, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the utility of two psychometric tests with putative minimal cultural bias for use in field screening of lead (Pb)-exposed Ecuadorian Andean workers. Specifically, the study evaluated the effectiveness in Pb-exposed adolescents and young adults of a nonverbal reasoning test standardized for younger children, and compared the findings with performance on a test of auditory memory. The Raven Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) was used as a test of nonverbal intelligence, and the Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler IV intelligence scale was used to assess auditory memory/attention. The participants were 35 chronically Pb-exposed Pb-glazing workers, aged 12-21 yr. Blood lead (PbB) levels for the study group ranged from 3 to 86 microg/dl, with 65.7% of the group at and above 10 microg/dl. Zinc protoporphyrin heme ratios (ZPP/heme) ranged from 38 to 380 micromol/mol, with 57.1% of the participants showing abnormal ZPP/heme (>69 micromol/mol). ZPP/heme was significantly correlated with PbB levels, suggesting chronic Pb exposure. Performance on the RCPM was less than average on the U.S., British, and Puerto Rican norms, but average on the Peruvian norms. Significant inverse associations between PbB/ZPP concentrations and RCPM standard scores using the U.S., Puerto Rican, and Peruvian norms were observed, indicating decreasing RCPM test performance with increasing PbB and ZPP levels. RCPM scores were significantly correlated with performance on the Digit Span test for auditory memory. Mean Digit Span scale score was less than average, suggesting auditory memory/attention deficits. In conclusion, both the RCPM and Digit Span tests were found to be effective instruments for field screening of visual-spatial reasoning and auditory memory abilities, respectively, in Pb-exposed Andean adolescents and young adults.

  2. Uptake of Hg2+ by picocyanobacteria in natural water from four Andean lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diéguez M.C.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In lake food webs, planktonic bacteria and algae represent the greatest bioconcentration step for Hg2+ and monomethyl-Hg (MeHg. As they are the most abundant organisms in planktonic trophic webs and also the main food resource for herbivorous plankton, they can mobilize large amounts of Hg to higher trophic levels. In Andean Patagonian lakes (Argentina, dissolved organic matter (DOM concentration and character, coupled with photo-reactions, play a central role in the complexation of Hg2+ in the water column and can even regulate the uptake of Hg2+ by planktonic algae. In this investigation we evaluated the DOM character of natural waters (NW from four Andean lakes and studied its influence on the uptake of 197Hg2+ in a strain of the picocyanobacteria Synechococcus by using Hg2+ labeled with 197Hg2+. The uptake of radiolabeled Hg2+ by Synechococcus showed different magnitude in NW of lakes Moreno, El Trébol, Morenito and Escondido. Increasing lake DOM concentration reduced the bioavailability of Hg2+ as indicated by the lower uptakes rates found in NW with higher complexity and concentration of the DOM pool. Uptakes of Hg2+ by this picocyanobacteria contrasted among NW from pelagic (surface and bottom and littoral compartments of Lake Escondido which suggest that the entry of this metal may be highly variable even in the same environment. The study of the uptake of radiolabeled Hg2+ in a set of dilutions of NW from Lake Escondido demonstrated that the bioavailability of Hg2+ decrease with increasing DOM concentration.

  3. Thoracic skeletal morphology and high-altitude hypoxia in Andean prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Karen J

    2007-09-01

    Living humans from the highland Andes exhibit antero-posteriorly and medio-laterally enlarged chests in response to high-altitude hypoxia. This study hypothesizes that morphological responses to high-altitude hypoxia should also be evident in pre-Contact Andean groups. Thoracic skeletal morphology in four groups of human skeletons (N = 347) are compared: two groups from coastal regions (Ancón, Peru, n = 79 and Arica, Chile, n = 123) and two groups from high altitudes (San Pedro de Atacama, Chile, n = 102 and Machu Picchu and Cuzco, Peru, n = 43). Osteometric variables that represent proportions of chest width and depth include sternal and clavicular lengths and breadths and rib length, curvature, and area. Each variable was measured relative to body size, transformed into logarithmic indices, and compared across sex-specific groups using ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison tests. Atacama highlanders have the largest sternal and clavicular proportions and ribs with the greatest area and least amount of curvature, features that suggest an antero-posteriorly deep and mediolaterally wide thoracic skeleton. Ancón lowlanders exhibit proportions indicating narrower and shallower chests. Machu Picchu and Cuzco males cluster with the other highland group in rib curvature and area at the superior levels of the thorax, whereas chest proportions in Machu Picchu and Cuzco females resemble those of lowlanders. The variation in Machu Picchu and Cuzco males and females is interpreted as the result of population migrations. The presence of morphological traits indicative of enlarged chests in some highland individuals suggests that high-altitude hypoxia was an environmental stressor shaping the biology of highland Andean groups during the pre-Contact period. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Energy, water vapor and carbon fluxes in Andean agroecosystems: conceptualization and methodological standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela María Castaño Marín

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the conceptualization, methodological adjustment and experimental application of the micrometeorological technique eddy covariance - EC, to measure energy, water vapor and CO2 fluxes in two coffee agroecosystems: the first under full sunlight, and the second under shade, both with equatorial Andean hillslope conditions. With a footprint and fetch calculation, the required distance from the edge of the field in the prevailing wind direction to the EC tower is three times higher under shade than full sun. The shaded agroecosystem reached maximum average carbon fixation rates of 21.26 ± 2.469 μmolCO2.m-2s-1 ( = 0.05 (61% higher than under 100% sunlight which gives a high carbon sink capacity to the association of coffee plants with shading Pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan L. The average evapotranspiration rate was 2.33 ± 0.0102 mm.d-1 ( = 0.05 and 2.08 ± 0.00732 mm.d-1 under shade and 100% sunlight, respectively. The proportion of net radiation that reached the soil was 2% under shade and 4% under 100% sunlight. Likewise, the soil energy loss during the night was lower under shade, indicating less day-night temperature range in the latter agroecosystem. The methodological adjustment and the results of this first work using EC in Colombian coffee plantations, contribute to the development of reliable research regarding gas and energy exchanges between the atmosphere and ecosystems in conditions of the equatorial Andean hillslope.

  5. Accumulation rate in a tropical Andean glacier as a proxy for northern Amazon precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha Ribeiro, Rafael; Simões, Jefferson Cardia; Ramirez, Edson; Taupin, Jean-Denis; Assayag, Elias; Dani, Norberto

    2018-04-01

    Andean tropical glaciers have shown a clear shrinkage throughout the last few decades. However, it is unclear how this general retreat is associated with variations in rainfall patterns in the Amazon basin. To investigate this question, we compared the annual net accumulation variations in the Bolivian Cordillera Real (Andes), which is derived from an ice core from the Nevado Illimani (16° 37' S, 67° 46' W), covering the period 1960-1999 using the Amazonian Rainfall Index, Northern Atlantic Index (TNA), Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI), and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The accumulation rate at the Nevado Illimani ice core decreased by almost 25% after 1980, from 1.02 w.eq. a-1 (water equivalent per year) in the 1961-1981 period to 0.76 w.eq. a-1 in the 1981-1999 period. The Northern Amazonian Rainfall (NAR) index best reflects changes in accumulation rates in the Bolivian ice core. Our proposal is based on two observations: (1) This area shows reduced rainfall associated with a more frequent and intense El Niño (during the positive phase of the MEI). The opposite (more rain) is true during La Niña phases. (2) Comparisons of the ice core record and NAR, PDO, and MEI indexes showed similar trends for the early 1980s, represented by a decrease in the accumulation rates and its standard deviations, probably indicating the same causality. The general changes observed by early 1980s coincided with the beginning of a PDO warm phase. This was followed by an increase in the Amazonian and tropical Andean precipitation from 1999, coinciding with a new PDO phase. However, this increase did not result in an expansion of the Zongo Glacier area.

  6. Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a sub-Andean forest from the Norte de Santander, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos-López, Richard; Bolaños, Rafael; Contreras-Gutierrez, MarIa; Carrero-Sarmiento, Diego

    2016-03-01

    The recognition of communities of arthropods with medical importance in natural systems constitutes an important step in the prediction of possible epidemic events and/or emergence of infectious diseases in the human population. This is due to anthropogenic impact in natural areas and landscape modification, which changes the dynamics of pathogenic agents, reservoirs, and vector insects. In this study, an inventory was compiled of species of the genus Lutzomyia present in sub-Andean forest from the confluence of the Pamplonita River basin. CDC-light and Shannon traps were used for collecting adult phlebotomine sandflies during the month of October 2013 in a sub-Andean forest from river basin Pamplonita. All specimens were identified using morphological keys. The epidemiological relevance of each species was reported using a literature review about natural infection or vector incrimination with Leishmania species or other pathogens microorganism. A total of 2755 specimens belonging to eight species of the genus Lutzomyia were collected. Out of the eight species, seven belonged to the group verrucarum (Lutzomyia sp--townsendi series, L. ovallesi, L. spinicrassa, L. serrana, L. townsendi, L. nuneztovari and L. pia), while one belonged to the subgenus Helcocyrtomyia (L. hartmanni). A new registry of L. townsendi was observed for the Norte de Santander department. The appreciable diversity of the verrucarum group observed in this area suggest further investigation on the biogeography and evolution of this group, and epidemiological risk for human populations around this area, as there are reports of Leishmania natural infection and favourable conditions for domestication of phlebotomines in rural towns.

  7. Episodes of subsidence and uplift of the conjugate margins of Greenland and Norway after opening of the NE Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japsen, Peter; Green, Paul F.; Bonow, Johan M.; Chalmers, James A.

    2015-04-01

    We have undertaken a regional study of the thermo-­tectonic development of East Greenland (68-75°N) and of southern Norway (58-64°N). We take advantage of the general observation that that the effects of uplift often are reflected more clearly onshore than offshore, and of the specific condition that the mountains of southern East Greenland expose thick basalts that were extruded onto a largely horizontal lava plain near sea level during breakup of the NE Atlantic at the Paleocene-Eocene transition. It is thus clear that the present-­day elevation of these basalts up to 3.7 km a.s.l. were reached after breakup. Our results based on apatite fission-­track analysis (AFTA) data from East Greenland reveal a long history of post-­Palaeozoic burial and exhumation across the region and show that the terrains of Palaeozoic and older rocks were buried below a 2-3 km­-thick cover prior to a series of Mesozoic events of uplift and exhumation. The AFTA results from southern Norway reveal events of Mesozoic uplift and exhumation that are broadly simultaneous with those in Greenland. Volcanic and sedimentary rocks accumulated on the subsiding, East Greenland margin during and following breakup and then began to be exhumed during late Eocene uplift that preceded a major, early Oligocene plate reorganization in the NE Atlantic. The Norwegian margin also experienced Eocene subsidence and burial. Our AFTA data from southern Norway show evidence of an event of mid­Cenozoic uplift and exhumation that overlap with the early Oligocene onset of progradation of clastic wedges towards the south and with the formation of a major, late Eocene unconformity along the NW European margin. The uplift event at the Eocene-Oligocene transition that affected wide areas in the NE Atlantic domain was followed by two regional events of uplift and incision of the East Greenland margin in the late Miocene and Pliocene whereas the Neogene uplift of southern Norway began in the early Miocene and was

  8. 75 FR 18778 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... zone on the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City, Maryland to support the Ocean City Air Show. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement on the Atlantic Ocean to protect mariners...

  9. Surname-inferred Andean ancestry is associated with child stature and limb lengths at high altitude in Peru, but not at sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Emma; Wells, Jonathan C K; Stanojevic, Sanja; Miranda, J Jaime; Moore, Lorna G; Cole, Tim J; Stock, Jay T

    2015-01-01

    Native Andean ancestry gives partial protection from reduced birthweight at high altitude in the Andes compared with European ancestry. Whether Andean ancestry is also associated with body proportions and greater postnatal body size at altitude is unknown. Therefore, we tested whether a greater proportion of Andean ancestry is associated with stature and body proportions among Peruvian children at high and low altitude. Height, head circumference, head-trunk height, upper and lower limb lengths, and tibia, ulna, hand and foot lengths, were measured in 133 highland and 169 lowland children aged 6 months to 8.5 years. For highland and lowland groups separately, age-sex-adjusted anthropometry z scores were regressed on the number of indigenous parental surnames as a proxy for Andean ancestry, adjusting for potential confounders (maternal age and education, parity, altitude [highlands only]). Among highland children, greater Andean ancestry was negatively associated with stature and tibia, ulna, and lower limb lengths, independent of negative associations with greater altitude for these measurements. Relationships were strongest for tibia length: each additional Andean surname or 1,000 m increase at altitude among highland children was associated with 0.18 and 0.65 z score decreases in tibia length, respectively. Anthropometry was not significantly associated with ancestry among lowland children. Greater Andean ancestry is associated with shorter stature and limb measurements at high but not low altitude. Gene-environment interactions between high altitude and Andean ancestry may exacerbate the trade-off between chest dimensions and stature that was proposed previously, though we could not test this directly. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Ocean Disposal Site Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is responsible for managing all designated ocean disposal sites. Surveys are conducted to identify appropriate locations for ocean disposal sites and to monitor the impacts of regulated dumping at the disposal sites.

  11. People and Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NatureScope, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Discusses people's relationship with oceans, focusing on ocean pollution, use, and protective measures of the sea and its wildlife. Activities included are "Mythical Monsters"; "Globetrotters"; "Plastic in the Sea"; and "Sea of Many Uses." (RT)

  12. Ocean Sediment Thickness Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean sediment thickness contours in 200 meter intervals for water depths ranging from 0 - 18,000 meters. These contours were derived from a global sediment...

  13. Ocean Robotic Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schofield, Oscar [Rutgers University

    2012-05-23

    We live on an ocean planet which is central to regulating the Earth’s climate and human society. Despite the importance of understanding the processes operating in the ocean, it remains chronically undersampled due to the harsh operating conditions. This is problematic given the limited long term information available about how the ocean is changing. The changes include rising sea level, declining sea ice, ocean acidification, and the decline of mega fauna. While the changes are daunting, oceanography is in the midst of a technical revolution with the expansion of numerical modeling techniques, combined with ocean robotics. Operating together, these systems represent a new generation of ocean observatories. I will review the evolution of these ocean observatories and provide a few case examples of the science that they enable, spanning from the waters offshore New Jersey to the remote waters of the Southern Ocean.

  14. Ocean Uses: California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Ocean Uses Atlas Project is an innovative partnership between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation Biology Institute. The...

  15. Ethane ocean on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunine, J. I.; Stevenson, D. J.; Yung, Y.L.

    1983-01-01

    Voyager I radio occultation data is employed to develop a qualitative model of an ethane ocean on Titan. It is suggested that the ocean contains 25 percent CH4 and that the ocean is in dynamic equilibrium with an N2 atmosphere. Previous models of a CH4 ocean are discounted due to photolysis rates of CH4 gas. Tidal damping of Titan's orbital eccentricity is taken as evidence for an ocean layer approximately 1 km deep, with the ocean floor being covered with a solid C2H2 layer 100 to 200 m thick. The photolytic process disrupting the CH4, if the estimates of the oceanic content of CH4 are correct, could continue for at least one billion years. Verification of the model is dependent on detecting CH4 clouds in the lower atmosphere, finding C2H6 saturation in the lower troposphere, or obtaining evidence of a global ocean.

  16. Regional Ocean Data Assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Edwards, Christopher A.; Moore, Andrew M.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Cornuelle, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal

  17. Ocean Disposal Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1972, Congress enacted the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA, also known as the Ocean Dumping Act) to prohibit the dumping of material into...

  18. Ocean Station Vessel

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean Station Vessels (OSV) or Weather Ships captured atmospheric conditions while being stationed continuously in a single location. While While most of the...

  19. California Ocean Uses Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  20. Ocean Acidification Product Suite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists within the ACCRETE (Acidification, Climate, and Coral Reef Ecosystems Team) Lab of AOML_s Ocean Chemistry and Ecosystems Division (OCED) have constructed...

  1. Tropical Andean ecosystems and the need to keep warming limits below a +1.5°C threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Carrascal, D.; Herzog, S. K.; Guitierrez Lagoueyte, M. E.; Gonzalez-Duque, D.; Cuevas-Moreno, J.; del Valle, J. I.; Andreu-Hayles, L.; Herrera, D. A.; Martínez, R.

    2017-12-01

    Long-term climate change and rapid land-use change are synergistically threatening the integrity and functioning of tropical Andean ecosystems. The main goal of our research was to integrate climate change projections, biodiversity data and anthropogenically driven ecosystem disruption assessments to quantify the vulnerability of Andean ecosystems and species to global change at a local scale. We merged discernible trends in local quality-controlled weather station data with reanalysis data, as well as with historical and prospective simulation outputs of five well-known GCMs to assess a long-term context for the analysis of climate change exposure (temperature severity intervals). Individual, medium-term, multi-member GCM simulations included: altitude-corrected 2046-2065 (IPCC-AR4) climate change scenarios for the A1B emission scenario; and spatially-downscaled 2040-2069 (IPCC-AR5) projections for the RCP4.5. Previous studies reported mean annual temperature anomaly intervals that resulted in exceedingly high thresholds: the lowest severity interval ( +2.71°C). The least severe interval extended up to the threshold widely recognized as `dangerous' climate change, thereby leading to an underestimation of the true vulnerability of Andean species. Our analyses suggest that temperature anomalies for the full extent of the tropical Andes will likely range from low ( +2.61°C), exceeding the threshold of 'natural' climate variability (+1.78°C). Our results suggest that most species that were used as proxies of ecosystem vulnerabilities will likely experience overall low-to-medium-to-high temperature increases. Since many of them have potentially high sensitivity to such long-term changes, Andean species will likely experience greatly increases in vulnerability. The already-disrupted Andean ecosystems will suffer a further climatic stress, which will worsen the well-known detrimental synergies between climate and land-use changes. There is an imperative need to

  2. Mega-tsunami deposits or evidence of uplift within the Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, B. H.

    2004-12-01

    For several years there has been a controversy over the origin of coral-bearing deposits on the island of Lanai (Hawaii). Studies underway have expanded the study of marine deposits from Lanai to adjacent islands. Coral-bearing deposits are present at elevations up to 190 m on Lanai, 90 m on Maui, 90 m on Molokai, 30 m Oahu, 30 m on Niihau, roughly 75 m on Kauai (as well as a few m above sea level on the Kohala Volcano on the island of Hawaii). The deposits show a persistent pattern of increased weathering, color change, increasing age and increase in the number of fossils now extinct in Hawaiian waters, with elevation above modern sea level. Changes in slope are also observed reflecting changing relative sea level. A review of radiometric ages suggests in-situ corals as well as marine conglomerates were deposited near sea level and were contemporaneous. The distribution, stratigraphy and age of marine sediments around the islands are consistent with a history of uplift combined with changing sea level. We document the age, rock and fossil characteristics and distribution of sub-aerially exposed marine sediments, in the Hawaiian Island chain. We suggest that the Hawaiian Islands have experienced lithospheric adjustments during the last 500,000 years that have left marine deposits exposed above sea level.

  3. Piecewise Delamination Drives Uplift in the Atlas Mountains Region of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezada, M. J.; Humphreys, E.; Martin Davila, J.; mimoun, H.; Josep, G.; Palomeras, I.

    2013-12-01

    The elevation of the intra-continental Atlas Mountains of Morocco and surrounding regions requires a mantle component of buoyancy, and there is consensus that this buoyancy results from an abnormally thin lithosphere. Lithospheric delamination under the Atlas Mountains and thermal erosion caused by upwelling mantle have each been suggested as thinning mechanisms. We use seismic tomography to image the upper mantle of Morocco by inverting teleseimic p-wave delay times, complemented with local delays, recorded on a dense array of stations in the Iberian peninsula and Morocco. A surface wave model provides constraint on the shallower layers. We determine the geometry of lithospheric cavities and mantle upwelling beneath the Middle Atlas and central High Atlas, and image delaminated lithosphere at ~400 km beneath the Middle Atlas. We propose discontinuous delamination of an intrinsically unstable Atlas lithosphere, enabled by the presence of anomalously hot mantle, as a mechanism for producing the imaged structures. The Atlas lithosphere was made unstable by a combination of tectonic shortening and eclogite loading during Mesozoic rifting and Cenozoic magmatism. The presence of hot mantle, sourced from regional upwellings in northern Africa or the Canary Islands, enabled the mobilization of this lithosphere. Flow around the retreating Alboran slab focused upwelling mantle under the Middle Atlas, where we image the most recent delamination. The Atlas Mountains of Morocco stand as an example of mantle-generated uplift and large-scale lithospheric loss in a mildly contractional orogen.

  4. A resposta broncodilatadora em doentes com DPOC (dados do estudo UPLIFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tashkin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: No início do estudo, foi realizada espirometria antes e depois de 80 μg de ipratrópio e 400 μg de salbutamol, administrados 90 e 30 minutos antes, respectivamente. A administração de dois broncodilatadores e a sua temporalidade teve como objectivo atingir a broncodilatação máxima ou quase máxima. O FEV1 basal após esta broncodilatação, no estudo UPLIFT, permitiu: – examinar a resposta broncodilatadora aguda numa grande coorte de doentes com DPOC moderada a muito grave; – determinar o que pode ser considerado critério de resposta usando vários critérios de reversibilidade; – avaliar as características dos doentes com e sem reversibilidade.

  5. Applicability of Various Load Test Interpretation Criteria in Measuring Driven Precast Concrete Pile Uplift Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecilia M. Marcos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented a comprehensive analysis of load test interpretation criteria to determine their suitability to driven precast concrete (PC pile uplift capacity. A database was developed containing static pile load tests and utilized for the evaluation. The piles were round and square cross-sections under drained and undrained loading. To explore and compare their behavior, the stored data were categorized into four groups. In general, the trends of every criterion for the four groups were notably the same. In both drained and undrained loading, slightly larger interpreted capacities were demonstrated by square piles than by round piles. Moreover, round piles demonstrated more ductile load-displacement response than square piles especially in undrained loading. Statistical analyses presented that smaller values of displacements exhibited higher coefficient of variation. The drained and undrained tests were compared and results showed less variability in drained than undrained loading and capacity ratios (Qx/QCHIN in drained loading were slightly higher than in undrained loading. The interrelationship and applicability of these criteria as well as the design recommendations in terms of normalized capacity and displacement were given based on the analyses.

  6. Time of uplift and thermal history of the Papuan Fold-belt -implications for hydrocarbon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    Apatite fission track analysis of 35 Mesozoic sandstone and basement samples from outcrop, core and cuttings from the Papuan Fold-Belt(PFB) has demonstrated that the rocks throughout the fold-belt were uplifted close to 4.0±0.5 Ma. With increasing temperature, fission tracks in apatite crystals are progressively annealed, becoming shorter and less abundant, therefore giving a reduced apparent age. At temperatures of 100 deg.C. - 130 deg.C. the track damage is repaired (complete annealing). A typical partial annealing zone is illustrated. By comparing the annealing curves of the various stratigraphic sections with the idealized partial annealing zone curve, it is possible to determine the thermal maturity of each section, shown by the relative depths of burial of the Toro sandstone, the main hydrocarbon reservoir. Determining depth of burial assumes a consistent temperature gradient throughout the PFB, but increased thermal maturity could also be caused by higher local heat flow. From this analysis it is inferred that in the western PFB the rocks were more deeply buried, so would have generated gas-condensate, whilst shallower burial to the east allowed oil generation. This concurs with the gas-condensate at Juha, in the west, and oil at Iagifu, in the east. 4 refs

  7. Oxygen ion uplift and satellite drag effects during the 30 October 2003 daytime superfountain event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Tsurutani

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The prompt penetration of interplanetary electric fields (IEFs to the dayside low-latitude ionosphere during the first ~2 h of a superstorm is estimated and applied to a modified NRL SAMI2 code for the 30 October 2003 event. In our simulations, the dayside ionospheric O+ is convected to higher altitudes (~600 km and higher latitudes (~±25° to 30°, forming highly displaced equatorial ionospheric anomaly (EIA peaks. This feature plus others are consistent with previously published CHAMP electron (TEC measurements and with the dayside superfountain model. The rapid upward motion of the O+ ions causes neutral oxygen (O uplift due to ion-neutral drag. It is estimated that above ~400 km altitude the O densities within the displaced EIAs can be increased substantially over quiet time values. The latter feature will cause increased drag for low-altitude satellites. This newly predicted phenomenon is expected to be typical for superstorm/IEF events.

  8. Orogen-scale uplift in the central Italian Apennines drives episodic behaviour of earthquake faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, P A; Phillips, R J; Roberts, G P; McCaffrey, K; Zijerveld, L J J; Gregory, L C; Faure Walker, J; Wedmore, L N J; Dunai, T J; Binnie, S A; Freeman, S P H T; Wilcken, K; Shanks, R P; Huismans, R S; Papanikolaou, I; Michetti, A M; Wilkinson, M

    2017-03-21

    Many areas of the Earth's crust deform by distributed extensional faulting and complex fault interactions are often observed. Geodetic data generally indicate a simpler picture of continuum deformation over decades but relating this behaviour to earthquake occurrence over centuries, given numerous potentially active faults, remains a global problem in hazard assessment. We address this challenge for an array of seismogenic faults in the central Italian Apennines, where crustal extension and devastating earthquakes occur in response to regional surface uplift. We constrain fault slip-rates since ~18 ka using variations in cosmogenic 36 Cl measured on bedrock scarps, mapped using LiDAR and ground penetrating radar, and compare these rates to those inferred from geodesy. The 36 Cl data reveal that individual faults typically accumulate meters of displacement relatively rapidly over several thousand years, separated by similar length time intervals when slip-rates are much lower, and activity shifts between faults across strike. Our rates agree with continuum deformation rates when averaged over long spatial or temporal scales (10 4  yr; 10 2  km) but over shorter timescales most of the deformation may be accommodated by fault array. We attribute the shifts in activity to temporal variations in the mechanical work of faulting.

  9. A tectonically uplifted marine shoreline deposit, Knights Point, Westland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, A.F.; Kostro, F.

    2006-01-01

    An 11 m thick subhorizontal beach deposit rests on steeply dipping Cretaceous bedrock. Sediments, ranging from a basal boulder bed to upper sands, are poorly sorted and negatively skewed, indicating pronounced winnowing of fine material. Impact features on quartz grain surfaces attest to high-energy turbulent environments, and are similar to those found on clasts from modern nearby beaches. The Haast River was source to some of the sand and gravel. Heavy minerals from the Dun Mountain Ophiolite Belt were transported 85 km by fluvial/glacial and longshore drift processes, necessitating caution when using apparent lateral separation of source material for estimating strike-slip displacement rates on the Alpine Fault. An optical luminescence age estimate of 123 ± 7 ka for Knights Point beach sands dates to the last interglacial (MIS 5e). A shore-platform altitude of 113 m a.s.l. requires tectonic uplift of the Australian plate of 0.86 mm/yr, an order of magnitude less than the nearby Pacific plate. (author). 66 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Oceanic magmatic evolution during ocean opening under influence of mantle plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushchevskaya, Nadezhda; Melanholina, Elena; Belyatsky, Boris; Krymsky, Robert; Migdisova, Natalya

    2015-04-01

    Petrology, geochemistry and geophysics as well as numerical simulation of spreading processes in plume impact environments on examples of Atlantic Ocean Iceland and the Central Atlantic plumes and Kerguelen plume in the Indian Ocean reveal: - under interaction of large plume and continental landmass the plume can contribute to splitting off individual lithosphere blocks, and their subsequent movement into the emergent ocean. At the same time enriched plume components often have geochemical characteristics of the intact continental lithosphere by early plume exposure. This is typical for trap magmatism in Antarctica, and for magmatism of North and Central Atlantic margins; - in the course of the geodynamic reconstruction under the whole region of the South Atlantic was formed (not in one step) metasomatized enriched sub-oceanic mantle with pyroxenite mantle geochemical characteristics and isotopic composition of enriched HIMU and EM-2 sources. That is typical for most of the islands in the West Antarctic. This mantle through spreading axes jumping involved in different proportions in the melting under the influence of higher-temperature rising asthenospheric lherzolite mantle; - CAP activity was brief enough (200 ± 2 Ma), but Karoo-Maud plume worked for a longer time and continued from 180 to 170 Ma ago in the main phase. Plume impact within Antarctica distributed to the South and to the East, leading to the formation of extended igneous provinces along the Transantarctic Mountains and along the east coast (Queen Maud Land province and Schirmacher Oasis). Moreover, this plume activity may be continued later on, after about 40 million years cessation, as Kerguelen plume within the newly-formed Indian Ocean, significantly affects the nature of the rift magmatism; - a large extended uplift in the eastern part of the Indian Ocean - Southeastern Indian Ridge (SEIR) was formed on the ancient spreading Wharton ridge near active Kerguelen plume. The strongest plume

  11. Stratigraphy and structure of the northern and western flanks of the Black Hills Uplift, Wyoming, Montana, and South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, C.S.; Mapel, W.J.; Bergendahl, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the stratigraphy and structure of an area of about 5000 square miles in northeastern Wyoming and adjacent parts of Montana and South Dakota. The area includes the northern end and part of the western side of the Black Hills Uplift and the adjoining part of the Powder River Basin. About 11,000 ft of sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Mississippian to Early Tertiary are exposed in the area, not including surficial deposits of Tertiary (.) and Quaternary age. Oil is produced from several fields on the wet side of the Black Hills Uplift in Wyoming. Bentonite is mined at many places. The Fort Union and Wasatch Formations contain large reserves of sub-bituminous coal, and Lakota Formation contains some bituminous coal

  12. Tectonic and erosion-driven uplift for the Gamburtsev Mountains: a preliminary combined landscape analyses and flexural modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraccioli, Fausto; Anderson, Lester; Jamieson, Stewart; Bell, Robin; Rose, Kathryn; Jordan, Tom; Finn, Carol; Damaske, Detlef

    2013-04-01

    Mountain building processes in intraplate settings remain relatively poorly understood when compared to ranges formed along plate margins. The most enigmatic intraplate mountain range on Earth is located in the middle of the East Antarctic Craton and is known from geophysical surveys as the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains (GSM). During the IPY, the AGAP project acquired 120,000 line km of airborne geophysical data (Bell et al., 2011, Science) and seismological observations (Hansen et al., 2010, EPSL) across central East Antarctica that provide new perspectives on crustal architecture and uplift mechanisms for the enigmatic GSM (Ferraccioli et al., 2011, Nature). The geophysical data define a 2,500-km-long Paleozoic-Mesozoic rift system in East Antarctica surrounding the GSM. A thick high-density lower crustal root is in parts preserved beneath the range and has been interpreted as having formed during Proterozoic assembly of a mosaic of originally separate East Antarctic provinces. Rifting could have triggered phase/density changes at deep crustal levels, effectively restoring some of the latent root buoyancy, as well as causing more classical flexural rift-flank uplift. Permian rifting was followed by Cretaceous strike-slip faulting and transtension associated with Gondwana break-up and this phase may have provided a more recent tectonic trigger for initial uplift of the modern GSM. The Cretaceous rift-flank uplift model for the Gamburtsevs is appealing because it relates the initiation of intraplate mountain-building to larger-scale geodynamic processes and is consistent with several geological and geophysical interpretations in the adjacent Lambert Rift (Ferraccioli et al., 2011). However, a more recent interpretation predicts that major Cretaceous rift-related exhumation in interior East Antarctica is not required to explain detrital thermochrology results from Oligocene-Quaternary sediments in Prydz Bay (Tochlin et al., 2012, G3). This raises the question of

  13. Simultaneous estimation of lithospheric uplift rates and absolute sea level change in southwest Scandinavia from inversion of sea level data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars; Hansen, Jens Morten; Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt

    2014-01-01

    the relative sea level data. Similar independent data do not exist for ancient times. The purpose of this study is to test two simple inversion approaches for simultaneous estimation of lithospheric uplift rates and absolute sea level change rates for ancient times in areas where a dense coverage of relative...... sea level data exists and well-constrained average lithospheric movement values are known from, for example glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) models. The inversion approaches are tested and used for simultaneous estimation of lithospheric uplift rates and absolute sea level change rates in southwest...... Scandinavia from modern relative sea level data series that cover the period from 1900 to 2000. In both approaches, a priori information is required to solve the inverse problem. A priori information about the average vertical lithospheric movement in the area of interest is critical for the quality...

  14. Regional Ocean Data Assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Edwards, Christopher A.

    2015-01-03

    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal regions. As in weather prediction, the accurate representation of physical, chemical, and/or biological properties in the ocean is challenging. Models and observations alone provide imperfect representations of the ocean state, but together they can offer improved estimates. Variational and sequential methods are among the most widely used in regional ocean systems, and there have been exciting recent advances in ensemble and four-dimensional variational approaches. These techniques are increasingly being tested and adapted for biogeochemical applications.

  15. Preliminary checklist of the vascular flora of the Sub-Andean forest at Cuchilla El Fara (Santander-Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, Ruth; Reina, Miriam; Herrera, Edna; Avila, Fabio Andres; Chaparro, Omar; Cortes B, Rocio

    2010-01-01

    A preliminary checklist of the vascular flora of the sub-Andean forest of the Cuchilla El Fara is present ed. El Fara is located at the Guantiva - La Rusia - Iguaque biological corridor, in the municipalities of Charala, Gambita, and Suaita (Santander-Colombia). Information on habit, local altitudinal range, and collection number is recorded for each species. A total of 409 species of vascular plants included in 226 genera, and 105 families were recorded. The families with the highest number of genera were Rubiaceae (18), Asteraceae (10), Melastomataceae (10), Orchidaceae (10), Euphorbiaceae (8), Arecaceae (7) and Fabaceae (7). At specific level, the best represented families were Rubiaceae (33), Melastomataceae (28), Lauraceae (21), Asteraceae (17), Araceae (17), Orchidaceae (17) and Gesneriaceae (15). The affinities of the flora with other Neotropical sub-Andean forests are discussed. Finally, species of all IUCN threat categories are highlighted so that the information presented here can make a contribution to restoration and conservation programs.

  16. Landscape genetics, historical isolation and cross-Andean gene flow in the wax palm, Ceroxylon echinulatum (Arecaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trénel, P.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Nordmand, S.

    2008-01-01

    -Huancabamba zone (AHZ) of southern Ecuador/northern Peru, as indicated by observations on fruit morphology. Second, we assessed the timeframe of cross-Andean divergence, and third, we investigated the impact of contemporary and historical landscape features on observed spatio-genetic patterns. Individual-based...... Bayesian clustering (BC) identified a northeastern, southeastern, southwestern, and northwestern cluster, with areas of genetic discontinuity coinciding with the Andes and the Giron-Paute deflection. F-statistics derived from BC suggested an east-to-west dispersal history. Population-based analyses...... impact of climatic friction. Coalescent analysis revealed that cross-Andean divergence took place during the Quaternary. Significant historical isolation (RST > FST) was found in the southwestern population. The current study illustrates a joint effect of founder dynamics, divergence by distance...

  17. Improvement of the Antioxidant Properties and Postharvest Life of Three Exotic Andean Fruits by UV-C Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Andrade-Cuvi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three Andean fruits naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam., uvilla (Physalis peruviana L., and mortiño (Vaccinium floribundum Kunth were subjected to prestorage UV-C treatments (0, 8, or 12.5 kJ m−2 and evaluated weekly to select the most suitable dose for fruit quality maintenance during storage (21 days at 6°C. The highest dose retains quality through lower deterioration index for all three fruits and was selected to further analyze the effects on physicochemical and antioxidant properties during storage. UV-C exposure delayed softening in naranjilla and increased soluble solid content in uvilla. UV-C also improved the maintenance of antioxidant capacity (AC in mortiño and uvilla. Overall, results indicate that short prestorage UV-C exposure may be an effective nonchemical approach to supplement low temperature storage, maintain quality, and extend the postharvest life of Andean naranjilla, uvilla, and mortiño fruit.

  18. Exhumation of Basement-cored Uplifts: Example of the Kyrgyz Range Quantified with Apatite Fission-track Thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Edward R.; Oskin, Michael; Burbank, Douglas; Mikolaichuk, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The Kyrgyz Range, the northernmost portion of the Kyrgyzstan Tien Shan, displays topographic evidence for lateral propagation of surface uplift and exhumation. The highest and most deeply dissected segment lies in the center of the range. To the east, topography and relief decrease, and preserved remnants of a Cretaceous regional erosion surface imply minimal amounts of bedrock exhumation. The timing of exhumation of range segments defines the lateral propagation rate of the range-bounding reverse fault and quantifies the time and erosion depth needed to transform a mountain range from a juvenile to a mature morphology. New apatite fission-track (AFT) data from three transects from the eastern Kyrgyz Range, combined with published AFT data, demonstrate that the range has propagated over 110 km eastwards over the last 7-11 Myr. Based on the thermal and topographic evolutionary history, we present a model for a time-varying exhumation rate driven by rock uplift and changes in erodability and the time scale of geomorphic adjustment to surface uplift. Easily eroded, Cenozoic sedimentary rocks overlying resistant basement control early, rapid exhumation and slow surface upliftrates. As increasing amounts of resistant basement are exposed, exhumation rates decrease while surface uplift rates are sustained or increase, thereby growing topography. As the range becomes high enough to cause ice accumulation and develop steep river valleys, fluvial and glacial erosion become more powerful and exhumation rates once again increase. Independently determined range-noma1 shortening rates have also varied over time, suggesting a feedback between erosional efficiency and shortening rate.

  19. Daily uplifts and coping as a buffer against everyday hassles: Relationship with stress reactions over time in military personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Ulf Gerry; Ohlsson, Alicia; Berglund, Anna Karin; Nilsson, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of how daily hassles and uplifts interact with each other and with stress reactions over time in military personnel. Interviews were conducted with 15 Swedish veterans five years after an international peace enforcement mission. The grounded theory method was used and result patterns were generated for six specific time periods distributed before, during, and after the mission. A theoretical model was developed showing that everyday ...

  20. Receiver function and gravity constraints on crustal structure and vertical movements of the Upper Mississippi Embayment and Ozark Uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Gao, Stephen S.; Liu, Kelly H.; Mickus, Kevin

    2017-06-01

    The Upper Mississippi Embayment (UME), where the seismically active New Madrid Seismic Zone resides, experienced two phases of subsidence commencing in the Late Precambrian and Cretaceous, respectively. To provide new constraints on models proposed for the mechanisms responsible for the subsidence, we computed and stacked P-to-S receiver functions recorded by 49 USArray and other seismic stations located in the UME and the adjacent Ozark Uplift and modeled Bouguer gravity anomaly data. The inferred thickness, density, and Vp/Vs of the upper and lower crustal layers suggest that the UME is characterized by a mafic and high-density upper crustal layer of ˜30 km thickness, which is underlain by a higher-density lower crustal layer of up to ˜15 km. Those measurements, in the background of previously published geological observations on the subsidence and uplift history of the UME, are in agreement with the model that the Cretaceous subsidence, which was suggested to be preceded by an approximately 2 km uplift, was the consequence of the passage of a previously proposed thermal plume. The thermoelastic effects of the plume would have induced wide-spread intrusion of mafic mantle material into the weak UME crust fractured by Precambrian rifting and increased its density, resulting in renewed subsidence after the thermal source was removed. In contrast, the Ozark Uplift has crustal density, thickness, and Vp/Vs measurements that are comparable to those observed on cratonic areas, suggesting an overall normal crust without significant modification by the proposed plume, probably owing to the relatively strong and thick lithosphere.

  1. Long-Term Uplift in the Altiplano-Puna Neovolcanic Zone: Evidence of an Active Magmatic Diapir?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialko, Y.; Pearse, J.

    2012-12-01

    We present InSAR observations of a long-term uplift in the Altiplano-Puna neovolcanic zone (central Andes, South America). Previous observations revealed a a massive Ultra Low Velocity Zone (ULVZ) at depth of 17-19 km (Zandt et al., 2003), and surface deformation that was attributed to Uturuncu, a dormant volcano in the middle of the Altiplano-Puna neovolcanic zone (Pritchard and Simons, 2002). Our time series analysis of combined data from different sensors (ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT), satellite tracks, and observation modes (fine beam and ScanSAR) reveals that the central uplift has persisted at a nearly constant rate of ~1 cm/yr over the last two decades, and is surrounded by a broad zone of subsidence. We use the satellite line-of-sight velocities from different look directions to constrain the depth and geometry of the inferred sources of magmatic unrest. Inversions based on elastic half-space models indicate that the inflation source is located well below the brittle-ductile transition, and likely resides at the depth of the seismically imaged ULVZ. We investigated the effects of inelastic deformation in the ambient crust using finite element models. The models incorporated laboratory-derived rheologies of the ambient crust, and geotherms appropriate for an active neo-volcanic zone such as the one in the Altiplano-Puna province. Based on a large number of numerical simulations constrained by the observed surface velocities, we conclude that the ongoing uplift and peripheral subsidence result from a large mid-crustal diapir fed by a partially molten source region in the middle crust. The observed pattern of surface deformation due to the Altiplano-Puna ULVZ is remarkably similar to that due to the Socorro Magma Body (SMB) in central New Mexico, USA (Pearse and Fialko, 2010), suggesting a common process. mosaic of the mean LOS velocity showing uplift and peripheral subsidence due to the inferred mid-crustal diapir.

  2. Late Eocene Uplift of the Al Hajar Mountains, Oman, Supported by Stratigraphy and Low-Temperature Thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansman, Reuben J.; Ring, Uwe; Thomson, Stuart N.; den Brok, Bas; Stübner, Konstanze

    2017-12-01

    Uplift of the Al Hajar Mountains in Oman has been related to either Late Cretaceous ophiolite obduction or the Neogene Zagros collision. To test these hypotheses, the cooling of the central Al Hajar Mountains is constrained by 10 apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe), 15 fission track (AFT), and four zircon (U-Th)/He (ZHe) sample ages. These data show differential cooling between the two major structural culminations of the mountains. In the 3 km high Jabal Akhdar culmination AHe single-grain ages range between 39 ± 2 Ma and 10 ± 1 Ma (2σ errors), AFT ages range from 51 ± 8 Ma to 32 ± 4 Ma, and ZHe single-grain ages range from 62 ± 3 Ma to 39 ± 2 Ma. In the 2 km high Saih Hatat culmination AHe ages range from 26 ± 4 to 12 ± 4 Ma, AFT ages from 73 ± 19 Ma to 57 ± 8 Ma, and ZHe single-grain ages from 81 ± 4 Ma to 58 ± 3 Ma. Thermal modeling demonstrates that cooling associated with uplift and erosion initiated at 40 Ma, indicating that uplift occurred 30 Myr after ophiolite obduction and at least 10 Myr before the Zagros collision. Therefore, this uplift cannot be related to either event. We propose that crustal thickening supporting the topography of the Al Hajar Mountains was caused by a slowdown of Makran subduction and that north Oman took up the residual fraction of N-S convergence between Arabia and Eurasia.

  3. Post-Palaeozoic uplift history of southeastern Australia revisited: results from a process-based mode of landscape evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Der Beek, P.A.; Braun, J.; Lambeck, K.

    1999-01-01

    Developments over the last decade in the debate concerning the geomorphic evolution of the south-eastern Australian highlands are reviewed, taking as a starting point the model of passive denudation and isostatic rebound of a Palaeozoic mountain belt presented by Lambeck and Stephenson (1986). This model has been popular in the geomorphological community because it provides a quantitative framework to explain the very low rates of landscape evolution inferred from most geomorphological studies. The model has, however, also been criticised for its treatment of erosion as being linearly dependent on elevation, as well as for its predictions of regional uplift and denudation patterns that are not in accord with inferences from fission-track thermochronological data. Part of controversy stems from conceptual misunderstandings on the interpretation of data and from insufficient consideration of questions of spatial and temporal scale. First results of a new physical process-based model for large-scale long-term landscape evolution in the south-eastern highlands are presented. These show that the denudation history and drainage development of south-eastern Australia can be explained to a first order without invoking large-scale mid-Cretaceous or Tertiary uplift events. The model predicts drainage patterns in southeastern Australia to have evolved by rearrangement of an initially north-westerly directed drainage net, caused by drops in base-level during Mesozoic rifting along the southern and eastern margins of the study region. The geomorphology and available fission-track data in the Snowy Mountains region (and possibly also in the Bathurst - Blue Mountains region) do require renewed (mid Cretaceous?) uplift to have taken place. The model results are discussed in the light of recent controversies surrounding the southeastern highlands-their uplift history, denudation rates, depth of denudation of the coastal strip and inferred Mesozoic drainage patterns. Copyright (1999

  4. Evaluation of Extended Wall OSB Sheathing Connection under Combined Uplift and Shear Loading for 24-inch Heel Trusses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimir Kochkin; Andrew DeRenzis; Xiping Wang

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the performance of the extended wall structural panel connection in resisting combined uplift and shear forces at the roof-to-wall interface with a focus on a truss heel height of 24 in. to address the expected increases in the depth of attic insulation used in Climate Zones 5 and higher. Five full-size roof-wall assemblies were...

  5. Computational Ocean Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Finn B; Porter, Michael B; Schmidt, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s, the computer has played an increasingly pivotal role in the field of ocean acoustics. Faster and less expensive than actual ocean experiments, and capable of accommodating the full complexity of the acoustic problem, numerical models are now standard research tools in ocean laboratories. The progress made in computational ocean acoustics over the last thirty years is summed up in this authoritative and innovatively illustrated new text. Written by some of the field's pioneers, all Fellows of the Acoustical Society of America, Computational Ocean Acoustics presents the latest numerical techniques for solving the wave equation in heterogeneous fluid–solid media. The authors discuss various computational schemes in detail, emphasizing the importance of theoretical foundations that lead directly to numerical implementations for real ocean environments. To further clarify the presentation, the fundamental propagation features of the techniques are illustrated in color. Computational Ocean A...

  6. Comparative study of emission of pollutant gases in vehicle M1, using fuel of the Andean Community

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Fernando Antamba Guasgua; Guillermo Gorky Reyes Campaña; Miguel Estuardo Granja Paredes

    2016-01-01

    The environmental pollution is a problematics that concerns all countries about the world as result of this pollution there take place the phenomena of climate change, greenhouse effect, acid rain, and diseases in people. To delimit the issues, there were selected the countries that integrate the Andean Community, the project goal is compare by means of static and dynamic tests the values of emission of pollutant gases, with the fuel that is distributed in each of the selected countries. The ...

  7. Stable isotope variations (δ18O and δD) in modern waters across the Andean Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershaw, John; Saylor, Joel E.; Garzione, Carmala N.; Leier, Andrew; Sundell, Kurt E.

    2016-12-01

    Environmental parameters that influence the isotopic composition of meteoric water (δ18O and δD) are well characterized up the windward side of mountains, where orographic precipitation results in a predictable relationship between the isotopic composition of precipitation and elevation. The topographic and climatic evolution of the Andean Plateau and surrounding regions has been studied extensively by exploiting this relationship through the use of paleowater proxies. However, interpretation on the plateau itself is challenged by a poor understanding of processes that fractionate isotopes during vapor transport and rainout, and by the relative contribution of unique moisture sources. Here, we present an extensive dataset of modern surface water samples for the northern Andean Plateau and surrounding regions to elucidate patterns and causes of isotope fractionation in this continental environment. These data show a progressive increase in δ18O of stream water west of the Eastern Cordillera (∼1‰/70 km), almost identical to the rate observed across the Tibetan Plateau, attributed to a larger fraction of recycled water in precipitation and/or increased evaporative enrichment downwind. This may lead to underestimates of paleoelevation, particularly for sites deep into the rainshadow of the Eastern Cordilleran crest. That said, elevation is a primary control on the isotopic composition of surface waters across the entire Andean Plateau and its flanks when considering the most negative δ18O values, highlighting the need for sufficiently large datasets to distinguish minimally evaporated samples. There is a general increase in δ18O on the plateau from north to south, concomitant with an increase in aridity and decrease in convective moistening (amount effect). Lastly, stable isotope and seasonal precipitation patterns suggest easterlies provide the vast majority of moisture that falls as precipitation across the Andean Plateau and Western Cordillera, from Peru to

  8. Can Andean medicine coexist with biomedical healthcare? A comparison of two rural communities in Peru and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathez-Stiefel, Sarah-Lan; Vandebroek, Ina; Rist, Stephan

    2012-07-24

    It is commonly assumed that indigenous medical systems remain strong in developing countries because biomedicine is physically inaccessible or financially not affordable. This paper compares the health-seeking behavior of households from rural Andean communities at a Peruvian and a Bolivian study site. The main research question was whether the increased presence of biomedicine led to a displacement of Andean indigenous medical practices or to coexistence of the two healing traditions. Open-ended interviews and free listing exercises were conducted between June 2006 and December 2008 with 18 households at each study site. Qualitative identification of households' therapeutic strategies and use of remedies was carried out by means of content analysis of interview transcriptions and inductive interference. Furthermore, a quantitative assessment of the incidence of culture-bound illnesses in local ethnobiological inventories was performed. Our findings indicate that the health-seeking behavior of the Andean households in this study is independent of the degree of availability of biomedical facilities in terms of quality of services provided, physical accessibility, and financial affordability, except for specific practices such as childbirth. Preference for natural remedies over pharmaceuticals coexists with biomedical healthcare that is both accessible and affordable. Furthermore, our results show that greater access to biomedicine does not lead to less prevalence of Andean indigenous medical knowledge, as represented by the levels of knowledge about culture-bound illnesses. The take-home lesson for health policy-makers from this study is that the main obstacle to use of biomedicine in resource-poor rural areas might not be infrastructural or economic alone. Rather, it may lie in lack of sufficient recognition by biomedical practitioners of the value and importance of indigenous medical systems. We propose that the implementation of health care in indigenous

  9. Can Andean medicine coexist with biomedical healthcare? A comparison of two rural communities in Peru and Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathez-Stiefel Sarah-Lan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is commonly assumed that indigenous medical systems remain strong in developing countries because biomedicine is physically inaccessible or financially not affordable. This paper compares the health-seeking behavior of households from rural Andean communities at a Peruvian and a Bolivian study site. The main research question was whether the increased presence of biomedicine led to a displacement of Andean indigenous medical practices or to coexistence of the two healing traditions. Methodology Open-ended interviews and free listing exercises were conducted between June 2006 and December 2008 with 18 households at each study site. Qualitative identification of households’ therapeutic strategies and use of remedies was carried out by means of content analysis of interview transcriptions and inductive interference. Furthermore, a quantitative assessment of the incidence of culture-bound illnesses in local ethnobiological inventories was performed. Results Our findings indicate that the health-seeking behavior of the Andean households in this study is independent of the degree of availability of biomedical facilities in terms of quality of services provided, physical accessibility, and financial affordability, except for specific practices such as childbirth. Preference for natural remedies over pharmaceuticals coexists with biomedical healthcare that is both accessible and affordable. Furthermore, our results show that greater access to biomedicine does not lead to less prevalence of Andean indigenous medical knowledge, as represented by the levels of knowledge about culture-bound illnesses. Conclusions The take-home lesson for health policy-makers from this study is that the main obstacle to use of biomedicine in resource-poor rural areas might not be infrastructural or economic alone. Rather, it may lie in lack of sufficient recognition by biomedical practitioners of the value and importance of indigenous medical systems

  10. Bayesian inferences suggest that Amazon Yunga Natives diverged from Andeans less than 5000 ybp: implications for South American prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scliar, Marilia O; Gouveia, Mateus H; Benazzo, Andrea; Ghirotto, Silvia; Fagundes, Nelson J R; Leal, Thiago P; Magalhães, Wagner C S; Pereira, Latife; Rodrigues, Maira R; Soares-Souza, Giordano B; Cabrera, Lilia; Berg, Douglas E; Gilman, Robert H; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo

    2014-09-30

    Archaeology reports millenary cultural contacts between Peruvian Coast-Andes and the Amazon Yunga, a rainforest transitional region between Andes and Lower Amazonia. To clarify the relationships between cultural and biological evolution of these populations, in particular between Amazon Yungas and Andeans, we used DNA-sequence data, a model-based Bayesian approach and several statistical validations to infer a set of demographic parameters. We found that the genetic diversity of the Shimaa (an Amazon Yunga population) is a subset of that of Quechuas from Central-Andes. Using the Isolation-with-Migration population genetics model, we inferred that the Shimaa ancestors were a small subgroup that split less than 5300 years ago (after the development of complex societies) from an ancestral Andean population. After the split, the most plausible scenario compatible with our results is that the ancestors of Shimaas moved toward the Peruvian Amazon Yunga and incorporated the culture and language of some of their neighbors, but not a substantial amount of their genes. We validated our results using Approximate Bayesian Computations, posterior predictive tests and the analysis of pseudo-observed datasets. We presented a case study in which model-based Bayesian approaches, combined with necessary statistical validations, shed light into the prehistoric demographic relationship between Andeans and a population from the Amazon Yunga. Our results offer a testable model for the peopling of this large transitional environmental region between the Andes and the Lower Amazonia. However, studies on larger samples and involving more populations of these regions are necessary to confirm if the predominant Andean biological origin of the Shimaas is the rule, and not the exception.

  11. Erosion in southern Tibet shut down at ∼10 Ma due to enhanced rock uplift within the Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Marissa M; Fox, Matthew; Schmidt, Jennifer L; Tripathy-Lang, Alka; Wielicki, Matthew M; Harrison, T Mark; Zeitler, Peter K; Shuster, David L

    2015-09-29

    Exhumation of the southern Tibetan plateau margin reflects interplay between surface and lithospheric dynamics within the Himalaya-Tibet orogen. We report thermochronometric data from a 1.2-km elevation transect within granitoids of the eastern Lhasa terrane, southern Tibet, which indicate rapid exhumation exceeding 1 km/Ma from 17-16 to 12-11 Ma followed by very slow exhumation to the present. We hypothesize that these changes in exhumation occurred in response to changes in the loci and rate of rock uplift and the resulting southward shift of the main topographic and drainage divides from within the Lhasa terrane to their current positions within the Himalaya. At ∼17 Ma, steep erosive drainage networks would have flowed across the Himalaya and greater amounts of moisture would have advected into the Lhasa terrane to drive large-scale erosional exhumation. As convergence thickened and widened the Himalaya, the orographic barrier to precipitation in southern Tibet terrane would have strengthened. Previously documented midcrustal duplexing around 10 Ma generated a zone of high rock uplift within the Himalaya. We use numerical simulations as a conceptual tool to highlight how a zone of high rock uplift could have defeated transverse drainage networks, resulting in substantial drainage reorganization. When combined with a strengthening orographic barrier to precipitation, this drainage reorganization would have driven the sharp reduction in exhumation rate we observe in southern Tibet.

  12. Everyday hassles and uplifts among women on long-term sick-leave due to stress-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Gun; Eklund, Mona; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin

    2012-05-01

    A balance between different experiences of occupations in everyday life is important for well-being. The study aim was to describe hassles and uplifts in everyday occupations among women on long-term sick-leave due to stress-related disorders. The sample consisted of 77 women and experiences were collected by the THU-5 instrument. The statements were analysed using quantitative content analysis. Data were categorized into three domains of hassles concerning oneself, doings, and social and physical context. The same domains occurred among the uplifts. Hassles were mostly generated by disturbing people around the women and by their limited body functions. The women were uplifted by supportive social relationships and by performing relaxing and calming occupations. The study illuminates the strong need for social support among women on sick-leave, as well as their low level of energy, which was an obvious obstacle for performing occupations. It is suggested that, in order to increase well-being in the target group, the occupational therapist should meet their need for occupations that match their current level of energy. The challenge for the client is to avoid remaining in a pattern of low-demand occupations without exceeding her/his capacity and returning to an unhealthy pattern of occupations.

  13. Uplift characterization in an inland area based on information of terrace distribution. Case study in the Mid Niigata region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hataya, Ryuta; Hamada, Takaomi

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the correlation and chronology of fluvial terraces, and characteristics of terrace distribution around active structures, in the Mid Niigata region. Making much of geomorphologic and geologic information, such as morphology and continuity of terrace plains, weathering of terrace gravels, gives to appropriately interpretation of tephra data. Then, at both sides of the active structure, characteristics of terrace distribution are quite different. It indicates that terrace distribution is useful information to evaluate fault activity. Furthermore, uplift estimation for the last 100,000 years is given by terrace distribution information and relative heights of fluvial terraces, and can be applied to evaluation the fault activity. For example, using the uplift index of the values of relative height between terraces, we estimated that the uplift difference on the both side of the Muikamachi fault during late Quaternary was more than 40m. It suggests that the slip rate of the Muikamachi fault is more than 0.4m/10 3 year. The viewpoint and method shown in this paper reflected to the upgrade of the air-photo interpretation for active fault survey. (author)

  14. New approach to resolve the amount of Quaternary uplift and associated denudation of the mountain ranges in the Japanese Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Sueoka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Low-temperature thermochronology is a widely used tool for revealing denudation histories of mountain ranges. Although this technique has been applied mainly to continental orogens, such as the European Alps, Himalayas, and Andes, recent technological development of low-temperature thermochronology has made it applicable to a wider variety of mountain ranges with various sizes and tectonic histories. The Japanese Islands comprise young and active island arcs, where an early stage of mountain range formation is observed. Numerous attempts have been made to constrain the uplift and denudation histories of the mountains in the Japanese Islands using geologic, geomorphologic, or geodetic methods. However, the number of thermochronometric attempts has been limited primarily due to the small amount of total denudation since the initiation of the uplift. In this review paper, we introduce the tectonic and geomorphic settings of the mountain ranges in the Japanese Islands, and discuss previous attempts to estimate uplift or denudation of the Japanese mountains using methods other than thermochronology. Furthermore, we discuss problems of the thermochronometric applications in revealing denudation histories of the Japanese mountains. Finally, we present a case study of the Kiso Range in central Japan and discuss the current effectiveness and applicability of low-temperature thermochronology to the Japanese mountainous areas.

  15. Analyzing the effect of large rotations on the seismic response of structures subjected to foundation local uplift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Abbas N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with seismic analysis of structures by taking into account soil-structure interaction where the structure is modeled by an equivalent flexible beam mounted on a rigid foundation that is supported by a Winkler like soil. The foundation is assumed to undergo local uplift and the rotations are considered to be large. The coupling of the system is represented by a series of springs and damping elements that are distributed over the entire width of the foundation. The non-linear equations of motion of the system were derived by taking into account the equilibrium of the coupled foundation-structure system where the structure was idealized as a single-degree-of-freedom. The seismic response of the structure was calculated under the occurrence of foundation uplift for both large and small rotations. The non-linear differential system of equations was integrated by using the Matlab command ode15s. The maximum response has been determined as function of the intensity of the earthquake, the slenderness of the structure and the damping ratio. It was found that considering local uplift with small rotations of foundation under seismic loading leads to unfavorable structural response in comparison with the case of large rotations.

  16. [Neurological paleopathology in the pre-Columbian cultures of the coast and the Andean plateau (I). Artificial cranial deformation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod Artal, F J; Vázquez Cabrera, C B

    The aim of this work was to study the cranial trepanations and deformations carried out by the ancient Paraca, Huari, Tiahuanaco and Inca cultures. To do so, we conducted a field study involving visits to archaeological remains and anthropological museums on the Andean plateau and the Peruvian coast. Cranial deformation was more common in the Andean regions and was performed by putting little pieces of wood or compressive bandages on newborn infants' heads in order to modify the growth axis of the cranial cavity. Cranial deformations were performed for aesthetic and magic religious reasons, but were also used as a means of ethnic or social identification, as a symbol of nobility or to distinguish the ruling classes. The immediate consequence of such deformation was the modification of the normal process by which the cranial sutures close. There is a significant correlation between the presence of posterior and lateral wormian bones, according to the degree of artificial deformation. The persistence of metopic suture and exostosis of the outer ear canal have been found in 5% of the skulls belonging to pre Columbine mummies. Other paleopathological findings include cranial fractures (7%), porotic hyperostosis (25% of children's skulls), spina bifida occulta, signs of spinal disk arthrosis and Pott's disease. Artificial cranial deformation was a very widespread practice in the Andean regions in pre Columbine times.

  17. Physico-chemical and sensory properties of marmalades made from mixtures of fruits and under-exploited Andean tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotufo Haddad, Agustina M; Margalef, María Isabel; Armada, Margarita; Goldner, María Cristina

    2017-09-01

    This work studies the added value to the Andean tuber crops through the production of jams. The objective were: (1) to study the sensory and instrumental characteristics of dietetic marmalades made with fruits and Andean tubers; (2) to research consumer's acceptability and emotional responses; (3) to assess the relationship between sensory and instrumental variables and (4) to determine sensory, instrumental and emotional variables that influence the acceptability. Pearson's correlations showed that spreadability was the variable better predicted by sensory and instrumental ones. The analysis of variance showed that sourness increased with the increase of strawberry and the decrease of apple contents (P analysis of sensory/acceptability/emotion data, 'typical', 'autochthonous', 'urban' and 'present' resulted in positive emotions which favored the consumer liking. Formulating marmalades with mixtures of fruits and Andean tubers will allow giving value-added to these crops. The elaboration of products using innovative raw materials will be an incentive for farmers to cultivate them. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Taxonomic review of the species of Helina R.-D. (Diptera: Muscidae) from Andean-Patagonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Mariluis, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-12

    Helina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 is the second genus of Muscidae in terms of richness. This genus includes several species collected at high altitudes and high latitudes, and is poorly studied in the Neotropical region. Only 12 species of Helina have been recorded in the southern limit of South America in the Andean-Patagonian forests. In the present work, we studied all the species known from the Andean-Patagonian forests, with the exception of H. viola Malloch, 1934, present three new species, H. araucana sp. nov., H. dorada sp. nov., and H. ouina sp. nov., and provide the first description of the females of H. australis Carvalho & Pont, 1993 and H. rufoapicata Malloch, 1934. We also propose four new synonymies: H. nigrimana basilaris (Carvalho & Pont, 1993) and H. nigrimana grisea (Malloch, 1934) as new junior synonyms of H. nigrimana (Macquart, 1851); and H. fulvocalyptrata Malloch, 1934 and H. simplex Malloch, 1934 as new junior synonyms of H. chilensis Malloch, 1934. Finally, we provide a generic diagnosis and a new key for the Helina species of the Andean-Patagonian forests, as well as notes on the biology and distribution maps of each specimen, and discuss a preliminary contruction of groups of species.

  19. Postglacial uplift of the eastern Gulf of Finland-Lake Ladoga region: models and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amantov, Aleksey; Fjeldskaar, Willy; Amantova, Marina

    2015-04-01

    The eastern Gulf of Finland - Lake Ladoga region - is at the peripheral part of the Fennoscandian post-glacial uplift. We compared different modeling results for this region with observations, including our revision of geomorphological traces of paleo shorelevel. As in many parts of the general Baltic-White Sea bedrock lowland at the margin of the Fennoscandian Shield, the bedrock landscape was modified by glaciers, but it was also the major controlling factor for the history of glacial grows and decays. First-order landforms of this segment are: Lake Ladoga-Lake Ilmen lowland, Lembolovo High of the Karelic Isthmus and Neva-Gulf of Finland lowland. The range of the bedrock topography is close to 350 m. The landforms reflect different glacial behavior during stadials, with fast movement and strong erosion in northern Ladoga, but passive motion and accumulation around Lembolovo High. The differences influenced the ice sheet and deglaciation history. The shore level displacements in this area are slightly different than westwards in the Baltic area; the shoreline tilts are usually lower in southern-central part of the eastern Gulf of Finland-lake Ladoga region. For example, the shoreline tilts at 11 600 BP in the Baltic Ice Lake in the south-east range from 0.55 to 0.31 m/km. The slope of the Ancylus shoreline varies from 0.12 to 0.18 m/km, increasing to almost the double in the north-western area. Similarly, the Littorina shore level is tilted only 0.08 m/km, rising to 0.14 m/km in the north-west. We have used this data in our high resolution modeling involving glacial isostasy, hydro isostasy, sediment isostasy, and gravity field changes. The mopdeling is based on Earth rheology model with a low-viscosity asthenosphere of thickness less than 150 km and viscosity less than 7.0x10**19 Pa s above a mantle of viscosity 10**21 Pa s, and an effective elastic lithosphere thickness of 30-40 km (flexural rigidity 10**24 Nm). The specific uplift features in the area are

  20. Neogene Uplift and Exhumation of Plutonic Bodies in the Beni Bou Ifrour Massif (Nador, northeastern Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebret, Noëmie; Jolivet, Laurent; Branquet, Yannick; Bourdier, Jean-Louis; Jolivet, Marc; Marcoux, Eric

    2013-04-01

    In Neogene times, the whole Mediterranean Sea was the center of an intense magmatic activity. This post-collisional magmatism produced a large amount of volcanic edifices through the Alpine belts, together with some intrusives. These plutonic bodies can be associated with skarn-type mineralization, well-known in Elba Island or Serifos Island (Cyclades), where they are generally exhumed by detachment faults. In Morocco, the plutons hosted by the Beni Bou Ifrour massif are connected to the biggest skarn-type iron concentrations of the country (production > 60 Mt, reserves ≈ 25 Mt). The purpose of this work is to explain the late uplift of this massif and subsequent exhumation of the intrusives. As a final product of the Africa-Eurasia plate convergence since ca. 70 Ma, the Rif Mountains constitute the westernmost segment of the Mediterranean Alpine belts. In the oriental part of this range, volcanic summits and Paleozoic to Mesozoic massifs outcrop in the surrounding Mio-Pliocene plains. The Beni Bou Ifrour massif, in the Nador province, consists in a dome-shaped folded Mesozoic series (Domerian to Barremian) affected by a slight epizonal regional metamorphism (ca. 14-12 Ma), dislocated by Neogene NE-SW faults and eventually sealed by upper Miocene transgressive sediments. The hosted intrusives (7.58 ± 0.03 Ma; Duggen et al., 2005) are the plutonic equivalents to the potassic calc-alkaline lavas (andesites mainly) from the surrounding "satellite" volcanic massifs. They turn out to stand in higher topographic position than the younger shoshonitic lavas of the neighboring Gourougou stratovolcano (6.12 ± 0.01 Ma; Duggen et al., 2005). Previous studies have attributed this uplift to the action of normal faults (pull-apart basins; Guillemin & Houzay, 1982), thrusting (Kerchaoui, 1985; 1995) or even of a caldeira resurgence (El Bakkali, 1995). To discriminate against those exhumation mechanisms, field work has been performed, coming along with new cross-sections to

  1. Application of the CO2-PENS risk analysis tool to the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, P.H.; Pawar, R.J.; Surdam, R.C.; Jiao, Z.; Deng, H.; Lettelier, B.C.; Viswanathan, H.S.; Sanzo, D.L.; Keating, G.N.

    2011-01-01

    We describe preliminary application of the CO2-PENS performance and risk analysis tool to a planned geologic CO2 sequestration demonstration project in the Rock Springs Uplift (RSU), located in south western Wyoming. We use data from the RSU to populate CO2-PENS, an evolving system-level modeling tool developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This tool has been designed to generate performance and risk assessment calculations for the geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide. Our approach follows Systems Analysis logic and includes estimates of uncertainty in model parameters and Monte-Carlo simulations that lead to probabilistic results. Probabilistic results provide decision makers with a range in the likelihood of different outcomes. Herein we present results from a newly implemented approach in CO 2-PENS that captures site-specific spatially coherent details such as topography on the reservoir/cap-rock interface, changes in saturation and pressure during injection, and dip on overlying aquifers that may be impacted by leakage upward through wellbores and faults. We present simulations of CO 2 injection under different uncertainty distributions for hypothetical leaking wells and faults. Although results are preliminary and to be used only for demonstration of the approach, future results of the risk analysis will form the basis for a discussion on methods to reduce uncertainty in the risk calculations. Additionally, we present ideas on using the model to help locate monitoring equipment to detect potential leaks. By maintaining site-specific details in the CO2-PENS analysis we provide a tool that allows more logical presentations to stakeholders in the region. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Earthquakes and Uplift At Somma-vesuvius Before The 79 A.d. Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marturano, A.

    In the morning of 24 August of the year 79 A. D. the famous eruption of Pompei be- gan with a phreatomagmatic manifestation. For several years a number of earthquakes are likely to have occurred at Vesuvius together with unrest episodes. The event of 5 February 62 A.D., which is the best known and the strongest earthquake ever gener- ated by the Vesuvius, and that of 64, are the only events that can be historiographically dated. However, a number of historical epigraphical and archeological evidences ad- vocate the view that several seismic crisis occurred, characterized by strong enough earthquakes to damage the building structures. At Pompei, plenty of evidence of gener- alized, sometimes hasty, reconstructions (even of refined buildings), had erroneously validated the view of a decaying town; more likely, people were only suspiciously waiting for more imminent dangers to come. In 79 A.D. several restoration works were under way to repair the damage caused by an earthquake which had occurred shorty time before. Probably the seismicity was particularly intense in the early years of sixth decad, as well as in the early and in the end of the seventh, just before the erup- tion. At this same time the civic aqueduct of Pompei was out of use. Deep trenches ran along most of the streets for the layng of new tubes. From the 43 fountains of the town didnSt gush a drop of water, and the Castellum aquae was not supplied by regional aqueduct coming from near Apennines crossing the Campanian Plain from North to South. Two different chemical calcareous deposits in the roman water main attest two sources and two water supply stops at least. This phenomenon is interpreted with a relative uplift of the volcano respect to the external areas begun several years before 79 eruption in according with the sensible seismic precursors observed for long a time.

  3. Extensive Holocene ice sheet grounding line retreat and uplift-driven readvance in West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingslake, J.; Scherer, R. P.; Albrecht, T.; Coenen, J. J.; Powell, R. D.; Reese, R.; Stansell, N.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Whitehouse, P. L.

    2017-12-01

    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) reached its Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) extent 29-14 kyr before present. Numerical models used to project future ice-sheet contributions to sea-level rise exploit reconstructions of post-LGM ice mass loss to tune model parameterizations. Ice-sheet reconstructions are poorly constrained in areas where floating ice shelves or a lack of exposed geology obstruct conventional glacial-geological techniques. In the Weddell and Ross Sea sectors, ice-sheet reconstructions have traditionally assumed progressive grounding line (GL) retreat throughout the Holocene. Contrasting this view, using three distinct lines of evidence, we show that the GL retreated hundreds of kilometers inland of its present position, before glacial isostatic rebound during the Mid to Late Holocene caused the GL to readvance to its current position. Evidence for retreat and readvance during the last glacial termination includes (1) widespread radiocarbon in sediment cores recovered from beneath ice streams along the Siple and Gould Coasts, indicating marine exposure at least 200 km inland of the current GL, (2) ice-penetrating radar observations of relic crevasses and other englacial structures preserved in slow-moving grounded ice, indicating ice-shelf grounding and (3) an ensemble of new ice-sheet simulations showing widespread post-LGM retreat of the GL inland of its current location and later readvance. The model indicates that GL readvance across low slope ice-stream troughs requires uplift-driven grounding of the ice shelf on topographic highs (ice rises). Our findings highlight ice-shelf pinning points and lithospheric response to unloading as drivers of major ice-sheet fluctuations. Full WAIS collapse likely requires GL retreat well beyond its current position in the Ronne and Ross Sectors and linkage via Amundsen Sea sector glaciers.

  4. Geochronologic constraints of the uplift and metamorphism along the Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, C.P.; Zeitler, P.K.; Cooper, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    Geochronological studies of pegmatites and Alpine Schist exposed east of the Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand, reveal a complex history beginning with magmatism and metamorphism at c. 68 m.y. ago and ending with rapid uplift and exhumation in the last 5 m.y. Pegmatites exposed in the Mataketake Range give conventional U-Pb monazite and SHRIMP ion-probe zircon ages of 68 ± 2.6 Ma and 67.9 ± 2.5 Ma, respectively. Inasmuch as petrologic and isotopic data indicate that the Alpine pegmatites are melts derived from the Alpine Schist, the age of the pegmatites suggests that, at least locally, the high-grade metamorphism is considerably younger than previously assumed. We tentatively suggest that metamorphism, in at least some areas of the Alpine Schist, may be associated with Late Cretaceous transtension rather than resulting from the consequences of collision during the Rangitata Orogeny. 40 Ar/ 39 Ar studies of hornblendes from the Alpine Schist, collected from the Haast River to the Franz Josef Glacier area, reveal highly disturbed spectra. Despite this complexity, these analyses define a systematic decrease in ages both across-strike toward the Alpine Fault (Haast River traverse) and northwards along-strike towards Mt Cook. This pattern of decreasing 40 Ar/ 39 Ar hornblende ages is also observed in lower closure temperature systems such as zircon and apatite fission-track ages. We interpret the decrease in ages toward the fault to be the result of deeper exhumation in the immediate vicinity of the Alpine Fault, whereas we interpret the northward younging of fault-proximal samples to be a result of both more recent and possibly more extensive exhumation than occurred in areas to the south. (author). 55 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Insights into Andean metallogenesis from the perspective of Re-Os analyses of sulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, R.; Ruiz, J.R; Munizaga, F.M

    2001-01-01

    The source of metals and duration of mineralization for ore deposits are basic issues used to describe the metallogenesis of an area. In order to address these fundamental issues in the Andean Cordillera, we chose to analyze Re-Os isotopes in sulfides from twelve porphyry copper ore deposits that are spatially and temporally separated. Re-Os concentrates in sulfide minerals, and can thus provide genetic information on the source of metals and the timing of mineralization. The advantage of using Re-Os isotopes is that genetic and geochronologic information is obtained directly from the sulfide ore mineral, rather than by inferring chemical relationships from possibly unrelated alteration silicates. In this study we use the source of Os in low concentration sulfides as a proxy for the source of base metals. Initial ratios greater than the chondritic mantle (∼0.13) serve as indication of a crustal source for Os and, by inference, other ore forming metals. Molybdenite contains orders of magnitude more Re than the common sulfides and effectively no initial radiogenic 187 Os (Luck and Allegre, 1982). Therefore, it can be used as a high-precision geochronometer (McCandless, 1994; Stein et al. 1997). Re-Os data from low concentration sulfides and chronologic data from high concentration molybdenites highlight important processes within and among these Andean deposits.The low concentration sulfides contain between 5-30 ppt Os and 1- 30 ppb Re. There are two samples of hydrothermal and magmatic magnetite from Escondida that contain slightly more Re and Os than the other sulfides reported. The molybdenites have 187 Os concentrations that range from 5-2000 ppb, and Re concentrations that range from 60-3600 ppm. Mathur et al. (2000) and Mathur (2000) highlighted a strong relationship between the copper tonnage in Andean ore deposits and the Os initial ratio of sulfide minerals. The larger deposits have sulfide minerals with lower initial Os ratios than the smaller, less

  6. Cenozoic Uplift and Climate Change of the Northeast Tibetan Plateau: Evidence from Leaf Wax Stable Isotopic Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, M.; Zhuang, G.; Wu, M.

    2017-12-01

    Topics about the deformation history and uplift mechanism of Tibetan Plateau have been largely debated in the past few decades. Different geodynamic models present different predictions on the mountain building processes and hence the surface uplift history. For example, one tectonic model suggests a rapid uplift (>1.0 to 2.0 km) of the Tibetan Plateau in the period of ca. 10 to 8 Ma as result of isostatic rebound due to the removal of over-thickened mental lithosphere beneath. Whilst the stepwise uplift model infers that the high topography was growing progressively from south to north with the Northeast Tibetan Plateau being built in the Pliocene to present. In this case, the timing of Cenozoic uplift of Northeast Tibetan Plateau would provide information for distinguishing competing geodynamic processes. The stable isotope based paleoaltimetry holds the key to answering when the high topography was built. Additionally, the evolution of Cenozoic Asian climate was argued to be closely related to the high topography built up on the Tibetan Plateau since the India-Asian collision and/or impacted by the global change. To understand when the high topography was built and how the growth of Tibetan Plateau impacted the climate, we reconstructed the long-term histories of paleohydrology from hinterland and foreland basins in the Northeast Tibetan Plateau. We applied the compound-specific isotope hydrogen analysis to leaf wax n-alkanes (δ2Hn-alk) that are preserved in well-dated stratigraphic series (ca. 24 Ma to the present) in the Northeast Tibetan Plateau. The newly reconstructed δ2Hn-alk supports the inference of high topography on the Northeast Tibetan Plateau was built during the middle to late Miocene. Our inference is consistent with sedimentary and basement rock studies that show fundamental changes in facies and provenance and exhumation history. The new δ2Hn-alk record also reveals that the regional climate became drier since the middle Miocene following the

  7. Monitoring tectonic uplift and paleo-environmental reconstruction for marine terraces near Magaracik and Samandag, Hatay Province, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florentin, Jonathan A.; Blackwell, Bonnie A.B.; Blickstein, Joel I.B.; Skinner, Anne R.; Tueysuez, Okan; Tari, Ufuk; Can Genc, S.; Imren, Caner; Mo, Shirley; Huang, Yiwen E.W.; Kim, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Near Hatay, the Antakya-Samandag-Cyprus Fault (ASCF), East Anatolian and Dead Sea Fault Zones, the large faults that form the edges of the African, Anatolian, Cyprus and Arabian Plates, all produce large earthquakes, which have decimated Hatay repeatedly. Near Samandag, Hatay, differential vertical displacement on the ASCF has uplifted the southeastern side relative to northwestern side, producing large fault scarps that parallel the Asi (Orontes) River. Tectonic uplift coupled with Quaternary sea level fluctuations has produced several stacked marine terraces stranded above current sea level. This study dated 24 mollusc samples from 10 outcrops on six marine terraces near Samandag electron spin resonance (ESR). Ages were calculated using time-averaged and volumetrically averaged external dose rates, modelled by assuming typical water depths for the individual species and sediment thicknesses estimated from geological criteria. Uplift rates were then calculated for each fault block. At all the Magaracik terraces, the dates suggest that many shells were likely reworked. On the 30 m terrace at Magaracik IV (UTM 766588-3999880), Lithophagus burrows with in situ shells cross the unconformity. One such shell dated to 62 ± 6 ka, setting the minimum possible age for the terrace. For all the Magaracik terraces at ∼30 m above mean sea level (amsl), the youngest ages for the reworked shells, which averaged 60 ± 3 ka for six separate analyses, sets the maximum possible age for this unit. Thus, the terrace must date to 60-62 ± 3 ka, at the MIS 3/4 boundary when temperatures and sea levels were fluctuating rapidly. Older units dating to MIS 7, 6, and 5 likely were being eroded to supply some fossils found in this terrace. At Magaracik Dump (UTM 765391-4001048), ∼103 m amsl, Ostrea and other shells were found cemented in growth position to the limestone boulders outcropping there -1 , since MIS 5c. At Samandag Kurt Stream at 38 m amsl, molluscs were deposited fine sandy

  8. The central uplift of Elorza Crater: Insights into its geology and possible relationships to the Valles Marineris and Tharsis regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, R. T.; Tornabene, L. L.; Osinski, G. R.

    2017-03-01

    The majority of hydrated silicate occurrences on Mars are associated with impact craters (Ehlmann et al., 2011; Carter et al., 2013). Three formation mechanisms have been suggested to account for this correlation: (1) aqueous alteration occurred pre-impact, and was subsequently exposed via the impact (pre-impact; Bibring et al., 2006; Ehlmann et al., 2011), (2) heat generated from the impact facilitated the formation of a hydrothermal system, leading to alteration products (syn-impact; e.g. Marzo et al., 2010; Osinski et al., 2013), and/or (3) altered materials were deposited after crater formation, or formed within the crater well after the impact had taken place (post-impact). In this study, we analyze the central uplift of Elorza Crater, a ∼40 km diameter impact crater located ∼300 km north of Valles Marineris. To determine whether hydrated minerals found within the uplift were generated pre-, syn-, or post-impact, we used a data synthesis approach, utilizing High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM), Context Camera (CTX), and Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) imagery. Opaline silica is observed in two locations on the southwestern side of the uplift and is interpreted to have been pre-existing or formed via hydrothermal alteration due to stratigraphic relationships with the overlying impact melt unit. Both Fe/Mg smectite and low-calcium pyroxene (LCP) are found throughout the uplift. Bedrock exposures on the northern wall of Coprates Chasma containing Fe/Mg smectite and LCP suggest an uplifted origin for these units. In all cases, although a pre-existing origin is probable, it is difficult to rule out the possibility of an impact-generated hydrothermal origin. Using the observed stratigraphy exposed in Coprates Chasma and bedrock exposures analyzed in nearby craters, we were able to constrain the pre-impact stratigraphy around Elorza. The near-subsurface consists of Hesperian

  9. Cenozoic uplift of the Tibetan Plateau: Evidence from the tectonic–sedimentary evolution of the western Qaidam Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadong Wang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Geologists agree that the collision of the Indian and Asian plates caused uplift of the Tibet Plateau. However, controversy still exists regarding the modes and mechanisms of the Tibetan Plateau uplift. Geology has recorded this uplift well in the Qaidam Basin. This paper analyzes the tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the western Qaidam Basin using sub-surface seismic and drill data. The Cenozoic intensity and history of deformation in the Qaidam Basin have been reconstructed based on the tectonic developments, faults growth index, sedimentary facies variations, and the migration of the depositional depressions. The changes in the sedimentary facies show that lakes in the western Qaidam Basin had gone from inflow to still water deposition to withdrawal. Tectonic movements controlled deposition in various depressions, and the depressions gradually shifted southeastward. In addition, the morphology of the surface structures in the western Qaidam Basin shows that the Cenozoic tectonic movements controlled the evolution of the Basin and divided it into (a the southern fault terrace zone, (b a central Yingxiongling orogenic belt, and (c the northern fold-thrust belt; divided by the XI fault (Youshi fault and Youbei fault, respectively. The field data indicate that the western Qaidam Basin formed in a Cenozoic compressive tectonic environment caused by the India–Asia plate collision. Further, the Basin experienced two phases of intensive tectonic deformation. The first phase occurred during the Middle Eocene–Early Miocene (Xia Ganchaigou Fm. and Shang Ganchaigou Fm., 43.8–22 Ma, and peaked in the Early Oligocene (Upper Xia Ganchaigou Fm., 31.5 Ma. The second phase occurred between the Middle Miocene and the Present (Shang Youshashan Fm. and Qigequan Fm., 14.9–0 Ma, and was stronger than the first phase. The tectonic–sedimentary evolution and the orientation of surface structures in the western Qaidam Basin resulted from the Tibetan

  10. [Characterization of High Andean forest edges and implications for their ecological restoration (Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Alba Lucía; Vargas Ríos, Orlando

    2008-09-01

    The growth of a forest patch through colonization of the adjacent matrix is mostly determined by the particular characteristics of the edge zone. Knowing how these characteristics are related to a specific edge type and how they influence the regeneration process, is important for High Andean forest edges restoration. This study aimed to characterize three types of High Andean forest edge in Cogua Forest Reserve (Colombia): 1) edge of Chusquea scandens, 2) "paramizado", and 3) old edge, characterized for being in a later successional state. Two forest patches were chosen for each edge type and 13 criteria were analyzed; these were of topographic order, micro-environmental order, vegetation structure and species composition. In each patch the vegetation was evaluated by means of two 60 m transects perpendicular to the edge and along the matrix-edge-interior of the forest gradient. All woody plant species were identified and counted to determine their abundance. Environmental variables (air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and light radiation) were measured in one of the transects. Three of the 13 criteria were of little importance in shaping the type of edge habitat (slope, patch shape and area). The others were closely related with the micro-environmental conditions and in turn with the vegetation structure and composition; this relationship confers particular characteristics to each edge type. The microclimate and floristic edge limits coincided; edges extend between 10 and 20 m into the forest depending on the edge type. The paramizado edge has the smallest environmental self-regulation capacity and is more exposed to fluctuations of the studied variables, because of its greatest exposition to the wind action and loss of the tallest trees (between 10 and 15 m) which regulate the understorey microclimate. This low environmental buffer capacity prevents the establishing of mature forest species (for example, Schefflera sp. and Oreopanax bogotensis

  11. Climatic and lacustrine morphometric controls of diatom paleoproductivity in a tropical Andean lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, R.; Hernández, A.; Sáez, A.; Giralt, S.; Prego, R.; Pueyo, J. J.; Moreno, A.; Valero-Garcés, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    The coupling of lake dynamics with catchment biogeochemistry is considered the key element controlling primary production in mountain lakes at time scales of a few decades to millennia, yet little is known on the impacts of the morphometry of lakes throughout their ontogeny. As Lake Chungará (Central Andean Altiplano, northern Chile) experienced long-term lake-level fluctuations that strongly modified its area:volume ratio, it is an ideal system for exploring the relative roles that long-term climatic shifts and lake morphometry play on biosiliceous lacustrine productivity. In this paper, we review previous data on the percent contents of total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon, total nitrogen, total biogenic silica, isotopic composition of organic matter, carbonates, and diatom frustules, as well as data on the abundance of the chlorophycean Botryococcus braunii in this lake for the period 12,400-1300 cal yr BP. We also include new data on organic carbon and biogenic silica mass accumulation rates and the diatom assemblage composition of an offshore core dated using 14C and U/Th. Biosiliceous productivity in Lake Chungará was influenced by shifts in allochthonous nutrient inputs related to variability in precipitation. Humid phases dated at approx. 12,400 to 10,000 and 9600 to 7400 cal yr BP coincide with periods of elevated productivity, whereas decreases in productivity were recorded during arid phases dated at approx. 10,000 to 9600 and 7400 to 3550 cal yr BP (Andean mid-Holocene Aridity Period). However, morphometry-related in-lake controls led to a lack of a linear response of productivity to precipitation variability. During the late Glacial to early Holocene, lowstands facilitated complete water column mixing, prompting episodic massive blooms of a large centric diatom, Cyclostephanos cf. andinus. Thus, moderate productivity could be maintained, regardless of aridity, by this phenomenon of morphometric eutrophy during the early history of the lake

  12. Genetics and mapping of a new anthracnose resistance locus in Andean common bean Paloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Castro, Sandra Aparecida; Gonçalves-Vidigal, Maria Celeste; Gilio, Thiago Alexandre Santana; Lacanallo, Giselly Figueiredo; Valentini, Giseli; da Silva Ramos Martins, Vanusa; Song, Qijian; Galván, Marta Zulema; Hurtado-Gonzales, Oscar P; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial Antonio

    2017-04-18

    The Andean cultivar Paloma is resistant to Mesoamerican and Andean races of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the fungal pathogen that causes the destructive anthracnose disease in common bean. Remarkably, Paloma is resistant to Mesoamerican races 2047 and 3481, which are among the most virulent races of the anthracnose pathogen. Most genes conferring anthracnose resistance in common bean are overcome by these races. The genetic mapping and the relationship between the resistant Co-Pa gene of Paloma and previously characterized anthracnose resistance genes can be a great contribution for breeding programs. The inheritance of resistance studies for Paloma was performed in F 2 population from the cross Paloma (resistant) × Cornell 49-242 (susceptible) inoculated with race 2047, and in F 2 and F 2:3 generations from the cross Paloma (resistant) × PI 207262 (susceptible) inoculated with race 3481. The results of these studies demonstrated that a single dominant gene confers the resistance in Paloma. Allelism tests performed with multiple races of C. lindemuthianum showed that the resistance gene in Paloma, provisionally named Co-Pa, is independent from the anthracnose resistance genes Co-1, Co-2, Co-3, Co-4, Co-5, Co-6, Co-12, Co-13, Co-14, Co-15 and Co-16. Bulk segregant analysis using the SNP chip BARCBean6K_3 positioned the approximate location of Co-Pa in the lower arm of chromosome Pv01. Further mapping analysis located the Co-Pa gene at a 390 kb region of Pv01 flanked by SNP markers SS82 and SS83 at a distance of 1.3 and 2.1 cM, respectively. The results presented here showed that Paloma cultivar has a new dominant gene conferring resistance to anthracnose, which is independent from those genes previously described. The linkage between the Co-Pa gene and the SS82 and SS83 SNP markers will be extremely important for marker-assisted introgression of the gene into elite cultivars in order to enhance resistance.

  13. Genetic Analysis of Flooding Tolerance in an Andean Diversity Panel of Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soltani

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change models predict temporal and spatial shifts in precipitation resulting in more frequent incidents of flooding, particularly in regions with poor soil drainage. In these flooding conditions, crop losses are inevitable due to exposure of plants to hypoxia and the spread of root rot diseases. Improving the tolerance of bean cultivars to flooding is crucial to minimize crop losses. In this experiment, we evaluated the phenotypic responses of 277 genotypes from the Andean Diversity Panel to flooding at germination and seedling stages. A randomized complete block design, with a split plot arrangement, was employed for phenotyping germination rate, total weight, shoot weight, root weight, hypocotyl length, SPAD index, adventitious root rate, and survival score. A subset of genotypes (n = 20 were further evaluated under field conditions to assess correlations between field and greenhouse data and to identify the most tolerant genotypes. A genome-wide association study (GWAS was performed using ~203 K SNP markers to understand the genetic architecture of flooding tolerance in this panel. Survival scores between field and greenhouse data were significantly correlated (r = 0.55, P = 0.01. Subsequently, a subset of the most tolerant and susceptible genotypes were evaluated under pathogenic Pythium spp. pressure. This experiment revealed a potential link between flooding tolerance and Pythium spp. resistance. Several tolerant genotypes were identified that could be used as donor parents in breeding pipelines, especially ADP-429 and ADP-604. Based on the population structure analysis, a subpopulation consisting of 20 genotypes from the Middle American gene pool was detected that also possessed the highest root weight, hypocotyl length, and adventitious root development under flooding conditions. Genomic regions associated with flooding tolerance were identified including a region on Pv08/3.2 Mb, which is associated with germination rate and

  14. Complex land cover change, water and sediment yield in a degraded Andean environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Armando; Vanacker, Veerle; Balthazar, Vincent; Mora, Diego; Govers, Gerard

    2012-11-01

    SummaryRapid land use/-cover change has increasingly transformed the hydrological functioning of tropical Andean ecosystems. The hydrological response to forest cover change strongly depends on the initial state of the ecosystem. Relatively little is known about human-disturbed ecosystems where forest plantations have been established on highly degraded land. In this paper, we analyze the impact of forest change on water and sediment fluxes for a highly degraded Andean catchment. Different pathways of land cover change (1963-2007) are observed in the Jadan catchment, with deforestation taking place in remote uplands and recovery and reforestation in the middle and lower parts where agricultural and bare lands are prevalent. Time series analyses of streamflow and rainfall data (1979/1982-2005/2007) show significant shifts in the distribution of rainfall and flow data. Changes in discharge are not resulting from changes in precipitation, as the direction of change is opposite. The removal of native forest for rangeland or croplands (by -20 km2) is likely to have contributed to the increase in total annual water yield, through an increase in annual baseflow by 25 mm. The observed changes in peakflow are important as the 1st percentile highest flow rates were 54% lower, while the 1st percentile rainfall amounts increased by 52%. The observed decrease in peakflow cannot be explained by clearcut of native forest, but is likely to be related to reforestation of degraded lands as well as spontaneous recovery of vegetation on remaining grazing lands. Over the same time period, a major decrease in specific sediment yields and suspended sediment loads was observed. Although deforestation in the upper parts led to increased landslide activity, this change is not reflected in an increased sediment yield. Small upland rivers are often nearly completely blocked by landslide material, thereby reducing their potential to transport sediment. In contrast, the reduction in estimated

  15. The Two Subduction Zones of the Southern Caribbean: Lithosphere Tearing and Continental Margin Recycling in the East, Flat Slab Subduction and Laramide-Style Uplifts in the West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levander, A.; Bezada, M. J.; Niu, F.; Schmitz, M.

    2015-12-01

    The southern Caribbean plate boundary is a complex strike-slip fault system bounded by oppositely vergent subduction zones, the Antilles subduction zone in the east, and a currently locked Caribbean-South American subduction zone in the west (Bilham and Mencin, 2013). Finite-frequency teleseismic P-wave tomography images both the Atlanic (ATL) and the Caribbean (CAR) plates subducting steeply in opposite directions to transition zone depths under northern South America. Ps receiver functions show a depressed 660 discontinuity and thickened transition zone associated with each subducting plate. In the east the oceanic (ATL) part of the South American (SA) plate subducts westward beneath the CAR, initiating the El Pilar-San Sebastian strike slip system, a subduction-transform edge propagator (STEP) fault (Govers and Wortel, 2005). The point at which the ATL tears away from SA as it descends into the mantle is evidenced by the Paria cluster seismicity at depths of 60-110 km (Russo et al, 1993). Body wave tomography and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) thickness determined from Sp and Ps receiver functions and Rayleigh waves suggest that the descending ATL also viscously removes the bottom third to half of the SA continental margin lithospheric mantle as it descends. This has left thinned continental lithosphere under northern SA in the wake of the eastward migrating Antilles subduction zone. The thinned lithosphere occupies ~70% of the length of the El Pilar-San Sebastian fault system, from ~64oW to ~69oW, and extends inland several hundred kilometers. In northwestern SA the CAR subducts east-southeast at low angle under northern Colombia and western Venezuela. The subducting CAR is at least 200 km wide, extending from northernmost Colombia as far south as the Bucaramanga nest seismicity. The CAR descends steeply under Lake Maracaibo and the Merida Andes. This flat slab is associated with three Neogene basement cored, Laramide-style uplifts: the Santa Marta

  16. A Literature Survey and Experimental Evaluation of the State-of-the-Art in Uplift Modeling: A Stepping Stone Toward the Development of Prescriptive Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devriendt, Floris; Moldovan, Darie; Verbeke, Wouter

    2018-03-01

    Prescriptive analytics extends on predictive analytics by allowing to estimate an outcome in function of control variables, allowing as such to establish the required level of control variables for realizing a desired outcome. Uplift modeling is at the heart of prescriptive analytics and aims at estimating the net difference in an outcome resulting from a specific action or treatment that is applied. In this article, a structured and detailed literature survey on uplift modeling is provided by identifying and contrasting various groups of approaches. In addition, evaluation metrics for assessing the performance of uplift models are reviewed. An experimental evaluation on four real-world data sets provides further insight into their use. Uplift random forests are found to be consistently among the best performing techniques in terms of the Qini and Gini measures, although considerable variability in performance across the various data sets of the experiments is observed. In addition, uplift models are frequently observed to be unstable and display a strong variability in terms of performance across different folds in the cross-validation experimental setup. This potentially threatens their actual use for business applications. Moreover, it is found that the available evaluation metrics do not provide an intuitively understandable indication of the actual use and performance of a model. Specifically, existing evaluation metrics do not facilitate a comparison of uplift models and predictive models and evaluate performance either at an arbitrary cutoff or over the full spectrum of potential cutoffs. In conclusion, we highlight the instability of uplift models and the need for an application-oriented approach to assess uplift models as prime topics for further research.

  17. Cyprininae phylogeny revealed independent origins of the Tibetan Plateau endemic polyploid cyprinids and their diversifications related to the Neogene uplift of the plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuzhen; Gan, Xiaoni; Li, Junbing; Chen, Yiyu; He, Shunping

    2016-11-01

    Origin and diversification of the Tibetan polyploid cyprinids (schizothoracins) may help us to explore relationships between diversification of the cyprinids and the Tibetan Plateau uplift. Cyprininae phylogeny was analyzed using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences to trace origins of polyploidy and diversifications of schizothoracins. Ancestral states reconstruction for ploidy levels indicated that the Cyprininae was diploid origin and the schizothoracin clades tetraploid origins. There were two diversification rate shifts along with diversification of the cyprinine fishes in response to the Tibetan uplift. The unusual diversification shifts were located to branches subtending the clades of Tibetan polyploid cyprinids. Our analyses suggested that (i) phylogeny of Cyprininae recovered two independent origins of the Tibetan polyploidy schizothoracins; (ii) diversifications of the schizothoracins were closely related to the Neogene uplift of the Tibetan plateau in the following ways: the relatively ancient Late Oligocene-Middle Miocene adaptive radiation may be associated with the uplift of the southern Tibet and Himalaya; the Middle Miocene-Early Pleistocene lineage-specific diversification broadly coincident with major phase of the Neogene Tibetan uplift; and the most recent Pleistocene diversification shift in Schizothorax closely coincident with the successive Kunlun-Huanghe and Gonghe movements of the Tibetan uplift and the glaciation-induced climate oscillations on the plateau.

  18. The Southern Ocean Observing System

    OpenAIRE

    Rintoul, Stephen R.; Meredith, Michael P.; Schofield, Oscar; Newman, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Southern Ocean includes the only latitude band where the ocean circles the earth unobstructed by continental boundaries. This accident of geography has profound consequences for global ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycles, and climate. The Southern Ocean connects the ocean basins and links the shallow and deep limbs of the overturning circulation (Rintoul et al., 2001). The ocean's capacity to moderate the pace of climate change is therefore influenced strongly by the Southern Ocean's...

  19. Ejecta from Ocean Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyte, Frank T.

    2003-01-01

    Numerical simulations of deep-ocean impact provide some limits on the size of a projectile that will not mix with the ocean floor during a deep-ocean impact. For a vertical impact at asteroidal velocities (approx. 20 km/s), mixing is only likely when the projectile diameter is greater than 112 of the water depth. For oblique impacts, even larger projectiles will not mix with ocean floor silicates. Given the typical water depths of 4 to 5 km in deep-ocean basins, asteroidal projectiles with diameters as large as 2 or 3 km may commonly produce silicate ejecta that is composed only of meteoritic materials and seawater salts. However, the compressed water column beneath the projectile can still disrupt and shock metamorphose the ocean floor. Therefore, production of a separate, terrestrial ejecta component is not ruled out in the most extreme case. With increasing projectile size (or energy) relative to water depths, there must be a gradation between oceanic impacts and more conventional continental impacts. Given that 60% of the Earth's surface is covered by oceanic lithosphere and 500 m projectiles impact the Earth on 10(exp 5) y timescales, there must be hundreds of oceanic impact deposits in the sediment record awaiting discovery.

  20. Macrophyte Communities of Andean Rivers: Composition and Relation with Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alida Marcela Gómez Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Small streams of tropical Andes have been poorly studied. Therefore, there is little information about the structure, dynamics and function of their macrophyte communities. In this research, aquatic plant communities of 18 Andean streams of La Vieja (Quindío and Otún (Risaralda river basins were studied; those are some of the basins most affected by anthropic activities in the country. Streams were selected according to their association with the main land’s uses of the region in both basins. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of land use on the structure of macrophyte communities. Streams running exclusively through each land use were selected. Sampling was done in two different climatic seasons of year 2006. Vegetation found (54 species belonging to 25 families was dominated by species with high capability of adaptation to changing and disturbed environments. Richness and abundance of macrophytes were lower than those reported in other tropical aquatic systems. Variables associated with land use, such as temperature, conductivity and type of substrate of the streams mainly explained the structure of the macrophyte communities: streams running on meat-cattle areas -with higher temperatures, conductivity and dominance of sandy-slimy substrates- had higher macrophyte species richness and abundance than streams of protected-forest areas, with higher coverage by riparian vegetation, lower temperatures and conductivity and rocky substrates.

  1. Diversification of the rainfrog Pristimantis ornatissimus in the lowlands and Andean foothills of Ecuador.

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    Juan M Guayasamin

    Full Text Available Geographic barriers and elevational gradients have long been recognized as important in species diversification. Here, we illustrate an example where both mechanisms have shaped the genetic structure of the Neotropical rainfrog, Pristimantis ornatissimus, which has also resulted in speciation. This species was thought to be a single evolutionary lineage distributed throughout the Ecuadorian Chocó and the adjacent foothills of the Andes. Based on recent sampling of P. ornatissimus sensu lato, we provide molecular and morphological evidence that support the validity of a new species, which we name Pristimantis ecuadorensis sp. nov. The sister species are elevational replacements of each other; the distribution of Pristimantis ornatissimus sensu stricto is limited to the Ecuadorian Chocó ecoregion (< 1100 m, whereas the new species has only been found at Andean localities between 1450-1480 m. Given the results of the Multiple Matrix Regression with Randomization analysis, the genetic difference between P. ecuadorensis and P. ornatissimus is not explained by geographic distance nor environment, although environmental variables at a finer scale need to be tested. Therefore this speciation event might be the byproduct of stochastic historic extinction of connected populations or biogeographic events caused by barriers to dispersal such as rivers. Within P. ornatissimus sensu stricto, morphological patterns and genetic structure seem to be related to geographic isolation (e.g., rivers. Finally, we provide an updated phylogeny for the genus, including the new species, as well as other Ecuadorian Pristimantis.

  2. Diversification of the rainfrog Pristimantis ornatissimus in the lowlands and Andean foothills of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Carl R.; Tapia, Elicio E.; Culebras, Jaime; Peñafiel, Nicolás; Pyron, R. Alexander; Morochz, Carlos; Funk, W. Chris; Arteaga, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Geographic barriers and elevational gradients have long been recognized as important in species diversification. Here, we illustrate an example where both mechanisms have shaped the genetic structure of the Neotropical rainfrog, Pristimantis ornatissimus, which has also resulted in speciation. This species was thought to be a single evolutionary lineage distributed throughout the Ecuadorian Chocó and the adjacent foothills of the Andes. Based on recent sampling of P. ornatissimus sensu lato, we provide molecular and morphological evidence that support the validity of a new species, which we name Pristimantis ecuadorensis sp. nov. The sister species are elevational replacements of each other; the distribution of Pristimantis ornatissimus sensu stricto is limited to the Ecuadorian Chocó ecoregion (< 1100 m), whereas the new species has only been found at Andean localities between 1450–1480 m. Given the results of the Multiple Matrix Regression with Randomization analysis, the genetic difference between P. ecuadorensis and P. ornatissimus is not explained by geographic distance nor environment, although environmental variables at a finer scale need to be tested. Therefore this speciation event might be the byproduct of stochastic historic extinction of connected populations or biogeographic events caused by barriers to dispersal such as rivers. Within P. ornatissimus sensu stricto, morphological patterns and genetic structure seem to be related to geographic isolation (e.g., rivers). Finally, we provide an updated phylogeny for the genus, including the new species, as well as other Ecuadorian Pristimantis. PMID:28329011

  3. Effects of light intensity and fertilization on the growth of Andean Oak Seedlings at Nursery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda, Yira Lucia; Diez, Maria Claudia; Moreno, Flavio Humberto; Leon, Juan Diego; Walter Osorio, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Quercus humboldtii is a native plant species of great importance in Colombia for use in reforestation and restoration of degraded Andean highlands. The species is highly threatened and it is necessary to establish programs of propagation and planting. However, little is known about their nutritional and light requirements. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of single and combined relative illumination (IR) and fertilization on the growth of seedlings of Q. humboldtii at nursery. For this purpose three contrasting ir regimes (high, medium, and low ir) and nine fertilization treatments were established: complete (TC), a missing nutrient (-N,-P,-K,-Ca,-Mg, -S,-B) and a control without fertilization (TO). The best development of seedlings was showed in the medium ir condition. All treatments with a lacking nutrient showed decreases in seedling development regarding TC, except in the -B treatment. Nitrogen was the most limiting nutrient yielding biomass similar to that of TO. The impact of nutrient limitation on seedling performance was in the following order:-N>-Ca,-K,-P>-Mg,-S>-B. no significant interaction IR x fertilization was detected on seedling development.

  4. Investigation Into the Humaneness of Slaughter Methods for Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcelus) in the Andean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon, Georgina; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy A; Gibson, Troy J

    2016-01-01

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcelus) are an important source of nonhuman animal protein in the Andean region of South America. Specific guidelines regarding the welfare of guinea pigs before and during slaughter have yet to be developed. This study critically assessed the humaneness of 4 different stunning/slaughter methods for guinea pigs: cervical neck dislocation (n = 60), electrical head-only stunning (n = 83), carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning (n = 21), and penetrating captive bolt (n = 10). Following cervical neck dislocation, 97% of guinea pigs had at least 1 behavioral or cranial/spinal response. Six percent of guinea pigs were classified as mis-stunned after electrical stunning, and 1% were classified as mis-stunned after captive bolt. Increased respiratory effort was observed during CO2 stunning. Apart from this finding, there were no other obvious behavioral responses that could be associated with suffering. Of the methods assessed, captive bolt was deemed the most humane, effective, and practical method of stunning guinea pigs. Cervical neck dislocation should not be recommended as a slaughter method for guinea pigs.

  5. Repeated evolution of vertebrate pollination syndromes in a recently diverged Andean plant clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomarsino, Laura P; Forrestel, Elisabeth J; Muchhala, Nathan; Davis, Charles C

    2017-08-01

    Although specialized interactions, including those involving plants and their pollinators, are often invoked to explain high species diversity, they are rarely explored at macroevolutionary scales. We investigate the dynamic evolution of hummingbird and bat pollination syndromes in the centropogonid clade (Lobelioideae: Campanulaceae), an Andean-centered group of ∼550 angiosperm species. We demonstrate that flowers hypothesized to be adapted to different pollinators based on flower color fall into distinct regions of morphospace, and this is validated by morphology of species with known pollinators. This supports the existence of pollination syndromes in the centropogonids, an idea corroborated by ecological studies. We further demonstrate that hummingbird pollination is ancestral, and that bat pollination has evolved ∼13 times independently, with ∼11 reversals. This convergence is associated with correlated evolution of floral traits within selective regimes corresponding to pollination syndrome. Collectively, our results suggest that floral morphological diversity is extremely labile, likely resulting from selection imposed by pollinators. Finally, even though this clade's rapid diversification is partially attributed to their association with vertebrate pollinators, we detect no difference in diversification rates between hummingbird- and bat-pollinated lineages. Our study demonstrates the utility of pollination syndromes as a proxy for ecological relationships in macroevolutionary studies of certain species-rich clades. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A Is Associated with Chronic Mountain Sickness in the Andean Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Jose R.; Alvarez, Giancarlo; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Ju Preciado, Hugo F.; Macarlupu, Jose-Luis; Rivera-Ch, Maria; Rodriguez, Jorge; Favier, Judith; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Espinoza, Jose R., Giancarlo Alvarez, Fabiola León-Velarde, Hugo F. Ju Preciado, Jose-Luis Macarlupu, Maria Rivera-Ch, Jorge Rodriguez, Judith Favier, Anne-Paule Gimenez-Roqueplo, and Jean-Paul Richalet. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A is associated with chronic mountain sickness in Andean population. High Alt Med Biol. 15:146–154, 2014.—A study of chronic mountain sickness (CMS) with a candidate gene—vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)—was carried out in a Peruvian population living at high altitude in Cerro de Pasco (4380 m). The study was performed by genotyping of 11 tag SNPs encompassing 2.2 kb of region of VEGFA gene in patients with a diagnosis of CMS (n=131; 49.1±12.7 years old) and unrelated healthy controls (n=84; 47.2±13.4 years old). The VEGFA tag SNP rs3025033 was found associated with CMS (p0.36, p<0.01), suggesting selection is operating on the VEGF gene. Our results suggest that VEGFA is associated with CMS in long-term residents at high altitude in the Peruvian Andes. PMID:24971768

  7. Amazonian Amphibian Diversity Is Primarily Derived from Late Miocene Andean Lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Juan C; Coloma, Luis A; Summers, Kyle; Caldwell, Janalee P; Ree, Richard; Cannatella, David C

    2009-01-01

    The Neotropics contains half of remaining rainforests and Earth's largest reservoir of amphibian biodiversity. However, determinants of Neotropical biodiversity (i.e., vicariance, dispersals, extinctions, and radiations) earlier than the Quaternary are largely unstudied. Using a novel method of ancestral area reconstruction and relaxed Bayesian clock analyses, we reconstructed the biogeography of the poison frog clade (Dendrobatidae). We rejected an Amazonian center-of-origin in favor of a complex connectivity model expanding over the Neotropics. We inferred 14 dispersals into and 18 out of Amazonia to adjacent regions; the Andes were the major source of dispersals into Amazonia. We found three episodes of lineage dispersal with two interleaved periods of vicariant events between South and Central America. During the late Miocene, Amazonian, and Central American-Chocoan lineages significantly increased their diversity compared to the Andean and Guianan-Venezuelan-Brazilian Shield counterparts. Significant percentage of dendrobatid diversity in Amazonia and Chocó resulted from repeated immigrations, with radiations at Venezuelan Highlands, and Guiana Shield have undergone extended in situ diversification at near constant rate since the Oligocene. The effects of Miocene paleogeographic events on Neotropical diversification dynamics provided the framework under which Quaternary patterns of endemism evolved. PMID:19278298

  8. New environmentally-friendly antimicrobials and biocides from Andean and Mexican biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespedes, Carlos L; Alarcon, Julio; Aqueveque, Pedro M; Lobo, Tatiana; Becerra, Julio; Balbontin, Cristian; Avila, Jose G; Kubo, Isao; Seigler, David S

    2015-10-01

    Persistent application of pesticides often leads to accumulation in the environment and to the development of resistance in various organisms. These chemicals frequently degrade slowly and have the potential to bio-accumulate across the food chain and in top predators. Cancer and neuronal damage at genomic and proteomic levels have been linked to exposure to pesticides in humans. These negative effects encourage search for new sources of biopesticides that are more "environmentally-friendly" to the environment and human health. Many plant or fungal compounds have significant biological activity associated with the presence of secondary metabolites. Plant biotechnology and new molecular methods offer ways to understand regulation and to improve production of secondary metabolites of interest. Naturally occurring crop protection chemicals offer new approaches for pest management by providing new sources of biologically active natural products with biodegradability, low mammalian toxicity and environmentally-friendly qualities. Latin America is one of the world's most biodiverse regions and provide a previously unsuspected reservoir of new and potentially useful molecules. Phytochemicals from a number of families of plants and fungi from the southern Andes and from Mexico have now been evaluated. Andean basidiomycetes are also a great source of scientifically new compounds that are interesting and potentially useful. Use of biopesticides is an important component of integrated pest management (IPM) and can improve the risks and benefits of production of many crops all over the world. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Large-scale patterns of turnover and Basal area change in Andean forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene Báez

    Full Text Available General patterns of forest dynamics and productivity in the Andes Mountains are poorly characterized. Here we present the first large-scale study of Andean forest dynamics using a set of 63 permanent forest plots assembled over the past two decades. In the North-Central Andes tree turnover (mortality and recruitment and tree growth declined with increasing elevation and decreasing temperature. In addition, basal area increased in Lower Montane Moist Forests but did not change in Higher Montane Humid Forests. However, at higher elevations the lack of net basal area change and excess of mortality over recruitment suggests negative environmental impacts. In North-Western Argentina, forest dynamics appear to be influenced by land use history in addition to environmental variation. Taken together, our results indicate that combinations of abiotic and biotic factors that vary across elevation gradients are important determinants of tree turnover and productivity in the Andes. More extensive and longer-term monitoring and analyses of forest dynamics in permanent plots will be necessary to understand how demographic processes and woody biomass are responding to changing environmental conditions along elevation gradients through this century.

  10. Insects associated with exposed decomposing bodies in the Colombian Andean Coffee Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Grisales

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, mainly classic forensic medicine methods were used to clarify crimes until 2004. However, other disciplines, including forensic entomology, started to be considered only after the New Accusatory System introduction in Bogotá and the Coffee Region in 2005. In order to provide tools for obtaining evidentiary material elements in judicial trials, it is presented here the succession of insects throughout the decomposition process of an exposed carcass of Sus scrofa Linnaeus 1758 (Suidae and the Occurrence Matrix of colonizing species. This process was evaluated under ambient conditions in the Andean rural area of the city of Pereira, in the Mundo Nuevo district, located in a pre-montane Wet Forest area, from October to November 2006. A sampling period of 27 days and 3198 individuals were collected. We found these colonizing species in the following stages of decomposition: Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819 fresh; Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, 1850, Oxelytrum discicolle (Brullé, 1840, and Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius 1775 bloated; Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann 1819, Compsomyiops verena (Walker, 1849, Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann, 1830 and Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 active; Fannia sp. advanced and Stearibia nigriceps (Meigen, 1826 remains. This study provides support tools to define the Post Mortem Interval that may be used by experts from government institutions and laboratories officially accredited.

  11. Vicuña conservation and poverty alleviation? Andean communities and international fibre markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lichtenstein

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Vicuna (Vicugna vicugna fiber is produced by extremely low-income communities that inhabit the harsh environment of the Andes in Argentina, Chile, Peru and Bolivia. At the other end of the social scale, affluent consumers are willing to pay high prices for vicuna-made accessories and clothes. Vicuna management projects follow the logic of community-based wildlife management. The rationale for seeking to conserve vicuñas through sustainable use is that commercial utilization of the fiber (obtained from live-shorn animals will generate sufficient economic benefits to outweigh the costs of conservation, and contribute to community development and poverty alleviation. However, although conservation efforts have been extremely successful with vicuñas having recovered from the brink of extinction, the socio-economic achievements have thus far proved modest. This paper explores multiple-objective projects that address vicuña conservation and poverty alleviation in Andean countries. In doing so it analyses the tensions that exist between these objectives, as well as the factors that limit a more equitable distribution of benefits among stakeholders. Examples are drawn from vicuna management under common-property in Peru and Bolivia, and vicuna captive management under private property in Argentina. These case studies enable us to illustrate the complex relationship between local communities and the global market, and the importance of community enterprises and supportive government policy in managing a common pool resource.

  12. A phytoremediation approach using Calamagrostis ligulata and Juncus imbricatus in Andean wetlands of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Bobadilla; Edell, Aliaga; Edson, Yupanqui; Edwin, Palomino

    2013-01-01

    Emergent plant species growing in Andean natural wetlands have shown efficient phytoremediation capabilities in wetlands polluted by acid mine drainage. However, the types and amounts of heavy metals accumulated by native plant species are not well understood. In this study, we focused on determining heavy metal concentrations and bioaccumulation factors in Calamagrostis ligulata and Juncus imbricatus. Two acid wetlands located above 3,500 m a.s.l. in Ancash, Peru were assessed. Physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals concentrations in control and experimental plant samples were measured in dry and rainy seasons. Results indicated that C. ligulata and J. imbricatus aerial parts accumulated higher amounts of Fe, Zn, As and Al. Also, bioaccumulation factors revealed notable increases in As, Pb and Al, but less so in Cd, Fe and Zn. On the other hand, physico-chemical parameters of water quality (pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, sulphides) between inflow and outflow of wetlands indicated significant differences in the presence of metals in comparison with their maximum permissible limits. Both emergent plant species showed an accumulation of heavy metals and thus the ability to recovery of water quality in wetland outflows.

  13. [Floristic composition and distribution of the Andean subtropical riparian forests of Lules River, Tucuman, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirombra, Martín G; Mesa, Leticia M

    2010-03-01

    We studied the floristic composition and distribution of the riparian forest of two hydrographical systems in a subtropical Andean region. Using uni and multivariate techniques, we tested the hypotheses that a differentiable riparian forest exists, composed by native vegetation typical of the Yungas phytogeographical province, and that the distribution of vegetation varied significantly with geomorphologic characteristics. Parallel transects along the water courses were used to collect presence-absence data of vegetation in eleven sites. Detrended Correspondence Analysis defined a group of common riparian species for the studied