Vallecillo Capilla, Manuel; Romero Olid, Maria Nuria; Olmedo Gaya, Maria Victoria; Reyes Botella, Candela; Bustos Ruiz, Vicente
Approximately 3% of malignant tumors originate in the oral cavity. The majority are squamous cell carcinomas, and a small percentage, malignant tumors of the salivary glands, lymphoreticular diseases, bone tumors, melanomas, sarcomas, malignant odontogenic tumors and metastases of tumors from other locations. The prognosis of these pathologies depends on the size, infiltration, and site of the lesion, the presence or absence of metastatic spread, and to a certain degree the differentiation of the tumor. The prognosis of an oral cancer remains generally negative, with 5-year survival figures below 50%, producing high rates of mortality and morbidity. To evaluate the influence of different variables on survival in an oral cancer population. Two-hundred and sixteen patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma were studied over a period of five years, evaluating 42 variables grouped into five data sections: personal, lesion, site, stage, and risk factors. Average survival was 2088 days, with a standard deviation of 98 days. The factors most associated with mortality were: location in the gingiva (p=0.0590), in the trigone (p=0.0104), size (T3-T4) (p=0.0004) and lymph node involvement (N2a-N2b) (p=0.0035). Tobacco and alcohol, nowadays considered to be highly significant in carcinogenesis, had no considerable influence on survival.
Guzman-Parra, Jose; Rivas, Fabio; Strohmaier, Jana; Forstner, Andreas; Streit, Fabian; Auburger, Georg; Propping, Peter; Orozco-Diaz, Guillermo; González, Maria José; Gil-Flores, Susana; Cabaleiro-Fabeiro, Francisco Javier; Del Río-Noriega, Francisco; Perez-Perez, Fermin; Haro-González, Jesus; de Diego-Otero, Yolanda; Romero-Sanchiz, Pablo; Moreno-Küstner, Berta; Cichon, Sven; Nöthen, Markus M; Rietschel, Marcella; Mayoral, Fermin
Here, we present the first description of the Andalusian Bipolar Family (ABiF) Study. This longitudinal investigation of families from Andalusia, Spain commenced in 1997 with the aim of elucidating the molecular genetic causes of bipolar affective disorder. The cohort has since contributed to a number of key genetic findings, as reported in international journals. However, insight into the genetic underpinnings of the disorder in these families remains limited. In the initial 1997-2003 study phase, 100 multiplex bipolar disorder and other mood disorder families were recruited. The ongoing second phase of the project commenced in 2013, and involves follow-up of a subgroup of the originally recruited families. The aim of the follow-up investigation is to generate: i) longitudinal clinical data; ii) results from detailed neuropsychological assessments; and iii) a more extensive collection of biomaterials for future molecular biological studies. The ABiF Study will thus generate a valuable resource for future investigations into the aetiology of bipolar affective disorder; in particular the causes of high disease loading within multiply affected families. We discuss the value of this approach in terms of new technologies for the identification of high-penetrance genetic factors. These new technologies include exome and whole genome sequencing, and the use of induced pluripotent stem cells or model organisms to determine functional consequences. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Velasco-Reynold, C; Navarro-Alarcon, M; López-Ga De La Serrana, H; Lopez-Martinez, M C
The copper content of 225 food, 49 beverage and twelve potable water samples were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Analyses of NIST and BCR reference materials demonstrated the accuracy of this technique. The highest copper levels were found in dried fruit and legumes, followed by organ meats, molluscs and crustaceans, cephalopods, cereals and sausages, respectively. In cereals, legumes and fruit, copper levels increased significantly with increasing levels of protein and decreasing carbohydrate content (p cheese were statistically higher than those determined in other dairy products (p Cereals, meat, meat by-products and vegetables are the food categories that are the main source of copper in the daily diet. Taking into account the dietary reference intakes and upper levels (900 and 10, 000 mug Cu day(-1) for healthy adults, respectively), the mean copper DDI found indicate that for most of healthy adult individuals from the area, no adverse effects occur in relation to copper nutrition (deficiency or toxicity). Potable waters supplied 53 mug day(-1), which constitutes on average 0.025% of the maximum tolerable daily intake of this element set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee.
Gil García, Eugenia; Ortiz Gómez, Teresa; Fernández Soto, María Luisa
To know the social profile of Andalusian urban adolescents and analyse the similarities and differences they have with those at risk of presenting with eating disorders. Cross-sectional community study. Stratified cluster sampling. Public and private education institutions in Andalusian cities with more than 100 000 inhabitants (Sevilla, Malaga, Granada, Cordoba, Cadiz, Huelva, Almeria, Jaen, Algeciras, and Jerez). Pupils from 12 to 16 years, attending an academic course in the year 2002-2003 (N=1667). To compare the results of the sample with adolescents who are at risk of presenting with eating disorders (those who scored more than 20 in the 26-item Eating Attitudes Test [EAT-26]) we used the chi2 test for the nominal variables and the Spearman rho for the interval variables, with a significance level of P=.05. There were no differences between either group as regards family structure, friend relationships, academic performance, and sporting activities. The differences centred on disciplinary practices, the number of friends diagnosed with an eating behavioural disorder, the objectives for practicing sports, and the type of diet that they followed. The subjects who scored highest on the EAT-26 were those who had a higher body mass index and a lower social status. It appears that diet changes are a response to certain social conditions. It would be speculative to include subjects who obtain high EAT-26 scores in the population at risk of anorexia.
Blanco-Aguilera, Antonio; Blanco-Aguilera, Elena; Serrano-del-Rosal, Rafael; Biedma-Velázquez, Lourdes; Rodríguez-Torronteras, Alejandro; Segura-Saint-Gerons, Rafael
Background The main objective of this paper is to analyze the prevalence of each of the different clinical subtypes of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in a sample of patients with this pathology. In addition, a second objective was to analyze their distribution according to gender. Material and Methods To this end, the results of 1603 patients who went to the Unit of Temporomandibular Disorders in the Córdoba Healthcare District because they suffered from this pathology were analyzed. In order to diagnose them, the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) were applied, analyzing the different Axis I subtypes (myopathy, discopathy and arthropathy) and obtaining the combined Axis I for each patient and the relation of all these variables according to gender. The null-hypothesis test confirmed the lack of connection between the gender variable and the different subtypes in the clinical analysis, and between the former and the combined Axis I of the RDC/TMD. Results The prevalence was high for the muscle disorders subtype in general, showing an 88.7% prevalence, while the presence of discopathies or arthropathies was much lower. Among discopathies, the most frequent ones were disc displacements with reduction, with 39.7% and 42.8% for the left and right temporomandibular joints (TMJ), respectively, while the prevalence of arthropathies was 26.3% for the right TMJ and 32.9% for the left TMJ. The bivariate analysis on the connection with gender reveals a p≥ 0.05 value for the muscle and arthralgia subtypes. Conclusions The patients seen at the TMD Unit where mostly middle-aged women whose main clinical axis subtype was the muscle disorder subtype. For their part, both discopathies and arthropathies, although present, are much less prevalent. Key words:RDCTMD, axis I, orofacial pain, temporomandibular disorders, gender. PMID:26615508
Full Text Available Objectives: to provide up-to-date information and to analyze recent changes in colorectal cancer mortality trends in Andalusia during the period of 1980-2008 using joinpoint regression models. Patients and methods: age- and sex-specific colorectal cancer deaths were taken from the official vital statistics published by the Instituto de Estadística de Andalucía for the years 1980 to 2008. We computed age-specific rates for each 5-year age group and calendar year and age-standardized mortality rates per 100,000 men and women. A joinpoint regression analysis was used for trend analysis of standardized rates. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to identify the years when a significant change in the linear slope of the temporal trend occurred. The best fitting points (the "joinpoints" are chosen where the rate significantly changes. Results: mortality from colorectal cancer in Andalusia during the period studied has increased, from 277 deaths in 1980 to 1,227 in 2008 in men, and from 333 to 805 deaths in women. Adjusted overall colorectal cancer mortality rates increased from 7.7 to 17.0 deaths per 100,000 person-years in men and from 6.6 to 9.0 per 100,000 person-years in women Changes in mortality did not evolve similarly for men and women. Age-specific CRC mortality rates are lower in women than in men, which imply that women reach comparable levels of colorectal cancer mortality at higher ages than men. Conclusions: sex differences for colorectal cancer mortality have been widening in the last decade in Andalusia. In spite of the decreasing trends in age-adjusted mortality rates in women, incidence rates and the absolute numbers of deaths are still increasing, largely because of the aging of the population. Consequently, colorectal cancer still has a large impact on health care services, and this impact will continue to increase for many more years.
Francisco Ramos Calvo
Full Text Available The Regional Ministry of Education of the Autonomous Government of Andalusia, an autonomous community in the South of Spain, has established several bilingual programs to improve language proficiency of its student population. The programs, which undertake second languages as vehicular languages at the classroom, encourage student’s bilingualism, academic development and positive attitudes toward other groups. The following paper examines opinions given by a group of students enrolled in an Andalusian bilingual program about those matters. Students had different positive opinions on bilingualism as well as the program in general; however, they had some doubts over the intellectual and cognitive benefits of learning languages.
Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia; March Cerdà, Joan Carles; Ramos Montserrat, M Jose; Ballesta Gómez, Rosario; Prieto Rodríguez, María Angeles
The study of the health condition of the populations under confinement in penitentiaries is based on the evidence of a more deteriorated health than the general population and a greater degree of social exclusion, which is associated with worse general health. This study is aimed at ascertaining how the inmates of an Andalusian penitentiary perceive their health condition and the use made thereby of the healthcare services, as well as the factors associated with those variables. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. The data was collected with a questionnaire. The sample size was 450 inmates, 90.4% of whom were males. Seventy-two percent of those taking part in the study considered their health to be good or very good, 32.7% stating having seen the doctor once a month or more often. A total 43.1% of the participants stated having chronic illnesses, mainly HIV (19.1%) and hepatitis C (18.2%); 40.9% stating that they take medication. Worse health was perceived among the older inmates, those who have to serve longer than a five-year sentence, those who are repeat offenders and those not having pending trials. Those perceiving their health to have deteriorated over the past year have chronic illnesses and take medication. The regression model for the use of healthcare services shows that they are used to a greater extent by those who are serving a longer than a 5-year sentence, those who have been in prison for less than a year and those who take medication. The results show the importance of increasing the monitoring of possible addictive disorders upon entering prison and of the trend and treatment of chronic diseases.
Herrador Cordoba, M.; Garcia Rotllan, J.
In Andalusia the contributions of radiological risks in the nuclear industry and of natural radiation are small and the same holds for medical applications of individuals and research. The performance models in radiation protection is monitored by the Andalusian Health Service through the public health institutions. This short communication describes the model and results obtained
Dorado, J; Acha, D; Ortiz, I; Gálvez, M J; Carrasco, J J; Gómez-Arrones, V; Calero-Carretero, R; Hidalgo, M
The main aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two commercially available liquid stallion semen extenders for the preservation of Andalusian donkey semen at 5°C for up to 72h, and to evaluate the effect of amino acid addition on sperm quality of cooled donkey semen. In addition, this study investigated the effect of seasons on semen characteristics of Andalusian jackasses. Throughout a year, 50 ejaculates were collected from ten adult donkeys and a complete semen evaluation was performed immediately after collection. In Experiment 1, semen samples (n=32) were pooled, divided into two aliquots, and cooled in either Gent(®) A or INRA 96(®). In Experiment 2, pooled semen samples (n=9) were cooled in Gent A(®) supplemented with 0 (as control), 20, 40, or 60mM for each glutamine, proline, or taurine. Fresh semen and chilled samples were assessed for sperm motility, morphology, acrosome integrity, and plasma membrane integrity. Sperm motility variables were greater (P<0.05) in Gent(®) A than in INRA 96(®). The presence of glutamine, proline, or taurine in Gent(®) A improved (P<0.001) the motility of Andalusian donkey spermatozoa. Differences (P<0.05) in some sperm variables were observed among seasons. In conclusion, Gent(®) A maintained sperm motility characteristics after 72h of cold storage to a greater extent than INRA 96(®). Moreover, motility was greater when Gent(®) A supplemented at different concentrations of amino acids than Gent(®) A with no supplementation. An effect of seasons on the semen quality of the Andalusian donkey was demonstrated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Meyer, Ilan H.; Wilson, Patrick A.
Sampling has been the single most influential component of conducting research with lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. Poor sampling designs can result in biased results that will mislead other researchers, policymakers, and practitioners. Investigators wishing to study LGB populations must therefore devote significant energy and…
Liu, J; Jiang, J M
The genetic diversity and spatial autocorrelation of Toona ciliata populations were analyzed with eight microsatellite markers to determine an appropriate sampling strategy for the effective conservation of natural T. ciliata populations. The average number of alleles and effective number of alleles were 6.1 and 2.7, respectively. The mean expected heterozygosity was 0.6006. Overall, 96.6% of the genetic variation existed in two natural populations, which was concluded from the coefficient of genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.1854). Therefore, two natural populations were selected for conservation and sampling. The mean effective number of alleles and expected heterozygosity increased with increasing sample number. The mean expected heterozygosity tended to be stable when the sampling number exceeded 30. The maximum value of expected heterozygosity was 0.4770 when the sampling number was 45. Therefore, 45 sampled individuals were sufficient for conservation and sampling. Similarity relationships existed between individuals within 240 m. There were marked differences among individuals over 240 m away. The distance between individuals exceeded 240 m when natural populations were sampled.
William E. Wallner; Clive G. Jones; Joseph S. Elkinton; Bruce L. Parker
The techniques and methodology for sampling gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., at low densities, less than 100 egg masses/ha (EM/ha), are compared. Forest managers have constraints of time and cost, and need a useful, simple predictable means to assist them in sampling gypsy moth populations. A comparison of various techniques coupled with results of...
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.
This manual for home economics teachers contains eight sample lessons on health issues related to population growth. Among the topics treated are nutrition, family health, communicable diseases, causes of high mortality, and community health services. Lessons are designed for lower primary through high school students. A scope and sequence chart…
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.
This mathematics teacher's manual contains ten sample lessons on population growth and demography that were adapted from materials produced in several countries in Asia and Oceania. Among the mathematics concepts and skills students apply during these lessons are set theory, cardinal and ordinal numbers, frequency tallies, percentages, ratios,…
Martin-Gimenez, T; de Blas, I; Aguilera-Tejero, E; Diez de Castro, E; Aguirre-Pascasio, C N
Equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) can be diagnosed by hormonal measurements; however, it would be important to find simpler measurements that allow easy identification of affected or at risk individuals. In horses, the dorsal neck region is one of the most frequent anatomical sites for fat deposition and neck obesity has been linked to EMS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of hormonal markers of obesity (leptin) and insulin resistance (insulin) with morphometric and ultrasonographic neck measurements in Andalusian horses. Plasma leptin and insulin concentrations were measured by RIA in 127 Andalusian horses. Neck circumferences (NC) were measured at 3 equidistant locations at 25%, 50%, and 75% of neck length (NC-25%, NC-50%, and NC-75%). At the same 3 locations, subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT-25%, SFT-50%, and SFT-75%) was measured ultrasonographically. In the population under study, a tendency to adiposity was confirmed by the elevated plasma leptin levels (7.47 ± 5.03 ng/mL). However, plasma insulin concentrations (4.05 ± 3.74 μIU/mL) were within normal range in most horses. Our results indicate that NC showed significant sexual dimorphism and did not correlate well with hormonal measurements. Ultrasonographic assessment of fat thickness at the base of the neck (SFT-75%) was significantly correlated with both plasma leptin and insulin and did not show differences between males and females. Thus, in the search for a single objective parameter which can be used in large populations, SFT-75% is a potential candidate and may be a meaningful parameter to predict EMS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær
-based studies differs from researcher-collected data, all persons in a population are available and traditional statistical analyses focusing on sampling error as the main source of uncertainty may not be relevant. We present the main strengths and limitations of register-based studies, biases especially......Studies based on databases, medical records and registers are used extensively today in epidemiological research. Despite the increasing use, no developed methodological literature on use and evaluation of population-based registers is available, even though data collection in register...... information may be unavailable, data collection is not done by the researcher, confounder information is lacking, missing information on data quality, truncation at start of follow-up making it difficult to differentiate between prevalent and incident cases and the risk of data dredging. We conclude...
Current estimators of gene flow come in two methods; those that estimate parameters assuming that the populations investigated are a small random sample of a large number of populations and those that assume that all populations were sampled. Maximum likelihood or Bayesian approaches that estimate the migration rates and population sizes directly using coalescent theory can easily accommodate datasets that contain a population that has no data, a so-called 'ghost' population. This manipulation allows us to explore the effects of missing populations on the estimation of population sizes and migration rates between two specific populations. The biases of the inferred population parameters depend on the magnitude of the migration rate from the unknown populations. The effects on the population sizes are larger than the effects on the migration rates. The more immigrants from the unknown populations that are arriving in the sample populations the larger the estimated population sizes. Taking into account a ghost population improves or at least does not harm the estimation of population sizes. Estimates of the scaled migration rate M (migration rate per generation divided by the mutation rate per generation) are fairly robust as long as migration rates from the unknown populations are not huge. The inclusion of a ghost population does not improve the estimation of the migration rate M; when the migration rates are estimated as the number of immigrants Nm then a ghost population improves the estimates because of its effect on population size estimation. It seems that for 'real world' analyses one should carefully choose which populations to sample, but there is no need to sample every population in the neighbourhood of a population of interest.
P Farias Batlle
Full Text Available Introduction. This article analyses the coverage of the Andalusian elections campaign of 25 March, 2012, by the Andalusian editions of three Spanish national newspapers: Abc, El Mundo and El País. Objectives.To determine the similarities and differences in the treatment given to the electionsby thesenewspapers;to establish the degree of convergence between the agenda of these newspapers and the agenda of the contending parties; to characterise the presence of the political leaders; and to identify the predominant frames. Methods.Content analysis focused on sixteen items related to the location, production features and content of the 497 electionnews items published by the sample of newspapers. Conclusions.There wasa predominance of regional issues in the coverage of the elections campaign; there was a low presence of interpretive and analytical elements; and there was a predominance of strategic and game frames in the coverage of the elections campaign.
Acha, D; Hidalgo, M; Ortiz, I; Gálvez, M J; Carrasco, J J; Gómez-Arrones, V; Dorado, J
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two semen extenders and four permeating cryoprotectants on post-thaw sperm quality of Andalusian donkeys. First, 32 ejaculates were pooled, split and frozen in either Gent B or INRA 96 with egg yolk and glycerol. Second, 12 pooled semen samples were simultaneously frozen in Gent B (glycerol) or Gent A containing ethylene glycol (EG; 1 or 1.5%) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; 1.5 or 2%). Finally, nine pooled samples were simultaneously cryopreserved in Gent A containing 1% EG (as control), dimethylformamide (DMFA; 1 or 2.5%) or a combination of 1% EG and 1.5% DMFA. Gent B yielded a higher (P<0.01) post-thaw sperm motility than modified INRA96. EG 1% increased the sperm membrane integrity (P<0.001), whereas DMSO affected sperm motility and membrane integrity (P<0.001). DMFA 2.5% yielded higher (P<0.001) values for sperm motility and membrane integrity. We concluded that Gent B improves in vitro post-thaw sperm quality of donkey spermatozoa, but the replacement of glycerol with 1% EG or 2.5% DMFA increased sperm protection against cryodamage. The use of DMSO for freezing donkey semen was unsuccessful and a toxic effect is suspected. These extenders should be included in the pre-freeze test for each donkey.
David C. Bowden; Gary C. White; Alan B. Franklin; Joseph L. Ganey
Finite population sampling theory is useful in estimating total population size (abundance) from abundance estimates of each sampled unit (quadrat). We develop estimators that allow correlated quadrat abundance estimates, even for quadrats in different sampling strata. Correlated quadrat abundance estimates based on markârecapture or distance sampling methods occur...
Rosa Jordá Borrel
Full Text Available This article will be centered in the way of evolving flow of the exterior trade between Andalusia and Morocco, and the strategies of the economic Andalusian agents to penetrate within the Morocco market taking advantage of the growing demand and the low prices of labor, all of these without forgetting that the free exchange zone started in 1996, and is too early to make a deep analysis of this matter. Secondly, we want to measure the level of participation of the Andalusian Autonomous Community to build infrastructure (ports, electric stations, thermoelectric, airports, telecommunications, health and equipping local, regional and national Moroccan communities, due to it constitutes another way to penetrate in the Andalusian market, and can be considered another way of Andalusia sharing in the development process of the Moroccan free trade zone, since it is twice inserted in said process as a region of the European Union and as a door of Europe.
Sánchez-Álvarez, Juan C; Ramos-Lizana, Julio; Machado-Casas, Irene S; Serrano-Castro, Pedro J; Martínez-Antón, Jacinto L; Ruiz-Giménez, Jesús
The aim of this study was to draw up a set of recommendations based on scientific evidence and in agreement with authors and reviewers, which address fundamental issues concerning the combination of antiepileptic drugs. A committee of 11 experts belonging to the Sociedad Andaluza de Epilepsia (SAdE--Andalusian Epilepsy Society), of whom seven were neurologists, three were neuropaediatricians and one was a neurologist-neurophysiologist, all of them with long experience in epilepsy, promoted a comprehensive literature review among 55 experts in epilepsy who were members of the SAdE, with the aim of searching for any evidence that might be available on diagnostic or therapeutic matters in epilepsy. The guidelines were set out in 35 chapters. One of the chapters addressed the combination of antiepileptic drugs in the treatment of epilepsy. Taking 77 bibliographical references and the consensus view of authors and reviewers as their starting point, a set of easily applicable recommendations were drawn up. Combining antiepileptic drugs in patients with epilepsy whose seizures are not controlled with a single drug can, on many occasions, result in their going back into remission. There are a series of factors related with the type of epilepsy and characteristics of the patient and with the antiepileptic drugs to be used in combination that may favour a successful therapeutic outcome. Over-treatment with the combination of antiepileptic drugs must be avoided as far as possible. The results of this review provide a set of recommendations regarding combined treatment with antiepileptic drugs, based on scientific evidence and the agreement of authors, that are simple, useful and easy to apply at the different levels of healthcare.
JC Suárez Villegas
Full Text Available Introduction. This research article analyses the positions of Andalusian journalists in relation to especially sensitive issues. Methods. The study combines qualitative and quantitative techniques: in-depth interviews and a questionnaire-based survey, respectively. Results. The professional work of Andalusian journalists is based more on the predominant values of their communities than on the deontological codes of the profession, which are unknown by the vast majority. Conclusions. Journalists exhibit a liberal spirit, which is characteristic of a secular society, and believe that the freedom of expression should be respected when dealing with especially sensitive issues, which must be resolved according to the particular circumstances of each case.
Ogungbenro, Kayode; Aarons, Leon
This paper describes an approach for optimising sampling windows for population pharmacokinetic experiments. Sampling windows designs are more practical in late phase drug development where patients are enrolled in many centres and in out-patient clinic settings. Collection of samples under the uncontrolled environment at these centres at fixed times may be problematic and can result in uninformative data. Population pharmacokinetic sampling windows design provides an opportunity to control when samples are collected by allowing some flexibility and yet provide satisfactory parameter estimation. This approach uses information obtained from previous experiments about the model and parameter estimates to optimise sampling windows for population pharmacokinetic experiments within a space of admissible sampling windows sequences. The optimisation is based on a continuous design and in addition to sampling windows the structure of the population design in terms of the proportion of subjects in elementary designs, number of elementary designs in the population design and number of sampling windows per elementary design is also optimised. The results obtained showed that optimal sampling windows designs obtained using this approach are very efficient for estimating population PK parameters and provide greater flexibility in terms of when samples are collected. The results obtained also showed that the generalized equivalence theorem holds for this approach.
Line-transect sampling was used to obtain abundance estimates of an Ant-eating Chat Myrmecocichla formicivora population to compare these with the true size of the population. The population size was determined by a long-term banding study, and abundance estimates were obtained by surveying line transects.
Andrew R. Whiteley; Jason A. Coombs; Mark Hudy; Zachary Robinson; Keith H. Nislow; Benjamin H. Letcher
The influence of sampling strategy on estimates of effective population size (Ne) from single-sample genetic methods has not been rigorously examined, though these methods are increasingly used. For headwater salmonids, spatially close kin association among age-0 individuals suggests that sampling strategy (number of individuals and location from...
Segovia, N.; Olguin, M.E.; Romero, M.
The present work, attempts to establish the statistical distribution of blood uranium in a population of the same community, similar in age and in living patterns. U traces were evaluated by a fission track technique both in whole blood and plasma samples. Dried samples were compressed into pellets and irradiated in a nuclear reactor using the external detector method. For U quantification, standard U samples were used. A comparative sampling of U content in blood samples from a group of radiation exposed workers and another of leukemia patients was also carried out. Results from the sampling groups are reported and discussed. (author)
Reliable measures of population sizes of endangered and vulnerable species are difficult to achieve because of high variability in population sizes and logistic constraints on sample sizes, yet such measures are crucial for the determination of the success of conservation and management strategies aimed at curbing ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Today many large mammals live in small, fragmented populations, but it is often unclear whether this subdivision is the result of long-term or recent events. Demographic modeling using genetic data can estimate changes in long-term population sizes while temporal sampling provides a way to compare genetic variation present today with that sampled in the past. In order to better understand the dynamics associated with the divergences of great ape populations, these analytical approaches were applied to western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla and in particular to the isolated and Critically Endangered Cross River gorilla subspecies (G. g. diehli. Results We used microsatellite genotypes from museum specimens and contemporary samples of Cross River gorillas to infer both the long-term and recent population history. We find that Cross River gorillas diverged from the ancestral western gorilla population ~17,800 years ago (95% HDI: 760, 63,245 years. However, gene flow ceased only ~420 years ago (95% HDI: 200, 16,256 years, followed by a bottleneck beginning ~320 years ago (95% HDI: 200, 2,825 years that caused a 60-fold decrease in the effective population size of Cross River gorillas. Direct comparison of heterozygosity estimates from museum and contemporary samples suggests a loss of genetic variation over the last 100 years. Conclusions The composite history of western gorillas could plausibly be explained by climatic oscillations inducing environmental changes in western equatorial Africa that would have allowed gorilla populations to expand over time but ultimately isolate the Cross River gorillas, which thereafter exhibited a dramatic population size reduction. The recent decrease in the Cross River population is accordingly most likely attributable to increasing anthropogenic pressure over the last several hundred years. Isolation of diverging populations with prolonged concomitant gene flow, but not secondary admixture, appears
Four methods (light traps, foliage samples, canvas bands, and gypsy moth egg mass surveys) that are used to study the population dynamics of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera were compared for 10 species, including gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. Samples were collected weekly at 12 sit...
Mena Guerrero, Yolanda; Ligero, Montserrat; Ruiz, F. A.; Nahed, J.; Castel Genís, José María; Acosta, J. M.; Guzmán, José Luis
Organic goat production is poorly developed in Spain. Conventional dairy goat production systems located in Andalusian mountainous areas greatly depend on pasturing which implies that its transformation to organic model is not difficult. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the viability of organic dairy goat farms –as compared to conventional–, and to study the possibilities of transitioning from conventional to organic goat production. This study was carried out in 2006 in...
Sollmann, Rachel; Beth Gardner,; Richard B Chandler,; Royle, J. Andrew; T Scott Sillett,
Modeling population dynamics while accounting for imperfect detection is essential to monitoring programs. Distance sampling allows estimating population size while accounting for imperfect detection, but existing methods do not allow for direct estimation of demographic parameters. We develop a model that uses temporal correlation in abundance arising from underlying population dynamics to estimate demographic parameters from repeated distance sampling surveys. Using a simulation study motivated by designing a monitoring program for island scrub-jays (Aphelocoma insularis), we investigated the power of this model to detect population trends. We generated temporally autocorrelated abundance and distance sampling data over six surveys, using population rates of change of 0.95 and 0.90. We fit the data generating Markovian model and a mis-specified model with a log-linear time effect on abundance, and derived post hoc trend estimates from a model estimating abundance for each survey separately. We performed these analyses for varying number of survey points. Power to detect population changes was consistently greater under the Markov model than under the alternatives, particularly for reduced numbers of survey points. The model can readily be extended to more complex demographic processes than considered in our simulations. This novel framework can be widely adopted for wildlife population monitoring.
Lindh, Markus V; Sjöstedt, Johanna; Andersson, Anders F; Baltar, Federico; Hugerth, Luisa W; Lundin, Daniel; Muthusamy, Saraladevi; Legrand, Catherine; Pinhassi, Jarone
Multiyear comparisons of bacterioplankton succession reveal that environmental conditions drive community shifts with repeatable patterns between years. However, corresponding insight into bacterioplankton dynamics at a temporal resolution relevant for detailed examination of variation and characteristics of specific populations within years is essentially lacking. During 1 year, we collected 46 samples in the Baltic Sea for assessing bacterial community composition by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing (nearly twice weekly during productive season). Beta-diversity analysis showed distinct clustering of samples, attributable to seemingly synchronous temporal transitions among populations (populations defined by 97% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity). A wide spectrum of bacterioplankton dynamics was evident, where divergent temporal patterns resulted both from pronounced differences in relative abundance and presence/absence of populations. Rates of change in relative abundance calculated for individual populations ranged from 0.23 to 1.79 day(-1) . Populations that were persistently dominant, transiently abundant or generally rare were found in several major bacterial groups, implying evolution has favoured a similar variety of life strategies within these groups. These findings suggest that high temporal resolution sampling allows constraining the timescales and frequencies at which distinct populations transition between being abundant or rare, thus potentially providing clues about physical, chemical or biological forcing on bacterioplankton community structure. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Toy, A.J.; Lindeken, C.L.
The environmental radioactivity surrounding the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) is typically log-normally distributed. The geometric standard deviation of radioactivity in all types of samples (air, water, soil, sewage, and vegetation) is about two. Hypothesis testing was done using the mean geometric standard deviation of these samples. Parametric studies demonstrated the effect of the number of background samples, the magnitude of tolerable errors, the variability of the sample population, and the precision of the analysis on the detectability of differences from natural and global fallout radioactivity. It was decided to accept an error probability of 50 percent that the analysis would show a sample to be different from background when, in fact, it was not, and an error probability of 5 percent that the analysis would show a sample to be background, when in fact, it was not. For these assumptions, an analysis must differ from background by a factor of 1.6 to indicate a statistical difference, and a sample must contain radioactivity a factor of 8.6 different from background to be 95 percent detectable with 50 percent confidence. The difference in the mean of two such populations which is 95 percent detectable with 50 percent confidence is 2.8 if six samples are taken from each population. Applications in monitoring 239 Pu diffusion are described. (CH)
Toy, A.J.; Lindeken, C.L.
The environmental radioactivity surrounding the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory is typically log-normally distributed. The geometric standard deviation of radioactivity in all types of samples--air, water, soil, sewage, and vegetation--is about two. Hypothesis testing was done using the mean geometric standard deviation of these samples. Parametric studies demonstrated the effect of the number of background samples, the magnitude of tolerable errors, the variability of the sample population, and the precision of the analysis on the detectability of differences from natural and global fallout radioactivity. It was decided to accept an error probability of 50 percent that the analysis would show a sample to be different from background when, in fact, it was not, and an error probability of 5 percent that the analysis would show a sample to be background, when in fact, it was not. For these assumptions, an analysis must differ from background by a factor of 1.6 to indicate a statistical difference, and a sample must contain radioactivity a factor of 8.6 different from background to be 95 percent detectable with 50 percent confidence. The difference in the mean of two such populations which is 95 percent detectable with 50 percent confidence is 2.8 if six samples are taken from each population
Villegas Sánchez, R.
Full Text Available SUMMARY In this work we study the weathering resistance of samples of five types of stone used in Andalusian Cathedrals, treated with six water repellent products, by subjecting the samples to a SO2 polluted atmosphere.
To evaluate the alteration of the samples, besides visual observation of macroscopic aspect, changes in weight and the quantity of sulfate that remains on the surface have been measured. Also properties related with water have been measured after the test to determine if there have been any changes in the hydrophobic characteristics.
En el presente artículo se estudia el comportamiento de muestras de cinco tipos de piedra utilizados en catedrales andaluzas, tratadas con seis productos hidrófugos, sometiéndolas a un ensayo acelerado de alteración en atmósfera contaminada con SO2 . Para evaluar la alteración, además de la observación visual de las manifestaciones macroscópicas, se ha medido la variación de peso de las muestras expuestas y la cantidad de sulfato que permanece en la superficie tras el ensayo. Así mismo, se han detectado los cambios experimentados en las propiedades hidrófugas conferidas por los tratamientos, mediante la medida de propiedades relacionadas con el movimiento del agua.
Olga Moreno Fernández
Full Text Available Society and Education seem closer ties in recent decades due to various social factors that are now changing the world order and the emerging new educational approaches for this century. Changes that make us reflect on the need to address citizenship not center don the local, but addressing a broader spectrum, forming a planetary citizenship review relevant, participatory, dialogical, holistic and equitable where every living being and play a key role. This planetary citizenship must be approached from the school with the intention that perceptible changes in the social fabric. Conclusions lead us to consider the need for education for a "global citizenship" or "global citizenship" as a challenge to address. This research aims to provide information and ideas on the importance of educational programs that promote citizen participation in our students have the skills to promote active citizenship derived. On the other hand, is a first approach to some of the educational programs offered from different Andalusian (Spain government and incorporated into the educational context in school. The results for educational programs “Eco-School”, “Youth Parliament” and “Sure you move” from the point of view of the student presents particular. As we set goals detecting conceptions of the sample with respect to the study topics that concern us as well as check if education for planetary citizenship is present in these programs. Data collection, which has its focus on a qualitative methodology, was carried out from open-ended questionnaire, semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Data were subsequently treated with analysis software Atlas.ti (version 6.2. Processing and analysis have finalized how these educational programs encourage student participation in their daily lives and in the community where they live, and the vision of "planetary citizenship" they have and their ability to relate local issues relevant to global problems. And is
Kebza, V.; Kodl, M.; Šolcová, Iva; Kernová, V.
Roč. 47, Suppl. 1 (2012), s. 414-414 ISSN 0020-7594. [International Congress of Psychology /30./. 22.07.2012-27.07.2012, Cape Town] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2410 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : well-being * Czech population sample * determinants Subject RIV: AN - Psychology
Susete do Rocio Chiarello Penteado
Full Text Available The woodwasp Sirex noctilio Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Siricidae was introduced in Brazil in 1988 and became the main pest in pine plantations. It has spread to about 1.000.000 ha, at different population levels, in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo and Minas Gerais. Control is done mainly by using a nematode, Deladenus siricidicola Bedding (Nematoda: Neothylenchidae. The evaluation of the efficiency of natural enemies has been difficult because there are no appropriate sampling systems. This study tested a hierarchical sampling system to define the sample size to monitor the S. noctilio population and the efficiency of their natural enemies, which was found to be perfectly adequate.
Jacob, C J; Cardoso, I M; Batista, J L J; Maia, T C; Roncaglio, B
The morphology of the spine is variable within a population, and its maintenance in appropriate values implies a decrease in the energy expended. We need to know their normal values in population. This study aims to carry out a literature review and evaluate published papers on spinopelvic parameters in a Brazilian population sample. Eleven potentially eligible papers were initially identified for inclusion in this review: three papers from PubMed and eight from Medicine. Out of these, only five papers contained methodology and relevant significance level, and therefore, they were included in the final analytical run. According to a Brazilian study, Pratali mentions no significant difference in the average values of spinopelvic balance in the Brazilian population and those found in the literature; there was also no significant difference comparing Brazilian and Korean population; however, a difference was found in comparison with European population regarding PI parameters and SS, but the latter with higher values. According to Kulcheski (Column/Columna 12:224-227, 2013), the values of pelvic tilt in the Brazilian population evaluated in his research were 19° (10°-35°) and the sacral inclination was 38° (30°-55°), presenting similar values concerning the European population. In another Brazilian paper, Oliveira (Rev Bras Ort 49:189-193, 2014) reports that the research population had PI average of 45° (41.9°-48.1°). The values obtained are relatively minor when compared to the European population. However, all of these are within the normal margin considered in the worldwide literature.
José Javier Romero Díaz de la Guardia
Full Text Available This research work has been conducted within the teacher training plan known as “Escuela TIC 2.0”, implemented by the Spanish Junta de Andalucía. The main aim is to obtain objective data regarding training needs for teachers in the autonomous region of Andalusia in terms of educational digital content authoring. To that end, we carried out a descriptive survey study on Andalusian teachers participating in teacher training courses on e-learning strategies that took place during the 2011- 2012 academic year.
Full Text Available We investigate disproportionate stratified sampling as a possibly efficient method of surveying members of a rare domain in circumstances in which there is no acceptable list of members. In this work, we assume that information is available at the sampling stage to stratify the general-population sampling frame into high- and low-density strata. Under a fixed constraint on the variance of the estimator of the domain mean, we make the optimum allocation of sample size to the several strata and show that, in comparison to proportional allocation, the optimum allocation requires (a a smaller total sample size but (b a larger number of interviews of members of the rare domain. We illustrate the methods using information about American consumers maintained by market-research companies. Such companies are able to develop lists of households that are thought to have a defined attribute of interest, such as at least one resident in a user-specified age range. The lists are imperfect, with false positives and negatives. We apply an age-targeted list to the National Immunization Survey (NIS, conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which targets the relatively rare population of children age 19–35 months. The age-targeted list comprises the high-density stratum and the rest of the survey’s sampling frame comprises the low-density stratum. Given the optimum allocation, we demonstrate potential cost savings for the NIS in excess of ten percent.
Petersen, Kristina S; Johnson, Claire; Mohan, Sailesh; Rogers, Kris; Shivashankar, Roopa; Thout, Sudhir Raj; Gupta, Priti; He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A; Webster, Jacqui; Santos, Joseph Alvin; Krishnan, Anand; Maulik, Pallab K; Reddy, K Srinath; Gupta, Ruby; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Neal, Bruce
To compare estimates of mean population salt intake in North and South India derived from spot urine samples versus 24-h urine collections. In a cross-sectional survey, participants were sampled from slum, urban and rural communities in North and in South India. Participants provided 24-h urine collections, and random morning spot urine samples. Salt intake was estimated from the spot urine samples using a series of established estimating equations. Salt intake data from the 24-h urine collections and spot urine equations were weighted to provide estimates of salt intake for Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh. A total of 957 individuals provided a complete 24-h urine collection and a spot urine sample. Weighted mean salt intake based on the 24-h urine collection, was 8.59 (95% confidence interval 7.73-9.45) and 9.46 g/day (8.95-9.96) in Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh, respectively. Corresponding estimates based on the Tanaka equation [9.04 (8.63-9.45) and 9.79 g/day (9.62-9.96) for Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh, respectively], the Mage equation [8.80 (7.67-9.94) and 10.19 g/day (95% CI 9.59-10.79)], the INTERSALT equation [7.99 (7.61-8.37) and 8.64 g/day (8.04-9.23)] and the INTERSALT equation with potassium [8.13 (7.74-8.52) and 8.81 g/day (8.16-9.46)] were all within 1 g/day of the estimate based upon 24-h collections. For the Toft equation, estimates were 1-2 g/day higher [9.94 (9.24-10.64) and 10.69 g/day (9.44-11.93)] and for the Kawasaki equation they were 3-4 g/day higher [12.14 (11.30-12.97) and 13.64 g/day (13.15-14.12)]. In urban and rural areas in North and South India, most spot urine-based equations provided reasonable estimates of mean population salt intake. Equations that did not provide good estimates may have failed because specimen collection was not aligned with the original method.
Jyväkorpi, S K; Pitkälä, K H; Puranen, T M; Björkman, M P; Kautiainen, H; Strandberg, T E; Soini, H; Suominen, M H
Malnutrition is associated with comorbidities and functional decline among older people. Less is known about nutrient intakes across heterogeneous older populations. We examined nutritional status and nutrient intakes in different samples of older people representing broad spectrum of healthy and frail populations. We evaluated adequacy of their energy, protein and micronutrient intakes in comparison to recommendations. Cross-sectional study combined five datasets: home-dwelling older people participating in nutrition education and cooking classes (NC) [n=54], participants from Helsinki Businessmen Study [n=68], home-dwelling people with Alzheimer disease (AD) [n=99] and their spousal caregivers (n=97), participants from Porvoo Sarcopenia and Nutrition Trial (n=208), and residents of Helsinki assisted living facilities (ALF) [n=374]. Nutritional status was assessed using Mini Nutritional Assessment and nutrient intakes retrieved from 1 to 3 day food records. Those suffering most from mobility limitation and cognitive decline had the poorest nutritional status (pnutrition interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dell'Osso, Liliana; Abelli, Marianna; Carpita, Barbara; Massimetti, Gabriele; Pini, Stefano; Rivetti, Luigi; Gorrasi, Federica; Tognetti, Rosalba; Ricca, Valdo; Carmassi, Claudia
To investigate frequency and characteristics of orthorexic behaviours in a large university population. A total of 2826 individuals volunteered to complete an on-line anonymous form of ORTO-15 questionnaire, a self-administered questionnaire designed and validated to evaluate orthorexic symptomatology. As made in previous studies, an ORTO-15 total score lower than 35 has been used as an optimal threshold to detect a tendency to orthorexia nervosa. A specifically designed form was also used to collect socio-demographic variables. Overall, 2130 students and 696 university employees belonging to University of Pisa (Italy) were assessed. Orthorexic features had a frequency of 32.7%. Females showed a significantly higher rate of over-threshold scores on ORTO-15, a lower BMI, a higher rate of underweight condition and of vegan/vegetarian nutrition style than males. Orthorexia nervosa defined as a “fixation on healthy food”, is not formally present in DSM-5. The emergence of this condition as a new, possible prodromal of a psychological syndrome, has been recently emphasized by an increasing number of scientific articles. From our sample of university population emerged that being vegetarian or vegan, under-weight, female, student and being interested in the present study were significantly predictive of orthorexic tendency. Our data contribute to define the new conceptualization of orthorexia nervosa. Further studies are warranted in order to explore the diagnostic boundaries of this syndrome, its course and outcome, and possible clinical implications.
Julio Cabero Almenara
Full Text Available This article provides the results of the analysis of "best practices" of thirty teachers of different Andalusian Universities. For the collection of data we have been used three instruments: biogram, individualized interviews and observation of materials. These teachers have a positive attitude towards e-learning, working in groups and carry more than 2 years teaching with (together the face to face. They consider this training as a high help to students because of the high volume of available material, application flexibility, the possibility of consultation and the treatment is more personal. Moreover, these teachers pointed out the amount of time and effort required for the preparation and updating of materials, and also here poor training for teaching and educational use, that is remedied by themselves. The materials used are is adecuated in the technical, teaching and in the communication way.
Arizón, J M; Lage, E; Castillo, J C; López-Granados, A; Sobrino, M; Segura, C; Menjibar, V
This is the first official report of the Andalusian Registry of Heart Transplantation. Since 1986, two centers in the community have been authorized to perform adult heart transplantation. Until 2010, 854 adult heart transplantation procedures were performed, which constitute the basis of the present report. Clinical features and survival are analyzed. The leading reason for heart transplantation was ischemic cardiomyopathy (34%) and nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (34%). The mean age of the recipients was 46 ± 16 years and the mean age of the donors was 29 ± 13 years. After a median follow-up of 106 months, the mean survival was 13.4 ± 0.6 years. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chiara de Waure
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This article describes methodological issues of the "Sportello Salute Giovani" project ("Youth Health Information Desk", a multicenter study aimed at assessing the health status and attitudes and behaviours of university students in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The questionnaire used to carry out the study was adapted from the Italian health behaviours in school-aged children (HBSC project and consisted of 93 items addressing: demographics; nutritional habits and status; physical activity; lifestyles; reproductive and preconception health; health and satisfaction of life; attitudes and behaviours toward academic study and new technologies. The questionnaire was administered to a pool of 12 000 students from 18 to 30 years of age who voluntary decided to participate during classes held at different Italian faculties or at the three "Sportello Salute Giovani" centers which were established in the three sites of the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (Catholic University of the Sacred Heart of Rome. RESULTS: The final study sample was composed by 8516 university students. The mean age of responders was 22.2 (Standard Deviation 2.0 and 5702 (67.0% were females. According to the distribution in age classes, 3601 (43.3% belonged to the 18-21 one, 3796 (44.5% to the 22-24 class and 1019 (12.2% to the 25-30 class. With respect to socio-economic status, data were available for 8410 responders and showed that 50.3% of students belonged to the middle class. DISCUSSION: The project took into consideration a large number of individuals from different regions of the country and therefore may be considered representative of the general population of Italian university students. Furthermore, it is the first to address, at the same time, several issues, in particular attitudes and behaviours toward health, in Italian university students. CONCLUSION: The analysis of data from such a large sample of university students sets the basis for
Full Text Available Jose Luis López-Campos,1,2 Maria Abad Arranz,1 Carmen Calero-Acuña,1,2 Fernando Romero-Valero,3 Ruth Ayerbe-García,4 Antonio Hidalgo-Molina,3 Ricardo I Aguilar-Pérez-Grovas,4 Francisco García-Gil,5 Francisco Casas-Maldonado,6 Laura Caballero-Ballesteros,5 María Sánchez-Palop,6 Dolores Pérez-Tejero,7 Alejandro Segado Soriano,7 Jose Calvo-Bonachera,8 Bárbara Hernández-Sierra,8 Adolfo Doménech,9 Macarena Arroyo-Varela,9 Francisco González-Vargas,10 Juan J Cruz-Rueda10 1Unidad Médico-Quirúrgica de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla (IBiS, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío/Universidad de Sevilla, Seville, 2CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, 3Sección de Neumología, Hospital Puerta del Mar, Cádiz, 4Servicio de Neumología, Hospital Juan Ramón Jiménez, Huelva, 5Servicio de Neumología, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía, Córdoba, 6Servicio de Neumología, Hospital Universitario San Cecilio, Granada, 7Sección de Neumología, Hospital Infanta Margarita, Cabra, Córdoba, 8Servicio de Neumología, Hospital Torrecárdenas, Almería, 9Servicio de Neumología, Hospital Regional Universitario de Málaga, Málaga, 10Servicio de Neumología, Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves, Granada, Spain Objectives: Clinical practice in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD can be influenced by weather variability throughout the year. To explore the hypothesis of seasonal variability in clinical practice, the present study analyzes the results of the 2013–2014 Andalusian COPD audit with regard to changes in clinical practice according to the different seasons.Methods: The Andalusian COPD audit was a pilot clinical project conducted from October 2013 to September 2014 in outpatient respiratory clinics of hospitals in Andalusia, Spain (8 provinces with more than 8 million inhabitants with retrospective data gathering. For the present analysis
Background: The choice of the size of artificial teeth takes an important place in the removable prosthodontic treatment. However, the standards or proportions commonly used as a guide have been developed mainly on Caucasian populations. Objectives: to investigate the relationship between intercanthal distance and the ...
Full Text Available Five types of stone used in Andalusian Cathedrals have been treated with different water-repellent treatments, to evaluate the effects of this products. The stones studied are limestone, calcarenite and dolomite; the products applied are organosilicones and acrylics.
In this work properties related with water access and movement through the stone have been measured and compared their values before and after the application of the treatments.
Se han tratado varios tipos de piedra utilizados en Catedrales Andaluzas con diversos productos hidrófugos, con el fin de evaluar las características conferidas por los mismos. Los tipos de piedra son de naturaleza caliza, calcarenitas y dolomías; los productos son organosilícicos y acrílicos. En este trabajo se han medido las propiedades relacionadas con el acceso y movimiento de agua en la piedra, comparándose sus valores antes y después de la aplicación del tratamiento.
Emilio J. Gallardo-Saborido
Full Text Available Culture, particularly cinema, drama and music, played a key role in order to keep and reinforce the identity of Spanish migrants in Argentina and Mexico during the first part of the 20th century. For decades, these countries had received thousands of migrants from Spain, and by the period following the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939 a notable colony of them settled in Buenos Aires and Mexico City. At the same time, several artists arrived to these places escaping from the war, political repression or, simply, looking for new work opportunities. For instance, famous singers, actors and flamenco players and dancers (v.g. Miguel de Molina, Angelillo, Niño de Utrera, or Sabicas achieved overwhelming successes in Buenos Aires and Mexico City’s theatres. Even more, they created a parallel Spanish stardom abroad. Hence, this proposal summarizes the contribution of some of these artists and the fusion between theatre and cinema, and typical Andalusian music as flamenco to preserve and evoke the collective memory of such a faraway motherland. Since Andalusia (the Southern region of Spain and its culture acted as a metonymic resource to represent that country during that period, migrants from different regions could recognize a common notion of the Spanish identity in them. In this sense, ‘home’ could be staged, remembered, fictionalized and, obviously, idealized.
Bill, Anthony; Henderson, Sally; Penman, John
Two test items that examined high school students' beliefs of sample size for large populations using the context of opinion polls conducted prior to national and state elections were developed. A trial of the two items with 21 male and 33 female Year 9 students examined their naive understanding of sample size: over half of students chose a…
Amer Ibrahim Al-Omari; Loai Mahmoud Al-Zubi; Ahmad Khazaleh
In this article, quartile double ranked set sampling (QDRSS) method is considered for estimating the population median. The sample median based on QDRSS is suggested as an estimator of the population median. The QDRSS is compared with the simple random sampling (SRS), ranked set sampling (RSS) and quartile ranked set sampling (QRSS) methods. A real data set is used for illustration. It turns out that, for the symmetric distributions considered in this study, the QDRSS estimators are unbiased ...
Abdulraqeb Abdullah Saeed, Gamil; Muhammad, Noryanti; Zun Liang, Chuan; Yusoff, Wan Nur Syahidah Wan; Zuki Salleh, Mohd
Today, many studies use the nonparametric methods for estimating objects abundance, for the simplicity, the parametric methods are widely used by biometricians. This paper is designed to present the proposed model for estimating of population abundance using line transect technique. The proposed model is appealing because it is strictly monotonically decreasing with perpendicular distance and it satisfies the shoulder conditions. The statistical properties and inference of the proposed model are discussed. In the presented detection function, theoretically, the proposed model is satisfied the line transect assumption, that leads us to study the performance of this model. We use this model as a reference for the future research of density estimation. In this paper we also study the assumption of the detection function and introduce the corresponding model in order to apply the simulation in future work.
Rettenberger, Martin; Briken, Peer; Turner, Daniel; Eher, Reinhard
The present study examines recidivism rates in sexual offenders using officially registered reconvictions in a representative data set of N = 1,115 male sexual offenders from Austria. In general, results indicate that most sexual offenders do not reoffend sexually after release from prison. More detailed, within the first 5 years after release, the sexual recidivism rate was 6% for the total sample, 4% for the rapist subgroup, and 8% for the child molester subgroup. The findings confirmed previous studies about sex offender recidivism which have shown that first-time sexual offenders are significantly less likely to sexually reoffend than those with previous sexual convictions. With regard to the relationship between age and sexual recidivism, the results challenged the traditional assumption of a clear linear function between age and recidivism. Taken together, compared with previous studies, the recidivism rates found in the present investigation are substantially lower than previous research has indicated. © The Author(s) 2014.
Dorado, J; Acha, D; Gálvez, M J; Ortiz, I; Carrasco, J J; Díaz, B; Gómez-Arrones, V; Calero-Carretero, R; Hidalgo, M
The aims of this study were to (1) identify sperm subpopulations with specific motion characteristics in fresh Andalusian donkey ejaculates; (2) evaluate the effects of individual donkey and ejaculates within the same donkey on the distribution of the subpopulations found; and (3) explore the relationship between the age and the body weight of donkey donors, the sperm quality parameters, and the sperm subpopulations structure. Sixty ejaculates from 12 Andalusian donkeys (five ejaculates per donkey), ranging in age from 4 to 15 years, were collected. Immediately after collection, sperm characteristics (volume, sperm concentration, objective sperm motility, and sperm morphology) were assessed. Donkeys were evaluated for body weight. Significant (P 0.05). A multivariate clustering procedure separated 65,342 motile spermatozoa into four subpopulations: subpopulation 1, consisting of slow and nonprogressive spermatozoa (15.4%), subpopulation 2, consisting of moderately slow but progressive spermatozoa (35.9%), subpopulation 3, consisting of highly active but nonprogressive spermatozoa (18.5%), and subpopulation 4, consisting of highly active and progressive spermatozoa (30.2%). The distribution of these subpopulations varied significantly (P < 0.05) according to several parameters such as the individual donkey, the ejaculate of the same donkey, the total motility, and the overall sperm concentration. Our results show the existence of four well-defined motile sperm subpopulations in Andalusian donkey ejaculates, and suggest a high heterogeneity in the ejaculate structure in donkey. The relationship between the distribution of the sperm subpopulations and individual donkey, total motility, and sperm concentration shows that the spermatozoa of each have different motility patterns. However, the proportions of sperm subpopulations in the ejaculates did not vary with age and body weight. Finally, the study of discrete subpopulations of motile spermatozoa could lead to a
Fearon, Elizabeth; Chabata, Sungai T; Thompson, Jennifer A; Cowan, Frances M; Hargreaves, James R
While guidance exists for obtaining population size estimates using multiplier methods with respondent-driven sampling surveys, we lack specific guidance for making sample size decisions. To guide the design of multiplier method population size estimation studies using respondent-driven sampling surveys to reduce the random error around the estimate obtained. The population size estimate is obtained by dividing the number of individuals receiving a service or the number of unique objects distributed (M) by the proportion of individuals in a representative survey who report receipt of the service or object (P). We have developed an approach to sample size calculation, interpreting methods to estimate the variance around estimates obtained using multiplier methods in conjunction with research into design effects and respondent-driven sampling. We describe an application to estimate the number of female sex workers in Harare, Zimbabwe. There is high variance in estimates. Random error around the size estimate reflects uncertainty from M and P, particularly when the estimate of P in the respondent-driven sampling survey is low. As expected, sample size requirements are higher when the design effect of the survey is assumed to be greater. We suggest a method for investigating the effects of sample size on the precision of a population size estimate obtained using multipler methods and respondent-driven sampling. Uncertainty in the size estimate is high, particularly when P is small, so balancing against other potential sources of bias, we advise researchers to consider longer service attendance reference periods and to distribute more unique objects, which is likely to result in a higher estimate of P in the respondent-driven sampling survey. ©Elizabeth Fearon, Sungai T Chabata, Jennifer A Thompson, Frances M Cowan, James R Hargreaves. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 14.09.2017.
Álvarez Francoso, Jose; Prieto Campos, Antonio; Ojeda Zujar, Jose; Guisado-Pintado, Emilia; Pérez Alcántara, Juan Pedro
The accessibility to environmental information via web viewers using map services (OGC or proprietary services) has become more frequent since newly information sources (ortophotos, LIDAR, GPS) are of great detailed and thus generate a great volume of data which barely can be disseminated using either analogue (paper maps) or digital (pdf) formats. Moreover, governments and public institutions are concerned about the need of facilitates provision to research results and improve communication about natural hazards to citizens and stakeholders. This information ultimately, if adequately disseminated, it's crucial in decision making processes, risk management approaches and could help to increase social awareness related to environmental issues (particularly climate change impacts). To overcome this issue, two strategies for wide dissemination and communication of the results achieved in the calculation of beach erosion for the 640 km length of the Andalusian coast (South Spain) using web viewer technology are presented. Each of them are oriented to different end users and thus based on different methodologies. Erosion rates has been calculated at 50m intervals for different periods (1956-1977-2001-2011) as part of a National Research Project based on the spasialisation and web-access of coastal vulnerability indicators for Andalusian region. The 1st proposal generates WMS services (following OGC standards) that are made available by Geoserver, using a geoviewer client developed through Leaflet. This viewer is designed to be used by the general public (citizens, politics, etc) by combining a set of tools that give access to related documents (pdfs), visualisation tools (panoramio pictures, geo-localisation with GPS) are which are displayed within an user-friendly interface. Further, the use of WMS services (implemented on Geoserver) provides a detailed semiology (arrows and proportional symbols, using alongshore coastaline buffers to represent data) which not only
Mahmoud I. Syam; Kamarulzaman Ibrahim; Amer I. Al-Omari
Stratified double extreme ranked set sampling (SDERSS) method is introduced and considered for estimating the population mean. The SDERSS is compared with the simple random sampling (SRS), stratified ranked set sampling (SRSS) and stratified simple set sampling (SSRS). It is shown that the SDERSS estimator is an unbiased of the population mean and more efficient than the estimators using SRS, SRSS and SSRS when the underlying distribution of the variable of interest is sy...
Icart, M Teresa; Pulpon, Anna M; Icart, Carmen; Rigol, Assumpta; Martín Cardizales, Ruth; García Andrade, Rosa
The authors identify possible psychological mistreatment and symptoms of anxiety and depression in a sample of women who were attended to in the "Sant Josep" Primary Health Care Center in L'Hospitalet de Llobregat in Barcelona Province between February and June 2005 by means of an observational, descriptive and transversal study with a consecutive study of women older than 18 who were attended to by nurses for whatever health problem they had or who filed administrative paperwork. Data was obtained through the use of a self-administering questionnaire on which these items were recorded: social-health variables, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and questions elaborated ad hoc in order to identify mistreatment. More than half of the study participants complied with the criteria used to indicate symptoms of anxiety and depression, which recommended a follow-up session. The authors observed an association between depression and mistreatment. Part of the results of this study were presented in The 1st World Congress on Gender-Specific Medicine in February 2006 in Berlin. Financial Sources: The School of Nursing at the University of Barcelona (PREU12004/10) and the Catalan Institute for Women (U-39/05).
Thevenow-Harrison, Jordan T; Kalish, Charles W
What do children learn from biased samples? Most samples people encounter are biased in some way, and responses to bias can distinguish among different theories of inductive inference. A sample of 67 4- to 8-year-old children learned to make conditional predictions about a set of sample items. They then made predictions about the properties of new instances or old instances from the training set. The experiment compared unbiased and biased sampling. Given unbiased samples, participants used what they learned to make predictions about population and sample instances. With biased samples, children were less accurate/confident about inferences about the population than about the sample. Children used information in a biased sample to make predictions about items in that sample, but they were less likely to generalize to new items than when samples were unbiased. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A new sampling procedure is introduced for estimating a population proportion. The procedure combines the ideas of inverse binomial sampling and Bernoulli sampling. An unbiased estimator is given with its variance. The procedure can be viewed as a generalization of inverse binomial sampling
Van der Swaelmen, M.; Hill, V.; Primas, F.; Cole, A. A.
favour of an episode of enhanced star formation a few Gyr ago, occurring in the central parts of the LMC and leading to the formation of the bar. This is in agreement with recently derived star formation histories. Proposals 072.B-0293(B) and 078.B-0323(A), P.I. Vanessa Hill.Full Tables 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and abundances tables for the LMC bar and disc samples are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://188.8.131.52) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/560/A44Table 11 is also available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
Merli, M. Giovanna; Moody, James; Smith, Jeffrey; Li, Jing; Weir, Sharon; Chen, Xiangsheng
We explore the network coverage of a sample of female sex workers (FSWs) in China recruited through Respondent Drive Sampling (RDS) as part of an effort to evaluate the claim of RDS of population representation with empirical data. We take advantage of unique information on the social networks of FSWs obtained from two overlapping studies --RDS and a venue-based sampling approach (PLACE) -- and use an exponential random graph modeling (ERGM) framework from local networks to construct a likely network from which our observed RDS sample is drawn. We then run recruitment chains over this simulated network to assess the assumption that the RDS chain referral process samples participants in proportion to their degree and the extent to which RDS satisfactorily covers certain parts of the network. We find evidence that, contrary to assumptions, RDS oversamples low degree nodes and geographically central areas of the network. Unlike previous evaluations of RDS which have explored the performance of RDS sampling chains on a non-hidden population, or the performance of simulated chains over previously mapped realistic social networks, our study provides a robust, empirically grounded evaluation of the performance of RDS chains on a real-world hidden population. PMID:24834869
Spreen, M.; Bogaerts, S.
Link-tracing designs are often used to estimate the size of hidden populations by utilizing the relational links between their members. A major problem in studies of hidden populations is the lack of a convenient sampling frame. The most frequently applied design in studies of hidden populations is
Coroiu, A.; Kwakkenbos, C.M.C.; Moran, C.; Thombs, B.D.; Albani, C.; Bourkas, S.; Zenger, M.; Brahler, E.; Körner, A.
Background: Published validation studies have reported different factor structures for the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS). The objective of this study was to assess the factor structure of the SCS in a large general population sample representative of the German population. Methods: A German population
Full Text Available Background: Literature underline that attachment styles can be considered as an important factor that facilitates exploration of the self and environment, and influences individual’s thoughts, feelings and behavior, above all during adolescence. The purposes of the present study were the following: to investigate the relation between parenting, alexithymia and adult attachment styles; to measure the predictive variables of the adult attachment-related anxiety and avoidance, and the predictors of the level of alexithymia. Method: The participants were 217 students, of which: a group of 97 Andalusian academic students (44.7%, aged between 18 and 29 (M = 19.47; SD = 2.23; a group of 120 students from Sicilian academic students (55.3%, aged between 18 and 23 (M = 18.85; SD = 1.11. The participants were assigned to complete the following questionnaires: the Parental Bonding Instrument, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and the Experience in Close Relationships. Results: Findings suggest that there are differences between Italy and Spain in adult attachment styles: in particular, Italian students appeared to manifest a higher tendency to use the avoidance style than Spanish ones, which manifested a higher level of anxiety. Furthermore, belonging to the Andalusian culture, and above all, having an elevated perception of the paternal and maternal overprotection could represent possible predictive variables to the general level of alexithymia. Conclusions: The results of this study support the research hypothesis that alexithymia is associated with the perceived parental bonding and attachment style.
Gómez Martínez, M Eugenia; Pastor Moreno, Guadalupe; Pérez Corral, Olivia; Iriarte de Los Santos, M Teresa; Mena Jiménez, Ángel Luis; Escudero Espinosa, M Cecilia; García Romera, Inmaculada; Blanco García, Martín Germán; Martín Barato, Amelia
To discover good practices for inhabitant participation in the clinical management units (CMUs) of the Andalusian Health Service (AHS) (Spain) and to explore the reasons perceived by CMU and AHS professionals that may influence the presence and distribution of those good practices among the CMU. Study with mixed methodology carried out in Andalusia (Spain) in two phases (2013-2015). Firstly, an online survey was delivered to the Directors of the CMUs which had set up an inhabitant participation commission. In a second phase, a qualitative study was carried out through semi-structured interviews with professionals from the Andalusian Health Service with previous experience in inhabitant participation. A descriptive analysis of the quantitative information and a semantic content analysis of the qualitative information were carried out. 530 CMUs took part in the survey. The inhabitant participation practices more often implemented in the CMUs are those related to the informing and consultation levels. Twelve professionals were interviewed in the second phase. Other practices with higher inhabitant involvement and delegation are secondary. The barriers which were identified by professionals are related to the beliefs and attitudes of the inhabitants, the professionals, the health system and the environment. The main practices for inhabitant participation in the CMUs are related to the most basic levels of participation. The method and dynamics which facilitate inhabitant empowerment within the health system are not clearly recognised. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Amer Ibrahim Al-Omari
Full Text Available In this article, quartile double ranked set sampling (QDRSS method is considered for estimating the population median. The sample median based on QDRSS is suggested as an estimator of the population median. The QDRSS is compared with the simple random sampling (SRS, ranked set sampling (RSS and quartile ranked set sampling (QRSS methods. A real data set is used for illustration. It turns out that, for the symmetric distributions considered in this study, the QDRSS estimators are unbiased of the population median and are more than their counterparts using SRS, RSS and QRSS based on the same sample number of measured units. For asymmetric distributions, QDRSS is biased and it is more efficient than SRS, QRSS for all sample size m while it is more efficient than RSS if m>4 .
Fellers, Gary M.; Kleeman, Patrick M.; Miller, David A.W.; Halstead, Brian J.
Estimating population trends provides valuable information for resource managers, but monitoring programs face trade-offs between the quality and quantity of information gained and the number of sites surveyed. We compared the effectiveness of monitoring techniques for estimating population trends of Rana draytonii (California Red-legged Frog) at Point Reyes National Seashore, California, USA, over a 13-yr period. Our primary goals were to: 1) estimate trends for a focal pond at Point Reyes National Seashore, and 2) evaluate whether egg mass counts could reliably estimate an index of abundance relative to more-intensive capture–mark–recapture methods. Capture–mark–recapture (CMR) surveys of males indicated a stable population from 2005 to 2009, despite low annual apparent survival (26.3%). Egg mass counts from 2000 to 2012 indicated that despite some large fluctuations, the breeding female population was generally stable or increasing, with annual abundance varying between 26 and 130 individuals. Minor modifications to egg mass counts, such as marking egg masses, can allow estimation of egg mass detection probabilities necessary to convert counts to abundance estimates, even when closure of egg mass abundance cannot be assumed within a breeding season. High egg mass detection probabilities (mean per-survey detection probability = 0.98 [0.89–0.99]) indicate that egg mass surveys can be an efficient and reliable method for monitoring population trends of federally threatened R. draytonii. Combining egg mass surveys to estimate trends at many sites with CMR methods to evaluate factors affecting adult survival at focal populations is likely a profitable path forward to enhance understanding and conservation of R. draytonii.
Dorado, J; Acha, D; Ortiz, I; Gálvez, M J; Carrasco, J J; Díaz, B; Gómez-Arrones, V; Calero-Carretero, R; Hidalgo, M
Sperm quality has an important role in determining fertility. The aims of this study were to compare the conventional sperm parameters, plus the characteristics of the motility patterns of the different sperm subpopulations, of donkey donors with different fertility level, and to determine their relationships to fertility. Thirty ejaculates from 6 Andalusian donkeys were assessed for gel-free volume, pH, sperm concentration, motility and morphology. The fertility of donkeys was classified on the basis of pregnancy rates per cycle, where donkeys with a per cycle pregnancy rate ≥60% were considered to be "fertile" (n=3) and those with a per cycle pregnancy rate <40% were categorized to be "sub-fertile" (n=3). Significant differences (P<0.001) between the "fertile" and the "sub-fertile" group were found for total and progressive motility, and for straight line velocity. Sperm variables associated (P<0.05) with an increase in percent pregnant per cycle included total motility (r=0.37), progressive motility (r=0.53), curvilinear velocity (r=0.44), straightness (r=0.39), beat cross frequency (r=0.44), and gel-free volume (r=0.53). Four sperm subpopulations (sP) were identified in fresh semen: sP1 (slow and non-progressive spermatozoa, 20%), sP2 (moderately slow but progressive spermatozoa, 71.2%), sP3 (highly active but non-progressive spermatozoa, 2.9%), and sP4 (highly active and progressive spermatozoa, 5.9%). The lowest percentage (3.1%; P<0.001) of sP4 spermatozoa was observed in the "sub-fertile" group. Three of the sperm subpopulations were related (P<0.05) to fertility (sP2, r=0.54; sP3, r=0.45; sP4, r=0.56). In conclusion, we were able to relate the fertility of donkeys with in vitro measures of sperm motility using computer-assisted sperm analysis techniques. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sharyn J Goldstien
Full Text Available Numerous studies have applied genetic tools to the identification of source populations and transport pathways for invasive species. However, there are many gaps in the knowledge obtained from such studies because comprehensive and meaningful spatial sampling to meet these goals is difficult to achieve. Sampling populations as they arrive at the border should fill the gaps in source population identification, but such an advance has not yet been achieved with genetic data. Here we use previously acquired genetic data to assign new incursions as they invade populations within New Zealand ports and marinas. We also investigated allelelic frequency change in these recently established populations over a two-year period, and assessed the effect of temporal genetic sampling on our ability to assign new incursions to their population of source. We observed shifts in the allele frequencies among populations, as well as the complete loss of some alleles and the addition of alleles novel to New Zealand, within these recently established populations. There was no significant level of genetic differentiation observed in our samples between years, and the use of these temporal data did alter the assignment probability of new incursions. Our study further suggests that new incursions can add genetic variation to the population in a single introduction event as the founders themselves are often more genetically diverse than theory initially predicted.
Karine Delevati Colpo
Full Text Available Abstract We examined how the sampling technique can affect the evaluation of Minuca vocator (Herbst, 1804 population structure. We used two sampling procedures: catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE and quadrat technique (QT. Body size, size-frequency distribution, population density, juvenile recruitment rates, proportion of ovigerous females and sex ratio were compared between the sampling procedures. QT allowed us to estimate and compare crab and burrow densities. CPUE sampled both adult crabs and the largest crabs more frequently, whereas QT recorded a greater proportion of smaller crabs. CPUE underestimated the size of M. vocator populations, while density estimates obtained with QT were accurate. The proportion of juveniles was higher with QT than with CPUE, suggesting that recruitment rates estimated by QT were more suitable. The sampling effort provided by CPUE was more efficient for obtaining ovigerous-dependent information than QT. Both sampling techniques showed a predominance of males in all three M. vocator populations. The population density estimation based on burrows overestimated the natural density of M. vocator in all mangroves. Our results suggest that neither CPUE nor QT individually were accurate sampling techniques, but together provided reliable assessments of fiddler crab populations.
Bell, David C; Erbaugh, Elizabeth B; Serrano, Tabitha; Dayton-Shotts, Cheryl A; Montoya, Isaac D
Both random walk and respondent-driven sampling (RDS) exploit social networks and may reduce biases introduced by earlier methods for sampling from hidden populations. Although RDS has become much more widely used by social researchers than random walk (RW), there has been little discussion of the tradeoffs in choosing RDS over RW. This paper compares experiences of implementing RW and RDS to recruit drug users to a network-based study in Houston, Texas. Both recruitment methods were implemented over comparable periods of time, with the same population, by the same research staff. RDS methods recruited more participants with less strain on staff. However, participants recruited through RW were more forthcoming than RDS participants in helping to recruit members of their social networks. Findings indicate that, dependent upon study goals, researchers' choice of design may influence participant recruitment, participant commitment, and impact on staff, factors that may in turn affect overall study success. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Veenstra, René; Ormel, Johan; Winter, Andrea F. de; Verhulst, Frank C.
Background: Depressive symptoms can be triggered by negative social experiences and individuals' processing of these experiences. This study focuses on the interaction between temperament, perceived parenting, and gender in relation to depressive problems in a Dutch population sample of
Jarmer, Hanne Østergaard; Christiansen, Freddy Bugge
Population samples including mother-offspring combinations provide information on the selection components: zygotic selection, sexual selection, gametic seletion and fecundity selection, on the mating pattern, and on the deviation from linkage equilibrium among the loci studied. The theory...
Micali, Nadia; Simonoff, Emily; Elberling, Hanne
There is still a lack of research on childhood eating patterns and their correlates in relation to psychopathology and parentally perceived impact in general population samples. We aimed to determine which eating patterns were more likely to be identified as problematic by parents, and their impact...... and association with childhood psychopathology (emotional, behavioral, and pervasive developmental disorders) in a general population child cohort....
Micali, Nadia; Simonoff, Emily; Elberling, Hanne
There is still a lack of research on childhood eating patterns and their correlates in relation to psychopathology and parentally perceived impact in general population samples. We aimed to determine which eating patterns were more likely to be identified as problematic by parents, and their impa...... and association with childhood psychopathology (emotional, behavioral, and pervasive developmental disorders) in a general population child cohort....
Rumpf, H.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Bischof, A.; Kastirke, N.; Gürtler, D.; Bischof, G.; Meerkerk, G.J.; John, U.; Meyer, C.
Background: Prevalence studies of Internet addiction in the general population are rare. In addition, a lack of approved criteria hampers estimation of its occurrence. Aims: This study conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) in a large general population sample to estimate prevalence. Methods: A
Sakhi, Amrit Kaur; Bastani, Nasser Ezzatkhah; Ellingjord-Dale, Merete; Gundersen, Thomas Erik; Blomhoff, Rune; Ursin, Giske
In large epidemiological studies it is often challenging to obtain biological samples. Self-sampling by study participants using dried blood spots (DBS) technique has been suggested to overcome this challenge. DBS is a type of biosampling where blood samples are obtained by a finger-prick lancet, blotted and dried on filter paper. However, the feasibility and efficacy of collecting DBS samples from study participants in large-scale epidemiological studies is not known. The aim of the present study was to test the feasibility and response rate of collecting self-sampled DBS and saliva samples in a population-based study of women above 50 years of age. We determined response proportions, number of phone calls to the study center with questions about sampling, and quality of the DBS. We recruited women through a study conducted within the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Invitations, instructions and materials were sent to 4,597 women. The data collection took place over a 3 month period in the spring of 2009. Response proportions for the collection of DBS and saliva samples were 71.0% (3,263) and 70.9% (3,258), respectively. We received 312 phone calls (7% of the 4,597 women) with questions regarding sampling. Of the 3,263 individuals that returned DBS cards, 3,038 (93.1%) had been packaged and shipped according to instructions. A total of 3,032 DBS samples were sufficient for at least one biomarker analysis (i.e. 92.9% of DBS samples received by the laboratory). 2,418 (74.1%) of the DBS cards received by the laboratory were filled with blood according to the instructions (i.e. 10 completely filled spots with up to 7 punches per spot for up to 70 separate analyses). To assess the quality of the samples, we selected and measured two biomarkers (carotenoids and vitamin D). The biomarker levels were consistent with previous reports. Collecting self-sampled DBS and saliva samples through the postal services provides a low cost, effective and feasible
Full Text Available Recent entomological surveys have shown a declining trend of malaria vector population in sub-Saharan Africa and the observation have beenassociated with the scale-up and intensive use of malaria intervention measures such as insecticides treated nets and insecticide residual sprays.However, little is known on the contribution of the mosquito sampling tools inefficiency on the declining trends of malaria vector population. Inthis commentary paper, we explore the possibility of contribution of mosquito sampling tools’ inefficiency to the observed declining trends ofmalaria vector population in Africa.
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculating Sample Size for NYTD Follow-Up Populations C Appendix C to Part 1356 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO TITLE IV-E Pt. 1356, App. C Appendix C to Part 1356—Calculating Sample Size for NYTD...
We propose semiparametric methods to estimate the center and shape of a symmetric population when a representative sample of the population is unavailable due to selection bias. We allow an arbitrary sample selection mechanism determined by the data collection procedure, and we do not impose any parametric form on the population distribution. Under this general framework, we construct a family of consistent estimators of the center that is robust to population model misspecification, and we identify the efficient member that reaches the minimum possible estimation variance. The asymptotic properties and finite sample performance of the estimation and inference procedures are illustrated through theoretical analysis and simulations. A data example is also provided to illustrate the usefulness of the methods in practice. © 2013 American Statistical Association.
Housila P. Singh
Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of estimating the finite population mean using auxiliary information in simple random sampling. Firstly we have suggested a correction to the mean squared error of the estimator proposed by Gupta and Shabbir [On improvement in estimating the population mean in simple random sampling. Jour. Appl. Statist. 35(5 (2008, pp. 559-566]. Later we have proposed a ratio type estimator and its properties are studied in simple random sampling. Numerically we have shown that the proposed class of estimators is more efficient than different known estimators including Gupta and Shabbir (2008 estimator.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bengal tiger Panthera tigris tigris the National Animal of India, is an endangered species. Estimating populations for such species is the main objective for designing conservation measures and for evaluating those that are already in place. Due to the tiger's cryptic and secretive behaviour, it is not possible to enumerate and monitor its populations through direct observations; instead indirect methods have always been used for studying tigers in the wild. DNA methods based on non-invasive sampling have not been attempted so far for tiger population studies in India. We describe here a pilot study using DNA extracted from faecal samples of tigers for the purpose of population estimation. Results In this study, PCR primers were developed based on tiger-specific variations in the mitochondrial cytochrome b for reliably identifying tiger faecal samples from those of sympatric carnivores. Microsatellite markers were developed for the identification of individual tigers with a sibling Probability of Identity of 0.005 that can distinguish even closely related individuals with 99.9% certainty. The effectiveness of using field-collected tiger faecal samples for DNA analysis was evaluated by sampling, identification and subsequently genotyping samples from two protected areas in southern India. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using tiger faecal matter as a potential source of DNA for population estimation of tigers in protected areas in India in addition to the methods currently in use.
Bhagavatula, Jyotsna; Singh, Lalji
Background Bengal tiger Panthera tigris tigris the National Animal of India, is an endangered species. Estimating populations for such species is the main objective for designing conservation measures and for evaluating those that are already in place. Due to the tiger's cryptic and secretive behaviour, it is not possible to enumerate and monitor its populations through direct observations; instead indirect methods have always been used for studying tigers in the wild. DNA methods based on non-invasive sampling have not been attempted so far for tiger population studies in India. We describe here a pilot study using DNA extracted from faecal samples of tigers for the purpose of population estimation. Results In this study, PCR primers were developed based on tiger-specific variations in the mitochondrial cytochrome b for reliably identifying tiger faecal samples from those of sympatric carnivores. Microsatellite markers were developed for the identification of individual tigers with a sibling Probability of Identity of 0.005 that can distinguish even closely related individuals with 99.9% certainty. The effectiveness of using field-collected tiger faecal samples for DNA analysis was evaluated by sampling, identification and subsequently genotyping samples from two protected areas in southern India. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using tiger faecal matter as a potential source of DNA for population estimation of tigers in protected areas in India in addition to the methods currently in use. PMID:17044939
Bhagavatula, Jyotsna; Singh, Lalji
Bengal tiger Panthera tigris tigris the National Animal of India, is an endangered species. Estimating populations for such species is the main objective for designing conservation measures and for evaluating those that are already in place. Due to the tiger's cryptic and secretive behaviour, it is not possible to enumerate and monitor its populations through direct observations; instead indirect methods have always been used for studying tigers in the wild. DNA methods based on non-invasive sampling have not been attempted so far for tiger population studies in India. We describe here a pilot study using DNA extracted from faecal samples of tigers for the purpose of population estimation. In this study, PCR primers were developed based on tiger-specific variations in the mitochondrial cytochrome b for reliably identifying tiger faecal samples from those of sympatric carnivores. Microsatellite markers were developed for the identification of individual tigers with a sibling Probability of Identity of 0.005 that can distinguish even closely related individuals with 99.9% certainty. The effectiveness of using field-collected tiger faecal samples for DNA analysis was evaluated by sampling, identification and subsequently genotyping samples from two protected areas in southern India. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using tiger faecal matter as a potential source of DNA for population estimation of tigers in protected areas in India in addition to the methods currently in use.
Full Text Available In practical utilization of stratified random sampling scheme, the investigator meets a problem to select a sample that maximizes the precision of a finite population mean under cost constraint. An allocation of sample size becomes complicated when more than one characteristic is observed from each selected unit in a sample. In many real life situations, a linear cost function of a sample size nh is not a good approximation to actual cost of sample survey when traveling cost between selected units in a stratum is significant. In this paper, sample allocation problem in multivariate stratified random sampling with proposed cost function is formulated in integer nonlinear multiobjective mathematical programming. A solution procedure is proposed using extended lexicographic goal programming approach. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the computational details and to compare the efficiency of proposed compromise allocation.
María Tatiana Gorjup
inmigrante argentino y utilizando como fuentes de información los grupos virtuales.Purpose: The objective of the article is to explore the possibilities offered by new technologies and virtual social networks for the recruitment of sampling units in hidden populations and as a support of the use of mixed methods.Design/methodology: The objective was to identify Argentinean entrepreneurs who start their business in Spain. The observation unit has the characteristics of a hidden population: 1 high geographic dispersion which makes it difficult to localize them; 2 underestimation of the size of Argentinean residents in the official statistics; 3 Argentinean residents in illegal situation; and, 4 in some cases, the factors that led the emigration were negative, making them reluctant to answer. In this context, the researchers used (1 an online virtual sampling and, (2 the traditional snowball sampling. The online virtual sampling was carried out by using a social network (Facebook through which 52 virtual groups of ‘Argentinean living in Spain’ were identified. Subsequently, each member was contacted by an individual message which explained the aim of the research and invited them to participate in the study. Findings: Through the development of this study, it was possible to prove that the use of virtual groups in social networks led to detect observation units that are not registered officially (administrative register, census, etc.. This finding contributed to increase the scope and size of the sample, it favoured the design of the qualitative sample and the triangulation of the results. Therefore, it increased the validity of the hidden population.Originality/value: The article presents an experience of application of virtual sampling and mixed methods in the study of hidden populations. In particular, it analysed Argentinean immigrant entrepreneurs by using virtual groups as a source of information.Purpose: The objective of the article is to explore the possibilities
Stallard, Nigel; Miller, Frank; Day, Simon; Hee, Siew Wan; Madan, Jason; Zohar, Sarah; Posch, Martin
The problem of choosing a sample size for a clinical trial is a very common one. In some settings, such as rare diseases or other small populations, the large sample sizes usually associated with the standard frequentist approach may be infeasible, suggesting that the sample size chosen should reflect the size of the population under consideration. Incorporation of the population size is possible in a decision-theoretic approach either explicitly by assuming that the population size is fixed and known, or implicitly through geometric discounting of the gain from future patients reflecting the expected population size. This paper develops such approaches. Building on previous work, an asymptotic expression is derived for the sample size for single and two-arm clinical trials in the general case of a clinical trial with a primary endpoint with a distribution of one parameter exponential family form that optimizes a utility function that quantifies the cost and gain per patient as a continuous function of this parameter. It is shown that as the size of the population, N, or expected size, N∗ in the case of geometric discounting, becomes large, the optimal trial size is O(N1/2) or O(N∗1/2). The sample size obtained from the asymptotic expression is also compared with the exact optimal sample size in examples with responses with Bernoulli and Poisson distributions, showing that the asymptotic approximations can also be reasonable in relatively small sample sizes. © 2016 The Author. Biometrical Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Rao, Amrita; Stahlman, Shauna; Hargreaves, James; Weir, Sharon; Edwards, Jessie; Rice, Brian; Kochelani, Duncan; Mavimbela, Mpumelelo; Baral, Stefan
In using regularly collected or existing surveillance data to characterize engagement in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services among marginalized populations, differences in sampling methods may produce different pictures of the target population and may therefore result in different priorities for response. The objective of this study was to use existing data to evaluate the sample distribution of eight studies of female sex workers (FSW) and men who have sex with men (MSM), who were recruited using different sampling approaches in two locations within Sub-Saharan Africa: Manzini, Swaziland and Yaoundé, Cameroon. MSM and FSW participants were recruited using either respondent-driven sampling (RDS) or venue-based snowball sampling. Recruitment took place between 2011 and 2016. Participants at each study site were administered a face-to-face survey to assess sociodemographics, along with the prevalence of self-reported HIV status, frequency of HIV testing, stigma, and other HIV-related characteristics. Crude and RDS-adjusted prevalence estimates were calculated. Crude prevalence estimates from the venue-based snowball samples were compared with the overlap of the RDS-adjusted prevalence estimates, between both FSW and MSM in Cameroon and Swaziland. RDS samples tended to be younger (MSM aged 18-21 years in Swaziland: 47.6% [139/310] in RDS vs 24.3% [42/173] in Snowball, in Cameroon: 47.9% [99/306] in RDS vs 20.1% [52/259] in Snowball; FSW aged 18-21 years in Swaziland 42.5% [82/325] in RDS vs 8.0% [20/249] in Snowball; in Cameroon 15.6% [75/576] in RDS vs 8.1% [25/306] in Snowball). They were less educated (MSM: primary school completed or less in Swaziland 42.6% [109/310] in RDS vs 4.0% [7/173] in Snowball, in Cameroon 46.2% [138/306] in RDS vs 14.3% [37/259] in Snowball; FSW: primary school completed or less in Swaziland 86.6% [281/325] in RDS vs 23.9% [59/247] in Snowball, in Cameroon 87.4% [520/576] in RDS vs 77.5% [238/307] in Snowball) than the snowball
Full Text Available For a family-based sample, the phenotypic variance-covariance matrix can be parameterized to include the variance of a polygenic effect that has then been estimated using a variance component analysis. However, with the advent of large-scale genomic data, the genetic relationship matrix (GRM can be estimated and can be utilized to parameterize the variance of a polygenic effect for population-based samples. Therefore narrow sense heritability, which is both population and trait specific, can be estimated with both population- and family-based samples. In this study we estimate heritability from both family-based and population-based samples, collected in Korea, and the heritability estimates from the pooled samples were, for height, 0.60; body mass index (BMI, 0.32; log-transformed triglycerides (log TG, 0.24; total cholesterol (TCHL, 0.30; high-density lipoprotein (HDL, 0.38; low-density lipoprotein (LDL, 0.29; systolic blood pressure (SBP, 0.23; and diastolic blood pressure (DBP, 0.24. Furthermore, we found differences in how heritability is estimated—in particular the amount of variance attributable to common environment in twins can be substantial—which indicates heritability estimates should be interpreted with caution.
Savage, Jeanne E; Salvatore, Jessica E; Aliev, Fazil; Edwards, Alexis C; Hickman, Matthew; Kendler, Kenneth S; Macleod, John; Latvala, Antti; Loukola, Anu; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rose, Richard J; Chan, Grace; Hesselbrock, Victor; Webb, Bradley T; Adkins, Amy; Bigdeli, Tim B; Riley, Brien P; Dick, Danielle M
Despite consistent evidence of the heritability of alcohol use disorders (AUDs), few specific genes with an etiological role have been identified. It is likely that AUDs are highly polygenic; however, the etiological pathways and genetic variants involved may differ between populations. The aim of this study was thus to evaluate whether aggregate genetic risk for AUDs differed between clinically ascertained and population-based epidemiological samples. Four independent samples were obtained: 2 from unselected birth cohorts (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children [ALSPAC], N = 4,304; FinnTwin12 [FT12], N = 1,135) and 2 from families densely affected with AUDs, identified from treatment-seeking patients (Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism, N = 2,097; Irish Affected Sib Pair Study of Alcohol Dependence, N = 706). AUD symptoms were assessed with clinical interviews, and participants of European ancestry were genotyped. Genomewide association was conducted separately in each sample, and the resulting association weights were used to create polygenic risk scores in each of the other samples (12 total discovery-validation pairs), and from meta-analyses within sample type. We then tested how well these aggregate genetic scores predicted AUD outcomes within and across sample types. Polygenic scores derived from 1 population-based sample (ALSPAC) significantly predicted AUD symptoms in another population-based sample (FT12), but not in either clinically ascertained sample. Trend-level associations (uncorrected p < 0.05) were found for polygenic score predictions within sample types but no or negative predictions across sample types. Polygenic scores accounted for 0 to 1% of the variance in AUD symptoms. Though preliminary, these results provide suggestive evidence of differences in the genetic etiology of AUDs based on sample characteristics such as treatment-seeking status, which may index other important clinical or demographic factors
Sevelius, Jae M.
Background. Transgender individuals have a gender identity that differs from the sex they were assigned at birth. The population size of transgender individuals in the United States is not well-known, in part because official records, including the US Census, do not include data on gender identity. Population surveys today more often collect transgender-inclusive gender-identity data, and secular trends in culture and the media have created a somewhat more favorable environment for transgender people. Objectives. To estimate the current population size of transgender individuals in the United States and evaluate any trend over time. Search methods. In June and July 2016, we searched PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Web of Science for national surveys, as well as “gray” literature, through an Internet search. We limited the search to 2006 through 2016. Selection criteria. We selected population-based surveys that used probability sampling and included self-reported transgender-identity data. Data collection and analysis. We used random-effects meta-analysis to pool eligible surveys and used meta-regression to address our hypothesis that the transgender population size estimate would increase over time. We used subsample and leave-one-out analysis to assess for bias. Main results. Our meta-regression model, based on 12 surveys covering 2007 to 2015, explained 62.5% of model heterogeneity, with a significant effect for each unit increase in survey year (F = 17.122; df = 1,10; b = 0.026%; P = .002). Extrapolating these results to 2016 suggested a current US population size of 390 adults per 100 000, or almost 1 million adults nationally. This estimate may be more indicative for younger adults, who represented more than 50% of the respondents in our analysis. Authors’ conclusions. Future national surveys are likely to observe higher numbers of transgender people. The large variety in questions used to ask
Ye, Xianming; Xia, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jiangfeng
Highlights: • A metering cost minimisation model is built with the lamp population decay to optimise CDM lighting projects sampling plan. • The model minimises the total metering cost and optimise the annual sample size during the crediting period. • The required 90/10 criterion sampling accuracy is satisfied for each CDM monitoring report. - Abstract: This paper proposes a metering cost minimisation model that minimises metering cost under the constraints of sampling accuracy requirement for clean development mechanism (CDM) energy efficiency (EE) lighting project. Usually small scale (SSC) CDM EE lighting projects expect a crediting period of 10 years given that the lighting population will decay as time goes by. The SSC CDM sampling guideline requires that the monitored key parameters for the carbon emission reduction quantification must satisfy the sampling accuracy of 90% confidence and 10% precision, known as the 90/10 criterion. For the existing registered CDM lighting projects, sample sizes are either decided by professional judgment or by rule-of-thumb without considering any optimisation. Lighting samples are randomly selected and their energy consumptions are monitored continuously by power meters. In this study, the sampling size determination problem is formulated as a metering cost minimisation model by incorporating a linear lighting decay model as given by the CDM guideline AMS-II.J. The 90/10 criterion is formulated as constraints to the metering cost minimisation problem. Optimal solutions to the problem minimise the metering cost whilst satisfying the 90/10 criterion for each reporting period. The proposed metering cost minimisation model is applicable to other CDM lighting projects with different population decay characteristics as well
Kebza, V.; Šolcová, Iva
Roč. 23, Suppl. 1 (2008), s. 158 ISSN 0887-0446 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA 700250701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : hardiness * Czech population sample * social support Subject RIV: AN - Psychology
Micali, Nadia; Simonoff, Emily; Elberling, Hanne
There is still a lack of research on childhood eating patterns and their correlates in relation to psychopathology and parentally perceived impact in general population samples. We aimed to determine which eating patterns were more likely to be identified as problematic by parents, and their impa...
Mammen, Sheila; Sano, Yoshie
Poverty is a significant problem in rural America. Gaining access to economically marginalized rural populations in order to recruit individuals to participate in a research study, however, is often a challenge. This article compares three different nonprobability sampling techniques that have been used to recruit rural, low-income…
Five hundred adults aged between 18 – 35 years were used for the study. The aim of this study was to provide a reference document for Nigerians on the distribution of phalangeal hair using a sample population of Yorubas resident in Ilorin and to assess the effect of job type, age and sex hair distribution. With the help of a ...
Šolcová, Iva; Kebza, V.
Roč. 47, č. 1 (2005), s. 17-21 ISSN 0039-3320 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : Czech entrepreneurs * self-reported health * stress-buffering factors * health behaviors * population sample Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.136, year: 2005
Salazar, Amy M.
Higher education is associated with substantial adult life benefits, including higher income and improved quality of life, among others. The current study compared adult outcomes of 250 foster care alumni college graduates with two samples of general population graduates to explore the role higher education plays in these young adults' lives.…
Summary: Five hundred adults aged between 18 – 35 years were used for the study. The aim of this study was to provide a reference document for Nigerians on the distribution of phalangeal hair using a sample population of. Yorubas resident in Ilorin and to assess the effect of job type, age and sex hair distribution.
Soler, Alain; Gaude, Jean-Marie; Marie-Alphonsine, Paul-Alex; Vinatier, Fabrice; Dole, Bernard; Govindin, Jean-Claude; Fournier, Patrick; Queneherve, Patrick
Symphylids (Hanseniella sp.) are polyphagous soilborne parasites. Today, symphylid populations on pineapple are monitored by observing root symptoms and the presence of symphylids at the bottom of basal leaves. The authors developed a reliable method with a bait and trap device to monitor symphylid populations in pineapple or fallow crops. The spatial distribution of the symphylid populations was evaluated using the variance/mean ratios and spatial analyses based on Moran's and Geary's indices. The method has been tested to monitor symphylid populations at different developmental stages of pineapple. Adding potato baits to the soil samples increased the trapping efficiency of symphylids when compared with 'soil only' and 'bait only' methods. The handling of the samples is also facilitated by the new device. Results showed that the vertical distribution of symphylids may be uniform deeply inside the soil profile under pineapple, up to 50 cm. Results showed that symphylid populations are highly aggregated, showing a spot area about 4-6 m wide for their development. The new method allows better and easier evaluation of symphylid populations. It may be very useful in the evaluation of new IPM methods to control symphylids under pineapple. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.
Sosanka Protim SANDILYA
Full Text Available Cattle milk is a rich source of protein, carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals and all other major and micro nutrients. At a moderate pH, milk is an excellent media for the growth of microbes and thus, intake of raw milk is precarious. In this study, attempt was made for a qualitative study of eight raw milk samples of different varieties of cow and goat milk, collected from Jorhat district of Assam, India, on the basis of nutritional value and microbial population. The highest microbial population was found in the milk collected from cross hybrid variety of cow, whereas microbial contamination was the least in Jersey cow milk. Samples of C1 (Jersey cow variety showed presence of the highest amount of protein and carbohydrate content as compared to the others. Almost all the milk samples showed positive acid and alkaline phosphatase activity. Maximum acid phosphatase activity was observed in cross hybrid cow milk, whereas local cow milk exhibited the highest alkaline phosphatase activity. Phosphatase activity did not show any co-relationship with microbial population of the milk samples. Similarly, the protein and carbohydrate content of the samples did not have any significant impact on both acid and alkaline phosphatase activity.
Meir-Gruber, Lital; Manor, Yossi; Gefen-Halevi, Shiraz; Hindiyeh, Musa Y; Mileguir, Fernando; Azar, Roberto; Smollan, Gill; Belausov, Natasha; Rahav, Galia; Shamiss, Ari; Mendelson, Ella; Keller, Nathan
The presence of pan-resistant bacteria worldwide possesses a threat to global health. It is difficult to evaluate the extent of carriage of resistant bacteria in the population. Sewage sampling is a possible way to monitor populations. We evaluated the presence of pan-resistant bacteria in Israeli sewage collected from all over Israel, by modifying the pour plate method for heterotrophic plate count technique using commercial selective agar plates. This method enables convenient and fast sewage sampling and detection. We found that sewage in Israel contains multiple pan-resistant bacteria including carbapenemase resistant Enterobacteriacae carrying blaKPC and blaNDM-1, MRSA and VRE. blaKPC carrying Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterobacter cloacae were the most common Enterobacteriacae drug resistant bacteria found in the sewage locations we sampled. Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter spp., Escherichia coli and Citrobacter spp. were the 4 main CRE isolated from Israeli sewage and also from clinical samples in our clinical microbiology laboratory. Hospitals and Community sewage had similar percentage of positive samplings for blaKPC and blaNDM-1. VRE was found to be more abundant in sewage in Israel than MRSA but there were more locations positive for MRSA and VRE bacteria in Hospital sewage than in the Community. Therefore, our upgrade of the pour plate method for heterotrophic plate count technique using commercial selective agar plates can be a useful tool for routine screening and monitoring of the population for pan-resistant bacteria using sewage.
Älgenäs, Cajsa; Tillmar, Andreas O
In this study, allele frequencies for 29 autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) and haplotype frequencies for 17 Y-chromosomal STRs of an Afghan population have been generated. Samples from 348 men and women originating from Afghanistan were analysed for the autosomal STRs, and the combined match probability was estimated to be 7.5 × 10(-37). One hundred and sixty-nine men were analysed for the Y-chromosomal STRs, which resulted in 132 different haplotypes and a haplotype diversity of 0.995.
Andersen, Mikkel Meyer; Mogensen, Helle Smidt; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Morling, Niels
The Yfiler Ⓡ Plus Amplification Kit amplifies 27 Y chromosomal small tandem repeat (STR) markers. The kit has five-fluorescent dye chemistry and the improved PCR buffer system of modern STR kits. We validated the kit for accredited investigations of crime scene samples by a thorough study of kit dynamics and performance. We determined dye-dependent analytical thresholds by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and made a customised artefact filter that includes theoretical known artefacts by use of previously analysed population samples. Dilution series of known male DNA and a selection of crime scene samples were analysed with the customised thresholds and artefact filters. The Yfiler Ⓡ Plus Amplification Kit was sensitive giving full profiles down to 70 pg of male DNA. The balances between the fluorescent dyes as well as between loci were very good. The kit was able to produce full Y-STR profiles from crime scene samples containing small amounts of male DNA and large amounts of female DNA (although unspecific reactions were evident for very unbalanced mixtures). A decrease in the drop-out rate was found for both the dilution series and population samples, as well as a small increase in the drop-in rate for population samples, using the customised threshold and artefact filters compared to company-provided thresholds and artefact filters. The additional drop-ins were all of a nature that would be detected by inspection of the results. For the crime scene samples, large amounts of female DNA complicated the analysis by causing drop-ins of characteristic female DNA artefacts. Even though the customised analytical threshold in combination with the custom-made artefact filters gave more alleles, crime scene samples still needed special attention from the forensic geneticist.
George Otieno Orwa
Full Text Available We propose a nonparametric regression approach to the estimation of a finite population total in model based frameworks in the case of stratified sampling. Similar work has been done, by Nadaraya and Watson (1964, Hansen et al (1983, and Breidt and Opsomer (2000. Our point of departure from these works is at selection of the sampling weights within every stratum, where we treat the individual strata as compact Abelian groups and demonstrate that the resulting proposed estimator is easier to compute. We also make use of mixed ratios but this time not in the contexts of simple random sampling or two stage cluster sampling, but in stratified sampling schemes, where a void still exists.
Tomas Mas, Carmen; Skitsa, I; Steinmeier, E
A population sample of 223 Greek individuals was typed for five sets of forensic genetic markers with the kits NGM SElect™, SNPforID 49plex, DIPplex(®), Argus X-12 and PowerPlex(®) Y23. No significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg expectations was observed for any of the studied markers after Holm......-Šidák correction. Statistically significant (PX-chromosome linkage groups. AMOVA analyses of the five sets of markers did not show population structure when the individuals were grouped according to their geographic...... origin. The Greek population grouped closely to the other European populations measured by FST(*) distances. The match probability ranged from a value of 1 in 2×10(7) males by using haplotype frequencies of four X-chromosome haplogroups in males to 1 in 1.73×10(21) individuals for 16 autosomal STRs....
Ogungbenro, Kayode; Aarons, Leon
This paper describes an approach for calculating sample size for population pharmacokinetic experiments that involve hypothesis testing based on multi-group comparison detecting the difference in parameters between groups under mixed-effects modelling. This approach extends what has been described for generalized linear models and nonlinear population pharmacokinetic models that involve only binary covariates to more complex nonlinear population pharmacokinetic models. The structural nonlinear model is linearized around the random effects to obtain the marginal model and the hypothesis testing involving model parameters is based on Wald's test. This approach provides an efficient and fast method for calculating sample size for hypothesis testing in population pharmacokinetic models. The approach can also handle different design problems such as unequal allocation of subjects to groups and unbalanced sampling times between and within groups. The results obtained following application to a one compartment intravenous bolus dose model that involved three different hypotheses under different scenarios showed good agreement between the power obtained from NONMEM simulations and nominal power. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Humm, J.; McCown, J. Walter; Scheick, B.K.; Clark, Joseph D.
We estimated abundance and density of the 5 major black bear (Ursus americanus) subpopulations (i.e., Eglin, Apalachicola, Osceola, Ocala-St. Johns, Big Cypress) in Florida, USA with spatially explicit capture-mark-recapture (SCR) by extracting DNA from hair samples collected at barbed-wire hair sampling sites. We employed a clustered sampling configuration with sampling sites arranged in 3 × 3 clusters spaced 2 km apart within each cluster and cluster centers spaced 16 km apart (center to center). We surveyed all 5 subpopulations encompassing 38,960 km2 during 2014 and 2015. Several landscape variables, most associated with forest cover, helped refine density estimates for the 5 subpopulations we sampled. Detection probabilities were affected by site-specific behavioral responses coupled with individual capture heterogeneity associated with sex. Model-averaged bear population estimates ranged from 120 (95% CI = 59–276) bears or a mean 0.025 bears/km2 (95% CI = 0.011–0.44) for the Eglin subpopulation to 1,198 bears (95% CI = 949–1,537) or 0.127 bears/km2 (95% CI = 0.101–0.163) for the Ocala-St. Johns subpopulation. The total population estimate for our 5 study areas was 3,916 bears (95% CI = 2,914–5,451). The clustered sampling method coupled with information on land cover was efficient and allowed us to estimate abundance across extensive areas that would not have been possible otherwise. Clustered sampling combined with spatially explicit capture-recapture methods has the potential to provide rigorous population estimates for a wide array of species that are extensive and heterogeneous in their distribution.
Piglionica, M; Baldassarra, S Lonero; Giardina, E; Stella, A; D'Ovidio, F D; Frati, P; Lenato, G M; Resta, N; Dell'Erba, A
The 17 Y-STR loci included in the AmpFLSTR Yfiler PCR Amplification Kit were analyzed in 98 unrelated healthy males from Apulia (Southern Italy). A total of 97 different haplotypes were identified, of which 96 haplotypes were unique and 1 occurred twice. Allele frequencies for each Y-STR locus in pooled sample and estimated value of gene diversity (GD) were evaluated. The lowest value of GD was observed for DYS392 (0.126) and the highest one (0.936) for DYS385. The HD (haplotype diversity) for the studied Y-STR set showed a value of 0.9994, with an HMP (haplotype match probability) value of 0.0006, while the overall DC was 98.98%. Microvariant alleles were found for the DYS458 and DYS385 markers and sequenced. Furthermore, Φ(st)-based genetic distance computation and pair-wise analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) test were carried out. When comparing our population with the Apulia sample previously investigated, the AMOVA analysis detected no evidence for significant differentiation. The comparison with all Italian populations submitted to the YHRD website showed no relevant differences with all Southern Italian populations (San Giorgio La Molara, Belvedere, Trapani and Catania) and significant genetic deviation with all Northern Italian populations (Udine, Biella, La Spezia, Modena, Ravenna, Marche and North Sardinia). Moreover, the other populations and meta-populations belonging to the whole Mediterranean area (Croatia, Macedonia, Albania, Greece, Turkey, Israel, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco and Spain) were different from our Apulia sample. The data were submitted to YHRD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Paul L. Plener
Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI is a proposed new “condition for further study” in the DSM-5. To date no prevalence data has been available on this diagnostic entity from a representative sample of the general population. Methods A representative sample of the German population (N = 2509, mean age = 48.8 years, SD = 18.1, female 55.4 % completed the NSSI section of the German version of the Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors Interview (SITBI-G. Results A history of NSSI at least once during lifetime was reported by 3.1 % of all participants, with higher lifetime prevalence rates in younger age groups. DSM-5 NSSI disorder criteria were met by 0.3 %. The most common function of NSSI was automatic negative reinforcement (e.g. to alleviate negative feelings. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting rates for the proposed NSSI category in DSM-5 from a representative sample of the general population. In comparison to findings from community samples of adolescents, adults seem to have lower lifetime prevalence rates of NSSI, thus making it necessary to emphasize prevention and treatment efforts in younger age groups.
Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives In Andalusia there were no studies including a representative sample of children and adolescent population assessing growth and weight increase. Our objectives were to develop reference standards for weight, height and BMI for the Andalusian pediatric population, from 3 to 18 years of age for both genders, and to identify the final adult height in Andalusia. Subjects and methods Two samples were collected. The first included individuals from 3 to 18 years of age (3592 girls and 3605 boys. They were stratified according type of study center, size of population of origin, age (32 categories of 0.5 years and gender, using cluster sampling. Subjects from >18 to 23 years of age (947 women and 921 men were sampled in 6 non-university educational centers and several university centers in Granada. Exclusion criteria included sons of non-Spanish mother or father, and individuals with chronic conditions and/or therapies affecting growth. Two trained fellows collected the data through February to December 2004, for the first sample, and through January to May 2005, for the second. Reference curves were adjusted using Cole's LMS method, and the quality of the adjustment was assessed using the tests proposed by Royston. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was applied to the final models obtained. Results Data for 9065 cases (4539 women and 4526 men were obtained; 79.39% (n = 7197 in the up to 18 years of age group. In the first sampling only 0.07% (3 girls and 2 boys refused to participate in the study. In addition, 327 students (4.5% were absent when sampling was done. We present mean and standard deviation fort height, weight and BMI at 0.5 years intervals, from 3 to 23 years of age, for both genders. After adjustment with the different models, percentiles for height, weight (percentiles 3, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90, 95, and 97 and BMI (percentiles 3, 5, 50, 85, 95, and 97 are presented for both genders. Conclusion This is
Navas-Carrillo, Daniel; Pérez-Cano, María Teresa; Rosa-Jiménez, Carlos
This paper aims to analyse the evolution experienced by the neighbourhoods that comprise the so-called first periphery. Most of them have been thoroughly studied, has led to recognize theirs values and to be included in the catalogues of heritage protection of their respective cities. However, this research shows that is pending an in-depth analysis in cities of intermediate scale. Its significance lies not only in the fact that they are the most significant operations of architecture of the modern movement in their respective cities, but are especially noteworthy the values derived from its strategic location within the urban structure of these intermediate scale cities. Being near to city centre, they have been constituted as transition pieces between historic sites, new peripheral developments, and even, their nearest territory. As method, this research proposes a comparative analysis of traceability among different study cases, from medium-sized cities of the Andalusian Coast (Spain). In this context, it means recording the evolution that these promotions have been experienced since their first designs until their current situation. It attempts to find the characteristics that have resulted in the urban configuration of this periphery and to recognize the sum of all the cultural, economic, social and technological aspects that conditions the ways of life that today are detected in them. Definitely, the knowledge generated by this research allows extracting architectural and urban values of these examples, which justify its necessary dissemination as part of our legacy.
Full Text Available This study aims to determine the reliability of assessment criteria used for a portfolio at the Andalusian Agency for Healthcare Quality (ACSA. Data: all competences certification processes, regardless of their discipline. Period: 2010-2011. Three types of tests are used: 368 certificates, 17,895 reports and 22,642 clinical practice reports (N = 3,010 candidates. The tests were evaluated in pairs by the ACSA team of raters using two categories: valid and invalid. Results: The percentage agreement in assessments of certificates was 89,9%, while for the reports of clinical practice was 85,1 % and for clinical practice reports was 81,7%. The inter-rater agreement coefficients (kappa ranged from 0,468 to 0,711. Discussion: The results of this study show that the inter-rater reliability of assessments varies from fair to good. Compared with other similar studies, the results put the reliability of the model in a comfortable position. Among the improvements incorporated, progressive automation of evaluations must be highlighted.
Quero, Manuel; Ramos, María Belén; López, Wilfredo; Cubillas, Juan José; González, José María; Castillo, José Luis
Salud Responde (in English: Healthline) is a Health Service and Information Centre of the taxpayer-funded Andalusian Health System (AHS) that offers a Telephone Health Advisory Service called SA24h, among other services. The main objective of SA24h is to inform and advise citizens on health issues and the available health resources of the AHS. SA24h has a Customer Relationship Management information technology tool that organises information at various levels of specialization. Depending on the difficulty of the query, the citizen is attended by professionals with distinct profiles, providing a consensual response within the professionals working within Salud Responde or within other healthcare levels of the AHS. SA24h provided responses to 757,168 patient queries from late 2008 to the end of 01/12/2015. A total of 9.38% of the consultations were resolved by the non-health professionals working at Salud Responde. The remaining 84.07% were resolved by health staff. A total of 6.5% of users were referred to accident and emergency facilities while 88.77% did not need to attend their general practitioner within the next 24hours, thus avoiding unnecessary visits to health care facilities. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Guillermo Rey Gozalo
Full Text Available Today, noise pollution is an increasing environmental stressor. Noise maps are recognised as the main tool for assessing and managing environmental noise, but their accuracy largely depends on the sampling method used. The sampling methods most commonly used by different researchers (grid, legislative road types and categorisation methods were analysed and compared using the city of Talca (Chile as a test case. The results show that the stratification of sound values in road categories has a significantly lower prediction error and a higher capacity for discrimination and prediction than in the legislative road types used by the Ministry of Transport and Telecommunications in Chile. Also, the use of one or another method implies significant differences in the assessment of population exposure to noise pollution. Thus, the selection of a suitable method for performing noise maps through measurements is essential to achieve an accurate assessment of the impact of noise pollution on the population.
Ramani, Anantharaman; Wong, Yongxun; Tan, Si Zhen; Shue, Bing Hong; Syn, Christopher
The ability to predict bio-geographic ancestry can be valuable to generate investigative leads towards solving crimes. Ancestry informative marker (AIM) sets include large numbers of SNPs to predict an ancestral population. Massively parallel sequencing has enabled forensic laboratories to genotype a large number of such markers in a single assay. Illumina's ForenSeq DNA Signature Kit includes the ancestry informative SNPs reported by Kidd et al. In this study, the ancestry prediction capabilities of the ForenSeq kit through sequencing on the MiSeq FGx were evaluated in 1030 unrelated Singapore population samples of Chinese, Malay and Indian origin. A total of 59 ancestry SNPs and phenotypic SNPs with AIM properties were selected. The bio-geographic ancestry of the 1030 samples, as predicted by Illumina's ForenSeq Universal Analysis Software (UAS), was determined. 712 of the genotyped samples were used as a training sample set for the generation of an ancestry prediction model using STRUCTURE and Snipper. The performance of the prediction model was tested by both methods with the remaining 318 samples. Ancestry prediction in UAS was able to correctly classify the Singapore Chinese as part of the East Asian cluster, while Indians clustered with Ad-mixed Americans and Malays clustered in-between these two reference populations. Principal component analyses showed that the 59 SNPs were only able to account for 26% of the variation between the Singapore sub-populations. Their discriminatory potential was also found to be lower (G ST =0.085) than that reported in ALFRED (F ST =0.357). The Snipper algorithm was able to correctly predict bio-geographic ancestry in 91% of Chinese and Indian, and 88% of Malay individuals, while the success rates for the STRUCTURE algorithm were 94% in Chinese, 80% in Malay, and 91% in Indian individuals. Both these algorithms were able to provide admixture proportions when present. Ancestry prediction accuracy (in terms of likelihood ratio
Salazar, Amy M
Higher education is associated with substantial adult life benefits, including higher income and improved quality of life, among others. The current study compared adult outcomes of 250 foster care alumni college graduates with two samples of general population graduates to explore the role higher education plays in these young adults' lives. Outcomes compared include employment, income, housing, public assistance, physical and mental health, happiness, and other outcomes that are often found to be related to educational attainment. Foster care alumni college graduates were very similar to general population college graduates for individual income and rate of employment. However, foster care alumni graduates were behind general population graduates on factors such as self-reported job security, household earnings, health, mental health, financial satisfaction, home ownership, happiness, and public assistance usage. Results have implications for policy and practice regarding the most effective means of supporting postcollege stability of youths with foster care experience.
Cakici, Fatih; Celikoglu, Mevlut; Arslan, Hakan; Topcuoglu, H. Sinan; Erdogan, Aziz Sahin
Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of dens invaginatus in anterior teeth and to classify the type of dens invaginatus in a sample of Turkish Anatolian population. Study design: A retrospective study was performed using full-mouth periapical and panoramic radiographs of 1012 patients. Maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth were evaluated for the presence and characteristics of dens invaginatus. Statistical evaluation of the presence of ...
Balaji, S K; Lavu, Vamsi; Rao, Suresh
Periodontal diseases are among the most prevalent oral diseases in the world. Apart from repercussions in the oral cavity, there is evidence that periodontitis contributes to systemic damage in chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and preterm low birth weight. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of chronic periodontitis in a sample urban population (<18 years) in Tamil Nadu and to estimate the inflammatory burden posed by chronic periodontitis by calculating the periodontal inflammatory surface area. This was a population-based study and cross-sectional design. A total of 1000 individuals (<18 years) were selected and screened for their periodontal status, oral hygiene status (OHI), and the periodontal inflamed surface area (PISA) in an outreach center located in Chennai, India. The proportion of individuals with different periodontal states (health, gingivitis, and periodontitis) was determined. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the influence of the individual risk factors such as habits (tobacco use), systemic conditions (diabetes), and oral hygiene maintenance on periodontitis prevalence in the sample population. A high prevalence of periodontal disease was observed in the study population (42.3%). Among the urban participants, age, cigarette smoking, pan chewing, decayed, missing, and filled teeth scores, OHI scores, and PISA scores were found to be significantly associated with periodontitis (P < 0.05). Periodontitis prevalence appears to be high even in areas with adequate access to oral health care and an inflammatory burden risk exists in a definitive manner.
Radanovic, M; Mansur, L L
Brazilian researchers and health professionals often face the challenge of having to use tests developed in foreign languages and standardized for populations of other countries, especially in the fields of Neuropsychology and Neurolinguistics. This fact promotes a feeling that some scoring systems may be inadequate for our sociocultural reality. In the present study, we describe the performance of a Brazilian population sample submitted to a translated and adapted version of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE). Sixty normal volunteers (21 men and 39 women), all Portuguese native speakers, ranging in age from 15 to 78 years (average 43.7) and with an educational level of 2 to 16 years (average 9.9), were tested using a translated and adapted Portuguese version of the BDAE. Cut-off scores are suggested for our population and the performance of the Brazilian sample is compared to that of American and Colombian samples, with the results being closely similar in all tasks. We also performed a correlation analysis between age, gender and educational level and the influence of these variables on the performance of the subjects. We found no statistically significant differences between genders. Educational level correlated positively with performance, especially in the subtests involving reading and writing. There was a negative correlation between age and performance in two subtests (Visual Confrontation Naming and Sentences to Dictation), but a coexisting effect of educational level could not be ruled out.
Jeffrey R Kugelman
Full Text Available Individual RNA viruses typically occur as populations of genomes that differ slightly from each other due to mutations introduced by the error-prone viral polymerase. Understanding the variability of RNA virus genome populations is critical for understanding virus evolution because individual mutant genomes may gain evolutionary selective advantages and give rise to dominant subpopulations, possibly even leading to the emergence of viruses resistant to medical countermeasures. Reverse transcription of virus genome populations followed by next-generation sequencing is the only available method to characterize variation for RNA viruses. However, both steps may lead to the introduction of artificial mutations, thereby skewing the data. To better understand how such errors are introduced during sample preparation, we determined and compared error baseline rates of five different sample preparation methods by analyzing in vitro transcribed Ebola virus RNA from an artificial plasmid-based system. These methods included: shotgun sequencing from plasmid DNA or in vitro transcribed RNA as a basic "no amplification" method, amplicon sequencing from the plasmid DNA or in vitro transcribed RNA as a "targeted" amplification method, sequence-independent single-primer amplification (SISPA as a "random" amplification method, rolling circle reverse transcription sequencing (CirSeq as an advanced "no amplification" method, and Illumina TruSeq RNA Access as a "targeted" enrichment method. The measured error frequencies indicate that RNA Access offers the best tradeoff between sensitivity and sample preparation error (1.4-5 of all compared methods.
Carreira Capeáns, Cecilia; Facal, David
Anxiety is common throughout the ageing process. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of anxiety in a representative sample of the Spanish population over 50 years-old. The data of this study come from the Pilot Study developed within the Longitudinal Ageing Study in Spain (ELES), in which a representative sample of the non-institutionalised Spanish population was evaluated. An analysis was performed on the data of 1086 people who answered the question «I am now going to read a list with a series of diseases or health problems. I would like you to tell me if your doctor has diagnosed any of them». The tools used were a questionnaire consisting of 218 questions, along with standardised tests, such as the Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination. Anxiety was reported to have been diagnosed at some time in 14.3% of the sample. The prevalence was higher in women than in men (77.8 vs. 22.2%), decreasing with age, and related to different chronic diseases. The results show that the prevalence of anxiety throughout the lifespan is noticeable in people over 50 years, and should be taken into account, especially in the female population and in those with chronic diseases. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Matamoros, Mireya; Yurrebaso, Iñaki; Gusmão, Leonor; García, Oscar
Haplotype, allele frequencies and population data of 12 Y-chromosome STR loci DYS19, DYS385, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439 were determined from a sample of 128 unrelated male individuals from Honduras, Central America. A total of 112 haplotypes were identified by the 12 Y-STR loci of which 98 were unique. The haplotype diversity (98.99%) and the proportion of different haplotypes (87.50%) were estimated. Genetic distances were calculated between Honduras and other populations from Southern and Central America, Europe and Africa. The analysis of a Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS) plot, based on pairwise R(ST) genetic distances, allowed to conclude that Honduras is highly differentiated from the African samples (0.343Honduras showed a lower genetic distance to the European cluster (composed by European and South American general population samples from Brazil, Argentina, Colombia and Venezuela) than to the Central American cluster (Mexico and El Salvador).
Full Text Available Brazilian researchers and health professionals often face the challenge of having to use tests developed in foreign languages and standardized for populations of other countries, especially in the fields of Neuropsychology and Neurolinguistics. This fact promotes a feeling that some scoring systems may be inadequate for our sociocultural reality. In the present study, we describe the performance of a Brazilian population sample submitted to a translated and adapted version of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE. Sixty normal volunteers (21 men and 39 women, all Portuguese native speakers, ranging in age from 15 to 78 years (average 43.7 and with an educational level of 2 to 16 years (average 9.9, were tested using a translated and adapted Portuguese version of the BDAE. Cut-off scores are suggested for our population and the performance of the Brazilian sample is compared to that of American and Colombian samples, with the results being closely similar in all tasks. We also performed a correlation analysis between age, gender and educational level and the influence of these variables on the performance of the subjects. We found no statistically significant differences between genders. Educational level correlated positively with performance, especially in the subtests involving reading and writing. There was a negative correlation between age and performance in two subtests (Visual Confrontation Naming and Sentences to Dictation, but a coexisting effect of educational level could not be ruled out.
Abdalla Hashim, Ala'a Hayder; Eldin, Al-Hadi Mohi; Hashim, Hayder Abdalla
The study of the mesiodistal size, the morphology of teeth and dental arch may play an important role in clinical dentistry, as well as other sciences such as Forensic Dentistry and Anthropology. The aims of the present study were to establish tooth-size ratio in Sudanese sample with Class I normal occlusion, to compare the tooth-size ratio between the present study and Bolton's study and between genders. The sample consisted of dental casts of 60 subjects (30 males and 30 females). Bolton formula was used to compute the overall and anterior ratio. The correlation coefficient between the anterior ratio and overall ratio was tested, and Student's t-test was used to compare tooth-size ratios between males and females, and between the present study and Bolton's result. The results of the overall and anterior ratio was relatively similar to the mean values reported by Bolton, and there were no statistically significant differences between the mean values of the anterior ratio and the overall ratio between males and females. The correlation coefficient was (r = 0.79). The result obtained was similar to the Caucasian race. However, the reality indicates that the Sudanese population consisted of different racial groups; therefore, the firm conclusion is difficult to draw. Since this sample is not representative for the Sudanese population, hence, a further study with a large sample collected from the different parts of the Sudan is required.
Van Driest, Sara L.; Marshall, Matthew D.; Hachey, Brian; Beck, Cole; Crum, Kim; Owen, Jill; Smith, Andrew H.; Kannankeril, Prince J.; Woodworth, Alison; Caprioli, Richard M.
Aims One barrier contributing to the lack of pharmacokinetic (PK) data in paediatric populations is the need for serial sampling. Analysis of clinically obtained specimens and data may overcome this barrier. To add evidence for the feasibility of this approach, we sought to determine PK parameters for fentanyl in children after cardiac surgery using specimens and data generated in the course of clinical care, without collecting additional blood samples. Methods We measured fentanyl concentrations in plasma from leftover clinically‐obtained specimens in 130 paediatric cardiac surgery patients and successfully generated a PK dataset using drug dosing data extracted from electronic medical records. Using a population PK approach, we estimated PK parameters for this population, assessed model goodness‐of‐fit and internal model validation, and performed subset data analyses. Through simulation studies, we compared predicted fentanyl concentrations using model‐driven weight‐adjusted per kg vs. fixed per kg fentanyl dosing. Results Fentanyl clearance for a 6.4 kg child, the median weight in our cohort, is 5.7 l h–1 (2.2–9.2 l h–1), similar to values found in prior formal PK studies. Model assessment and subset analyses indicated the model adequately fit the data. Of the covariates studied, only weight significantly impacted fentanyl kinetics, but substantial inter‐individual variability remained. In simulation studies, model‐driven weight‐adjusted per kg fentanyl dosing led to more consistent therapeutic fentanyl concentrations than fixed per kg dosing. Conclusions We show here that population PK modelling using sparse remnant samples and electronic medical records data provides a powerful tool for assessment of drug kinetics and generation of individualized dosing regimens. PMID:26861166
Hernando, Barbara; Ibañez, Maria Victoria; Deserio-Cuesta, Julio Alberto; Soria-Navarro, Raquel; Vilar-Sastre, Inca; Martinez-Cadenas, Conrado
Prediction of human pigmentation traits, one of the most differentiable externally visible characteristics among individuals, from biological samples represents a useful tool in the field of forensic DNA phenotyping. In spite of freckling being a relatively common pigmentation characteristic in Europeans, little is known about the genetic basis of this largely genetically determined phenotype in southern European populations. In this work, we explored the predictive capacity of eight freckle and sunlight sensitivity-related genes in 458 individuals (266 non-freckled controls and 192 freckled cases) from Spain. Four loci were associated with freckling (MC1R, IRF4, ASIP and BNC2), and female sex was also found to be a predictive factor for having a freckling phenotype in our population. After identifying the most informative genetic variants responsible for human ephelides occurrence in our sample set, we developed a DNA-based freckle prediction model using a multivariate regression approach. Once developed, the capabilities of the prediction model were tested by a repeated 10-fold cross-validation approach. The proportion of correctly predicted individuals using the DNA-based freckle prediction model was 74.13%. The implementation of sex into the DNA-based freckle prediction model slightly improved the overall prediction accuracy by 2.19% (76.32%). Further evaluation of the newly-generated prediction model was performed by assessing the model's performance in a new cohort of 212 Spanish individuals, reaching a classification success rate of 74.61%. Validation of this prediction model may be carried out in larger populations, including samples from different European populations. Further research to validate and improve this newly-generated freckle prediction model will be needed before its forensic application. Together with DNA tests already validated for eye and hair colour prediction, this freckle prediction model may lead to a substantially more detailed
Lin, Jake; Kramna, Lenka; Autio, Reija; Hyöty, Heikki; Nykter, Matti; Cinek, Ondrej
Next generation sequencing (NGS) technology allows laboratories to investigate virome composition in clinical and environmental samples in a culture-independent way. There is a need for bioinformatic tools capable of parallel processing of virome sequencing data by exactly identical methods: this is especially important in studies of multifactorial diseases, or in parallel comparison of laboratory protocols. We have developed a web-based application allowing direct upload of sequences from multiple virome samples using custom parameters. The samples are then processed in parallel using an identical protocol, and can be easily reanalyzed. The pipeline performs de-novo assembly, taxonomic classification of viruses as well as sample analyses based on user-defined grouping categories. Tables of virus abundance are produced from cross-validation by remapping the sequencing reads to a union of all observed reference viruses. In addition, read sets and reports are created after processing unmapped reads against known human and bacterial ribosome references. Secured interactive results are dynamically plotted with population and diversity charts, clustered heatmaps and a sortable and searchable abundance table. The Vipie web application is a unique tool for multi-sample metagenomic analysis of viral data, producing searchable hits tables, interactive population maps, alpha diversity measures and clustered heatmaps that are grouped in applicable custom sample categories. Known references such as human genome and bacterial ribosomal genes are optionally removed from unmapped ('dark matter') reads. Secured results are accessible and shareable on modern browsers. Vipie is a freely available web-based tool whose code is open source.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality estimates can measure and monitor the impacts of conflict on a population, guide humanitarian efforts, and help to better understand the public health impacts of conflict. Vital statistics registration and surveillance systems are rarely functional in conflict settings, posing a challenge of estimating mortality using retrospective population-based surveys. Results We present a two-stage cluster sampling method for application in population-based mortality surveys. The sampling method utilizes gridded population data and a geographic information system (GIS to select clusters in the first sampling stage and Google Earth TM imagery and sampling grids to select households in the second sampling stage. The sampling method is implemented in a household mortality study in Iraq in 2011. Factors affecting feasibility and methodological quality are described. Conclusion Sampling is a challenge in retrospective population-based mortality studies and alternatives that improve on the conventional approaches are needed. The sampling strategy presented here was designed to generate a representative sample of the Iraqi population while reducing the potential for bias and considering the context specific challenges of the study setting. This sampling strategy, or variations on it, are adaptable and should be considered and tested in other conflict settings.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Previous research has shown an association between certain personality characteristics and suicidality. Methodological differences including small sample sizes and missing adjustment for possible confounding factors could explain the varying results. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the Big Five personality dimensions on suicidality in a representative population based sample of adults. METHOD: Interviews were conducted in a representative German population-based sample (n=2555 in 2011. Personality characteristics were assessed using the Big Five Inventory-10 (BFI-10 and suicide risk was assessed with the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R. Multivariate logistic regression models were calculated adjusting for depression, anxiety, and various sociodemographic variables. RESULTS: Neuroticism and openness were significantly associated with suicide risk, while extraversion and conscientiousness were found to be protective. Significant sex differences were observed. For males, extraversion and conscientiousness were protective factors. Neuroticism and openness were found to be associated with suicide risk only in females. These associations remained significant after adjusting for covariates. CONCLUSION: The results highlight the role of personality dimensions as risk factors for suicide-related behaviors. Different personality dimensions are significantly associated with suicide-related behaviors even when adjusting for other known risk factors of suicidality.
Full Text Available The efficiency of the Mosquito Magnet Liberty PlusTM (MMLP trap was evaluated in comparison to human-landing catches (HLCs to sample anopheline populations in Jabillal, state of Bolivar, southern Venezuela. The village comprised 37 houses and a population of 101; malaria in this village is primarily due to Plasmodium vivax and the Annual Parasite Index is 316.8 per 1,000 population. A longitudinal study was conducted between June 2008-January 2009 for three nights per month every two months between 17:30 pm-21:30 pm, a time when biting mosquitoes are most active. Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles nuneztovari were the most common species collected by both methods, whereas Anopheles marajoara was more abundant according to the HLC method. The MMLP trap was more efficient for collecting An. nuneztovari [63%, confidence interval (CI: 2.53] than for collecting An. darlingi (31%, CI: 1.57. There were significant correlations (p < 0.01 between the two methods for An. darlingi [Pearson correlation (R² = 0.65] and An. nuneztovari (R² = 0.48. These preliminary results are encouraging for further investigations of the use of the MMLP trap for monitoring anopheline populations in remote malaria-endemic areas in the Amazon Basin.
Rubio-Palis, Yasmin; Moreno, Jorge E; Sánchez, Víctor; Estrada, Yarys; Anaya, William; Bevilacqua, Mariapia; Cárdenas, Lya; Martínez, Angela; Medina, Domingo
The efficiency of the Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus™ (MMLP) trap was evaluated in comparison to human-landing catches (HLCs) to sample anopheline populations in Jabillal, state of Bolivar, southern Venezuela. The village comprised 37 houses and a population of 101; malaria in this village is primarily due to Plasmodium vivax and the Annual Parasite Index is 316.8 per 1,000 population. A longitudinal study was conducted between June 2008-January 2009 for three nights per month every two months between 17:30 pm-21:30 pm, a time when biting mosquitoes are most active. Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles nuneztovari were the most common species collected by both methods, whereas Anopheles marajoara was more abundant according to the HLC method. The MMLP trap was more efficient for collecting An. nuneztovari [63%, confidence interval (CI): 2.53] than for collecting An. darlingi (31%, CI: 1.57). There were significant correlations (p < 0.01) between the two methods for An. darlingi [Pearson correlation (R²) = 0.65] and An. nuneztovari (R² = 0.48). These preliminary results are encouraging for further investigations of the use of the MMLP trap for monitoring anopheline populations in remote malaria-endemic areas in the Amazon Basin.
Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Gill, Robert E.; Dementyev, Maksim N.; Handel, Colleen M.
The Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) is endemic to the Bering Sea region and unique among shorebirds in the North Pacific for wintering at high latitudes. The nominate subspecies, the Pribilof Rock Sandpiper (C. p. ptilocnemis), breeds on four isolated islands in the Bering Sea and appears to spend the winter primarily in Cook Inlet, Alaska. We used a stratified systematic sampling design and line-transect method to survey the entire breeding range of this population during springs 2001-2003. Densities were up to four times higher on the uninhabited and more northerly St. Matthew and Hall islands than on St. Paul and St. George islands, which both have small human settlements and introduced reindeer herds. Differences in density, however, appeared to be more related to differences in vegetation than to anthropogenic factors, raising some concern for prospective effects of climate change. We estimated the total population at 19 832 birds (95% CI 17 853–21 930), ranking it among the smallest of North American shorebird populations. To determine the vulnerability of C. p. ptilocnemis to anthropogenic and stochastic environmental threats, future studies should focus on determining the amount of gene flow among island subpopulations, the full extent of the subspecies' winter range, and the current trajectory of this small population.
Sigström, Robert; Skoog, Ingmar; Karlsson, Björn; Nilsson, Johan; Östling, Svante
Little is known about the long-term course of specific phobia (SP) in the general population. We examined the prevalence and course of SP and subthreshold fears in an older population followed over 9 years. A psychiatric examination was performed in a population-based sample of 558 70-year-olds, among whom 303 dementia-free survivors were followed up at both ages 75 and 79. Fears were rated with respect to level of anxiety and social or other consequences. DSM-IV SP was diagnosed when fears were associated with prominent anxiety and had social or other consequences. All other fears were labeled subthreshold fears. The prevalence of SP declined from 9.9% at age 70 to 4.0% at age 79. The reason was that the prevalence of fears associated with prominent anxiety (mandatory in the diagnosis) decreased whereas the prevalence of fears that gave social or other consequences remained stable. A total of 14.5% of the population had SP at least once during the study. Among these, 11.4% had SP and 65.9% had specific fear at all three examinations. The prevalence of fears associated with prominent anxiety decreased with age, resulting in an overall decline in the prevalence of SP. SP seems to be a fluctuating disorder, and in most cases an exacerbation of chronic subthreshold fears. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Malone, Susan Kohl; Patterson, Freda; Lu, Yinghui; Lozano, Alicia; Hanlon, Alexandra
This cross-sectional population study examined associations of sleep duration and morning-evening type with sociodemographic and cardiometabolic disease in adults participating in the UK Biobank study (N = 439 933). Multivariable Poisson regression models of sleep duration and morning-evening type with a robust error variance were generated to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. All models were adjusted for sex, race, college attendance, employment status and age. Twenty five percent of the sample reported short sleep; 27% were morning, 64% intermediate and 9% evening type. Black ethnicity emerged as most strongly associated with sleep behavior. Short sleep was twice as prevalent, and morning versus intermediate type was 1.4 times more prevalent in Black than White participants. The greater prevalence of short sleep and morning type among Blacks suggests that sleep-based approaches to improving cardiometabolic outcomes may require a more multidimensional approach that encompasses adequate sleep and circadian alignment in this population.
Palacios-Sánchez, Maria F; Jordana-Comín, Xavier; García-Sívoli, Carlos E
The results of analyzing etiologic and clinical factors, and their connection with the burning mouth syndrome (BMS) in a sample of Catalan (Barcelona, Spain) population are presented in this work. The purpose of this study is to establish connections between BMS and the following variables: age, sex, overt depression, masked depression, cancerophobia, dry mouth, foreign body sensation in the mouth, and burning. 140 clinical cases of patients diagnosed with the disease and 140 cases of control patients are studied here. The data were statistically analyzed to study connections as well as the disease and variables frequency. The obtained results will help understanding possible connections of the studied etiologic and clinical factors with the disease, as well as the course of BMS, and its consequences in the Catalan population.
S K Balaji
Full Text Available Context: Periodontal diseases are among the most prevalent oral diseases in the world. Apart from repercussions in the oral cavity, there is evidence that periodontitis contributes to systemic damage in chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and preterm low birth weight. Aims: The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of chronic periodontitis in a sample urban population (<18 years in Tamil Nadu and to estimate the inflammatory burden posed by chronic periodontitis by calculating the periodontal inflammatory surface area. Settings and Design: This was a population-based study and cross-sectional design. Subjects and Methods: A total of 1000 individuals (<18 years were selected and screened for their periodontal status, oral hygiene status (OHI, and the periodontal inflamed surface area (PISA in an outreach center located in Chennai, India. Statistical Analysis Used: The proportion of individuals with different periodontal states (health, gingivitis, and periodontitis was determined. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the influence of the individual risk factors such as habits (tobacco use, systemic conditions (diabetes, and oral hygiene maintenance on periodontitis prevalence in the sample population. Results: A high prevalence of periodontal disease was observed in the study population (42.3%. Among the urban participants, age, cigarette smoking, pan chewing, decayed, missing, and filled teeth scores, OHI scores, and PISA scores were found to be significantly associated with periodontitis (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Periodontitis prevalence appears to be high even in areas with adequate access to oral health care and an inflammatory burden risk exists in a definitive manner.
Kugelman, Jeffrey R.; Wiley, Michael R.; Nagle, Elyse R.; Reyes, Daniel; Pfeffer, Brad P.; Kuhn, Jens H.; Sanchez-Lockhart, Mariano; Palacios, Gustavo F.
Individual RNA viruses typically occur as populations of genomes that differ slightly from each other due to mutations introduced by the error-prone viral polymerase. Understanding the variability of RNA virus genome populations is critical for understanding virus evolution because individual mutant genomes may gain evolutionary selective advantages and give rise to dominant subpopulations, possibly even leading to the emergence of viruses resistant to medical countermeasures. Reverse transcription of virus genome populations followed by next-generation sequencing is the only available method to characterize variation for RNA viruses. However, both steps may lead to the introduction of artificial mutations, thereby skewing the data. To better understand how such errors are introduced during sample preparation, we determined and compared error baseline rates of five different sample preparation methods by analyzing in vitro transcribed Ebola virus RNA from an artificial plasmid-based system. These methods included: shotgun sequencing from plasmid DNA or in vitro transcribed RNA as a basic “no amplification” method, amplicon sequencing from the plasmid DNA or in vitro transcribed RNA as a “targeted” amplification method, sequence-independent single-primer amplification (SISPA) as a “random” amplification method, rolling circle reverse transcription sequencing (CirSeq) as an advanced “no amplification” method, and Illumina TruSeq RNA Access as a “targeted” enrichment method. The measured error frequencies indicate that RNA Access offers the best tradeoff between sensitivity and sample preparation error (1.4−5) of all compared methods. PMID:28182717
Broekhuis, Femke; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M
Many ecological theories and species conservation programmes rely on accurate estimates of population density. Accurate density estimation, especially for species facing rapid declines, requires the application of rigorous field and analytical methods. However, obtaining accurate density estimates of carnivores can be challenging as carnivores naturally exist at relatively low densities and are often elusive and wide-ranging. In this study, we employ an unstructured spatial sampling field design along with a Bayesian sex-specific spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) analysis, to provide the first rigorous population density estimates of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Maasai Mara, Kenya. We estimate adult cheetah density to be between 1.28 ± 0.315 and 1.34 ± 0.337 individuals/100km2 across four candidate models specified in our analysis. Our spatially explicit approach revealed 'hotspots' of cheetah density, highlighting that cheetah are distributed heterogeneously across the landscape. The SECR models incorporated a movement range parameter which indicated that male cheetah moved four times as much as females, possibly because female movement was restricted by their reproductive status and/or the spatial distribution of prey. We show that SECR can be used for spatially unstructured data to successfully characterise the spatial distribution of a low density species and also estimate population density when sample size is small. Our sampling and modelling framework will help determine spatial and temporal variation in cheetah densities, providing a foundation for their conservation and management. Based on our results we encourage other researchers to adopt a similar approach in estimating densities of individually recognisable species.
Full Text Available Many ecological theories and species conservation programmes rely on accurate estimates of population density. Accurate density estimation, especially for species facing rapid declines, requires the application of rigorous field and analytical methods. However, obtaining accurate density estimates of carnivores can be challenging as carnivores naturally exist at relatively low densities and are often elusive and wide-ranging. In this study, we employ an unstructured spatial sampling field design along with a Bayesian sex-specific spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR analysis, to provide the first rigorous population density estimates of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus in the Maasai Mara, Kenya. We estimate adult cheetah density to be between 1.28 ± 0.315 and 1.34 ± 0.337 individuals/100km2 across four candidate models specified in our analysis. Our spatially explicit approach revealed 'hotspots' of cheetah density, highlighting that cheetah are distributed heterogeneously across the landscape. The SECR models incorporated a movement range parameter which indicated that male cheetah moved four times as much as females, possibly because female movement was restricted by their reproductive status and/or the spatial distribution of prey. We show that SECR can be used for spatially unstructured data to successfully characterise the spatial distribution of a low density species and also estimate population density when sample size is small. Our sampling and modelling framework will help determine spatial and temporal variation in cheetah densities, providing a foundation for their conservation and management. Based on our results we encourage other researchers to adopt a similar approach in estimating densities of individually recognisable species.
Mitsea, A G; Moraitis, K; Leon, G; Nicopoulou-Karayianni, K; Spiliopoulou, C
Sex assessment from tooth measurements can be of major importance for forensic and bioarchaeological investigations, especially when only teeth or jaws are available. The purpose of this study is to assess the reliability and applicability of establishing sex identity in a sample of Greek population using the discriminant function proposed by Rösing et al. (1995). The study comprised of 172 dental casts derived from two private orthodontic clinics in Athens. The individuals were randomly selected and all had clear medical history. The mesiodistal crown diameters of all the teeth were measured apart from those of the 3rd molars. The values quoted for the sample to which the discriminant function was first applied were similar to those obtained for the Greek sample. The results of the preliminary statistical analysis did not support the use of the specific discriminant function for a reliable determination of sex by means of the mesiodistal diameter of the teeth. However, there was considerable variation between different populations and this might explain the reason for lack of discriminating power of the specific function in the Greek population. In order to investigate whether a better discriminant function could be obtained using the Greek data, separate discriminant function analysis was performed on the same teeth and a different equation emerged without, however, any real improvement in the classification process, with an overall correct classification of 72%. The results showed that there were a considerably higher percentage of females correctly classified than males. The results lead to the conclusion that the use of the mesiodistal diameter of teeth is not as a reliable method as one would have expected for determining sex of human remains from a forensic context. Therefore, this method could be used only in combination with other identification approaches. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
Bhagwath, S; Chandra, L
Many studies on rugae pattern have been done on various samples of population, but no study has so far been done to assess the rugae pattern of population of western Uttar radesh, especially Meerut. This study was aimed to assess the rugae pattern in males and females of a sample of population of Meerut, which may be an additional method of determining gender when dealing with any crime or with mutilated bodies that have undergone damage beyond recognition. A total of 100 Class I dentulous subjects, 50 male and 50 female patients reporting to the outpatient department of Kalka Dental College, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh were randomly selected with an age range between 20-30 years. Exclusion criteria were subjects >14 years of age, congenital malformations, previous orthognathic surgery, allergy to impression material, bony and soft tissue protuberances, active lesions, deformity or scars and trauma of the palate. Prior approval from the Institutional Ethical Committee was taken. Alginate impressions of palate of selected patients were poured in dental stone and rugae pattern was identified and analyzed by a single rater employing Thomas and Kotze's (1983) method. Two-sample t-test and Chi-Square tests were used for comparison of means and relationship between the attributes. A significance level of 5% was considered as critical value. No significant difference was noted in total number or length of rugae between the genders. However, statistically significant difference in the circular type in males and converge type in females was observed. Rugae pattern can be used as a method of differentiation between males and females to corroborate the findings of other methods such as anthropometric evaluation of the cranium and dental characteristics.
Thompson, Steven K
Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat
Spatial and temporal dynamics of pest populations is an important aspect of effective pest management. However, absolute sampling of some pest populations such as the ham mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Sarcoptiformes: Acaridae), a serious pest of dry-cured ham, can be difficult. Sampling ...
Janss, L.L.G.; Thompson, R.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.
The application of Gibbs sampling is considered for inference in a mixed inheritance model in animal populations. Implementation of the Gibbs sampler on scalar components, as used for human populations, appeared not to be efficient, and an approach with blockwise sampling of genotypes was proposed
Sjöberg, Linnea; Karlsson, Björn; Atti, Anna-Rita; Skoog, Ingmar; Fratiglioni, Laura; Wang, Hui-Xin
Depression prevalence in older adults varies largely across studies, which probably reflects methodological rather than true differences. This study aims to explore whether and to what extent the prevalence of depression varies when using different diagnostic criteria and rating scales, and various samples of older adults. A population-based sample of 3353 individuals aged 60-104 years from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) were examined in 2001-2004. Point prevalence of depression was estimated by: 1) diagnostic criteria, ICD-10 and DSM-IV-TR/DSM-5; 2) rating scales, MADRS and GDS-15; and 3) self-report. Depression prevalence in sub-samples by dementia status, living place, and socio-demographics were compared. The prevalence of any depression (including all severity grades) was 4.2% (moderate/severe: 1.6%) for ICD-10 and 9.3% (major: 2.1%) for DSM-IV-TR; 10.6% for MADRS and 9.2% for GDS-15; and 9.1% for self-report. Depression prevalence was lower in the dementia-free sample as compared to the total population. Furthermore, having poor physical function, or not having a partner were independently associated with higher depression prevalence, across most of the depression definitions. The response rate was 73.3% and this may have resulted in an underestimation of depression. Depression prevalence was similar across all depression definitions except for ICD-10, showing much lower figures. However, independent of the definition used, depression prevalence varies greatly by dementia status, physical functioning, and marital status. These findings may be useful for clinicians when assessing depression in older adults and for researchers when exploring and comparing depression prevalence across studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ibarluzea, Jesús; Aurrekoetxea, Juan José; Porta, Miquel; Sunyer, Jordi; Ballester, Ferran
Many of the world's most developed countries have adopted biomonitoring of toxic substances in order to ascertain their levels in biological samples. These substances get into the body through different environmental exposures. Monitoring toxic substances in biological samples should allow us to ascertain their levels in vulnerable groups, assess their evolution over time, make comparisons with levels observed in other countries, identify groups at risk or with high toxic levels and promote research. The main objective of biomonitoring is to act as a policy design tool to facilitate the implementation of particular measures in various sectors: health, environmental, agricultural and livestock or food industry sectors. In Spain, information on levels of toxic substances of environmental origin is provided by specific studies on health effects from environmental sources, such as the INMA project (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [childhood and environment]). In addition, biomonitoring projects have been implemented in Catalonia and the Canary Islands, together with a national biomonitoring programme in the adult working population. However, further progress is needed to develop a system that covers the general population as well as subgroups at risk, which relies on the collaboration of the involved authorities and the participation of professionals from different sectors and citizen organisations interested in the relationship between health and the environment. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Stature estimation is a commonly used method in forensic identification analysis. The tracks and remnants available at crime scene or catastrophes can give extensive information concerning the biological profiles of unknown persons. However, the investigator should take into account the constitutional peculiarities of the population where the evidence was found due to the high specificity of such data. The present work aimed at studying the ethnic peculiarities of the Saudi Arabian population and to estimate stature using the measurements of hands and handprints. A total of 200 native Saudi subjects of both genders within the age group of 17 to 26 years were included in the study. The height of each participant was measured and correlated with hand length, palm length, and the hand breadth measured on both sides. Descriptive statistical analysis, paired samples T-test, Pearson correlation analysis, and regression analysis were performed. Obtained regression equations have a 1-4 cm deviation when used for the stature estimation in the population from which the data have been obtained. The accurate estimation rate of the formulae is >95%.
Gómez-Valdés, Jorge Alfredo; Torres Ramírez, Guillermo; Báez Molgado, Socorro; Herrera Sain-Leu, Patricia; Castrejón Caballero, José Luis; Sánchez-Mejorada, Gabriela
Sex assessment of skeletal remains plays an important role in forensic anthropology. The pelvic bones are the most studied part of the postcranial skeleton for the assessment of sex. It is evident that a population-specific approach improves rates of accuracy within the group. The present study proposes a discriminant function method for the sex assessment of skeletal remains from a contemporary Mexican population. A total of 146 adult human pelvic bones (61 females and 85 males) from the skeletal series pertaining to the National Autonomous University of Mexico were evaluated. Twenty-four direct metrical parameters of coxal and sacral bones were measured and subsequently, sides and sex differences were evaluated, applying a stepwise discriminant function analysis. Coxal and sacra functions achieved accuracies of 99% and 87%, respectively. These analyses follow a population-specific approach; nevertheless, we consider that our results are applicable to any other Hispanic samples for purposes of forensic human identification. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20 was developed in 1995. Since then, it has been widely used in cancer research and cancer-related illnesses but has never been validated in fatiguing illnesses or in a large US population-selected sample. In this study, we sought to examine the reliability and validity of the MFI-20 in the population of the state of Georgia, USA. Further, we assessed whether the MFI-20 could serve as a complementary diagnostic tool in chronically fatigued and unwell populations. Methods The data derive from a cross-sectional population-based study investigating the prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS in Georgia. The study sample was comprised of three diagnostic groups: CFS-like (292, chronically unwell (269, and well (222. Participants completed the MFI-20 along with several other measures of psychosocial functioning, including the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36 (SF-36, the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS, and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. We assessed the five MFI-20 subscales using several criteria: inter-item correlations, corrected item-total correlations, internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha coefficients, construct validity, discriminant (known-group validity, floor/ceiling effects, and convergent validity through correlations with the SF-36, SDS, and STAI instruments. Results Averaged inter-item correlations ranged from 0.38 to 0.61, indicating no item redundancy. Corrected item-total correlations for all MFI-20 subscales were greater than 0.30, and Cronbach's alpha coefficients achieved an acceptable level of 0.70. No significant floor/ceiling effect was observed. Factor analysis demonstrated factorial complexity. The MFI-20 also distinguished clearly between three diagnostic groups on all subscales. Furthermore, correlations with depression (SDS, anxiety (STAI, and functional impairment (SF-36 demonstrated strong convergent
Foo, Lee Kien; McGree, James; Duffull, Stephen
Optimal design methods have been proposed to determine the best sampling times when sparse blood sampling is required in clinical pharmacokinetic studies. However, the optimal blood sampling time points may not be feasible in clinical practice. Sampling windows, a time interval for blood sample collection, have been proposed to provide flexibility in blood sampling times while preserving efficient parameter estimation. Because of the complexity of the population pharmacokinetic models, which are generally nonlinear mixed effects models, there is no analytical solution available to determine sampling windows. We propose a method for determination of sampling windows based on MCMC sampling techniques. The proposed method attains a stationary distribution rapidly and provides time-sensitive windows around the optimal design points. The proposed method is applicable to determine sampling windows for any nonlinear mixed effects model although our work focuses on an application to population pharmacokinetic models. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sakhi, Amrit Kaur; Bastani, Nasser Ezzatkhah; Ellingjord-Dale, Merete; Gundersen, Thomas Erik; Blomhoff, Rune; Ursin, Giske
In large epidemiological studies it is often challenging to obtain biological samples. Self-sampling by study participants using dried blood spots (DBS) technique has been suggested to overcome this challenge. DBS is a type of biosampling where blood samples are obtained by a finger-prick lancet, blotted and dried on filter paper. However, the feasibility and efficacy of collecting DBS samples from study participants in large-scale epidemiological studies is not known. The aim of the present study was to test the feasibility and response rate of collecting self-sampled DBS and saliva samples in a population–based study of women above 50 years of age. We determined response proportions, number of phone calls to the study center with questions about sampling, and quality of the DBS. We recruited women through a study conducted within the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Invitations, instructions and materials were sent to 4,597 women. The data collection took place over a 3 month period in the spring of 2009. Response proportions for the collection of DBS and saliva samples were 71.0% (3,263) and 70.9% (3,258), respectively. We received 312 phone calls (7% of the 4,597 women) with questions regarding sampling. Of the 3,263 individuals that returned DBS cards, 3,038 (93.1%) had been packaged and shipped according to instructions. A total of 3,032 DBS samples were sufficient for at least one biomarker analysis (i.e. 92.9% of DBS samples received by the laboratory). 2,418 (74.1%) of the DBS cards received by the laboratory were filled with blood according to the instructions (i.e. 10 completely filled spots with up to 7 punches per spot for up to 70 separate analyses). To assess the quality of the samples, we selected and measured two biomarkers (carotenoids and vitamin D). The biomarker levels were consistent with previous reports. Collecting self-sampled DBS and saliva samples through the postal services provides a low cost, effective and feasible
Sara, Grant; Burgess, Philip; Harris, Meredith; Malhi, Gin S; Whiteford, Harvey; Hall, Wayne
To describe the correlates of stimulant use disorders (abuse, dependence) in an Australian population sample, to compare the characteristics of stimulant users with and without stimulant use disorders and to describe the patterns of service use and help-seeking in people with stimulant use disorders. Data were drawn from the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing, which sampled 8841 residents of private dwellings in Australia in 2007. Lifetime DSM-IV substance use and mental disorder diagnoses were obtained from interviews conducted by lay interviewers, using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Socio-demographic, socio-economic and clinical correlates of stimulant use disorders were identified using binary logistic regression models. Stimulant users with and without stimulant use disorders were compared to non-stimulant users via multinomial logistic regression models. Compared to Australians without stimulant use disorder, people with stimulant use disorders were younger, more likely to be male, of non-heterosexual orientation and born in Australia, but were not more socially disadvantaged. Lifetime comorbidity rates were high: 79% of persons with stimulant use disorders had a lifetime alcohol use disorder, 73% a lifetime cannabis use disorder, and more than one third a lifetime mood or anxiety disorder. Stimulant use disorders were associated with a family history of substance use, affective disorders and psychosis. One in five people with lifetime stimulant use disorders had been imprisoned, homeless or hospitalised for substance or mental health problems, and 13% reported at least one symptom of psychosis. Nearly half had sought help for substance or mental health problems, primarily from General Practitioners (GPs), psychologists or psychiatrists. Stimulant use disorders in a representative population sample are associated with significant comorbidity and harm. Many persons with stimulant use disorders had sought care and
Mitchell, Sabrina L; Goodloe, Robert; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Pendergrass, Sarah A; Murdock, Deborah G; Crawford, Dana C
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups are valuable for investigations in forensic science, molecular anthropology, and human genetics. In this study, we developed a custom panel of 61 mtDNA markers for high-throughput classification of European, African, and Native American/Asian mitochondrial haplogroup lineages. Using these mtDNA markers, we constructed a mitochondrial haplogroup classification tree and classified 18,832 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). To our knowledge, this is the largest study to date characterizing mitochondrial haplogroups in a population-based sample from the United States, and the first study characterizing mitochondrial haplogroup distributions in self-identified Mexican Americans separately from Hispanic Americans of other descent. We observed clear differences in the distribution of maternal genetic ancestry consistent with proposed admixture models for these subpopulations, underscoring the genetic heterogeneity of the United States Hispanic population. The mitochondrial haplogroup distributions in the other self-identified racial/ethnic groups within NHANES were largely comparable to previous studies. Mitochondrial haplogroup classification was highly concordant with self-identified race/ethnicity (SIRE) in non-Hispanic whites (94.8 %), but was considerably lower in admixed populations including non-Hispanic blacks (88.3 %), Mexican Americans (81.8 %), and other Hispanics (61.6 %), suggesting SIRE does not accurately reflect maternal genetic ancestry, particularly in populations with greater proportions of admixture. Thus, it is important to consider inconsistencies between SIRE and genetic ancestry when performing genetic association studies. The mitochondrial haplogroup data that we have generated, coupled with the epidemiologic variables in NHANES, is a valuable resource for future studies investigating the contribution of mtDNA variation to human health and disease.
Thai, Phong K; Heffernan, Amy L; Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Li, Zheng; Calafat, Antonia M; Hobson, Peter; Broomhall, Sara; Mueller, Jochen F
Integrated exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be assessed through monitoring of urinary mono-hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs). The aim of this study was to provide the first assessment of exposure to PAHs in a large sample of the population in Queensland, Australia including exposure to infant (0-4years). De-identified urine specimens, obtained from a pathology laboratory, were stratified by age and sex, and pooled (n=24 pools of 100) and OH-PAHs were measured by gas chromatography-isotope dilution-tandem mass spectrometry. Geometric mean (GM) concentrations ranged from 30ng/L (4-hydroxyphenanthrene) to 9221ng/L (1-naphthol). GM of 1-hydroxypyrene, the most commonly used PAH exposure biomarker, was 142ng/L. The concentrations of OH-PAHs found in this study are consistent with those in developed countries and lower than those in developing countries. We observed no association between sex and OH-PAH concentrations. However, we observed lower urinary concentrations of all OH-PAHs in samples from infants (0-4years), children (5-14years) and the elderly (>60year old) compared with samples from other age groups (15-29, 30-44 and 45-59years) which may be attributed to age-dependent behaviour-specific exposure sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hovmøller, M.S.; Munk, L.; Østergård, Hanne
Gene frequencies in samples of aerial populations of barley powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei), which were collected in adjacent barley areas and in successive periods of time, were compared using mobile and stationary sampling techniques. Stationary samples were collected from trap ...
Kery, M.; Royle, J. Andrew; Schmid, Hans
1. The use of predators as indicators and umbrellas in conservation has been criticized. In the Trentino region, Sergio et al. (2006; hereafter SEA) counted almost twice as many bird species in quadrats located in raptor territories than in controls. However, SEA detected astonishingly few species. We used contemporary Swiss Breeding Bird Survey data from an adjacent region and a novel statistical model that corrects for overlooked species to estimate the expected number of bird species per quadrat in that region. 2. There are two anomalies in SEA which render their results ambiguous. First, SEA detected on average only 6.8 species, whereas a value of 32 might be expected. Hence, they probably overlooked almost 80% of all species. Secondly, the precision of their mean species counts was greater in two-thirds of cases than in the unlikely case that all quadrats harboured exactly the same number of equally detectable species. This suggests that they detected consistently only a biased, unrepresentative subset of species. 3. Conceptually, expected species counts are the product of true species number and species detectability p. Plenty of factors may affect p, including date, hour, observer, previous knowledge of a site and mobbing behaviour of passerines in the presence of predators. Such differences in p between raptor and control quadrats could have easily created the observed effects. Without a method that corrects for such biases, or without quantitative evidence that species detectability was indeed similar between raptor and control quadrats, the meaning of SEA's counts is hard to evaluate. Therefore, the evidence presented by SEA in favour of raptors as indicator species for enhanced levels of biodiversity remains inconclusive. 4. Synthesis and application. Ecologists should pay greater attention to sampling design and analysis in animal population estimation. Species richness estimation means sampling a community. Samples should be representative for the
Marie L Hale
Full Text Available One of the most common questions asked before starting a new population genetic study using microsatellite allele frequencies is "how many individuals do I need to sample from each population?" This question has previously been answered by addressing how many individuals are needed to detect all of the alleles present in a population (i.e. rarefaction based analyses. However, we argue that obtaining accurate allele frequencies and accurate estimates of diversity are much more important than detecting all of the alleles, given that very rare alleles (i.e. new mutations are not very informative for assessing genetic diversity within a population or genetic structure among populations. Here we present a comparison of allele frequencies, expected heterozygosities and genetic distances between real and simulated populations by randomly subsampling 5-100 individuals from four empirical microsatellite genotype datasets (Formica lugubris, Sciurus vulgaris, Thalassarche melanophris, and Himantopus novaezelandia to create 100 replicate datasets at each sample size. Despite differences in taxon (two birds, one mammal, one insect, population size, number of loci and polymorphism across loci, the degree of differences between simulated and empirical dataset allele frequencies, expected heterozygosities and pairwise F(ST values were almost identical among the four datasets at each sample size. Variability in allele frequency and expected heterozygosity among replicates decreased with increasing sample size, but these decreases were minimal above sample sizes of 25 to 30. Therefore, there appears to be little benefit in sampling more than 25 to 30 individuals per population for population genetic studies based on microsatellite allele frequencies.
Hale, Marie L.; Burg, Theresa M.; Steeves, Tammy E.
One of the most common questions asked before starting a new population genetic study using microsatellite allele frequencies is “how many individuals do I need to sample from each population?” This question has previously been answered by addressing how many individuals are needed to detect all of the alleles present in a population (i.e. rarefaction based analyses). However, we argue that obtaining accurate allele frequencies and accurate estimates of diversity are much more important than detecting all of the alleles, given that very rare alleles (i.e. new mutations) are not very informative for assessing genetic diversity within a population or genetic structure among populations. Here we present a comparison of allele frequencies, expected heterozygosities and genetic distances between real and simulated populations by randomly subsampling 5–100 individuals from four empirical microsatellite genotype datasets (Formica lugubris, Sciurus vulgaris, Thalassarche melanophris, and Himantopus novaezelandia) to create 100 replicate datasets at each sample size. Despite differences in taxon (two birds, one mammal, one insect), population size, number of loci and polymorphism across loci, the degree of differences between simulated and empirical dataset allele frequencies, expected heterozygosities and pairwise FST values were almost identical among the four datasets at each sample size. Variability in allele frequency and expected heterozygosity among replicates decreased with increasing sample size, but these decreases were minimal above sample sizes of 25 to 30. Therefore, there appears to be little benefit in sampling more than 25 to 30 individuals per population for population genetic studies based on microsatellite allele frequencies. PMID:22984627
Glover, Kevin A.; Skaala, Øystein; Limborg, Morten
Glover, K. A., Skaala, Ø., Limborg, M., Kvamme, C., and Torstensen, E. Microsatellite DNA reveals population genetic differentiation among sprat (Sprattus sprattus) sampled throughout the Northeast Atlantic, including Norwegian fjords. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 68: 2145–2151. Sprat (Sprat...... display population genetic differentiation throughout the Northeast Atlantic, and there may be limited connectivity between Norwegian fjord and sea-going populations.......Glover, K. A., Skaala, Ø., Limborg, M., Kvamme, C., and Torstensen, E. Microsatellite DNA reveals population genetic differentiation among sprat (Sprattus sprattus) sampled throughout the Northeast Atlantic, including Norwegian fjords. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 68: 2145–2151. Sprat...
Whisman, Mark A; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Chatav, Yael
Predictors of 12-month prevalence of sexual infidelity were examined in a population-based sample of married individuals (N = 2,291). Predictor variables were organized in terms of involved-partner (e.g., personality, religiosity), marital (e.g., marital dissatisfaction, partner affair), and extradyadic (e.g., parenting) variables. Annual prevalence of infidelity was 2.3%. Controlling for marital dissatisfaction and demographic variables, infidelity was predicted by greater neuroticism and lower religiosity; wives' pregnancy also increased the risk of infidelity for husbands. In comparison, self-esteem and partners' suspected affair were predictive of infidelity when controlling for demographic variables but were not uniquely predictive of infidelity when also controlling for marital dissatisfaction. Religiosity and wives' pregnancy moderated the association between marital dissatisfaction and infidelity.
Wang, Hong-Mei; Patrick, Donald L; Edwards, Todd C; Skalicky, Anne M; Zeng, Hai-Yan; Gu, Wen-Wen
To evaluate the reliability and validity of the EQ-5D in a general population sample in urban China. Thousand and eight hundred respondents in 18 communities of Hangzhou, China were recruited by multi-stage stratified random sampling. Respondents self-administered a questionnaire including the EQ-5D, the SF-36, and demographic questions. Test-retest reliability at 2-week intervals was evaluated using Kappa coefficient, the intraclass correlation coefficient. The standard error of measurement (SEM) was used to indicate the absolute measurement error. Construct validity was established using convergent, discriminant, and known groups analyses. Complete data for all EQ-5D dimensions were available for 1,747 respondents (97%). Kappa values were from 0.35 to 1.0. The ICCs of test-retest reliability were 0.53 for the EQ-5D index score and 0.87 for the EQ VAS score. The SEM values were 0.13 (9.22% range) and 4.20 (4.20% range) for the EQ-5D index and EQ VAS scores, respectively. The Pearson's correlation coefficients between the EQ-5D and the SF-36 were stronger between comparable dimensions than those between less comparable dimensions, demonstrating convergent and discriminant evidence of construct validity. The Chinese EQ-5D distinguished well between known groups: respondents who reported poor general health and chronic diseases had worse HRQoL than those without. Older people, females, people widowed or divorced, and those with a lower socioeconomic status reported poorer HRQoL. Respondents reporting no problems on any EQ-5D dimension had better scores on the SF-36 summary scores than those reporting problems. The Chinese version of the EQ-5D demonstrated acceptable construct validity and fair to moderate levels of test-retest reliability in an urban general population in China.
Forrester-Knauss, Christine; Zemp Stutz, Elisabeth; Weiss, Carine; Tschudin, Sibil
Research about the relationship between premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and major depression is limited. This study examined the relationship between moderate to severe PMS and major depression in a population-based sample of women of reproductive age. The objectives of the study were to assess the association between premenstrual syndrome and major depression, to analyse how PMS and major depression differ and to characterise the group of women who report both PMS and major depression. Data were obtained from the Swiss Health Survey 2007. Included in the analysis was data from women under the age of 55 without hysterectomy and who answered the questions on PMS symptoms. The population-based sample consisted of 3518 women. Weighted prevalence rates were calculated and relative risk ratios for PMS, major depression and women who reported both PMS and major depression, were calculated with logistic multinominal logit regression. The prevalence of major depression was 11.3% in women screening positive for moderate PMS and 24.6% in women screening positive for severe PMS. Compared to women without any of these conditions, women who reported moderate to severe alcohol consumption had a lower risk for PMS. Women reporting use of antidepressants, and use of oral contraceptives had a higher risk for major depression compared to women without any of these conditions. Women reporting work dissatisfaction had a higher risk for PMS. A higher relative risk to report both PMS and major depression compared to women without PMS or major depression was related to factors such as high psychological distress, low mastery, psychotropic drug consumption, and low self-rated health. The results suggested that women who suffer from both PMS and major depression are more impaired compared to women with only one disorder. The results further indicated that PMS and major depression are different disorders that can, however, co-occur.
Maria do Céu Costa
Full Text Available This is an exploratory and correlational study, with an initial number of 150 participants using a convenience sampling from five medical clinics and five centers of traditional Chinese medicine in Lisbon, where subjects were allowed to respond voluntarily to questionnaires. A response rate of 74% (N = 111 was achieved. Adherence to acupuncture is higher in females and in the age group 31-50 years (40% men and 48% women. Muscle and joint problems, in addition to psychological disorders are described as the most common reasons for recourse to acupuncture, although it is also referred to as an effective treatment for other types of complaints. However, acupuncture is not the first treatment that the people turn to. It is recognized that results may occur in the medium to long term and after several therapy sessions. This does not seem to affect the study population's perception of the treatment which is shown to be content with very good and/or good value for money (53%. Overall, the majority of the population (93% relies on the therapy for the good and/or very good (79% or reasonable (16% results obtained, and shows trust (88% in the competences of the health care provider who performs the acupuncture.
Zahrakhanom Hashemi DDS
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A wide range of oral health conditions has been studies in disabled populations. Many studies showedthat the oral health of individuals who were disabled was poor and their oral treatment needs were greater than those ofthe general population. This study aimed to determine caries experience, levels of oral hygiene, periodontal health andprevalence of malocclusion in a sample of disabled subjects.METHODS: Five special care needs schools were randomly selected from the list of schools in Kerman and all attendantswere examined for dental status on the basis of WHO criteria, gingival health and oral hygiene behaviors. Data wereanalyzed by ANOVA and chi-square tests.RESULTS: There were 297 participants in the study. The most frequent group of disability was mental retard. The meandecayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT score was 5.14. Ninety percent of subjects had gingival inflammation. Therewas no significant (P = 0.34 difference between caries experiences of different disable groups.CONCLUSIONS: Oral hygiene of disabled groups was poor and their caries experience rate was very high. Special oralhealth care program for them is recommended
Uemura, Yusuke; Wada-Isoe, Kenji; Nakashita, Satoko; Nakashima, Kenji
Mild parkinsonian signs (MPS) may represent the mild end of a disease spectrum that spans from normal aging to neurodegenerative diseases. We conducted a population-based study in a rural island town in western Japan, Ama-cho. Participants included 1129 subjects, aged 60 years and older, residing in the town. Participants were classified according to a modified Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (mUPDRS) score. MPS was determined to be present if any of the following conditions were met: (1) two or more mUPDRS ratings=1 [MPS-mild]; (2) one mUPDRS rating≥2; or (3) mUPDRS rest tremor rating≥1; [(2) and (3): MPS-severe]. Subjects wore a uniaxial accelerometer (Actiwatch), resulting in the measurement of actigraphic activity counts (AC). Of the 804 participants with complete data, 178 subjects (22.1%) were classified as demonstrating MPS. AC was significantly lower in the MPS-severe group compared with both the CTL and the MPS-mild groups. Diagnostic sensitivity for MPS-severe became 100% when we adopted a cutoff point of low physical activity, as measured by actigraphy, combined with the presence of subjective depression. We established the prevalence of MPS in a community-dwelling elderly population sample in Japan. Actigraphy may be a useful objective tool for screening MPS-severe. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Malone, Susan Kohl; Patterson, Freda; Lu, Yinghui; Lozano, Alicia; Hanlon, Alexandra
This cross-sectional population study examined associations of sleep duration and morning–evening type with sociodemographic and cardiometabolic disease in adults participating in the UK Biobank study (N = 439 933). Multivariable Poisson regression models of sleep duration and morning–evening type with a robust error variance were generated to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. All models were adjusted for sex, race, college attendance, employment status and age. Twenty five percent of the sample reported short sleep; 27% were morning, 64% intermediate and 9% evening type. Black ethnicity emerged as most strongly associated with sleep behavior. Short sleep was twice as prevalent, and morning versus intermediate type was 1.4 times more prevalent in Black than White participants. The greater prevalence of short sleep and morning type among Blacks suggests that sleep-based approaches to improving cardiometabolic outcomes may require a more multidimensional approach that encompasses adequate sleep and circadian alignment in this population. PMID:26654569
Lavigne-Moreira, Carolina; Marques, Vanessa Daccach; Magno Gonçalves, Marcus V; Fernandes de Oliveira, Mauricio; Tomaselli, Pedro J; Nunez, José; Moreira do Nascimento, Osvaldo J; Barreira, Amilton Antunes; Marques, Wilson
To present the genetic heterogeneity of a sample of the Brazilian population with TTR mutations. This cohort study was descriptive and retrospective, and enrolled patients with peripheral neuropathy of unknown cause that were found to have a mutation in the TTR gene during the process of etiological investigation, between July 1997 to January 2016. Over the study period, 129 point mutations were identified in 448 tested patients, of whom 128 were of Brazilian origin. The TTR Val30Met mutation was identified in 116 patients (90,6%); while seven (4,7%) patients had a pathogenic non-TTR mutation and seven (4,7%) carried non-pathogenic mutations (4.7%). The four non-TTRMet30 pathogenic mutations were TTR Aps38Tyr; TTR Ile107Val; TTR Val71Ala; and TTR Val122Ile. In the non-pathogenic group, we only found two mutations, including TTR Gly6Ser and TTR Thr119Thr. Our study depicts a scenario of greater genetic heterogeneity among Brazilian hATTR patients with FAP. We expect that this number will grow fast over a short period of time, due to increasing availability of genetic tests, increasing knowledge of the disease and the multivariate origin of our population. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Barnett, Jennifer H; Werners, Ursula; Secher, Sandra M; Hill, Katherine E; Brazil, Rossa; Masson, Kim; Pernet, David E; Kirkbride, James B; Murray, Graham K; Bullmore, Ed T; Jones, Peter B
Substance use is implicated in the cause and course of psychosis. To characterise substance and alcohol use in an epidemiologically representative treatment sample of people experiencing a first psychotic episode in south Cambridgeshire. Current and lifetime substance use was recorded for 123 consecutive referrals to a specialist early intervention service. Substance use was compared with general population prevalence estimates from the British Crime Survey. Substance use among people with first-episode psychosis was twice that of the general population and was more common in men than women. Cannabis abuse was reported in 51% of patients (n=62) and alcohol abuse in 43% (n=53). More than half (n=68, 55%) had used Class A drugs, and 38% (n=43) reported polysubstance abuse. Age at first use of cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy and amphetamine was significantly associated with age at first psychotic symptom. Substance misuse is present in the majority of people with first-episode psychosis and has major implications for management. The association between age at first substance use and first psychotic symptoms has public health implications.
Matthew D Carling
Full Text Available Theoretical work suggests that data from multiple nuclear loci provide better estimates of population genetic parameters than do single loci, but just how many loci are needed and how much sequence is required from each has been little explored.To investigate how much data is required to estimate the population genetic parameter theta (4N(emu accurately under ideal circumstances, we simulated datasets of DNA sequences under three values of theta per site (0.1, 0.01, 0.001, varying in both the total number of base pairs sequenced per individual and the number of equal-length loci. From these datasets we estimated theta using the maximum likelihood coalescent framework implemented in the computer program Migrate. Our results corroborated the theoretical expectation that increasing the number of loci impacted the accuracy of the estimate more than increasing the sequence length at single loci. However, when the value of theta was low (0.001, the per-locus sequence length was also important for estimating theta accurately, something that has not been emphasized in previous work.Accurate estimation of theta required data from at least 25 independently evolving loci. Beyond this, there was little added benefit in terms of decreasing the squared coefficient of variation of the coalescent estimates relative to the extra effort required to sample more loci.
Federico C F Calboli
Full Text Available Neuroticism is a moderately heritable personality trait considered to be a risk factor for developing major depression, anxiety disorders and dementia. We performed a genome-wide association study in 2,235 participants drawn from a population-based study of neuroticism, making this the largest association study for neuroticism to date. Neuroticism was measured by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. After Quality Control, we analysed 430,000 autosomal SNPs together with an additional 1.2 million SNPs imputed with high quality from the Hap Map CEU samples. We found a very small effect of population stratification, corrected using one principal component, and some cryptic kinship that required no correction. NKAIN2 showed suggestive evidence of association with neuroticism as a main effect (p < 10(-6 and GPC6 showed suggestive evidence for interaction with age (p approximately = 10(-7. We found support for one previously-reported association (PDE4D, but failed to replicate other recent reports. These results suggest common SNP variation does not strongly influence neuroticism. Our study was powered to detect almost all SNPs explaining at least 2% of heritability, and so our results effectively exclude the existence of loci having a major effect on neuroticism.
Full Text Available Introduction: Palatoscopy is the study of palatal rugae pattern and it can be used to establish the identity of a person. The rugae are unique internal structures protected by the lips, buccal pad of fat and teeth that resist decomposition, thus serving an important role in forensic identification. The appearance of palatal rugae is constant, as they do not demonstrate changes after the completion of growth of the individual, thus increasing its utility as a personal identification tool. Aims and Objectives: To study the prevalence of different palatal rugae patterns in a sample of Lucknow, India population. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 100 healthy (50 males and 50 females subjects of age between 18 and 40 years, who were randomly selected. In this study we used the classification of rugae patterns suggested by Kapali et al. (straight, curved, wavy andcircular, and Thomas and Kotze (unification and nonspecific. Results: The mean rugae number in females was slightly more than males. The most prevalent forms in both genders were curved type followed by wavy, straight and diverging types. Straight and curved forms were significantly more in numbers in females than males. Conclusion: This is a preliminary study on a localized Indian population. Scope still exists for further studies to determine gender as well as personal identification. We believe that rugae can be used as a reliable guide in forensic identification.
Di Luca, Daniel Garbin; de Oliveira, Diogo Costa Leandro; Guimarães, Luis Eduardo Reis; Tamiasso, Gabriel Cruz; Goulart, Lis Bastos Zampier; Rosa, Maria Luiza Garcia; Lugon, Jocemir Ronaldo
The consolidation of nephrology as a medical specialty is relatively new and its denomination does not intuitively reflects its true scope. To assess the degree of knowledge from a population sample regarding the term "nephrology". We carried out a cross-sectional study in Niterói, RJ, with adult passerby individuals answering to the question "Do you know what nephrology is?". The variables recorded included: gender, age, skin-color, residence, income, educational level and kidney-disease history in the family. p values 30 years. The mean age among participants was 39 (22-56) years, 49% were males and 56% caucasians. Twenty-eight percent of the interviewees knew the term "nephrology". Their knowledge came from school (39%) and family (30%). Those who knew about the term "nephrology" were older (42 ± 17 vs. 39 ± 17 years, p nephrology", illustrating the specialty's low penetration. We must strive to popularize this field of medicine aiming at better educating the population concerning the prevention and care of kidney diseases.
Køster, B; Søndergaard, J; Nielsen, J B; Olsen, A; Bentzen, J
An important feature of questionnaire validation is reliability. To be able to measure a given concept by questionnaire validly, the reliability needs to be high. The objectives of this study were to examine reliability of attitude and knowledge and behavioral consistency of sunburn in a developed questionnaire for monitoring and evaluating population sun-related behavior. Sun related behavior, attitude and knowledge was measured weekly by a questionnaire in the summer of 2013 among 664 Danes. Reliability was tested in a test-retest design. Consistency of behavioral information was tested similarly in a questionnaire adapted to measure behavior throughout the summer. The response rates for questionnaire 1, 2 and 3 were high and the drop out was not dependent on demographic characteristic. There was at least 73% agreement between sunburns in the measurement week and the entire summer, and a possible sunburn underestimation in questionnaires summarizing the entire summer. The participants underestimated their outdoor exposure in the evaluation covering the entire summer as compared to the measurement week. The reliability of scales measuring attitude and knowledge was high for majority of scales, while consistency in protection behavior was low. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report reliability for a completely validated questionnaire on sun-related behavior in a national random population based sample. Further, we show that attitude and knowledge questions confirmed their validity with good reliability, while consistency of protection behavior in general and in a week's measurement was low.
Concepción María Jiménez Fernández
Full Text Available In this article it is described the investigation carried out from the analysis of school libraries webs of Andalusia and Estremadura in order to establish a diagnosis of the situation as for his pedagogic, formative and informative value. There are described the aims as well as the methodology followed for the accomplishment of the study, and the conclusions obtained after analyzing 517 webs that form the sample here studied. It finishes with a proposal to design an ideal school library web.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health illnesses, such as depression, are responsible for a growing disease burden worldwide. Unfortunately, effective treatment is often impeded by stigmatizing attitudes of other individuals, which have been found to lead to a number of negative consequences including reduced help-seeking behavior and increased social distance. Despite the high prevalence of depression in Canada, little research has been conducted to examine stigma against depression in the Canadian general population. Such information is crucial to understanding the current state of stigmatizing attitudes in the Canadian communities, and framing future stigma reduction initiatives. The objectives of this study were to estimate the percentages of various stigmatizing attitudes toward depression in a general population sample and to compare the percentages by demographics and socioeconomic characteristics. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional telephone survey in Alberta, Canada, between February and June 2006. Random digit dialing was used to recruit participants who were aged 18-74 years old (n = 3047. Participants were presented a case vignette describing a depressed individual, and responded to a 9-item Personal Stigma questionnaire. The percentages of stigmatizing attitudes were estimated and compared by demographic and socioeconomic variables. Results Among the participants, 45.9% endorsed that depressed individuals were unpredictable and 21.9% held the view that people with depression were dangerous. Significant differences in stigmatizing attitudes were found by gender, age, education, and immigration status. A greater proportion of men than women held stigmatizing views on each stigma item. No consistent trend emerged by age in stigma against depression. Participants with higher levels of education reported less stigmatizing attitudes than those with less education. Participants who were not born in Canada were more likely to hold
Brera, Carlo; Debegnach, Francesca; Minardi, Valentina; Prantera, Elisabetta; Pannunzi, Elena; Faleo, Silvia; de Santis, Barbara; Miraglia, Marina
The scope of this study was to evaluate the exposure of the Italian population to ochratoxin A (OTA) attributable to wine consumption. With this aim 1166 wine samples (773 red wines, 290 white, 75 rose, and 28 dessert wines), collected in 19 different Italian regions and mostly produced between 1988 and 2004, were analyzed for OTA content. The obtained results are reported by year of harvest, geographical area of production, and type of wine. Red wine showed the highest maximum level of contamination (7.50 ng/mL), even though rose wines were characterized by a higher mean value (0.01 ng/mL). A gradually increasing mean concentration was also observed from the north (0.05 ng/mL) to south of Italy (0.54 ng/mL). Exposure calculations, performed using two different consumption databases, indicate a daily intake for consumer only of 0.59 up to 1.24 ng/(kg of b.w.)/day and of 0.33 up to 0.90 ng/(kg of b.w.)/day for the total population. Even in the worst case, corresponding to the calculation of the intake for consumers only in southern Italy and Islands and considering the mean consumption data increased by 1 standard deviation, a quite low exposure (1.68 ng/(kg of b.w.)/day, accounting for 9.8% of TDI) was obtained. Considering the overall OTA dietary exposure, obtained exposure rates indicate that wine did not pose a risk to the Italian population health.
Lacerda, Miguel; Seoighe, Cathal
Longitudinal allele frequency data are becoming increasingly prevalent. Such samples permit statistical inference of the population genetics parameters that influence the fate of mutant variants. To infer these parameters by maximum likelihood, the mutant frequency is often assumed to evolve according to the Wright-Fisher model. For computational reasons, this discrete model is commonly approximated by a diffusion process that requires the assumption that the forces of natural selection and mutation are weak. This assumption is not always appropriate. For example, mutations that impart drug resistance in pathogens may evolve under strong selective pressure. Here, we present an alternative approximation to the mutant-frequency distribution that does not make any assumptions about the magnitude of selection or mutation and is much more computationally efficient than the standard diffusion approximation. Simulation studies are used to compare the performance of our method to that of the Wright-Fisher and Gaussian diffusion approximations. For large populations, our method is found to provide a much better approximation to the mutant-frequency distribution when selection is strong, while all three methods perform comparably when selection is weak. Importantly, maximum-likelihood estimates of the selection coefficient are severely attenuated when selection is strong under the two diffusion models, but not when our method is used. This is further demonstrated with an application to mutant-frequency data from an experimental study of bacteriophage evolution. We therefore recommend our method for estimating the selection coefficient when the effective population size is too large to utilize the discrete Wright-Fisher model. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.
Full Text Available Recent HIV research suggested assessing adverse childhood experiences (ACEs as contributing factors of HIV risk behaviors. However, studies often focused on a single type of adverse experience and very few utilized population-based data. This population study examined the associations between ACE (individual and cumulative ACE score and HIV risk behaviors. We analyzed the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS from 5 states. The sample consisted of 39,434 adults. Eight types of ACEs that included different types of child abuse and household dysfunctions before the age of 18 were measured. A cumulative score of ACEs was also computed. Logistic regression estimated of the association between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors using odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for males and females separately. We found that ACEs were positively associated with HIV risk behaviors overall, but the associations differed between males and females in a few instances. While the cumulative ACE score was associated with HIV risk behaviors in a stepwise manner, the pattern varied by gender. For males, the odds of HIV risk increased at a significant level as long as they experienced one ACE, whereas for females, the odds did not increase until they experienced three or more ACEs. Future research should further investigate the gender-specific associations between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors. As childhood adversities are prevalent among general population, and such experiences are associated with increased risk behaviors for HIV transmission, service providers can benefit from the principles of trauma-informed practice.
Fawibe, Ademola Emmanuel; Odeigah, Louis O; Saka, Mohammed J
The increasing importance of pulmonary function testing in diagnosing and managing lung diseases and assessing improvement has necessitated the need for locally derived reference equations from a sample of the general Nigerian population. It was a cross sectional study in which we used linear regression models to obtain equations for reference values and lower limits of normal for spirometric indices in adult Nigerians from a sample of the general population aged 18-65 years (males) and 18-63 years (females). Seven hundred and twenty participants made up of 358 males and 362 females who satisfactorily completed the spirometric measurements using the ATS/ERS reproducibility and acceptability criteria were included in the analysis. The most important predictive variables were height and age. The values of the spirometic indices increase with increasing stature but decrease with increasing age in both sexes. The sex difference in all the indices is also apparent as all the indices, except FEV 1 /FVC, are higher in men than in women. Our values are higher than values obtained from previous studies in Nigeria (except FEV 1 /FVC) but the differences were not statistically significant. This suggests that although the values are increasing, the increase is yet to be significantly different from values obtained using the past equations. The implication of this is that there is need for periodic study to derive new equations so as to recognise when there is significant difference. There was no significant difference between values from our equations and those obtained from study among Ethiopians. Compared to report from Iran, our FVC and FEV 1 values (in males and females) as well as PEFR (in females) are significantly lower. Our values are also lower than values from Poland. We also observed disparities between our values and those of Afro Americans from the GLI study. Our findings show that it is important to always interpret ventilatory function tests in any individual by
Scott, Roger L; Lasiuk, Gerri; Norris, Colleen
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between sexual orientation and depression in a nationally representative population to determine if sexual minorities report higher levels of depression than the remainder of the population. Depression is a highly prevalent and disabling chronic disorder worldwide. Prior research utilizing national population samples have reported that members of sexual minorities are at higher risk for depression when compared to heterosexual people. More recent studies have revealed differences in depression risk based on sexual orientation, sexual activity and sex. There have been significant shifts in societal attitudes towards sexual minorities in recent decades. Continuing research into predictors for reporting depression amongst sexual minorities is needed. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cycles 2005-2012 were used to identify sexual minority status based on declared sexual orientation and presence of same-sex sexual activity. Complex samples logistic and multivariate regression models were used to predict depression adjusted for sexual orientation, sexual activity, age, sex, marital status, education, income, race/ethnicity, employment and health status. Sexual orientation was not a significant independent predictor of depressive symptoms overall. Gay men reported lower levels of depressive symptoms than heterosexual men. In the sex stratified analyses, men who reported having sex with men were five times more likely to report depressive symptomatology compared to men who reported opposite sex partners (2005-2008 adjusted odds ratios: 5·00; 95% confidence interval: 1·44-17·38; 2009-2012 adjusted odds ratios: 5·10; 95% confidence interval: 1·33-19·54) after controlling for sexual orientation. Results of our analyses indicate that homosexually experienced heterosexual men appear to be at highest risk for depression. Furthermore, reported physical health status was a significant independent predictor
Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aimed at presenting normative data for both parallel forms of the "Rasch-based Depression Screening (DESC", to examine its Rasch model conformity and convergent and divergent validity based on a representative sample of the German general population. Methods The sample was selected with the assistance of a demographic consulting company applying a face to face interview (N = 2509; mean age = 49.4, SD = 18.2; 55.8% women. Adherence to Rasch model assumptions was determined with analysis of Rasch model fit (infit and outfit, unidimensionality, local independence (principal component factor analysis of the residuals, PCFAR and differential item functioning (DIF with regard to participants' age and gender. Norm values were calculated. Convergent and divergent validity was determined through intercorrelations with the depression and anxiety subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D and HADS-A. Results Fit statistics were below critical values (rDESC-I = .61 and rDESC-II = .60, whereas correlations with HADS-A were rDESC-I = .62 and rDESC-II = .60. Conclusions This study provided further support for the psychometric quality of the DESC. Both forms of the DESC adhered to Rasch model assumptions and showed intercorrelations with HADS subscales that are in line with the literature. The presented normative data offer important advancements for the interpretation of the questionnaire scores and enhance its usefulness for clinical and research applications.
Miner, Michael H.; Swinburne Romine, Rebecca E.; Hamilton, Autumn; Coleman, Eli
Objectives. We assessed the association between minority stress, mental health, and potential ameliorating factors in a large, community-based, geographically diverse sample of the US transgender population. Methods. In 2003, we recruited through the Internet a sample of 1093 male-to-female and female-to-male transgender persons, stratified by gender. Participants completed an online survey that included standardized measures of mental health. Guided by the minority stress model, we evaluated associations between stigma and mental health and tested whether indicators of resilience (family support, peer support, identity pride) moderated these associations. Results. Respondents had a high prevalence of clinical depression (44.1%), anxiety (33.2%), and somatization (27.5%). Social stigma was positively associated with psychological distress. Peer support (from other transgender people) moderated this relationship. We found few differences by gender identity. Conclusions. Our findings support the minority stress model. Prevention needs to confront social structures, norms, and attitudes that produce minority stress for gender-variant people; enhance peer support; and improve access to mental health and social services that affirm transgender identity and promote resilience. PMID:23488522
Full Text Available In order to study morphometric variations in Odontotermes obesus (Rambur, samples from nineteen nests were statistically analyzed for mean, standard deviation, standard error, coefficient of variability and confidence interval (95% and analysis of variance (Model II ANOVA, The mean values of the different population samples were compared with the student t-test, following the Minitab version and Sokal & Rohlf (1973. In the study of external characters, measurements form a very important component, particularly for identification of species. However, the reliability of the measurements depends on the extent of variability which the structures show within and between colonies. For each individual soldier, the following nine parameters were measured: i length of head; ii width of head at mandibles; iii width of head at the posterolateral ends of antennal carinae; iv maximum width of head; v length of left mandible; vi tooth of left mandible from tip; vii length of pronotum; viii width of pronotum; ix length of postmentum; and x width of postmentum.
Frith, Emily; Shivappa, Nitin; Mann, Joshua R; Hébert, James R; Wirth, Michael D; Loprinzi, Paul D
The objective of this study was to examine the association between dietary inflammatory potential and memory and cognitive functioning among a representative sample of the US older adult population. Cross-sectional data from the 2011-2012 and 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were utilised to identify an aggregate sample of adults 60-85 years of age (n 1723). Dietary inflammatory index (DII®) scores were calculated using 24-h dietary recall interviews. Three memory-related assessments were employed, including the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD) Word Learning subset, the Animal Fluency test and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST). Inverse associations were observed between DII scores and the different memory parameters. Episodic memory (CERAD) (b adjusted=-0·39; 95 % CI -0·79, 0·00), semantic-based memory (Animal Fluency Test) (b adjusted=-1·18; 95 % CI -2·17, -0·20) and executive function and working-memory (DSST) (b adjusted=-2·80; 95 % CI -5·58, -0·02) performances were lowest among those with the highest mean DII score. Though inverse relationships were observed between DII scores and memory and cognitive functioning, future work is needed to further explore the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the complex relationship between inflammation-related dietary behaviour and memory and cognition.
Juan A. Tamayo
Full Text Available This study’s main objective is to determine the influence of innovation and cooperation on the competitiveness of SMEs in the metal-mechanic sector of Andalusia (Spain. Using information obtained by interviewing managers of a sample of 80 firms, we proposed a model of structural equations based on the Partial Least Squares (PLS technique. This model, which explained 37% of the variability of competitiveness, also allowed us to test hypotheses about the positive influence of quality management, knowledge, financial resources and cooperation on innovative outcomes. Along with the contrasted hypotheses, the most noteworthy finding was that cooperation does not significantly influence the innovative outcomes of firms in this sector.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recruiting large and representative samples of adolescent and young adult (AYA cancer survivors is important for gaining accurate data regarding the prevalence of unmet needs in this population. This study aimed to describe recruitment rates for AYAs recruited through a cancer registry with particular focus on: active clinician consent protocols, reasons for clinicians not providing consent and the representativeness of the final sample. Methods Adolescents and young adults aged 14 to19 years inclusive and listed on the cancer registry from January 1 2002 to December 31 2007 were identified. An active clinician consent protocol was used whereby the registry sent a letter to AYAs primary treating clinicians requesting permission to contact the survivors. The registry then sent survivors who received their clinician's consent a letter seeking permission to forward their contact details to the research team. Consenting AYAs were sent a questionnaire which assessed their unmet needs. Results The overall consent rate for AYAs identified as eligible by the registry was 7.8%. Of the 411 potentially eligible survivors identified, just over half (n = 232, 56% received their clinician's consent to be contacted. Of those 232 AYAs, 65% were unable to be contacted. Only 18 AYAs (7.8% refused permission for their contact details to be passed on to the research team. Of the 64 young people who agreed to be contacted, 50% (n = 32 completed the questionnaire. Conclusions Cancer registries which employ active clinician consent protocols may not be appropriate for recruiting large, representative samples of AYAs diagnosed with cancer. Given that AYA cancer survivors are highly mobile, alternative methods such as treatment centre and clinic based recruitment may need to be considered.
Leenarts, L E W; Dölitzsch, C; Pérez, T; Schmeck, K; Fegert, J M; Schmid, M
Studies have shown that youths with high psychopathic traits have an earlier onset of delinquent behavior, have higher levels of delinquent behavior, and show higher rates of recidivism than youths with low psychopathic traits. Furthermore, psychopathic traits have received much attention as a robust indicator for delinquent and aggressive behavior in both boys and girls. However, there is a notable lack of research on gender differences in the relationship between psychopathic traits and delinquent behavior. In addition, most of the studies on psychopathic traits and delinquent behavior were conducted in high-risk samples. Therefore, the first objective of the current study was to investigate the relationship between psychopathic traits and specific forms of self-reported delinquency in a high-risk sample for juvenile delinquency as well as in a general population sample. The second objective was to examine the influence of gender on this relationship. Finally, we investigated whether the moderating effect of gender was comparable in the high-risk sample for juvenile delinquency and the general population sample. Participants were 1220 adolescents of the German-speaking part of Switzerland (N = 351 high-risk sample, N = 869 general population sample) who were between 13 and 21 years of age. The Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory (YPI) was used to assess psychopathic traits. To assess the lifetime prevalence of the adolescents' delinquent behavior, 15 items derived from a self-report delinquency instrument were used. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between gender, psychopathic traits and self-reported delinquency across both samples. Our results demonstrated that psychopathic traits are related to non-violent and violent offenses. We found no moderating effect of gender and therefore we could not detect differences in the moderating effect of gender between the samples. However, there was a moderating effect of sample for
Calvo-Calvo, Manuel-Ángel; Morgado Almenara, Isabel; Gentil Govantes, Miguel Ángel; Moreno Rodríguez, Andrés; Puertas Cruz, Teresa; García Álvarez, Teresa; Carmona Vílchez, María Dolores
Information provided by health professionals to potential donors and recipients is essential for an autonomous and objective decision to make a living kidney donation. To determine the characteristics of the information received by living kidney donors and recipients, to find out their socio-sanitary profile, their socio-demographics, financial and labour characteristics, health and the caregiving activity of these donors and recipients. Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study of the population of living kidney donors and recipients from the University Hospitals Puerta del Mar (Cádiz), Virgen del Rocío (Seville), and the University Hospital Complex of Granada, between 08/04/2014 and 08/06/2015. According to the 40 living kidney donors and their 40 recipients surveyed, it is mainly nephrologists who make people aware and provide information about living kidney donation. Almost half of recipients require more information so the evaluation processes and pre-donation information should be updated. In general, the living kidney donor is female, aged 50, with primary/secondary education, lives with a partner and is related to the kidney recipient. Also, the living kidney donor is in paid employment, is overweight, perceives her health as very good or good, and does not smoke or drink alcohol. However, the typical living kidney recipient is male, aged 44 and has completed secondary school studies and vocational training. Furthermore, he does not work, perceives his health as good or regular, and he is an independent person for activities of daily living. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study compared the efficacies of total block counts (BC and distance sampling (DS procedures to estimate the abundance of chamois populations in two mountain massifs, Posets and Maladeta, Spain. In 2002, 2006, 2007, and 2008, chamois populations were surveyed along itineraries above the timberline, twice per year: in July, after the parturition period, and in November, during the rut. The latter survey was used to estimate the sex ratio and to correct the proportion of males present in July. In 2008, poor weather prevented surveys in November. In the DS procedure, we used the data collected using BC and calculated the distances of the mapped groups to the itinerary, using a Geographical Information System. In Posets, estimates of population densities derived using BC ranged from 5.5 to 9.1 chamois km-2, while those derived using DS ranged from 7.5 to 9.7 chamois km-2. In Maladeta, the estimates ranged from 3.4 to 5.4 chamois km-2 (BC and from 4.6 to 8.5 chamois km-2 (DS. Coefficients of variation of DS ranged between 14% and 26%. In five of eight cases the counts of population size derived from BC were within the 95% confidence interval of the estimate derived from DS. In two of the other three cases, weather conditions created poor visibility during the rut, and few chamois were seen and, consequently, the rut sex ratio could not be estimated. BC provided objective, high-quality counts of chamois populations and it is easy to obtain, even if its efficacy can be constrained by the need of simultaneous itineraries and an underestimation of unknown magnitude. DS does not require sampling throughout the entire area above the timberline, and generates an estimate and a confidence interval; however, calculations require some skill and sample size must be high (n > 300 groups observed to produce a CV < 15%, which represents a sampling effort at least as large as the one derived from BC. BC represents a
González, E; Pérez-Hinojosa, S; Alarcón, J A; Peñalver, M A
To determine the level of knowledge of pediatricians and parents from Andalucía (southern Spain) about early-onset tooth decay, and to assess if pediatricians provide information to parents about pediatric oral care and visits to the pediatric dentist. A random sample of 113 pediatricians and 112 parents with children under 3 years of age received an anonymous questionnaire comprising 14 items for pediatricians and 16 items for parents, grouped into five blocks: visits to the dentist, oral hygiene, caries, nutritional habits, and treatment of caries. The chi-squared test was used to assess differences between groups. Pediatricians showed deficiencies in their knowledge about visits to the dentist and treatment of caries, however their level of knowledge on oral hygiene, tooth decay and nutritional habits were adequate. Parents showed a low level of knowledge in all aspects of the study, mainly about the treatment of tooth decay. There were no significant differences between pediatricians and parents in the knowledge about visits to the dentist, however pediatricians had more knowledge than the parents about hygiene, tooth decay, nutritional habits and treatment (Ptooth decay, and provide more information to parents about the oral care and the possibility of visiting a pediatric dentist. Parents have a very low level of knowledge about early-onset tooth decay, and particularly about treatment. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Villegas Sánchez, R.
Full Text Available In a previous paper we have studied the changes that have ocurred in the properties related to water access and movement in the stone after the application of water repellent treatments.
In this work we compare the weathering resistance of treated and untreated samples by means of sodium sulphate crystallization test.
After finishing the test (75 cycles properties related to water have been measured again to know if the treatments have undergone any kind of deterioration and lose their water repellent characteristics.
En un artículo anterior se han evaluado los cambios producidos en las propiedades relacionadas con el acceso y movimiento de agua en la piedra como consecuencia de la aplicación de tratamientos de hidrofugación. En este trabajo se compara la resistencia a la alteración producida por sales de las probetas tratadas y sin tratar, sometiéndolas al ensayo de cristalización de sulfato sódico. Tras finalizar el ensayo (75 ciclos se han medido nuevamente las propiedades relacionadas con el agua, con objeto de comprobar si los tratamientos han sufrido alguna alteración y si mantienen sus características hidrófugas.
Huang, Liping; Crino, Michelle; Wu, Jason Hy
to a standard format. Individual participant records will be compiled and a series of analyses will be completed to: (1) compare existing equations for estimating 24-hour salt intake from spot urine samples with 24-hour urine samples, and assess the degree of bias according to key demographic and clinical......BACKGROUND: Methods based on spot urine samples (a single sample at one time-point) have been identified as a possible alternative approach to 24-hour urine samples for determining mean population salt intake. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to identify a reliable method for estimating mean...... population salt intake from spot urine samples. This will be done by comparing the performance of existing equations against one other and against estimates derived from 24-hour urine samples. The effects of factors such as ethnicity, sex, age, body mass index, antihypertensive drug use, health status...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the last years, many olive plantations in southern Spain have been mediated by the use of self-rooted planting stocks, which have incorporated commercial AMF during the nursery period to facilitate their establishment. However, this was practised without enough knowledge on the effect of cropping practices and environment on the biodiversity of AMF in olive orchards in Spain. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two culture-independent molecular methods were used to study the AMF communities associated with olive in a wide-region analysis in southern Spain including 96 olive locations. The use of T-RFLP and pyrosequencing analysis of rDNA sequences provided the first evidence of an effect of agronomic and climatic characteristics, and soil physicochemical properties on AMF community composition associated with olive. Thus, the factors most strongly associated to AMF distribution varied according to the technique but included among the studied agronomic characteristics the cultivar genotype and age of plantation and the irrigation regimen but not the orchard management system or presence of a cover crop to prevent soil erosion. Soil physicochemical properties and climatic characteristics most strongly associated to the AMF community composition included pH, textural components and nutrient contents of soil, and average evapotranspiration, rainfall and minimum temperature of the sampled locations. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed 33 AMF OTUs belonging to five families, with Archaeospora spp., Diversispora spp. and Paraglomus spp., being first records in olive. Interestingly, two of the most frequent OTUs included a diverse group of Claroideoglomeraceae and Glomeraceae sequences, not assigned to any known AMF species commonly used as inoculants in olive during nursery propagation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggests that AMF can exert higher host specificity in olive than previously thought, which may have important implications
Gil, Fernando; Capitan-Vallvey, Luis F.; De Santiago, Esperanza; Ballesta, Julio; Pla, Antonio; Hernandez, Antonio F.; Gutierrez-Bedmar, Mario; Fernandez-Crehuet, Joaquin; Gomez, Joaquin; Lopez-Guarnido, Olga; Rodrigo, Lourdes; Villanueva, Enrique
Levels of metalloids (As - urine) and heavy metals (Hg - urine, Cd - whole blood and Zn - serum) were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry in 601 subjects living in the area affected by the Aznalcollar mine spill (SW, Spain) and compared with those of a representative sample (960 subjects) selected from the Andalusian community (non-affected area), southern Spain. The characteristic parameters of the analytical method including uncertainty were determined for each metal. Potential associations of metal concentration with age, sex and body mass index as well as life-style habits (smoking, alcohol consumption and food habits) were explored. Concentrations of all the metals studied were statistically higher in the population of the affected area with respect to that of the non-affected area in Andalusia, although levels were always lower or similar to the values reported for the general population and below occupational reference limits. In conclusion, there is a lack of evidence that the spill had any incidence on human health in the population living in the affected area. There are few references in scientific literature reporting values from large series of samples, and hence our data could be useful for further studies
Full Text Available Abstract Background Insomnia is a major public health concern affecting about 10% of the general population in its chronic form. Furthermore, epidemiological surveys demonstrate that poor sleep and sleep dissatisfaction are even more frequent problems (10-48% in the community. This is the first report on the prevalence of insomnia in Greece, a southeastern European country which differs in several socio-cultural and climatic aspects from the rest of European Community members. Data obtained from a national household survey (n = 1005 were used to assess the relationship between insomnia symptoms and a variety of sociodemographic variables, life habits, and health-related factors. Methods A self-administered questionnaire with questions pertaining to general health and related issues was given to the participants. The Short Form-36 (Mental Health subscale, the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS as a measure of insomnia-related symptoms, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ were also used for the assessment. Results The prevalence of insomnia in the total sample was 25.3% (n = 254; insomnia was more frequent in women than men (30.7% vs. 19.5% and increased with age. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant association of insomnia with low socio-economical status and educational level, physical inactivity, existence of a chronic physical or mental disease and increased number of hospitalizations in the previous year. Conclusions The present study confirms most findings reported from other developed countries around the world regarding the high prevalence of insomnia problems in the general population and their association with several sociodemographic and health-related predisposing factors. These results further indicate the need for more active interventions on the part of physicians who should suspect and specifically ask about such symptoms.
Simoni, Marzia; Carrozzi, Laura; Baldacci, Sandra; Borbotti, Marco; Pistelli, Francesco; Di Pede, Francesco; Maio, Sara; Angino, Anna; Viegi, Giovanni
Research and practice indicate that a sizeable amount of prescribed drugs is never used. To assess the habitual up-take of medicines in subjects with respiratory symptoms/diseases or impaired lung function in general population samples. Data regard 4010 subjects (8-88 years) from the rural area of Po River Delta (North Italy) and the urban area of Pisa (North-Central Italy). Analyses concern the habitual use of any or specific medicines (broncho-pulmonary, anti-allergic, cardio-vascular, diuretic) in subjects with asthma, chronic bronchitis/emphysema (COPD), COPD or chronic cough/phlegm (COPDsx), and airways obstruction (AO, FEV(1)/FVC<70%). Asthma, COPD, COPDsx, and AO were present in 6%, 5%, 21%, and 13% of cases, respectively. Only 37% and 21% of subjects with respiratory symptoms/diseases used any or specific medicines, respectively. The subjects with COPD exhibited the highest prevalence of assumption (59% for any drug, 38% for specific medicines), followed by asthmatics (42% and 30%), and subjects with AO (40% and 25%). After accounting for sex, age, residence area, smoking habit, education, and presence of comorbidity, the conditions significantly related to any medicine up-take were COPD (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.08-2.53) and asthma (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.01-2.12). Only asthma resulted significantly associated with the use of specific drugs (OR 3.11, 95% CI 1.94-4.97). Drug use was higher in the urban than in the rural area. The results indicate that most people in the general population do not use drugs, in spite of reported respiratory disorders. The underuse of medicines seems lower in the urban area.
Hamid Reza Kouhpayeh
Full Text Available Cysteine-cysteine chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5 with immunoregulatory and inflammatory activities has an important role in granuloma formations that activates and stimulates T-cells and macrophages. Cysteine-cysteine chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5 is a chemokine receptor, which is important for migration of immune cells to site of infection. In the present study we investigated the possible association between CCL5 –403G/A (rs2107538, CCL5 –28C/G (rs2280788 and CCR5 Δ32 polymorphisms and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB in an Iranian population. This case-control study was performed on 160 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 160 unrelated healthy subjects. The CCL5 –403G/A, CCL5 –28C/G and CCR5 Δ32 polymorphisms were genotyped by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR, tetra amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (T-ARMS PCR and PCR, respectively. Our results showed that GA as well as GA+AA genotypes of CCL5 –403G/A (rs2107538 increased the risk of PTB in comparison with GG genotype (OR=1.70, 95% CI=1.03–2.81, P=0.038 and OR=1.64, 95% CI=1.00–2.68, P=0.049, respectively. No significant association was found between CCL5 –28C/G as well as CCR5 Δ32 polymorphism and PTB risk. In conclusion, our findings proposed that CCL5 –403G>A polymorphism may be a risk factor for susceptibility to PTB in our population. Larger sample sizes with different ethnicities are required to validate our findings.
Shrestha, Rijen; Shrestha, Pramod Kumar; Wasti, Harihar; Kadel, Tulsi; Kanchan, Tanuj; Krishan, Kewal
Establishing the identity of the deceased becomes essential when highly decomposed bodies, mutilated body parts or skeletal remains are recovered from mass fatality sites. In these situations, estimation of stature along with other parameters such as age, sex and race/ethnicity becomes important to establish the biological profile of the deceased. Following the Maoist insurgency in Nepal, there have been numerous discoveries of unidentified human remains in mass graves or otherwise. No systemic studies and anthropological data on the Nepalese population however, is available posing problems in anthropologic evaluation of the remains. The sample of the present study consisted of 200 autopsied cases (148 males and 52 female adult cadavers). During the autopsy, the scalp was reflected after giving a coronal incision extending from one mastoid to the other exposing the cranium in each case. Maximum cranial length (MCL), maximum cranial breadth (MCB), bi-zygomatic breadth (BZB), minimum frontal breadth (MFB) and length of parietal chord (PC) were then measured. Stature was measured as the length of the body from head to heel in centimeters with the heel, buttocks, back of the shoulders and the head in contact with the autopsy table. Linear and stepwise multiple regression models were derived for estimation of stature from cranial measurements. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate regression models show statistically significant correlation between stature and the cranial measurements. The present study opines that the stature estimation from cranial dimensions using multivariate linear regression models is more accurate than those of the univariate and bivariate regression models. This study presents a rare data from Nepalese population that show typical Asian features and thus, is significant from anthropologic and genetic point of view. The study observations further contribute a baseline data bank for forensic pathologists and specialists. Copyright © 2014
Morin, Charles M.; LeBlanc, M.; Ivers, H.; Bélanger, L.; Mérette, Chantal; Savard, Josée; Jarrin, Denise C.
Study Objectives: To document the monthly changes in sleep/insomnia status over a 12-month period; to determine the optimal time intervals to reliably capture new incident cases and recurrent episodes of insomnia and the likelihood of its persistence over time. Design: Participants were 100 adults (mean age = 49.9 years; 66% women) randomly selected from a larger population-based sample enrolled in a longitudinal study of the natural history of insomnia. They completed 12 monthly telephone interviews assessing insomnia, use of sleep aids, stressful life events, and physical and mental health problems in the previous month. A total of 1,125 interviews of a potential 1,200 were completed. Based on data collected at each assessment, participants were classified into one of three subgroups: good sleepers, insomnia symptoms, and insomnia syndrome. Results: At baseline, 42 participants were classified as good sleepers, 34 met criteria for insomnia symptoms, and 24 for an insomnia syndrome. There were significant fluctuations of insomnia over time, with 66% of the participants changing sleep status at least once over the 12 monthly assessments (51.5% for good sleepers, 59.5% for insomnia syndrome, and 93.4% for insomnia symptoms). Changes of status were more frequent among individuals with insomnia symptoms at baseline (mean = 3.46, SD = 2.36) than among those initially classified as good sleepers (mean = 2.12, SD = 2.70). Among the subgroup with insomnia symptoms at baseline, 88.3% reported improved sleep (i.e., became good sleepers) at least once over the 12 monthly assessments compared to 27.7% whose sleep worsened (i.e., met criteria for an insomnia syndrome) during the same period. Among individuals classified as good sleepers at baseline, risks of developing insomnia symptoms and syndrome over the subsequent months were, respectively, 48.6% and 14.5%. Monthly assessment over an interval of 6 months was found most reliable to estimate incidence rates, while an
Ramalho, Jaqueline; Veiga-Castelli, Luciana C; Donadi, Eduardo A; Mendes-Junior, Celso T; Castelli, Erick C
The HLA-E gene is characterized by low but wide expression on different tissues. HLA-E is considered a conserved gene, being one of the least polymorphic class I HLA genes. The HLA-E molecule interacts with Natural Killer cell receptors and T lymphocytes receptors, and might activate or inhibit immune responses depending on the peptide associated with HLA-E and with which receptors HLA-E interacts to. Variable sites within the HLA-E regulatory and coding segments may influence the gene function by modifying its expression pattern or encoded molecule, thus, influencing its interaction with receptors and the peptide. Here we propose an approach to evaluate the gene structure, haplotype pattern and the complete HLA-E variability, including regulatory (promoter and 3'UTR) and coding segments (with introns), by using massively parallel sequencing. We investigated the variability of 420 samples from a very admixed population such as Brazilians by using this approach. Considering a segment of about 7kb, 63 variable sites were detected, arranged into 75 extended haplotypes. We detected 37 different promoter sequences (but few frequent ones), 27 different coding sequences (15 representing new HLA-E alleles) and 12 haplotypes at the 3'UTR segment, two of them presenting a summed frequency of 90%. Despite the number of coding alleles, they encode mainly two different full-length molecules, known as E*01:01 and E*01:03, which corresponds to about 90% of all. In addition, differently from what has been previously observed for other non classical HLA genes, the relationship among the HLA-E promoter, coding and 3'UTR haplotypes is not straightforward because the same promoter and 3'UTR haplotypes were many times associated with different HLA-E coding haplotypes. This data reinforces the presence of only two main full-length HLA-E molecules encoded by the many HLA-E alleles detected in our population sample. In addition, this data does indicate that the distal HLA-E promoter is by
Full Text Available Exceptional Experiences (EE are experiences that deviate from ordinary experiences, for example precognition, supernatural appearances or déjà vues. In spite of the high frequency of EE in the general population, little is known about their effect on mental health and about the way people cope with EE. This study aimed to assess the quality and quantity of EE in persons from the Swiss general population, to identify the predictors of their help seeking, and to determine how many of them approach the mental health system. An on-line survey was used to evaluate a quota sample of 1580 persons representing the Swiss general population with respect to gender, age, and level of education. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to integrate help-seeking, self-reported mental disorder, and other variables in a statistical model designed to identify predictors of help-seeking in persons with EE.Almost all participants (91% experienced at least one EE. Generally, help-seeking was more frequent when the EE were of negative valence. Help-seeking because of EE was less frequent in persons without a self-reported mental disorder (8.6% than in persons with a disorder (35.1% (OR = 5.7. Even when frequency and attributes of EE were controlled for, people without a disorder sought four times less often help because of EE than expected. Persons with a self-reported diagnosis of mental disorder preferred seeing a mental health professional. Multinomial regression revealed a preference for healers in women with less education, who described themselves as believing and also having had more impressive EE.Persons with EE who do not indicate a mental disorder less often sought help because of EE than persons who indicated a mental disorder. We attribute this imbalance to a high inhibition threshold to seek professional help. Moreover, especially less educated women did not approach the mental health care system as often as other persons with EE, but preferred
Benseñor, I M; Tófoli, L F; Andrade, L
The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency at which people complain of any type of headache, and its relationship with sociodemographic characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity in S o Paulo, Brazil. A three-step cluster sampling method was used to select 1,464 subjects aged 18 years or older. They were mainly from families of middle and upper socioeconomic levels living in the catchment area of Instituto de Psiquiatria. However, this area also contains some slums and shantytowns. The subjects were interviewed using the Brazilian version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 1.1. (CIDI 1.1) by a lay trained interviewer. Answers to CIDI 1.1 questions allowed us to classify people according to their psychiatric condition and their headaches based on their own ideas about the nature of their illness. The lifetime prevalence of "a lot of problems with" headache was 37.4% (76.2% of which were attributed to use of medicines, drugs/alcohol, physical illness or trauma, and 23.8% attributed to nervousness, tension or mental illness). The odds ratio (OR) for headache among participants with "nervousness, tension or mental illness" was elevated for depressive episodes (OR, 2.1; 95%CI, 1.4-3.4), dysthymia (OR, 3.4; 95%CI, 1.6-7.4) and generalized anxiety disorder (OR, 4.3; 95%CI, 2.1-8.6), when compared with patients without headache. For "a lot of problems with" headaches attributed to medicines, drugs/alcohol, physical illness or trauma, the risk was also increased for dysthymia but not for generalized anxiety disorder. These data show a high association between headache and chronic psychiatric disorders in this Brazilian population sample.
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency at which people complain of any type of headache, and its relationship with sociodemographic characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity in São Paulo, Brazil. A three-step cluster sampling method was used to select 1,464 subjects aged 18 years or older. They were mainly from families of middle and upper socioeconomic levels living in the catchment area of Instituto de Psiquiatria. However, this area also contains some slums and shantytowns. The subjects were interviewed using the Brazilian version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 1.1. (CIDI 1.1 by a lay trained interviewer. Answers to CIDI 1.1 questions allowed us to classify people according to their psychiatric condition and their headaches based on their own ideas about the nature of their illness. The lifetime prevalence of "a lot of problems with" headache was 37.4% (76.2% of which were attributed to use of medicines, drugs/alcohol, physical illness or trauma, and 23.8% attributed to nervousness, tension or mental illness. The odds ratio (OR for headache among participants with "nervousness, tension or mental illness" was elevated for depressive episodes (OR, 2.1; 95%CI, 1.4-3.4, dysthymia (OR, 3.4; 95%CI, 1.6-7.4 and generalized anxiety disorder (OR, 4.3; 95%CI, 2.1-8.6, when compared with patients without headache. For "a lot of problems with" headaches attributed to medicines, drugs/alcohol, physical illness or trauma, the risk was also increased for dysthymia but not for generalized anxiety disorder. These data show a high association between headache and chronic psychiatric disorders in this Brazilian population sample.
Harold R. Offord
Sequential sampling based on a negative binomial distribution of ribes populations required less than half the time taken by regular systematic line transect sampling in a comparison test. It gave the same control decision as the regular method in 9 of 13 field trials. A computer program that permits sequential plans to be built readily for other white pine regions is...
Vierling, Victoire; Etori, Sophie; Valenti, Lisa; Lesage, Marine; Pigeyre, Marie; Dodin, Vincent; Cottencin, Olivier; Guardia, Dewi
Eating disorders (ED) are associated with a higher prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the impact they may have on the clinical features and severity of the ED remains unknown. In this study, we assessed the prevalence and the impact of PTSD in a disordered eating population sample. We recruited patients with eating disorders during a period of 6 months, in 2014. The patients underwent a semistructured diagnostic interview by trained psychiatrists. The severity of eating behaviours and PTSD was assessed using the Eating Disorder Inventory 2 and the Impact of Event Scale - Revised. One hundred and thirty patients (57 patients with anorexia nervosa, 26 with bulimia nervosa, 18 with eating disorder not otherwise specified and 29 with binge eating disorder) were included. Our analyses revealed a PTSD rate of 33.9% in patients with ED. No difference was observed between the ED subtypes. Severity of ED was significantly higher among patients suffering from PTSD. Specific clinical characteristics of the ED-PTSD association have been found. Analyses revealed a significantly higher level of insecurity, interpersonal distrust, impulsivity and a decrease of interoceptive awareness. The frequency and negative impact of PTSD on ED reinforce the need for a systematic clinical evaluation and the implementation of specific care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The challenge of distinguishing genetic drift from selection remains a central focus of population genetics. Time-sampled data may provide a powerful tool for distinguishing these processes, and we here propose approximate Bayesian, maximum likelihood, and analytical methods for the inference of demography and selection from time course data. Utilizing these novel statistical and computational tools, we evaluate whole-genome datasets of an influenza A H1N1 strain in the presence and absence of oseltamivir (an inhibitor of neuraminidase collected at thirteen time points. Results reveal a striking consistency amongst the three estimation procedures developed, showing strongly increased selection pressure in the presence of drug treatment. Importantly, these approaches re-identify the known oseltamivir resistance site, successfully validating the approaches used. Enticingly, a number of previously unknown variants have also been identified as being positively selected. Results are interpreted in the light of Fisher's Geometric Model, allowing for a quantification of the increased distance to optimum exerted by the presence of drug, and theoretical predictions regarding the distribution of beneficial fitness effects of contending mutations are empirically tested. Further, given the fit to expectations of the Geometric Model, results suggest the ability to predict certain aspects of viral evolution in response to changing host environments and novel selective pressures.
Ryan, M; Gallanagh, J; Livingstone, M B; Gaillard, C; Ritz, P
To assess the relationship between abnormal eating behaviour (AEB) and diabetes in a sample of French adult patients with type 1 (T1D) and type 2 (T2D) diabetes. Ninety-four consecutively recruited patients self-completed a series of validated questionnaires. Over one-fourth of men with T1D (26%) or T2D (27%) and 11% of female T2D patients reported consistent and pathological overeating or binge-eating during the previous six months. Glycaemic control in these T1D patients was poorer than in T1D patients defined as normal eaters (NORM) (11.9% versus 9.6%), but did not reach statistical significance (P=0.08), and no significant difference was observed in the T2D group (P=0.61) either. T2D patients reported being markedly more restrained when eating than did the T1D patients (P=0.002), and their restraint increased along with their BMI (Phunger (P=0.02) and disinhibition (P=0.003) than did the NORM patients. AEB is present in French diabetic patients at levels that are probably higher than among the general population. These results highlight the need for: (1) greater awareness among diabetes clinicians of the problem; (2) regular screening of diabetic patients for AEB; and (3) adaptation of therapeutic and dietary recommendations for this patient subgroup.
Full Text Available Used a population-based sample (Georgia Centenarian Study, GCS, to determine proportions of centenarians reaching 100 years as (1 survivors (43% of chronic diseases first experienced between 0–80 years of age, (2 delayers (36% with chronic diseases first experienced between 80–98 years of age, or (3 escapers (17% with chronic diseases only at 98 years of age or older. Diseases fall into two morbidity profiles of 11 chronic diseases; one including cardiovascular disease, cancer, anemia, and osteoporosis, and another including dementia. Centenarians at risk for cancer in their lifetime tended to be escapers (73%, while those at risk for cardiovascular disease tended to be survivors (24%, delayers (39%, or escapers (32%. Approximately half (43% of the centenarians did not experience dementia. Psychiatric disorders were positively associated with dementia, but prevalence of depression, anxiety, and psychoses did not differ significantly between centenarians and an octogenarian control group. However, centenarians were higher on the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS than octogenarians. Consistent with our model of developmental adaptation in aging, distal life events contribute to predicting survivorship outcome in which health status as survivor, delayer, or escaper appears as adaptation variables late in life.
Arnold, Jonathan; Dai, Jianliang; Nahapetyan, Lusine; Arte, Ankit; Johnson, Mary Ann; Hausman, Dorothy; Rodgers, Willard L.; Hensley, Robert; Martin, Peter; MacDonald, Maurice; Davey, Adam; Siegler, Ilene C.; Jazwinski, S. Michal; Poon, Leonard W.
Used a population-based sample (Georgia Centenarian Study, GCS), to determine proportions of centenarians reaching 100 years as (1) survivors (43%) of chronic diseases first experienced between 0–80 years of age, (2) delayers (36%) with chronic diseases first experienced between 80–98 years of age, or (3) escapers (17%) with chronic diseases only at 98 years of age or older. Diseases fall into two morbidity profiles of 11 chronic diseases; one including cardiovascular disease, cancer, anemia, and osteoporosis, and another including dementia. Centenarians at risk for cancer in their lifetime tended to be escapers (73%), while those at risk for cardiovascular disease tended to be survivors (24%), delayers (39%), or escapers (32%). Approximately half (43%) of the centenarians did not experience dementia. Psychiatric disorders were positively associated with dementia, but prevalence of depression, anxiety, and psychoses did not differ significantly between centenarians and an octogenarian control group. However, centenarians were higher on the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) than octogenarians. Consistent with our model of developmental adaptation in aging, distal life events contribute to predicting survivorship outcome in which health status as survivor, delayer, or escaper appears as adaptation variables late in life. PMID:20885919
Han, Kyu-Man; Ko, Young-Hoon; Shin, Cheolmin; Lee, Jae-Hon; Choi, June; Kwon, Do-Young; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Han, Changsu; Kim, Yong-Ku
Tinnitus is strongly associated with psychiatric symptoms, including depression and suicidality. We aimed to further investigate the association of tinnitus with depressive mood and/or suicidal ideation, and explore the shared risk factors for these within a representative sample of the adult general population. We also investigated potential mediation pathways among tinnitus, suicidal ideation, depression, shared risk factors, and perceived stress levels. We analysed data from 28,930 adults (aged ≥19 years) from the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) conducted from 2008 to 2012 in South Korea. We investigated the presence and severity of tinnitus, depressive mood, suicidal ideation, perceived usual stress level, and socioeconomic and health-related variables. We conducted logistic regression and mediation analyses. Tinnitus and its severity were significantly associated with depressive mood and suicidal ideation. Tinnitus, depressive mood, and suicidal ideation shared common socioeconomic and health-related risk factors. Tinnitus significantly mediated the association of shared risk factors for depressive mood and suicidal ideation. Perceived usual stress level mediates the association of tinnitus with depressive mood and suicidal ideation. The correlation of perceived usual stress levels with depression and suicidal ideation was also mediated by tinnitus. Our findings implicate that tinnitus may contribute substantially to the development of depressive symptom and suicidal ideation in adults via apparent interactions with shared risk factors and stress levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Duncan, Alexis E; Bucholz, Kathleen Keenan; Neuman, Rosalind J; Agrawal, Arpana; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C
Previous studies have reported that the current DSM-IV eating disorder (ED) criteria do not adequately describe ED symptomatology. The objective of the current study was to examine the clustering of ED symptoms in a general population sample using latent class analysis (LCA). ED symptoms from 3723 female young adult twins (mean age 22) were analyzed using LCA, and resulting classes were compared on external validators reflecting ED and other co-morbid psychiatric diagnoses, substance use disorders (SUDs), and suicidality. The optimal solution consisted of five latent classes characterized as: (1) Unaffected; (2) Low Weight Gain; (3) Weight Concerned; (4) Dieters; and (5) ED. Members of the ED class had significantly higher prevalence of co-morbid psychiatric disorders, SUDs, and suicidality than the Unaffected and Low Weight Gain classes, and elevated rates of suicidality and major depression compared to the Weight Concerned and Dieter classes, which differed from each other primarily in terms of current body mass index (BMI). Dieter class members were more likely to be overweight and obese and less likely to be underweight than Weight Concerned class members. The majority of women with an ED diagnosis were assigned to the ED class, and few differences were found between ED class members with and without an ED diagnosis. The results add to the evidence that many women with significant ED psychopathology are not being identified by the DSM-IV ED categories.
Cakici, Fatih; Celikoglu, Mevlut; Arslan, Hakan; Topcuoglu, Huseyin-Sinan; Erdogan, Aziz-Sahin
The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of dens invaginatus in anterior teeth and to classify the type of dens invaginatus in a sample of Turkish Anatolian population. A retrospective study was performed using full-mouth periapical and panoramic radiographs of 1012 patients. Maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth were evaluated for the presence and characteristics of dens invaginatus. Statistical evaluation of the presence of dens invaginatus related to gender was performed by the Pearson chi-squared test. Dens invaginatus was observed in 13 out of 1012 subjects and in only maxillary lateral incisors. There were no periapical lesions in teeth with types I and II, whereas both of the subjects with type III had apical periodontitis at the time of referral. Males and females were equally affected by dens invaginatus (P=0.98). The anomaly was detected in only maxillary lateral incisors with no gender difference and the most commonly observed type of dens invaginatus was type I (81.25%).
Colins, Olivier F; Andershed, Henrik
Prior studies with children and adolescents have shown that Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short Version (YPI-S) scores are internally consistent and manifest expected relations with external variables of interest. In the present study, the factor structure and the internal consistency of YPI-S scores, and the convergent validity of the interpretation of YPI-S scores were tested in a sample of 2,500 emerging adults from the general population in Sweden (aged 20-24 years; 52.6% women). Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses support a 3-factor structure among both men and women that is similar to prior YPI-S studies conducted with children and adolescents. The YPI-S total score and the 3 factor scores were internally consistent. Correlations with external variables, including aggression and delinquency, support the convergent validity of the interpretation of YPI-S scores. Finally, the strength of these zero-order and partial correlations, overall, was not significantly different across gender. In conclusion, this study provides initial evidence that the YPI-S may hold promise as a brief and time-effective self-report tool for assessing psychopathic traits in emerging adults. The present findings also suggest that the YPI-S performs in a consistent manner across gender. Recommendations for future research with the YPI-S are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Walters, Glenn D; Knight, Raymond A; Långström, Niklas
Hypersexual Disorder is currently being considered for inclusion in the DSM-5. To inform this process, we investigated the latent structure of the hypersexuality construct using Meehl's (1995) taxometric method. Data on sexual interests and behaviors were obtained from 2,101 general population males and females in Sweden and 716 male sex offenders from the United States. Taxometric analyses of self-report indicators of hypersexuality supported a dimensional interpretation of latent structure in both samples. These findings suggest that individual differences in hypersexuality are quantitative (matter of degree) rather than qualitative (difference in kind) in nature, at least when self-report data were used. This is another way of saying that hypersexuality is organized along a continuum of increasing sexual frequency and preoccupation, with clinical cases of hypersexuality falling at the upper end of the continuum or dimension. We conclude that the proposed inclusion of Hypersexual Disorder in the DSM-5 should acknowledge the lack of non-arbitrary breaks in the latent symptoms continuum which runs from very low to very high engagement in sexual behavior and preoccupation. The diagnostic threshold should therefore be decided from an analysis of external data on severity, comorbidity, and prognosis for individuals with sub-threshold and full diagnoses, respectively. Additionally, dimensional assessment of Hypersexual Disorder should be part of clinical diagnostic practice.
Casali, Michelangelo; Carugno, Michele; Cattaneo, Andrea; Consonni, Dario; Mensi, Carolina; Genovese, Umberto; Cavallo, Domenico Maria; Somigliana, Anna; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia
The present study analysed the asbestos lung burden in necroscopic samples from 55 subjects free from asbestos-related diseases, collected between 2009 and 2011 in Milan, Italy. Multiple lung samples were analysed by light microscopy (asbestos bodies, AB) and EDXA-scanning electron microscopy (asbestos fibres and other inorganic fibres). Asbestos fibres were detected in 35 (63.6%) subjects, with a higher frequency for amphiboles than for chrysotile. Commercial (CA) and non-commercial amphiboles (NCA) were found in roughly similar frequencies. The estimated median value was 0.11 million fibres per gram of dry lung tissue (mf g(-1)) for all asbestos, 0.09 mf g(-1) for amphiboles. In 44 (80.0%) subjects no chrysotile fibres were detected. A negative relationship between asbestos mass-weighted fibre count and year of birth (and a corresponding positive increase with age) was observed for amphiboles [-4.15%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -5.89 to -2.37], talc (-2.12%, 95% CI = -3.94 to -0.28), and Ti-rich fibres (-3.10%, 95% CI = -5.54 to -0.60), but not for chrysotile (-2.84%, 95% CI = -7.69 to 2.27). Residential district, birthplace, and smoking habit did not affect the lung burden of asbestos or inorganic fibres. Females showed higher burden only for amphiboles (0.12 versus 0.03 mf g(-1) in males, P = 0.07) and talc fibres (0.14 versus 0 mf g(-1) in males, P = 0.03). Chrysotile fibres were shorter and thinner than amphibole fibres and NCA fibres were thicker than CA ones. The AB prevalence was 16.4% (nine subjects) with concentrations ranging from 10 to 110 AB g(-1) dry, well below the 1000 AB g(-1) threshold for establishing occupational exposure. No AB were found in subjects younger than 30 years. Our study demonstrated detectable levels of asbestos fibres in a sample taken from the general population. The significant increase with age confirmed that amphibole fibres are the most representative of cumulative exposure. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford
Gutiérrez-Redomero, Esperanza; Quirós, Juan A; Rivaldería, Noemí; Alonso, María C
Variability in ridge density in a sub-Saharan population sample was studied by counting ridges in three fingerprint areas (two distal regions, radial and ulnar, and one proximal region) on the epidermal surface of the distal phalanx. Study material was obtained from the fingerprint impressions of 100 male sub-Saharan subjects aged between 18- and 48-years old. The results were compared with those obtained from a Spanish population sample. Sub-Saharan males presented lower ridge density than Spanish males in the distal regions (radial and ulnar) of all fingers, whereas differences in the proximal region were only observed on some fingers. Using the differences observed between these populations, the likelihood ratio for inferring membership of one of the populations from a fingerprint of unknown origin was calculated; therefore, a ridge density of 14 or less for both areas (ulnar and radial), support an origin sub-Saharan versus Spanish population. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Bowden, Georgina R; Balaresque, Patricia; King, Turi E; Hansen, Ziff; Lee, Andrew C; Pergl-Wilson, Giles; Hurley, Emma; Roberts, Stephen J; Waite, Patrick; Jesch, Judith; Jones, Abigail L; Thomas, Mark G; Harding, Stephen E; Jobling, Mark A
The genetic structures of past human populations are obscured by recent migrations and expansions and have been observed only indirectly by inference from modern samples. However, the unique link between a heritable cultural marker, the patrilineal surname, and a genetic marker, the Y chromosome, provides a means to target sets of modern individuals that might resemble populations at the time of surname establishment. As a test case, we studied samples from the Wirral Peninsula and West Lancashire, in northwest England. Place-names and archaeology show clear evidence of a past Viking presence, but heavy immigration and population growth since the industrial revolution are likely to have weakened the genetic signal of a 1,000-year-old Scandinavian contribution. Samples ascertained on the basis of 2 generations of residence were compared with independent samples based on known ancestry in the region plus the possession of a surname known from historical records to have been present there in medieval times. The Y-chromosomal haplotypes of these 2 sets of samples are significantly different, and in admixture analyses, the surname-ascertained samples show markedly greater Scandinavian ancestry proportions, supporting the idea that northwest England was once heavily populated by Scandinavian settlers. The method of historical surname-based ascertainment promises to allow investigation of the influence of migration and drift over the last few centuries in changing the population structure of Britain and will have general utility in other regions where surnames are patrilineal and suitable historical records survive.
Peterman, William; Brocato, Emily R; Semlitsch, Raymond D; Eggert, Lori S
In population or landscape genetics studies, an unbiased sampling scheme is essential for generating accurate results, but logistics may lead to deviations from the sample design. Such deviations may come in the form of sampling multiple life stages. Presently, it is largely unknown what effect sampling different life stages can have on population or landscape genetic inference, or how mixing life stages can affect the parameters being measured. Additionally, the removal of siblings from a data set is considered best-practice, but direct comparisons of inferences made with and without siblings are limited. In this study, we sampled embryos, larvae, and adult Ambystoma maculatum from five ponds in Missouri, and analyzed them at 15 microsatellite loci. We calculated allelic richness, heterozygosity and effective population sizes for each life stage at each pond and tested for genetic differentiation (F ST and D C ) and isolation-by-distance (IBD) among ponds. We tested for differences in each of these measures between life stages, and in a pooled population of all life stages. All calculations were done with and without sibling pairs to assess the effect of sibling removal. We also assessed the effect of reducing the number of microsatellites used to make inference. No statistically significant differences were found among ponds or life stages for any of the population genetic measures, but patterns of IBD differed among life stages. There was significant IBD when using adult samples, but tests using embryos, larvae, or a combination of the three life stages were not significant. We found that increasing the ratio of larval or embryo samples in the analysis of genetic distance weakened the IBD relationship, and when using D C , the IBD was no longer significant when larvae and embryos exceeded 60% of the population sample. Further, power to detect an IBD relationship was reduced when fewer microsatellites were used in the analysis.
Full Text Available Mark-recapture estimators are commonly used for population size estimation, and typically yield unbiased estimates for most solitary species with low to moderate home range sizes. However, these methods assume independence of captures among individuals, an assumption that is clearly violated in social species that show fission-fusion dynamics, such as the Asian elephant. In the specific case of Asian elephants, doubts have been raised about the accuracy of population size estimates. More importantly, the potential problem for the use of mark-recapture methods posed by social organization in general has not been systematically addressed. We developed an individual-based simulation framework to systematically examine the potential effects of type of social organization, as well as other factors such as trap density and arrangement, spatial scale of sampling, and population density, on bias in population sizes estimated by POPAN, Robust Design, and Robust Design with detection heterogeneity. In the present study, we ran simulations with biological, demographic and ecological parameters relevant to Asian elephant populations, but the simulation framework is easily extended to address questions relevant to other social species. We collected capture history data from the simulations, and used those data to test for bias in population size estimation. Social organization significantly affected bias in most analyses, but the effect sizes were variable, depending on other factors. Social organization tended to introduce large bias when trap arrangement was uniform and sampling effort was low. POPAN clearly outperformed the two Robust Design models we tested, yielding close to zero bias if traps were arranged at random in the study area, and when population density and trap density were not too low. Social organization did not have a major effect on bias for these parameter combinations at which POPAN gave more or less unbiased population size estimates
Gupta, Manan; Joshi, Amitabh; Vidya, T N C
Mark-recapture estimators are commonly used for population size estimation, and typically yield unbiased estimates for most solitary species with low to moderate home range sizes. However, these methods assume independence of captures among individuals, an assumption that is clearly violated in social species that show fission-fusion dynamics, such as the Asian elephant. In the specific case of Asian elephants, doubts have been raised about the accuracy of population size estimates. More importantly, the potential problem for the use of mark-recapture methods posed by social organization in general has not been systematically addressed. We developed an individual-based simulation framework to systematically examine the potential effects of type of social organization, as well as other factors such as trap density and arrangement, spatial scale of sampling, and population density, on bias in population sizes estimated by POPAN, Robust Design, and Robust Design with detection heterogeneity. In the present study, we ran simulations with biological, demographic and ecological parameters relevant to Asian elephant populations, but the simulation framework is easily extended to address questions relevant to other social species. We collected capture history data from the simulations, and used those data to test for bias in population size estimation. Social organization significantly affected bias in most analyses, but the effect sizes were variable, depending on other factors. Social organization tended to introduce large bias when trap arrangement was uniform and sampling effort was low. POPAN clearly outperformed the two Robust Design models we tested, yielding close to zero bias if traps were arranged at random in the study area, and when population density and trap density were not too low. Social organization did not have a major effect on bias for these parameter combinations at which POPAN gave more or less unbiased population size estimates. Therefore, the
Menon, K Venugopal; Sorour, Tamer Malak Moawad
The prevalence and characteristics of spontaneous spondylodiscitis in the Middle East are unknown. There seems to be an emerging dominance of pyogenic infections over tuberculosis and brucellosis. We conducted a retrospective observational study based on electronic case records of 4 years from a tertiary reference facility in Oman. Case records, microbiology reports, blood reports, imaging studies, and histopathology, and surgical reports of all spinal infection cases were studied. Patients with secondary infections after invasive spinal interventions and expatriate patients were excluded. Risk factors and comorbidities were also analyzed. Sixty-two cases of primary spondylodiscitis of the spine were identified in this cohort, including 10 cases of tuberculosis, 1 of brucellosis, and 1 of tuberculosis with pyogenic infection. Of the 50 pyogenic infections, 4 were in children; among the adults, the mean age was 49.5 years and 63.8% were male. Thirty-three patients had no medical comorbidities. Common ailments associated were 18 patients with diabetes mellitus, 13 hypertensives, 6 with renal insufficiency, 2 with liver cirrhosis, 3 with alcoholism, 5 with hepatitis C virus, and 2 with immunosuppression. More than 69% involvement was in the lumbar spine. Fourteen patients were infected with Staphylococcus aureus and 9 with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, whereas 35.4% were culture negative. Spontaneous infective spondylodiscitis affects older men with and without medical comorbidities equally. It often involves the lumbar spine and a third of patients are culture negative. Tuberculosis constitutes only about 17% of primary infections in the spine in this population sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisternas, Miriam G; Yelin, Edward; Katz, Jeffrey N; Solomon, Daniel H; Wright, Elizabeth A; Losina, Elena
To estimate the proportion of adults with osteoarthritis (OA) seeing various medical providers and ascertain factors affecting the likelihood of a patient seeing an OA specialist. We used data from the Medical Expenditures Panel Survey, a stratified random sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population. We classified adults as having symptomatic OA if their medical conditions included at least 1 occurrence of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision Clinical Modification, codes 715, 716, or 719, and if they reported joint pain, swelling, or stiffness during the previous 12 months. For the purpose of our analysis, we defined rheumatologists, orthopedists, and physical therapists as OA specialists. We first estimated the proportion of OA individuals seen by OA specialists and other health care providers in a 1-year period. We then used logistic regression to estimate the impact of demographic and clinical factors on the likelihood of an individual seeing an OA specialist. A total of 9,933 persons met the definition of OA, representing 22.5 million adults in the US. Of these persons, 92% see physicians during the year, 34% see at least 1 OA specialist, 25% see an orthopedist, 11% see a physical therapist, and 6% see a rheumatologist. Higher educational attainment, having more comorbidities, and residing in the northeastern US are significant positive predictors for a patient seeing an OA specialist. Significant negative predictors for seeing an OA specialist are being unmarried but previously married and having no health insurance. Most adults with OA do not visit OA specialists. Those without insurance and with lower levels of education are less likely to see these specialists.
Nikolaos Andreas Chrysanthakopoulos
Full Text Available Background: Gingival recession is the most common and undesirable condition of the gingiva. The aim of study was to investigate the aetiology and severity of gingival recession in a Greek adult population sample. Methods : The study was performed on 165 males and 179 females, 18-68 years old who sought dental treatment in a private dental practice and showed gingival recession. All subjects were clinically examined and answered questions regarding their oral hygiene habits such as the type of toothbrush, frequency of brushing and method of brushing. The association between gingival recession and the following parameters was assessed: plaque score, gingival score and tooth position. Statistical analysis of the results was accomplished using chi-square test (α = 0.05. Results: The majority (79.4% of the patients showed grade I gingival recession and 15.3% showed grade II gingival recession. The maxillary 1 st and 2 nd molars (35.3% and the mandibular 1 st and 2 nd molars (28.7% were the teeth most frequently affected by root surface exposure. Patients with sub-gingival calculus, bacterial plaque and gingival inflammation (P < 0.05, malpositioned teeth (P < 0.001, horizontal brushing method, medium type of toothbrush (P < 0.001 and brushing once daily (P < 0.001 appeared to be the most common precipitating aetiological factor for gingival recession. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, gingival recession was the result of more than one factor acting together. Horizontal brushing method, usage of medium type toothbrush and tooth brushing once daily were found to be more associated with gingival recession.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors begin from early life and track onto adulthood. Oral and dental diseases share some risk factors with CVD, therefore by finding a clear relation between dental diseases and cardiometabolic risk factors; we can then predict the potential risk of one based on the presence of the other. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of dental caries between two groups of age-matched adolescents with and without CVD risk factors. Methods In this case-control study, the decayed, missing and filled surfaces (DMFS, based on the criteria of the World Health Organization, were compared in two groups of equal number (n = 61 in each group of population-based sample of adolescents with and without CVD risk factors who were matched for sex and age group. Results The study participants had a median age 13 y 5 mo, age range 11 y 7 mo to 16 y 1 mo, with male-to-female proportion of 49/51. We found significant difference between the mean values of DMFS, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, as well as serum lipid profile in the case and control groups. Significant correlations were documented for DMFS with TC (r = 0.54, p = 0.02, LDL-C (r = 0.55, p = 0.01 and TG (r = 0.52, p = 0.04 in the case group; with LDL-C (r = 0.47, p = 0.03 in the whole study participants and with TC in control s(r = 0.45, p = 0.04. Conclusions Given the significant associations between dental caries and CVD risk factors among adolescents, more attention should be paid to oral health, as one of the topics to be taken into account in primordial/primary prevention of cardiometabolic disorders.
Maio, Sara; Baldacci, Sandra; Carrozzi, Laura; Polverino, Eva; Angino, Anna; Pistelli, Francesco; Di Pede, Francesco; Simoni, Marzia; Sherrill, Duane; Viegi, Giovanni
The role of different risk factors for bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), such as gender, atopy, IgE, and environmental factors (smoking, occupational exposure, infections), has been described. Indoor and outdoor pollution play an important role too, but few studies have analyzed the association with BHR. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of urban residence on BHR. We studied two general population samples enrolled in two cross-sectional epidemiological studies performed in Northern Italy (Po Delta, rural area) and Central Italy (Pisa, urban area). We analyzed 2,760 subjects (age range, 8 to 74 years). We performed analysis of variance and logistic regression analysis using ln slope of the dose-response curve of the methacholine challenge test as dependent variable, and sex, age, smoking habits, respiratory symptoms, skin-prick test results, IgE value, residence, and airway caliber as independent variables. The mean value of ln slope of the dose-response curve adjusted for initial airways caliber (by baseline FEV(1) percentage of predicted value) was significantly higher in female subjects, in smokers, in subjects with respiratory symptoms, in younger and older ages, in subjects with high values of IgE, and in subjects with positive skin-prick test results. After controlling for the independent effects of all these variables, living in urban area was an independent risk factor for having BHR (odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.13 to 1.76). Living in urban area is a risk factor for increased bronchial responsiveness.
Saleem, M.S.; Khan, K.A.
Metabolic Syndrome is a group of factors that predispose to cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is rising rapidly. Recently, a few studies have suggested that lower thyroid function in the reference range may be associated with metabolic syndrome, but the issue remains unsettled. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between thyroid function and components of metabolic syndrome in a sample of euthyroid Pakistani population. Methods: This analytical, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Physiology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan, and extended over a period of 12 months. It included 100 subjects with metabolic syndrome in the study group and thirty subjects without metabolic syndrome in the control group with age ranging 45-55 years. Both groups had normal thyroid function. After a detailed history and clinical examination, fasting blood was analysed for glucose, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol along with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine. Results: Serum TSH was significantly higher in study group than in control group (p=0.040). Serum free thyroxine values of study group were slightly but not significantly lower than those of control group. Serum TSH correlated significantly and positively with serum triglycerides in all subjects and with waist circumference and diastolic blood pressure in men. Serum TSH showed a positive and linear relationship with the number of components of metabolic syndrome (p=0.016) in all subjects. Conclusion: High-normal TSH is associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. There may be increased risk of cardiovascular diseases with high-normal TSH levels. (author)
Anthony P. Clevenger
Full Text Available Intuitively, wildlife crossing structures should enhance the viability of wildlife populations. Previous research has demonstrated that a broad range of species will use crossing structures, however, questions remain as to whether these measures actually provide benefits to populations. To assess this, studies will need to determine the number of individuals using crossings, their sex, and their genetic relationships. Obtaining empirical data demonstrating population-level benefits for some species can be problematic and challenging at best. Molecular techniques now make it possible to identify species, individuals, their sex, and their genetic relatedness from hair samples collected through non-invasive genetic sampling (NGS. We describe efforts to pilot a method to assess potential population-level benefits of wildlife crossing structures. We tested the feasibility of a prototype NGS system designed to sample hair from black bears (Ursus americanus and grizzly bears (U. arctos at two wildlife underpasses. The piloted hair-sampling method did not deter animal use of the trial underpasses and was effective at sampling hair from more than 90% of the bear crossing events at the underpasses. Hair samples were also obtained from non-target carnivore species, including three out of five (60% cougar (Puma concolor crossing events. Individual identification analysis revealed that three female and two male grizzly bears used one wildlife underpass, whereas two female and three male black bears were identified as using the other underpass. Of the 36 hair samples from bears analyzed, five failed, resulting in an 87% extraction success rate, and six more were only identified to species. Overall, 70% of the hair samples from bears collected in the field had sufficient DNA for extraction purposes. Preliminary data from our NGS suggest the technique can be a reliable method to assess the population-level benefits of Banff wildlife crossings. Furthermore, NGS
Soler, A.; Gaude, J. M.; Marie-Alphonsine, P. A.; Vinatier, F.; Dole, B.; Govindin, J. C.; Fournier, P.; Quénéhervé, Patrick
BACKGROUND: Symphylids (Hanseniella sp.) are polyphagous soilborne parasites. Today, symphylid populations on pineapple are monitored by observing root symptoms and the presence of symphylids at the bottom of basal leaves. The authors developed a reliable method with a bait and trap device to monitor symphylid populations in pineapple or fallow crops. The spatial distribution of the symphylid populations was evaluated using the variance/mean ratios and spatial analyses based on Moran's and Ge...
Hensing, G; Holmgren, K; Mårdby, A-C
To estimate harmful alcohol habits in a sample of incident sick-listed individuals compared with a random sample from the general population taking social background, health and work-related factors into account. Data for this cross-sectional questionnaire study were collected in 2008 in the Västra Götaland region, Sweden. The study population (19-64 year olds) consisted of 2888 consecutive incident sick-leave sample (ISS) and 3567 individuals from a random population sample (RPS). The mailed questionnaire included Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and validated instruments on health and work-related factors. Socio-demographic data came from register data. Analyses were made with χ(2) tests and logistic regression analyses. No differences in prevalence of harmful alcohol habits were found between men in the ISS (22%) and the RPS (21%). Compared with women in the ISS, a higher proportion of women in the RPS were likely to report harmful alcohol habits [14 versus 9% (P alcohol habits compared with women in the ISS [odds ratio (OR) = 1.54 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23-1.89)]. Even after controlling for significant confounders (age, low income, high self-reported health and high level of perceived symptoms), we found that the differences in harmful alcohol habits remained [OR = 1.44 (95% CI: 1.16-1.81)]. Harmful alcohol habits were no commoner in men and women who belonged to the sample of incident sick-leave cases. Future studies are needed to analyse the predictive value of harmful alcohol habits on sickness absence length and the time until return to work after sickness absence.
Full Text Available Inferring the ancestral dynamics of effective population size is a long-standing question in population genetics, which can now be tackled much more accurately thanks to the massive genomic data available in many species. Several promising methods that take advantage of whole-genome sequences have been recently developed in this context. However, they can only be applied to rather small samples, which limits their ability to estimate recent population size history. Besides, they can be very sensitive to sequencing or phasing errors. Here we introduce a new approximate Bayesian computation approach named PopSizeABC that allows estimating the evolution of the effective population size through time, using a large sample of complete genomes. This sample is summarized using the folded allele frequency spectrum and the average zygotic linkage disequilibrium at different bins of physical distance, two classes of statistics that are widely used in population genetics and can be easily computed from unphased and unpolarized SNP data. Our approach provides accurate estimations of past population sizes, from the very first generations before present back to the expected time to the most recent common ancestor of the sample, as shown by simulations under a wide range of demographic scenarios. When applied to samples of 15 or 25 complete genomes in four cattle breeds (Angus, Fleckvieh, Holstein and Jersey, PopSizeABC revealed a series of population declines, related to historical events such as domestication or modern breed creation. We further highlight that our approach is robust to sequencing errors, provided summary statistics are computed from SNPs with common alleles.
Patterson, Mason Foushee
Street trees are a subpopulation of the urban forest resource and exist in the rights-of-way adjacent to public roads in a municipality. Benefit-cost analyses have shown that the annual benefits provided by the average street tree far outweigh the costs of planting and maintenance. City and municipal foresters spend a majority of their time and resources managing street tree populations. Sample street tree inventories are a common method of estimating municipal street tree populations for ...
Molton, Ivan; Cook, Karon F; Smith, Amanda E; Amtmann, Dagmar; Chen, Wen-Hung; Jensen, Mark P
To describe rates of pain and pain interference in a large sample of adults aging with long-standing physical disabilities, relative to a normative US population sample. Self-report survey data was collected for a sample of 1877 individuals with spinal cord injury, neuromuscular disease, postpolio syndrome, or multiple sclerosis. Rates of pain severity and pain interference in these samples were then compared with those taken from a large normative sample (>20,000) collected through the NIH Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Individuals with long-standing physical disabilities reported higher levels of pain and pain interference across the lifespan as compared with individuals in the normative sample. In general, individuals with disability did not experience an age-related decrease in pain and pain impact in contrast to those in the normative sample. For 3 disability groups (neuromuscular disease, postpolio syndrome, and multiple sclerosis), pain interference remained elevated and significantly higher than national norms in the "postretirement" period (ie, age 65 to 74). Results from this study provide a large scale data on prevalence rates of pain and pain interference in this population. Findings underscore the prevalence and impact of pain in persons with disabilities and suggest that individuals with disability may not experience the same degree of decrease in pain interference in later life that is typical of the US population. Those aging with disability may be especially at risk for pain-related impairment in later life.
Hoogstrate, A.J.; Klaassen, C.A.J.
Frequently one has to search within a finite population for a single particular individual or item with a rare characteristic. Whether an item possesses the characteristic can only be determined by close inspection. The availability of additional information about the items in the population opens
Vestbo, Jørgen; Prescott, E; Almdal, Thomas Peter
distribution of low FFMI and its association with prognosis in a population-based cohort of patients with COPD. METHODS: We used data on 1,898 patients with COPD identified in a population-based epidemiologic study in Copenhagen. FFM was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Patients were followed...
The work presented in this paper concerns the estimation of finite population total under model – based framework. Nonparametric regression approach as a method of estimating finite population total is explored. The asymptotic properties of the estimators based on nonparametric regression are also developed under ...
Lysyk, T J
This study compared the reliability of population estimates of adult horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.), obtained using different sample units. Mean-variance relationships were similar for abundance estimates obtained by counting flies on the sunny sides of cattle, on the upper body, and on the whole animal. Precision varied among the sample units, and was lowest for estimates obtained using the sunny side. Abundance estimates obtained using the sunny side and upper body sample units were related to estimates obtained using the whole body sample unit. However, the proportion of flies in the upper body and sunny side sample units declined with increasing fly density. Seasonal movement toward the belly accounted for this decline. This movement resulted in bias in estimating rates of change based on counting flies on the sunny side and upper body sample units. Rates of change based on sampling the sunny side were more biased than estimates based on the upper body sampling unit. Bias in estimating rates of change was examined using an analytical model compared with field data, and resulted from changes in the proportion of flies occupying the sample unit. Bias also increased with increasing actual rates of change. The implication of these findings for studying horn fly populations are discussed.
Morin, Charles M; Leblanc, M; Ivers, H; Bélanger, L; Mérette, Chantal; Savard, Josée; Jarrin, Denise C
To document the monthly changes in sleep/insomnia status over a 12-month period; to determine the optimal time intervals to reliably capture new incident cases and recurrent episodes of insomnia and the likelihood of its persistence over time. Participants were 100 adults (mean age = 49.9 years; 66% women) randomly selected from a larger population-based sample enrolled in a longitudinal study of the natural history of insomnia. They completed 12 monthly telephone interviews assessing insomnia, use of sleep aids, stressful life events, and physical and mental health problems in the previous month. A total of 1,125 interviews of a potential 1,200 were completed. Based on data collected at each assessment, participants were classified into one of three subgroups: good sleepers, insomnia symptoms, and insomnia syndrome. At baseline, 42 participants were classified as good sleepers, 34 met criteria for insomnia symptoms, and 24 for an insomnia syndrome. There were significant fluctuations of insomnia over time, with 66% of the participants changing sleep status at least once over the 12 monthly assessments (51.5% for good sleepers, 59.5% for insomnia syndrome, and 93.4% for insomnia symptoms). Changes of status were more frequent among individuals with insomnia symptoms at baseline (mean = 3.46, SD = 2.36) than among those initially classified as good sleepers (mean = 2.12, SD = 2.70). Among the subgroup with insomnia symptoms at baseline, 88.3% reported improved sleep (i.e., became good sleepers) at least once over the 12 monthly assessments compared to 27.7% whose sleep worsened (i.e., met criteria for an insomnia syndrome) during the same period. Among individuals classified as good sleepers at baseline, risks of developing insomnia symptoms and syndrome over the subsequent months were, respectively, 48.6% and 14.5%. Monthly assessment over an interval of 6 months was found most reliable to estimate incidence rates, while an interval of 3 months proved the most
Garin, Noe; Olaya, Beatriz; Lara, Elvira; Moneta, Maria Victoria; Miret, Marta; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Haro, Josep Maria
In the context of population aging, visual impairment has emerged as a growing concern in public health. However, there is a need for further research into the relationship between visual impairment and chronic medical conditions in the elderly. The aim of our study was to examine the relationship between visual impairment and three main types of co-morbidity: chronic physical conditions (both at an independent and additive level), mental health and cognitive functioning. Data were collected from the COURAGE in Europe project, a cross-sectional study. A total of 4,583 participants from Spain were included. Diagnosis of chronic medical conditions included self-reported medical diagnosis and symptomatic algorithms. Depression and anxiety were assessed using CIDI algorithms. Visual assessment included objective distance/near visual acuity and subjective visual performance. Descriptive analyses included the whole sample (n = 4,583). Statistical analyses included participants aged over 50 years (n = 3,625; mean age = 66.45 years) since they have a significant prevalence of chronic conditions and visual impairment. Crude and adjusted binary logistic regressions were performed to identify independent associations between visual impairment and chronic medical conditions, physical multimorbidity and mental conditions. Covariates included age, gender, marital status, education level, employment status and urbanicity. The number of chronic physical conditions was found to be associated with poorer results in both distance and near visual acuity [OR 1.75 (CI 1.38-2.23); OR 1.69 (CI 1.27-2.24)]. At an independent level, arthritis, stroke and diabetes were associated with poorer distance visual acuity results after adjusting for covariates [OR 1.79 (CI 1.46-2.21); OR 1.59 (CI 1.05-2.42); OR 1.27 (1.01-1.60)]. Only stroke was associated with near visual impairment [OR 3.01 (CI 1.86-4.87)]. With regard to mental health, poor subjective visual acuity was associated with depression
Full Text Available Recent research has challenged the stereotype that eating disorders are largely limited to young, White, upper-class females. This study investigated the association between indicators of socioeconomic status and eating disorder features.Data were merged from cross-sectional general population surveys of adults in South Australia in 2008 (n = 3034 and 2009 (n = 3007 to give a total sample of 6041 participants. Multivariate logistic regressions were employed to test associations between indicators of socioeconomic status (household income, educational level, employment status, indigenous status and urbanicity and current eating disorder features (objective binge eating, subjective binge eating, purging, strict dieting and overvaluation of weight/shape. Eating disorder features occurred at similar rates across all levels of income, education, indigenous status, and urbanicity (p > 0.05. However, compared to working full-time, not working due to disability was associated with an increased risk of objective binge eating (odds ratio (OR = 2.30, p < 0.01 and purging (OR = 4.13, p < 0.05, engagement in home-duties with an increased risk of overvaluation of weight/shape (OR = 1.39, p < 0.05, and unemployment with an increased risk of objective binge eating (OR = 2.02, p < 0.05 and subjective binge eating (OR = 2.80, p < 0.05. Furthermore, participants with a trade or certificate qualification were at a significantly increased risk of reporting strict dieting compared to participants without a tertiary qualification (OR = 1.58, p <0.01. Limitations included the small numbers of indigenous participants (n = 115 and participants who reported purging (n = 54, exclusion of excessive exercise (which is associated with eating disorders, particularly in males, and the conduct of interviews by laypersons.Overall, symptoms of eating disorders are distributed equally across levels of socioeconomic status. This study highlights the need for universal access to
Bozman, Nazli; Gurkan, Cemal; Sevay, Huseyin; Demirdov, Damla Kanliada; Ozbas-Gerceker, Filiz
Southeastern Anatolia is the smallest, yet the most densely populated region among the seven major geographic constituents of Turkey. Situated in the Upper Mesopotamia, Southeastern Anatolia was also the northernmost extension of the Fertile Crescent, which is often considered as the earliest cradle of civilisation. To investigate the autosomal STR polymorphisms associated with a truly representative population sample pool from Southeastern Anatolia. Samples from a total of 257 volunteers were analysed by 19-loci autosomal STRs using the commercially available COrDIS Plus Kit. Allele frequencies, statistical parameters of forensic interest and Nei's D A distances with respect to the nearby and distant populations were calculated, besides performing exact tests of population differentiation with the same populations. A combined matching probability of 1.49978 × 10 -23 and a combined power of exclusion of 0.999999961 were obtained for the novel Southeastern Anatolian autosomal STR dataset. Furthermore, the Southeastern Anatolia population was found to have close genetic affinities with the other regional populations from Turkey, along with those from an apparent genetic continuum extending from the Near East to Southeastern Europe. The novel Southeastern Anatolian dataset is expected to be useful in regional forensic genetics investigations and molecular anthropology applications.
Martin P Schilling
Full Text Available Continuing advances in nucleotide sequencing technology are inspiring a suite of genomic approaches in studies of natural populations. Researchers are faced with data management and analytical scales that are increasing by orders of magnitude. With such dramatic advances comes a need to understand biases and error rates, which can be propagated and magnified in large-scale data acquisition and processing. Here we assess genomic sampling biases and the effects of various population-level data filtering strategies in a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS protocol. We focus on data from two species of Populus, because this genus has a relatively small genome and is emerging as a target for population genomic studies. We estimate the proportions and patterns of genomic sampling by examining the Populus trichocarpa genome (Nisqually-1, and demonstrate a pronounced bias towards coding regions when using the methylation-sensitive ApeKI restriction enzyme in this species. Using population-level data from a closely related species (P. tremuloides, we also investigate various approaches for filtering GBS data to retain high-depth, informative SNPs that can be used for population genetic analyses. We find a data filter that includes the designation of ambiguous alleles resulted in metrics of population structure and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium that were most consistent with previous studies of the same populations based on other genetic markers. Analyses of the filtered data (27,910 SNPs also resulted in patterns of heterozygosity and population structure similar to a previous study using microsatellites. Our application demonstrates that technically and analytically simple approaches can readily be developed for population genomics of natural populations.
Serdjebi, Cindy; Gattacceca, Florence; Seitz, Jean-François; Fein, Francine; Gagnière, Johan; François, Eric; Abakar-Mahamat, Abakar; Deplanque, Gael; Rachid, Madani; Lacarelle, Bruno; Ciccolini, Joseph; Dahan, Laetitia
Gemcitabine remains a pillar in pancreatic cancer treatment. However, toxicities are frequently observed. Dose adjustment based on therapeutic drug monitoring might help decrease the occurrence of toxicities. In this context, this work aims at describing the pharmacokinetics (PK) of gemcitabine and its metabolite dFdU in pancreatic cancer patients and at identifying the main sources of their PK variability using a population PK approach, despite a sparse sampled-population and heterogeneous administration and sampling protocols. Data from 38 patients were included in the analysis. The 3 optimal sampling times were determined using KineticPro and the population PK analysis was performed on Monolix. Available patient characteristics, including cytidine deaminase (CDA) status, were tested as covariates. Correlation between PK parameters and occurrence of severe hematological toxicities was also investigated. A two-compartment model best fitted the gemcitabine and dFdU PK data (volume of distribution and clearance for gemcitabine: V1 = 45 L and CL1 = 4.03 L/min; for dFdU: V2 = 36 L and CL2 = 0.226 L/min). Renal function was found to influence gemcitabine clearance, and body surface area to impact the volume of distribution of dFdU. However, neither CDA status nor the occurrence of toxicities was correlated to PK parameters. Despite sparse sampling and heterogeneous administration and sampling protocols, population and individual PK parameters of gemcitabine and dFdU were successfully estimated using Monolix population PK software. The estimated parameters were consistent with previously published results. Surprisingly, CDA activity did not influence gemcitabine PK, which was explained by the absence of CDA-deficient patients enrolled in the study. This work suggests that even sparse data are valuable to estimate population and individual PK parameters in patients, which will be usable to individualize the dose for an optimized benefit to risk ratio.
Romppel, Matthias; Hinz, Andreas; Finck, Carolyn; Young, Jeremy; Brähler, Elmar; Glaesmer, Heide
While the General Health Questionnaire, 12-item version (GHQ-12) has been widely used in cross-cultural comparisons, rigorous tests of the measurement equivalence of different language versions are still lacking. Thus, our study aims at investigating configural, metric and scalar invariance across the German and the Spanish version of the GHQ-12 in two population samples. The GHQ-12 was applied in two large-scale population-based samples in Germany (N = 1,977) and Colombia (N = 1,500). To investigate measurement equivalence, confirmatory factor analyses were conducted in both samples. In the German sample mean GHQ-12 total scores were higher than in the Colombian sample. A one-factor model including response bias on the negatively worded items showed superior fit in the German and the Colombian sample; thus both versions of the GHQ-12 showed configural invariance. Factor loadings and intercepts were not equal across both samples; thus GHQ-12 showed no metric and scalar invariance. As both versions of the GHQ-12 did not show measurement equivalence, it is not recommendable to compare both measures and to conclude that mental distress is higher in the German sample, although we do not know if the differences are attributable to measurement problems or represent a real difference in mental distress. The study underlines the importance of measurement equivalence in cross-cultural comparisons. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Several species of Aspergillus section Nigri, including potential mycotoxin producers, are common residents of grape vineyards, but the relative population size of individual species throughout the growing season is difficult to determine using traditional isolation and identification methods. Using...
Nollet, F.; Ivanyi, B.; Beelen, A.; de Haan, R. J.; Lankhorst, G. J.; de Visser, M.
Objective: To investigate perceived health and its relation to residual paresis from polio, late onset neuromuscular symptoms following poliomyelitis (LSP), and sex, in a population based sample of polio survivors. Methods: 350 subjects traced from the notification records of the Dutch 1956 polio
Utsey, Shawn O.; Brown, Christa; Bolden, Mark A.
Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the factorial invariance of the Africultural Coping Systems Inventory's (ACSI) measurement model and underlying factor structure across three independent and ethnically distinct samples of African descent populations. Results indicated that factor pattern coefficients of the ACSI's underlying…
Bowkett, Andrew E.; Jones, Trevor; Rovero, Francesco
As for many tropical regions, the evolutionary and demographic status of antelope populations in the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania, are poorly resolved. We employed genetic information from 618 faecal samples to assess the status of forest antelope species in terms of their distribution, intraspec...
Burger, Rulof P; McLaren, Zoë M
The problem of sample selection complicates the process of drawing inference about populations. Selective sampling arises in many real world situations when agents such as doctors and customs officials search for targets with high values of a characteristic. We propose a new method for estimating population characteristics from these types of selected samples. We develop a model that captures key features of the agent's sampling decision. We use a generalized method of moments with instrumental variables and maximum likelihood to estimate the population prevalence of the characteristic of interest and the agents' accuracy in identifying targets. We apply this method to tuberculosis (TB), which is the leading infectious disease cause of death worldwide. We use a national database of TB test data from South Africa to examine testing for multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB). Approximately one quarter of MDR-TB cases was undiagnosed between 2004 and 2010. The official estimate of 2.5% is therefore too low, and MDR-TB prevalence is as high as 3.5%. Signal-to-noise ratios are estimated to be between 0.5 and 1. Our approach is widely applicable because of the availability of routinely collected data and abundance of potential instruments. Using routinely collected data to monitor population prevalence can guide evidence-based policy making. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Korin, Maya Rom; Chaplin, William F.; Shaffer, Jonathan A.; Butler, Mark J.; Ojie, Mary-Jane; Davidson, Karina W.
Objective: To examine gender differences in the association between beliefs in heart disease preventability and 10-year incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in a population-based sample. Methods: A total of 2,688 Noninstitutionalized Nova Scotians without prior CHD enrolled in the Nova Scotia Health Study (NSHS95) and were followed for 10…
Environmental studies examining reproductive endpoints such as spontaneous abortion or fertility often rely on very select study groups (i.e., convenience samples, highly exposed, etc.) that cannot be easily generalized to the overall population. For exposures limited to a parti...
Schmand, B.; Hooijer, C.; Jonker, C.; Lindeboom, J.; Havekes, L. M.
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) allele frequencies were examined in a population-based sample (n = 475: age range 65-84 years: Amsterdam Study of the Elderly). The relation of ApoE epsilon 4 with dementia and with various types of late-life depression was studied. Depression was measured with the Geriatric
McDowell, Brona C.; Salazar-Torres, Jose J.; Kerr, Claire; Cosgrove, Aidan P.
-While passive range of motion (PROM) is commonly used to inform decisions on therapeutic management, knowledge of PROM of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) is limited. A population-based sample of 178 children with spastic CP (110 male; unilateral, n = 94; bilateral, n = 84; age range 4-17 years) and 68 typically developing children (24…
O'Neil, Sheree W; Friesen, Mary Ann; Stanger, Debra; Trickey, Amber Williams
Although pediatric patients report venipuncture as their most feared experience during hospitalization, blood sampling from peripheral intravenous accesses (PIVs) is not standard of care. Blood sampling from PIVs has long been considered by healthcare personnel to harm the access. In an effort to minimize painful procedures, pediatric nursing staff conducted a prospective, observational study to determine if blood sampling using existing PIVs resulted in the loss of the access. The ability to obtain the sample from the PIV was measured along with patient and PIV characteristics. Specimen collection using 100 existing PIVs was attempted on pediatric inpatients. Each PIV was observed for functionality, infiltration, occlusion, and dislodgement following collection and again in 4h. Frequencies of PIV loss and successful blood sampling were calculated. Patient age, PIV gauge, access site, and PIV age were evaluated for associations with successful sampling using chi-square tests, Fisher's exact tests, and logistic regression. PIV survivability was reported at 99%. The ability to obtain a complete specimen was reported at 76% and found to be significantly related to PIV age and site. Size of PIV and patient's age were not significantly related to successful sampling. Encouraging rates of PIV survivability and collectability suggest blood sampling from PIVs to be a valuable technique to minimize painful and distressful procedures. Nursing practice was changed in this pediatric department. Patients and families are saved the pain and distress of venipuncture. Nurses reported saving time and personal distress by avoiding the venipuncture procedure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Parolin, María Laura; Real, Luciano E; Martinazzo, Liza B; Basso, Néstor G
Allele frequencies and forensic parameters for 22 autosomal STR loci and DYS391 locus included in the PowerPlex(®) Fusion System kit were estimated in a sample of 770 unrelated individuals from Chubut Province, southern Patagonia. No significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed after Bonferroni's correction. The combined power of discrimination and the combined probability of exclusion were >0.999999 and 0.999984, respectively. Comparisons with other worldwide populations were performed. The MDS obtained show a close biological relation between Chubut and Chile. The estimated interethnic admixture supports a high Native American contribution (46%) in the population sample of Chubut. These results enlarge the Argentine databases of autosomal STR and would provide a valuable contribution for identification tests and population genetic studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Haberstick, Brett C; Smolen, Andrew; Williams, Redford B; Bishop, George D; Foshee, Vangie A; Thornberry, Terence P; Conger, Rand; Siegler, Ilene C; Zhang, Xiaodong; Boardman, Jason D; Frajzyngier, Zygmunt; Stallings, Michael C; Brent Donnellan, M; Halpern, Carolyn T; Harris, Kathleen Mullan
Genetic differences between populations are potentially an important contributor to health disparities around the globe. As differences in gene frequencies influence study design, it is important to have a thorough understanding of the natural variation of the genetic variant(s) of interest. Along these lines, we characterized the variation of the 5HTTLPR and rs25531 polymorphisms in six samples from North America, Southeast Asia, and Africa (Cameroon) that differ in their racial and ethnic composition. Allele and genotype frequencies were determined for 24,066 participants. Results indicated higher frequencies of the rs25531 G-allele among Black and African populations as compared with White, Hispanic and Asian populations. Further, we observed a greater number of 'extra-long' ('XL') 5HTTLPR alleles than have previously been reported. Extra-long alleles occurred almost entirely among Asian, Black and Non-White Hispanic populations as compared with White and Native American populations where they were completely absent. Lastly, when considered jointly, we observed between sample differences in the genotype frequencies within racial and ethnic populations. Taken together, these data underscore the importance of characterizing the L-G allele to avoid misclassification of participants by genotype and for further studies of the impact XL alleles may have on the transcriptional efficiency of SLC6A4.
Christensen, Krista L Yorita; Lorber, Matthew; Koch, Holger M; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Morgan, Marsha K
Human exposure to phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) can be assessed through urinary biomonitoring, but methods to infer daily intakes assume that spot sample concentrations are comparable to daily average concentrations. We evaluate this assumption using human biomonitoring data from Germany and the United States (US). The German data comprised three regional studies with spot samples and one with full-day samples analyzed for phthalate metabolites. The US data included: a study on DEHP metabolites and BPA involving eight persons supplying all urine voids (from which 24-h samples were constructed) for seven consecutive days; NHANES spot sample data on DEHP metabolites and BPA; and a regional study of children with 48-h samples analyzed for BPA. In the German data, measures of central tendency differed, but spot and 24-h samples showed generally comparable variance including 95th percentiles and maxima equidistant from central tendency measures. In contrast, the US adult data from the eight-person study showed similar central tendencies for phthalate metabolites and BPA, but generally greater variability for the spot samples, including higher 95th percentiles and maxima. When comparing children's BPA concentrations in NHANES spot and 48-h samples, distributions showed similar central tendency and variability. Overall, spot urinary concentrations of DEHP metabolites and BPA have variability roughly comparable with corresponding 24-h average concentrations obtained from a comparable population, suggesting that spot samples can be used to characterize population distributions of intakes. However, the analysis also suggests that caution should be exercised when interpreting the high end of spot sample data sets.
Rojas, E.; Lobo, J.; Leon, P.
To establish databases of allele frequencies in a Costa Rican Central Valley population sample. Peripheral blood samples from more than 40 individual were used to isolate DNA and analyze each sample with 10 dinucleotide repeat genetic markers and with 2 mini satellite repeats, using the polymerase chain reaction. Alleles were identified by comparison with DNA from CEPH family members. Genotypes were determined by labelling one of the two Pcr primers with 32P before amplification, electrophoresis in sequencing gels and autoradiography. Analysis of this data set indicates that these samples is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and shows no evidence of linkage disequilibrium between markers. These data are compared with results from other human populations analyzed with the same markers, finding similarities in allele frequencies among them. Notably, the Costa Rican sample presents the lowest heterozygosity value, with 4 of the 10 dinucleotide markers tested, followed by a Cerdenian sample. In contrast, the two African samples presented the highest heterozygosity indexes with a larger number of alleles. (L. Jimenez) [es
Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Paletti, G.; Catharino, M.G.M.; Saiki, M.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Bode, P.; Ammerlaan, A.K.; Byrne, A.R.; Baruzzi, R.; Rodrigues, D.A.
Biomonitoring of mercury contamination of Brazilian Indian population groups living in the Xingu Park, a reservation situated in the Amazonic region, has revealed very high levels of mercury in hair samples as compared to controls. Total mercury was determined by INAA in most of the tribes living in the Park and methylmercury was determined by CVAAS in samples with total mercury above 10 mg/kg. Due to the fact that selenium seems to protect animals against the toxic effects of methylmercury, it was considered also of interest to determine its concentrations in the hair samples with very high mercury levels. Selenium was determined by INAA via the short-lived radionuclide 77m Se (T 1/2 = 17.45 s). The correlations between selenium and mercury concentrations in Brazilian controls and in the Indian population groups are discussed. (author)
Moura-Neto, R S; Mello, I C T; Silva, R; Maette, A P C; Bottino, C G; Woerner, A; King, J; Wendt, F; Budowle, B
The use of bi-allelic markers such as retrotransposable element insertion polymorphisms or Innuls (for insertion/null) can overcome some limitations of short tandem repeat (STR) loci in typing forensic biological evidence. This study investigated the efficiency of the InnoTyper® 21 Innul markers in an urban admixed population sample in Rio de Janeiro (n = 40) and one highly compromised sample collected as evidence by the Rio de Janeiro police. No significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were detected after the Bonferroni correction (α' ≈ 0.05/20, p Rio de Janeiro populations are in a single large heterogeneous group. Also, a full Innuls profile was produced from an evidence sample, despite the DNA being highly degraded. In conclusion, this system is a useful complement to standard STR kits.
Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Jonsson, Fridrik H.; Hansdottir, Ingunn
Personality traits are major determinants of social behavior influencing various diseases including addiction. Twin and family studies suggest personality and addiction to be under genetic influence. Identification of DNA susceptibility variants relies on valid and reliable phenotyping approaches....... We present results of psychometric testing of the Icelandic NEO-FFI in a population sample (N= 657) and a sample recruited for a study on addiction genetics (N= 3804). The Icelandic NEO-FFI demonstrated internal consistency and temporal stability. Factor analyses supported the five-factor structure....... Icelandic norms were compared to American norms and language translations selected for geographical and cultural proximity to Iceland. Multiple discriminant function analysis using NEO-FFI trait scores and gender as independent variables predicted membership in recruitment groups for 47.3% of addiction...
Nonnenmann, Matthew W; Coronado, Gloria; Thompson, Beti; Griffith, William C; Hanson, John Delton; Vesper, Stephen; Faustman, Elaine M
Molecular techniques are an alternative to culturing and counting methods in quantifying indoor fungal contamination. Pyrosequencing offers the possibility of identifying unexpected indoor fungi. In this study, 50 house dust samples were collected from homes in the Yakima Valley, WA. Each sample was analyzed by quantitative PCR (QPCR) for 36 common fungi and by fungal tag-encoded flexible (FLX) amplicon pyrosequencing (fTEFAP) for these and additional fungi. Only 24 of the samples yielded amplified results using fTEFAP but QPCR successfully amplified all 50 samples. Over 450 fungal species were detected by fTEFAP but most were rare. Twenty-two fungi were found by fTEFAP to occur with at least an average of ≥0.5% relative occurrence. Many of these fungi seem to be associated with plants, soil or human skin. Combining fTEFAP and QPCR can enhance studies of fungal contamination in homes.
Ou, Judy Y; Smits-Seemann, Rochelle R; Kaul, Sapna; Fluchel, Mark N; Sweeney, Carol; Kirchhoff, Anne C
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) has a high survival rate, but cancer-related late effects in the early post-treatment years need documentation. Hospitalizations are an indicator of the burden of late effects. We identify rates and risk factors for hospitalization from five to ten years after diagnosis for childhood and adolescent ALL survivors compared to siblings and a matched population sample. 176 ALL survivors were diagnosed at ≤22 years between 1998 and 2008 and treated at an Intermountain Healthcare facility. The Utah Population Database identified siblings, an age- and sex-matched sample of the Utah population, and statewide inpatient hospital discharges. Sex- and birth year-adjusted Poisson models with Generalized Estimating Equations and robust standard errors calculated rates and rate ratios. Cox proportional hazards models identified demographic and clinical risk factors for hospitalizations among survivors. Hospitalization rates for survivors (Rate:3.76, 95% CI=2.22-6.36) were higher than siblings (Rate:2.69, 95% CI=1.01-7.18) and the population sample (Rate:1.87, 95% CI=1.13-3.09). Compared to siblings and population comparisons, rate ratios (RR) were significantly higher for survivors diagnosed between age 6 and 22 years (RR:2.87, 95% CI=1.03-7.97 vs siblings; RR:2.66, 95% CI=1.17-6.04 vs population comparisons). Rate ratios for diagnosis between 2004 and 2008 were significantly higher compared to the population sample (RR:4.29, 95% CI=1.49, 12.32), but not siblings (RR:2.73, 95% CI=0.54, 13.68). Survivors originally diagnosed with high-risk ALL did not have a significantly higher risk than siblings or population comparators. However, high-risk ALL survivors (Hazard ratio [HR]:3.36, 95% CI=1.33-8.45) and survivors diagnosed from 2004 to 2008 (HR:9.48, 95% CI=1.93-46.59) had the highest risk compared to their survivor counterparts. Five to ten years after diagnosis is a sensitive time period for hospitalizations in the ALL population. Survivors of
Full Text Available Life table calculation of small populations, especially of marginal populations, is difficult due to a small number of death records and lack of a systematic birth and death registry. The present study aimed to calculate a life table of a small sample of Santal population from Beliatore area of the Bankura district, West Bengal, India, using the recall method. The data on birth and death events were collected using house-to-house interviewing and cross-checking the data with reference to the significant events of the area and the family. The life table was calculated from age specific death rate of a closed population retrospectively estimated for 10 years. The calculated life expectancy at birth of the study population was 63.9 years with a standard error of 3.15 years. The finding agrees with the life expectancy of the other larger populations of the region, although calculated using conventional methods. The method needs to be evaluated to get the optimum number of death events required for calculating the life table with an acceptable error level. The study will be helpful for comparisons of overall health status of small populations with respect to time and space.
Hammouda, Doudja; Clifford, Gary M; Pallardy, Sophie; Ayyach, Ghassan; Chékiri, Asma; Boudrich, Arab; Snijders, Peter J F; van Kemenade, Folkert J; Meijer, Chris J L M; Bouhadef, Anissa; Zitouni, Zahia; Habib, Djamila; Ikezaren, Nadia; Franceschi, Silvia
No data exist on the population prevalence of, nor risk factors for, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the predominantly Muslim countries of Northern Africa. Cervical specimens were obtained from 759 married women aged 15-65 years from the general population of Algiers, Algeria. Liquid-based cytology and HPV DNA detection, using a GP5+/6+-based polymerase chain reaction assay that detects 44 HPV types, were performed according to the standardized protocol of the International Agency for Research on Cancer HPV Prevalence Surveys. HPV prevalence in the general population was 6.3% (4.0% of high-risk types), with no significant variation by age. The prevalence of cervical abnormalities was 3.6%. HPV positivity was significantly higher among divorced women, women in polygamous marriages and those reporting husband's extramarital sexual relationships. HPV16/18 accounted for only 15% of HPV-positive women in the general population, compared with 77% of invasive cervical cancer diagnosed in the same city. In conclusion, we report that HPV infection among married women in Algeria is much lower than in sub-Saharan Africa and also lower than in the majority of high-resource countries. Copyright © 2010 UICC.
McCollough, J. P.; Quinn, J. M.; Starks, M. J.; Johnston, W. R.
Sampling of anomaly-causing space environment drivers is necessary for both real-time operations and satellite design efforts, and optimizing measurement sampling helps minimize resource demands. Relating these measurements to spacecraft anomalies requires the ability to resolve spatial and temporal variability in the energetic charged particle hazard of interest. Here we describe a method for sampling particle fluxes informed by magnetospheric phenomenology so that, along a given trajectory, the variations from both temporal dynamics and spatial structure are adequately captured while minimizing oversampling. We describe the coordinates, sampling method, and specific regions and parameters employed. We compare resulting sampling cadences with data from spacecraft spanning the regions of interest during a geomagnetically active period, showing that the algorithm retains the gross features necessary to characterize environmental impacts on space systems in diverse orbital regimes while greatly reducing the amount of sampling required. This enables sufficient environmental specification within a resource-constrained context, such as limited telemetry bandwidth, processing requirements, and timeliness.
Full Text Available Concentration levels of 226Ra, 228Ra, 40K and 137Cs were determined in 52 drinking water samples collected from the different supplies in Samsun province to evaluate annual effective dose due to the ingestion of the drinking water samples. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K natural radionuclides in the drinking water samples varied from <27 to 2431 mBq L−1, <36 to 270 mBq L−1 and <47 to 2880 mBq L−1 respectively. The activity concentrations of the artificial radionuclide 137Cs in the drinking water samples were lower than minimum detectable activity except in one drinking water sample (DW14 with an associated activity concentration of 2576 mBq L−1. Contributions of the consumed water samples to annual effective dose from 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K varied from 1.6 to 33.4 μSv y−1 with a mean of 6.1 μSv y−1, 2.2 to 46.8 μSv y−1 with a mean of 8.6 μSv y−1, 4.7 to 97.5 μSv y−1 with a mean of 17.9 μSv y−1 for infants, children and adults, respectively. The results showed that all values of the annual effective dose of ingestion of these water samples were below the individual dose criterion of 100 μSv y−1 reported by World Health Organization (WHO.
Hines, Denise A; Douglas, Emily M
National population-based studies show that 40%-50% of physical partner violence victims in a 1-year time period are men. However, studies assessing the health concerns related to partner violence victimization tend to focus on women, and none have assessed the health of male physical partner violence victims who sought help for their victimization. To understand men's mental and physical health concerns that may be related to partner violence victimization. In 2012-2013, two samples of men-611 physical partner violence victims who sought help and 1,601 men from a population-based sample-completed online questionnaires on their demographics, various types of partner violence victimization, physical health, mental health, and other risks. Data were analyzed using logistic regression, log binomial models, and robust Poisson models in 2013. In comparison to the population-based sample of men, male partner violence victims who sought help had significantly poorer health, particularly with regard to post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, high blood pressure, sexually transmitted diseases, and asthma. These differences remained after controlling for sample differences in demographics, substance use, previous traumatic exposure, and social support. Practitioners should assess for health problems among partner violence victims and for partner violence victimization among men presenting with health problems. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Menéndez Garmendia, Antinea; Sánchez-Mejorada, Gabriela; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge A
Stature estimation is an important step to create a biological profile for human identification of unknown individuals in forensic anthropological practice, and it is well known that the long bone length is highly correlated with this feature. The purpose of the present study is to develop formulae for height estimation, based on simple linear regression model for humerus, femur and tibia in Mexican contemporary population. Stature was taken in 56 males and 30 female corpses as well as maximum length of three long bones of the limbs after autopsy following the Menéndez et al. (2014) criteria, at the Facultad de Medicina (School of Medicine) of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Based on this data, equations for each sex and for the three long bones were developed, obtaining a highly significant (p contemporary population of Mexico. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
habitat types on population viability ( Biek et al. 2002). However, an accurate assessment of amphibian distributions is necessary for effective...activities on salamander presence and abundance. Base activities, such as construction and maintenance of dirt roads, ditching to control water runoff...abundance in temporary wetlands. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 59: 1441-1450. Biek , R., W. C. Funk, B. A. Maxell, and L. S. Mills
Malecki, Kristen M C; Schultz, Amy A; Severtson, Dolores J; Anderson, Henry A; VanDerslice, James A
Private well stewardship, including on-going testing and treatment, can ensure private well users are able to maintain source-water quality and prevent exposures to potentially harmful constituents in primary drinking water supplies. Unlike municipal water supplies, private well users are largely responsible for their own testing and treatment and well stewardship is often minimal. The importance of factors influencing regular testing, and treatment behaviors, including knowledge, risk perception, convenience and social norms, can vary by geography and population characteristics. The primary goals of this study were to survey a general statewide population of private well users in Wisconsin in order to quantify testing and treatment patterns and gather data on motivations and barriers to well stewardship. The majority of respondents reported using and drinking well water daily but only about one half of respondents reported testing their wells in the last ten years and of these, only 10% reported testing in the last 12months. Bacteria and nitrates were contaminants most often tested; and, a private laboratory most often conducted testing. The most commonly reported water treatment was a water softener. Living in a particular geographic region and income were the most significant predictors of water testing and treatment. Iron and hardness, which influence water aesthetics but not always safety, were the most commonly reported water quality problems. Health concerns or perceived lack thereof were, respectively, motivators and barriers to testing and treatment. Limited knowledge of testing and treatment options were also identified as barriers. Results confirm previous findings that well stewardship practices are minimal and often context specific. Understanding the target population's perceptions of risk and knowledge are important elements to consider in identifying vulnerable populations and developing education and policy efforts to improve well stewardship
Šimková, H.; Faltus, Václav; Marván, Richard; Pexa, T.; Stenzl, V.; Brouček, J.; Hořínek, A.; Mazura, Ivan; Zvárová, Jana
Roč. 4, č. 1 (2009), e15-e17 ISSN 1872-4973 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : short tandem repeat (STR) * allelic frequency * PowerPlex 16 System * AmpflSTR Identifiler * population genetics * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.421, year: 2009
Gavigan, Geneviève; McEvoy, Alana; Walker, James
Dermatology in vulnerable populations is under-researched. Our objective was to analyze the most commonly referred skin diseases affecting the Correctional Service Canada inmates in Ontario. An observational, cross-sectional, retrospective chart review of inmate patients seen from 2008 until 2013 was performed. Two groups of patients were included in the analysis: those assessed in-person, and those evaluated by e-consult. In the in-person patient group, the 3 most common diagnoses were acne, psoriasis and other superficial mycoses. For the e-consult group, the 3 most frequent diagnoses were acne, psoriasis and rosacea. There was a clear bias toward more inmates being seen in-person where the service was provided (Collins Bay Institution) than from other correctional institutions in Eastern Ontario. Most of the skin diseases that affected the incarcerated population studied were common afflictions, similar to those affecting the general population, which is in agreement with other studies. Future studies investigating skin diseases in male and female inmates across Canada would bestow more generalizable data.
Gijsen, C P; Dijkstra, J B; van Boxtel, M P J
Studies which have examined the impact of pain on cognitive functioning in the general population are scarce. In the present study we assessed the predictive value of recurrent pain on cognitive functioning in a population-based study (N=1400). Furthermore, we investigated the effect of pain on cognitive functioning in individuals with specific pain complaints (i.e. back pain, gastric pain, muscle pain and headache). Cognitive functioning was assessed using the Stroop Color-Word Interference test (Stroop interference), the Letter-Digit-Substitution test (LDST) and the Visual Verbal learning Task (VVLT). Pain was measured with the COOP/WONCA pain scale (Dartmouth Primary Care Cooperative Information Project/World Organization of National Colleges, Academies, and Academic Associations of General Practice /Family Physicians). We controlled for the effects of age, sex, level of education and depressive symptoms. It was demonstrated that pain had a negative impact on the performance on the Stroop interference but not on the VVLT and the LDST. This indicates that subjects who reported extreme pain had more problems with selective attention and were more easily distracted. Effects were in general larger in the specific pain groups when compared to the associations found in the total group. Implications of these findings are discussed. The experience of recurrent pain has a negative influence on selective attention in a healthy population. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ancestry informative markers (AIMs are a type of genetic marker that is informative for tracing the ancestral ethnicity of individuals. Application of AIMs has gained substantial attention in population genetics, forensic sciences, and medical genetics. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, the materials of AIMs, are useful for classifying individuals from distinct continental origins but cannot discriminate individuals with subtle genetic differences from closely related ancestral lineages. Proof-of-principle studies have shown that gene expression (GE also is a heritable human variation that exhibits differential intensity distributions among ethnic groups. GE supplies ethnic information supplemental to SNPs; this motivated us to integrate SNP and GE markers to construct AIM panels with a reduced number of required markers and provide high accuracy in ancestry inference. Few studies in the literature have considered GE in this aspect, and none have integrated SNP and GE markers to aid classification of samples from closely related ethnic populations. Results We integrated a forward variable selection procedure into flexible discriminant analysis to identify key SNP and/or GE markers with the highest cross-validation prediction accuracy. By analyzing genome-wide SNP and/or GE markers in 210 independent samples from four ethnic groups in the HapMap II Project, we found that average testing accuracies for a majority of classification analyses were quite high, except for SNP-only analyses that were performed to discern study samples containing individuals from two close Asian populations. The average testing accuracies ranged from 0.53 to 0.79 for SNP-only analyses and increased to around 0.90 when GE markers were integrated together with SNP markers for the classification of samples from closely related Asian populations. Compared to GE-only analyses, integrative analyses of SNP and GE markers showed comparable testing
Tyler, Kimberly A.; Hagewen, Kellie J.; Melander, Lisa A.
The present study examines risk factors for running away and homelessness among a sample of more than 7,000 currently housed youth using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Structural equation modeling results revealed that those with greater levels of family instability and those who ran away at Wave 2 were…
Andersen, Mikkel Meyer; Mogensen, Helle Smidt; Eriksen, Poul Svante
The Yfiler (Ⓡ) Plus Amplification Kit amplifies 27 Y chromosomal small tandem repeat (STR) markers. The kit has five-fluorescent dye chemistry and the improved PCR buffer system of modern STR kits. We validated the kit for accredited investigations of crime scene samples by a thorough study of ki...
Arrindell, W.A.; Vergara, A.I; Torres, B.; Caballo, V.E.; Sanderman, R.; Calvo, M G; Vanderende, J.; Oosterhof, L.; Castro, J
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cross-national replicability of the usual pattern of associations observed in Anglo-Saxon samples between masculinity and femininity on the one hand and difficulty and distress in assertiveness and the major Eysenckian dimensions of personality
Pompeia, L.; Hill, V.; Spite, M.; Cole, A.; Primas, F.; Romaniello, M.; Pasquini, L.; Cioni, M. -R.; Hane, T. Smecker
Aims. We have used FLAMES (the Fibre Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph) at the VLT-UT2 telescope to obtain spectra of a large sample of red giant stars from the inner disk of the LMC, similar to 2 kpc from the center of the galaxy. We investigate the chemical abundances of key elements to
Piperaki, Evangelia-Theophano; Spanakos, Gregory; Patsantara, Giannoula; Vassalou, Evdokia; Vakalis, Nikolaos; Tsakris, Athanassios
Human infection with the parasitic nematode Enterobius vermicularis occurs worldwide, particularly in children. Although its prevalence may exceed 35% in some parts of the world, molecular studies of E. vermicularis in humans are limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic variation within E. vermicularis in a human population. For this purpose, 77 adhesive tape samples taken from Greek children infested with E. vermicularis were tested. New primers were designed to amplify a segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of E. vermicularis from adhesive tape samples. Thirty-six amplicons were sequenced and eleven different haplotypes were identified. All sequences clustered within the type previously characterized (type B), only reported to date from captive chimpanzees. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of E. vermicularis genotypes from a human population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Feldman, Jamie; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Bockting, Walter O.
To study the influence of gender on HIV risk, a sample of the U.S. transgender population (N = 1,229) was recruited via the Internet. HIV risk and prevalence were lower than reported in prior studies of localized, urban samples, but higher than the overall U.S. population. Findings suggest that gender nonconformity alone does not itself result in markedly higher HIV risk. Sex with nontransgender men emerged as the strongest independent predictor of unsafe sex for both male-to-female (MtF) and female-to-male (FtM) participants. These sexual relationships constitute a process that may either affirm or problematize gender identity and sexual orientation, with different emphases for MtFs and FtMs, respectively. PMID:25022491
Glaesmer, Heide; Hallensleben, Nina; Forkmann, Thomas; Spangenberg, Lena; Kapusta, Nestor; Teismann, Tobias
To evaluate the main prediction of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide (IPTS): 3-way-interaction of perceived burdensomeness (PB), thwarted belongingness (TB), and acquired capability (AC) for the prediction of suicidal behavior in a representative population sample. A total of 2513 participants completed measures of suicidal behavior, TB, PB, acquired capability (AC-FAD), and symptoms of depression and anxiety. The two-way-interaction of TB and PB, and the three-way interaction of TB, PB and AC-FAD predict suicidality. Given the cross-sectional nature of the data, conclusions on causality should be handled carefully. The main prediction of the IPTS has been proven in a general population sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hansen, Michael Møller; Bekkevold, Dorte; Jensen, L.F.
1. Gene flow from domesticated to wild populations is a major threat to wild salmonid fish. However, few studies have addressed how populations could be restored after admixture has occurred. We analysed the prospects for restoring the previously intensively stocked brown trout population...... of the Skjern River, Denmark, by identifying remaining non-admixed individuals to be used for supportive breeding. 2. We analysed microsatellite DNA markers in historical (1940-50s) and contemporary (1992-2004) samples from the Skjern River system, from the strain of domesticated trout previously used...... for stocking, and from the neighbouring Stora River. We analysed admixture proportions to estimate the genetic contribution by domesticated trout. We identified non-admixed trout using assignment tests, and further analysed the possible sources of indigenous trout by estimating contemporary migration among...
Haberstick, Brett C.; Smolen, Andrew; Williams, Redford B.; Bishop, George D.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Thornberry, Terence P; Conger, Rand; Siegler, Ilene C.; Zhang, Xiaodong; Boardman, Jason D; Frajzyngier, Zygmunt; Stallings, Michael C.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Halpern, Carolyn T.; Harris, Kathleen Mullan
Genetic differences between populations are a potentially an important contributor to health disparities around the globe. As differences in gene frequencies influence study design, it is important to have a thorough understanding of the natural variation of the genetic variant(s) of interest. Along these lines, we characterized the variation of the 5HTTLPR and rs25531 polymorphisms in six samples from North America, Southeast Asia, and Africa (Cameroon) that differ in their racial and ethnic...
Tavassoli, Ali Akbar; Gharipour, Mojgan; Khosravi, Alireza; Kelishadi, Roya; Siadat, Zahra Dana; Bahonar, Ahmad; Sadri, Gholam Hosein; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Rabiei, Katayoun; Sajjadi, Firouzeh; Zarfeshani, Sonia; Eshrati, Babak; Shirani, Shahin; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal
This study investigated the gender differences in association of some behavioural and socioeconomic factors with obesity indices in a population-based sample of 12,514 Iranian adults. The mean body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were significantly higher in women than in men. Current and passive smoking had an inverse association with BMI among males whereas current smoking, transportation by a private car, and longer duration of watching televisi...
G?nd?z, Kaan; ?elenk, Peruze; Canger, Emin M.; Zengin, Zeynep; S?mer, P?nar
Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of dens invaginatus and to classify the types of dens invaginatus in a sample of the Turkish population.. Study Design: A retrospective study was performed using periapical and panoramic radiographs of 5355 patients who presented to the Department of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology at the Ondokuz May?s University Dentistry Faculty between January 2009 and December 2010. Maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth were evaluated for th...
Reis, Arlene A. dos; Cardoso, Joaquim C.S.; Lourenco, Maria Cristina
The Publication 66 of International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP, 1994) presented the Human Respiratory tract Model that simulates the deposition and translocation of radioactive material in the air that penetrates in the body by inhalation. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the variation in fractional activity absorbed into blood when physiological and morphological parameters from Brazilian population are applied in the deposition model. The clearance model was implemented in the software Excel (version 2000) using a system of differential equations to solve simultaneous process of translocation and absorption of material deposited. After implementation were applied in the model fractional deposition calculated by deposition model using physiological and morphological parameters from Brazilian population. The results show that the variation in the clearance model depends on the material dissolution. For materials of rapid absorption, the variations calculated are not significant. Materials of moderate and slow absorption, presented variation greater than 20% in fractional activity absorbed into blood, depending on levels of exercise. (author)
Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of HIV-associated oral mucosal melanin hyperpigmentation (HIV-OMH in a specific population of HIV-seropositive South Africans and to analyse the associations between HIV-OMH clinical features and the demographic and immunological characteristics of the study cohort. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 200 HIV-seropositive Black subjects. The collected data comprised age, gender, CD4+ T cell count, viral load, systemic disease, medications, oral site affected by HIV-OMH, extent (localized or generalized, intensity of the pigmentation (dark or light, and smoking and snuff use. Results. Overall, 18.5% of the study cohort had HIV-OMH. Twenty-two and a half percent had OMH that could not with confidence be attributed to HIV infection, and 59% did not have any OMH. There was a significant but weak association between smoking and the presence of HIV-OMH. Conclusions. The prevalence of HIV-OMH in the study population was 18.5%, the gingiva being the most commonly affected site. It appears that the CD4+ T cell count does not play any role in the biopathology of HIV-OMH.
Kimber, Melissa; Rehm, Jürgen; Ferro, Mark A
The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) is a brief measure of global disability originally developed for adults, which has since been implemented among samples of children and youth. However, evidence of its validity for use among youth, particularly measurement invariance, is lacking. Investigations of measurement invariance assess the extent to which the psychometric properties of observed items in a measure are generalizable across samples. Satisfying the assumption of measurement invariance is critical for any inferences about between-group differences. The objective of this paper was to empirically assess the measurement invariance of the 12-item interview version of the WHODAS 2.0 measure in an epidemiological sample of youth (15 to 17 years) and adults (≥ 18 years) in Canada. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis using a categorical variable framework allowed for the sequential testing of increasingly restrictive models to evaluate measurement invariance of the WHODAS 2.0 between adults and youth. Findings provided evidence for full measurement invariance of the WHODAS 2.0 in youth aged 15 to 17 years. The final model fit the data well: χ(2)(159) = 769.04, p WHODAS 2.0. Findings indicate that the WHODAS 2.0 is valid for making substantive comparisons of disability among youth as young as 15 years of age.
Jesus Prieto, M.; Moreno, M.; Olivares, P.; Gomez, M.; Herranz, R.
As far back as 10 years ago, the Gregorio Maranon General University Hospital (HGUGM) was equipped with a laboratory of biological dosimetry and has undertaken dosimetric estimations of individuals suspected with overexposure to ionizing radiation. For this purpose it was necessary to carry out studies on the basic frequency of chromosomal aberrations in a controlled (radiation exposed) population. A study was conducted on 72 individuals of the community of Madrid who had not been exposed to ionizing radiation. 500 metaphases per individual were examined and a basic frequency of 0.7 (dic)/1000 cells analysed. Parameters such as age, gender and cigarette consumption were considered and results show a linear dependency with age and consumption of cigarettes, but not with gender
Calhoun, Susan L; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Liao, Duanping; Bixler, Edward O
Our population-based study examined the prevalence of insomnia symptoms and its sociodemographic, subjective, and polysomnographic (PSG) sleep risk factors in young and preadolescent children. We performed a cross-sectional study of 700 children, ages 5-12 years who underwent a 9-h PSG and parent-completed sleep and development questionnaires (Penn State Child Cohort). Insomnia symptoms were defined as parent report of difficulty falling or staying asleep and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) as an apnea hypopnea index of ≥1. The prevalence of insomnia symptoms was 19.3% and did not significantly change (20.2%) when children with SDB were excluded. A significant interaction between gender and age revealed that the prevalence of insomnia symptoms was highest in girls ages 11 to 12 years (30.6%). This gender difference was not associated with significant differences between girls and boys ages 11-12 years in anxiety and depressive symptoms. In contrast girls ages 11-12 years with insomnia symptoms, but not boys of the same group, demonstrated clinically significant PSG sleep disturbances compared to those without insomnia symptoms. These data suggest that one out of five young children and preadolescents of the general population have insomnia symptoms. Importantly, the prevalence of insomnia symptoms peaks in girls ages 11 to 12 years and is associated with objective sleep disturbances which may be related to hormonal changes associated with the onset of puberty rather than anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ellam, Timothy; Fotheringham, James; Wilkie, Martin E.; Francis, Sheila E.; Chico, Timothy J. A.
Background and Hypothesis Even within accepted normal ranges, higher serum phosphorus, dietary phosphorus density, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. Lower serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) also predicts adverse cardiovascular outcomes. We hypothesized that vascular dysfunction accompanying subtle disturbances of these bone metabolism parameters would result in associations with increased low grade albuminuria. Study Population and Measures We examined participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999–2010 (N = 19,383) with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and without severe albuminuria (urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) phosphorus density, serum phosphorus and ALP were not associated with higher ACR or FEalb. The lowest versus highest quintile of 25(OH)D was associated with greater albuminuria, but not after adjustment for other covariates including cardiovascular risk factors. An association between the highest versus lowest quintile of bone-specific ALP and greater ACR persisted after covariate adjustment, but was not accompanied by an independent association with FEalb. Increasing quintiles of PTH demonstrated associations with both higher ACR and FEalb that were not abolished by adjusting for covariates including age, gender, race, body mass index, diabetes, blood pressure, history of cardiovascular disease, smoking, eGFR, 25(OH)D, season of measurement, lipids, hemoglobin and C-reactive protein. Adjusted increases in ACR and FEalb associated with the highest versus lowest quintile of PTH were 19% (95% confidence interval 7–28% p<0.001) and 17% (8–31% p = 0.001) respectively. Conclusion In this population, of the bone mineral parameters associated with cardiovascular outcomes, only PTH is independently associated with ACR and FEalb. PMID:24505486
Oviedo, Gabriel Fernando; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Rondón, Martín; Borda Bohigas, Juan Pablo; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie
Personality refers to the individual style in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving. Traits may configure a personality disorder when there is a long-lasting rigid pattern of inner experience that deviates from the expectations of the individual's culture, are inflexible and form maladaptative schemes in different interpersonal scenarios. Given the pervasiveness of this structure, they cause impairment of functioning in the affected person. To establish the prevalence of personality traits in all selected adults, using the module-structured interview WHO WHM-CIDI-CAPI for clusters A, B and C of personality traits. Colombian National Survey on Mental Health with persons older than 18 years of age. Personality traits that are the most frequently described: Cluster A 46% (95%CI, 45.2-48.1) of people believe they are convinced that there are conspiracies behind many things in the world. Regarding the features of cluster B, 35.6% (95%CI, 34.2-37.0) of the population reports that generally they do not feel bad when offending or upsetting someone and 35.4% (95%CI, 33.9-36.8) refer to show feelings to anyone. The highest proportion of traits were found to the probable borderline personality disorder, as 4.6% (95%CI, 4.1-5.2) of the Colombian population aged 18 and older has 6 or more features of this type, and is the widely reported as an individual entity with similar rates in men and women. The high prevalence of disruptive personality traits requires more research. The high prevalence reported for borderline personality traits suggests the need to implement measures to improve and integrate a collaborative model of care for people afflicted with a possible borderline personality disorder. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Hahn, Josephine W; McCormick, Marie C; Silverman, Jay G; Robinson, Elise B; Koenen, Karestan C
This study examined effects of impairments in physical and mental health on the risk of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults (≥18 years). A total of 34,563 adults completed interviews in two waves of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Physical and mental health impairments, as well as IPV victimization, were assessed using validated surveys in the total sample and by gender. In the total sample, physical health impairments at Wave 1 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.04, 1.42], p < .05) and mental health impairments at Wave 1 (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = [1.45, 1.91], p < .001) were significantly associated with higher risk of IPV victimization at Wave 2, compared with those without reported impairments. Higher risk of later IPV victimization was also seen among females who reported physical health impairments (OR = 1.26, 95% CI [1.04, 1.53], p < .05) and mental health impairments (OR = 1.93, 95% CI = [1.63, 2.28], p < .001) compared with those who did not report similar limitations. Among males, higher risk of IPV victimization was significantly associated with mental health impairments (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = [1.19, 1.82], p < .001), compared with those without mental health impairments. Adults with physical and mental health impairments may benefit from targeted interventions aimed at preventing IPV. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0 is a brief measure of global disability originally developed for adults, which has since been implemented among samples of children and youth. However, evidence of its validity for use among youth, particularly measurement invariance, is lacking. Investigations of measurement invariance assess the extent to which the psychometric properties of observed items in a measure are generalizable across samples. Satisfying the assumption of measurement invariance is critical for any inferences about between-group differences. The objective of this paper was to empirically assess the measurement invariance of the 12-item interview version of the WHODAS 2.0 measure in an epidemiological sample of youth (15 to 17 years and adults (≥ 18 years in Canada. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis using a categorical variable framework allowed for the sequential testing of increasingly restrictive models to evaluate measurement invariance of the WHODAS 2.0 between adults and youth. Findings provided evidence for full measurement invariance of the WHODAS 2.0 in youth aged 15 to 17 years. The final model fit the data well: χ(2(159 = 769.04, p < .001; CFI = 0.950, TLI = 0.958, RMSEA (90% CI = 0.055 [0.051, 0.059]. Results from this study build on previous work supporting the validity of the WHODAS 2.0. Findings indicate that the WHODAS 2.0 is valid for making substantive comparisons of disability among youth as young as 15 years of age.
Full Text Available Different types of childhood maltreatment, like emotional abuse, emotional neglect, physical abuse, physical neglect and sexual abuse are interrelated because of their co-occurrence. Different patterns of childhood abuse and neglect are associated with the degree of severity of mental disorders in adulthood. The purpose of this study was (a to identify different patterns of childhood maltreatment in a representative German community sample, (b to replicate the patterns of childhood neglect and abuse recently found in a clinical German sample, (c to examine whether participants reporting exposure to specific patterns of child maltreatment would report different levels of psychological distress, and (d to compare the results of the typological approach and the results of a cumulative risk model based on our data set.In a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2010, a representative random sample of 2504 German participants aged between 14 and 92 years completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ. General anxiety and depression were assessed by standardized questionnaires (GAD-2, PHQ-2. Cluster analysis was conducted with the CTQ-subscales to identify different patterns of childhood maltreatment.Three different patterns of childhood abuse and neglect could be identified by cluster analysis. Cluster one showed low values on all CTQ-scales. Cluster two showed high values in emotional and physical neglect. Only cluster three showed high values in physical and sexual abuse. The three patterns of childhood maltreatment showed different degrees of depression (PHQ-2 and anxiety (GAD-2. Cluster one showed lowest levels of psychological distress, cluster three showed highest levels of mental distress.The results show that different types of childhood maltreatment are interrelated and can be grouped into specific patterns of childhood abuse and neglect, which are associated with differing severity of psychological distress in adulthood. The results
Full Text Available We conducted an observational study over a 1-year period, including 234 children aged 4–18 years and their caregivers and a matching control group. 60.73% of the children from the study group were males. Average age for the onset of constipation was 26.39 months. The frequency of defecation was 1/4.59 days (1/1.13 days in the control group. 38.49% of the patients in the sample group had a positive family history of functional constipation. The majority of children with functional constipation come from single-parent families, are raised by relatives, or come from orphanages. Constipated subjects had their last meal of the day at later hours and consumed fast foods more frequently than the children in the control sample. We found a statistically significant difference between groups regarding obesity/overweight and constipation (χ2=104.94, df=2, p<0.001 and regarding physical activity and constipation (χ2=18.419; df=3; p<0.001. There was a positive correlation between the number of hours spent watching television/using the computer and the occurrence of the disease (F = 92.162, p<0.001, and 95% Cl. Children from broken families, with positive family history, defective dietary habits, obesity and sedentary behavior, are at higher risk to develop chronic functional constipation.
Sklenarova, Halina; Schulz, Anja; Schuhmann, Petya; Osterheider, Michael; Neutze, Janina
Prevalence of Internet use among adolescents is high, but little is known about the online sexual activities of German adolescents. This study aimed to describe the 12-month prevalence of German adolescents' online sexual experiences with a focus on Online Sexual Solicitation (OSS, subjectively negative online sexual experiences with a peer or any sexual online experience, positive or negative, with an adult). A sample of male and female adolescents aged 14-17 (N=2238) was recruited using online survey panel. The sample was representative for gender and education. Subjects completed an online survey reporting their online sexual activities (i.e., sexual conversation, exchanging pictures, and cybersex) with peers (14-17y.) and/or adults (≥18y.). Findings illustrated that 51.3% (n=1148) of adolescents had experienced online sexual activity, which mostly involved peers (n=969; 84.4%). In contrast, 23.2% (n=519) of the adolescents experienced OSS with 2.6% (n=57) reporting subjectively negative online sexual interactions with peers and 22.2% (n=490) reporting online sexual interactions with adults, of which 10.4% (n=51) were perceived as negative. The findings suggest that adolescents frequently engage in sexual interactions on the Internet with only a relatively small number perceiving such contacts as exploitative. In addition, females and adolescents with incomplete family situation, foreign nationality, higher education, homo- or bisexual orientation, and those without perceived social support reported OSS significantly more often. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Michael A Sawaya
Full Text Available We evaluated the potential of two noninvasive genetic sampling methods, hair traps and bear rub surveys, to estimate population abundance and trend of grizzly (Ursus arctos and black bear (U. americanus populations in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada. Using Huggins closed population mark-recapture models, we obtained the first precise abundance estimates for grizzly bears (N= 73.5, 95% CI = 64-94 in 2006; N= 50.4, 95% CI = 49-59 in 2008 and black bears (N= 62.6, 95% CI = 51-89 in 2006; N= 81.8, 95% CI = 72-102 in 2008 in the Bow Valley. Hair traps had high detection rates for female grizzlies, and male and female black bears, but extremely low detection rates for male grizzlies. Conversely, bear rubs had high detection rates for male and female grizzlies, but low rates for black bears. We estimated realized population growth rates, lambda, for grizzly bear males (λ= 0.93, 95% CI = 0.74-1.17 and females (λ= 0.90, 95% CI = 0.67-1.20 using Pradel open population models with three years of bear rub data. Lambda estimates are supported by abundance estimates from combined hair trap/bear rub closed population models and are consistent with a system that is likely driven by high levels of human-caused mortality. Our results suggest that bear rub surveys would provide an efficient and powerful means to inventory and monitor grizzly bear populations in the Central Canadian Rocky Mountains.
Sawaya, Michael A; Stetz, Jeffrey B; Clevenger, Anthony P; Gibeau, Michael L; Kalinowski, Steven T
We evaluated the potential of two noninvasive genetic sampling methods, hair traps and bear rub surveys, to estimate population abundance and trend of grizzly (Ursus arctos) and black bear (U. americanus) populations in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada. Using Huggins closed population mark-recapture models, we obtained the first precise abundance estimates for grizzly bears (N= 73.5, 95% CI = 64-94 in 2006; N= 50.4, 95% CI = 49-59 in 2008) and black bears (N= 62.6, 95% CI = 51-89 in 2006; N= 81.8, 95% CI = 72-102 in 2008) in the Bow Valley. Hair traps had high detection rates for female grizzlies, and male and female black bears, but extremely low detection rates for male grizzlies. Conversely, bear rubs had high detection rates for male and female grizzlies, but low rates for black bears. We estimated realized population growth rates, lambda, for grizzly bear males (λ= 0.93, 95% CI = 0.74-1.17) and females (λ= 0.90, 95% CI = 0.67-1.20) using Pradel open population models with three years of bear rub data. Lambda estimates are supported by abundance estimates from combined hair trap/bear rub closed population models and are consistent with a system that is likely driven by high levels of human-caused mortality. Our results suggest that bear rub surveys would provide an efficient and powerful means to inventory and monitor grizzly bear populations in the Central Canadian Rocky Mountains.
Reis, A.; Lopes, R.; Lourenco, M.; Cardoso, J.
The Human Respiratory Tract Model proposed by the ICRP Publication 66 accounts for the morphology and physiology of the respiratory tract. The ICRP 66 presents deposition fraction in the respiratory tract regions considering reference values from Caucasian man. However, in order to obtain a more accurate assessment of intake and dose the ICRP recommends the use of specific information when they are available. The application of parameters from Brazilian population in the deposition and in the clearance model shows significant variations in the deposition fractions and in the fraction of inhaled activity transferred to blood. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the influence in dose calculation to each region of the respiratory tract when physiological parameters from Brazilian population are applied in the model. The purpose of the dosimetric model is to evaluate dose to each tissues of respiratory tract that are potentially risk from inhaled radioactive materials. The committed equivalent dose, H.T., is calculated by the product of the total number of transformations of the radionuclide in tissue source S over a period of fifty years after incorporation and of the energy absorbed per unit mass in the target tissue T, for each radiation emitted per transformation in tissue source S. The dosimetric model of Human Respirator y Tract was implemented in the software Excel for Windows (version 2000) and H.T. was determined in two stages. First it was calculated the number of total transformations, US, considering the fractional deposition of activity in each source tissue and then it was calculated the total energy absorbed per unit mass S.E.E., in the target tissue. It was assumed that the radionuclide emits an alpha particle with average energy of 5.15 MeV. The variation in the fractional deposition in the compartments of the respiratory tract in changing the physiological parameters from Caucasian to Brazilian adult man causes variation in the number of
Erica L Pufall
Full Text Available There are an estimated half-million children living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. The predominant source of infection is presumed to be perinatal mother-to-child transmission, but general population data about paediatric HIV are sparse. We characterise the epidemiology of HIV in children in sub-Saharan Africa by describing the prevalence, possible source of infection, and effects of paediatric HIV in a southern African population.From 2009 to 2011, we conducted a household-based survey of 3389 children (aged 2-14 years in Manicaland, eastern Zimbabwe (response rate: 73.5%. Data about socio-demographic correlates of HIV, risk factors for infection, and effects on child health were analysed using multi-variable logistic regression. To assess the plausibility of mother-to-child transmission, child HIV infection was linked to maternal survival and HIV status using data from a 12-year adult HIV cohort.HIV prevalence was (2.2%, 95% CI: 1.6-2.8% and did not differ significantly by sex, socio-economic status, location, religion, or child age. Infected children were more likely to be underweight (19.6% versus 10.0%, p = 0.03 or stunted (39.1% versus 30.6%, p = 0.04 but did not report poorer physical or psychological ill-health. Where maternal data were available, reported mothers of 61/62 HIV-positive children were deceased or HIV-positive. Risk factors for other sources of infection were not associated with child HIV infection, including blood transfusion, vaccinations, caring for a sick relative, and sexual abuse. The observed flat age-pattern of HIV prevalence was consistent with UNAIDS estimates which assumes perinatal mother-to-child transmission, although modelled prevalence was higher than observed prevalence. Only 19/73 HIV-positive children (26.0% were diagnosed, but, of these, 17 were on antiretroviral therapy.Childhood HIV infection likely arises predominantly from mother-to-child transmission and is associated with poorer physical
Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl
Concern about overweight and obesity is growing worldwide, and more research to examine behaviours associated with the risk for increased weight in adult populations is needed. The aim of this study was to estimate associations between behavioural risk factors and overweight and obesity among adults in nationally representative population samples from 20 countries in Europe, 8 countries in Asia, Australia, Chile and USA. This secondary analysis is based on the International Social Survey Program (ISSP), 2011-2013, Health and Health Care Module. In a cross-sectional population-based survey (N=48,741) (mean age 46.6 years, SD=17.4, age range 15-102 years) simple or multi-stage stratified random sampling was used, yielding representative samples of the adult population of respective countries. Body Mass Index was assessed by self-reported height and weight. Correlates were risk behaviours for chronic disease (smoking status, alcohol intake, consumption of fruits and vegetable (=FV), and physical activity). Overall, for all 31 countries the prevalence of overweight or obesity was 44.1%, 31.7% overweight and 12.4% obese. In adjusted logistic regression models, among men and among women ex-smoking was positively associated with both overweight and obesity, while light or moderate smoking overall and among men were inversely related with obesity. Moderate alcohol use was positively associated with both overweight and obesity, while heavy alcohol use was negatively associated with overweight. The daily consumption of FV was found to be protective from both overweight and obesity, overall and for men but not for women. Physical activity was positively associated with overweight but not obesity. Some risk behaviours for chronic disease appear to be associated with overweight and obesity among adults. Interventions targeting these risk behaviours may have the potential to reduce weight. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier
Vesper, Stephen; Choi, Hyunok; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Acosta, Luis M; Divjan, Adnan; Bolaños-Rosero, Benjamin; Rivera-Mariani, Felix; Chew, Ginger L
Lifetime childhood asthma prevalence (LCAP) percentages in Puerto Rico Health Regions (HR) are substantially higher in northeastern vs. southwestern HR. Higher average relative humidity in the northeast might promote mold and mite exposures and possibly asthma prevalence. To test this hypothesis, mold contamination, Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) values were measured in floor dust (n = 26) and dust mite allergen concentrations in bed dust (n = 14). For this analysis, the eight HR were divided into those with LCAP > 30% (n = 3) and dust mite antigens Der p 1, Der f 1, and Blo t 5 were detected in 90% of bed samples, but the concentrations were not significantly different in high vs. low LCAP HR. Mold exposures might partially explain the differences in LCAP HR in Puerto Rico.
Jorm, A F; Dear, K B G; Rodgers, B; Christensen, H
There is some community survey evidence for a cohort difference in female sexual orientation. To determine whether there is a cohort difference in sexual orientation in Australia. A community survey was carried out with a sample of 7,447 adults from the age groups 20-24, 40-44 and 60-64 years. As part of this survey respondents were asked a question on sexual orientation which was answered privately. A strong age cohort difference was found for women, with younger women more frequently reporting a homosexual or bisexual orientation. By contrast, no age cohort difference was found for men. These findings suggest that a heterosexual orientation may have become less common in younger cohorts of Australian women. This finding is consistent with data from other recent studies. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel
Pisabarro, Raul; Irrazabal, Ernesto; Recalde, Alicia; Barrios, Enrique; Arocena, Beatriz; Garcia Loriente, Jose Maria; Lorenzo Bonifazio, Juan
The recent discovery of leptine, an hormone secreted by adipose tissue which modulates the energetic expenditure has signified a gigantic advance in studying obesity facts. In spite of a recent description of absence of leptine in humans, the obesity human model answers to leptine resistance. In this paper, we revise the actual concepts and show leptine values of a sample of 101 middle aged uruguayans, male and female, of normal weight and over weighted (table 1), correlated with corporal mass index (CMI) as an indirect measure of total body fat and waist diameter as an indirect measure of visceral fat, and hips (periferical fat). Bioimpedance studies were carried out to get the corporal composition. Results: good correlation between corporal fat and leptine, but fat distribution was not found representative. All in all, this data set confirms the correlation between leptine and total body fat mass
Michael L. Storebø
Full Text Available Rationale: Data on the change in diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO over time are limited. We aimed to examine change in DLCO (ΔDLCO over a 9-year period and its predictors. Methods: A Norwegian community sample comprising 1,152 subjects aged 18–73 years was examined in 1987 and 1988. Of the 1,109 subjects still alive, 830 (75% were re-examined in 1996/97. DLCO was measured with the single breath-holding technique. Covariables recorded at baseline included sex, age, height, weight, smoking status, pack years, occupational exposure, educational level, and spirometry. Generalized estimating equations analyses were performed to examine relations between ΔDLCO and the covariables. Results: At baseline, mean [standard deviation (SD] DLCO was 10.8 (2.4 and 7.8 (1.6 mmol·min−1·kPa−1 in men and women, respectively. Mean (SD ΔDLCO was −0.24 (1.31 mmol·min−1·kPa−1. ΔDLCO was negatively related to baseline age, DLCO, current smoking, and pack years, and positively related to forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and weight. Sex, occupational exposure, and educational level were not related to ΔDLCO. Conclusions: In a community sample, more rapid decline in DLCO during 9 years of observation time was related to higher age, baseline current smoking, more pack years, larger weight, and lower FEV1.
Muiños Díaz, Yerena; Saornil, Maria A; Almaraz, Ana; Muñoz-Moreno, Mari F; García, Ciro; Sanz, Ruperto
To design and validate a standard, simple, and reliable iris color classification and to study its distribution in a Spanish population. Iris color has a geographic distribution and has been correlated with different ocular diseases. However, there is no standard and validated iris color classification allowing comparison among different studies. Classification was made in three grades (blue-gray, hazel-green, brown) and was validated by 3 independent readers. Initially, a preliminary study was made in 50 iris photographs to detect technical hitches. Afterwards, based on this procedure, 221 iris photographs were graded. Measures of interobserver reliability were 0.786 by kappa index with an agreement of 89.6%.Iris color distribution in the Spanish cohort was blue-grey 16.29%, hazel-green 55.2%, and brown 28.5%. This classification is simple, reliable, and easy to use in clinical research and by ophthalmologists or generalists in practice. The Spanish cohort from this study shows a different iris color distribution from those previously published in other countries.
Full Text Available Characterizing spatio-temporal variation in the density of organisms in a community is a crucial part of ecological study. However, doing so for small, motile, cryptic species presents multiple challenges, especially where multiple life history stages are involved. Gnathiid isopods are ecologically important marine ectoparasites, micropredators that live in substrate for most of their lives, emerging only once during each juvenile stage to feed on fish blood. Many gnathiid species are nocturnal and most have distinct substrate preferences. Studies of gnathiid use of habitat, exploitation of hosts, and population dynamics have used various trap designs to estimate rates of gnathiid emergence, study sensory ecology, and identify host susceptibility. In the studies reported here, we compare and contrast the performance of emergence, fish-baited and light trap designs, outline the key features of these traps, and determine some life cycle parameters derived from trap counts for the Eastern Caribbean coral-reef gnathiid, Gnathia marleyi. We also used counts from large emergence traps and light traps to estimate additional life cycle parameters, emergence rates, and total gnathiid density on substrate, and to calibrate the light trap design to provide estimates of rate of emergence and total gnathiid density in habitat not amenable to emergence trap deployment.
Background Current guidelines recommend measuring plasma lipids in fasting patients. Recent studies, however, suggest that variation in plasma lipid concentrations secondary to fasting time may be minimal. Objective of the present study was to investigate the impact of fasting time on plasma lipid concentrations (total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides). A second objective was to determine the effect of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease exerted on the above-mentioned lipid levels. Method Subjects participating in a population-based cross-sectional study (2,445 subjects; 51.7% females) were questioned at time of phlebotomy regarding duration of pre-phlebotomy fasting. Total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined and correlated with length of fasting. An upper abdominal ultrasonographic examination was performed and body-mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Subjects were divided into three groups based on their reported fasting periods of 1–4 h, 4–8 h and > 8 h. After application of the exclusion criteria, a total of 1,195 subjects (52.4% females) were included in the study collective. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for continuous variables and the chi-square test for categorical variables. The effects of age, BMI, WHR, alcohol consumption, fasting time and hepatic steatosis on the respective lipid variables were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Results At multivariate analysis, fasting time was associated with elevated triglycerides (p = 0.0047 for 1–4 h and p = 0.0147 for 4–8 h among females; p fasting period. LDL cholesterol and triglycerides exhibit highly significant variability; the greatest impact is seen with the triglycerides. Fasting time represents an independent factor for reduced LDL cholesterol and elevated triglyceride concentrations. There is a close association between elevated lipids and hepatic steatosis. PMID:24447492
Full Text Available Even within accepted normal ranges, higher serum phosphorus, dietary phosphorus density, parathyroid hormone (PTH and alkaline phosphatase (ALP are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. Lower serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD also predicts adverse cardiovascular outcomes. We hypothesized that vascular dysfunction accompanying subtle disturbances of these bone metabolism parameters would result in associations with increased low grade albuminuria.We examined participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2010 (N = 19,383 with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m² and without severe albuminuria (urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR <300 mg/g. Albuminuria was quantified as ACR and fractional albumin excretion (FE(alb.Increasing quintiles of dietary phosphorus density, serum phosphorus and ALP were not associated with higher ACR or FE(alb. The lowest versus highest quintile of 25(OHD was associated with greater albuminuria, but not after adjustment for other covariates including cardiovascular risk factors. An association between the highest versus lowest quintile of bone-specific ALP and greater ACR persisted after covariate adjustment, but was not accompanied by an independent association with FE(alb. Increasing quintiles of PTH demonstrated associations with both higher ACR and FE(alb that were not abolished by adjusting for covariates including age, gender, race, body mass index, diabetes, blood pressure, history of cardiovascular disease, smoking, eGFR, 25(OHD, season of measurement, lipids, hemoglobin and C-reactive protein. Adjusted increases in ACR and FE(alb associated with the highest versus lowest quintile of PTH were 19% (95% confidence interval 7-28% p<0.001 and 17% (8-31% p = 0.001 respectively.In this population, of the bone mineral parameters associated with cardiovascular outcomes, only PTH is independently associated with ACR and FE(alb.
Ellam, Timothy; Fotheringham, James; Wilkie, Martin E; Francis, Sheila E; Chico, Timothy J A
Even within accepted normal ranges, higher serum phosphorus, dietary phosphorus density, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. Lower serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) also predicts adverse cardiovascular outcomes. We hypothesized that vascular dysfunction accompanying subtle disturbances of these bone metabolism parameters would result in associations with increased low grade albuminuria. We examined participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2010 (N = 19,383) with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m² and without severe albuminuria (urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) phosphorus density, serum phosphorus and ALP were not associated with higher ACR or FE(alb). The lowest versus highest quintile of 25(OH)D was associated with greater albuminuria, but not after adjustment for other covariates including cardiovascular risk factors. An association between the highest versus lowest quintile of bone-specific ALP and greater ACR persisted after covariate adjustment, but was not accompanied by an independent association with FE(alb). Increasing quintiles of PTH demonstrated associations with both higher ACR and FE(alb) that were not abolished by adjusting for covariates including age, gender, race, body mass index, diabetes, blood pressure, history of cardiovascular disease, smoking, eGFR, 25(OH)D, season of measurement, lipids, hemoglobin and C-reactive protein. Adjusted increases in ACR and FE(alb) associated with the highest versus lowest quintile of PTH were 19% (95% confidence interval 7-28% p<0.001) and 17% (8-31% p = 0.001) respectively. In this population, of the bone mineral parameters associated with cardiovascular outcomes, only PTH is independently associated with ACR and FE(alb).
Karfopoulou, E; Mouliou, K; Koutras, Y; Yannakoulia, M
In the US, the National Weight Control Registry revealed lifestyle behaviours shared by weight loss maintainers. In the US and the UK, qualitative studies compared the experiences of weight loss maintainers and regainers. High rates of physical activity, a low-energy/low-fat diet, weight self-monitoring, breakfast consumption and flexible control of eating are well-established maintenance behaviours. The Mediterranean lifestyle has not been studied relative to weight loss maintenance. This study focused on a sample of Greek maintainers and regainers. Maintainers emphasized home-cooked meals; their diet does not appear to be low-fat, as home-cooked Greek meals are rich in olive oil. Having a small dinner is a common strategy among maintainers. Health motives were not mentioned by maintainers. Maintainers, but not regainers, appeared to compensate for emotional eating. Weight loss maintenance is imperative to successful obesity treatment. We qualitatively explored lifestyle behaviours associated with weight regulation, in a sample of Greek volunteers who had lost weight and either maintained or regained it. A 10% intentional loss maintained for at least one year was considered successful maintenance. Volunteers (n = 44, 41% men) formed eight focus groups, four of maintainers and four of regainers. Questions regarded weight loss, weight maintenance or regaining, and beliefs on weight maintenance and regaining. All discussions were tape recorded. Maintainers lost weight on their own, whereas regainers sought professional help. Maintainers exercised during both the loss and maintenance phases, whereas regainers showed inconsistent physical activity levels. Health motives for weight loss were mentioned only by regainers. Emotional eating was a common barrier, but only maintainers compensated for it. Maintainers continuously applied specific strategies to maintain their weight: emphasizing home-cooked meals, high eating frequency, a small dinner, portion size
Simic, Milena; Johnston, Lisa Grazina; Platt, Lucy; Baros, Sladjana; Andjelkovic, Violeta; Novotny, Tom; Rhodes, Tim
Respondent driven sampling (RDS) has been used in several counties to sample injecting drug users, sex workers (SWs) and men who have sex with men and as a means of collecting behavioural and biological health data. We report on the use of RDS in three separate studies conducted among SWs between 2004 and 2005 in the Russian Federation, Serbia, and Montenegro. Findings suggest that there are limitations associated with the use of RDS in SW populations in these regions. Findings highlight three main factors that merit further investigation as a means of assessing the feasibility and appropriateness of RDS in this high risk population: the network characteristics of SWs; the appropriate level of participant incentives; and lack of service contact. The highly controlled and hidden nature of SW organizations and weak SW social networks in the region can combine to undermine assumptions underpinning the feasibility of RDS approaches and potentially severely limit recruitment. We discuss the implications of these findings for recruitment and the use of monetary and non-monetary incentives in future RDS studies of SW populations in Eastern Europe.
Bischof, Richard; Swenson, Jon E
Noninvasive genetic sampling has been embraced by wildlife managers and ecologists, especially those charged with monitoring rare and elusive species over large areas. Challenges arise when desired population measures are not directly attainable from genetic data and when monitoring targets trans-border populations. Norwegian management authorities count individual brown bears (Ursus arctos) using noninvasive genetic sampling but express management goals in the annual number of bear reproductions (females that produce cubs), a measure that is not directly available from genetic data. We combine noninvasive genetic sampling data with information obtained from a long-term intensive monitoring study in neighboring Sweden to estimate the number of annual reproductions by females detected within Norway. Most female brown bears in Norway occur near the border with neighboring countries (Sweden, Finland, and Russia) and their potential reproduction can therefore only partially be credited to Norway. Our model includes a simulation-based method that corrects census data to account for this. We estimated that 4.3 and 5.7 reproductions can be credited to females detected with noninvasive genetic sampling in Norway in 2008 and 2009, respectively. These numbers fall substantially short of the national target (15 annual reproductions). Ignoring the potential for home ranges to extend beyond Norway's borders leads to an increase in the estimate of the number of reproductions by -30%. Our study shows that combining noninvasive genetic sampling with information obtained from traditional intensive/invasive monitoring can help answer contemporary management questions in the currency desired by managers and policy makers. Furthermore, combining methodologies and thereby accounting for space use increases the accuracy of the information on which decisions are based. It is important that the information derived from multiple approaches is applicable to the same focal population and
Marleen H.M. De Moor
Full Text Available This study examined the heritability of problem drinking and investigated the phenotypic and genetic relationships between problem drinking and personality. It was conducted in a sample of 5,870 twins and siblings and 4,420 additional family members from the Netherlands Twin Register. Data on problem drinking (assessed with the AUDIT and CAGE; 12 items and personality (NEO-FFI; 60 items were collected in 2009/2010 through surveys. Factor analysis on the AUDIT and CAGE items showed that the items clustered on two separate but highly correlated (r=0.74 underlying factors. A higher order factor was extracted that reflected those aspects of problem drinking that are common to the AUDIT and CAGE , which showed a heritability of 40%. The correlations between problem drinking and the five dimensions of personality were small but significant, ranging from 0.06 for Extraversion to -0.12 for Conscientiousness. All personality dimensions (with broad-sense heritabilities between 32% and 55%, and some evidence for non-additive genetic influences were genetically correlated with problem drinking. The genetic correlations were small to modest (between |0.12-0.41|. Future studies with longitudinal data and DNA polymorphisms are needed to determine the biological mechanisms that underlie the genetic link between problem drinking and personality.
Torskenæs, Kristina B; Kalfoss, Mary H; Sæteren, Berit
The aim of this article is to explore the meanings given to the words 'spirituality', 'religiousness' and 'personal beliefs' by a Norwegian sample of healthy and sick individuals. Studies show that a high proportion of nurses do not identify the spiritual needs of their patients, even if the nurses are educated to give care for the whole person, including the spiritual dimension. This study used an exploratory qualitative design. Qualitative data generated from six focus groups were collected in southeast Norway. The focus groups were comprised of three groups of health professionals (n = 18) and three groups of patients from different institutions (n = 15). The group discussions revealed that the meanings of spirituality, religiousness and personal beliefs were interwoven, and the participants had difficulty in finding a common terminology when expressing their meanings. Many of the participants described the spiritual dimension with feelings of awe and respect. They were dependent on spirituality in order to experience balance in life and cope with life crises. The themes and categories identified by the focus group discussion highlights that spirituality ought to be understood as a multilayered dimension. An appreciation of the spiritual dimension and it's implication in nursing may help to increase health and decrease suffering. Health professionals need to be cognizant of their own sense of spirituality to investigate the spiritual needs among their patients. This study's focus group discussions helped both patients and health professionals to improve their knowledge regarding the meanings given to the spiritual dimension. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Kolle, Elin; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred
Objective. The objective of the study was to describe the distribution of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and to evaluate the extent of clustering of CVD risk factors in Norwegian children and adolescents. Material and methods. A randomly selected cohort of 9-year-olds and 15-year......-olds from all regions of the country was sampled. Of 2,818 subjects invited to participate, 2,299 accepted, giving an overall participation rate of 82 %. Results. Mean (SD) values for the main risk factors for 9-year-old and 15-year-old girls and boys were: total cholesterol (TC) (mmol/L) 4.49 (0.73), 4.......37 (0.68), 4.19 (0.76) and 3.80 (0.69), respectively; triglycerides (TG) (mmol/L) 0.72 (0.33), 0.63 (0.32), 0.79 (0.32) and 0.82 (0.47), respectively; high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) (mmol/L) 1.70 (0.35), 1.79 (0.40), 1.61 (0.34) and 1.42 (0.30), respectively; systolic blood pressure (mm...
Andrew, Rose L; Keszei, Andras; Foley, William J
Australian members of the Myrtaceae produce large quantities of ecologically and economically important terpenes and display abundant diversity in both yield and composition of their oils. In a survey of the concentrations of leaf terpenes in Eucalyptus tricarpa (L.A.S. Johnson) L.A.S. Johnson & K.D. Hill, which were previously known from few samples, exceptional variability was found in composition. The aim was to characterize the patterns of variation and covariation among terpene components in this species and to use this information to enhance our understanding of their biosynthesis. There were marked discontinuities in the distributions of numerous compounds, including the overall proportions of mono- and sesquiterpenes, leading us to delineate three distinct chemotypes. Overall, positive covariation predominated, but negative covariation suggested competitive interactions involved in monoterpene synthesis. Two groups of covarying monoterpenes were found, each of which was positively correlated with a group of sesquiterpenes and negatively correlated with the alternate sesquiterpene group. These results imply substantial cross-talk between mono- and sesquiterpene biosynthesis pathways. However, only those compounds hypothesized to share final carbocation intermediates or post-processing steps were strongly positively correlated within chemotypes. This suggests that the broader patterns of covariation among groups of compounds may result from co-regulation of multiple biosynthetic genes, controlling the complex terpene profiles of the chemotypes of Eucalyptus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bränström, Richard; Duncan, Larissa G; Moskowitz, Judith Tedlie
There is increasing recognition of the links between mindfulness, decreased stress, and healthier psychological functioning. However, the majority of this research has been conducted in US samples and the mechanisms through which mindfulness decreases stress and increases well-being are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the relations between mindfulness and psychological functioning in a general population sample in Sweden. This cross-sectional study examined the association of mindfulness and five subscales of mindfulness with depression, anxiety, positive states of mind (PSOM), and perceived health. In the spring of 2007, a random population-based sample of N= 1,000 individuals aged 18-60 years in Sweden was contacted by mail with a request to participate in the study. Mindfulness and some of its subscales, in particular Acting with awareness and Non-reactivity to inner experiences, were strongly related to PSOM and perceived health, and inversely related to depression and anxiety. Tests of the moderating role of mindfulness showed that the associations of perceived stress with depression and perceived health were diminished for those with higher levels of mindfulness. Mindfulness is strongly related to well-being and perceived health. Results suggest that dispositional mindfulness might buffer against the negative influence of perceived stress on psychological well-being. These findings give additional support for the use of mindfulness training as a way of improving psychological functioning among people experiencing stress. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.
Ibrahim, H; Lyons, K M; Armfield, J M; Thomson, W M
The Index of Dental Anxiety and Fear (IDAF-4C) was introduced to overcome the theoretical and practical shortcomings of previously developed dental fear measures. This new scale has not been tested on population samples other than in its country of origin, Australia. The aim of this study was to validate the IDAF-4C in a different cultural setting and to determine the prevalence and sociodemographic associations of dental anxiety. A cross sectional study of a representative New Zealand adult population sample was undertaken. The questionnaire was mailed to 523 randomly-selected participants. Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, oral and general health care, and dental anxiety using both the IDAF-4C and the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS). The response rate was 51.8%. The factor structure of the IDAF-4C was confirmed. The prevalence estimates for high dental anxiety and fear were 18.6% using the DAS and 13.0% using the IDAF-4C. Mean scores for the IDAF-4C and DAS were higher among episodic dental visitors and those without a recent dental visit. The performance of the IDAF-4C in this New Zealand community sample supports its use for dental anxiety measurement. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.
Lysyk, T J; Steelman, C D
Reanalysis of counts of horn fly, Hematobia irritans (L.), obtained from a variety of cattle herds indicated that aggregation of the flies within herds decreased as mean fly density increased. Aggregation was also related to the proportion of fly-resistant and fly-susceptible cattle in a herd. Herds were grouped according to their degree of horn fly aggregation. Low aggregation herds included larger framed Angus, Horned Hereford, Polled Hereford, and Red Poll breeds. Moderate aggregation occurred with Brahman, Charolais, small-framed Angus, mixed cows, and Hereford x Charolais cross. High aggregation occurred with Chianina and mixed herds. Relationships between the sample means and variances varied among aggregation groups. A resampling approach was used to determine the influence of random sampling of a herd on the proportion of horn fly population estimates within fixed percentages of the true mean. The proportion of sample means within +/- 5, 10, 15, and 20% of the true means varied with the proportion of the herd sampled, the mean and variance of fly density, and herd size. Recommendations for obtaining sample size to estimate fly density within a fixed percentage of the true mean are given.
Cremin, Suzanne M
The aim of this study was to determine the cervical genotype profile of females who presented to an STI Clinic with external genital warts (EGW); and to determine the potential vaccine coverage prior to the uptake of the HPV vaccines. Sixty-one cervical scrapings were taken from females aged 18-35 y who had external genital warts or a history of external genital warts. The resulting 50 samples that were positive for HPV-DNA were subjected to genotype identification. Forty-six of these samples had detectable genotypes by LIPA analysis and most (78%, 36\\/46) had multiple low risk (LR) and high risk (HR) genotypes on the cervix. Twenty-five of these samples (54%) had more than 1 HR genotype. Of the 36 patients who had any HR genotypes, 18 (50%) were identified to have the most oncogenic HPV genotypes, namely 16 and 18. Three of these samples had both 16 and 18 on the cervix. The presence of multiple HR genotypes on the majority of cervical samples from a self-referred population of females with EGW is presented. This study is of importance since persistent HR-HPV is the necessary risk factor in the development of precancerous and cancerous lesions of the cervix. Gardisil, the quadrivalent HPV vaccine would have been useful in the prevention of 28% (13\\/46) of these infections.
Hanson, Heidi A; Anderson, Ross E; Aston, Kenneth I; Carrell, Douglas T; Smith, Ken R; Hotaling, James M
Objective To further understand the association between semen quality and cancer risk using well-defined semen parameters. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Subfertility Heath and Assisted Reproduction (SHARE) study in Utah from 1994 to 2011. Patients 20,433 men from that underwent semen analysis (SA) and a sample of 20,433 fertile controls matched on age and birth year Interventions none. Main Outcome Measures Risk of all cancers, as well as site-specific results for prostate, testicular, and melanoma. Results Relative to fertile men, men with SA have an increased risk of testicular cancer (Hazard Rate Ratio (HR) =3.3). When the characterization of infertility is refined using individual semen parameters, we find that oligozoospermic men have an increased risk of cancer relative to fertile controls. This association is particularly strong for testicular cancer, with increased risk in men with oligozoospermia based on concentration (HR=11.9) and sperm count (HR=10.3). Men in the in the lowest quartile of motility (HR=4.1), viability (HR=6.6), morphology (HR=4.2) or total motile count (HR=6.9) have higher risk of testicular compared to fertile men. Men with sperm concentration and count in the 90th percentile of the distribution (≥178 M/ml and ≥579, respectively) and total motile count (TMC) have an increased risk of melanoma (HRConcentration=2.1; HRCount=2.7; HRTMC=2.0). We find no differences in cancer risk between azoospermic and fertile men. Conclusions Men with SA have an increased risk of testicular cancer that varies by semen quality. Unlike prior work, we did not find an association between azoospermia and increased cancer or testicular cancer risk. Capsule Subfertile men have an increased risk of testicular cancer that varies by semen quality. We did not find an association between azoospermia and increased cancer or testicular cancer risk. PMID:26604070
Larson, Nicole; Laska, Melissa N.; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Objective National data for the U.S. show increases in sports and energy drink consumption over the past decade with the largest increases among young adults ages 20–34. This study aimed to identify sociodemographic factors and health risk behaviors associated with sports and energy drink consumption among young adults. Design Cross-sectional analysis of survey data from the third wave of a cohort study (Project EAT-III: Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults). Regression models stratified on gender and adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were used to examine associations of sports and energy drink consumption with eating behaviors, physical activity, media use, weight-control behaviors, sleep patterns, and substance use. Setting Participants completed baseline surveys in 1998–1999 as students at public secondary schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota and the EAT-III surveys online or by mail in 2008–2009. Subjects The sample consisted of 2,287 participants (55% female, mean age=25.3). Results Results showed 31.0% of young adults consumed sports drinks and 18.8% consumed energy drinks at least weekly. Among men and women, sports drink consumption was associated with higher sugar-sweetened soda and fruit juice intake, video game use, and use of muscle-enhancing substances like creatine (pEnergy drink consumption was associated with lower breakfast frequency and higher sugar-sweetened soda intake, video game use, use of unhealthy weight-control behaviors, trouble sleeping, and substance use among men and women (psports and energy drink consumption with other unhealthy behaviors in the design of programs and services for young adults. PMID:25683863
Fromme, Hermann; Albrecht, Michael; Appel, Markus; Hilger, Bettina; Völkel, Wolfgang; Liebl, Bernhard; Roscher, Eike
The body burden of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like (dl-PCBs) and non-dioxin-like (ndl-PCBs) polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was determined in blood samples from 70 subjects between 4 and 76 years old. The participants of the study were recruited in the neighborhood of a reclamation plant located in a rural area in Southern Germany. The median concentrations (95th percentiles in parentheses), expressed as WHO2005-TEQ (toxic equivalents), for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were 4.5 (17.9)pgg(-1) l.w. and 2.6 (13.2)pgg(-1) l.w., respectively. The dl-PCBs contributed 40% of the total TEQ (median values), and the most abundant congener was PCB 156. Combined, the sum of the 6 non-dioxin-like PCBs had a median of 0.773μgL(-1) and a 95th percentile of 4.895μgL(-1). For the six tetra to hepta PBDE congeners, the median was 1.8ngg(-1) l.w. (95th percentile: 16.2ngg(-1) l.w.). None of our study subjects had a body burden that exceeded the biomonitoring equivalents for dioxins or PBDE congener 99 or the human biomonitoring values for ndl-PCBs. Likewise the study group did not exceed German reference values or values obtained in similar investigations. Overall, our study did not exhibit elevated internal exposures. The results also hint further decreasing tendencies for PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PBDEs in Germany and demonstrates that people in the vicinity of a reclamation plant with no indication of an environmental contamination did not exhibit elevated internal exposures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Leondiadis, L.; Vassiliadou, I.; Costopoulou, D.; Papadopoulos, A. [Mass Spectrometry and Dioxin Analysis Lab. - NCSR Demokritos, Athens (Greece)
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are commercial chemical substances produced in a large scale since 1930, with a wide range of applications in industry, such as for coolant fluids in transformers and dielectric fluids in capacitors. After their health effects became apparent, PCB production was banned in the late 1970s. However, humans are still exposed through PCB leakage of old capacitors and transformers and disposal of contaminated materials. Dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs)), are formed as undesirable by-products mainly during the production of chlorinated chemicals and during the combustion of municipal and hazardous waste. Due to potential health hazard (dermal toxicity, immunotoxicity, reproductive effects, teratogenicity, endocrine disruption and carcinogenicity), their monitoring in humans is of high general concern. Enough information on POP presence in human tissues from industrialized countries is available to suggest that the concentration of these compounds has decreased during the last 10 years. Monitoring of human exposure to PCBs and dioxins, contaminants that accumulate in lipid tissue, is most conveniently performed by analysis of blood plasma or blood serum. Monitoring of dioxins in human milk is of also great importance, since it is especially feared that lactational exposure to dioxins and related compounds may adversely affect brain development and the immune system of infants and children. The present study includes the analyses of non-ortho, mono-ortho, indicator PCBs, and PCDD/Fs in human blood and human milk samples collected between November 2002 and February 2004 and is the first study of this kind to be undertaken in Greece.
Gerson S. Profeta
Full Text Available Glycoside Hydrolases (GHs are enzymes able to recognize and cleave glycosidic bonds. Insect GHs play decisive roles in digestion, in plant-herbivore, and host-pathogen interactions. GH activity is normally measured by the detection of a release from the substrate of products as sugars units, colored, or fluorescent groups. In most cases, the conditions for product release and detection differ, resulting in discontinuous assays. The current protocols result in using large amounts of reaction mixtures for the obtainment of time points in each experimental replica. These procedures restrain the analysis of biological materials with limited amounts of protein and, in the case of studies regarding small insects, implies in the pooling of samples from several individuals. In this respect, most studies do not assess the variability of GH activities across the population of individuals from the same species. The aim of this work is to approach this technical problem and have a deeper understanding of the variation of GH activities in insect populations, using as models the disease vectors Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Triatominae and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Phlebotominae. Here we standardized continuous assays using 4-methylumbelliferyl derived substrates for the detection of α-Glucosidase, β-Glucosidase, α-Mannosidase, N-acetyl-hexosaminidase, β-Galactosidase, and α-Fucosidase in the midgut of R. prolixus and L. longipalpis with results similar to the traditional discontinuous protocol. The continuous assays allowed us to measure GH activities using minimal sample amounts with a higher number of measurements, resulting in data that are more reliable and less time and reagent consumption. The continuous assay also allows the high-throughput screening of GH activities in small insect samples, which would be not applicable to the previous discontinuous protocol. We applied continuous GH measurements to 90 individual samples of R. prolixus
Profeta, Gerson S; Pereira, Jessica A S; Costa, Samara G; Azambuja, Patricia; Garcia, Eloi S; Moraes, Caroline da Silva; Genta, Fernando A
Glycoside Hydrolases (GHs) are enzymes able to recognize and cleave glycosidic bonds. Insect GHs play decisive roles in digestion, in plant-herbivore, and host-pathogen interactions. GH activity is normally measured by the detection of a release from the substrate of products as sugars units, colored, or fluorescent groups. In most cases, the conditions for product release and detection differ, resulting in discontinuous assays. The current protocols result in using large amounts of reaction mixtures for the obtainment of time points in each experimental replica. These procedures restrain the analysis of biological materials with limited amounts of protein and, in the case of studies regarding small insects, implies in the pooling of samples from several individuals. In this respect, most studies do not assess the variability of GH activities across the population of individuals from the same species. The aim of this work is to approach this technical problem and have a deeper understanding of the variation of GH activities in insect populations, using as models the disease vectors Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Triatominae) and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Phlebotominae). Here we standardized continuous assays using 4-methylumbelliferyl derived substrates for the detection of α-Glucosidase, β-Glucosidase, α-Mannosidase, N-acetyl-hexosaminidase, β-Galactosidase, and α-Fucosidase in the midgut of R. prolixus and L. longipalpis with results similar to the traditional discontinuous protocol. The continuous assays allowed us to measure GH activities using minimal sample amounts with a higher number of measurements, resulting in data that are more reliable and less time and reagent consumption. The continuous assay also allows the high-throughput screening of GH activities in small insect samples, which would be not applicable to the previous discontinuous protocol. We applied continuous GH measurements to 90 individual samples of R. prolixus anterior midgut
Dos Reis, A. A.; Cardoso, J. C. S.; Lourenco, M. C.
The human respiratory tract model (HRTM) adopted by ICRP in its Publication 66 accounts for the morphology and physiology of the respiratory tract. The characteristics of air drawn into the lungs and exhaled are greatly influenced by the morphology of the respiratory tract, which causes numerous changes in pressure, flow rate, direction and humidity as air moves into and out of the lungs. These characteristics are important to determine the fractional deposition. It is known that the morphology and physiology are influenced by environmental, occupational and economic conditions. The ICRP recommends, for a reliable evaluation of the regional deposition, the use of parameters from a local population wherever such information is available. The main purpose of this study is to verify the influence of using the morphology and physiology parameters representative of a sample of the Brazilian population on the deposition model of the ICRP Publication 66 model. (authors)
Cecilia Ulrika Dagsdotter Stenfors
Full Text Available Objective: Executive cognitive functioning is essential in private and working life and is sensitive to stress and aging. Cardiovascular (CV health factors are related to cognitive decline and dementia, but there is relatively few studies of the role of CV autonomic regulation, a key component in stress responses and risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, and executive processes. An emerging pattern of results from previous studies suggest that different executive processes may be differentially associated with CV autonomic regulationThe aim was thus to study the associations between multiple measures of CV autonomic regulation and measures of different executive cognitive processes. Method: Participants were 119 healthy working adults (79% women, from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. Electrocardiogram was sampled for analysis of heart rate variability measures, including the Standard Deviation of NN, here heart beats (SDNN, root of the mean squares of successive differences (RMSSD, high frequency (HF power band from spectral analyses, and QT variability index (QTVI, a measure of myocardial repolarization patterns. Executive cognitive functioning was measured by 7 neuropsychological tests. The relationships between CV autonomic regulation measures and executive cognitive measures were tested with bivariate and partial correlational analyses, controlling for demographic variables and mental health symptoms.Results: Higher SDNN and RMSSD and lower QTVI were significantly associated with better performance on cognitive tests tapping inhibition, updating, shifting and psychomotor speed. After adjustments for demographic factors however (age being the greatest confounder, only QTVI was clearly associated with these executive tests. No such associations were seen for working memory capacity. Conclusion: Poorer cardiovascular autonomic regulation in terms of lower SDNN & RMSSD and higher QTVI was associated with poorer
Gloria Maria Duccine Dal Colletto
Full Text Available Objective: This paper aims to estimate the incidence variation ofmultiple births in a sample of a poor and middle-class populationand the effects of environmental variables, such as maternal ageand order of pregnancy, on twinning rates. Methods: Aretrospective study was carried out to investigate the twinningrate at Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual, in the City of SãoPaulo, Brazil, from 1978 to 1999. The data were collected frompatient’s records. The zygosity of twin pairs was estimated bymeans of the classic Weinberg rule. A stepwise multiple regressionanalysis was used to study the effect of maternal age, order ofpregnancy and temporal variation on multiple births. Comparisonof maternal age, gestational age and order of pregnancy betweenthe two groups of mothers (singletons and twins was by nonparametricMann-Whitney test. Results: During the 22 years ofthe study, the average frequency of twins per thousand (0/00deliveries was 10.55, 5.39 being dizygotic and 5.17 monozygotic.The triplet rate was 0.040/00. The temporal variation and temporalvariation squared (temporal variation2 had a significant influenceon the monozygotic rate [MZR = 6.671 - 0.388 x temporal variation+ 0.018 x (temporal variation2], while the dizygotic rate wassignificantly influenced not only by temporal variation and temporalvariation squared, but also by the order of pregnancy [DZR = 5.377+ 0.163 x temporal variation – 0.008 x (temporal variation2 -0.068 x order of pregnancy]. The effect of the order of pregnancywas negatively correlated with the twin rate. Conclusions: Thetotal twinning rate found was slightly higher than that found for ahospital serving a lower socioeconomic level and much lowerthan that found for a hospital attending a high socioeconomic level.The dizygotic rate was influenced by temporal variation and orderof pregnancy, showing an increase from 1980 through 1990 andthen a decreasing trend toward 1999. The monozygotic rate wasinfluenced by
Karlsson, Björn; Sigström, Robert; Östling, Svante; Waern, Margda; Börjesson-Hanson, Anne; Skoog, Ingmar
To examine the prevalence of social anxiety disorders (SAD) with (DSM-IV) and without (DSM-5) the person's own assessment that the fear was unreasonable, in a population sample of older adults. Further, to determine whether clinical and sociodemographic correlates of SAD differ depending on the criteria applied. Cross-sectional. General population in Gothenburg, Sweden. A random population-based sample of 75- and 85-year olds (N = 1200) without dementia. Psychiatric research nurses carried out a semi-structured psychiatric examination including the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale. DSM-IV SAD was diagnosed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. SAD was diagnosed according to DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria. The 6-month duration criterion in DSM-5 was not applied because of lack of information. Other assessments included the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), the Brief Scale for Anxiety (BSA), and the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). The 1-month prevalence of SAD was 2.5% (N = 30) when the unreasonable fear criterion was defined in accordance with DSM-IV and 5.1% (N = 61) when the DSM-5 criterion was applied. Clinical correlates (GAF, MADRS, and BSA) were worse in SAD cases identified by either procedure compared with all others, and ratings for those reporting unreasonable fear suggested greater (albeit nonsignificant) overall psychopathology. Shifting the judgment of how reasonable the fear was, from the individual to the clinician, doubled the prevalence of SAD. This indicates that the DSM-5 version might increase prevalence rates of SAD in the general population. Further studies strictly applying all DSM-5 criteria are needed in order to confirm these findings. Copyright Â© 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cabrera-Leon, Andrés; Cantero-Braojos, Miguel Ángel
To assess the impact of disabling chronic pain (DCP) on quality of life, work, consumption of medication and usage of health services. Cross-sectional population study with face-to-face interview. Andalusian Health Survey (2011 edition). 6,507 people over the age of 16 (p=q=0.5; confidence level=95%; sampling error=1.49, design effect=1.52). Not applicable. Dependent variable: DCP: population limited in their activity by any of the CP specified in the survey. quality of life, absence from work, consumption of medication and utilization of health services. Compared to a population without CP, DCP impact is 6 points less on the mental quality of life and 12 points on the physical one, medication consumption is triple, health services utilization is almost double, and long absence from work is triple. On the other hand, a population with nondisabling chronic pain (nDCP) presents similar results to a population without CP. We have considered DCP as another CP category because of its huge impact, as is shown in our study, on the study variables. On the contrary, the population with nDCP does not obtain significant impact differences when compared to the population without CP. Therefore, we believe that Primary Care and Public Health should lead different prevention strategies for DCP as well as for the identification of the nDCP population to decrease its possible deterioration towards DCP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Aim. The study aims at determining some possible significant differences in the subgingival microbial profiles of patients with generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP and generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP, as a tool in helping with differential diagnostic. Materials and methods. 20 subgingival fluid samples (10 from GAP and 10 from GCP patients were subjected to a Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction technique in order to determine the prevalence and the counts of 9 periodontal pathogens (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tanerella forsythia, Prevotella intermedia, Peptostreptococcus micros, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Eubacterium nodatum and Capnocytophaga gingivalis. Results and discussion. Fusobacterium nucleatum was singnificantly correlated with the aggressive periodontitis group, but no significant differences were found for the other 8 periodontal bacteria. Conclusions. The prevalence or count of some periodontal pathogens could help clinicians make an easier differential diagnostic between GCP and GAP, however further studies, conducted on larger population samples, are still needed.
Pevalin, D J
Previous studies have indicated that the 60-, 30-, 28- and 12-item versions of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) are liable to retest effects, especially when administered multiple times with short intervals. The aim of this study was to examine data from a large general population sample for evidence of any retest effects over 7 yearly applications. A core panel was drawn from the British Household Panel Survey of those respondents who had completed the GHQ-12 seven times from 1991 to 1997 (n = 4749). The panel results were compared with cross-sectional data from the Health Surveys for England for the same years. The analyses were conducted separately for males and females broken down by age groupings. No evidence of retest effects was found. For males, the panel results did not diverge significantly from the cross-sectional results. For females, the panel results did indicate a divergence from the cross-sectional results, but this was due to the age composition of the panel and differing age trajectories. The GHQ-12 is a consistent and reliable instrument when used in general population samples with relatively long intervals between applications.
Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Johansen, Nina Cathrine; Nyheim, Kristine Aastad; Erlund, Iris; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Henjum, Sigrun
Inadequate iodine intake has been identified in populations considered iodine replete for decades. The objective of the current study is to evaluate urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and the probability of adequate iodine intake in subgroups of the Norwegian population defined by age, life stage and vegetarian dietary practice. In a cross-sectional survey, we assessed the probability of adequate iodine intake by two 24-h food diaries and UIC from two fasting morning spot urine samples in 276 participants. The participants included children ( n = 47), adolescents ( n = 46), adults ( n = 71), the elderly ( n = 23), pregnant women ( n = 45), ovo-lacto vegetarians ( n = 25), and vegans ( n = 19). In all participants combined, the median (95% CI) UIC was 101 (90, 110) µg/L, median (25th, 75th percentile) calculated iodine intake was 112 (77, 175) µg/day and median (25th, 75th percentile) estimated usual iodine intake was 101 (75, 150) µg/day. According to WHOs criteria for evaluation of median UIC, iodine intake was inadequate in the elderly, pregnant women, vegans and non-pregnant women of childbearing age. Children had the highest (82%) and vegans the lowest (14%) probability of adequate iodine intake according to reported food and supplement intakes. This study confirms the need for monitoring iodine intake and status in nationally representative study samples in Norway.
Anne Lise Brantsæter
Full Text Available Inadequate iodine intake has been identified in populations considered iodine replete for decades. The objective of the current study is to evaluate urinary iodine concentration (UIC and the probability of adequate iodine intake in subgroups of the Norwegian population defined by age, life stage and vegetarian dietary practice. In a cross-sectional survey, we assessed the probability of adequate iodine intake by two 24-h food diaries and UIC from two fasting morning spot urine samples in 276 participants. The participants included children (n = 47, adolescents (n = 46, adults (n = 71, the elderly (n = 23, pregnant women (n = 45, ovo-lacto vegetarians (n = 25, and vegans (n = 19. In all participants combined, the median (95% CI UIC was 101 (90, 110 µg/L, median (25th, 75th percentile calculated iodine intake was 112 (77, 175 µg/day and median (25th, 75th percentile estimated usual iodine intake was 101 (75, 150 µg/day. According to WHOs criteria for evaluation of median UIC, iodine intake was inadequate in the elderly, pregnant women, vegans and non-pregnant women of childbearing age. Children had the highest (82% and vegans the lowest (14% probability of adequate iodine intake according to reported food and supplement intakes. This study confirms the need for monitoring iodine intake and status in nationally representative study samples in Norway.
Benfer, Katherine A; Weir, Kelly A; Bell, Kristie L; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W; Boyd, Roslyn N
To determine (1) the reproducibility of the Eating and Drinking Ability Classification System (EDACS); (2) EDACS classification distribution in a population-based cohort with cerebral palsy (CP); and (3) the relationships between the EDACS and clinical mealtime assessment, other classifications, and health outcomes. This was a cross-sectional population-based cohort study of 170 children with CP at 3 years to 5 years (mean 57.6mo, standard deviation [SD] 8.3mo; 105 males, n=65 females). Functional abilities were representative of a population sample (Gross Motor Function Classification System level I=74, II=34, III=21, IV=18, V=23). The EDACS was the primary classification of mealtime function. The Dysphagia Disorders Survey was the clinical mealtime assessment. Gross motor function was classified using the Gross Motor Function Classification System. EDACS classification had 88.3% intrarater agreement (κ=0.84, intraclass correlation coefficient=0.95; passessment of feeding skills in children with CP for use in surveillance trials and clinical practice. A rating addendum would be a useful contribution to the tool to enhance reproducibility. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.
van der Meer, Jolanda M J; Lappenschaar, Martijn G A; Hartman, Catharina A; Greven, Corina U; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and ADHD are assumed to be the extreme manifestations of continuous heterogeneous traits that frequently co-occur. This study aims to identify subgroups of children with distinct ASD-ADHD trait profiles in the general population, using measures sensitive across both trait continua, and show how these subgroups differ in cognitive functioning. We examined 378 children (6-13 years) from a population-based sample. Latent class analyses (LCA) detected three concordant classes with low (10.1%), medium (54.2%), or high (13.2%) scores on both traits, and two discordant classes with more ADHD than ASD characteristics (ADHD > ASD, 18.3%) and vice versa (ASD > ADHD, 4.2%). Findings suggest that ASD and ADHD traits usually are strongly related in the unaffected population, and that a minority of children displays atypical discordant trait profiles characterized by differential visual-spatial functioning. This dissociation suggests that heterogeneity in ASD and ADHD is rooted in heterogeneity in the lower unaffected end of the distribution.
de la Torre Bartolomé
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies of the relationship between job strain and blood or saliva cortisol levels have been small and based on selected occupational groups. Our aim was to examine the association between job strain and saliva cortisol levels in a population-based study in which a number of potential confounders could be adjusted for. Methods The material derives from a population-based study in Stockholm on mental health and its potential determinants. Two data collections were performed three years apart with more than 8500 subjects responding to a questionnaire in both waves. In this paper our analyses are based on 529 individuals who held a job, participated in both waves as well as in an interview linked to the second wave. They gave saliva samples at awakening, half an hour later, at lunchtime and before going to bed on a weekday in close connection with the interview. Job control and job demands were assessed from the questionnaire in the second wave. Mixed models were used to analyse the association between the demand control model and saliva cortisol. Results Women in low strain jobs (high control and low demands had significantly lower cortisol levels half an hour after awakening than women in high strain (low control and high demands, active (high control and high demands or passive jobs (low control and low demands. There were no significant differences between the groups during other parts of the day and furthermore there was no difference between the job strain, active and passive groups. For men, no differences were found between demand control groups. Conclusion This population-based study, on a relatively large sample, weakly support the hypothesis that the demand control model is associated with saliva cortisol concentrations.
Rocío Liáñez Andrades
Full Text Available La Spagna si è proiettata cinematograficamente al turismo internazionale attraverso la sua immagine più pittoresca e singolare: l’Andalusia. In questo modo, anche nelle produzioni realizzate in altre regioni spagnole (Galizia, Madrid, Castiglia-La Mancia, Catalogna compare lo stereotipo più vincolato alla sua immagine romantica secolare.Questa sineddoche identitaria dell'essere spagnolo è stata agevolata dalle istituzioni turistiche, coscienti della loro capacità di attrazione sul turista straniero, e anche dagli stessi spagnoli, che hanno presentato una visione satirica di questo fenomeno di furto di identità nazionale.Per documentare la nostra ipotesi è stata eseguita l’analisi cinematografica (semiotica e di contenuto di una lista di film proposti, produzioni spagnole e coproduzioni con partecipazione o supporto nazionale. Si tratta di produzioni che non esitano a immergersi negli stereotipi più radicati dell’immaginario andaluso, riconoscendoli e riconoscendosi in questi. Ne emerge in questo modo sia la vocazione etnografica e folkloristica delle produzioni destinate alla proiezione internazionale, sia l’impoverimento della suddetta immagine per l’utente nazionale.Quest’articolo percorre le produzioni sopra citate ed espone l’eventuale collegamento di questi “film pasticcio” con film di recente uscita, come Mission: Impossible 2 (John Woo, 2000, Knight and day (James Mangold, 2010 o Zindagi na milegi dobara (Zoya Akhtar, 2012. Spain presented itself in films in order to promote international tourism through its picturesque and unique image: Andalusia. In this way, including in productions that took place in other regions (Galicia, Madrid, Castile-La Mancha, Catalonia, the basic and most cliché Andalusian appears in its romantic and secular image. This identifying synecdoche of “Spanish Identity” was seen as favored by touristic institutions. Aware of their power of attraction over foreign touristic consumers
Joaquín Jesús Gámez de la Hoz
Full Text Available In the present article is presented a portrait of the situation of the environmental health in the administration of Andalusian Goverment; are analyzed implanted management formulations and we believe a reflection space on the professional exercise and the course begun with the organizational process in the Andalusian public health. The public health system has not undergone reconstruction from the process of transferences from the State towards the autonomous Communities. We identified the extrapolation of the model clinical-assistance management to the public health structures without delving what is sufficient in their organization and objectives. Setting of business process management (BMP has got worse the administrative bureaucracy and the teamwork has not been preceded of alliances and agreements that generate feeling of ownership the same organization to avoid professional conflicts. We bet on strengthening the paper of the environmental health technicians as referring in the identification of this performances within public health system. For this propose we need the implication of all the professionals in the reform of the organization and management of the health public, to evolve in the professional exercise creating a regulated academic specialty and to define the competences maps in their different capabilites areas.En el presente artículo se muestra un retrato de la situación de la sanidad ambiental en la Administración de la Junta de Andalucía; se analizan las fórmulas de gestión implantadas y creamos un espacio de reflexión sobre el ejercicio profesional y el rumbo iniciado con el proceso organizativo en la salud pública andaluza. La Salud Pública no ha sufrido reestructuración desde el proceso de transferencias desde el Estado hacia las comunidades autónomas. Identificamos la extrapolación del modelo de gestión clínico-asistencial a las estructuras de salud pública sin ahondar lo suficiente en su organización y
[Distribution of blood lipids in a representative sample of the adult population of Catalonia. Research Group on Assessment of the Nutritional Status of the Catalonian Population: Biochemical Assessment].
García Closas, R; Serra Majem, L; Chacón Castro, P; Olmos Castellvell, M; Ribas Barba, L; Salleras Sanmartí, L
The leading cause of mortality in Spain are cardiovascular diseases. Their prevention largely depends on the control of hypercholesterolemia. The aim of this study is to describe the serum concentration of total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDLc), LDL-cholesterol (LDLc) and triglycerides in the population of Catalonia (Spain). We obtained a representative sample of the catalan population 18-75 years-old in 1993. The concentrations of HDLc was analyzed after precipitation, the concentration of TC and triglycerides was obtained by enzimatic methods, and the concentration of LDLc was calculated using the Friedewald formula. We obtained a sample of 487 women and 393 men (participation rate: 38%). The mean concentrations of TC, LDLc, HDLc and triglycerides was, respectively, of 203.9 mg/dl (SD = 39.7 mg/dl) (5.24 mmol/l, SD = 1.02 mmol/l), 127.5 mg/dl (SD = 35.9 mg/dl) (3.28 mmol/l, SD = 0.92 mmol/l), 55.8 mg/dl (SD = 14.0 mg/dl) (1.45 mmol/l, SD = 0.36 mmol/l) and 103.9 mg/dl (SD = 75.4 mg/dl) (1.15 mmol/l, SD = 0.84 mmol/l). Nineteen percent of the sample had a concentration of TC > 240 mg/dl (6.42 mmol/l), 3.0% a concentration of HDLc 160 mg/dl (4.11 mmol/l) and 7.4% a concentration of triglycerides > 7.4 mg/dl (2.22 mmol/l). The concentrations of LDLc and triglycerides and the atherogenic index (TC/HDLc) were higher in men than in women and they increased with age. The cholesterol levels could be considered lower in Catalonia, Spain, than in other developed countries, and there is a tendency to decrease accordingly to the decrease in the cardiovascular mortality rates. However, the lipid profile in men older than 35 years and in women older than 50 years is still a cause of concern.
B Rey deCastro
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acrolein is an air toxic and highly potent respiratory irritant. There is little epidemiology available, but US EPA estimates that outdoor acrolein is responsible for about 75 percent of non-cancer respiratory health effects attributable to air toxics in the United States, based on the Agency's 2005 NATA (National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment and acrolein's comparatively potent inhalation reference concentration of 0.02 µg/m3. OBJECTIVES: Assess the association between estimated outdoor acrolein exposure and asthma attack reported by a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population. METHODS: NATA 2005 chronic outdoor acrolein exposure estimates at the census tract were linked with residences oif adults (≥18 years old in the NHIS (National Health Interview Survey 2000-2009 (n = 271,348 subjects. A sample-weighted logistic regression model characterized the association between the prevalence of reporting at least one asthma attack in the 12 months prior to survey interview and quintiles of exposure to outdoor acrolein, controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: In the highest quintile of outdoor acrolein exposure (0.05-0.46 µg/m3, there was a marginally significant increase in the asthma attack pOR (prevalence-odds ratio [95% CI] = 1.08 [0.98∶1.19] relative to the lowest quintile. The highest quintile was also associated with a marginally significant increase in prevalence-odds (1.13 [0.98∶1.29] in a model limited to never smokers (n = 153,820. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic exposure to outdoor acrolein of 0.05-0.46 µg/m3 appears to increase the prevalence-odds of having at least one asthma attack in the previous year by 8 percent in a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population.
deCastro, B Rey
Acrolein is an air toxic and highly potent respiratory irritant. There is little epidemiology available, but US EPA estimates that outdoor acrolein is responsible for about 75 percent of non-cancer respiratory health effects attributable to air toxics in the United States, based on the Agency's 2005 NATA (National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment) and acrolein's comparatively potent inhalation reference concentration of 0.02 µg/m3. Assess the association between estimated outdoor acrolein exposure and asthma attack reported by a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population. NATA 2005 chronic outdoor acrolein exposure estimates at the census tract were linked with residences oif adults (≥18 years old) in the NHIS (National Health Interview Survey) 2000-2009 (n = 271,348 subjects). A sample-weighted logistic regression model characterized the association between the prevalence of reporting at least one asthma attack in the 12 months prior to survey interview and quintiles of exposure to outdoor acrolein, controlling for potential confounders. In the highest quintile of outdoor acrolein exposure (0.05-0.46 µg/m3), there was a marginally significant increase in the asthma attack pOR (prevalence-odds ratio [95% CI] = 1.08 [0.98∶1.19]) relative to the lowest quintile. The highest quintile was also associated with a marginally significant increase in prevalence-odds (1.13 [0.98∶1.29]) in a model limited to never smokers (n = 153,820). Chronic exposure to outdoor acrolein of 0.05-0.46 µg/m3 appears to increase the prevalence-odds of having at least one asthma attack in the previous year by 8 percent in a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population.
deCastro, B. Rey
Background Acrolein is an air toxic and highly potent respiratory irritant. There is little epidemiology available, but US EPA estimates that outdoor acrolein is responsible for about 75 percent of non-cancer respiratory health effects attributable to air toxics in the United States, based on the Agency's 2005 NATA (National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment) and acrolein's comparatively potent inhalation reference concentration of 0.02 µg/m3. Objectives Assess the association between estimated outdoor acrolein exposure and asthma attack reported by a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population. Methods NATA 2005 chronic outdoor acrolein exposure estimates at the census tract were linked with residences oif adults (≥18 years old) in the NHIS (National Health Interview Survey) 2000 – 2009 (n = 271,348 subjects). A sample-weighted logistic regression model characterized the association between the prevalence of reporting at least one asthma attack in the 12 months prior to survey interview and quintiles of exposure to outdoor acrolein, controlling for potential confounders. Results In the highest quintile of outdoor acrolein exposure (0.05 – 0.46 µg/m3), there was a marginally significant increase in the asthma attack pOR (prevalence-odds ratio [95% CI] = 1.08 [0.98∶1.19]) relative to the lowest quintile. The highest quintile was also associated with a marginally significant increase in prevalence-odds (1.13 [0.98∶1.29]) in a model limited to never smokers (n = 153,820). Conclusions Chronic exposure to outdoor acrolein of 0.05 – 0.46 µg/m3 appears to increase the prevalence-odds of having at least one asthma attack in the previous year by 8 percent in a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population. PMID:24816802
Weltermann, Birgitta; Herwig, Anna; Dehnen, Dorothea; Herzer, Kerstin
Studies have documented deficits of pneumococcal and other vaccinations in kidney and lung transplant patients, but the vaccination status of liver transplant (LT) recipients is unknown. This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of immunizations among LT patients at a large university medical center compared to a representative general population sample. In 2014, all LT patients (>18 years of age) were asked for their vaccination documents. The immunization rates for pneumococcal and other vaccine-preventable diseases were calculated. LT patients' rates for tetanus, diphtheria, and polio vaccinations were compared to a national reference group. Because these vaccinations are recommended for both groups, pneumococcal and influenza vaccination rates of LT patients were compared to those of seniors (>65 years of age) from a national sample. We found that 444 of 581 LT patients (76.4%) had evaluable vaccination documents. Only 60% of the patients received at least 1 pneumococcal vaccination. Insufficient immunization rates (≥1 vaccination/lifetime prevalence) were also documented for other vaccine-preventable diseases: hepatitis B 64%, hepatitis A 48%, tetanus 87%, diphtheria 79%, polio 72%, pertussis 38%, and seasonal influenza (the preceding season) 51%. Only 0.7% (n=3) of LT patients had received all vaccinations as recommended. Similar deficits were documented in the national sample: tetanus 96%, diphtheria 82%, polio 86%, and pertussis 35%. LT patients received pneumococcal vaccines twice as frequently compared to seniors (60% vs. 31%), while influenza vaccination rates were comparable (51% vs. 45%). In agreement with studies addressing other solid organ transplant recipients, vaccination coverage of LT patients and the general population needs to be improved.
Gracia-Rebled, Ana Cristina; Santabárbara, Javier; Lopez-Anton, Raul; Tomas, Concepción; Lobo, Elena; Marcos, Guillermo; Lobo, Antonio
The prevalence of cognitive impairment with no dementia (CIND) varies between 5.1% and 35.9%, increasing between 65 and 85 years. The CIND increases the risk of dementia. Factors such as education, occupation, and social activities are associated with the risk of cognitive impairment. The main objective of this study was to analyse the association between the main occupation developed throughout life and CIND in a general population sample of over 55 years. In wave I of the ZARADEMP Project, a sample (n=4803) of people over 55 years was interviewed. CIND measurement was obtained through the Mini Mental State Examination. Occupational activity data were recoded into white collar, blue collar, homemakers, and farmers. The association between the occupation variables and CIND was estimated using the odds ratio, and 95% confidence intervals using logistic regression equations. The prevalence of CIND in the sample was 28.2%. As regards white collar workers, the CIND diagnosis odds was 53% higher for blue collar workers, 77% higher for women who were homemakers and almost twice for farmers, after controlling for socio-demographic, behavioural and clinical variables. All results were statistically significant. CIND frequency is influenced by the previous occupation of the subjects. An occupation with higher intellectual requirements can help keep cognitive functions intact for longer. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Léa Campos de Oliveira
Full Text Available Objective: To present the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphismsof a few immune response genes in a population sample from SãoPaulo City (SP, Brazil. Methods: Data on allele frequencies ofknown polymorphisms of innate and acquired immunity genes werepresented, the majority with proven impact on gene function. Datawere gathered from a sample of healthy individuals, non-HLA identicalsiblings of bone marrow transplant recipients from the Hospital dasClínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo,obtained between 1998 and 2005. The number of samples variedfor each single nucleotide polymorphism analyzed by polymerasechain reaction followed by restriction enzyme cleavage. Results:Allele and genotype distribution of 41 different gene polymorphisms,mostly cytokines, but also including other immune response genes,were presented. Conclusion: We believe that the data presentedhere can be of great value for case-control studies, to define whichpolymorphisms are present in biologically relevant frequencies and toassess targets for therapeutic intervention in polygenic diseases witha component of immune and inflammatory responses.
Joyal, Christian C
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), a sexual fantasy (SF) is paraphilic if it concerns activities outside the realm of "genital stimulation or preparatory fondling with phenotypically normal, physically mature, consenting human partners" (normophilic). Intensity of the paraphilic SF is also "greater than or equal to normophilic interests." Surprisingly, however, very few data are available to corroborate that definition of a paraphilic SF. Although the relatively high prevalence of paraphilic SF in the general population is well known, the magnitude of difference between intensity of "normophilic" and "paraphilic" SF remains to be assessed. The main goal of this study was to analyze the SF of adults recruited in the general population to obtain person profiles based on the nature and intensity of their SF. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) were used with data collected from 1,501 adults recruited in the general population to generate subgroups of participants based on the nature and intensity of their SF. The main outcome measures used was a revised version of the Wilson Sex Fantasy Questionnaire. When all participants are considered as a unique group, the mean intensity of the most intense "normophilic" SF (oral sex) is significantly higher than the mean intensity of the most intense "paraphilic" SF (being sexually dominated for women and watching two women having sex for men), as expected from the DSM-5. When clusters of participants are considered separately, however, conclusions are nuanced. Four significant clusters of participants (two predominantly female and two predominantly male) reported at least one paraphilic SF with intensity as high as that of their most intense "normophilic" SF. In fact, 57% of this sample met the criteria of paraphilia. These results suggest that the current criteria for paraphilia are too inclusive. Suggestions are given to improve the definition of pathological sexual
Whittington, J; Holland, A; Webb, T; Butler, J; Clarke, D; Boer, H
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by extreme floppiness at birth, impaired sexual development, short stature, severe over-eating, characteristic physical features and learning disabilities (LD). Impaired social cognition, literal mindedness and cognitive inflexibility are also present. The syndrome has two main genetic subtypes that both result in the failure of expression of maternally imprinted genes on chromosome 15 at the locus q11-13. Through multiple sources, we attempted to identify all people with PWS living in one health region in the UK. Additional people with PWS identified in other regions were also recruited to augment the study sample. A comparison group of people with LD as a result of aetiologies other than PWS was also identified. All people from these three groups, over age three, who gave their consent, were assessed using tests of ability and attainment. In addition, their main carers were interviewed using a semistructured interview. Blood samples for genetic diagnosis were obtained from all consenting participants. The IQ distribution of the population sample was approximately normal with a mean IQ 40 points below that of the general population. There were systematic differences between the two main genetic subtypes. Those with disomies differed in cognitive profiles from both those with deletions and the comparison LD group (the latter two groups were very similar) in terms of better verbal abilities and impaired coding ability. Some people with PWS deletions had strong visuospatial skills. We propose that the normal distribution of IQ, shifted downwards relative to that of the general population, is the result of a global effect on IQ of the PWS gene(s), and that the different cognitive profile seen in those with chromosome 15 maternal disomies is a specific effect of a gene, or genes, on chromosome 15 which is differentially either expressed or not expressed in those with disomies relative to those with deletions. One hypothesis
International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).
In an effort to help meet the growing interest and concern about the problems created by the rapid growth of population, The International Planned Parenthood Federation has prepared this booklet with the aim of assisting the study of the history and future trends of population growth and its impact on individual and family welfare, national,…
Webb, Bradley T; Edwards, Alexis C; Wolen, Aaron R; Salvatore, Jessica E; Aliev, Fazil; Riley, Brien P; Sun, Cuie; Williamson, Vernell S; Kitchens, James N; Pedersen, Kimberly; Adkins, Amy; Cooke, Megan E; Savage, Jeanne E; Neale, Zoe; Cho, Seung B; Dick, Danielle M; Kendler, Kenneth S
Background: Genetic factors impact alcohol use behaviors and these factors may become increasingly evident during emerging adulthood. Examination of the effects of individual variants as well as aggregate genetic variation can clarify mechanisms underlying risk. Methods: We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in an ethnically diverse sample of college students for three quantitative outcomes including typical monthly alcohol consumption, alcohol problems, and maximum number of drinks in 24 h. Heritability based on common genetic variants ( h 2 SNP ) was assessed. We also evaluated whether risk variants in aggregate were associated with alcohol use outcomes in an independent sample of young adults. Results: Two genome-wide significant markers were observed: rs11201929 in GRID1 for maximum drinks in 24 h, with supportive evidence across all ancestry groups; and rs73317305 in SAMD12 (alcohol problems), tested only in the African ancestry group. The h 2 SNP estimate was 0.19 (SE = 0.11) for consumption, and was non-significant for other outcomes. Genome-wide polygenic scores were significantly associated with alcohol outcomes in an independent sample. Conclusions: These results robustly identify genetic risk for alcohol use outcomes at the variant level and in aggregate. We confirm prior evidence that genetic variation in GRID1 impacts alcohol use, and identify novel loci of interest for multiple alcohol outcomes in emerging adults. These findings indicate that genetic variation influencing normative and problematic alcohol use is, to some extent, convergent across ancestry groups. Studying college populations represents a promising avenue by which to obtain large, diverse samples for gene identification.
Full Text Available Lung function measures are heritable traits that predict population morbidity and mortality and are essential for the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Variations in many genes have been reported to affect these traits, but attempts at replication have provided conflicting results. Recently, we undertook a meta-analysis of Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS results for lung function measures in 20,288 individuals from the general population (the SpiroMeta consortium.To comprehensively analyse previously reported genetic associations with lung function measures, and to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in these genomic regions are associated with lung function in a large population sample.We analysed association for SNPs tagging 130 genes and 48 intergenic regions (+/-10 kb, after conducting a systematic review of the literature in the PubMed database for genetic association studies reporting lung function associations.The analysis included 16,936 genotyped and imputed SNPs. No loci showed overall significant association for FEV(1 or FEV(1/FVC traits using a carefully defined significance threshold of 1.3×10(-5. The most significant loci associated with FEV(1 include SNPs tagging MACROD2 (P = 6.81×10(-5, CNTN5 (P = 4.37×10(-4, and TRPV4 (P = 1.58×10(-3. Among ever-smokers, SERPINA1 showed the most significant association with FEV(1 (P = 8.41×10(-5, followed by PDE4D (P = 1.22×10(-4. The strongest association with FEV(1/FVC ratio was observed with ABCC1 (P = 4.38×10(-4, and ESR1 (P = 5.42×10(-4 among ever-smokers.Polymorphisms spanning previously associated lung function genes did not show strong evidence for association with lung function measures in the SpiroMeta consortium population. Common SERPINA1 polymorphisms may affect FEV(1 among smokers in the general population.
Chapman, Benjamin P; Weiss, Alexander; Barrett, Paul; Duberstein, Paul
The structure of the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) is poorly understood, and applications have mostly been confined to the broad Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Lie scales. Using a hierarchical factoring procedure, we mapped the sequential differentiation of EPI scales from broad, molar factors to more specific, molecular factors, in a UK population sample of over 6500 persons. Replicable facets at the lowest tier of Neuroticism included emotional fragility, mood lability, nervous tension, and rumination. The lowest order set of replicable Extraversion facets consisted of social dynamism, sociotropy, decisiveness, jocularity, social information seeking, and impulsivity. The Lie scale consisted of an interpersonal virtue and a behavioral diligence facet. Users of the EPI may be well served in some circumstances by considering its broad Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Lie scales as multifactorial, a feature that was explicitly incorporated into subsequent Eysenck inventories and is consistent with other hierarchical trait structures.
den Hoed, M; Luan, J; Langenberg, C
BACKGROUND: Meta-analysis of case-control genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for early onset and morbid obesity identified four variants in/near the PRL, PTER, MAF and NPC1 genes. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to validate association of these variants with obesity-related traits in population......-based samples. DESIGN: Genotypes and anthropometric traits were available in up to 31 083 adults from the Fenland, EPIC-Norfolk, Whitehall II, Ely and Hertfordshire studies and in 2042 children and adolescents from the European Youth Heart Study. In each study, we tested associations of rs4712652 (near-PRL), rs......10508503 (near-PTER), rs1424233 (near-MAF) and rs1805081 (NPC1), or proxy variants (r (2)>0.8), with the odds of being overweight and obese, as well as with body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). Associations were adjusted for sex, age and age(2) in adults...
Furlan, Érica Luciana de Paula; Bennini, João Renato; Faro, Cristina Barros de Araújo; Marussi, Emílio Francisco; Barini, Ricardo; Peralta, Cleisson Fábio Andrioli
To elaborate models for the estimation of fetal weight and longitudinal reference intervals of estimated fetal weight (EFW) using a sample of the Brazilian population. Prospective observational study. Two groups of patients were evaluated: Group EFW (estimation of fetal weight): to elaborate (EFW-El) and validate (EFW-Val) a model for the prediction of fetal weight; Group LRI (longitudinal reference intervals): To elaborate (LRI-El) and validate (LRF-Val) conditional (longitudinal) percentiles of EFW. Polynomial regression analysis was applied to the data from subgroup EFW-El to elaborate a model for the estimation of fetal weight. The performance of this model was compared to those of previously published formulas. Linear mixed models were used for the elaboration of longitudinal reference intervals of EFW using data from subgroup LRI-El. Data obtained from subgroup LRI-Val were used to validate these intervals. Group EFW consisted of 458 patients (EFW-El: 367; EFW-Val: 91) and Group LRI consisted of 315 patients (LRI-El: 265; LRI-Val: 50). The model obtained for EFW was: EFW=-8.277+2.146xBPDxACxFL-2.449xFLxBPD². The performances of other models were significantly worse than those obtained with our formula. Equations for the prediction of conditional percentiles of EFW were derived from the longitudinal observation of patients of subgroup LRI-El and validated with data from subgroup LRI-Val. We described a method for customization of longitudinal reference intervals of EFW obtained using formulas generated from a sample of the Brazilian population.
Full Text Available Background: Oncogenic HPV infection is associated to anogenital cancer. We estimate the prevalence and correlates of anogenital HPV infection among a population-based sample of women aged 16–64 years living in the metropolitan area of Puerto Rico. Methods: 564 women completed face-to-face and computer assisted interviews and self-collected anal and cervical specimens. HPV DNA testing used MY09/MY11 consensus HPV L1 primers and beta-globin as an internal control for sample amplification. Positive specimens were typed by dot-blot hybridization. Results: Weighted prevalence of cervical, anal, and cervical/anal co-infection was 29.4%, 38.6%, and 17.1%, respectively. The commonest oncogenic HPV types detected in the cervix and anus were: 68 (8% vs. 7% and 16 (5.5% vs. 5.1%, correspondingly. Having ≥3 lifetime sexual partners (OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.5–3.5 and last year anal intercourse (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1–2.5 increased the odds of anogenital HPV infection. Cervical infection was independently associated to anal infection (OR: 3.0; 95% CI: 2.0–4.6. Conclusions: Similar to others, our results confirm the burden of anogenital HPV infection in women and its relationship with sexual behavior. As vaccination increases, future studies should monitor changing trends in HPV infection in this population, and the relationship between anal and cervical HPV-related disease. Keywords: Anogenital HPV infection, Women, Hispanics, Puerto Rico
Le Luyer, Mona; Rottier, Stéphane; Bayle, Priscilla
Enamel thickness has been linked to functional aspects of masticatory biomechanics and has been demonstrated to be an evolutionary plastic trait, selectively responsive to dietary changes, wear and tooth fracture. European Late Paleolithic and Mesolithic hunter-gatherers mainly show a flat wear pattern, while oblique molar wear has been reported as characteristic of Neolithic agriculturalists. We investigate the relationships between enamel thickness distribution and molar wear pattern in two Neolithic and medieval populations. Under the assumption that dietary and/or non-dietary constraints result in directional selective pressure leading to variations in enamel thickness, we test the hypothesis that these two populations will exhibit significant differences in wear and enamel thickness patterns. Occlusal wear patterns were scored in upper permanent second molars (UM2) of 64 Neolithic and 311 medieval subadult and adult individuals. Enamel thickness was evaluated by microtomography in subsamples of 17 Neolithic and 25 medieval individuals. Eight variables describing enamel thickness were assessed. The results show that oblique molar wear is dominant in the Neolithic sample (87%), while oblique wear affects only a minority (42%) of the medieval sample. Moreover, in the Neolithic molars, where buccolingually directed oblique wear is dominant and greatest enamel lost occurs in the distolingual quadrant, thickest enamel is found where occlusal stresses are the most important-on the distolingual cusp. These results reveal a correlation between molar wear pattern and enamel thickness that has been associated to dietary changes. In particular, relatively thicker molar enamel may have evolved as a plastic response to resist wear. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lippman, Sheri A; Shade, Starley B; El Ayadi, Alison M; Gilvydis, Jennifer M; Grignon, Jessica S; Liegler, Teri; Morris, Jessica; Naidoo, Evasen; Prach, Lisa M; Puren, Adrian; Barnhart, Scott
Attrition along the HIV care continuum slows gains in mitigating the South African HIV epidemic. Understanding population-level gaps in HIV identification, linkage, retention in care, and viral suppression is critical to target programming. We conducted a population-based household survey, HIV rapid testing, point-of-care CD4 testing, and viral load measurement from dried blood spots using multistage cluster sampling in 2 subdistricts of North West Province from January to March, 2014. We used weighting and multiple imputation of missing data to estimate HIV prevalence, undiagnosed infection, linkage and retention in care, medication adherence, and viral suppression. We sampled 1044 respondents aged 18-49. HIV prevalence was 20.0% (95% confidence interval: 13.7 to 26.2) for men and 26.7% (95% confidence interval: 22.1 to 31.4) for women. Among those HIV positive, 48.4% of men and 75.7% of women were aware of their serostatus; 44.0% of men and 74.8% of women reported ever linking to HIV care; 33.1% of men and 58.4% of women were retained in care; and 21.6% of men and 50.0% of women had dried blood spots viral loads <5000 copies per milliliter. Among those already linked to care, 81.7% on antiretroviral treatment (ART) and 56.0% of those not on ART were retained in care, and 51.8% currently retained in care on ART had viral loads <5000 copies per milliliter. Despite expanded treatment in South Africa, attrition along the continuum of HIV care is slowing prevention progress. Improved detection is critically needed, particularly among men. Reported linkage and retention is reasonable for those on ART; however, failure to achieve viral suppression is worrisome.
Mayes, Susan D; Waxmonsky, James D; Calhoun, Susan L; Bixler, Edward O
The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-5) diagnosis, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), has generated appreciable controversy since its inception, primarily in regard to its validity as a distinct disorder from oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). The goal of our study was to determine if the two DSM-5 DMDD symptoms (persistently irritable or angry mood and severe recurrent temper outbursts) occurred independently of other disorders, particularly ODD. Other DSM-5 DMDD criteria were not assessed. Maternal ratings of the two DMDD symptoms, clinical diagnosis of ODD using DSM-5 symptom criteria, and psychological problem scores (anxiety, depression, oppositional behavior, conduct disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]) on the Pediatric Behavior Scale were analyzed in a population sample, 6-12 years of age (n = 665). The prevalence of DMDD symptoms (irritable-angry mood and temper outbursts both rated by mothers as often or very often a problem) was 9%. In all, 92% of children with DMDD symptoms had ODD, and 66% of children with ODD had DMDD symptoms, indicating that it is very unlikely to have DMDD symptoms without ODD, but that ODD can occur without DMDD symptoms. Comorbid psychological problems (anxiety, depression, conduct disorder, and ADHD) in addition to ODD did not increase the risk of having DMDD symptoms beyond that for ODD alone. Only 3% of children with psychological problems other than ODD had DMDD symptoms. Our general population findings are similar to those for a psychiatric sample, suggesting that DMDD cannot be differentiated from ODD based on symptomatology. Therefore, it is important to assess all DSM criteria and to examine for comorbid psychopathology when considering a diagnosis of DMDD. Our results support the recommendation made by the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision (ICD-11) panel of experts that DMDD symptoms may be
Backman, Helena; Lindberg, Anne; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Larsson, Kjell; Lundbäck, Bo; Rönmark, Eva
The Global Lung Function Initiative 2012 (GLI) reference values are currently endorsed by several respiratory societies but evaluations of applicability for adults resident in European countries are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the GLI reference values are appropriate for an adult Caucasian Swedish population. During 2008-2013, clinical examinations including spirometry were performed on general population samples in northern Sweden, in which 501 healthy Caucasian non-smokers were identified. Predicted GLI reference values and Z-scores were calculated for each healthy non-smoking subject and the distributions and mean values for FEV1, FVC and the FEV1/FVC ratio were examined. The prevalence of airway obstruction among these healthy non-smokers was calculated based on the Lower Limit of normal (LLN) criterion (lower fifth percentile) for the FEV1/FVC ratio. Thus, by definition, a prevalence of 5% was expected. The Z-scores for FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC were reasonably, although not perfectly, normally distributed, but not centred on zero. Both predicted FEV1 and, in particular, FVC were lower compared to the observed values in the sample. The deviations were greater among women compared to men. The prevalence of airway obstruction based on the LLN criterion for the FEV1/FVC ratio was 9.4% among women and 2.7% among men. The use of the GLI reference values may produce biased prevalence estimates of airway obstruction in Sweden, especially among women. These results demonstrate the importance of validating the GLI reference values in different countries.
Lincoln, Tania M; Möbius, Carolin; Huber, Martin T; Nagel, Matthias; Moritz, Steffen
The aims of this study were to identify whether responses to paranoid thoughts distinguish patients with psychotic disorders from people in the population who have paranoid thoughts occasionally and to identify factors that are associated with and might explain the different ways of responding. Paranoid thoughts were assessed in patients diagnosed with a psychotic disorder (n = 32) and a population control sample (n = 34) with the Paranoia Checklist. Responses to paranoid thoughts were assessed with the Reactions to Paranoid Thoughts Scale (RePT) and social support, self-efficacy and cognitive insight were assessed as potential correlates of the responses to paranoid thoughts. The patients showed significantly more depressed, physical and devaluating responses to paranoid thoughts and employed less normalising responses than the controls. The differences in normalising responses were explained by perceived social integration, whereas the differences in depressive responses were explained by the overall levels of depression and partly explained by externality and social integration. Maladaptive responses to paranoid thoughts could be relevant to the pathogenesis and maintenance of persecutory delusions. Interventions aimed at reducing paranoia could benefit from targeting dysfunctional responses to paranoid thoughts and by placing a stronger emphasis on treating depression and improving social integration.
Lima, Thálitta Hetamaro Ayala; Buttura, Renato Vidal; Donadi, Eduardo Antônio; Veiga-Castelli, Luciana Caricati; Mendes-Junior, Celso Teixeira; Castelli, Erick C
Human Leucocyte Antigen F (HLA-F) is a non-classical HLA class I gene distinguished from its classical counterparts by low allelic polymorphism and distinctive expression patterns. Its exact function remains unknown. It is believed that HLA-F has tolerogenic and immune modulatory properties. Currently, there is little information regarding the HLA-F allelic variation among human populations and the available studies have evaluated only a fraction of the HLA-F gene segment and/or have searched for known alleles only. Here we present a strategy to evaluate the complete HLA-F variability including its 5' upstream, coding and 3' downstream segments by using massively parallel sequencing procedures. HLA-F variability was surveyed on 196 individuals from the Brazilian Southeast. The results indicate that the HLA-F gene is indeed conserved at the protein level, where thirty coding haplotypes or coding alleles were detected, encoding only four different HLA-F full-length protein molecules. Moreover, a same protein molecule is encoded by 82.45% of all coding alleles detected in this Brazilian population sample. However, the HLA-F nucleotide and haplotype variability is much higher than our current knowledge both in Brazilians and considering the 1000 Genomes Project data. This protein conservation is probably a consequence of the key role of HLA-F in the immune system physiology. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gündüz, Kaan; Çelenk, Peruze; Canger, Emin-Murat; Zengin, Zeynep; Sümer, Pınar
The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of dens invaginatus and to classify the types of dens invaginatus in a sample of the Turkish population. A retrospective study was performed using periapical and panoramic radiographs of 5355 patients who presented to the Department of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology at the Ondokuz Mayis University Dentistry Faculty between January 2009 and December 2010. Maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth were evaluated for the presence and characteristics of dens invaginatus. Statistical evaluation of the presence of dens invaginatus related to gender was performed by the Pearson chi-squared test. Dens invaginatus was observed in 116 of 4556 subjects, with a frequency of 2.5%. There was only one periapical lesion in teeth with type I dens invaginatus, but 8.1% of patients with type II and 87.5% of patients with type III dens invaginatus had apical periodontitis at the time of referral. There were 116 (72%) females and 32 (27%) males with dens invaginatus. This data represents the only study carried out in a large population in Turkey, and no dens invaginatus was found in mandibular teeth. The most commonly observed type of dens invaginatus was type I (69.8%).
Witt, Andreas; Rassenhofer, Miriam; Allroggen, Marc; Brähler, Elmar; Plener, Paul L; Fegert, Jörg M
The lifetime prevalence of sexual abuse in institutional settings in Germany was examined in a sample representative of the general adult population ( N = 2,437). Participants completed a survey on whether they had ever experienced such abuse, its nature (contact, noncontact, forced sexual, intercourse), the type of institution (e.g. school, club), and the relationship of perpetrator to victim (peer, caregiver, staff member). Overall, 3.1% of adult respondents (women: 4.8%, men: 0.8%) reported having experienced some type of sexual abuse in institutions. Adult women reported higher rates of all types than did men, with rates of 3.9% versus 0.8% for contact sexual abuse, 1.2% versus 0.3% for noncontact sexual abuse, and 1.7% versus 0.2% for forced sexual intercourse. We conclude that a remarkable proportion of the general population experiences sexual abuse in institutions, underscoring the need for development of protective strategies. Especially, schools seem to represent good starting points for primary prevention strategies.
Peña-Casanova, J; Casals-Coll, M; Quintana, M; Sánchez-Benavides, G; Rognoni, T; Calvo, L; Palomo, R; Aranciva, F; Tamayo, F; Manero, R M
In clinical neuropsychology, normative data are necessary to relate the performance of a subject to a reference group. These normative data should be collected from a pertinent population taking into account sociodemographic and cultural factors. This paper describes the methods and sample characteristics of a series of Spanish normative studies on young adults (NEURONORMA young adults Project). The normative information was based on a series of selected, commonly used, neuropsychological tests covering attention, language, visual-perceptual abilities, constructional tasks, memory, and executive functions. A sample of 179 cognitively normal subjects from 18 to 49 years was studied. Demographics, socio-cultural, and medical data were collected. The statistical procedure used in the normative studies is described. Sociodemographic, family background, health habits, medical history and use of drugs are presented. The use of these norms should improve neuropsychological diagnostic accuracy in young Spanish subjects. These data may also be of considerable use for comparisons with other normative studies. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Mueller, Astrid; Mitchell, James E; Crosby, Ross D; Glaesmer, Heide; de Zwaan, Martina
The aims of the study were to estimate the prevalence rate of compulsive hoarding, and to determine the association between compulsive hoarding and compulsive buying in a nationally representative sample of the German population (N = 2307). Compulsive hoarding was assessed with the German version of the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R; Frost, R.O., Steketee, G., & Grisham, J. (2004). Measurement of compulsive hoarding: saving inventory-revised. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42, 1163-1182.). The point prevalence of compulsive hoarding was estimated to be 4.6%. Individuals with compulsive hoarding did not differ significantly from those without compulsive hoarding regarding age, gender, and other sociodemographic characteristics. Significant correlations were found between the compulsive hoarding and the compulsive buying measures. Participants with compulsive hoarding reported a higher propensity to compulsive buying than respondents without hoarding. About two thirds of participants classified as having compulsive hoarding were also defined as suffering from compulsive buying. In summary, these results suggest that compulsive hoarding may be relatively prevalent in Germany and they confirm the close association between compulsive hoarding and compulsive buying through the investigation of a large scale representative sample.
Full Text Available Mental health problems (MHP of parents are associated with an increased risk of psychological and developmental difficulties in their children. This study aims at analyzing population-based data of parents with MHP and their children and the effects of associated risk factors in order to further targeted preventive and therapeutic interventions.The BELLA study is the mental health module of the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey among Children and Adolescents. MHP in parents and in their children as well as associated risk factors were examined in a sample of N = 1158 parents with children aged 11 to 17 years.Parental MHP were identified in 18.6% of the sample. Risk factors associated with parental MHP were low SES, parental unemployment, stressful life events, parental daily strain, parental chronic disease, and child MHP. A rate of 19.1% of the children of parents with MHP reported MHP themselves, the corresponding rate among children of parents without MHP was 7.7%. In multiple regression analyses the risk for children of parents with MHP to report MHP themselves was almost two times higher than the risk of children of parents without MHP. Other significant associations with child MHP included gender, the parents' age, and stressful life events.Parental MHP constitute a significant risk for the mental health of their children. Targeted screening methods and preventive interventions are needed.
Duchesne, Stéphane; Larose, Simon; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E
This study pursued three goals. The first goal was to explore children's trajectories of anxiety from age 6 to 12 using a representative community sample. The second goal was to assess the link between certain behavioral characteristics assessed in kindergarten (i.e., inattention, hyperactivity, aggressiveness, and low prosociality) and these trajectories. The third goal was to determine whether certain aspects of maternal parenting (i.e., warmth and discipline) could moderate the association between these characteristics and the trajectories of anxiety. A population sample of 2,000 children (1,001 boys, 999 girls) participated in this longitudinal study. Developmental trajectory analyses allowed us to identify four trajectory groups: low, low-increasing, high-declining, and high anxiety groups. Moreover, multinomial logistic regressions revealed a profile of children at risk of developing high anxiety symptoms (i.e., high group), characterized by sociofamily adversity, inattention, and low prosociality in the classroom. Hyperactivity was also found in this profile, but only for children exposed to a mother who showed little affective warmth. Finally, mothers' high level of discipline increased the odds of belonging to the high anxiety group. The results are discussed in relation to studies examining the association among anxiety, behavioral characteristics, and parenting during childhood.
Havenaar, J.M.; Savelkoul, T.J.F.; Bout, J. van-den; Bootsma, P.A.
The importance of psychological factors in the aftermath of industrial disasters is being recognized increasingly. Two field studies (total N=3084) were conducted in two regions of the former Soviet Union, to investigate the long-term psychosocial consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster in 1986. A sub sample of the respondents (N=449) was studied using a standardized physical and psychiatric examination. The first study took place in the Gomel region (Belarus) in the direct vicinity of the damaged nuclear plant. A control study was conducted in the Tver region (the Russian Federation), about 250 km north-west of Moscow. The results of the study indicate significantly higher levels of psychological distress, poorer subjective health and higher medical consumption in the exposed population. These findings were most prominent in risk groups such as evacuated people and mothers with children. No significant differences in overall levels of psychiatric or physical morbidity were found. Radiation related diseases could not account for the poor health perception in the investigated sample. These results indicate that psychological factors following the Chernobyl disaster had a marked effect upon psychological well being, on perceived health and on subsequent illness behavior. Fears about future health play a key role in determining this response. The provision of adequate information to the public as well as to the public health services may be important to counteract these fears
Tucker, Benjamin T P; Woods, Douglas W; Flessner, Christopher A; Franklin, Shana A; Franklin, Martin E
The current study examined the characteristics of pathological skin picking (PSP) in a population-based sample. Participants were recruited through several online resources for PSP and related conditions to complete a web-based survey assessing the functional and topographical phenomenology, physical and psychosocial impact, treatment utilization, and associated psychopathology of PSP. A total of 1663 participants consented, of whom 760 were over 18 and met study criteria for PSP. Results showed considerable heterogeneity in picking methods, body sites, and function (e.g., regulation of emotional, sensory, and cognitive states). Participants generally reported moderate psychosocial and physical impact from picking and tended to perceive available treatment as poor in quality. Severity of associated symptoms of psychopathology (depression, anxiety, and stress) was comparable to severity levels found in previous samples of persons with trichotillomania and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Severity of PSP was a statistically significant predictor of overall impairment after controlling for depression and anxiety symptoms. Results suggest that PSP is a significant public health concern in need of further rigorous investigation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of selected atherothrombotic risk factors and several clinical manifestations of atherothrombosis, as well as the utilization rates of selected vascular interventions in Greece. Methods During December 2009, 3,007 adults (aged 47 ± 16 years, 48.3% men and 51.7% women) recruited in a random-digit dialed telephone survey (response rate: 16%). The sample size was selected following a multistage and stratified by gender, age group, and Greek region procedure in order to be more representative. Data regarding medical history and socio-demographic characteristics of the participants were collected. Results Overall, 6.5%, 17.7% and 14.0% of participants reported that they had been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, respectively. In the overall sample, 2.5% of participants reported that they had been diagnosed with angina, 2.0% with myocardial infarction, 1.6% with stroke and 2.5% with peripheral artery disease. Overall, 1.5% of participants reported that they had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention, 1.4% coronary artery bypass grafting, 0.6% angioplasty of a peripheral vessel, and 0.7% surgery of a peripheral vessel. Conclusion Despite the limitations may occur due to the sampling procedure, the findings of the present study indicate that atherothrombosis affects a large portion of the population in Greece and it is expected to impose a significant economic burden. The data of the current study could contribute in obtaining an accurate estimation of the economic burden of atherothrombosis in Greece because people who are aware of their condition/disease are those who use health care resources. PMID:21492471
Boezen, H M; Schouten, J. P.; Postma, D S; Rijcken, B
Peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability can be considered as an index of bronchial lability. Population studies on PEF variability are few. The purpose of the current paper is to describe the distribution of PEF variability in a random population sample of adults with a wide age range (20-70 yrs),
Cragun, Deborah; Weidner, Anne; Lewis, Courtney; Bonner, Devon; Kim, Jongphil; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Pal, Tuya
Breast cancer (BC) disparities may widen with genomic advances. The authors compared non-Hispanic white (NHW), black, and Hispanic BC survivors for 1) cancer risk-management practices among BRCA carriers and 2) provider discussion and receipt of genetic testing. A population-based sample of NHW, black, and Hispanic women who had been diagnosed with invasive BC at age 50 years or younger from 2009 to 2012 were recruited through the state cancer registry. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare cancer risk-management practices in BRCA carriers and associations of demographic and clinical variables with provider discussion and receipt of testing. Of 1622 participants, 159 of 440 (36.1%) black women, 579 of 897 (64.5%) NHW women, 58 of 117 (49.6%) Spanish-speaking Hispanic women, and 116 of 168 (69%) English-speaking Hispanic women underwent BRCA testing, of whom 90 had a pathogenic BRCA mutation identified. Among BRCA carriers, the rates of risk-reducing mastectomy and risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy were significantly lower among black women compared with Hispanic and NHW women after controlling for clinical and demographic variables (P = .025 and P = .008, respectively). Compared with NHW women, discussion of genetic testing with a provider was 16 times less likely among black women (P BRCA carriers compared with their Hispanic and NHW counterparts, which is concerning because benefits from genetic testing arise from cancer risk-management practice options. Furthermore, lower BRCA testing rates among blacks may partially be because of a lower likelihood of provider discussion. Future studies are needed to improve cancer risk identification and management practices across all populations to prevent the widening of disparities. Cancer 2017;123:2497-05. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
Reis, A.A.; Cardoso, J.C.S.; Lourenco, M.C.
Full text: The Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) proposed in ICRP Publication 66 account for the morphology and physiology of the respiratory tract. The characteristics of air drawn into the lungs and exhaled are greatly influenced by the morphology of the respiratory tract, which causes numerous changes in pressure, flow rate, direction and humidity as air moves into and out of the lungs. These changing characteristics can influence the rates and the sites of deposition. Concerning the respiratory physiological parameters the breathing characteristics influence the volume, the inhalation rate of air and the portion that enters through the nose and the mouth. These characteristics are important to determine the fractional deposition. The HRTM model uses morphological and physiological parameters from the Caucasian man to establish deposition fractions in the respiratory tract regions. lt is known that the morphology and physiology are influenced by environmental, occupational and economic conditions. The ICRP recommends for a reliable evaluation of the regional deposition the use of parameters from a local population when information is available. The main purpose of this study is to verify the influence in using the morphology and physiology parameters representative of a sample of the Brazilian population on the deposition model of ICRP Publication 66. The morphological and physiological data were obtained from the literature. The software EXCEL for Windows (version 2000) was used in order to implement the deposition model and also to allow the changes in parameters of interest. Initially, the implemented model was checked using the parameters defined in ICRP and the results of the fraction deposition in the respiratory tract compartments were compared. Finally, morphological and physiological parameters from Brazilian adult male were applied and the fractional deposition calculated. The respiratory values at different levels of activity for ages varying from
Oktem, Hale; Kurkcuoglu, Ayla; Pelin, Ismail Can; Yazici, Ayse Canan; Aktaş, Gulnihal; Altunay, Fikret
Fingerprints are considered to be one of the most reliable methods of identification. Identification of an individual plays a vital part of any medico-legal investigations. Dermatoglyphics is a branch of science that studies epidermal ridges and ridge patterns. Epidermal ridges are polygenic characteristics that form intrauterine 10-18 weeks and considered fully developed by the sixth month of fetal growth. Fingerprints are permanent morphological characteristics and criminal detection based on fingerprints is based on the principle that no two people can have identical fingerprints. Sex determination from fingerprints has been examined in different population. In this study we aimed to study fingerprint ridge density in Turkish population sample of Baskent University students. Fingerprints were obtained from 118 women, 88 men a total of 206 students aged between 17 and 28 years old by means of simple inking method. Fingerprints from all right and left hands fingers were collected in three different area of each. The ridges on fingerprints were counted diagonally on squares measuring 5 mm × 5 mm on radial, ulnar and inferior areas. The fingerprint ridge density in radial, ulnar and inferior areas and between sexes was compared statistically Mann Whitney U test and Friedman test. The ridge density was significantly greater in women in every region studied and in all fingers when compared to men. The fingerprint ridge density in the ulnar and radial areas of the fingerprints was significantly greater than the lower area. Fingerprint ridge density can be used by medico-legal examination for sex identification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Olvera, Rene L; Williamson, Douglas E; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; Vatcheva, Kristina P; McCormick, Joseph B
We examined the prevalence of depression, obesity, and metabolic syndrome and associations between them in a population-based representative cohort of Mexican Americans living on the United States-Mexico border. The sample in this cross-sectional analysis consisted of 1,768 Mexican American adults (≥ 18 years of age) assessed between the years 2004 and 2010, with whom we tested our central hypothesis of a significant relationship between obesity and depression. Depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) with a cutoff score of ≥ 16 for depression and a cutoff score of ≥ 27 for severe depression. We categorized body mass index (BMI) values as obese (≥ 30kg/m(2)) and later subdivided the obese subjects into obese (30-39 kg/m(2)[inclusive]) and morbidly obese (≥ 40 kg/m(2)). Metabolic syndrome was defined using the American Heart Association definition requiring at least 3 of the following: increased waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, and elevated fasting glucose. Weighted data were analyzed to establish prevalence of depression, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Univariate and multivariable weighted regression models were used to test potential associations between these disorders. Using weighted prevalence, we observed high rates of depression (30%), obesity (52%), and metabolic syndrome (45%). Univariate models revealed female gender (P = .0004), low education (P = .003), low HDL level (P = .009), and increased waist circumference (P = .03) were associated with depression. Female gender (P = .01), low education (P = .003), and morbid obesity (P = .002) were risk factors for severe depression and remained significant in multivariable models. In this large cohort of Mexican Americans, obesity, female gender, and low education were identified risk factors for depression. These indicators may serve as targets for early
Hunter, Jennifer A; Hollands, Gareth J; Couturier, Dominique-Laurent; Marteau, Theresa M
Placing snack-food further away from people consistently decreases its consumption ("proximity effect"). However, given diet-related health inequalities, it is important to know whether interventions that alter food proximity have potential to change behaviour regardless of cognitive resource (capacity for self-control). This is often lower in those in lower socio-economic positions, who also tend to have less healthy diet-related behaviours. Study 1 aims to replicate the proximity effect in a general population sample and estimate whether trait-level cognitive resource moderates the effect. In a stronger test, Study 2 investigates whether the effect is similar regardless of manipulated state-level cognitive resource. Participants were recruited into two laboratory studies (Study 1: n = 159; Study 2: n = 246). A bowl of an unhealthy snack was positioned near (20 cm) or far (70 cm) from the participant, as randomised. In Study 2, participants were further randomised to a cognitive load intervention. The pre-specified primary outcome was the proportion of participants taking any of the snack. Significantly fewer participants took the snack when far compared with near in Study 2 (57.7% vs 70.7%, β = -1.63, p = 0.020), but not in Study 1 (53.8% vs 63.3%, X 2 = 1.12, p = 0.289). Removing participants who moved the bowl (i.e. who did not adhere to protocol), increased the effect-sizes: Study 1: 39.3% vs 63.9%, X 2 = 6.43, p = 0.011; Study 2: 56.0% vs 73.9%, β = -2.46, p = 0.003. Effects were not moderated by cognitive resource. These studies provide the most robust evidence to date that placing food further away reduces likelihood of consumption in general population samples, an effect unlikely to be moderated by cognitive resource. This indicates potential for interventions altering food proximity to contribute to addressing health inequalities, but requires testing in real-world settings. Both studies were registered with ISRCTN (Study 1
Alghnam, Suliman; Tinkoff, Glen H; Castillo, Renan
Repeated injuries, as known as injury recidivism, pose a significant burden on population health and healthcare settings. Therefore, identifying those at risk of recidivism can highlight targeted populations for primary prevention in order to improve health and reduce healthcare expenditures. There has been limited research on factors associated with recidivism in the U.S. Using a population-based sample, we aim to: 1) identify the prevalence and risk factors for injury recidivism among non-institutionalized adults; 2) investigate the trend in nationwide recidivism rates over time. Using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), 19,134 adults with at least one reported injury were followed for about 2 years. Reported injuries were those associated with healthcare utilization, disability days or any effects on self-reported health. The independent associations between risk factors for recidivism were evaluated incorporating a weighted logistic regression model. There were 4,136 recidivists representing over nine million individuals in the U.S. over a 2-year follow-up. About 44 % of recidivists sustained severe injuries requiring a hospitalization, a physician's office visit or an emergency department visit. Compared with those who sustained a single injury, recidivists were more likely to be white, unmarried, reside in metropolitan areas, and report a higher prevalence of chronic conditions. Age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, urbanicity, region, diabetes, stroke, asthma and depression symptoms were significant predictors of recidivism. Significant interaction effects between age and gender suggested those in the 18-25 age group, the odds of being a recidivist were 1.45 higher among males than females adjusting for other covariates. While having positive screens for depression in both follow-up years was associated with 1.46 (95 % CI = 1.21-1.77) higher odds of recidivisms than the reference group adjusting for other variables. We observed a higher
de Lucena, Gildásio Lucas; dos Santos Gomes, Cristiano; Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira
Osgood-Schlatter (OS) syndrome is a disease of the musculoskeletal system often observed during the bone growth phase in adolescents. HYPOTHESIS/ PURPOSE: Demographic and anthropometric factors and those linked to the practice of sports may be related to the prevalence of OS. The aim of the present study was to describe the epidemiologic profile and associated factors of individuals with OS syndrome in a population-based sample of Brazilian adolescents. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 956 adolescent students (474 boys, 482 girls) from 2008 to 2009 enrolled in the school system of Natal, Brazil. The age ranged between 12 and 15 years (13.7 ± 1.04 years). Tests were performed to assess the anthropometric and clinical aspects related to OS. To confirm the diagnosis of OS syndrome, the participant had to fulfill all the following clinical criteria: pain with direct pressure on the tibial apophysis; aforementioned pain before, during, and after physical activities; enlargement or prominence of the tibial apophysis; pain with resisted knee extension; and pain from jumping. The prevalence of OS in the sample was 9.8% (11.0% of boys and 8.3% of girls; boys, 13.5 ± 1.07 years; girls, 13.6 ± 1.01 years). The results showed that 74.6% of the students suffered from muscle shortening. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression showed that the factors associated with the presence of OS were the regular practice of sport activity (odds ratio, 1.94; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-3.10) and the shortening of the rectus femoris muscle (odds ratio, 7.15; 95% confidence interval, 2.86-17.86). The regular practice of sports in the pubertal phase and the shortening of the rectus femoris muscle were the main factors associated to the presence of OS syndrome in the students.
Martinez-Gonzalez, M A; Lopez-Azpiazu, I; Kearney, J; Kearney, M; Gibney, M; Martinez, J A
A national survey was carried out to find out how the Spanish adult population defined 'healthy eating'. Consumers were asked to describe in their own words what 'healthy eating' means to them. The sample included 1009 Spanish subjects over 15 y of age selected by a multietapic procedure. This study belongs to the Spanish partnership in a pan-European survey about attitudes to food, nutrition and health coordinated by the Institute of European Food Studies of Dublin. The results were shown as the percentages of the sample who gave one of the five most frequently mentioned descriptions ('more vegetables', 'balanced diet', 'more fruit', 'less fat' and 'more fish') and the distribution of responses by age, sex, region, socio-economic level and education level. A multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to assess the characteristics independently related to the use of the definition 'balance and variety' for healthy eating. The majority of the Spanish people defined 'healthy eating' as a diet with 'more vegetables' as the main description. Other descriptions commonly mentioned were 'less fat', 'more fruit', 'more fish', and 'more lean meat'. A higher age was associated with a lower likelihood of mentioning the concept of balanced diet. A higher educational level was also independently and strongly related to a higher prevalence of this definition. Differences between men and women showed only borderline significance. Our results suggest the need to improve nutritional education about fiber, low fat and cholesterol. It would be interesting to develop strategies in Spain to educate people on a definition of 'healthy eating' based upon 'balance and variety'.
Scott, JoAnna M; deCamp, Allan; Juraska, Michal; Fay, Michael P; Gilbert, Peter B
Stepped wedge designs are increasingly commonplace and advantageous for cluster randomized trials when it is both unethical to assign placebo, and it is logistically difficult to allocate an intervention simultaneously to many clusters. We study marginal mean models fit with generalized estimating equations for assessing treatment effectiveness in stepped wedge cluster randomized trials. This approach has advantages over the more commonly used mixed models that (1) the population-average parameters have an important interpretation for public health applications and (2) they avoid untestable assumptions on latent variable distributions and avoid parametric assumptions about error distributions, therefore, providing more robust evidence on treatment effects. However, cluster randomized trials typically have a small number of clusters, rendering the standard generalized estimating equation sandwich variance estimator biased and highly variable and hence yielding incorrect inferences. We study the usual asymptotic generalized estimating equation inferences (i.e., using sandwich variance estimators and asymptotic normality) and four small-sample corrections to generalized estimating equation for stepped wedge cluster randomized trials and for parallel cluster randomized trials as a comparison. We show by simulation that the small-sample corrections provide improvement, with one correction appearing to provide at least nominal coverage even with only 10 clusters per group. These results demonstrate the viability of the marginal mean approach for both stepped wedge and parallel cluster randomized trials. We also study the comparative performance of the corrected methods for stepped wedge and parallel designs, and describe how the methods can accommodate interval censoring of individual failure times and incorporate semiparametric efficient estimators.
Albrecht, Sophie C; Kecklund, Göran; Tucker, Philip; Leineweber, Constanze
Past research has often neglected the sub-dimensions of work time control (WTC). Moreover, differences in levels of WTC with respect to work and demographic characteristics have not yet been examined in a representative sample. We investigated these matters in a recent sample of the Swedish working population. The study was based on the 2014 data collection of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. We assessed the structure of the WTC measure using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Differences in WTC by work and demographic characteristics were examined with independent samplet-tests, one-way ANOVAs and gender-stratified logistic regressions. Best model fit was found for a two-factor structure that distinguished between control over daily hours and control over time off (root mean square error of approximation = 0.06; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.09; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.99). Women, shift and public-sector workers reported lower control in relation to both factors. Age showed small associations with WTC, while a stronger link was suggested for civil status and family situation. Night, roster and rotating shift work seemed to be the most influential factors on reporting low control over daily hours and time off. Our data confirm the two-dimensional structure underlying WTC, namely the components 'control over daily hours' and 'control over time off'. Women, public-sector and shift workers reported lower levels of control. Future research should examine the public health implications of WTC, in particular whether increased control over daily hours and time off can reduce health problems associated with difficult working-time arrangements. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Klevberg, Gunvor L; Østensjø, Sigrid; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena; Elkjær, Sonja; Jahnsen, Reidun B
To describe aspects of hand function in a population-based sample of young children with clinical signs of unilateral or bilateral cerebral palsy (CP). A cross-sectional study with data from national CP registers in Norway. Manual ability was classified with the Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) or Mini-MACS. Hand use in bimanual activities was measured with the Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA) for unilateral CP or the newly developed Both Hands Assessment (BoHA) for bilateral CP. From 202 children, 128 (57 females) were included (Mini-MACS/MACS levels I-V, mean age 30.4 months; SD = 12.1). Manual abilities were distributed across levels I-III in unilateral CP and levels I-V in bilateral CP. Variations in AHA and BoHA units were large. One-way ANOVA revealed associations between higher AHA or BoHA units and Mini-MACS/MACS levels of higher ability (p CP, children with bilateral CP showed greater variation in Mini-MACS/MACS levels, and both sub-groups showed large variations in AHA or BoHA units. The classifications and assessments used in this study are useful to differentiate young children's ability levels. Such information is important to tailor upper limb interventions to the specific needs of children with CP.
Sluyter, J D; Hughes, A D; Thom, S A McG; Lowe, A; Camargo, C A; Hametner, B; Wassertheurer, S; Parker, K H; Scragg, R K R
Little is known about how aortic waveform parameters vary with ethnicity and lifestyle factors. We investigated these issues in a large, population-based sample. We carried out a cross-sectional analysis of 4798 men and women, aged 50-84 years from Auckland, New Zealand. Participants were 3961 European, 321 Pacific, 266 Maori and 250 South Asian people. We assessed modifiable lifestyle factors via questionnaires, and measured body mass index (BMI) and brachial blood pressure (BP). Suprasystolic oscillometry was used to derive aortic pressure, from which several haemodynamic parameters were calculated. Heavy alcohol consumption and BMI were positively related to most waveform parameters. Current smokers had higher levels of aortic augmentation index than non-smokers (difference=3.7%, Ppopulations. Generally, this was true even after accounting for brachial BP, suggesting that waveform parameters may have increased usefulness in capturing ethnic variations in cardiovascular risk. Heavy alcohol consumption, smoking and especially BMI may partially contribute to elevated levels of these parameters.
Martínez-Idárraga, Adriana; Riveros-Barrera, Irene; Sánchez, Ricardo; Jaramillo, Luis Eduardo; Calvo-Gómez, José Manuel; Yunis-Londoño, Juan José
Identify whether rs11179000, rs136494 and rs4570625 polymorphisms of the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene, are associated with a major depressive disorder in a sample of the Colombian population. Case-control study was conducted in which a comparison was made between subjects diagnosed with major depressive disorder at some point in adulthood or active symptoms at the time of evaluation, and subjects with no psychiatric disease. Subjects were studied in the Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and the Institute of Genetics at the National University of Colombia. Polymorphisms were genotyped using Taqman probes in real time PCR. As well as studying the association between major depressive disorder and these (single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the association with other factors previously associated with depression were also analysed. No statistically significant association between genotypic and allelic frequencies of each polymorphism and major depressive disorder was found. Association between sex and complication during pregnancy / childbirth and major depressive disorder was observed. Association between sex and complication during pregnancy / childbirth and major depressive disorder was observed. There was no association between any polymorphism and major depressive disorder. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Dai, Ting; Davey, Adam; Woodard, John L; Miller, Lloyd Stephen; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Kim, Seock-Ho; Poon, Leonard W
Centenarians represent a rare but rapidly growing segment of the oldest-old. This study presents item-level data from the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in a cross-sectional, population-based sample of 244 centenarians and near-centenarians (aged 98-108, 16% men, 21% African-American, 38% community dwelling) from the Georgia Centenarian Study (2001-2008) according to age, education, sex, race, and residential status. Multiple-Indicator Multiple-Cause (MIMIC) models were used to identify systematic domain-level differences in MMSE scores according to demographic characteristics in this age group. Indirect effects of age, educational attainment, race, and residential status were found on MMSE scores. Direct effects were limited to concentration for education and race and orientation for residential status. Mean levels of cognitive functioning in centenarians were low, with mean values below most commonly-used cutoffs. Overall scores on the MMSE differed as a function of age, education, race, and residential status, with differences in scale performance limited primarily to concentration and orientation and no evidence of interactions between centenarian characteristics. Adjusting for education was not sufficient to account for differences according to race, and adjusting for residential status was not sufficient to account for differences according to age. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.
Holoien, Thomas W.-S.; Marshall, Philip J.; Wechsler, Risa H.
We describe two new open-source tools written in Python for performing extreme deconvolution Gaussian mixture modeling (XDGMM) and using a conditioned model to re-sample observed supernova and host galaxy populations. XDGMM is new program that uses Gaussian mixtures to perform density estimation of noisy data using extreme deconvolution (XD) algorithms. Additionally, it has functionality not available in other XD tools. It allows the user to select between the AstroML and Bovy et al. fitting methods and is compatible with scikit-learn machine learning algorithms. Most crucially, it allows the user to condition a model based on the known values of a subset of parameters. This gives the user the ability to produce a tool that can predict unknown parameters based on a model that is conditioned on known values of other parameters. EmpiriciSN is an exemplary application of this functionality, which can be used to fit an XDGMM model to observed supernova/host data sets and predict likely supernova parameters using a model conditioned on observed host properties. It is primarily intended to simulate realistic supernovae for LSST data simulations based on empirical galaxy properties.
Holoien, Thomas W.-S.; /Ohio State U., Dept. Astron. /Ohio State U., CCAPP /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Marshall, Philip J.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC
We describe two new open-source tools written in Python for performing extreme deconvolution Gaussian mixture modeling (XDGMM) and using a conditioned model to re-sample observed supernova and host galaxy populations. XDGMM is new program that uses Gaussian mixtures to perform density estimation of noisy data using extreme deconvolution (XD) algorithms. Additionally, it has functionality not available in other XD tools. It allows the user to select between the AstroML and Bovy et al. fitting methods and is compatible with scikit-learn machine learning algorithms. Most crucially, it allows the user to condition a model based on the known values of a subset of parameters. This gives the user the ability to produce a tool that can predict unknown parameters based on a model that is conditioned on known values of other parameters. EmpiriciSN is an exemplary application of this functionality, which can be used to fit an XDGMM model to observed supernova/host data sets and predict likely supernova parameters using a model conditioned on observed host properties. It is primarily intended to simulate realistic supernovae for LSST data simulations based on empirical galaxy properties.
Sollom, Richard; Richards, Adam K; Parmar, Parveen; Mullany, Luke C; Lian, Salai Bawi; Iacopino, Vincent; Beyrer, Chris
The Chin State of Burma (also known as Myanmar) is an isolated ethnic minority area with poor health outcomes and reports of food insecurity and human rights violations. We report on a population-based assessment of health and human rights in Chin State. We sought to quantify reported human rights violations in Chin State and associations between these reported violations and health status at the household level. Multistaged household cluster sampling was done. Heads of household were interviewed on demographics, access to health care, health status, food insecurity, forced displacement, forced labor, and other human rights violations during the preceding 12 months. Ratios of the prevalence of household hunger comparing exposed and unexposed to each reported violation were estimated using binomial regression, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were constructed. Multivariate models were done to adjust for possible confounders. Overall, 91.9% of households (95% CI 89.7%-94.1%) reported forced labor in the past 12 months. Forty-three percent of households met FANTA-2 (Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance II project) definitions for moderate to severe household hunger. Common violations reported were food theft, livestock theft or killing, forced displacement, beatings and torture, detentions, disappearances, and religious and ethnic persecution. Self reporting of multiple rights abuses was independently associated with household hunger. Our findings indicate widespread self-reports of human rights violations. The nature and extent of these violations may warrant investigation by the United Nations or International Criminal Court. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Full Text Available Response rates to the academic surveys used in quantitative research are decreasing and have been for several decades among both individuals and organizations. Given this trend, providing doctoral students an opportunity to complete their dissertations in a timely and cost effective manner may necessitate identifying more innovative and relevant ways to collect data while maintaining appropriate research standards and rigor. The case of a research study is presented which describes the data collection process used to survey a hard-to-reach population. It details the use of social media, in this case LinkedIn, to facilitate the distribution of the web-based survey. A roadmap to illustrate how this data collection process unfolded is presented, as well as several “lessons learned” during this journey. An explanation of the considerations that impacted the sampling design is provided. The goal of this case study is to provide researchers, including doctoral students, with realistic expectations and an awareness of the benefits and risks associated with the use of this method of data collection.
Full Text Available Does poor language ability in early childhood increase the likelihood of physical aggression or is language ability delayed by frequent physical aggression? This study examined the longitudinal associations between physical aggression and language ability from toddlerhood to early childhood in a population sample while controlling for parenting behaviours, non-verbal intellectual functioning, and children's sex.Children enrolled in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD (N = 2, 057 were assessed longitudinally from 17 to 72 months via parent reports and standardized assessments.The cross-lagged models revealed modest reciprocal associations between physical aggression and language performance from 17 to 41 months but not thereafter.Significant associations between physical aggression and poor language ability are minimal and limited to the period when physical aggression and language performance are both substantially increasing. During that period parenting behaviours may play an important role in supporting language ability while reducing the frequency of physical aggression. Further studies are needed that utilize multiple assessments of physical aggression, assess multiple domains of language abilities, and that examine the potential mediating role of parenting behaviours between 12 and 48 months.
Maarten H D Larmuseau
Full Text Available Patterns of genetic variation in human populations across the African continent are still not well studied in comparison with Eurasia and America, despite the high genetic and cultural diversity among African populations. In population and forensic genetic studies a single sample is often used to represent a complete African region. In such a scenario, inappropriate sampling strategies and/or the use of local, isolated populations may bias interpretations and pose questions of representativeness at a macrogeographic-scale. The non-recombining region of the Y-chromosome (NRY has great potential to reveal the regional representation of a sample due to its powerful phylogeographic information content. An area poorly characterized for Y-chromosomal data is the West-African region along the Bight of Benin, despite its important history in the trans-Atlantic slave trade and its large number of ethnic groups, languages and lifestyles. In this study, Y-chromosomal haplotypes from four Beninese populations were determined and a global meta-analysis with available Y-SNP and Y-STR data from populations along the Bight of Benin and surrounding areas was performed. A thorough methodology was developed allowing comparison of population samples using Y-chromosomal lineage data based on different Y-SNP panels and phylogenies. Geographic proximity turned out to be the best predictor of genetic affinity between populations along the Bight of Benin. Nevertheless, based on Y-chromosomal data from the literature two population samples differed strongly from others from the same or neighbouring areas and are not regionally representative within large-scale studies. Furthermore, the analysis of the HapMap sample YRI of a Yoruban population from South-western Nigeria based on Y-SNPs and Y-STR data showed for the first time its regional representativeness, a result which is important for standard population and forensic genetic applications using the YRI sample
Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Vessi, Andrea; Jobling, Mark A; Van Geystelen, Anneleen; Primativo, Giuseppina; Biondi, Gianfranco; Martínez-Labarga, Cristina; Ottoni, Claudio; Decorte, Ronny; Rickards, Olga
Patterns of genetic variation in human populations across the African continent are still not well studied in comparison with Eurasia and America, despite the high genetic and cultural diversity among African populations. In population and forensic genetic studies a single sample is often used to represent a complete African region. In such a scenario, inappropriate sampling strategies and/or the use of local, isolated populations may bias interpretations and pose questions of representativeness at a macrogeographic-scale. The non-recombining region of the Y-chromosome (NRY) has great potential to reveal the regional representation of a sample due to its powerful phylogeographic information content. An area poorly characterized for Y-chromosomal data is the West-African region along the Bight of Benin, despite its important history in the trans-Atlantic slave trade and its large number of ethnic groups, languages and lifestyles. In this study, Y-chromosomal haplotypes from four Beninese populations were determined and a global meta-analysis with available Y-SNP and Y-STR data from populations along the Bight of Benin and surrounding areas was performed. A thorough methodology was developed allowing comparison of population samples using Y-chromosomal lineage data based on different Y-SNP panels and phylogenies. Geographic proximity turned out to be the best predictor of genetic affinity between populations along the Bight of Benin. Nevertheless, based on Y-chromosomal data from the literature two population samples differed strongly from others from the same or neighbouring areas and are not regionally representative within large-scale studies. Furthermore, the analysis of the HapMap sample YRI of a Yoruban population from South-western Nigeria based on Y-SNPs and Y-STR data showed for the first time its regional representativeness, a result which is important for standard population and forensic genetic applications using the YRI sample. Therefore, the uniquely
Dario, Paulo; Oliveira, Ana Rita; Ribeiro, Teresa; Porto, Maria João; Dias, Deodália; Corte Real, Francisco
In recent years, autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been comprehensively investigated in forensic research due to their usefulness in certain circumstances in complementing short tandem repeats (STRs) analysis, or even for use on their own when analysis of STRs fails. However, as with STRs, in order to properly use SNP markers in forensic casuistic we need to understand the population and forensic parameters in question. As a result of Portugal's colonial history during the time of empire, and the subsequent process of decolonization, some African individuals migrated to Portugal, giving rise to large African and African-descendent communities. One of these groups is the community originating from Guinea-Bissau, that in 2014, was enumerated to consist of more than 17,700 individuals with official residency status, more than the third major city of Guinea-Bissau. In order to study the population and forensic parameters mentioned above for the two populations important to our casuistic, a total of 142 unrelated individuals from the South of Portugal and 90 immigrants from Guinea-Bissau (equally non related and all residing in Portugal) were typed with SNaPshot™ assay for all 52 loci included in the SNPforID 52plex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Magdia De Jesus
Full Text Available Glucan particles (GPs are 2-4 μm hollow, porous shells composed of 1,3-β-D-glucan that have been effectively used for oral targeted-delivery of a wide range of payloads, including small molecules, siRNA, DNA, and protein antigens. While it has been demonstrated that the transepithelial transport of GPs is mediated by Peyer's patch M cells, the fate of the GPs once within gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT is not known. Here we report that fluorescently labeled GPs administered to mice by gavage accumulate in CD11c+ DCs situated in Peyer's patch sub-epithelial dome (SED regions. GPs appeared in DCs within minutes after gavage and remained within the SED for days afterwards. The co-administration or sequential administration of GPs with differentially labeled GPs or poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles demonstrated that the SED DC subpopulation in question was capable of internalizing particles of different sizes and material compositions. Phenotypic analysis identified the GP-containing DCs as being CD8α- and CD11blo/-, suggesting they are the so-called myeloid and/or double negative (DN subset(s of PP DCs. A survey of C-type lectin receptors (CLRs known to be expressed by leukocytes within the intestinal mucosa revealed that GP-containing SED DCs were positive for Langerin (CD207, a CLR with specificity for β-D-glucan and that has been shown to mediate the internalization of a wide range of microbial pathogens, including bacteria, viruses and fungi. The presence of Langerin+ DCs in the SED as determined by immunofluorescence was confirmed using Langerin E-GFP transgenic mice. In summary, our results demonstrate that following M cell-mediated transepithelial transport, GPs (and other micro/nanoparticles are sampled by a population of SED DCs distinguished from other Peyer's patch DC subsets by their expression of Langerin. Future studies will be aimed at defining the role of Langerin in antigen sampling and antigen presentation within
Hirvonen, Katariina; Korhonen, Tellervo; Salomaa, Veikko; Männistö, Satu; Kaprio, Jaakko
Genetic variations in DBH-gene and its surroundings have been shown to associate with smoking behavior including smoking cessation in several studies. In this study we replicate and measure the effect size for association between DBH polymorphism rs3025343 and smoking cessation in a large population-based sample while examining environmental factors that could relate to the association. We studied 11 926 adult subjects from four surveys of the National FINRISK Study. The analysis was restricted to either current or former smokers. Logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the relationships of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), covariates, smoking cessation, and smoking severity (cotinine, CPD). Gene-environment interactions were tested by likelihood-ratio test. The association between rs3025343 and smoking cessation (prevalence odds ratio, OR = 1.12, p = .094, 95%CI = 0.98-1.30) was replicated identically with the GWAS study of The Tobacco and Genetics Consortium (OR = 1.12, 95%CI = 1.08-1.18). None of our tested phenotypes significantly influenced the association between rs3025343 and smoking cessation. Overall, marital status, education, depression, alcohol use, self-rated health, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) showed phenotypic associations with smoking cessation, but the association of various phenotypes with smoking cessation did not vary by genotype. The current study replicates the effect size for the association between rs3025343 and smoking cessation despite lack of overall significance due to smaller sample size. We could not show environmental influences on the association of rs3025343 with smoking cessation. Our study replicates the direction and strength of the association of DBH polymorphism rs3025343 with smoking cessation. We could not detect environmental influences on the strength of the association of rs3025343 with smoking cessation, but the limited power of our analysis needs to be taken into
Gupta, Manan; Joshi, Amitabh; Vidya, T. N. C.
Mark-recapture estimators are commonly used for population size estimation, and typically yield unbiased estimates for most solitary species with low to moderate home range sizes. However, these methods assume independence of captures among individuals, an assumption that is clearly violated in social species that show fission-fusion dynamics, such as the Asian elephant. In the specific case of Asian elephants, doubts have been raised about the accuracy of population size estimates. More impo...
Sollom, Richard; Richards, Adam K.; Parmar, Parveen; Mullany, Luke C.; Lian, Salai Bawi; Iacopino, Vincent; Beyrer, Chris
Background The Chin State of Burma (also known as Myanmar) is an isolated ethnic minority area with poor health outcomes and reports of food insecurity and human rights violations. We report on a population-based assessment of health and human rights in Chin State. We sought to quantify reported human rights violations in Chin State and associations between these reported violations and health status at the household level. Methods and Findings Multistaged household cluster sampling was done. Heads of household were interviewed on demographics, access to health care, health status, food insecurity, forced displacement, forced labor, and other human rights violations during the preceding 12 months. Ratios of the prevalence of household hunger comparing exposed and unexposed to each reported violation were estimated using binomial regression, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were constructed. Multivariate models were done to adjust for possible confounders. Overall, 91.9% of households (95% CI 89.7%–94.1%) reported forced labor in the past 12 months. Forty-three percent of households met FANTA-2 (Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance II project) definitions for moderate to severe household hunger. Common violations reported were food theft, livestock theft or killing, forced displacement, beatings and torture, detentions, disappearances, and religious and ethnic persecution. Self reporting of multiple rights abuses was independently associated with household hunger. Conclusions Our findings indicate widespread self-reports of human rights violations. The nature and extent of these violations may warrant investigation by the United Nations or International Criminal Court. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21346799
Bödecs, Tamás; Horváth, Boldizsár; Szilágyi, Eniko; Gonda, Xénia; Rihmer, Zoltán; Sándor, János
To investigate possible associations of maternal antenatal depression, anxiety and self-esteem with negative neonatal outcomes controlling for the effects of demographic covariates and health behaviour in a Hungarian sample. A population-based monitoring system was established in 10 districts of health visitors in Szombathely, Hungary, covering every woman registered as pregnant between February 1, 2008 and February 1 2009. Three hundred and seven expectant women in the early stage of their pregnancy were surveyed using the Short Form of Beck Depression Inventory for the measurement of depression and the Spielberger Trait-Anxiety Inventory for the measurement of anxiety. Self-esteem was evaluated by the Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. At the end of the follow-up period, data on 261 mothers and their singleton neonates were available. The relationship between the explanatory and outcome variables (birth weight, length, chest circumference, gestational age, and 1- and 5-min Apgar score) was tested in girls and boys separately by multiple linear regression analysis (Forward method). Categorical variables were used as "dummy variables". Maternal depression, anxiety and health behaviour did not show any association with neonatal outcomes. Higher level of maternal self-esteem was associated with higher birth weight and birth length in boys and higher birth length in girls. Maternal education positively correlated with birth length, gestational age and chest circumference in boys, and with birth length in girls. In girls, maternal socioeconomic status showed a positive association with birth weight and gestational age, while common law marriage had a negative effect on birth weight and chest circumference. Lower level of maternal self-esteem possibly leads to a higher level of maternal stress which may reduce fetal growth via physiologic changes. Gender differences in associations between demographic factors and neonatal outcome measures indicate differences in fetal
Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Anzola, Alejandro; Martinez-Torres, Javier; Vivas, Andres; Tordecilla-Sanders, Alejandra; Prieto-Benavides, Daniel; Izquierdo, Mikel; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Garcia-Hermoso, Antonio
In contrast to the definition of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults, there is no standard definition of MetS in pediatric populations. We aimed at assessing the differences in the prevalence of MetS in children and adolescents aged 9-17 years using four different operational definitions for these age groups and at examining the associated variables. A total of 675 children and 1247 adolescents attending public schools in Bogota (54.4% girls; age range 9-17.9 years) were included. The prevalence of MetS was determined by the definitions provided by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and three published studies by Cook et al., de Ferranti et al., and Ford et al. In addition, we further examined the associations between each definition of MetS in the total sample and individual risk factors using binary logistic regression models adjusted for gender, age, pubertal stage, weight status, and inflammation in all participants. The prevalence of MetS was 0.3%, 6.3%, 7.8%, and 11.0% according to the definitions by IDF, Cook et al., Ford et al., and de Ferranti et al., respectively. The most prevalent components were low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high triglyceride levels, whereas the least prevalent components were higher waist circumference and hyperglycemia. Overall, the prevalence of MetS was higher in obese than in non-obese schoolchildren. MetS diagnoses in schoolchildren strongly depend on the definition chosen. These findings may be relevant to health promotion efforts for Colombian youth to develop prospective studies and to define which cut-offs are the best indicators of future morbidity.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Chin State of Burma (also known as Myanmar is an isolated ethnic minority area with poor health outcomes and reports of food insecurity and human rights violations. We report on a population-based assessment of health and human rights in Chin State. We sought to quantify reported human rights violations in Chin State and associations between these reported violations and health status at the household level. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Multistaged household cluster sampling was done. Heads of household were interviewed on demographics, access to health care, health status, food insecurity, forced displacement, forced labor, and other human rights violations during the preceding 12 months. Ratios of the prevalence of household hunger comparing exposed and unexposed to each reported violation were estimated using binomial regression, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were constructed. Multivariate models were done to adjust for possible confounders. Overall, 91.9% of households (95% CI 89.7%-94.1% reported forced labor in the past 12 months. Forty-three percent of households met FANTA-2 (Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance II project definitions for moderate to severe household hunger. Common violations reported were food theft, livestock theft or killing, forced displacement, beatings and torture, detentions, disappearances, and religious and ethnic persecution. Self reporting of multiple rights abuses was independently associated with household hunger. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate widespread self-reports of human rights violations. The nature and extent of these violations may warrant investigation by the United Nations or International Criminal Court. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Creel, Scott; Creel, Michael
1. Sampling error in annual estimates of population size creates two widely recognized problems for the analysis of population growth. First, if sampling error is mistakenly treated as process error, one obtains inflated estimates of the variation in true population trajectories (Staples, Taper & Dennis 2004). Second, treating sampling error as process error is thought to overestimate the importance of density dependence in population growth (Viljugrein et al. 2005; Dennis et al. 2006). 2. In ecology, state-space models are used to account for sampling error when estimating the effects of density and other variables on population growth (Staples et al. 2004; Dennis et al. 2006). In econometrics, regression with instrumental variables is a well-established method that addresses the problem of correlation between regressors and the error term, but requires fewer assumptions than state-space models (Davidson & MacKinnon 1993; Cameron & Trivedi 2005). 3. We used instrumental variables to account for sampling error and fit a generalized linear model to 472 annual observations of population size for 35 Elk Management Units in Montana, from 1928 to 2004. We compared this model with state-space models fit with the likelihood function of Dennis et al. (2006). We discuss the general advantages and disadvantages of each method. Briefly, regression with instrumental variables is valid with fewer distributional assumptions, but state-space models are more efficient when their distributional assumptions are met. 4. Both methods found that population growth was negatively related to population density and winter snow accumulation. Summer rainfall and wolf (Canis lupus) presence had much weaker effects on elk (Cervus elaphus) dynamics [though limitation by wolves is strong in some elk populations with well-established wolf populations (Creel et al. 2007; Creel & Christianson 2008)]. 5. Coupled with predictions for Montana from global and regional climate models, our results
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome (MetS has been known as partly heritable, while the number of genetic studies on MetS and metabolic-related traits among Chinese elderly was limited. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was performed among 2 014 aged participants from September 2009 to June 2010 in Beijing, China. An additional longitudinal study was carried out among the same study population from 2001 to 2010. Biochemical profile and anthropometric parameters of all the participants were measured. The associations of 23 SNPs located within 17 candidate genes (MTHFR, PPARγ, LPL, INSIG, TCF7L2, FTO, KCNJ11, JAZF1, CDKN2A/B, ADIPOQ, WFS1, CDKAL1, IGF2BP2, KCNQ1, MTNR1B, IRS1, ACE with overweight and obesity, diabetes, metabolic phenotypes, and MetS were examined in both studies. RESULTS: In this Chinese elderly population, prevalence of overweight, central obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and MetS were 48.3%, 71.0%, 32.4%, 75.7%, 68.3% and 54.5%, respectively. In the cross-sectional analyses, no SNP was found to be associated with MetS. Genotype TT of SNP rs4402960 within the gene IGF2BP2 was associated with overweight (odds ratio (OR = 0.479, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.316-0.724, p = 0.001 and genotype CA of SNP rs1801131 within the gene MTHFR was associated with hypertension (OR = 1.560, 95% CI: 1.194-2.240, p = 0.001. However, these associations were not observed in the longitudinal analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The associations of SNP rs4402960 with overweight as well as the association of SNP rs1801131 with hypertension were found to be statistically significant. No SNP was identified to be associated with MetS in our study with statistical significance.
Cepeda, Alice; Valdez, Avelardo
The article presents practical and methodological strategies in the tracking and retention of a longitudinal community-based sample of 300 Mexican American noninjecting users of heroin. Presented are the ethnographic strategies the research team utilized to maintain high retention rates among this highly marginalized and hidden population. Findings indicate that these ethnographic strategies are the basis for a reliable method for subject retention among drug-using populations. Further, the s...
M. Garzón Benavides
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the phenotype and genotype characteristic of patients included in the Andalusian Registry for familial adenomatous polyposis, the genotype/phenotype correlation and the impact of Registry in the frequency of colorectal cancer of registered. Material and methods: A descriptive study of 77 patients with FAP belonging to 33 families, included in a centralized database visited by the physicians of the hospitals taking part in the present study, on prior signing of confidentiality letters. All genetic studies were carried out in the Immunology Service of our institution. Results: We have included in our study 77 patients of 33 families; 31 probands with a mean age of 32 years (13-51 and 46 relatives at risk with a mean age of 21.8 years (6-55. Genetic study informed in 68/77 with positive result in 92.6%. Ten probands showed colorectal cancer (CRC at the time of diagnosis (32.2%. Only two affected relatives showed CRC at diagnosis (4.3%, a statistically significant difference (p Objetivos: Valorar las características fenotípicas y genotípicas de los pacientes incluidos en el Registro Andaluz de la poliposis adenomatosa familiar, la relación genotipo/fenotipo y el impacto del Registro en la frecuencia de cáncer colorrectal de los familiares registrados. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo de 77 pacientes con PAF, pertenecientes a 33 familias, incluidos en una base de datos centralizada a la que tienen acceso los responsables de los hospitales participantes, previa firma de cartas de confidencialidad. Todos los estudios genéticos se realizan en el Servicio de Inmunología de nuestro Hospital. Resultados: 77 pacientes registrados (50,6% varones: 31 probandos, edad media: 32 años (13-51 y 46 familiares afectos, edad media 21,8 años (6-55. Estudio genético informado en 68/77 con resultado positivo en 92,6%. Cáncer colorrectal al diagnóstico en diez probandos (32,2% y 2 familiares afectos (4,3%, diferencia estad
Obro, Nina Friesgaard; Madsen, Hans O.; Ryder, Lars Peter
defined cell populations with subsequent analyses of leukemia-associated cytogenetic and molecular marker. The approaches described here optimize the use of the same tube of unfixed, antibody-stained BM cells for flow-sorting of small cell populations and subsequent exploratory FISH and PCR-based analyses....
Full Text Available Sharks and rays are increasingly being identified as high-risk species for extinction, prompting urgent assessments of their local or regional populations. Advanced genetic analyses can contribute relevant information on effective population size and connectivity among populations although acquiring sufficient regional sample sizes can be challenging. DNA is typically amplified from tissue samples which are collected by hand spears with modified biopsy punch tips. This technique is not always popular due mainly to a perception that invasive sampling might harm the rays, change their behaviour, or have a negative impact on tourism. To explore alternative methods, we evaluated the yields and PCR success of DNA template prepared from the manta ray mucus collected underwater and captured and stored on a Whatman FTA™ Elute card. The pilot study demonstrated that mucus can be effectively collected underwater using toothbrush. DNA stored on cards was found to be reliable for PCR-based population genetics studies. We successfully amplified mtDNA ND5, nuclear DNA RAG1, and microsatellite loci for all samples and confirmed sequences and genotypes being those of target species. As the yields of DNA with the tested method were low, further improvements are desirable for assays that may require larger amounts of DNA, such as population genomic studies using emerging next-gen sequencing.
The planned widening of U.S. Highway 17 along the east boundary of Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge (GDSNWR) and a lack of knowledge about the refugeâ s bear population created the need to identify potential sites for wildlife crossings and estimate the size of the refugeâ s bear population. I collected black bear hair in order to collect DNA samples to estimate population size, density, and sex ratio, and determine road crossing locations for black bears (Ursus americanus) in G...
Wagner, Birgit; Klinitzke, Grit; Brähler, Elmar; Kersting, Anette
A number of studies have revealed that the number of completed suicides decreases with increasing body mass index (BMI). However, only few studies have evaluated the association between suicidal behavior, suicide attempts, and the various BMI categories. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity is positively associated with increased suicide attempts and suicidal behavior with consideration of gender differences. In a representative German population-based sample (N = 2436), interviews were conducted in 2011 to examine the prevalence of suicide attempts and suicidal behavior in participants in the different BMI categories. Logistic regression analyses were conducted for suicidal behavior and suicide attempts to examine the association between obesity status and suicidality, controlling for confounding variables. Suicidal behavior was assessed by the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R), which is a four-item self-report measure of suicidal thoughts and past attempts. BMI was calculated from participants' self-reported height and weight. Analyses revealed that extremely obese participants (BMI ≥ 40.0) had a prevalence rate of suicidal behavior of 33% for female respondents and 13% for male respondents and rates for suicide attempts of 27% for female and 13% for male respondents. No significant gender differences could be found for any of the weight categories. Furthermore, adjusted odd ratios (AOR) showed a significant difference in suicidal behavior in class I obesity (OR, 3.02 [1.50-6.08] and class III obesity (OR, 21.22 [6.51-69.20]. AORs for suicide attempts showed significantly greater odds for class I obesity (OR, 3.49 [1.76-6.90] and class III obesity (OR, 12.43 [3.87-39.86] compared to the normal weight group. These results support a positive relationship between suicidal behavior, suicide attempts, and obesity. However contrary to previous findings, no gender differences were found. The findings support the introduction of
Drusano, George L.
The optimal sampling theory is evaluated in applications to studies related to the distribution and elimination of several drugs (including ceftazidime, piperacillin, and ciprofloxacin), using the SAMPLE module of the ADAPT II package of programs developed by D'Argenio and Schumitzky (1979, 1988) and comparing the pharmacokinetic parameter values with results obtained by traditional ten-sample design. The impact of the use of optimal sampling was demonstrated in conjunction with NONMEM (Sheiner et al., 1977) approach, in which the population is taken as the unit of analysis, allowing even fragmentary patient data sets to contribute to population parameter estimates. It is shown that this technique is applicable in both the single-dose and the multiple-dose environments. The ability to study real patients made it possible to show that there was a bimodal distribution in ciprofloxacin nonrenal clearance.
Nachamkin, Irving; Nguyen, Phi
Fecal samples submitted to our clinical microbiology laboratory from patients in the Philadelphia region were prospectively analyzed for Campylobacter species other than C. jejuni and C. coli using a filtration method and microaerobic conditions with increased H 2 concentrations. Of 225 samples tested, 13 (5.8%) yielded Campylobacter species, with frequent isolation of C. concisus The majority of Campylobacter species were not clinically significant. Additional studies in U.S. populations are warranted. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
Singh Lalji; Bhagavatula Jyotsna
Abstract Background Bengal tiger Panthera tigris tigris the National Animal of India, is an endangered species. Estimating populations for such species is the main objective for designing conservation measures and for evaluating those that are already in place. Due to the tiger's cryptic and secretive behaviour, it is not possible to enumerate and monitor its populations through direct observations; instead indirect methods have always been used for studying tigers in the wild. DNA methods ba...
van Lang, Natasja D. J.; Ferdinand, Robert F.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.
This study examined whether distinct groups of young adolescents with mainly anxiety or mainly depression could be identified in a general population sample. Latent class analysis was used on self-report ratings of DSM-IV symptoms of anxiety and depressive disorders, because it was hypothesized that
Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Lubans, David R.; Costigan, Sarah A.; McCargar, Linda
Purpose: To examine the utility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for explaining physical activity (PA) intention and behavior among a large population sample of overweight and obese adolescents (Alberta, Canada), using a web-based survey. Secondary objectives were to examine the mediating effects of the TPB constructs and moderating effects…
Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Lippke, Sonia; Reinbold-Matthews, Melissa; Courneya, Kerry S.; Karunamuni, Nandini; Sigal, Ronald J.; Birkett, Nicholas
This study was designed to test the validity of a transtheoretical model's physical activity (PA) stage measure with intention and different intensities of behavior in a large population-based sample of adults living with diabetes (Type 1 diabetes, n = 697; Type 2 diabetes, n = 1,614) and examine different age groups. The overall…
de Jongh, A.; Aartman, I.H.A.; Parvaneh, H.; Ilik, M.
Objectives: To determine appearance concerns of patients presenting for cosmetic treatment. Methods: This cross-sectional comparative study included consecutive patients of six different cosmetic clinics (n = 170), and a sample of the general population (n = 878). A study-specific self-report
Ohayon, MM; Priest, RG; Zulley, J; Smirne, S
Confusional arousals, or sleep drunkenness, occur upon awakening and remain un studied in the general population. We selected a representative sample from the United Kingdom. Germany, and Italy (N = 13,0.57) and conducted telephone interviews. Confusional arousals were reported by 2.9% of the
John H. Estrada M
Full Text Available Approximately 30 million people are living with hiv all around the world in 2010. The most vulnerable hiv/aids groups are sex workers, intravenous drug users, transgender people and population of men who have sex with men (msm. Up to now, the surveillance and behavioral studies on sexual transmitted diseases (sti and hiv have been conducted using intentional sampling methods like the snowball methodology, but this kind of sampling does not achieve representation and does not represent a conclusive method for the study of hidden populations in order to extend and apply its results to the general population. Furthermore, it is necessary to add to this limitation the lack of knowledge about the size of these groups that must face situations of stigma and discrimination. A decade ago a new method was designed to sample hidden and hard to reach populations based on Markov theories and on chain recruitment. This new method is known as respondent-driven sampling (rds and it has been used in several behavioral and hiv prevalence studies. This review article presents the background, the theoretical support and a description of the method. It also analyzes some studies carried out using this new methodology.
Albrecht, S.C.; Kecklund, L.G.; Tucker, P.T.; Leineweber, C.
AIMS: Past research has often neglected the sub-dimensions of work time control (WTC). Moreover, differences in levels of WTC with respect to work and demographic characteristics have not yet been examined in a representative sample. We investigated these matters in a recent sample of the Swedish
Sun, Sun; Irestig, Robert; Burström, Bo; Beijer, Ulla; Burström, Kristina
To describe and compare health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among homeless persons with a general population sample in Stockholm County, 2006, and to analyse the importance of certain social determinants of health among the homeless. Face-to-face interviews with 155 homeless persons and a postal survey to a general population sample, mainly based on the same questionnaire, including questions on social determinants of health and HRQoL measured with the EQ-5D. Chronic illness was three times more common among the homeless. HRQoL was worse among homeless persons than in the general population sample: the homeless reported more problems, especially more severe problems, in all the EQ-5D dimensions and had considerably lower EQ-5D(index) and EQ(VAS) score than the general population. Most problems were reported in the dimension anxiety/depression. Among the homeless, longer duration and more severe degree of homelessness lowered HRQoL, but few determinants were statistically significantly related to HRQoL. Having mental disease significantly lowered HRQoL. This study was an attempt to include hard-to-reach groups in an assessment of population health. Homeless persons had considerably worse HRQoL than the general population and reported most problems in the dimension anxiety/depression. Some diseases may contribute to causing homelessness; others may be seen as consequences. Homeless persons are a vulnerable group in society. Further interview studies are needed based on larger sample of homeless persons to explore health determinants such as sex, age, socioeconomic factors, duration and degree of homelessness, and health-related behaviours among the homeless persons.
Stranjalis, George; Kalamatianos, Theodosis; Stavrinou, Lampis C; Tsamandouraki, Kiki; Alamanos, Yiannis
A cross-sectional study of neck pain and its related aspects in a sample of Greek urban population (15-65 years). To estimate the prevalence of neck pain in a Greek urban population (15-65 years) and to study the association of neck pain with several socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. The results of several prevalence studies carried out in different populations indicate a high frequency of neck pain in the general population. Socioeconomic and demographic factors are likely to influence neck pain frequency and neck pain-associated burden. A 1000-person sample of the general Greek population (15-65 years) living in the Greek capital and other urban centers of the country was selected by multiple-stage sampling, with definition of sample quotas based on demographic characteristics. Data on neck pain and its related aspects, including healthcare utilization, as well as demographic, socioeconomic, and employment data, were collected through personal interviews. Of the 204 individuals who reported neck pain during the last month, 35 (17.2%) consulted a physician, 72 (35.3%) received medication, and 15 (7.4%) stayed in bed for some time, during this period and because of neck pain. The mean duration of pain for individuals who reported neck pain during the last month was 12 days. A total of 8.6% of working individuals who experienced neck pain during the last month reported work absenteeism due to this pain, during this period; the mean duration of absence was 4.6 days. Neck pain frequency was related to several sociodemographic factors. Female sex, increased age, and being married showed a statistically significant association with the presence of neck pain. The present results indicate that neck pain is a common symptom in the studied Greek urban population. Nevertheless, relatively few individuals seek medical advice for this symptom. Neck pain frequency is associated with age, sex, and marital status.
Full Text Available It has been proposed that genetic factors account for 30%–50% of the risk for cocaine and heroin addiction. The present study was aimed to find out the impact of µ-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1 rs1799971 A > G and rs9479757 polymorphisms on heroin dependence in a sample of southeast Iranian population. This case-control study was done on 123 heroin addicts and 140 non-addicts Iranian male. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood cells using salting out method. Genotyping of OPRM1 rs1799971 and rs9479757 polymorphisms were performed using PCR-RFLP method. Overall, our results did not support an association between OPRM1 variants and risk of heroin dependence in a sample of southeast Iranian population. Further studies with larges sample sizes and different ethnicities are required to validate our findings.
Shi, Meisen; Liu, Yaju; Zhang, Juntao; Bai, Rufeng; Lv, Xiaojiao; Ma, Shuhua
We analyzed haplotypes for 24 Y chromosomal STRs (Y-STRs), including 17 Yfiler loci (DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DY438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and Y-GATA-H4) and 7 additional STRs (DYS388, DYS444, DYS447, DYS449, DYS522 and DYS527a/b) in 1100 unrelated Chinese Han individuals from Henan Province using AGCU Y24 STR kit systems. The calculated average gene diversity (GD) values ranged from 0.4105 to 0.9647 for the DYS388 and DYS385a/b loci, respectively. The discriminatory capacity (DC) was 72.91% with 802 observed haplotypes using 17 Yfiler loci, by the addition of 7 Y-STRs to the Yfiler system, the DC was increased to 79.09% while showing 870 observed haplotypes. Among the additional 7 Y-STRs, DYS449, DYS527a/b, DYS444 and DYS522 were major contributors to enhancing discrimination. In the analysis of molecular variance, the Henan Han population clustered with Han origin populations and showed significant differences from other Non-Han populations. In the present study, we report 24 Y-STR population data in Henan Han population, and we emphasize the need for adding additional markers to the commonly used 17 Yfiler loci to achieve more improved discriminatory capacity in a population with low genetic diversity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
During the regeneration of cross-pollinating accessions, genetic contamination from foreign pollen and reduction of the effective population size can be a hindrance to maintaining the genetic diversity in the temperate grass collection at the Western Regional Plant Introduction Station (WRPIS). The...
Mora, Leonor; Martínez, Indira; Figuera, Lourdes; Segura, Merlyn; Del Valle, Guilarte
In Sucre state, the Manzanares river is threatened by domestic, agricultural and industrial activities, becoming an environmental risk factor for its inhabitants. In this sense, the presence of protozoans in superficial waters of tributaries of the Manzanares river (Orinoco river, Quebrada Seca, San Juan river), Montes municipality, Sucre state, as well as the analysis of faecal samples from inhabitants of towns bordering these tributaries were evaluated. We collected faecal and water samples from may 2006 through april 2007. The superficial water samples were processed after centrifugation by the direct examination and floculation, using lugol, modified Kinyoun and trichromic colorations. Fecal samples where analyzed by direct examination with physiological saline solution and the modified Ritchie concentration method and using the other colorations techniques above mentioned. The most frequently observed protozoans in superficial waters in the three tributaries were: Amoebas, Blastocystis sp, Endolimax sp., Chilomastix sp. and Giardia sp. Whereas in faecal samples, Blastocystis hominis, Endolimax nana and Entaomeba coli had the greatest frequencies in the three communities. The inhabitants of Orinoco La Peña turned out to be most susceptible to these parasitic infections (77.60%), followed by San Juan River (46.63%) and Quebrada Seca (39.49%). The presence of pathogenic and nonpathogenic protozoans in superficial waters demonstrates the faecal contamination of the tributaries, representing a constant focus of infection for their inhabitants, inferred by the observation of the same species in both types of samples.
Emily S Charlson
Full Text Available Microbes of the human respiratory tract are important in health and disease, but accurate sampling of the lung presents challenges. Lung microbes are commonly sampled by bronchoscopy, but to acquire samples the bronchoscope must pass through the upper respiratory tract, which is rich in microbes. Here we present methods to identify authentic lung microbiota in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid that contains substantial oropharyngeal admixture. We studied clinical BAL samples from six selected subjects with potential heavy lung colonization. A single sample of BAL fluid was obtained from each subject along with contemporaneous oral wash (OW to sample the oropharynx, and then DNA was extracted from three separate aliquots of each. Bacterial 16S rDNA sequences were amplified and products analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing. By comparing replicates, we were able to specify the depth of sequencing needed to reach a 95% chance of identifying a bacterial lineage of a given proportion--for example, at a depth of 5,000 tags, OTUs of proportion 0.3% or greater would be called with 95% confidence. We next constructed a single-sided outlier test that allowed lung-enriched organisms to be quantified against a background of oropharyngeal admixture, and assessed improvements available with replicate sequence analysis. This allowed identification of lineages enriched in lung in some BAL specimens. Finally, using samples from healthy volunteers collected at multiple sites in the upper respiratory tract, we show that OW provides a reasonable but not perfect surrogate for bacteria carried into to the lung by a bronchoscope. These methods allow identification of microbes that can replicate in the lung despite the background due to oropharyngeal microbes derived from aspiration and bronchoscopic carry-over.
Køster, Brian; Søndergaard, Jens; Nielsen, Jesper Bo
in protection behavior was low. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report reliability for a completely validated questionnaire on sun-related behavior in a national random population based sample. Further, we show that attitude and knowledge questions confirmed their validity with good reliability...... questionnaire for monitoring and evaluating population sun-related behavior. Sun related behavior, attitude and knowledge was measured weekly by a questionnaire in the summer of 2013 among 664 Danes. Reliability was tested in a test-retest design. Consistency of behavioral information was tested similarly......, while consistency of protection behavior in general and in a week's measurement was low....
Gibiansky, L; Agarwal, P; Dere, RC; Li, C; Chu, Y‐W; Hirata, J; Joshi, A; Jin, JY; Girish, S
An integrated pharmacokinetics (PK) model that simultaneously describes concentrations of total antibody (Tab) and antibody‐conjugated monomethyl auristatin E (acMMAE) following administration of monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE)‐containing antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs) was developed based on phase I PK data with extensive sampling for two ADCs. Two linear two‐compartment models that shared all parameters were used to describe the PK of Tab and acMMAE, except that the deconjugation rate was an additional clearance pathway included in the acMMAE PK model compared to Tab. Further, the model demonstrated its ability to predict Tab concentrations and PK parameters based on observed acMMAE PK and various reduced or eliminated Tab PK sampling schemes of phase II data. Thus, this integrated model allows for the reduction of Tab PK sampling in late‐phase clinical development without compromising Tab PK characterization. PMID:27863168
Grøntved, Anders; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Kynde, Iben
In this study we examined the association between leptin and blood pressure in a population-based study of Danish and Norwegian children and adolescents. Because of the putative bidirectional relationship between leptin and adiposity we formally tested (i) the mediating effect of body mass index...... in the association between leptin and blood pressure, and (ii) the mediating effect of leptin in the association between body mass index and blood pressure....
Selvamani, Manickam; Hosallimath, Shilpa; Madhushankari; Basandi, Praveen Shivappa; Yamunadevi, Andamuthu
Analysis of palatal rugae patterns, which are similar to fingerprints, is one of the techniques used in forensic sciences for human identification. As palatal rugae patterns are genetically determined, they can also be used in population differentiation and gender determination. Hence, we aimed to record the distribution of the predominant rugae pattern in Kerala population. A total of 100 maxillary study models (40 males and 60 females) recorded from Kerala population within the age group of 17-25 years were analyzed. The dental casts were examined for the interpretation of the total number, length, shape, location and unification of rugae. Chi-square test and unpaired t-test were employed for statistical analysis. The total number of rugae was significantly (P rugae patterns were located more in between mesial aspect of first premolar to mesial aspect of second premolar. The palatal rugae and their features of an individual may be considered as a reliable guide for identification purpose, provided antemortem casts are available. Nevertheless, gender differentiation is evident in terms of number and shape of rugae.
Fratini, Sara; Ragionieri, Lapo; Deli, Temim; Harrer, Alexandra; Marino, Ilaria A M; Cannicci, Stefano; Zane, Lorenzo; Schubart, Christoph D
The extent of genetic structure of a species is determined by the amount of current gene flow and the impact of historical and demographic factors. Most marine invertebrates have planktonic larvae and consequently wide potential dispersal, so that genetic uniformity should be common. However, phylogeographic investigations reveal that panmixia is rare in the marine realm. Phylogeographic patterns commonly coincide with geographic transitions acting as barriers to gene flow. In the Mediterranean Sea and adjoining areas, the best known barriers are the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition, the Siculo-Tunisian Strait and the boundary between Aegean and Black seas. Here, we perform the so far broadest phylogeographic analysis of the crab Pachygrapsus marmoratus, common across the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean and Black seas. Previous studies revealed no or weak genetic structuring at meso-geographic scale based on mtDNA, while genetic heterogeneity at local scale was recorded with microsatellites, even if without clear geographic patterns. Continuing the search for phylogeographic signal, we here enlarge the mtDNA dataset including 51 populations and covering most of the species' distribution range. This enlarged dataset provides new evidence of three genetically separable groups, corresponding to the Portuguese Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea plus Canary Islands, and Black Sea. Surprisingly, hierarchical AMOVA and Principal Coordinates Analysis agree that our Canary Islands population is closer to western Mediterranean populations than to mainland Portugal and Azores populations. Within the Mediterranean Sea, we record genetic homogeneity, suggesting that population connectivity is unaffected by the transition between the western and eastern Mediterranean. The Mediterranean metapopulation seems to have experienced a relatively recent expansion around 100,000 years ago. Our results suggest that the phylogeographic pattern of P. marmoratus is shaped by the
Ana L. Albarrán-Lara; Jessica W. Wright; Paul F. Gugger; Annette Delfino-Mix; Juan Manuel Peñaloza-Ramírez; Victoria L. Sork
California oaks exhibit tremendous phenotypic variation throughout their range. This variation reflects phenotypic plasticity in tree response to local environmental conditions as well as genetic differences underlying those phenotypes. In this study, we analyze phenotypic variation in leaf traits for valley oak adults sampled along three elevational transects and in...
Yama, Brie; Freeman, Tom; Graves, Erin; Yuan, Su; Campbell, M. Karen
This study examines the following properties of the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) in an unselected low-risk sample: (a) the maximum age for screen administration; (b) the positive screen rate in the absence of follow-up telephone interviews and; (c) the distributional properties of positive screens. Data came from a…
Algina, James; Keselman, H. J.
Applications of distribution theory for the squared multiple correlation coefficient and the squared cross-validation coefficient are reviewed, and computer programs for these applications are made available. The applications include confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, and sample size selection. (Contains 2 tables.)
they were offered a study-engraved pen and keychain. Interviewers, certified after a 4-day training course, contacted and interviewed sample members...The autonomic impairment was most clearly demon- strated in the blunting of the normal rise in HF HRV at night. Because peripheral vagal baroreflex
Trujillo-González, Juan Manuel; Torres-Mora, Marco Aurelio; Keesstra, Saskia; Brevik, Eric C.; Jiménez-Ballesta, Raimundo
Soil pollution is a key component of the land degradation process, but little is known about the impact of soil pollution on human health in the urban environment. The heavy metals Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd and Ni were analyzed by acid digestion (method EPA 3050B) and a total of 15 dust samples were
Gillings, Simon; Fuller, Robert J
Farmland bird population trends were examined on a sample of lowland English farms to assess the relative importance of habitat loss and habitat degradation. Data were extracted from 11 farms surveyed by territory mapping between 1966 and 1986 as part of the British Trust for Ornithology's Common Birds Census. The population size of 38 bird species was quantified for each farm in each year. The extents of five non-crop habitats were measured at 4-yearly intervals on each farm. The farms were selected because some had undergone extensive removal of non-crop habitats while others had undergone little or none. Although declines were commonest on farms where the severest habitat loss had taken place, we found no evidence that habitat loss was the main factor causing population declines: all 11 farms had significant numbers of declining species, even where habitat loss was minimal. Furthermore, general linear modelling found no significant effects of habitat loss on population trends and principal-components analysis found limited effects of habitat extent on community composition. These results suggest that habitat loss is of secondary importance in causing farmland bird population declines. We suggest that other processes, such as habitat degradation, may have caused a baseline population decline in at least 10 farmland bird species and that declines may have been exacerbated by localised habitat loss.
Coronado-García, Mayra; Thrash, Courtney R; Welch-Lazoritz, Melissa; Gauthier, Robin; Reyes, Juan Carlos; Khan, Bilal; Dombrowski, Kirk
This research examined the social network and recruitment patterns of a sample of people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in rural Puerto Rico, in an attempt to uncover systematic clustering and between-group social boundaries that potentially influence disease spread. Respondent driven sampling was utilized to obtain a sample of PWID in rural Puerto Rico. Through eight initial "seeds", 317 injection drug users were recruited. Using recruitment patterns of this sample, estimates of homophily and affiliation were calculated using RDSAT. Analyses showed clustering within the social network of PWID in rural Puerto Rico. In particular, females showed a very high tendency to recruit male PWID, which suggests low social cohesion among female PWID. Results for (believed) HCV status at the time of interview indicate that HCV+ individuals were less likely to interact with HCV- individuals or those who were unaware of their status, and may be acting as "gatekeepers" to prevent disease spread. Individuals who participated in a substance use program were more likely to affiliate with one another. The use of speedballs was related to clustering within the network, in which individuals who injected this mixture were more likely to affiliate with other speedball users. Social clustering based on several characteristics and behaviors were found within the IDU population in rural Puerto Rico. RDS was effective in not only garnering a sample of PWID in rural Puerto Rico, but also in uncovering social clustering that can potentially influence disease spread among this population.
Full Text Available "n Objective: "n "n "nSuicide represented 1.8% of the total global burden of disease in1998 and it will increase to 2.4% in 2020. We performed a cross sectional study to assess the prevalence of suicide ideation, attempt and its associated factors. "nMethod: We designed a cross sectional study in Mahan and Bardsir cities, Kerman province, Iran. Based on the multistage cluster sampling, 860 subjects aged 15 and older were selected as the non-attempter group and 58 hospital cases admitted due to suicide attempts were selected as the attempter group. General Health Questionnaire, Suicide Ideation Scale and demographic form were filled for each participant. "nResults: This study showed that the prevalence of suicide ideation was 10% in total: 48.3% in the suicide attempters and 7.33% in the non-attempters. Being female, young, single, more educated and less religious, living in urban areas, opium use and having somatic complaints and other psychiatric problems were associated with suicide attempts. "nConclusion: Suicide ideation and attempt aren't uncommon in Iran and should be recognized as important problems existing in these two cities of Kerman province .
Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi determinar o número de amostras necessárias para estimar com precisão aceitável a quantidade de sementes no solo e a flora de plantas daninhas emergentes, em áreas experimentais e de lavoura, para auxiliar na tomada de decisão das estratégias de manejo das plantas daninhas. A amostragem do solo para quantificação do banco de sementes foi feita com trado tubular de 5,0 cm de diâmetro, na profundidade de 0 a 10 cm. A flora emergente foi contada por meio de um gabarito de ferro nas dimensões de 0,5x0,5 m, de forma aleatória na área. O número de amostras necessário foi estimado em razão da média de sementes da amostra, para uma determinada precisão (CV = 20% ou 40%. Foi estimado que, nas áreas experimentais, para médias de 10 a 20 sementes/amostra de solo (500 a 1.000 sementes/m² e coeficiente de variação de 20%, são necessárias entre 40 e 90 amostras, respectivamente; com 40% (menor precisão, entre 10 e 20 amostras. Considerando o mesmo intervalo em áreas de lavoura, representativas de glebas homogêneas, o tamanho de amostragem necessária é cerca de três vezes maior. Levantamentos da flora daninha emergente apresentam menor associação dos dados (média e variância entre si, portanto, são menos apropriados para decisões de manejo.The objective of this research was to determine the number of soil samples needed to estimate with reasonable precision level the amount of seeds in the soil and the emerged weeds, in a seedbank of experimental and cropland areas, in order to help management decisions. Sampling the soil seedbank was carried out by using a tubular soil sampler core of 5 cm diameter, from 0 to 10 cm soil depth. Emerged weeds were scouted by placing iron quadrats (0.5x0.5 m, randomly. The number of samples required was estimated as a function of the average seeds per sample, given a required precision (CV = 20% or 40%. For the small plots, means between 10 and 20 seeds
White, Kaitlin Hanley; Rumble, Meredith E; Benca, Ruth M
Depression is often associated with disruptions in sleep and circadian rhythms. We aimed to confirm these relationships via actigraphic assessment in a large, population-based sample and test whether sex moderates these relationships. A total of 418 participants (age = 35-85 years, mean [standard deviation] = 57.04 [11.47]) completed questionnaires and 1 week of actigraphy, used to calculate sleep and rest-activity statistics including mesor (mean activity level), amplitude (height of rhythm), and acrophase (time of day that rhythm peaks). Depressive symptoms, assessed via Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, were associated with disrupted sleep and rest-activity rhythms. Furthermore, men demonstrated longer sleep onset latency (SOL, B = -13.28, p continuity and rest-activity rhythms in this population-based sample; however, these relationships differed by sex. Women with greater depressive symptoms exhibited difficulty with sleep continuity, whereas men with greater depressive symptoms demonstrated disruption throughout the 24-hour rhythm.
Rubi-Castellanos, R; Anaya-Palafox, M; Mena-Rojas, E; Bautista-España, D; Muñoz-Valle, J F; Rangel-Villalobos, H
We report autosomal STR data (Identifiler PCR amplification kit) of a total sample of 884 unrelated Mestizos from three different regions of Mexico. The population sample included 309, 313 and 262 individuals from the states of Jalisco (West), Puebla (Center) and Yucatan (Southeast), respectively. Allele distribution and forensic statistical parameters are described. Genotype distribution by locus and two-loci combination was in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg expectations for all 15 STRs. Pairwise comparisons including Mexican populations reported in the literature demonstrated a significant differentiation, principally between North/West with regard to Center/Southeast Mexico. These results increase STR data from previously unreported regions of this country, and constitute a valuable guide in forensic casework for choosing an auxiliary STR database in states where it is not available.
Anzola Zamudio, Jose Alejandro
In contrast to the definition of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults, there is no standard definition of MetS in pediatric populations. We aimed to assess the differences in the prevalence of MetS in children and adolescents aged 9–17 years in the city of Bogota (Colombia) using four different operational definitions for these age groups and to examine the associated variables. A total of 673 children and 1,247 adolescents attending public schools in Bogota (54.4% girls; age range 9–17.9 year...
Jackson, Sarah E.; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew
Objective Chronic cortisol exposure is hypothesized to contribute to obesity. This study examined associations between hair cortisol concentrations, a novel indicator of long?term cortisol exposure, and adiposity in a large population?based sample. Methods Data were from 2,527 men and women aged 54 and older (98% white British) participating in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Hair cortisol concentrations were determined from the scalp?nearest 2 cm hair segment, and height, weight, a...
Ackard, Diann M; Vik, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Hannan, Peter; Jacobs, David R
To compare the prevalence of disordered eating and body dissatisfaction between adolescents with type 1 diabetes and a population-based sample of youth. A clinic-based sample of 143 adolescents (73 male and 70 female) with type 1 diabetes who participated in the Assessing Health and Eating among Adolescents with Diabetes (AHEAD) study was compared with a population-based sample of 4746 youths (2377 male, 2357 female, and 12 missing) who participated in Project Eating Among Teens (Project EAT). Participants completed surveys and anthropometric measurements of height and weight. Although some adolescents with type 1 diabetes endorsed unhealthy weight control practices, overall, they reported less weight dissatisfaction and were less likely to use any unhealthy weight control behaviors and more likely to report regular meal consumption than the population-based sample. Females with type 1 diabetes were less likely to report dieting, fasting, or eating very little food to control weight during the past year than their population-based peers. However, males with type 1 diabetes were less likely than their peers to exercise and to consume more fruits and vegetables for healthy weight control. Of medical concern were insulin omission (1.4% males and 10.3% females) and dosage reduction (1.4% males and 7.4% females) as means of weight control among youth with type 1 diabetes. Despite medical supervision, some adolescents with type 1 diabetes reported unhealthy weight control behaviors and weight concerns, including insulin manipulation. Altering the insulin regimen may cause complications. All adolescents warrant attention for unhealthy behaviors and weight concerns.
Bergamaschi, A; De Luca, G; Gatto, M R
In this work, the authors report the results of an epidemiological study on Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida spp. frequency in a sample of the adult female population in Bologna. They also studied the influence exerted by some epidemiological variables such as age, profession, civil status, educational status, use of specific products for feminine hygiene, contraceptive usage, and sexual habits. Some interesting correlations were observed. (author's modified)
Background: The negative gradient between socio-economic status and prevalence of non-communicable disease in adulthood has prompted investigation of potential foundations based in childhood. The objective of the present study is to examine the influence of socio-geographical variations and socioeconomic status on health-related physical fitness in adolescents from a large population-based sample of Colombian ninth graders. Methods: During the 2014–2015 school years, we examined a cross-secti...
Keyfi, Fatemeh; Lukacs, Zoltan; Varasteh, Abdolreza
Organic acids refer to a family of compounds that are intermediates in a variety of metabolic pathways. Many organic acids are present in urine from clinically normal individuals. Elevated levels of urine organic acids cause to the organic acidurias, disorders in which some metabolic pathways in organic acid metabolism are blocked. The present work identified major and minor urinary acidic metabolites in normal subjects, and their quantitative ranges in a pediatric population of Iran. Two hundred and fifty-one healthy subjects, including 132 males and 119 females, from 2 days to 15 years of age were enrolled. Urinary organic acids were extracted from urine with organic solvents and identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results provide a foundation on which to check results for patients with potentially abnormal organic acidurias. By this method 98 organic acids were identified in a pediatric population of Iran. The present work identifies and quantifies major and minor urinary metabolites excreted by normal subjects. We also analyzed urine from 30 patients with organic acid metabolism abnormalities and compared the concentrations of specific organic acids with those from urines of normal individuals.
Strain, W David; Adingupu, Damilola D; Shore, Angela C
The role of microcirculatory dysfunction is increasingly being recognized in the etiopathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Whilst the importance of detailed mechanistic studies to determine the exact nature of these disturbances is without question, it was large-scale population-based studies that first identified the associations between deranged microvascular perfusion, autoregulation or structure, and subsequent target organ damage. This is the subject of considerable studies to establish whether there is a causal effect in either direction, or simply represents shared risk factors, although it is most likely to be a complex combination of bidirectional interactions. The techniques for investigating microcirculatory function have evolved almost exponentially over the last 75 years: So too have the strategies for investigation. Current epidemiological studies are focusing on attempting to untangle the inter-relationship between risk factors and pathological mechanisms to attempt to determine whether these represent therapeutic targets or simple markers of unmeasured risk. We plan to review the techniques used for these population-based studies, the advances made, and the clinical implications derived. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Weinhold, Jan; Hunger, Christina; Bornhäuser, Annette; Link, Leoni; Rochon, Justine; Wild, Beate; Schweitzer, Jochen
The study examined the efficacy of nonrecurring family constellation seminars on psychological health. We conducted a monocentric, single-blind, stratified, and balanced randomized controlled trial (RCT). After choosing their roles for participating in a family constellation seminar as either active participant (AP) or observing participant (OP), 208 adults (M = 48 years, SD = 10; 79% women) from the general population were randomly allocated to the intervention group (IG; 3-day family constellation seminar; 64 AP, 40 OP) or a wait-list control group (WLG; 64 AP, 40 OP). It was predicted that family constellation seminars would improve psychological functioning (Outcome Questionnaire OQ-45.2) at 2-week and 4-month follow-ups. In addition, we assessed the impact of family constellation seminars on psychological distress and motivational incongruence. The IG showed significantly improved psychological functioning (d = 0.45 at 2-week follow-up, p = .003; d = 0.46 at 4-month follow-up, p = .003). Results were confirmed for psychological distress and motivational incongruence. No adverse events were reported. This RCT provides evidence for the efficacy of family constellation in a nonclinical population. The implications of the findings are discussed.
Vouros, Ioannis D; Kalpidis, Christos D R; Chadjipantelis, Theodore; Konstantinidis, Antonis B
The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible risk factor related to the severity of periodontal destruction in an adult Greek population and to determine possible risk factors of chronic periodontal disease. The 115 participants (mean age 47.5, range 28-74 years) were referred for periodontal treatment in two high-standard therapeutic centers. All individuals were clinically examined and answered a detailed questionnaire. The sociodemographic characteristics and periodontal findings were recorded and statistically analyzed. The prevalence of periodontal destruction was significantly high, as 91.3% of the participants had at least one tooth with attachment loss > or = 7 mm and 73% presented with mean loss of attachment > 4 mm. In this subject cohort, 31.3% had never smoked, 15.7% had quit smoking, and 53% were currently smokers (heavy, moderate, or occasional). Heavy smokers exhibited worse periodontal tissue breakdown and less bleeding tendency compared to moderate, infrequent, or never smokers. Among the other investigated parameters, age and customary oral hygiene practices were correlated with periodontal pocket formation and clinical attachment loss. The results of this study suggest that smoking appears to be a major environmental factor associated with accelerated periodontal destruction in an adult urban Greek population with regular oral hygiene habits.
Chatzistamatiou, Kimon; Chatzaki, Εkaterini; Constantinidis, Τheocharis; Nena, Evangelia; Tsertanidou, Athena; Agorastos, Theodoros
In the present pilot study, the feasibility of a site-of-care cervicovaginal self-sampling methodology for HPV-based screening was tested in 346 women residing in underserved rural areas of Northern Greece. These women provided self-collected cervicovaginal sample along with a study questionnaire. Following molecular testing, using the cobas ® HPV Test, Roche ® , HPV positive women, were referred to colposcopy and upon abnormal findings, to biopsy and treatment. Participation rate was 100%. Regular pap-test examination was reported for 17.1%. Among hrHPV testing, 11.9% were positive and colposcopy/biopsy revealed 2 CIN3 cases. Non-compliance was the most prevalent reason for no previous attendance. Most women reported non-difficulty and non-discomfort in self-sampling (77.6% and 82.4%, respectively). They would choose self-sampling over clinician-sampling (86.2%), and should self-sampling being available, they would test themselves more regularly (92.3%). In conclusion, self-sampling is feasible and well-accepted for HPV-based screening, and could increase population coverage in underserved areas, helping towards successful prevention.
Chattaraj, S; Bera, N K; Dutta, C; Bhattacharjee, S
Human polyomavirus JC (JCV) is a widespread human virus with profound pathogenic potential. A study was undertaken to quantify JCV load in urine and peripheral blood samples of immunocompetent, apparently healthy tribal individuals of North-Eastern part of West Bengal, India for the first time. One hundred and thirteen samples of urine or blood were collected from different tribal groups of this region. For the quantitative estimation of the viral load in each sample, real-time polymerase chain reaction method using the SYBR Green dye was employed. The viral load estimated was found in the range between 3.5 × 102 and 2.12 × 106 copies/ml of samples having a mean and median viral copy numbers of 8.67 × 105 and 9.19 × 105 copies/ml of sample respectively. The mean viral DNA load in urine samples of the studied immunocompetent population was found to be higher than that found in a study conducted in the USA, but lower than similar groups of Italy and healthy adult women in the USA. However when compared with median values of viral DNA loads in urine samples of immunocompetent human subjects of Kuwait, Portugal, and Switzerland the observed viral DNA load was found to be substantially higher.
Mollet, Pierre; Kery, Marc; Gardner, Beth; Pasinelli, Gilberto; Royle, Andy
We conducted a survey of an endangered and cryptic forest grouse, the capercaillie Tetrao urogallus, based on droppings collected on two sampling occasions in eight forest fragments in central Switzerland in early spring 2009. We used genetic analyses to sex and individually identify birds. We estimated sex-dependent detection probabilities and population size using a modern spatial capture-recapture (SCR) model for the data from pooled surveys. A total of 127 capercaillie genotypes were identified (77 males, 46 females, and 4 of unknown sex). The SCR model yielded atotal population size estimate (posterior mean) of 137.3 capercaillies (posterior sd 4.2, 95% CRI 130–147). The observed sex ratio was skewed towards males (0.63). The posterior mean of the sex ratio under the SCR model was 0.58 (posterior sd 0.02, 95% CRI 0.54–0.61), suggesting a male-biased sex ratio in our study area. A subsampling simulation study indicated that a reduced sampling effort representing 75% of the actual detections would still yield practically acceptable estimates of total size and sex ratio in our population. Hence, field work and financial effort could be reduced without compromising accuracy when the SCR model is used to estimate key population parameters of cryptic species.
Mizuno, Kana; Dong, Min; Fukuda, Tsuyoshi; Chandra, Sharat; Mehta, Parinda A; McConnell, Scott; Anaissie, Elias J; Vinks, Alexander A
High-dose melphalan is an important component of conditioning regimens for patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The current dosing strategy based on body surface area results in a high incidence of oral mucositis and gastrointestinal and liver toxicity. Pharmacokinetically guided dosing will individualize exposure and help minimize overexposure-related toxicity. The purpose of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model and optimal sampling strategy. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed with NONMEM using 98 observations collected from 15 adult patients given the standard dose of 140 or 200 mg/m 2 by intravenous infusion. The determinant-optimal sampling strategy was explored with PopED software. Individual area under the curve estimates were generated by Bayesian estimation using full and the proposed sparse sampling data. The predictive performance of the optimal sampling strategy was evaluated based on bias and precision estimates. The feasibility of the optimal sampling strategy was tested using pharmacokinetic data from five pediatric patients. A two-compartment model best described the data. The final model included body weight and creatinine clearance as predictors of clearance. The determinant-optimal sampling strategies (and windows) were identified at 0.08 (0.08-0.19), 0.61 (0.33-0.90), 2.0 (1.3-2.7), and 4.0 (3.6-4.0) h post-infusion. An excellent correlation was observed between area under the curve estimates obtained with the full and the proposed four-sample strategy (R 2 = 0.98; p strategy promises to achieve the target area under the curve as part of precision dosing.
Mazzotti, Diego Robles; Guindalini, Camila; Pellegrino, Renata; Barrueco, Karina Fonseca; Santos-Silva, Rogério; Bittencourt, Lia Rita Azeredo; Tufik, Sergio
To evaluate the association between the adenosine deaminase polymorphism, sleep architecture, and caffeine consumption. Genetic association study. NA. 958 participants who underwent polysomnography and genotyping. NA. Individuals carrying the A allele who consumed caffeine in the day prior to polysomnography demonstrated higher sleep efficiency and REM sleep percentage, after adjustment for potential confounders. No effect was observed in the absence of caffeine. Our data support the role of the ADA G22A polymorphism in sleep, and demonstrate for the first time that caffeine may act as a modulator of its functional effects. Name: Epidemiology of sleep disturbances among adult population of the Sao Paulo City. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00596713?term=NCT00596713&rank=1. Number: NCT00596713
Full Text Available In 2006, a study investigating knowledge and attitudes regarding antibiotic use and resistance in Sweden, indicated high level of knowledge but also areas in need of improvement.(i To provide an update on the knowledge and attitudes to antibiotic use and resistance of the Swedish population, and (ii to identify which groups within the population are in particular need of improved knowledge or attitudes.A questionnaire was sent by post in 2013 to 2,500 randomly-selected individuals aged 18-74, living in Sweden. Latent class analyses were conducted to group respondents based on their responses. The association between socio-demographic characteristics and the probability of belonging to each latent class was assessed.The response rate was 57%. Ninety-four per cent of the responders knew that bacteria could become resistant to antibiotics and the majority answered correctly to the questions regarding antibiotic resistance development. The respondents expressed confidence in doctors who decided not to prescribe antibiotics. Three latent classes related to 'knowledge regarding antibiotic use and resistance', two regarding 'attitudes towards antibiotic accessibility and infection prevention' and three regarding 'attitudes towards antibiotic use and effects' were revealed. Men, younger and more educated people were more knowledgeable but males had a less restrictive attitude. Respondents with high levels of knowledge on antibiotics were more likely to have appropriate restrictive attitudes to antibiotics.Knowledge on antibiotic use and resistance is maintained high and has improved in Sweden compared to 2006. People with lower education and elderly are especially in need of improved knowledge about antibiotic use and resistance.
Thomas, S. Justin; Booth, John N.; Bromfield, Samantha G.; Seals, Samantha R.; Spruill, Tanya M.; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Kidambi, Srividya; Shimbo, Daichi; Calhoun, David; Muntner, Paul
Blood pressure (BP) can differ substantially when measured in the clinic versus outside of the clinic setting. Few population-based studies with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) include African Americans. We calculated the prevalence of clinic hypertension and ABPM phenotypes among 1,016 participants in the population-based Jackson Heart Study, an exclusively African-American cohort. Mean daytime systolic BP was higher than mean clinic systolic BP among participants not taking antihypertensive medication (127.1[standard deviation 12.8] versus 124.5[15.7] mmHg, respectively) and taking antihypertensive medication (131.2[13.6] versus 130.0[15.6] mmHg, respectively). Mean daytime diastolic BP was higher than clinic diastolic BP among participants not taking antihypertensive medication (78.2[standard deviation 8.9] versus 74.6[8.4] mmHg, respectively) and taking antihypertensive medication (77.6[9.4] versus 74.3[8.5] mmHg, respectively). The prevalence of daytime hypertension was higher than clinic hypertension for participants not taking antihypertensive medication (31.8% versus 14.3%) and taking antihypertensive medication (43.0% versus 23.1%). A high percentage of participants not taking and taking antihypertensive medication had nocturnal hypertension (49.4% and 61.7%, respectively), white coat hypertension (30.2% and 29.3%, respectively), masked hypertension (25.4% and 34.6%, respectively), and a non-dipping BP pattern (62.4% and 69.6%, respectively). In conclusion, these data suggest hypertension may be misdiagnosed among African Americans without using ABPM. PMID:28285829
Nayak, Madhabika B; Lown, E Anne; Bond, Jason C; Greenfield, Thomas K
Research on alcohol use among victims of physical and sexual violence has focused mostly on women and alcohol use disorders. It is also limited by the relative lack of consideration of victimization over the lifetime and of population data on both men and women. We critically examined associations between lifetime victimization and diverse past year alcohol use patterns and problems and whether these associations differ for men and women. Population data from the 2005 U.S. National Alcohol Survey (NAS11, n=6919) are reported for 4256 adult men and women drinkers. Logistic regressions assessed associations between physical only or any sexual victimization experienced over the lifetime and past year heavy episodic drinking, drinking to intoxication, alcohol-related consequences and any alcohol use disorder. Models controlled for demographics and parental history of alcohol abuse and examined interactions of gender with victimization. Associations between victimization experienced over the lifetime and all past year alcohol measures were significant for both men and women. These associations did not differ by type of lifetime victimization (physical only vs any sexual). The association of physical only victimization with drinking to intoxication was stronger for victimized vs non-victimized women compared to victimized vs non-victimized men. This gender difference ceased to be significant when specific victimization characteristics were controlled for. Lifetime victimization is associated with increased risk for diverse alcohol use problems for both men and women. All prevention and treatment programs should screen men and women for lifetime victimization and diverse alcohol use problems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mehdi Ebrahimi Hossein Ali Kennedy
Full Text Available Brilliant models of allegory and secretive tales are observable in mystical and philosophical works of Persian literature in verse and prose. Avicenna is the first person who has written the philosophical tale of Hayy Ebn Yaqzan in mystical clothing and symbolic style. In this philosophical and symbolic epistle, Avicenna has represented evolution stages of human in request of hidden secrets and sublime insight and spiritual life, and in travers of behavior stages he became aware of the truth that there is a spiritual life other than corporeal life. Therefore he is guided to spiritual world by sense and by the help of active wisdom. Then Andalusian Ebn Tofeyl has combined Avicenna ’s tales of Hayy Ebn Yaqzan and Salamon & Absal and recompiled it in a symbolic form and wrote it out with philosophical array. In this tale Hayy Ebn Yaqzan was grown alone in an island and he was attracted by comprehension and perception of the reality by external senses, recognition of palpable worlds and by discovery. Despite some similarities with Persian archaic tales, ((Salamon & Absal is a Greek legend in fact, which was received by Honayn Ebn Eshaq in east by translation from Greek into Arabic for the first time. This tale contains allegorical and philosophical aspects and has Greek quality and Alexandria quality. This tale was changed into a mystical and discovery tale by Avicenna . In fact he made it a part of his ((philosophy of east and west equivalent of common philosophy. Jamie wrote the original narrative of Honayn Ebn Eshaq in a symbolic form with artistic, elegant and eloquent statement. This poem is Jamie’s shortest ‘Orang, and also his most gnostic ‘Orang, of his famous Haft ‘Orang. In this tale Salamon is the symbol of soul and Absal is the symbol of body. This research studies the introduced characters in Jamie’s Salamon & Absal and Hayy ebn Yaqzan in Avicenna ’s and Andalusian Ebn Tofeyl’s tales.
Shaun W. Molloy
Full Text Available The management of populations of threatened species requires the capacity to identify areas of high habitat value. We developed a high resolution species distribution model (SDM for the endangered Pilbara northern quoll Dasyurus hallucatus, population using MaxEnt software and a combined suite of bioclimatic and landscape variables. Once common throughout much of northern Australia, this marsupial carnivore has recently declined throughout much of its former range and is listed as endangered by the IUCN. Other than the potential threats presented by climate change, and the invasive cane toad Rhinella marina (which has not yet arrived in the Pilbara. The Pilbara population is also impacted by introduced predators, pastoral and mining activities. To account for sample bias resulting from targeted surveys unevenly spread through the region, a pseudo-absence bias layer was developed from presence records of other critical weight-range non-volant mammals. The resulting model was then tested using the biomod2 package which produces ensemble models from individual models created with different algorithms. This ensemble model supported the distribution determined by the bias compensated MaxEnt model with a covariance of of 86% between models with both models largely identifying the same areas as high priority habitat. The primary product of this exercise is a high resolution SDM which corroborates and elaborates on our understanding of the ecology and habitat preferences of the Pilbara Northern Quoll population thereby improving our capacity t