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Sample records for ancylostoma

  1. Zinc sulfide in intestinal cell granules of Ancylostoma caninum adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianotti, A.J.; Clark, D.T.; Dash, J. (Portland State Univ., OR (USA))

    1991-04-01

    A source of confusion has existed since the turn of the century about the reddish brown, weakly birefringent 'sphaerocrystals' located in the intestines of strongyle nematodes, Strongylus and Ancylostoma. X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectrometric analyses were used for accurate determination of the crystalline order and elemental composition of the granules in the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum. The composition of the intestinal pigmented granules was identified unequivocally as zinc sulfide. It seems most probable that the granules serve to detoxify high levels of metallic ions (specifically zinc) present due to the large intake of host blood.

  2. Molecular Modeling and Structural Analysis of Arylesterase of Ancylostoma Duodenale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Subhamay; Panda, Santamay; Kumari, Leena

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic worm infection of humans is one of the most commonly prevalent helminth infection that has imposed great impact on society and public health in the developing world. The two species of hookworm, namely Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus may be primarily responsible for causing parasitic infections in human beings. The highly prevalent areas for Ancylostoma duodenale infections are mainly India, Middle East, Australia, northern Africa and other parts of the world. The serum arylesterases/paraoxonases are family of enzymes that is involved in the hydrolysis of a number of organophosphorus insecticides to the nontoxic products. The participation of the enzymes in the breakdown of a variety of organophosphate substrates that is generally made up of paraoxon and numerous aromatic carboxylic acid esters (e.g., phenyl acetate), and hence combats the toxic effect of organophosphates. The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the arylesterases of Ancylostoma duodenale giving special importance to structure generation, validation of the generated models, distribution of secondary structural elements and positive charge distribution over the structure. By the implementation of comparative modeling approach we propose the first molecular model structure of arylesterases of Ancylostoma duodenale. PMID:27642240

  3. [Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. larva in public parks, Brazil].

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    Guimarães, Antônio Marcos; Alves, Endrigo Gabellini Leonel; de Rezende, Glycia Ferreira; Rodrigues, Marcelo Costa

    2005-04-01

    Visceral and cutaneous larva migrans are parasitic zoonoses caused by the infection of larval nematodes Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. respectively. The objective of this study was to investigate the contamination by Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. eggs and larva of soil samples collected from public parks and children's playground areas in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using both Baermann's method and centrifugal flotation technique. Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. eggs were observed in soil samples collected from public squares in 17.4% (4/23) and 69.6 (16/23) respectively. In schools and child day care settings the contamination by Ancylostoma sp. larva in sand samples was 11.1% (2/18). Public parks are settings of more potential risk of Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. infection. Stool parasitology testing of 174 stool samples showed 58% and 23% of Ancylostoma sp and Toxocara sp eggs infection respectively.

  4. Neglected zoonotic helminths: Hymenolepis nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R C A

    2015-05-01

    The majority of helminth parasites that are considered by WHO to be the cause of 'neglected diseases' are zoonotic. In terms of their impact on human health, the role of animal reservoirs and polyparasitism are both emerging issues in understanding the epidemiology of a number of these zoonoses. As such, Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum all qualify for consideration. They have been neglected and there is increasing evidence that all three parasite infections deserve more attention in terms of their impact on public health as well as their control.

  5. Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a re-emerging but neglected parasitic zoonosis.

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    Traub, Rebecca J

    2013-11-01

    Although Ancylostoma ceylanicum is known to be an endemic and widely distributed hookworm of dogs and cats in Asia, its contribution to human morbidity as a potentially zoonotic hookworm remains largely unexplored. Since its discovery by Lane (1913) as a 'new parasite' of humans a century ago, the hookworm has been regarded as a 'rare' and 'abnormal' parasite and largely overlooked in surveys of human parasites. Recent molecular-based surveys in Asia, however, have demonstrated that A. ceylanicum is the second most common hookworm species infecting humans, comprising between 6% and 23% of total patent hookworm infections. In experimentally induced infections, A. ceylanicum mimics the clinical picture produced by the anthroponotic hookworms of 'ground itch' and moderate to severe abdominal pain in the acute phase. Natural infections with A. ceylanicum in humans have been reported in almost all geographical areas in which the hookworm is known to be endemic in dogs and cats, however for the majority of reports, no clinical data are available. Much like the anthroponotic hookworm species, patent A. ceylanicum adults can isolate within the jejunum to produce chronic infections that on occasion, may occur in high enough burdens to produce anaemia. In addition, the hookworm can act much like Ancylostoma caninum and be found lower in the gastrointestinal tract leading to abdominal distension and pain, diarrhoea and occult blood in the faeces accompanied by peripheral eosinophilia. Whether A. ceylanicum is capable of producing both classical hookworm disease and evoking morbidity through an uncontrolled allergic response in some individuals remains unascertained. Future investigations combining the use of molecular diagnostic tools with clinical and pathological data will shed further light on its role as a human pathogen. The control of this zoonosis necessitates an integrated and inter-sectorial "One Health" approach be adopted in communities where large numbers of dogs

  6. Investigating hookworm genomes by comparative analysis of two Ancylostoma species

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    Kapulkin Wadim

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hookworms, infecting over one billion people, are the mostly closely related major human parasites to the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Applying genomics techniques to these species, we analyzed 3,840 and 3,149 genes from Ancylostoma caninum and A. ceylanicum. Results Transcripts originated from libraries representing infective L3 larva, stimulated L3, arrested L3, and adults. Most genes are represented in single stages including abundant transcripts like hsp-20 in infective L3 and vit-3 in adults. Over 80% of the genes have homologs in C. elegans, and nearly 30% of these were with observable RNA interference phenotypes. Homologies were identified to nematode-specific and clade V specific gene families. To study the evolution of hookworm genes, 574 A. caninum / A. ceylanicum orthologs were identified, all of which were found to be under purifying selection with distribution ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous amino acid substitutions similar to that reported for C. elegans / C. briggsae orthologs. The phylogenetic distance between A. caninum and A. ceylanicum is almost identical to that for C. elegans / C. briggsae. Conclusion The genes discovered should substantially accelerate research toward better understanding of the parasites' basic biology as well as new therapies including vaccines and novel anthelmintics.

  7. Ancylostoma genettae, A. protelesis, A. somaliense: three new species from wild Carnivora in the Somali Republic.

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    Macchioni, G

    1995-12-01

    Ancylostoma braziliense was found in Somalia in Acinonyx jubatus, Canis familiaris, C. mesomelas, Crocuta crocuta, Felis catus, F. libyca, Genetta genetta, Otocyon megalotis, Proteles cristatus; A. caninum in A. jubatus, C. familiaris, C. mesomelas, C. crocuta; A. duodenale in C. crocuta; A. iperodontatum in Lynx caracal; A. paraduodenale in Felis serval; A. tubaeforme in A. jubatus, F. catus, F. libyca; Arthrocephalus gambiense in Ichneumia albicauda; Uncinaria parvibursata in Mellivora capensis. In addition, three new species of Ancylostoma were collected: A. genettae in Genetta genetta, A. protelesis in Proteles cristatus, A. somaliense in Canis mesomelas. These new species are described and illustrated.

  8. Ovos de Toxocara sp. e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em praça pública de Lavras, MG Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. larva in public parks, Brazil

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    Antônio Marcos Guimarães

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Larva migrans visceral e cutânea são zoonoses parasitárias causadas pela infecção da larva de Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp., respectivamente. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a contaminação por ovos de Toxocara sp. e ovos e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em amostras de solos coletadas de praças públicas e de áreas de recreação infantil de Lavras, Estado de Minas Gerais, por meio da técnica de centrífugo-flutuação e do método de Baermann. A ocorrência de ovos de Toxocara sp. e, ovos e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. foi observada em 69,6% (16/23 das amostras de solo coletadas de praças públicas. A contaminação somente por ovos de Ancylostoma sp. em amostras de solo coletadas em escolas/creches foi de 22,2% (4/18. A percentagem de amostras de areia coletadas de escolas/creches contaminadas somente com larvas de Ancylostoma sp. foi de 11,1% (2/18. Praças públicas são as áreas com maior risco potencial de infecção por Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp. Exame coproparasitológico realizado em 174 amostras de fezes de cães observou 58% e 23%, respectivamente, com ovos de Ancylostoma sp. e Toxocara sp.Visceral and cutaneous larva migrans are parasitic zoonoses caused by the infection of larval nematodes Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. respectively. The objective of this study was to investigate the contamination by Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. eggs and larva of soil samples collected from public parks and children's playground areas in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using both Baermann's method and centrifugal flotation technique. Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. eggs were observed in soil samples collected from public squares in 17.4% (4/23 and 69.6 (16/23 respectively. In schools and child day care settings the contamination by Ancylostoma sp. larva in sand samples was 11.1% (2/18. Public parks are settings of more potential risk of Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. infection. Stool parasitology testing of 174 stool

  9. High prevalence of Ancylostoma ceylanicum hookworm infections in humans, Cambodia, 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Schär, Fabian; Dalsgaard, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a hookworm of canids and felids in Asia, is becoming the second most common hookworm infecting humans. In 2012, we investigated the prevalence and infection dynamics of and risk factors for hookworm infections in humans and dogs in a rural Cambodian village. Over 57% of th...

  10. A Case of Ancylostoma ceylanicum Infection Occurring in an Australian Soldier Returned from Solomon Islands

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    Speare, Rick; Bradbury, Richard Stewart; Croese, John

    2016-01-01

    A 26-year-old male member of the Australian Defense Force presented with a history of central abdominal pain of 4 weeks duration and peripheral eosinophilia consistent with eosinophilic enteritis. Acute hookworm disease was diagnosed as the cause. Adult worms recovered from feces after therapy with albendazole were morphologically consistent with Ancylostoma ceylanicum. As the patient had been deployed with the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands for 6 months prior to this presentation, it is very likely that the A. ceylanicum was acquired in Solomon Islands. Until now, it has been assumed that any Ancylostoma spp. recovered from humans in Solomon Islands is A. duodenale. However, this case demonstrates that human hookworm infection acquired in the Solomon Islands could be caused by A. ceylanicum. PMID:27658607

  11. Prevalencia y factores que favorecen la presentación de toxocara canis y ancylostoma caninum en canes de compañía (Prevalence and factors that favor of presentation of toxocara canis and ancylostoma caninum in companion dogs.

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    Castillo Cuenca. Julio César

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEl presente trabajo tiene como objetivo determinar la prevalencia de Toxocara canis y Ancylostoma caninum y algunos factores que pudieran favorecer una mayor tasa de infestación por estos nematodos zoonóticosen canes de compañía en los consejos populares Universidad y Camilo Cienfuegos.SUMMARYThe present research aims at determining Toxocara canis and Ancylostoma caninum prevalence and some factors that may favor higher values of infestation in companion dogs from these zoonotic nemathods in the University and Camilo Cienfuegos county.

  12. Cloning and molecular characterization of cDNAs encoding three Ancylostoma ceylanicum secreted proteins.

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    Siwińska, Anna M; Bąska, Piotr; Daniłowicz-Luebert, Emilia; Januszkiewicz, Kamil; Długosz, Ewa; Wędrychowicz, Halina; Cappello, Michael; Wiśniewski, Marcin

    2013-03-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum belongs to a group of soil-transmitted helminths, which infect almost 576 mln people worldwide and are a major cause of anaemia and malnutrition. Upon contact with a permissive host, third-stage larvae (L3) residing in the environment become activated larvae (ssL3), a process associated with changes in the profile of gene expression. Ancylostoma secreted proteins (ASPs) are the major proteins secreted during larvae activation and play a crucial role in hookworm adaptation to parasitism. Here we report the cloning using RACE-PCR technique of three novel ASPs from the hookworm A. ceylanicum (Ace-asp-3, Ace-asp-4, and Ace-asp-5) and computational analysis of the protein sequences. All three proteins contain SCP (Sperm Coating Protein) domain characteristic for previously described ASP proteins. Real-time PCR analysis shows significant up-regulation of Ace-asp-3 and Ace-asp-5 expression in adult worms and correlated down-regulation in ssL3 larvae. On the other hand, expression of Ace-asp-4 was increased in ssL3 stages and decreased in adult parasites.

  13. Anthelmintic efficacy against tissue-arrested larvae of Ancylostoma caninum in murine hosts.

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    Arasu, P

    1998-12-01

    Third-stage larvae of the major human and canine Ancylostoma hookworm species have the capacity to undergo developmental arrest in the somatic tissues of an infected host. Arrested larvae reactivate at opportune periods such as pregnancy, which results in the transmammary transmission of infection to the nursing neonates. Using murine paratenic hosts to focus specifically on tissue-arrested stages of Ancylostoma caninum, the present study found that neither recommended nor elevated doses of commonly used anthelmintics were effective in eliminating latent infections at the accepted standard of greater than 90% reduction in parasite burden. Of the drugs tested, i.e., pyrantel, fenbendazole, ivermectin, and milbemycin, ivermectin was the most effective and engendered an 80% reduction in the burden of tissue-arrested A. caninum larvae but only if administered repeatedly or at elevated doses. Studies in 2 inbred mouse strains, BALB/c (H-2b) and C57BL/6 (H-2d), that typically display divergent immune responses to various infections showed no significant differences in the efficacies of the drugs tested. The results of this study indicate that there is still a need for effective strategies of eradicating latent infections with tissue-arrested hookworm larvae.

  14. Efficacy of a topically administered combination of emodepside and praziquantel against mature and immature Ancylostoma tubaeforme in domestic cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altreuther, G.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Buch, J.; Charles, S.D.; Cruthers, L.; Epe, C.; Young, D.R.; Krieger, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the efficacy of emodepside/praziquantel spot¿on (Profender®, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany), a novel broadspectrum anthelmintic for dermal application, against L4 larvae and immature adult and adult stages of Ancylostoma tubaeforme in cats. The formulation contains 2.14% (w/w) emo

  15. Occurrence of Ancylostoma in dogs, cats and public places from Andradina city, São Paulo state, Brazil.

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    Coelho, Willian Marinho Dourado; Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini do; Apolinário, Juliana de Carvalho; Coelho, Natalia Marinho Dourado; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and intensity of Ancylostoma spp. in 33 dogs and 52 cats by means of coproparasitological examinations and parasitological necropsy, and assess the presence of contaminated feces with eggs of that parasite in public places of Andradina Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil. Willis-Mollay and Sedimentation methods indicated Ancylostoma spp. eggs in 87.8% (29/33) dogs and 94.2% (49/52) cats. The species A. caninum and A. braziliense were found in 63.6% (21/33) and 30.3% (10/33) of dogs, respectively. Considering cats, 67.3% (35/52) were parasitized by A. braziliense, 21.1% (11/52) by A. caninum, and 9.6% (5/52) by A. tubaeforme. Forty-two canine fecal samples were collected from public environments, including 23 squares/gardens and 19 streets/sidewalks. Positive samples for Ancylostoma spp. accounted for 64.3% (27/42); squares/gardens had 60.9% (14/23) positive samples, and streets and sidewalks, 68.4% (13/19). No association was observed between the number of Ancylostoma spp parasites and age, sex and breed of the animals and also the ratio of EPG counts and the parasitic intensity observed at necropsy (p > 0.05). Based on the high occurrence of hookworm in dogs and cats in this study, the treatment with anti helminthics are needed even in those animals with negative stool tests, besides adopting control of the number of animals in public places, in order to decrease the likelihood of environmental contamination, since this parasite represents a potential hazard to human and animal health.

  16. Occurrence of Ancylostoma in dogs, cats and public places from Andradina city, São Paulo state, Brazil

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    Willian Marinho Dourado Coelho

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and intensity of Ancylostoma spp. in 33 dogs and 52 cats by means of coproparasitological examinations and parasitological necropsy, and assess the presence of contaminated feces with eggs of that parasite in public places of Andradina Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil. Willis-Mollay and Sedimentation methods indicated Ancylostoma spp. eggs in 87.8% (29/33 dogs and 94.2% (49/52 cats. The species A. caninum and A. braziliense were found in 63.6% (21/33 and 30.3% (10/33 of dogs, respectively. Considering cats, 67.3% (35/52 were parasitized by A. braziliense, 21.1% (11/52 by A. caninum, and 9.6% (5/52 by A. tubaeforme. Forty-two canine fecal samples were collected from public environments, including 23 squares/gardens and 19 streets/sidewalks. Positive samples for Ancylostoma spp. accounted for 64.3% (27/42; squares/gardens had 60.9% (14/23 positive samples, and streets and sidewalks, 68.4% (13/19. No association was observed between the number of Ancylostoma spp parasites and age, sex and breed of the animals and also the ratio of EPG counts and the parasitic intensity observed at necropsy (p > 0.05. Based on the high occurrence of hookworm in dogs and cats in this study, the treatment with anti helminthics are needed even in those animals with negative stool tests, besides adopting control of the number of animals in public places, in order to decrease the likelihood of environmental contamination, since this parasite represents a potential hazard to human and animal health.

  17. The Zoonotic Risk of Ancylostoma ceylanicum Isolated from Stray Dogs and Cats in Guangzhou, South China

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    Yuanjia Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine and feline hookworm infection is endemic in many countries with zoonotic transmission representing a potentially significant public health concern. However, there is limited data available on the zoonotic transmission of canine and feline hookworms in China. This study was conducted to evaluate the zoonotic risk of Ancylostoma ceylanicum isolated from stray dogs and cats in Guangzhou, south China. Primer pairs CAF/CAR were designed to amplify complete ITS sequences of obtained A. ceylanicum. The results were compared with fourteen ITS reference sequences of human-derived A. ceylanicum registered in GenBank, and phylogenetic trees were established by using NJ and ML methods. The sequence similarity of three dog-derived and five cat-derived A. ceylanicum with fourteen human-derived A. ceylanicum were 96.8%~100% and 97.8%~100%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis placed A. ceylanicum isolated from dogs and cats in the same group with A. ceylanicum human isolates. Due to the ability of A. ceylanicum to cause a patent infection in humans, the zoonotic risk arising from dog and cat reservoirs to communities in this region should be determined.

  18. Characterization of the phytochelatin synthase from the human parasitic nematode Ancylostoma ceylanicum.

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    Rigouin, Coraline; Vermeire, Jon J; Nylin, Elyse; Williams, David L

    2013-09-01

    Hookworm disease is a debilitating worm infection that affects hundreds of millions of people. Despite the existence of anthelmintic drugs, reports have testified of a decrease in efficacy of these drugs. Therefore, it is imperative to find new drugs and drug targets for hookworm disease treatment. In this study we identify the gene encoding the phytochelatin synthase in the human hookworm, Ancylostoma ceylanicum (AcePCS). Phytochelatin synthase catalyzes the production of metal chelating peptides, the phytochelatins, from glutathione (GSH). In plants, algae, and fungi phytochelatin production is important for metal tolerance and detoxification. Phytochelatin synthase proteins also function in the elimination of xenobiotics by processing GSH S-conjugates. We found that in vitro AcePCS could both synthesize phytochelatins and hydrolyze a GSH S-conjugate. Interestingly, the enzyme works through a thiol-dependent and, notably, metal-independent mechanism for both transpeptidase (phytochelatin synthesis) and peptidase (hydrolysis of GSH S-conjugates) activities. AcePCS mRNAs are expressed in vivo throughout the life cycle of A. ceylanicum. Mature adult male hookworms isolated from the small intestines of their hosts displayed significantly enhanced expression of AcePCS with transcript levels 5-fold greater than other developmental forms. Although the role of AcePCS in A. ceylanicum biology has yet to be fully investigated the results reported here provide encouraging evidence of the potential that this enzyme holds as a target for new chemotherapeutic intervention.

  19. Mucosal tolerance of the hookworm Ancylostoma caninum in the gut of naturally infected wild dogs.

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    Constantinoiu, Constantin C; Goullet, Mark S; Constantinoiu, Elena C; Scott, Jenni L

    2015-07-27

    Ancylostoma caninum is a very pathogenic hookworm that locates in the small intestine of the dog and other canid species. The mucosal response of wild dogs naturally infected with A. caninum was investigated in this study. In spite of diffuse infiltrations of the mucosa with CD3(+) , CD4(+) , CD8(+) , CD11c(+) , CD21(+) or MHC class II antigen cells no focal infiltrations with any of these cell phenotypes were observed around the buccal capsule or the body of the feeding worms. Very few or no apoptotic cells could be detected around the worms fixed into the mucosa but they were detected on the tip of villi and in the superficial layer of cellular debris and proteinaceous exudate that covers the mucosa. Muc5AC, a mucine associated with expulsion of gut worms (Trichuris muris) was expressed extremely weakly or was not expressed at all in the intestine of the wild dogs infected with A. caninum. Our data show that individual specimens of A. caninum can reside for some time in the mucosa of the gut of dogs undetected and most likely unaffected by the effectors of the local immune response. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of the Phytochelatin Synthase from the Human Parasitic Nematode Ancylostoma ceylanicum

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    Rigouin, Coraline; Vermeire, Jon J.; Nylin, Elyse; Williams, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Hookworm disease is a debilitating worm infection that affects hundreds of millions of people. Despite the existence of anthelmintic drugs, reports have testified of a decrease in efficacy of these drugs. Therefore, it is imperative to find new drugs and drug targets for hookworm disease treatment. In this study we identify the gene encoding the phytochelatin synthase in the human hookworm, Ancylostoma ceylanicum (AcePCS). Phytochelatin synthase catalyzes the production of metal chelating peptides, the phytochelatins, from glutathione (GSH). In plants, algae, and fungi phytochelatin production is important for metal tolerance and detoxification. Phytochelatin synthase proteins also function in the elimination of xenobiotics by processing GSH S-conjugates. We found that in vitro AcePCS could both synthesize phytochelatins and hydrolyze a GSH S-conjugate. Interestingly, the enzyme works through a thiol-dependant and, notably, metal-independent mechanism for both transpeptidase (phytochelatin synthesis) and peptidase (hydrolysis of GSH S-conjugates) activities. AcePCS mRNAs are expressed in vivo throughout the life cycle of A. ceylanicum. Mature adult male hookworms isolated from the small intestines of their hosts displayed significantly enhanced expression of AcePCS with transcript levels 5-fold greater than other developmental forms. Although the role of AcePCS in A. ceylanicum biology has yet to be fully investigated the results reported here provide encouraging evidence of the potential that this enzyme holds as a target for new chemotherapeutic intervention. PMID:23916800

  1. Survival of Ancylostoma caninum on bare ground, pea gravel, and concrete.

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    Mark, D L

    1975-12-01

    Studies were done to determine the survival of infective Ancylostoma caninum 3rd-stage larvae on 3 ground covers commonly used in dog run construction: bare ground, pea gravel, and concrete. Changes in numbers of recovered larvae were compared to meterologic data and the most significant weather variables were determined. Larvae were recovered 1 to 7 days on bare ground. Larvae survived longer in the fecal mass (mean of 3 days) than on the bare ground (mean of 2 days). Rain was the most significant variable, in that it was positive in its effects (higher larval count) early in the experiment (causing fecal mass breakdown and release of larvae) and negative (lower larval count) later in the experiment (spreading larvae away from test site). Larvae were also recovered 1 to 7 days on pea gravel. They were recovered for a mean 2.6 days from the fecal sample, a mean of 1.5 days from the rocks directly below the fecal mass, and a mean of 1.3 days from the remaining rocks. Here also, rain was the most significant weather factor. It was negatively significant (lower larval count) for the fecal mass (spreading of the larvae) and positive for those in the pebbles (increasing the moisture in the pebbles). Survival time of larvae on concrete was shorter than that on the other 2 substrates: from 0 to 2 days. Larvae were recovered a mean of 1.3 days from the fecal mass and a mean of 0., days from the surrounding concrete. Rain was positively significant early in the experiments in that it released trapped larvae from the fecal mass. Sunlight consistently was negatively significant (lower larval count) due to its lethality to the unprotected larvae.

  2. INMUNOGENICIDAD DE LA PROTEÍNA RECOMBINANTE ASP1R DE Ancylostoma caninum EN UN MODELO MURINO

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    Maria Giraldo G

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Construir un plásmido recombinante que exprese la proteína ASP1r de Ancylostoma caninum y evaluar su capacidad inmunogénica en un modelo murino. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó extracción de ARN de parásitos adultos de Ancylostoma caninum, se amplificó por RT –PCR el gen de la proteína ASP1. Este gen fue insertado en el vector pcDNA3. El inserto fue digerido con Bamh1 y EcoR1 y clonado direccionalmente. Posteriormente, se llevó a cabo transformación y selección de las células de E. coli DH5a competentes con el producto de la ligación. Se realizó un tamizaje por PCR confirmando la presencia del gen ASP1. El vector pcDNA3-ASP1 fue administrado vía intraglandular en la parotida e intramuscular en ratones Balb/c. En estos animales se les realizó determinación de anticuerpos en suero y saliva mediante las técnicas de ELISA e inmunohistoquímica. Resultados. Se determinó que el plásmido pcDNA3-ASP1 fue incorporado y expresado células E. coli DH5a. Este plásmido recombinante indujo la producción de anticuerpos Anti-ASP1 específicos en ratones Balb/c. Conclusiones. Se logró demostrar que la utilización de pcDNA3-ASP1 no produjo reacciones desfavorables en ratones Balb/c, además indujo respuesta humoral contra la proteína pcDNA3-ASP1 de excreción/secreción de Ancylostoma caninum en ratones.

  3. Peroxiredoxin-1 from the human hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum forms a stable oxidized decamer and is covalently inhibited by conoidin A.

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    Nguyen, Jennifer B; Pool, Christopher D; Wong, Christina Y B; Treger, Rebecca S; Williams, David L; Cappello, Michael; Lea, Wendy A; Simeonov, Anton; Vermeire, Jon J; Modis, Yorgo

    2013-08-22

    Hookworms are parasitic nematodes that have a devastating impact on global health, particularly in developing countries. We report a biochemical and structural analysis of a peroxiredoxin from the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum, AcePrx-1. Peroxiredoxins provide antioxidant protection and act as signaling molecules and chaperones. AcePrx-1 is expressed in adult hookworms and can be inactivated by 2,3-bis(bromomethyl)quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide (conoidin A). Conoidin A inactivates AcePrx-1 by alkylating or crosslinking the catalytic cysteines, while maintaining the enzyme in the "locally unfolded" conformation. Irreversible oxidation of the resolving cysteine may contribute additional inhibitory activity. A crystal structure of oxidized AcePrx-1 reveals a disulfide-linked decamer. A helix macrodipole near the active site increases the reactivity of the catalytic cysteines to conoidin A. This work demonstrates the promise of conoidin compounds as probes to evaluate peroxiredoxins as drug targets in human parasites.

  4. Stoibocephalum n. gen. (Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea) from the sharkray, Rhina ancylostoma Bloch & Schneider (Elasmobranchii: Rhinopristiformes), from northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cielocha, Joanna J; Jensen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    A new genus and species of lecanicephalidean cestode, Stoibocephalum arafurense n. gen., n. sp., is described from the sharkray, Rhina ancylostoma Bloch & Schneider, off northern Australia. Stoibocephalum arafurense n. gen., n. sp. is apolytic, and possesses a large, muscular, retractable apical organ, 3 pairs of excretory vessels, and testes in several columns and layers. The presence of 3 pairs of excretory vessels distinguishes this new genus from all other valid lecanicephalidean genera, except Hexacanalis Perrenoud, 1931, from which it can be distinguished based on ovary shape and egg morphology. Stoibocephalum n. gen. most closely resembles Tylocephalum Linton, 1890 but differs from that genus in its ability to completely retract its apical organ into the scolex proper. Scolex microthrix pattern and histological sections of scoleces attached in situ suggest S. arafurense n. gen., n. sp. to attach to the host's intestinal mucosa with apical organ and scolex proper surfaces, rather than just the apical organ surface. This is the third lecanicephalidean species described from the sharkray.

  5. A Multiplex PCR for Simultaneous Detection of Three Zoonotic Parasites Ancylostoma ceylanicum, A. caninum, and Giardia lamblia Assemblage A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Wu, Sheng; Yu, Xingang; Abullahi, Auwalu Yusuf; Song, Meiran; Tan, Liping; Wang, Zhen; Jiang, Biao; Li, Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum, A. caninum, and Giardia lamblia assemblage A are common intestinal parasites of dogs and cats; they can also infect humans, causing parasitic zoonoses. In this study, a multiplex PCR method was developed for simultaneous identification and detection of those three zoonotic parasites. Three pairs of specific primers were designed based on ITS sequence of A. ceylanicum and A. caninum and TPI gene of G. lamblia available in the GenBank. The multiplex PCR reaction system was established by optimizing the reaction condition, and a series of tests on the sensitivity, specificity, and clinical application were also conducted. Results showed that three target fragments were amplified specifically; the detection limit was 10 eggs for both A. ceylanicum and A. caninum, 72 pg DNA for G. lamblia. Of 112 clinical fecal samples, 34.8% and 17.8% samples were positive for A. caninum and A. ceylanicum, respectively, while only 2.7% samples were positive for G. lamblia assemblage A. It is concluded that the established multiplex PCR assay is a convenient, rapid, cost-effective, and high-efficiency method for molecular detection and epidemiological investigation of three zoonotic parasites.

  6. Transcriptional changes in the hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, during the transition from a free-living to a parasitic larva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett J D Datu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Third-stage larvae (L3 of the canine hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, undergo arrested development preceding transmission to a host. Many of the mRNAs up-regulated at this stage are likely to encode proteins that facilitate the transition from a free-living to a parasitic larva. The initial phase of mammalian host invasion by A. caninum L3 (herein termed "activation" can be mimicked in vitro by culturing L3 in serum-containing medium. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The mRNAs differentially transcribed between activated and non-activated L3 were identified by suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH. The analysis of these mRNAs on a custom oligonucleotide microarray printed with the SSH expressed sequence tags (ESTs and publicly available A. caninum ESTs (non-subtracted yielded 602 differentially expressed mRNAs, of which the most highly represented sequences encoded members of the pathogenesis-related protein (PRP superfamily and proteases. Comparison of these A. caninum mRNAs with those of Caenorhabditis elegans larvae exiting from developmental (dauer arrest demonstrated unexpectedly large differences in gene ontology profiles. C. elegans dauer exiting L3 up-regulated expression of mostly intracellular molecules involved in growth and development. Such mRNAs are virtually absent from activated hookworm larvae, and instead are over-represented by mRNAs encoding extracellular proteins with putative roles in host-parasite interactions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although this should not invalidate C. elegans dauer exit as a model for hookworm activation, it highlights the limitations of this free-living nematode as a model organism for the transition of nematode larvae from a free-living to a parasitic state.

  7. Avaliação dos efeitos de fármacos imunomoduladores na infecção de Hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus, POR Ancylostoma ceylanicum (Loss, 1911)

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Regina Costa Dias

    2011-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, no hamster, os efeitos imuno-parasitológicos da administração de fármacos imunomoduladores na infecção por Ancylostoma ceylanicum. Foram avaliadas quatro classes de drogas (imunossupressores, anticorpos anti-linfocitários, anti-inflamatórios e anti-histamínicos). Entre os imunosspressores, foram testadas a ciclosporina A (CsA) e a prednisolona. Os resultados mostraram que o tratamento com CsA, não interfere na ancilostomíase experimental. Já o tratame...

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of a C-type lectin from Ancylostoma ceylanicum: evidence for a role in hookworm reproductive physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Allison C.; Harrison, Lisa M.; Kapulkin, Wadim; Jones, Brian F.; Sinha, Anindita; Savage, Amy; Villalon, Nicholas; Cappello, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Lectins comprise a family of related proteins that mediate essential cell functions through binding to carbohydrates. Within this protein family, C-type lectins are defined by the requirement of calcium for optimal biologic activity. Using reverse transcription PCR, a cDNA corresponding to a putative C-type lectin has been amplified from the hookworm parasite Ancylostoma ceylanicum. The 550 nucleotide open reading frame of the Ancylostoma ceylanicum C-type Lectin-1 (AceCTL-1) cDNA corresponds to a 167 amino acid mature protein (18706 Da) preceded by a 17 amino acid secretory signal sequence. The recombinant protein (rAceCTL-1) was expressed in Drosophila S2 cells and purified using a combination of affinity chromatography and reverse phase HPLC. Using in vitro carbohydrate binding studies, it was determined that rAceCTL-1 binds N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, a common component of eukaryotic egg cell membranes. Using a polyclonal IgG raised against the recombinant protein, the native AceCTL-1 was identified in sperm and soluble protein extracts of adult male A. ceylanicum by immunoblot. Probing of adult hookworm sections with the polyclonal IgG demonstrated localization to the testes in males, as well as the spermatheca and developing embryos in females, consistent with its role as a sperm protein. Together, these data strongly suggest that AceCTL-1 is a male gender-specific C-type lectin with a function in hookworm reproductive physiology. PMID:17129620

  9. Ancylostoma ceylanicum Excretory-Secretory Protein 2 Adopts a Netrin-Like Fold and Defines a Novel Family of Nematode Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K Kucera; L Harrison; M Cappello; Y Modis

    2011-12-31

    Hookworms are human parasites that have devastating effects on global health, particularly in underdeveloped countries. Ancylostoma ceylanicum infects humans and animals, making it a useful model organism to study disease pathogenesis. A. ceylanicum excretory-secretory protein 2 (AceES-2), a highly immunoreactive molecule secreted by adult worms at the site of intestinal attachment, is partially protective when administered as a mucosal vaccine against hookworm anemia. The crystal structure of AceES-2 determined at 1.75 {angstrom} resolution shows that it adopts a netrin-like fold similar to that found in tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteases (TIMPs) and in complement factors C3 and C5. However, recombinant AceES-2 does not significantly inhibit the 10 most abundant human matrix metalloproteases or complement-mediated cell lysis. The presence of a highly acidic surface on AceES-2 suggests that it may function as a cytokine decoy receptor. Several small nematode proteins that have been annotated as TIMPs or netrin-domain-containing proteins display sequence homology in structurally important regions of AceES-2's netrin-likefold. Together, our results suggest that AceES-2 defines a novel family of nematode netrin-like proteins, which may function to modulate the host immune response to hookworm and other parasites.

  10. Molecular cloning of a cysteine proteinase cDNA from adult Ancylostoma ceylanicum by the method of rapid amplification of cDNA ends using polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieszczanek, J; Kofta, W; Wedrychowicz, H

    2000-12-01

    The hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum is a parasite of great importance in human and veterinary medicine. The most promising vaccination trials against hookworm infections are based on antigens belonging to the proteinase family. The aim of the present research was to isolate a cysteine proteinase gene from A. ceylanicum. This was achieved by rapid amplification of cDNA ends using polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR). A set of consensus oligonucleotide primers was designed to anneal to the conserved coding regions of cysteine proteinase. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced. The novel sequence displayed a high degree of homology with genes of cysteine proteinases known from other hookworm species. In the coding region the nucleotide identity with accp-1, the cysteine proteinase gene of A. caninum, reaches 84.3%. Analysis of the expression of acey-1. the cysteine proteinase gene of A. ceylanicum, suggests that it is produced exclusively in the gland cells of either adult worms or blood-feeding stages of A. ceylanicum.

  11. Effect of experimental single Ancylostoma caninum and mixed infections of Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma congolense on the humoural immune response to anti-rabies vaccination in dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nwoha Rosemary Ijeoma Ogechi; Anene Boniface Maduka

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the effect of Ancylostoma caninum (A. caninum) and trypanosome parasites on the immune response to vaccination in dogs in endemic environments. Methods:Sixteen dogs for the experiment were grouped into 4 of 4 members each. Group I was the uninfected control one, and GPII was infected with A. caninum; GPIII was infected with A. caninum/Trypanosoma congolense (T. congolense), and GPIV was infected with Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei)/A. caninum. The dogs were first vaccinated with antirabies vaccine before infecting GPII, GPIII and GPIV with A. caninum which were done 4 weeks after vaccination. By 2-week post-vaccination, trypanosome parasites were superimposed on both GPIII and GPIV. A secondary vaccination was given to GPI, GPII, GPIII, and GPIV by Week 12 of the experiment (4 weeks post treatment). Results:The prepatent period was (3.00 ± 1.40) days, in the conjunct infection of T. brucei/A. caninum. It was (9.00 ± 1.10) days, in conjunct T. congolense/A. caninum. The prepatent period of A. caninum was (14.0 ± 2.0) days in the single A. caninum group and (13.0 ± 1.0) days in the conjunct trypanosome/A. caninum. At the 1st week after vaccination, the antibody titer in all the vaccinated groups (GPI, GPII, GPIII, and GPIV) significantly increased (P Conclusions:It was therefore concluded that A. caninum, T. brucei and T. congolense induced immunosuppression in antirabies vaccination in dogs.

  12. Real-time PCR demonstrates Ancylostoma duodenale is a key factor in the etiology of severe anemia and iron deficiency in Malawian pre-school children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femkje A M Jonker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hookworm infections are an important cause of (severe anemia and iron deficiency in children in the tropics. Type of hookworm species (Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus and infection load are considered associated with disease burden, although these parameters are rarely assessed due to limitations of currently used diagnostic methods. Using multiplex real-time PCR, we evaluated hookworm species-specific prevalence, infection load and their contribution towards severe anemia and iron deficiency in pre-school children in Malawi. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: A. duodenale and N. americanus DNA loads were determined in 830 fecal samples of pre-school children participating in a case control study investigating severe anemia. Using multiplex real-time PCR, hookworm infections were found in 34.1% of the severely anemic cases and in 27.0% of the non-severely anemic controls (p<0.05 whereas a 5.6% hookworm prevalence was detected by microscopy. Prevalence of A. duodenale and N. americanus was 26.1% and 4.9% respectively. Moderate and high load A. duodenale infections were positively associated with severe anemia (adjusted odds ratio: 2.49 (95%CI 1.16-5.33 and 9.04 (95%CI 2.52-32.47 respectively. Iron deficiency (assessed through bone marrow examination was positively associated with intensity of A. duodenale infection (adjusted odds ratio: 3.63 (95%CI 1.18-11.20; 16.98 (95%CI 3.88-74.35 and 44.91 (95%CI 5.23-385.77 for low, moderate and high load respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report assessing the association of hookworm load and species differentiation with severe anemia and bone marrow iron deficiency. By revealing a much higher than expected prevalence of A. duodenale and its significant and load-dependent association with severe anemia and iron deficiency in pre-school children in Malawi, we demonstrated the need for quantitative and species-specific screening of hookworm infections. Multiplex real

  13. Studies on Immunological Reaction of Ancylostoma canimum Recombinant Protein Ac—rAsp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WenLi-yong; HotezPJ

    2001-01-01

    目的 分析犬钩虫基因重组蛋白Ac-rAsp,以了解该候选疫苗蛋白的免疫反应性。方法 采用SDS-PAGE和ELIB技术。结果 重组Ac-rAsp-I蛋白组分为45kDa,其免疫血清能识别Ac-L3抗原和Ac-rAsp-1蛋白,不与Ad-A、Ad-L3、Na-A、Ac-A、Nb-A抗原和Ac-rAsp-2蛋白起反应;重组Ac-rAsp-2蛋白组分为24kDa,其免疫血清能识别Ad-A、Ad-L3、Na-A、Ac-A、Ac-L3抗原和Ac-rAsp-2蛋白,不与Nb-A抗原和Ac-rAsp-1蛋白起反应。结论 该结果为钩虫免疫学和疫苗研究提供基础资料。

  14. Hookworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hookworm disease; Ground itch; Ancylostoma duodenale infection; Necator americanus infection; Parasitic infection - hookworm ... The infection is caused by infestation with any of the following ... Ancylostoma duodenale Ancylostoma ceylanicum Ancylostoma ...

  15. Eficácia do fembendazol e do pamoato de pirantel sobre Ancylostoma sp. e Toxocara canis, parasitos intestinais de cães

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Rogério Oliva

    2004-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia individual do fembendazol e do pamoato de pirantel contra nematóides intestinais de cães. Para tal, foram utilizados 36 filhotes de cães, sendo 18 machos e 18 fêmeas com menos de seis meses de idade , provenientes do canil do Departamento de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, selecionados por meio de exames coprológicos de Willis, sedimentação simples e contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG). Foram utilizados os animais que ap...

  16. A case with Ancylostoma duodenale larvae in ascitic acid%腹水中发现十二指肠钩虫幼虫一例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张潞渝; 朱朝君; 张静

    2000-01-01

    @@ 患者,男性,72岁.5年前从辽宁省沈阳市来到重庆市居住.因不明原因的腹胀、厌油、纳差和乏力,随后出现腹部进行性膨隆2 wk,于1999年8月30日入重庆市巴南区第二人民医院就诊.体检:体温36.8℃,心率80次/min,律齐,呼吸20次/min,BP14/7 kPa,眼睑水肿,双下肢轻微水肿.B超:脾大,肝区回声增粗,门静脉及脾静脉扩张,腹腔大量积液,门诊以"腹水待查”收治入院.腹穿:取半侧卧位,以脐与左侧髂前上棘连线的中外1/3处为穿刺点,用9号穿刺针头抽出淡黄色透明液体1 500ml,内见线状虫体3条,其中一条送病理科,另两条送我室鉴定.临床拟诊断血吸虫性肝硬化.虫种鉴定:肉眼观察,虫体乳白色半透明细线状,一条虫体中部有破损,头尾均完整.

  17. NAMRU-3 Reprint Accession List 1983. Number 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Albendazole in the Treatment of Ancylostoma duodenale and AscAris lumbricoides Infections. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 77(2):160-11 1983. 1340 MANSOUR...synthesis 1345 CHEMOTHERAPY Albendazole in the treatment of Ancylostoma duodenale infection 1339 Albendazole in the treatment of Ascaris lumbricoides infection...tuberculous-meningitis 1350 PARASITOLOGY Amoebic.liver abscess 1330 Ancylostoma duodenale 1339 Ascaris lumbricoides 1339 Fasciola gigantica 1342

  18. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum... for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii) Limitations. Do...

  19. 77 FR 47511 - New Animal Drugs; Cephalexin; Fentanyl; Milbemycin Oxime and Praziquantel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... (Ancylostoma caninum), adult whipworm (Trichuris vulpis), and adult tapeworm (Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus... tapeworm (Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus multilocularis, and E. granulosus) infections in dogs and...

  20. 21 CFR 520.903d - Febantel-praziquantel paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... caninum and Taenia pisiformis). (ii) Cats and kittens: For removal of hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme), ascarids (Toxocara cati) and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis). (3) Limitations....

  1. Disease: H01092 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rity of human hookworm infections are caused by Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus. These worms att...ociated with varying degrees of cognitive and growth delay in children. Infectious disease Ancylostoma duode...M, Savioli L Hookworm infection and disease: advances for control. Ann Ist Super Sanita 33:567-79 (1997) ...

  2. 阿苯达唑、氟苯达唑、芬苯达唑和吡喹酮对犬钩口线虫卵的作用%Effect of abdendazole,flubendazole,fenbendazole and praziquantel on Ancylostoma caninum eggs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许正敏; 李智山; 孙莉; 武小樱; 陶永平; 李明华

    2007-01-01

    目的 观察阿苯达唑、芬苯达唑、氟苯达唑和吡喹酮对犬钩口线虫卵作用.方法 分别将药物与标本充分混匀,置于固体培养基滤纸上,用竹签轻轻的均匀按压,使之与滤纸广泛、紧密接触,盖上平皿盖.放350C培养(孵化)箱培养,分别将培养物,用水洗沉淀后的沉淀物镜下观察.结果 培养24h后,对照组,镜下可见正常发育钩蚴;阿苯达唑组之虫卵与培养前虫卵形态结构相似,但未见发育.氟苯达唑组,可见卵细胞分裂.芬苯达唑组虫卵发育成含胚卵.吡喹酮组之虫卵发育成含卷曲钩蚴.结论 阿苯达唑对虫卵发育有明显的抑制作用,氟苯达唑次之.芬苯达唑和吡喹酮对虫卵发育无抑制作用.

  3. STUDY ON THE POTENCY OF IVERMECTIN AGAINST NIPPOSTRONGYLUS BRAZILIENSIS , ANCYLOSTOMA CARINUM EGGS AND LARVAE%伊维菌素抗巴西日圆线虫感染及对犬钩虫卵和杆状蚴的药效研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓立君; 王继春; 梁再赋

    2000-01-01

    目的为提供国产伊维菌素临床应用的科学依据,本文就其抗巴西日圆线虫感染及对犬钩虫卵和杆状蚴的作用进行了体内及体外的实验研究。方法取巴西日圆线虫卵用滤纸培养法进行体外培养,收集感染性幼虫经皮接种Wistai大鼠;采用水洗沉淀法收集钩虫卵,通过试管滤纸法培养杆状蚴。结果伊维菌素投与量在0.1mg/kg~0.3mg/kg,对中度感染巴西日圆线虫的大鼠具有明显的驱虫效果,0.1mg/kg时的驱虫率为92.07±5.66%,0.3mg/kg时的驱虫率为100%。而左旋咪唑投与量在15mg/kg时,才能取得与伊维菌素相同的驱虫效果。伊维菌素在0.005mg/ml~0.1mg/ml的范围内均有杀灭钩虫卵的作用,而相同剂量的左旋咪唑未见有此作用。然而伊维菌素在0.001mg/ml~0.3mg/ml剂量范围内对犬钩虫杆状蚴虽有一定的杀灭作用,但其效果低于相同浓度的左旋咪唑。结论进一步揭示伊维菌素对某些寄生虫具有高效的杀灭作用。

  4. Record on Three Cases of Severe Infection Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichostrongylus orientalis and Strongyloides stercoralis%十二指肠钩虫、东方毛圆线虫和粪类圆线虫3例重度感染的记述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪家旭; 潘沧桑; 牛建军; 刘凡; 王阶平

    2010-01-01

    从病原学、个案感染史、症状和体征等方面,对近几年寄生虫病项目进行调查,确诊了十二指肠钩虫、东方毛圆线虫和粪类圆线虫各1例重度感染者,其每克粪虫卵数(EPG)分别为3 744,3 016,4 139.其中,前者是其他医院误诊的对象,后两者是闽西南人体感染的首次报道.人群抽样调查结果表明,厦门市某农村钩虫感染率高达44.86%,应引起高度关注.

  5. An extensive comparison of the effect of anthelmintic classes on diverse nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil-transmitted helminths are parasitic nematodes that inhabit the human intestine. These parasites, which include two hookworm species, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus, the whipworm Trichuris trichiura, and the large roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides, infect upwards of two billion people...

  6. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (Ancylostoma tubaeforme), and large roundworms (Toxocara cati) in cats and kittens. (iii) Limitations. Not for use in kittens less than 1 month of age or weighing less than 1.5 pounds. May be given directly...

  7. Application of a Multiplex Quantitative PCR to Assess Prevalence and Intensity Of Intestinal Parasite Infections in a Controlled Clinical Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llewellyn, Stacey; Inpankaew, Tawin; Nery, Susana Vaz;

    2016-01-01

    multiplex real-time PCR reactions the first targeting: Necator americanus, Ancylostoma spp., Ascaris spp., and Trichuris trichiura; and the second Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia. duodenalis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Samples were also subject to sodium nitrate flotation...

  8. 21 CFR 520.905b - Fenbendazole granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... stenocephala), whipworms (Trichuris vulpis), and tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis). (iii) Limitations. Mix the... (Panthera onca): Ascarid (Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina), Hookworm (Ancylostoma spp.), Tapeworm (Taenia hydatigena, T. krabbei, T. taeniaeformis). (D) Black Bear (Ursus americanus): Ascarid...

  9. Freqüência de parasitos gastrintestinais em cães e gatos atendidos em hospital-escola veterinário da cidade de São Paulo Frequency of gastrointestinal parasites in dogs and cats referred to a veterinary school hospital in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Funada

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Fecal samples from 1755 dogs and 327 cats were examined for the presence of helminths and protozoan forms. From the total samples, 486 (27.7% dogs and 103 (31.5% cats presented at least one parasite. The main genus of parasite in dogs were Ancylostoma (12.7%, Giardia (8.5%, Cystoisosopora (4.4%, Toxocara (2.6%, and Cryptosporidium (2.4%. The ocurrence of Ancylostoma was associated to male dogs, older than one year, while Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Cystoisospora and Toxocara were associated to dogs younger than one year (P<0.05. Among cats, the most frequent parasites were Cryptosporidium (11.3%, Giardia (8.3%, Cystoisosopora (8.3%, Toxocara (6.1%, and Ancylostoma (2.1%. Cryptosporidium and Cystoisosopora were more prevalent in cats younger than one year (P < 0.05.

  10. Multiparasitism in a wild cat (Leopardus colocolo (Carnivora: Felidae in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Trevisan Gressler

    Full Text Available Abstract Parasitic diseases reflect the health and balance of ecosystems, affecting not only individuals but also entire populations or communities. The aim of this study was to report on the diversity of parasitic helminths detected in the feces of a wild feline in southern Brazil. Parasites were obtained from fecal samples, and four techniques were used for parasitological examination: direct examination, centrifugal flotation with zinc sulfate (Faust technique, simple sedimentation (Hoffman technique and Baermann-Moraes. The parasites were identified through micrometry and morphology, as follows: Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara sp., Trichuridae, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Alaria sp., and Spirometra sp. We recorded the genus Ancylostoma parasitizing L. colocolo for the first time.

  11. Algunas observaciones sobre parasitismo intestinal en escolares de Iquitos

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    Luis Gonzales-Mugaburu

    1955-12-01

    Full Text Available El examen parasitológico de 100 escolares de la ciudad de Iquitos, en dos fechas diferentes, ha confirmado una vez más el alto porcentaje a Ancylostoma o Necator (98.5%. La repetición del examen parasitológico ha rendido un mayor porcentaje a Strongyloides stercoralis (60.6% que el señalado por otros autores. La intensidad del parasitismo por Ancylostoma o Necator es más o menos similar a la ya conocida.

  12. Freqüência de helmintos em gatos de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais Frequency of helminthes parasites in cats of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C.D. Mundim

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Necropsies in 50 cats, males and females of different ages were performed from August 2000 to December 2001. Forty five (90% of them had parasites. Eleven cats (22% had single infection, 34 (75.6% multiple infection, and only 5 (10% were free of infection. The parasitic frequencies were as follow: Platynosomum fastosum (40%, Ancylostoma braziliensis (38%, Physaloptera praeputialis (34%, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (18%, Dipylidium caninum (14%, Ancylostoma caninum (14%, Toxocara mistax (14%, Toxocara canis (10%, Trichuris campanula (6%, Toxascaris leonina (4%, Spirometra mansonoides (4%, Taenia taeniaeformis (4% e Trichuris vulpis (2%.

  13. Efficacy of pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin for the treatment of canine nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Jesus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficacy of pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin on gastrointestinal nematodes in dogs. Fecal egg counts per gram (EPG were measured by the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT in order to evaluate the anthelmintic efficiency and fecal float exams were also performed to assess the concordance between coproparasitological techniques. A total of 45 naturally infected dogs in the city of Bandeirantes, Paraná State, were selected and divided into three groups: Group 1, 15 animals that received pyrantel pamoate (145 mg in a single dose; Group 2, 15 animals that received ivermectin (3 mg; and Group 3, 15 animals that comprised an untreated control group. Fecal testing was performed two and 10 days after treatment. Toxocara was the most prevalent genus, followed by Ancylostoma and Trichuris. Ancylostoma had low resistance to ivermectin and pyrantel pamoate treatment, while Toxocara were resistant to both treatments. Statistical correlation testing to compare coproparasitogical techniques revealed moderate concordance, substantial and almost perfect concordance for detection of Ancylostoma, Trichuris, and Toxocara, respectively. The results of this study suggest that the gender Ancylostoma had low resistance and Toxocara is resistant to both drugs and because of their high prevalence in young animals means that others anthelmintic drugs may be recommended to combat infections. Additionally, the Gordon and Whitlock modified and Willis-Mollay techniques are effective for detection particularly of Toxocara in dogs.

  14. Technology for Waste Treatment at Remote Army Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    Chollenge Dose (log 10 ) ILow IMedium High ORGANISM 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11111111111KEYc 1. Ascaris lumbricoides t ____o 2. Ancylostoma duodenale...histolytica ង but usually - 10 cysts Helminths Ascaris lumbricoides Many rnontns eggs 171 APPENDIX J: INPUT WASTE CHARACTERIZATION Domestic composting

  15. 21 CFR 520.903e - Febantel tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... kittens or 163.3 milligrams of febantel for use in dogs, puppies, and cats. (b) Sponsor. See 000859 in... kilogram body weight. Administer once daily for 3 consecutive days. (ii) Puppies and kittens fewer than 6...) For removal of hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme) and ascarids (Toxocara cati) in cats and kittens....

  16. ECENT ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE OF SOIL-TRANSMITTED HELMINTHS

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    Paul C. Beaver

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available New observations in recent years have accented differences between the two common hookworms, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus,"nwith respect to modes of transmision and pathogenicity, and have established Ancylostoma ceylanicum as a species distinct from A. braziliense. Transmammary and paratenic transmission are now considered to be natural modes of infection in Ancylostoma caninum and possibly 111 other Ancylostoma species including A. duodenale, but not in Necator. The question of relative blood losses from laceration hemorrhage and blood-sucking in hookworm anemia is unresolved. The prevalence of Loeffler's syndrome in pulmonary ascariasis appears to be greatest in areas where transmission is sharply seasonal. Recent studies have failed to confirm reports of blood-sucking by Trichuris. Milk-borne transmission from mother to the newborn has been demonstrated for numberous species of Strongyloides not including S. stercoralis. Zoonotic soil-transmitted helminths 0; dogs and cats have become recognized as frequently causing visceral larva migrans and occasionally blindness in most parts of the world. Two major advances were made in diagnostic techniques - the Harada-Mori test-tube hookworm culture for species diagnosis and the Kato cellophane-covered thick fecal film ror ranid and quantitative diagnosis of intestinal helminth infections.

  17. 21 CFR 524.2098 - Selamectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Dirofilaria immitis, and treatment and control of ear mite (Otodectes cynotis) infestations in dogs and cats. Treatment and control of sarcoptic mange (Sarcoptes scabiei) and control of tick (Dermacentor variabilis) infestations in dogs. Treatment and control of intestinal hookworm (Ancylostoma tubaeforme) and...

  18. Ocorrência de larva migrans na areia de áreas de lazer das escolas municipais de ensino infantil, Araçatuba, SP, Brasil Presence of larva migrans in sand boxes of public elementary schools, Brazil

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    Cáris M Nunes

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A areia das áreas de lazer de escolas podem constituir vias de transmissão para várias zoonoses parasitárias, representando risco potencial para as crianças que brincam nesses locais. Foi avaliada a ocorrência de agentes de larva migrans em 28 escolas municipais de ensino infantil de Araçatuba, SP. Foram colhidas 535 amostras de areia das áreas de lazer dessas escolas nos meses de janeiro (verão e julho (inverno de 1997 para estabelecimento da freqüência de isolamento de larvas e/ou ovos de Ancylostoma spp. e de ovos de Toxocara spp., pelos métodos de centrífugo-flutuação e de Baermann, respectivamente. A presença de larvas de Ancylostoma spp. foi observada, em pelo menos uma das amostras, em 35,7% (10/28 das amostras da primeira colheita (verão e em 46,4% (13/28 quando da segunda colheita (inverno. Ovos de Toxocara spp. não foram encontrados e a presença de ovos de Ancylostoma spp. foi observada em 0,56% (3/535 das amostras.There are sandboxes in public elementary school playground areas in Brazil, which can be harmful to children. They are at risk of cutaneous and visceral larva migrans infection caused by Ancylostoma spp. and Toxocara spp., respectively. The study was designed to investigate contamination by Toxocara spp. and/or their eggs and Ancylostoma spp. larvae in sand samples collected from the schools' sandboxes. Five hundred and thirty-five sand samples from 28 public elementary schools were collected during summer and winter and analyzed by both Baermann´s method and centrifugal flotation technique. Ancylostoma spp. larvae were found in 35.7% (10/28 schools in summer time and in 46.4% (13/28 schools in the winter time. Eggs of Toxocara spp. could not be recovered from the samples analyzed and eggs from Ancylostoma spp. were seen in 0.56% (3/535 of the samples.

  19. INTESTINAL PARASITES IN IRAN

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    K. Mohammad

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the status and epidemiology of Intestinal Parasites in Iran. The information was driven from an extensive Health Survey which was done by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, deputy of Research Affairs in 1990-92. Sampling fraction was 1 per 1000 of individuals aged between 2 and 69, the sampling method was cluster sampling and each cluster consisted of 7 families. Formal-ether was the method of finding parasites which included: Oxior, Ascariasis, Giardiasis, Entamoeba-histolytica, Tinea, Strongyloidiasis, Ancylostoma, and Trichocephaliasis. The highest prevalence rate belonged to Giardiasis with 14.4% and the lowest one belonged to Tinea and Ancylostoma with 0.2%. The prevalence rate in rural area was significantly lower than urban area (p<0.0001.

  20. Contaminação ambiental por ovos e larvas de helmintos em fezes de cães na área central do Balneário Cassino, Rio Grande do Sul Environmental contamination by helminth eggs and larvae in dog feces from central area of Cassino beach, Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos James Scaini

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Para investigar a presença de helmintos, agentes de zoonoses parasitárias, foram examinadas 237 amostras fecais de cães, na área central do principal balneário do litoral sul do Rio Grande do Sul. As principais contaminações foram: ovos e larvas do gênero Ancylostoma (71,3%, ovos de Trichuris (32,5% e Toxocara (9,3%.In order to investigate the presence of helminthes agents of parasitic zoonoses, were examined 237 fecal samples of dogs from central area of the main beach of south coast of Rio Grande do Sul State. The eggs and larvae of genus Ancylostoma (71.3% and Trichuris (32.5% and Toxocara eggs (9.3% were the most prevalent parasites detected.

  1. SOIL CONTAMINATION IN PUBLIC SQUARES IN BELO HORIZONTE, MINAS GERAIS, BY CANINE PARASITES IN DIFFERENT DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Madureira Ribeiro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY To evaluate soil contamination by parasites in different developmental stages in public squares used as recreation and leisure areas for children in Belo Horizonte (MG, Brazil, 210 soil samples and 141 canine fecal samples were collected from 42 squares in the city. These samples were analyzed by the Caldwell and Caldwell technique and the Hoffman, Pons, and Janer technique. Of the samples analyzed, 89 (42.4% soil samples and 104 (73.5% fecal samples were contaminated with Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara sp., Trichuris sp., or Dipylidium sp. eggs; Giardia sp. cysts; or Isospora sp. oocysts. The commonest parasite was Ancylostoma sp., found in 85% soil and 99% fecal samples, followed by Toxocara sp., found in 43.7% soil and 30.7% fecal samples.

  2. A Pentaplex Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Detection of Four Species of Soil-Transmitted Helminths

    OpenAIRE

    Basuni, Madihah; Muhi, Jamail; Othman, Nurulhasanah; Verweij, Jaco J.; Ahmad, Maimunah; Miswan, Noorizan; Rahumatullah, Anizah; Aziz, Farhanah Abdul; Zainudin, Nurul Shazalina; Noordin, Rahmah

    2011-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections remain a major public health burden in low- and middle-income countries. The traditional diagnosis by microscopic examination of fecal samples is insensitive and time-consuming. In this study, a pentaplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was evaluated for the simultaneous detection of Ancylostoma, Necator americanus, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides stercoralis. The results were compared with those obtained by conventional parasitological d...

  3. A Novel, Multi-Parallel, Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Approach for Eight Gastrointestinal Parasites Provides Improved Diagnostic Capabilities to Resource-Limited At-Risk Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Mejia, Rojelio; Vicuña, Yosselin; Broncano, Nely; Sandoval, Carlos; Vaca, Maritza; Chico, Martha; Cooper, Philip J.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of gastrointestinal parasites has traditionally relied on stool microscopy, which has low diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. We have developed a novel, rapid, high-throughput quantitative multi-parallel real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) platform. Species-specific primers/probes were used for eight common gastrointestinal parasite pathogens: Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba histolytica, Tri...

  4. Hookworm infection: A neglected tropical disease of mankind

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammed Hossain; Jamal Uddin Bhuiyan

    2016-01-01

    Hookworm infection, a global problem of human, is caused by both Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. These parasites are considered as important blood feeding nematodes. Hookworm is usually prevalent among the people who live with low socio-economic status. However, this tropical disease is neglected in most cases. This review was aimed at investigating the insights of hookworm infection of human considering its epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, treatmen...

  5. Development and evaluation of a Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) technique for the detection of hookworm (Necator americanus) infection in fecal samples

    OpenAIRE

    Mugambi, Robert Muriuki; Agola, Eric L.; Ibrahim N Mwangi; Kinyua, Johnson; Shiraho, Esther Andia; Mkoji, Gerald M

    2015-01-01

    Background Hookworm infection is a major concern in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in children and pregnant women. Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale are responsible for this condition. Hookworm disease is one of the Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) that are targeted for elimination through global mass chemotherapy. To support this there is a need for reliable diagnostic tools. The conventional diagnostic test, Kato-Katz that is based on microscopic detection of parasite ova in ...

  6. Molecular Diagnostics for Soil-Transmitted Helminths

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, Elise M.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) (e.g., Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, and Ascaris lumbricoides) has relied on often-insensitive microscopy techniques. Over the past several years, there has been an effort to use molecular diagnostics, particularly quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), to detect intestinal pathogens. While some platforms have been approved by regulatory bodies (e.g., Food and ...

  7. New records of three species of nematodes in Cerdocyon thous from the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Ana Paula Nascimento; Olifiers, Natalie; Santos, Michele Maria Dos; Simões, Raquel de Oliveira; Maldonado Júnior, Arnaldo

    2015-01-01

    We report the occurrence of nematodes collected from the gut of roadkilled crab-eating foxes (two adult males and one juvenile female), Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766), found on the BR 262 highway in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil in 2011. Three helminth species were identified: Ancylostoma buckleyi, Pterygodermatites (Multipectines) pluripectinata, and Ascaridia galli. These nematodes are reported for the first time to infect C. thous from the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands, thereby expanding their geographical distribution.

  8. Keanekaragaman Jenis Parasit Dari Feses Orangutan Sumatera (Pongo Abelii) Liar, Rehabilitasi, Dan Reintroduksi Di Sumatera Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Dalimunthe, Nurzaidah Putri

    2016-01-01

    Research about “ Spesies Diversity of Parasites in Orangutan (Pongo abelii) Wild, Rehabilitation, Reintroduction at North Sumatera” has been conducted from march until november 2012. The research purposed to identify parasites in in orangutan (Pongo abelii) wild, rehabilitation, reintroduction at Sumatera Utara. The research has got 9 species parasites worm egg such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma sp., Strongyloides sp., Metastrongylus sp., dan Oesophagostomum., Taenia sp., sp1, sp.2, a...

  9. Stray animal and human defecation as sources of soil-transmitted helminth eggs in playgrounds of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Zain, S N; Rahman, R; Lewis, J W

    2015-11-01

    Soil contaminated with helminth eggs and protozoan cysts is a potential source of infection and poses a threat to the public, especially to young children frequenting playgrounds. The present study determines the levels of infection of helminth eggs in soil samples from urban and suburban playgrounds in five states in Peninsular Malaysia and identifies one source of contamination via faecal screening from stray animals. Three hundred soil samples from 60 playgrounds in five states in Peninsular Malaysia were screened using the centrifugal flotation technique to identify and determine egg/cyst counts per gram (EPG) for each parasite. All playgrounds, especially those in Penang, were found to be contaminated with eggs from four nematode genera, with Toxocara eggs (95.7%) the highest, followed by Ascaris (93.3%), Ancylostoma (88.3%) and Trichuris (77.0%). In addition, faeces from animal shelters were found to contain both helminth eggs and protozoan cysts, with overall infection rates being 54% and 57% for feline and canine samples, respectively. The most frequently occurring parasite in feline samples was Toxocara cati (37%; EPG, 42.47 ± 156.08), while in dog faeces it was Ancylostoma sp. (54%; EPG, 197.16 ± 383.28). Infection levels also tended to be influenced by season, type of park/playground and the texture of soil/faeces. The occurrence of Toxocara, Ancylostoma and Trichuris eggs in soil samples highlights the risk of transmission to the human population, especially children, while the presence of Ascaris eggs suggests a human source of contamination and raises the issue of hygiene standards and public health risks at sites under investigation.

  10. Fenbendazole treatment for Mammomonogamus species infection of a domestic cat on St Kitts, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattenuo, Talia; Ketzis, Jennifer; Shell, Linda

    2014-10-01

    A 7-month-old, female, domestic shorthair, indoor/outdoor cat on the island of St Kitts was presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine as part of a student training spay-neuter program. Observation of diarrhea prompted a double centrifugation fecal analysis. Ova of Mammomonogamus species, in addition to Ancylostoma species, Trichuris species and Platynosomum species, were found. Mammomonogamus ierei is a parasitic nematode found on many Caribbean islands for which treatment is not well documented. Five days of fenbendazole (50 mg/kg bodyweight) was administered, and fecal analyses gave negative results for Mammomonogamus species eggs 1 week after the last fenbendazole treatment.

  11. Comparison of three concentration methods for the recovery of canine intestinal parasites from stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, S; Oliveira-Sequeira, T C G

    2010-10-01

    The aim of present study was to compare the efficiency of a commercial assay and two conventional methods for fecal concentration in detecting canine gastrointestinal parasites. Fecal samples from 254 dogs were processed by centrifugation-sedimentation (CS), centrifugation-flotation (CF) and a commercial assay for fecal concentration (TF-test). The following parasites were detected: Ancylostoma (37.8%), Giardia (16.9%), Toxocara canis (8.7%), Trichuris vulpis (7.1%), Isospora (3.5%), and Sarcocystis (2.7%). The calculated analytical sensitivity indicated that CF was more accurate (Pindividual diagnosis and epidemiological investigation.

  12. [Helminths of wolves (Canis lupus) from south Mazurian Lakeland, a coprological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloch, Agnieszka; Bajer, Anna

    2003-01-01

    52 wolf scats collected during winter 2001/2002 in Puszcza Piska and Napiwodzko-Ramuckic forests were examined using Fulleborn's method. The overall helminth prevalence was 28.8%. Six helminth species were recorded, the most frequent species were Uncinaria stenocepmhala/Ancylostoma caninmu (treated together; found in 6 samples), Toxocara canis and Trichuris vulpis (both identified in 4 samples). The mean intensity of egg expulsion was 2.0 eggs/g feces, the most intense infection was this with Toxocara canis (average 23.0 eggs/g feces). There were observed differences in prevalence of parasite' species between packs. Present paper is first such an investigation in northeastern Poland.

  13. Cutaneous larva migrans in northern climates. A souvenir of your dream vacation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelglass, J W; Douglass, M C; Stiefler, R; Tessler, M

    1982-09-01

    Three young women recently returned to the metropolitan Detroit area with cutaneous larva migrans. All three had vacationed at a popular club resort on the Caribbean island of Martinique. Cutaneous larva migrans is frequently seen in the southern United States, Central and South America, and other subtropical areas but rarely in northern climates. Several organisms can cause cutaneous larva migrans, or creeping eruption. The larvae of the nematode Ancylostoma braziliense are most often the causative organisms. Travel habits of Americans make it necessary for practitioners in northern climates to be familiar with diseases contracted primarily in warmer locations. The life cycle of causative organisms and current therapy are reviewed.

  14. Parásitos zoonóticos en mascotas caninas y felinas de escolares suburbanos

    OpenAIRE

    Piacenza, G.; Jorge, S; Zubiri, Karina; Ceccarelli, Soledad; Ciarmela, María Laura; Pezzani, Betina Cecilia; Minvielle, Marta Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Los animales que con mayor frecuencia se encuentran en hogares son los perros y los gatos. El contacto con estos animales produce un vínculo afectivo y ayuda a los niños en su desarrollo emocional. Sin embargo, esta convivencia puede poner a los integrantes de la familia en riesgo de contraer alguna infección zoonótica; como las causadas por parásitos intestinales como Toxocara sp., Ancylostoma caninum y Giardia sp., entre otras. Objetivo: identificar las especies de parásitos que presenta...

  15. Encuesta de helmintos intestinales en la provincia de Sandia (Departamento de Puno)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    En 290 sujetos de la provincia de Sandia, departamento de Puno, el examen microscópico de una muestra de heces proveniente de cada uno de ellos, mostró: 1. La incidencia del parasitismo intestinal a helmintos es considerablemente alta (91. 03% ) 2. La incidencia por especie de parásito que se ha determinado es la siguiente: 3. La incidencia por localidades, en el caso de Ancylostoma o Necator y de S. stercoralis, aumenta a medida que se desciende hacia la Selva. 4. La asociación de helmintos...

  16. Encuesta de helmintos intestinales en la provincia de Sandia (Departamento de Puno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraín Santillana

    1956-12-01

    Full Text Available En 290 sujetos de la provincia de Sandia, departamento de Puno, el examen microscópico de una muestra de heces proveniente de cada uno de ellos, mostró: 1. La incidencia del parasitismo intestinal a helmintos es considerablemente alta (91. 03% 2. La incidencia por especie de parásito que se ha determinado es la siguiente: 3. La incidencia por localidades, en el caso de Ancylostoma o Necator y de S. stercoralis, aumenta a medida que se desciende hacia la Selva. 4. La asociación de helmintos más frecuente ha sido Ascaris lumbricoides-Trichocephalus trichiurus.

  17. Studies on endoparasites of the black bear (Ursus americanus) in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, J M; Nettles, V F; Davidson, W R

    1978-04-01

    Examination of 53 black bears (Ursus americanus) from six states in the southeastern United States revealed at least 17 species of endoparasites, including Sarcocystis sp., Spirometra mansonoides (spargana), Macracanthorhynchus ingens, Ancylostoma caninum, Arthrocephalus lotoris, Baylisascaris transfuga, Capillaria aerophila, Capillaria putorii, Crenosoma sp., Cyathospirura sp., Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma sp., Gongylonema pulchrum, microfilariae, Molineus barbatus, Physaloptera sp. and Strongyloides sp. Twelve of these represent new host records for black bear, and two are considered to be new species. Data are presented on prevalence, intensity and geographic distribution of each species. Pathologic effects were associated with infections of spargana of S. mansonoides and adults of C. aerophilia.

  18. Comparação da infecção canina por diferentes espécies de ancilostomídeos: aspectos parasitológicos, imunológicos e moleculares

    OpenAIRE

    Denilson Eduardo Silva Cunha

    2009-01-01

    A ancilostomose é uma das doenças parasitárias mais prevalentes no mundo, infectando cerca de 740 milhões de pessoas em regiões rurais tropicais e subtropicais do mundo. Além de sua importância médica, estudos mostram que parasitos do gênero Ancylostoma continuam sendo um dos grupos de nematódeos mais freqüentes em infecções intestinais de cães e gatos. Há diversos grupos de moléculas produzidas e secretadas por ancilostomídeos (produtos ES - Excretados e Secretados) que garantem o sucesso de...

  19. Intestinal helminthiases in Ecuador: the relatíonship between prevalence, genetic, and socioeconomic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Cooper

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of infection with the intestinal helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale and Strongyloides stercoralis was examinedin 632 residents of communities in Esmeraldas province of Ecuador. These communities were divided into two groups according to area of habitation which reflected different socioeconomic circumstances. Attempts were made to correlate infection status with race and ABO blood group phenotype. The racial groups included blacks, Chachi amerindians, and mixed-race mestizos. Greater prevalences of infection were seen in the area oflower socioeconomic status. No racial or blood group associations with helminth infection were seen controlling for socioeconomic status.

  20. A case report of cutaneous larva migrans in a Mexican population of high marginalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Isaac Aguirre Maldonadoa; Silvia Cruz Duartea; Felipe Gonzlez Velzqueza; Alfonso Alexander Aguilerab

    2014-01-01

    The creeping verminous dermatitis or cutaneous larva migrans is a parasitosis caused by percutaneous penetration and migration of larval nematode parasites characterized by producing one or more serpiginous erythematous, indurated, raised and pruritic lesion. The most common cause of cutaneous larva migrans is the Ancylostoma braziliense located in warm climate zones. In the present study, authors reported a case of cutaneous larva migrans with a characteristic clinical picture: erythematous-papular and vesicular lesion and serpiginous path, with progressive, and pruritic growth and it shown that a living area with immigration, tropical weather conditions and poverty may lead to this common infection.

  1. Presentación del primer caso humano de parasitismo por Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus en el Perú y breve revisión

    OpenAIRE

    María Beltrán F. de Estrada

    1997-01-01

    Se reporta un caso humano portador de Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus. Se trata de un varón de 45 años de edad, natural de la provincia de Chota, departamento de Cajamarca, Perú; con molestias digestivas. El diagnóstico se hizo por el hallazgo de huevos de Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus en las heces. Además se encontró Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichostrongylus sp, Blastocystis hominis y Entamoeba coli. Esta es la primera comunicación de un caso humano de M. hirudinaceus ...

  2. Intestinal nematodes: biology and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epe, Christian

    2009-11-01

    A variety of nematodes occur in dogs and cats. Several nematode species inhabit the small and large intestines. Important species that live in the small intestine are roundworms of the genus Toxocara (T canis, T cati) and Toxascaris (ie, T leonina), and hookworms of the genus Ancylostoma (A caninum, A braziliense, A tubaeforme) or Uncinaria (U stenocephala). Parasites of the large intestine are nematodes of the genus Trichuris (ie, whipworms, T vulpis). After a comprehensive description of their life cycle and biology, which are indispensable for understanding and justifying their control, current recommendations for nematode control are presented and discussed thereafter.

  3. Cross transmission of gastrointestinal nematodes between captive neotropical felids and feral cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Franco, Emilio; Romero-Callejas, Evangelina; Villanueva-García, Claudia; Osorio-Sarabia, David; Muñoz-García, Claudia I

    2013-12-01

    Pathogen cross transmission between wildlife and domestic animals represents an extinction risk for wildlife; however, reliable verification is difficult to perform, and in some cases, it is even considered unlikely to be conducted. The aim of this work was to identify cross transmission of helminths between feral cats and captive wild felids at a zoological park in southeastern Mexico. Feces were collected from jaguars (Panthera onca), cougars (Puma concolor), ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), margays (Leopardus wiedii), and jaguarundis (Puma yagouaroundi). A flotation technique and macroscopic sieving were performed on the feces. Additionally, as part of the noxious fauna control program of the park, feral cats were captured and euthanized. To perform parasitologic studies, helminths from these animals were recovered. Toxocara cati and Trichuris campanula were shared by jaguarundis and feral cats. Ancylostoma sp. was found in jaguar and ocelot and Ancylostoma tubaeforme in feral cats. Additionally, during this study, a couple of jaguarundis died with clinical signs of trichuriasis. This is the first report of T. campanula in jaguarundi. Because feral cats roam freely in the park, transmission could occur from these vertebrates to wild felids. This study shows the risk that parasites represent to wild felids; a similar situation could be found in free-living species, especially in fragmented habitats that favor contact with domestic animals.

  4. Epidemiological assessment of intestinal parasitic infections in dogs at animal shelter in Veracruz,Mexico

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cosme; Alvarado-Esquivel; Dora; Romero-Salas; Mariel; Aguilar-Domínguez; Anabel; Cruz-Romero; Nelly; Ibarra-Priego; dalberto; Angel; Pérez-de-Len

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the prevalence of infection with intestinal parasites in 101 dogs in an animal shelter in Veracruz.Mexico,and investigate whether any general characteristics of the dogs were associated with infections.Methods:Parasitologiesl examination of fecal samples from the dogs was performed by means of centrifuge-flotation using Sheather’s sucrose and zinc sulfate flotation media.In addition,hematocrit was determined in each canine blood sample.Results:Intestinal parasites were found in 99(98.0%) of the 101 dogs studied.About five different intestinal parasites were identified:Ancylostoma caninum in 89 dogs(88.1%).Giardia canis in 46(45.5%).Unciiuiria stenocephalia in 43(42.6%).Trichuris vulpis in 19(18.8%)and Strongyloides canis in 16(15.8%).Multivariate analysis showed:I) Giardia infection was associated with young age and mixed breed;2) Ancylostoma was associated with young age and no rabies vaccination:and 3) Strongyloides was associated with no rabies vaccination.Unciiuiria and Trichuris infections were not associated with the variables assessed.Conclusions:A high prevalence of intestinal parasites was found in the dogs studied.This suggests that the environment is highly contaminated with intestinal parasites.Preventive and therapeutic measures should be taken against infection with intestinal parasites in dogs in this region.

  5. AVALIAÇÃO SANITÁRIA DE RESÍDUOS SÓLIDOS ORGÂNICOS DOMICILIARES EM MUNICÍPIOS DO SEMIÁRIDO PARAIBANO

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    MONICA MARIA PEREIRA DA SILVA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this work consisted of identifying the prevalence of helminth eggs in household organic wastes generated in the urban zone of cities of the semiarid of the Paraíba. The work was accomplished from June to December of 2006 in 30 homes in the urban center of Cabaceiras, 30 in Caraúbas and 50 in Queimadas. Organic solid residues were collected during in three consecutive weeks and alternate days (Monday, Wednesday and Friday in the generating source. For quantification of the helminth eggs three composed samples were picked up by city, resultants of ten fractions of organic solid residues collected in the homes. The amount of helminth eggs varied from 12.82 to 14.39 eggs/gST, with viability of 95.42%. In prevalence order, they enrolled Ancylostoma sp., Enterobius vermiculares, Fasciola hepatica and Ascaris lumbricoides. The eggs of Ancylostoma sp. were identified in 100% of the examined samples. The terrible sanitary quality verified for the household organic waste solid in three cities, located geographically in the area of the paraiban semiarid they suggest that these residues constitute important source of contamination to the environment and the human being, requesting the appropriate management.

  6. SALMONELLA FOOD POISONING IN A PATIENT WITH ASCA RIASIS & ANCYLOSTOMIASIS : BUGS AND WORMS TOGETHER

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    Anupriya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This is an unusual case presentation of a patient with symptoms of food poisoning along with two parasitic infections, both mode of infection being entirely different, with ascariasis due to ingestion of food contaminated with eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and Ancylostoma duo denale due to hookworm penetration through skin ( B are - foot walking. CASE REPORT: A 48 year old female patient came with complaints of fever and loose stools for three days. Patient was an agriculturist by occupation with poor personal hygiene with a histo ry of consumption of meat two days prior to the symptoms. Laboratory test showed leukocytosis ( T otal count - 13,000 cu.mm with both neutrophilic and eosinophilic predominance and anaemia. Microscopic examination of stool revealed the presence of plenty of p us cells and the presence of eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and eggs of Ancylostoma duodenale. Also Salmonella typhimurium was isolated in the stool culture and confirmed at National Reference Centre. CONCLUSION: Food poisoning is a serious health problem. I t can cause severe illness and even death. Soil transmitted helminths are common among agriculturist. Washing hands with warm water and soap before handling foods, eating and after using toilets is mandatory to prevent food borne illness and parasitic infe ctions.

  7. Occurrences of gastrointestinal parasites in fecal samples from domestic dogs in São Paulo, SP, Brazil

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    Juliana Isabel Giuli da Silva Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract Occurrences of gastrointestinal parasites were assessed in fecal samples from 3,099 dogs in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, SP, that were treated at the Veterinary Hospital of the University of São Paulo Veterinary School. The samples were analyzed using the flotation and centrifugal sedimentation methods. The results were compared with those from previous studies (at different times. The frequency of each parasite was correlated with the dogs’ ages, breeds and gender, as well as the occurrences of diarrhea and the use of anthelmintics, by means of the chi-square or Fisher exact test. Partitioned chi-square tests were used to compare occurrences of each parasite and the times analyzed. Out of the total number of samples, 20.5% were positive and 16.1% (102/635 of these presented more than one genus of parasites. Ancylostoma spp. (7.1% and Giardia spp. (5.5% were the most frequent helminths and protozoa, respectively. Ancylostoma spp. was associated (p<0.05 with age (over one year, mixed breeds, sex (male and no use of anthelmintics. Dogs under one year and mixed breeds were associated with occurrences of Toxocara canis; and younger dogs with Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp. and Cystoisospora spp. Giardia spp. were also associated with dogs with a defined breed (p<0.05. All the parasites analyzed presented lower incidence in the last period analyzed than in the previous periods.

  8. The prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of dogs in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowemimo, Oluyomi A

    2009-03-01

    A study of gastrointestinal parasites in 269 faecal samples from dogs (Canis familiaris) collected from Ile-Ife, Nigeria between January and December 2004, revealed seven helminth species: Toxocara canis 33.8%, Ancylostoma sp. 34.6%, Toxascaris leonina 3.3%, Trichuris vulpis 3.7%, Dipylidium caninum 4.1%, Uncinaria stenocephala 0.7% and Taenia sp. 1.1%. The faecal egg intensities, determined as mean eggs per gram of faeces ( +/- SEM) were: T. canis 393.8 +/- 83.4, Ancylostoma sp. 101.5 +/- 32.8, T. leonina 14.3 +/- 7.9, T. vulpis 3.4 +/- 1.5, D. caninum 2.2 +/- 0.8, U. stenocephala 0.2 +/- 0.2. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was significantly higher (P 0.05). The prevalence of helminth parasites was significantly higher (P 0.05) except in T. vulpis. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites may continue to rise due to lack of functional veterinary clinics for dog care in Ile-Ife. Therefore, there is the need to establish a veterinary facility in Ile-Ife.

  9. Gastrointestinal Helminthic Parasites in Stray Cats (Felis catus from North of Iran

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    A Rezaei-Doust

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cats play a crucial role in the epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminthic parasites and also play a major role in transmitting of these parasites through faecal contamination of soil, food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the species of gastrointestinal helminthes parasites in stray cats from a rural area of Bandar-e-Anzali, Iran.Method: Gastrointestinal helminthes were collected from 50 necropsied stray cats (Felis catus after capturing them by trapping from different regions of the city and humanely euthanatized in Bandar-e-Anzali, a port in the Caspian Sea in northern Iran, from March to November 2003. Results: The prevalence of infection was 90%, with those of individual parasites being Diplopylidium nolleri 54%, Phy­saloptera praeputialis 32%, Ancylostoma tubaeforme 20%, Joyeuxiella pasqualei 10%, Toxocara cati 8%, Pterygoderma­tites affinis 6%, Ancylostoma caninum 4%, and Taenia taeniaeformis 2%. Concurrent infections with two or more parasites were recorded in 34% of the individuals. In relation to the sex, the differences were not significant. Conclusion: P. praeputialis, T. cati, D. nolleri and sometime J. pasqualei are the commonest Helminthes in cats. This is the first reported isolation of P. affinis and A. caninum infections from cats in Iran.

  10. A case of parasite invasion of the intestinal tract: a missed diagnosis in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kang Hun; Kim, Sang Wook; Lee, So Young; Lee, Hee Jung; Yu, Hea Min; Jeon, Byung Jun; Kwon, Dae Hun; Lee, Soo Teik

    2013-11-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a gastrointestinal disorder characterized by chronic abdominal pain and altered bowel habits in the absence of any organic cause. As the clinical manifestations are very diverse and associated with nonspecific symptoms, research seeking to identify organic causes to rule out IBS and to enable differential diagnosis is required. A 24-year-old man was referred to our hospital for specialized management of IBS. He had a 7-month history of intermittent epigastric and lower abdominal pain. On the basis of clinical examination, he was diagnosed with IBS and administered medication at a primary clinic. However, his symptoms did not improve after treatment. We performed capsule endoscopy at our hospital and identified a parasite (Ancylostoma duodenale) in the proximal jejunum. We therefore report a case of parasitic infection found by additional examination while evaluating symptoms associated with a previous diagnosis of refractory IBS.

  11. Frequency of parasites and Salmonella infection in captive maned-wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, kept in Zoos at the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Gilioli R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one captive maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger 1815 from 11 Zoos at the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were screened to investigate the presence of parasites and Salmonella infection by parasitological diagnostic methods and fecal selective culture. The most frequent ecto and endoparasites found were Ctenocephalides felis (56.2%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (12.5%, Ancylostoma caninum (45.1%, Strongyloides sp. (29.0%, Uncinaria stenocephala (3.2%, Capillaria sp. (3.2%, Entamoeba sp. (22.9%, Sarcocystis sp. (29.0%, Cryptosporidium sp. (19.3%, Eimeria sp. (19.3%, Giardia sp. (9.6% and Isospora sp. (3.2%. Four different serotypes of Salmonella were identified in six animals (25%. Only one infected animal showed clinical signs of diarrhea. The ability to harbor Salmonella spp. as normal nonpathogenic bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract may be a physiological adaptation of this specie.

  12. Hookworm infection: A neglected tropical disease of mankind

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    Muhammed Hossain

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hookworm infection, a global problem of human, is caused by both Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. These parasites are considered as important blood feeding nematodes. Hookworm is usually prevalent among the people who live with low socio-economic status. However, this tropical disease is neglected in most cases. This review was aimed at investigating the insights of hookworm infection of human considering its epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, treatment, immune mechanism, prevention, and control. This study showed how hookworm infection poses a global burden and infects 438.9 million people around the word annualy, and causes significant morbidity among the children and adult in endemic countries. Also, this review discussed how hookworm infection threatens the mankind causing serious health hazards. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 297-320

  13. Helminth parasites of cats from the Vientiane Province, Laos, as indicators of the occurrence of causative agents of human parasitoses

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    Scholz T.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 55 domestic cats (Felis calus f. domestico and one wild (Bengal cat (Prionailurus bengalensis from the Vientiane Province, central Laos, were examined for helminth parasites with emphasis given to potential human parasites. The following species were found (parasites infective to man marked with an asterisk: Opisthorchis viverrini*, Haplorchis pumilio*,H. laichui*,H. yokogawai*, Stellantchasmus falcatus* (Digenea; Spirometra sp.*, Dipylidium caninum*, Taenia taeniaeformis (Cestoda; Capillariidae gen. sp., Toxocara canis*, T. cati*, Ancylostoma ceylanicum*, A. tubaeforme, Gnathostoma spinigerum*, Physaloptera preputials (Nematoda; and Oncicola sp. (Acanthocephala. This study demonstrated that examination of cats may provide useful data on the occurrence of helminths which are potential causative agents of human diseases.

  14. Anthelmintic profile of methyl 5(6)-(4-methylpiperidin-1-yl) carbonylbenzimidazole-2-carbamate in experimental helminthiases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S; Khan, A M; Jain, M K; Katiyar, J C; Naim, S S; Singh, S K; Sharma, S

    1990-05-01

    Biological evaluation of methyl 5(6)-(4-methylpiperidin-1-yl) carbonylbenzimidazole-2-carbamate against Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia obvelata, Hymenolepis nana, H. diminuta and Cysticercus fasciolaris in experimental animals is reported. The compound (mg/kg) causes 100% elimination of A. ceylanicum (25 x 1), N. brasiliensis (100 x 1), S. obvelata (50 x 1), H. nana (250 x 3) and C. fasciolaris (50 x 10). It was also effective against the developing larvae (L3, L4 and L5) of A. ceylanicum at a single oral dose of 100 mg/kg. Another study indicated that the compound elicits 100% response within 32 hr of drug administration. The drug is well tolerated and LD50 is greater than 4500 mg/kg.

  15. PESQUISA DE FORMAS EVOLUTIVAS DE PARASITAS CAUSADORES DE ZOONOSES EM TANQUES DE AREIA DE ESCOLAS PÚBLICAS DE EDUCAÇÃO INFANTIL DE ESPÍRITO SANTO DO PINHAL - SP

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    Patrícia Franciscone Mendes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As escolas de ensino infantil comumente apresentam tanques de areia que são utilizados pelas crianças como área de lazer. Nestes locais, cães e gatos muitas vezes têm acesso e eliminam fezes contendo ovos e larvas de parasitas. Entre os parasitas encontrados nestas áreas destacam-se os do gênero Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp., causadores de enfermidades conhecidas como larva migrans visceral e larva migrans cutânea, respectivamente. Este trabalho teve como objetivo pesquisar as formas evolutivas destes parasitas em tanques de areia de 16 escolas públicas de educação infantil de Espírito Santo do Pinhal - SP. Amostras de areia foram coletadas e analisadas quanto à presença de ovos e larvas infectantes empregando-se o Método de Baermann Modificado e o Método de Flutuação com Solução Saturada de Sacarose. Detectou-se a presença de ovos de Toxocara sp. em 14 escolas e larvas do mesmo parasita foram encontradas em 11 escolas. Em relação ao Ancylostoma sp., foram encontrados ovos em 1 escola e em 100% das escolas analisadas observou-se a presença de larvas do mesmo parasita. Conclui-se que estas áreas de lazer representam importantes focos de transmissão de doenças parasitárias. Entre as medidas preventivas, podem ser consideradas a instalação de cercas e a cobertura dos tanques com lona plástica. A conscientização da população sobre essas parasitoses representa um importante meio de profilaxia para redução e controle destas doenças.Schools of infantile teaching usually have sand used by children as playground. In these places, dogs and cats often have acess and eliminate feces containing parasite eggs and larvae. The most common parasites found in these areas are of the genus Ancylostoma sp. and Toxocara sp. which cause diseases known as visceral larva migrans and cutaneous larva migrans, respectively. This study aimed to investigate the evolutive types of these parasites in sand of 16 public schools of infantile

  16. [Occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in fecal samples of cats in Andradina City, São Paulo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Willian Marinho Dourado; do Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini; de Soutello, Ricardo Velludo Gomes; Meireles, Marcelo Vasconcelos; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in fecal samples from cats of the Andradina city, SP. This work was carried out from March to November of 2007, and used 51 cats delivered to the Center of Zoonoses Control of that city. Techniques of Willis and Faust were used in the fecal examination and resulted in detection of Ancylostoma spp. in 96.1% of the animals; Toxocara spp. in 43.1%; Cystoisospora spp. in 43.1%; Dipylidium caninum in 21.6% and Giardia spp. in 5.9% samples. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 3.9% fecal samples by the use of malachite green negative stain. There was no significant association between the occurrence of endoparasites and consistency of fecal samples. The results confirm that these cats represent important hosts of parasites, some of those with high zoonotic potential.

  17. Intestinal macro- and microparasites of wolves (Canis lupus L.) from north-eastern Poland recovered by coprological study.

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    Kloch, Agnieszka; Bednarska, Małgorzata; Bajer, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Wolf scats collected during ecological studies in Mazury lake district in NE Poland were analysed for intestinal micro- and macroparasites. Five nematode species were identified: Ancylostoma caninum (Ercolani, 1859), Uncinaria stenocephala (Railliet, 1884), Trichuris vulpis (Froelich, 1789), Toxocara canis (Werner, 1782) and Toxascaris leonina (von Linstow, 1902). Among cestode species there were identified infections with Dipylidium caninum (Linnaeus, 1785). The overall helminth prevalence was 63.5 % and average intensity was 15.4 +/- 8.0 eggs /1g of sample. The most prevalent parasite was T. vulpis (38.5 %) and the most abundant infections were by T. canis. Almost 55 % of samples (28/51) were positive for C. parvum oocysts and 46.7 % (14/30) for Giardia spp. cysts. The pack factor affected the distribution of some of macro- and microparasites. The identified parasite fauna of wolves in Mazury lake district consists of several micro- and macroparasites of interest for public health.

  18. Parasitic diseases of the pleura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Chitra; Huggins, John Terrill; Sahn, Steven A

    2013-05-01

    Parasitic infections are prevalent in certain parts of the world and may cause pleural involvement, which often goes unrecognized. Common parasites involving the pleura include Entamoeba histolytica, Echinococcus granulosus and Paragonimus westermani. Amebiasis can cause empyema with "anchovy sauce" pus, reactive pleural effusions and bronchopleural fistula with hydropneumothorax. Echinococcosis may result in pleural thickening, pneumothorax, secondary pleural hydatidosis and pleural effusions. Paragonimiasis may cause chylous and cholesterol pleural effusions, pleural thickening and pneumothorax. Less commonly, pulmonary eosinophilia, or Loeffler's syndrome, caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus and tropical pulmonary eosinophilia caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi may involve the pleura. This article provides a comprehensive review of parasitic infections involving the pleura. A high index of suspicion in the appropriate clinical setting is required to facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment of these diseases.

  19. The parasite fauna of stray domestic cats (Felis catus) in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Rolf K; Thomas, Katja; Sivakumar, Saritha; O'Donovan, Declan

    2009-07-01

    Two hundred forty feral domestic cats trapped between 2004 and 2008 in the city centre and the suburb districts of Dubai, as well as in desert biotopes, were subjected to a complete parasitological dissection. The established parasite fauna consisted of Cystoisospora felis (12.9%), Cystoisospora rivolta (9.2%), Toxoplasma/Hammondia (0.8%), Heterophyes heterophyes (2.5%), Heterophyopsis continua (0.4%), Joyeuxiella spp. (65.8%), Diplopylidium noelleri (37.1%), Hydatigera taeniaeformis (16.7%), Taenia hydatigena (0.4%), Ancylostoma ceylanicum (8.8%), Ollulanus tricuspis (0.8%), Toxocara mystax (2.9%), Toxascaris leonina (0.8%), Pterygodermatites affinis (35.0%), Centrorhynchus aluconis (4.6%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (4.2%), Xenopsylla astia (3.8%) and Synosternus pallidus (4.2%).

  20. Study on prevalence of ancylostomosis in dogs at Anand district, Gujarat, India

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    Nilima N. Brahmbhatt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was undertaken to derive the prevalence rate of ancylostomosis in dogs by a collection of fecal samples from Anand district. Materials and Methods: The fecal samples were collected from the dogs brought to the Hospital of Veterinary College (Teaching Veterinary Clinical Service Complex and the surrounding areas of Anand district. On the day of collection, fecal samples were collected and brought to the Department of Veterinary Parasitology and processed for standard qualitative examination. The sedimentation technique was used to detect the presence of Ancylostoma spp. eggs in the samples. Result: The highest prevalence rate was observed in the month of May (36.66% fecal samples and the lowest in the month of December (13.79% fecal samples at Anand district. Conclusion: It can be concluded that heavy infection is present in Anand district especially in the season of summer followed by monsoon and the least in winter.

  1. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in breeding kennel dogs in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Naoyuki; Kanai, Kazutaka; Kimura, Yuya; Chikazawa, Seishiro; Hori, Yasutomo; Hoshi, Fumio

    2015-03-01

    The present study is the first to show overall prevalences of intestinal parasites among breeding kennel dogs in Japan. A total of 573 fresh fecal samples were collected from dogs at 12 breeding kennels. Giardia-specific coproantigen was examined by ELISA kit (SNAP(®) Giardia, IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Maine, USA). Other intestinal parasites were determined microscopically using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. Overall prevalences of two genera of protists, Giardia spp. and Cystoisospora spp., were 25.7 and 1.2 %, respectively. The prevalence of helminthes was recorded as: Toxocara canis 0.2 %, Toxascaris leonina 0.9 %, Ancylostoma caninum 0.2 %, Trichuris vulpis 2.1 %, and Spirometra erinacei 0.4 %. According to age categories, Giardia spp., Cystoisospora spp., and T. leonina in intestinal parasite infections were found at the high prevalent, ranging from 16.0 to 70.0 %.

  2. A review of parasitic zoonoses in a changing Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, James V; Sripa, Banchob; Attwood, Stephen; Newton, Paul N

    2011-11-24

    Parasitic zoonoses are common and widely distributed in the Southeast Asian region. However, the interactions between parasites, hosts and vectors are influenced by environmental, socio-cultural and livestock production changes that impact on the distribution, prevalence and severity of disease. In this review we provide an update on new knowledge in the context of ongoing changes for the food-borne pig associated zoonoses Taenia solium and Trichinella spp., the food-borne trematodes Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis, the water-borne trematodes Schistosoma spp., the vector-borne zoonotic protozoa Plasmodium knowlesi and Leishmania spp. and the soil-borne zoonotic hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum. These various changes need to be considered when assessing or developing regional control programs or devising new research initiatives in a changing SE Asia.

  3. Data on the parasitological status of golden jackal (Canis aureus L., 1758) in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, András; Szabó, László; Juhász, Lajos; Takács, András Attila; Lanszki, József; Takács, Péter Tamás; Heltai, Miklós

    2014-03-01

    In Hungary, twenty Canis aureus individuals were submitted to parasitological examinations in 2010-2012. Two Coccidia: Cystoisospora canis (15%) and Toxoplasma-type oocysts (5%), one Trematoda: Alaria alata (10%), six Cestoda: Mesocestoides lineatus (20%), Echinococcus granulosus (10%), Dipylidium caninums (5%), Taenia hydatigena (15%), Taenia pisiformis (20%), Taenia crassiceps (40%), and nine Nematoda: Angiostrongylus vasorum (10%), Crenosoma vulpis (30%), Capillaria aerophila (5%), Toxocara canis (20%), Toxascaris leonina (15%), Trichuris vulpis (10%), Ancylostoma caninum (45%), Uncinaria stenocephala (40%), Capillaria plica (45%) have been identified. Angiostronglyus vasorum has been reported from carnivores in Europe, Africa, South America and North America. The helminth A. vasorum or French heartworm is a metastrongylid nematode, widely distributed in Western Europe, that infects the pulmonary arterial tree of dogs, various species of foxes, wolves, Eurasian badgers, coyotes and stoats. To our knowledge, this is the first report of natural A. vasorum infection in golden jackal.

  4. Potential hazard of zoonotic parasites present in canine feces in Puerto Escondido, Oaxaca

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    León Vélez-Hernández

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the zoonotic parasites prevalence in feral dog feces in Puerto Escondido. Material and methods. The fecalism frecuency was estimated in ten zones. To identify the parasites parasitological flotation and direct smear methods were used. The parasitic prevalence was estimated in the canine feces. Results. All the zones presented canine fecalism. The parasitic prevalence in the feces was 73.33%. The parasites with the highest prevalence were Toxocara canis (47.78%, Ancylostoma caninum (17.88%, and Dipylidium caninum (13.89%. Conclusion. Canine fecalism comes from strayed and owned dogs. 66.66% of the parasites found in the dog feces are zoonotics. The factors associated to this problem are the suburban habitat, waste mishandling and nil tenure of stray dogs.

  5. Faecal helminth egg and oocyst counts of a small population of African lions (Panthera leo in the southwestern Kalahari, Namibia : research communication

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    Y. Smith

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available An endoparasite survey of a small pride of African lions (Panthera leo was conducted at Intu Afrika Kalahari Game Reserve, southwestern Namibia, during winter and summer of 2003 and 2004, respectively. Overall, 23 fresh lion scats were collected opportunistically during fieldwork trials. A flotation technique was employed for the diagnosis of parasites. Three nematodes, Ancylostoma braziliense, Gnathostoma spinigerum and Uncinaria stenocephala and two coccidians, Toxoplasma gondii and Isospora felis were recorded. By using the McMaster method for quantification, a maximum number of 14 866 oocysts per gram of faeces was obtained for I. felis during winter 2003. Endoparasite taxa carried by the different individuals in the pride were found to be related to their levels of association. Rates of infection were relatively low as a result of the habitat, semi-captive conditions and earlier sporadic deworming.

  6. Epidemiological survey on gastro-intestinal and blood-borne helminths of dogs in north-east Gabon : research communication

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    B. Davoust

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of helminth parasites was carried out on 198 dogs living in almost complete liberty in villages in the northeast of Gabon. Faeces and blood samples were collected and analysed. Dirofilariaimmitis antigen was detected in 13.6 % of dogs using the SNAP 3Dx® test, a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Faecal examination revealed that 91.4 % of dogs were infected by intestinal helminths. Ascarids were found in 58.5 % of the samples. Trichuris vulpis was observed in 49.5 % of cases, and Uncinaria spp. and Ancylostoma spp. in 34.8 %, Spirocerca lupi in 25.3 % and Capillaria spp. in 10.6 %. Cestode embryophores were found in 8.6 % of the samples.

  7. Intestinal parasites in dogs and cats from the district of Évora, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, F S; Pereira-Baltasar, P; Parreira, R; Padre, L; Vilhena, M; Távora Tavira, L; Atouguia, J; Centeno-Lima, S

    2011-06-30

    Intestinal parasites, both helminths and protozoa, are commonly found in domestic animals, and the possible transmission of enteric parasites from dogs and cats to humans may constitute a global potential health risk worldwide. In the present study, we analysed 148 stool samples from dogs (n=126) and cats (n=22) collected from animal shelters and veterinary clinics, in the district of Évora, Portugal. Microscopic examination confirmed that Giardia was the most frequent parasite in the studied population (34/148; 23%). Other parasites such as Ancylostoma sp., Isospora spp., Toxocara, Trichuris spp., Toxascaris and Toxoplasma were also found. Furthermore, molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis analysis targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu-rRNA) was performed revealing the presence of host-specific (C and D) and zoonotic assemblages (A and B). This work points out to the importance of protozoan parasites in companion animals, and reanalyses the need for parasite prophylaxis.

  8. PREVALÊNCIA DE ENDOPARASITAS EM CÃES ERRANTES NA CIDADE DE MANAUS-AM

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    Geraldo PEREIRA JUNIOR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar a prevalência de endoparasitas em cães errantes na cidade de Manaus-AM. Foram coletadas amostras de fezes de 80 cães errantes nas feiras municipais das zonas: Norte, Leste, Sul e Centro, da cidade de Manaus-Am. Para o diagnóstico coproparasitológico as amostras foram utilizados os métodos de Willis-Mollay e centrífugo- flutuação em solução saturada de sacarose. Todas as amostras foram positivas para a presença de endoparasitas, sendo o Ancylostoma sp. o de maior prevalência (85%. O estudo demonstrou à elevada disseminação das parasitoses intestinais de cães errantes na cidade de Manaus.

  9. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Jenin Governorate, Palestine:a 10-year retrospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sami Bdir; Ghaleb Adwan

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites among Jenin Governorate (Northern Palestine) population.Methods:A retrospective laboratory analysis of stool specimens was carried out for intestinal parasite examination in Jenin Governmental Hospital, Jenin Governorate, Northern Palestine. The records were collected from the clinical microbiology laboratory of the Jenin Governmental Hospital between January2000and December2009. Results: Our retrospective study showed that the prevalence of intestinal parasite infection during10 years ranged from32.0-41.5%. There are at least7 different parasitesencountered. The most common pathogenic parasites identified were:Entamoeba histolytica(8.2-18.2%),Enterobius vermicularis(15.6-28.9%). The other parasites present wereGiardia lamblia, Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis,Taenia species andAncylostoma duodenale (Hookworms).Conclusions:Intestinal parasitic infection is an important public health problem in Jenin governorate, Palestine. It is necessary to develop effective prevention and control strategies including health education and environmental sanitation improvement.

  10. Dicty_cDB: CHO216 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available clone DKEY-181B17, genomic survey sequence. 34 0.035 2 AC110309 |AC110309.5 Ratt...library (AIAAGSS 001) Ancylostoma caninum genomic, genomic survey sequence. 34 0.13 2 CG726828 |CG726828.1 1...119091G10.y1 1119 - RescueMu Grid AA Zea mays genomic, genomic survey sequence. 3...4 0.13 2 CG721744 |CG721744.1 1119068G10.x1 1119 - RescueMu Grid AA Zea mays genomic, genomic survey sequenc...e. 34 0.13 2 CG731059 |CG731059.1 1119133A07.y1 1119 - RescueMu Grid AA Zea mays genomic, genomic survey seq

  11. Helminth infections in domestic dogs from Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskvina, T. V.; Ermolenko, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed. PMID:27956777

  12. Helminth infections in domestic dogs from Russia

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    T. V. Moskvina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed.

  13. [The Caribbean origins of the National Public Health System in the USA: a global approach to the history of medicine and public health in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Mariola

    2015-01-01

    This article defines global history in relation to the history of medicine and public health. It argues that a global approach to history opens up a space for examining the reverberations transmitted from the geographic periphery towards western regions, which have traditionally dominated modern historiography. It analyzes two medical interventions in the Caribbean in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, showing how these events had profound consequences in the USA. The successes achieved in the Caribbean in terms of yellow fever and ancylostoma control, as well as providing a model for health campaigns in the southern USA, inspired the centralization of public health in North America under the centralizing control of the federal government.

  14. LARVAS DE ANCILOSTOMATIDEOS EM DIFERENTES AMBIENTES DO ESTADO DO RIO GRANDE DO NORTE

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    Wesley Adson Costa Coelho

    2007-01-01

    and beaches of Areia Branca and Tibau District, region west of Rio Grande do Norte State, removing soils samples of the 29 public squares, 07 schools and 04 beaches, to which was processed at the Laboratory of Animal Parasitology - UFERSA, by modified Baermann method. In overall, 200 samples of soil were collected originating from 40 different places, of these, 35% (14 presented growth for Ancylostoma sp, being distributed in 78,6% (11 squares, 14,3% (2 schools and 7,1% (1 beach. The larger occurrence of the helminto was verified in the months that presented higher pluviometric index and in the studied period 92/770 patients positive for worms migrans cutaneous according the medical registrations.

  15. Encuesta de parásitos intestinales en 615 escolares del Rímac

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    Luis Gonzales-Mugaburu

    1956-12-01

    Full Text Available El examen microscópico de una sola muestra de heces de cada uno de 615 escolares del Rímac, ha mostrado: 1. El elevado porcentaje de protozoarios intestinales encontrados, sugiere una alta contaminación fecal. 2. La alta frecuencia de H. nana 166 (27.0% constituye un problema al que hay que prestar atención. 3. El hallazgo de Strongyloides stercoralis y Ancylostoma o Necator sólo en sujetos que habían estado algún tiempo en la Selva del Perú, sugiere una vez más, que dichos parásitos no son transmitidos en esta parte de la Costa. 4. La presencia de tres casos de Isospora belli nos indica que esta coccidia es más frecuente de lo que se suponía.

  16. Activity of oxantel pamoate monotherapy and combination chemotherapy against Trichuris muris and hookworms: revival of an old drug.

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    Jennifer Keiser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely recognized that only a handful of drugs are available against soil-transmitted helminthiasis, all of which are characterized by a low efficacy against Trichuris trichiura, when administered as single doses. The re-evaluation of old, forgotten drugs is a promising strategy to identify alternative anthelminthic drug candidates or drug combinations. METHODOLOGY: We studied the activity of the veterinary drug oxantel pamoate against Trichuris muris, Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Necator americanus in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the dose-effect of oxantel pamoate combined with albendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin was studied against T. muris in vitro and additive or synergistic combinations were followed up in vivo. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We calculated an ED50 of 4.7 mg/kg for oxantel pamoate against T. muris in mice. Combinations of oxantel pamoate with pyrantel pamoate behaved antagonistically in vitro (combination index (CI = 2.53. Oxantel pamoate combined with levamisole, albendazole or ivermectin using ratios based on their ED50s revealed antagonistic effects in vivo (CI = 1.27, 1.90 and 1.27, respectively. A highly synergistic effect (CI = 0.15 was observed when oxantel pamoate-mebendazole was administered to T. muris-infected mice. Oxantel pamoate (10 mg/kg lacked activity against Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Necator americanus in vivo. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study confirms the excellent trichuricidal properties of oxantel pamoate. Since the drug lacks activity against hookworms it is necessary to combine oxantel pamoate with a partner drug with anti-hookworm properties. Synergistic effects were observed for oxantel pamoate-mebendazole, hence this combination should be studied in more detail. Since, of the standard drugs, albendazole has the highest efficacy against hookworms, additional investigations on the combination effect of oxantel pamoate-albendazole should be

  17. Comparison of concentration methods for rapid detection of hookworm ova in wastewater matrices using quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, P; Ahmed, W; Jagals, P; Sidhu, J P S; Toze, S

    2015-12-01

    Hookworm infection contributes around 700 million infections worldwide especially in developing nations due to increased use of wastewater for crop production. The effective recovery of hookworm ova from wastewater matrices is difficult due to their low concentrations and heterogeneous distribution. In this study, we compared the recovery rates of (i) four rapid hookworm ova concentration methods from municipal wastewater, and (ii) two concentration methods from sludge samples. Ancylostoma caninum ova were used as surrogate for human hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus). Known concentration of A. caninum hookworm ova were seeded into wastewater (treated and raw) and sludge samples collected from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Brisbane and Perth, Australia. The A. caninum ova were concentrated from treated and raw wastewater samples using centrifugation (Method A), hollow fiber ultrafiltration (HFUF) (Method B), filtration (Method C) and flotation (Method D) methods. For sludge samples, flotation (Method E) and direct DNA extraction (Method F) methods were used. Among the four methods tested, filtration (Method C) method was able to recover higher concentrations of A. caninum ova consistently from treated wastewater (39-50%) and raw wastewater (7.1-12%) samples collected from both WWTPs. The remaining methods (Methods A, B and D) yielded variable recovery rate ranging from 0.2 to 40% for treated and raw wastewater samples. The recovery rates for sludge samples were poor (0.02-4.7), although, Method F (direct DNA extraction) provided 1-2 orders of magnitude higher recovery rate than Method E (flotation). Based on our results it can be concluded that the recovery rates of hookworm ova from wastewater matrices, especially sludge samples, can be poor and highly variable. Therefore, choice of concentration method is vital for the sensitive detection of hookworm ova in wastewater matrices.

  18. Rapid concentration and sensitive detection of hookworm ova from wastewater matrices using a real-time PCR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, P; Sidhu, J P S; Ahmed, W; Jagals, P; Toze, S

    2015-12-01

    The risk of human hookworm infections from land application of wastewater matrices could be high in regions with high hookworm prevalence. A rapid, sensitive and specific hookworm detection method from wastewater matrices is required in order to assess human health risks. Currently available methods used to identify hookworm ova to the species level are time consuming and lack accuracy. In this study, a real-time PCR method was developed for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of canine hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum) ova from wastewater matrices. A. caninum was chosen because of its morphological similarity to the human hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus). The newly developed PCR method has high detection sensitivity with the ability to detect less than one A. caninum ova from 1 L of secondary treated wastewater at the mean threshold cycle (CT) values ranging from 30.1 to 34.3. The method is also able to detect four A. caninum ova from 1 L of raw wastewater and from ∼4 g of treated sludge with mean CT values ranging from 35.6 to 39.8 and 39.8 to 39.9, respectively. The better detection sensitivity obtained for secondary treated wastewater compared to raw wastewater and sludge samples could be attributed to sample turbidity. The proposed method appears to be rapid, sensitive and specific compared to traditional methods and has potential to aid in the public health risk assessment associated with land application of wastewater matrices. Furthermore, the method can be adapted to detect other helminth ova of interest from wastewater matrices.

  19. Parasitas zoonóticos em fezes de cães em praças públicas do município de Itabuna, Bahia, Brasil Zoonotic parasites in dog feces at public squares in the municipality of Itabuna, Bahia, Brazil

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    Pedro C. Campos Filho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a contaminação de praças públicas da área urbana do município de Itabuna, BA, Brasil, por parasitos zoonóticos presentes em fezes de cães. Foram coletadas 119 amostras fecais de cães em 10 praças. Logo após, estas fezes foram encaminhadas ao Laboratório de Parasitologia da UESC e analisadas pelo método de Mariano e Carvalho. Do total das amostras analisadas, 56,3% continham alguma forma evolutiva parasitária, sendo o parasita mais freqüente Ancylostoma sp. com 47,9%, seguido por 6,7% de Strongyloides stercortalis, 4,2% tanto para ovos de Toxocara canis quanto de Trichuris vulpis, 2,5% para cistos de Endolimax nana, e 0,8% tanto para cistos de Giardia intestinalis quanto para os de Entamoeba coli.The contamination of public squares by zoonotic potential parasites was evaluated at the urban areas in the municipality of Itabuna Brasil. For such, 119 fecal samples of dogs were collected at 10 public squares. After that, these feces samples were transported to the Parasitology Laboratory in the UESC and they were analyzed by Mariano and Carvalho's method. Of the total analized samples, 56.3% show some parasitic evolutive form. Ancylostoma sp. was the most frequently (47.9%, followed by Strongyloides stercortalis (6.7%, Toxocara canis and Trichuris vulpis eggs (4.2% each, Endolimax nana cysts (2.5%, and Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba coli cysts (0.8% each.

  20. Parasites of importance for human health in Nigerian dogs: high prevalence and limited knowledge of pet owners

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    Heukelbach Jorg

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dogs are the most common pet animals worldwide. They may harbour a wide range of parasites with zoonotic potential, thus causing a health risk to humans. In Nigeria, epidemiological knowledge on these parasites is limited. Methods In a community-based study, we examined 396 dogs in urban and rural areas of Ilorin (Kwara State, Central Nigeria for ectoparasites and intestinal helminths. In addition, a questionnaire regarding knowledge and practices was applied to pet owners. Results Nine ectoparasite species belonging to four taxa and six intestinal helminth species were identified: fleas (Ctenocephalides canis, Pulex irritans, Tunga penetrans, mites (Demodex canis, Otodectes sp., Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis, ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes sp., and lice (Trichodectes canis; and Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma sp., Trichuris vulpis, Dipylidium caninum, Taenidae and Strongyloides sp. Overall prevalence of ectoparasites was 60.4% and of intestinal helminths 68.4%. The occurrence of C. canis, R. sanguineus, T. canis, Ancylostoma sp. and T. vulpis was most common (prevalence 14.4% to 41.7%. Prevalence patterns in helminths were age-dependent, with T. canis showing a decreasing prevalence with age of host, and a reverse trend in other parasite species. Knowledge regarding zoonoses was very limited and the diseases not considered a major health problem. Treatment with antiparasitic drugs was more frequent in urban areas. Conclusion Parasites of importance for human health were highly prevalent in Nigerian dogs. Interventions should include health education provided to dog owners and the establishment of a program focusing on zoonotic diseases.

  1. Risk factors for gastrointestinal parasite infections of dogs living around protected areas of the Atlantic Forest: implications for human and wildlife health

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    N. H. A. Curi

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the ubiquity of domestic dogs, their role as zoonotic reservoirs and the large number of studies concerning parasites in urban dogs, rural areas in Brazil, especially those at the wildlife-domestic animal-human interface, have received little attention from scientists and public health managers. This paper reports a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of gastrointestinal parasites of rural dogs living in farms around Atlantic Forest fragments. Through standard parasitological methods (flotation and sedimentation, 13 parasite taxa (11 helminths and two protozoans were found in feces samples from dogs. The most prevalent were the nematode Ancylostoma (47% followed by Toxocara (18% and Trichuris (8%. Other less prevalent (<2% parasites found were Capillaria, Ascaridia, Spirocerca, Taeniidae, Acantocephala, Ascaris, Dipylidium caninum, Toxascaris, and the protozoans Cystoisospora and Eimeria. Mixed infections were found in 36% of samples, mostly by Ancylostoma and Toxocara. Previous deworming had no association with infections, meaning that this preventive measure is being incorrectly performed by owners. Regarding risk factors, dogs younger than one year were more likely to be infected with Toxocara, and purebred dogs with Trichuris. The number of cats in the households was positively associated with Trichuris infection, while male dogs and low body scores were associated with mixed infections. The lack of associations with dog free-ranging behavior and access to forest or villages indicates that infections are mostly acquired around the households. The results highlight the risk of zoonotic and wildlife parasite infections from dogs and the need for monitoring and controlling parasites of domestic animals in human-wildlife interface areas.

  2. Monitoreo de parásitos en efluentes domiciliarios Control of parasites in domestic sewage

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    Liliana Semenas

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la presencia de parásitos en efluentes semisólidos y líquidos en distintas localidades de la Patagonia argentina considerando que ésta es una de las restricciones para su uso. MÉTODOS: Las muestras tomadas en 4 Plantas de Tratamiento de Efluentes Domiciliarios se analizaron siguiendo las normativas de Environmental Protection Agency, Organización Mundial de la Salud, Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater y de algunas clasificaciones. RESULTADOS: Solamente 2 de las 6 muestras de semisólidos analizadas tenían huevos de Ascaris lumbricoides no viables. De las 10 muestras líquidas, solamente 2 no tenían huevos mientras las restantes tenían patógenos de las categorías I (Giardia sp., Hymenolepis diminuta y Enterobius vermicularis y III (Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale y Trichuris trichiura. CONCLUSIONES: Todas las muestras de semisólidos analizadas fueron aptas para su uso como fertilizantes porque no se registró en ninguna de ellas la presencia de huevos viables de Ascaris lumbricoides y solamente 6 de las muestras líquidas fueron aptas para riego por carecer de huevos o por ser su concentración igual o inferior a 1 huevo por litro.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de parasitas em efluentes semi-sólidos e líquidos, em diferentes localidades da Patagonia argentina, por ser fato uma das restrições para seu uso. MÉTODOS: As amostras selecionadas de 4 Centros de Tratamento de Efluentes Domiciliários foram analisadas de acordo com as normas da "Environmental Protection Agenty", Organização Mundial da Saúde e do "Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater", além de algumas classificações. RESULTADOS: Somente 2 das 6 amostras de semi-sólidos analisadas continham ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides não viáveis. Das 10 amostras líquidas, somente 2 não continham ovos, enquanto as restantes continham patógenos das categorias I (Giardia sp., Hymenolepis diminuta e Enterobius

  3. PCR identification of two hookworm species in China%中国两种钩虫成虫的PCR虫种鉴定研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑琪; 沈海默; 陈家旭; 胡薇; 张皓冰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale in China by PCR.Methods Adult hookworms were collected through treating patients in 5 provinces of China with Pyrantel Pamoate.Total DNA from 25 Necators and 25 A.duodenales was extracted separately.Specific primers ( NaF-NaR for Nacator and AdF-AdR for A.duodenale) according to cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene were used for PCR amplification.The products were analyzed by electrophoresis and sequencing.DNA of Schistosoma japomicum,Trichuris trichiura,Ancylostoma caninum were also tested with the same primers for PCR.Results 500 bp fragment was amplified from all 25 Necator DNA by primer NaF-NaR,while 700 bp fragment was amplified by primer AdF-AdR from all 25 Ancylostoma duodenale DNA.Sequence alignment analysis showed that the two PCR products had 98% consistency with N. americanus CO1 (GenBank Accession No.AF303136.1 ) and A.duodenale CO1 ( GenBank Accession No.AJ417718.1 ).No band was shown when the same primer was used on other helminthes.Conclusion Primer NaF-NaR,AdF-AdR could be used to identify N.americanus and A.duodenale in China.%目的 对中国流行的美洲钩虫和十二指肠钩虫进行PCR鉴别.方法 通过对中国五省钩虫患者使用双羟萘酸噻嘧啶驱虫获得钩虫成虫,抽提单条美洲钩虫和十二指肠钩虫总DNA(各25条),用美洲钩虫和十二指肠钩虫线粒体DNA细胞色素氧化酶亚基1(mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1,CO1)基因特异性引物(NaF-NaR,AdF-AdR)进行PCR扩增.对PCR产物进行电泳、测序.使用相同引物对日本血吸虫、鞭虫、犬钩虫DNA进行PCR扩增.结果 25份美洲钩虫和25份十二指肠钩虫均能各扩增出约500 bp和700 bp的条带,2种PCR产物分别与美洲钩虫CO1(GenBank登录号为AF303136.1)和十二指肠钩虫CO1(GenBank登录号为AJ417718.1)基因片段序列一致性为99%和98%.但2对引物用于其他虫种DNA则无条带.结论 引物NaF-NaR、AdF-AdR能够用于区分在

  4. Ocorrência de parasitos gastrintestinais em amostras fecais de felinos no município de Andradina, São Paulo Occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in fecal samples of cats in Andradina City, São Paulo

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    Willian Marinho Dourado Coelho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a ocorrência de parasitos gastrintestinais em amostras fecais de felinos do Município de Andradina, SP. Este trabalho foi realizado no período de março a novembro de 2007, sendo utilizados 51 gatos de procedências diversas, endereçados ao Centro de Controle de Zoonoses do referido Município. Para o diagnóstico coproparasitológico foram associadas as técnicas de Willis e Faust, observando-se ocorrência de Ancylostoma spp. em 96,1% dos animais; Toxocara spp. em 43,1%; Cystoisospora spp. em 43,1%; Dipylidium caninum em 21,6% e Giardia spp. em 5,9% dos animais. Oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. foram detectados em 3,9% das amostras pela técnica de coloração negativa com verde malaquita. Não foi verificada associação significativa entre a ocorrência de endoparasitos e a consistência das amostras fecais. Os resultados obtidos confirmam que esses felinos são importantes hospedeiros de parasitos, alguns com alto potencial zoonótico.The purpose of this study was to verify the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in fecal samples from cats of the Andradina city, SP. This work was carried out from March to November of 2007, and used 51 cats delivered to the Center of Zoonoses Control of that city. Techniques of Willis and Faust were used in the fecal examination and resulted in detection of Ancylostoma spp. in 96.1% of the animals; Toxocara spp. in 43.1%; Cystoisospora spp. in 43.1%; Dipylidium caninum in 21.6% and Giardia spp. in 5.9% samples. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 3.9% fecal samples by the use of malachite green negative stain. There was no significant association between the occurrence of endoparasites and consistency of fecal samples. The results confirm that these cats represent important hosts of parasites, some of those with high zoonotic potential.

  5. Occurrence of helminth eggs on vegetables sold in the city of Apucarana (PR Ocorrência de ovos de helmintos em hortaliças comercializadas na cidade de Apucarana (PR

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    Heloísa de Camargo Tozato

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The vegetable diseases transmitted represents a major public health problem, because it is estimated that millions of people worldwide are affected by parasites. This study aimed to quantify and identify the rate of contamination by helminth eggs on vegetables like watercress and endive marketed in four major supermarkets of Apucarana (PR. Were analyzed 128 sample of vegetables being: 64 of chicory and 64 of watercress, which were trimmer, weighed and washed in a tryptose lauryl sulfate 1% solution. There was a high rate of contamination in both varieties studied, with higher prevalence of chicory. Were found eggs of Ancylostoma sp., Ascaris sp. Diphilobotrium sp. Dipylidium sp. Hymenolepis sp. Taenia sp. and Enterobius sp. Considering these results, we stress the urgent need for official oversight and regulation by the competent local authorities in order to improve the hygienic quality of vegetables offered to the population, and minimize the rates of parasitic infections in adults and children (the most affected.As doenças veiculadas por hortaliças representam um importante problema de saúde pública, pois estima-se que milhões de pessoas de todo o mundo estejam acometidas por parasitoses. O presente estudo teve por objetivo quantificar e identificar o índice de contaminação por ovos de helmintos em hortaliças do tipo agrião e almeirão comercializadas em quatro grandes supermercados da cidade de Apucarana (PR. Foram analisadas 128 amostras de hortaliças sendo 64 de almeirão e 64 de agrião. As hortaliças foram desfolhadas, pesadas e lavadas em solução lauril sulfato triptose a 1%. Observou-se um índice elevado de contaminação nas duas variedades estudadas, com maior prevalência no almeirão. Foram encontrados ovos de Ancylostoma sp., Ascaris sp., Diphilobotrium sp., Dipylidium sp., Hymenolepis sp., Taenia sp. e Enterobius sp. Considerando esses resultados, salienta-se a necessidade urgente de fiscalização e regulamenta

  6. Ocorrência de Cryptosporidium spp. e outros parasitas em hortaliças consumidas in natura, no Recife Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and others parasites in vegetables consumed in natura, Recife, Brazil

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    Celiane Gomes Maia da Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a ocorrência de enteroparasitas em hortaliças comercializadas e consumidas em Pernambuco. Foram utilizadas 100 amostras de hortaliças: 40 amostras de alface lisa (Lactuca sativa, 40 de agrião (Nasturtium officinale e 20 de acelga (Beta vulgaris, provenientes de feiras livres e supermercados. A detecção de Cryptosporidium spp. foi realizada conforme Monge e Arias sendo utilizado dois métodos de coloração, Koster modificado e Ziehl-Nielsen. Foi usada a técnica de sedimentação espontânea de Gelli et al. para a análise parasitológica. As análises de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli foram realizadas de acordo com Andrews. Os resultados obtidos mostraram um percentual de contaminação parasitária em 60% de alface, 30% de agrião e 20% de acelga, destacando-se o Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis e Ancylostoma duodenale dentre os helmintos, e o Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba coli e o complexo Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba díspar, dentre os protozoários com maior freqüência. As hortaliças mais contaminadas por coliformes totais e Escherichia coli foram alface nas amostras de supermercado e agrião em feira livre. Esses dados sugerem a necessidade da adoção de medidas educativas aos produtores, e do monitoramento das águas destinadas à irrigação das hortas.The study was carried with the aim to evaluate the occurrence of enteroparasites in vegetables commercialized and consumed in natural form in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Horticultural samples purchased from supermarket and free market: 40 from lettuce (Lactuca sativa, 40 from watercress (Nasturtium officinale and 20 from chard (Beta vulgaris were analyzed. Cryptosporidium spp. detection was realized following Monge and Arias methodology, using two staining processes (Koster modified and Ziehl-Nielsen. Parasitological analysis was determined by the spontaneous sedimentation technique (Gelli et al., and total

  7. Risk factors and control of intestinal parasite infections in sled dogs in Poland.

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    Bajer, Anna; Bednarska, Malgorzata; Rodo, Anna

    2011-02-10

    Training and racing constitute serious challenges for working sled dogs. Attainment of the highest levels of stamina and speed are possible only by completely healthy dogs. Infections with nematodes as whipworm Trichuris sp. or hookworms Uncinaria/Ancylostoma can significantly reduce the fitness of working dogs leading to anemia or even to death. In the middle of the racing season, between December 2009 and April 2010, 108 individual fecal samples were collected from 25 sled dog kennels situated in different regions of Poland. Saturated salt flotation was performed for helminth egg detection. The immunofluorescent assay MeriFluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia and nested PCRs on 18S rRNA (Cryptosporidium spp.) and TPI gene (Giardia spp.) were carried out for detection of intestinal protozoa. Overall prevalence of 6 species of intestinal parasites was 68% in sled dogs (73/108). In 51 samples the eggs of a single species of helminth were detected (47%), two nematode species were detected in 13%, three species of nematodes were found in two dogs. The most prevalent helminths were the hookworms Uncinaria/Ancylostoma-identified in 36% of kennels, and in 34% of sled dogs. Toxocara eggs were detected in 36% of kennels, in 17% of dogs. Trichuris sp. eggs were found in 20% of kennels (5/25), in 13% of dogs. Cysts/oocysts of intestinal protozoa were detected in 31% of sled dogs. The most prevalent was Giardia spp. infection-in 54% of kennels [13/24], in 28% of dogs. Cryptosporidium spp. infections were identified in 37.5% of kennels [9/24], in 13% of dogs. Two sequenced Giardia isolates presented 100% homology with G. intestinalis Assemblage C isolate (AY228641.1), specific for dogs. A range of factors was shown to affect the prevalence of intestinal parasites in sled dogs. The highest prevalence of parasites was found among dogs from large kennels (housing >3 dogs), in dogs less than 2 years old, and in kennels, where prophylactic treatment was carried out 1-4 times a year. The

  8. Massively parallel sequencing and analysis of the Necator americanus transcriptome.

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    Cinzia Cantacessi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The blood-feeding hookworm Necator americanus infects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. In order to elucidate fundamental molecular biological aspects of this hookworm, the transcriptome of the adult stage of Necator americanus was explored using next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic analyses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 19,997 contigs were assembled from the sequence data; 6,771 of these contigs had known orthologues in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and most of them encoded proteins with WD40 repeats (10.6%, proteinase inhibitors (7.8% or calcium-binding EF-hand proteins (6.7%. Bioinformatic analyses inferred that the C. elegans homologues are involved mainly in biological pathways linked to ribosome biogenesis (70%, oxidative phosphorylation (63% and/or proteases (60%; most of these molecules were predicted to be involved in more than one biological pathway. Comparative analyses of the transcriptomes of N. americanus and the canine hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, revealed qualitative and quantitative differences. For instance, proteinase inhibitors were inferred to be highly represented in the former species, whereas SCP/Tpx-1/Ag5/PR-1/Sc7 proteins ( = SCP/TAPS or Ancylostoma-secreted proteins were predominant in the latter. In N. americanus, essential molecules were predicted using a combination of orthology mapping and functional data available for C. elegans. Further analyses allowed the prioritization of 18 predicted drug targets which did not have homologues in the human host. These candidate targets were inferred to be linked to mitochondrial (e.g., processing proteins or amino acid metabolism (e.g., asparagine t-RNA synthetase. CONCLUSIONS: This study has provided detailed insights into the transcriptome of the adult stage of N. americanus and examines similarities and differences between this species and A. caninum. Future efforts should focus on comparative transcriptomic and

  9. Intestinal obstruction by eosinophilic jejunitis Aspectos quirúrgicos de la enteritis eosinofílica

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    J. M. Álamo Martínez

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic enteritis is an uncommon disease that rarely devel-ops as a surgical emergency. Although it may be associated with infestation by Ancylostoma caninum, its etiology is unknown and often related to a personal or family history of atopy. A transmural involvement may cause intestinal obstruction -more frequently in the jejunum- or even acute abdomen, which may or may not be accompanied by intestinal perforation. The latter two conditions tend to be more commonly associated with ileum disease, causing pain in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen. Patient history, eosinophil count -which may be paradoxically reduced when the disease appears in this way-, ultrasonography, and/or CT lead to the suspicion of this condition before a surgical procedure is considered. A definitive diagnosis, however, must be reached by means of an anatomopathological study. Macroscopically, intestinal loops exhibit a thickened appearance with an elastic consistency. Laparoscopic intestinal biopsy may play a major role in the diagnosis of disease.La enteritis eosinofílica es una enfermedad poco frecuente que debuta de forma extraordinaria como urgencia quirúrgica. Su etiopatogenia, aunque pudiera estar asociada a la infestación por Ancylostoma caninum, se desconoce, y en muchas ocasiones se relaciona con antecedentes personales o familiares de atopia. La afectación transmural puede ocasionar síndrome obstructivo intestinal, más frecuente a nivel yeyunal, o incluso un abdomen agudo acompañado o no de perforación entérica. Estas dos últimas entidades suelen estar asociadas más usualmente con el asentamiento de la enfermedad en íleon, provocando dolor en la fosa iliaca derecha. Los antecedentes del enfermo, el recuento de eosinófilos en sangre, que paradójicamente puede estar disminuido cuando la enfermedad debuta de esta forma, la ecografía y/o la TAC, pueden hacernos sospechar de esta patología antes de plantearse la intervención quir

  10. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of Monepantel (AAD 1566 against laboratory models of human intestinal nematode infections.

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    Lucienne Tritten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few effective drugs are available for soil-transmitted helminthiases and drug resistance is of concern. In the present work, we tested the efficacy of the veterinary drug monepantel, a potential drug development candidate compared to standard drugs in vitro and in parasite-rodent models of relevance to human soil-transmitted helminthiases. METHODOLOGY: A motility assay was used to assess the efficacy of monepantel, albendazole, levamisole, and pyrantel pamoate in vitro on third-stage larvae (L3 and adult worms of Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Necator americanus and Trichuris muris. Ancylostoma ceylanicum- or N. americanus-infected hamsters, T. muris- or Ascaris suum-infected mice, and Strongyloides ratti-infected rats were treated with single oral doses of monepantel or with one of the reference drugs. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Monepantel showed excellent activity on A. ceylanicum adults (IC(50 = 1.7 µg/ml, a moderate effect on T. muris L3 (IC(50 = 78.7 µg/ml, whereas no effect was observed on A. ceylanicum L3, T. muris adults, and both stages of N. americanus. Of the standard drugs, levamisole showed the highest potency in vitro (IC(50 = 1.6 and 33.1 µg/ml on A. ceylanicum and T. muris L3, respectively. Complete elimination of worms was observed with monepantel (10 mg/kg and albendazole (2.5 mg/kg in A. ceylanicum-infected hamsters. In the N. americanus hamster model single 10 mg/kg oral doses of monepantel and albendazole resulted in worm burden reductions of 58.3% and 100%, respectively. Trichuris muris, S. ratti and A. suum were not affected by treatment with monepantel in vivo (following doses of 600 mg/kg, 32 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg, respectively. In contrast, worm burden reductions of 95.9% and 76.6% were observed following treatment of T. muris- and A. suum infected mice with levamisole (200 mg/kg and albendazole (600 mg/kg, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Monepantel reveals low or no activities against N. americanus

  11. Parasitic zoonoses: survey in foxes (Vulpes vulpes in the northern Apennines / Zoonosi parassitarie: indagini in volpi (Vulpes vulpes dell'Appennino settentrionale

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    Vittorio Guberti

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A parasitological survey on 153 foxes was carried out in the northern Apennines, during the period 1984-1987. The following parasites were identified: Toxocara canis (46.4%, Taenia sp. (17%, Uncinaria stenocephala (11.8%, Mesocestoides lineatus (11.1%, Ancylostoma caninum (3.9%, Taenia hydatigena (3.3%, Trichuris vulpis (3.3%, Dipylidium caninum (2.6%, Taenia crassiceps (2%. All foxes were negative for Trichinella sp. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate differences in the parasitic fauna according to the sex and age classes of the hosts. The role that the fox could have as a reservoir of helminthic zoonoses is discussed. The results are compared with those of similar studies carried out in Italy. Riassunto Nel periodo 1984-1987 è stata condotta un'indagine parassitologica su 153 volpi abbattute nell'Appennino romagnolo. Sono stati reperiti i seguenti parassiti: Toxocara canis (46,4%, Taenia sp. (17%, Uncinaria stenocephala (11,8%, Mesocestoides lineatus (11,1%, Ancylostoma caninum (3,9%, Taenia hydatigena (3,3%, Trichuris vulpis (3,3%, Dipylidium caninum (2,6%, Taenia crassiceps (2%. Tutte le volpi esaminate sono risultate negative per Trichinella sp. È stata effettuata l'analisi statistica dei dati per evidenziare eventuali differenze della fauna parassitaria in relazione al sesso e all'età delle volpi. Sulla base dei dati ottenuti viene discussa l'importanza che la Volpe può assumere come serbatoio di zoonosi elmintiche. I risultati acquisiti sono inoltre comparati con quelli ottenuti in analoghe ricerche condotte in Italia.

  12. Avaliação parasitológica de alfaces (Lactuca sativa comercializadas em feiras livres e supermercados do município de Campo Mourão, Estado do Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i4.1514 Occurence of parasites in lettuce (Lactuca sativa commercializaed in the street markets and supermarkets of Campo Mourão, state of Paraná, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i4.1514

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    Sandra Maria Simonelli

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou e comparou a contaminação por enteroparasitas em alfaces (Lactuca sativa comercializadas em supermercados e feiras livres do município de Campo Mourão, Estado do Paraná. Foram analisadas 150 amostras de alfaces, pelo método de sedimentação espontânea (Hoffmann, sendo 75 amostras provenientes de supermercados e 75 amostras de feiras livres. O sedimento foi analisado em microscópio óptico. Das amostras analisadas, 56% (42/75 e 58,7% (44/75 apresentaram contaminação por parasitas, dos supermercados e feiras livres, respectivamente. Os principais parasitas encontrados em supermercados foram: Ascaris spp 54,7%, Toxocara spp 2,4%, Strongyloides spp 4,8%, Entamoeba spp 35,7% e Taenia spp 2,4%; e em feiras livres foram: Ascaris spp 13,6%, Strongyloides spp 11,4%, Entamoeba spp 47,7%, Ancylostoma spp 9,1%, /em>Taenia spp 2,3%, Fasciola hepatica 6,8% e Trichuris spp 9,1%. Esses resultados indicam que as amostras de alfaces estão em desacordo com a legislação vigente e salientam a necessidade de aplicação de um programa de educação sanitária direcionado a horticultores e manipuladores de hortaliçasThis work researched and compared the contamination by enteroparasites in lettuce (Lactuca sativa commercialized in the supermarkets and street markets of Campo Mourão, State of Paraná. 150 samples of lettuce were analyzed through sedimentation method (Hoffmam, being 75 samples from supermarkets and 75 from street markets. The sediment was analyzed in optic microscope. The supermarkets samples showed contamination by parasites of 56% (42/75; while contamination of street markets samples showed 58.7% (44/75. The principal parasites observed in supermarkets samples were: Ascaris spp 54.7%, Toxocara spp 2.4%, Strongyloides spp 4.8%, Entamoeba spp 35.7% and Taenia spp 2.4%. Important parasites observed in street markets were: Ascaris spp 13.6%, Strongyloides spp 11.4%, Entamoeba spp 47.7%, Ancylostoma spp 9.1%, Taenia

  13. Prevalencia del Enteroparasitismo en escolares de comunidades nativas del Alto Marañon, Amazonas, Perú

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    Nicanor Ibáñez H

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de infección por protozoarios y helmintos intestinales y su relación con el sexo, localidad de procedencia y grupo etáreo, en escolares nativos de la zona selvática del Alto Marañón, provincia de Bagua, departamento de Amazonas, Perú. Materiales y métodos: En este estudio transversal-observacional se seleccionó a los colegios representativos de la mencionada región lográndose examinar las muestras fecales de 1049 escolares de seis a 15 años de edad, entre octubre de 2001 y octubre de 2002, usando las técnicas microscópicas de observación directa, con solución salina fisiológica y lugol, de Teleman y de Kinnyoun. Resultados: La prevalencia de los protozoos y helmintos intestinales hallados es: Entamoeba coli 68,0%; Blastocystis hominis 28,4%; Endolimax nana 23,9%; Iodamoeba butschlii 32,9%; Giardia lamblia 21,4%; Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 12,9%; Cryptosporidium sp 01,9%; Paragonimus peruvianus 00,7% y Fasciola hepatica 00,2% (que no son parásitos intestinales sino de ubicación pulmonar y de vías biliares, respectivamente, pero sus huevos se encuentran en el contenido intestinal; Ancylostoma/Necartor 30,4%; Ascaris lumbricoides 28,9%; Trichocephalus trichiura 16,6%; Enterobius vermicularis 03,6%; Hymenolepis nana 03,5%; Taenia solium/saginata 00,2%; Strongyloides stercoralis 00,8% e H. diminuta 00,2%. Conclusiones: Ancylostoma/Necartor y A. lumbricoides se presentaron con mayor prevalencia en las poblaciones de menor edad de las comunidades de Mesones Muro y Nazaret, mientras que la infección humana por P. peruvianus se registra por primera vez en la región nororiental del Perú.

  14. Efficacy of oral afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewables against induced gastrointestinal nematode infections in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhauser, Rebecca; Hamel, Dietmar; Dorr, Paul; Reinemeyer, Craig R; Crafford, Dionne; Bowman, Dwight D; Ulrich, Michael; Yoon, Stephen; Larsen, Diane L

    2016-07-30

    The efficacy of oral afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime combination chewables against induced gastrointestinal nematode infections in dogs was evaluated in six separate studies. Two studies were performed to evaluate the efficacy of the product against Toxocara canis, two studies evaluated the efficacy against Toxascaris leonina, one study evaluated the efficacy against Ancylostoma braziliense, and one study evaluated the efficacy against Ancylostoma caninum. In the A. caninum study, the efficacy of milbemycin oxime alone and afoxolaner alone was also evaluated. Dogs in all studies were inoculated with infective eggs or larvae and confirmed to have patent infections based on a fecal examination prior to allocation to study group and treatment. Each study utilized a randomized block design with blocks based on pre-treatment body weight. All dogs were assigned to blocks based on body weight, and then each dog within a block was randomly assigned to treatment group. There were two groups of 10 dogs each in the T. canis, T. leonina, and A. braziliense studies: 1) an untreated (control) group and 2) a group treated with afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewables (NexGard Spectra(®), Merial). This group was treated at a dose as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime (2.5mg+0.5mg per kg body weight, respectively) once on Day 0 using whole chews. There were four groups of 10 dogs each in the A. caninum study: 1) untreated (control), 2) NexGard Spectra(®) as described above, 3) milbemycin oxime alone (dose of at least 0.5mg per kg of body weight) and 4) afoxalaner alone (dose of at least 2.5mg per kg body weight). For parasite recovery and counts, dogs were euthanized humanely and necropsied seven days after treatment. The efficacy of the afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime combination was ≥98% against T. canis, ≥95.8% against T. leonina, and 90.2% against A. braziliense. Efficacy of the combination against A. caninum was 99

  15. The prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs from Prague, rural areas, and shelters of the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubná, S; Langrová, I; Nápravník, J; Jankovská, I; Vadlejch, J; Pekár, S; Fechtner, J

    2007-04-10

    The prevalence of intestinal parasites was evaluated by examination of dog faecal samples in the Prague city centre, agricultural areas, and two shelters. The overall prevalence of parasites (i.e., protozoa and helminths, mentioned below) in Prague was 17.6%. Toxocara canis was the most common parasite, and was recovered from 6.2% of dogs, followed by Cystoisospora spp. (2.4%), Cryptosporidium spp. (1.4%), Trichuris sp. (1.1%), Taenia-type (1.0%), Giardia spp. (0.1%), Toxascaris sp. (0.9%), Dipylidium sp. (0.7%), Sarcocystis spp. (0.6%), Capillaria spp. (0.6%), Neospora/Hammondia spp. (0.5%), Ancylostoma sp. (0.4%), Uncinaria sp. (0.4%), and Spirocerca sp. (0.2%). The prevalence of infections with helminths and protozoans in two animal shelters in Prague was examined at the dog's admittance ir reception to the shelters and during housing. T. canis eggs (6.5%), Cystoisospora (4.4%), and Giardia (3.3%) cysts were the most prevalent. Significant increases in the prevalence of some parasites were found after a stay in the shelter. Giardia spp. showed an 11-fold increase in prevalence of dogs placed in the shelters for a longer time; Cryptosporidium spp. had a 7-fold increase, Capillaria spp. a 5-fold, Spirocerca sp., Neospora/Hammondia spp., and Cystoisospora spp. a 4-fold increase over dogs examined at the time of admittance to the shelter (pcanis was 13.7%, followed by Cystoisospora spp. (8.0%), Taenia spp. (3.5%), Sarcocystis spp. (3.0%), Giardia spp. (2.2%), Cryptosporidium spp. (2.0%), Trichuris sp. (1.7%), Toxascaris sp. (1.7%), Dipylidium sp. (1.3%), Neospora/Hammondia spp. (1.3%), Spirocerca sp. (1.1%), Uncinaria sp. (0.9%), Ancylostoma sp. (0.7%), and Capillaria spp. (0.6%). Examinations of dogs in urban and rural areas showed, with the exception of Trichuris sp. in Prague, a higher occurrence of nematode infection in autumn, notably T. canis (chi2>8.3, d.f.=3, p<0.04).

  16. Parasitosis entéricas en caninos de un área del Gran Buenos Aires. 2003 - 2004 Enteric parasitosis in dogs from an area of Great Buenos Aires, 2003 - 2004

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    A Betti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estimó la prevalencia de parasitosis entéricas en perros atendidos en el Centro de Zoonosis del Partido de General San Martín, Provincia de Buenos Aires, República de Argentina para apreciar la magnitud de ese problema en animales con dueño. Puesto que algunas pueden afectar al hombre, esa información es de utilidad para decidir la necesidad de implementar medidas de control, cuáles y con qué estrategia. Se estudió una muestra de 66 perros que concurrieron a ese Centro para su atención. Sus heces fueron analizadas según las técnicas de sedimentación modificada de Telemann y de flotación de Bembrook. Se halló un 40,9% de caninos parasitados, una cuarta parte de los cuales tenía más de una especie de parásito. Trichuris spp. y Ancylostoma spp fueron los géneros más comúnmente encontrados. La edad resultó una característica relacionada con las enteroparasitosis ya que los menores de 2 años presentaron una prevalencia significativamente mayor que el resto de los animales (77% y 28% respectivamente. La información sobre estas parasitosis y las medidas para controlarlas deberían incluirse en la comunicación en salud, destinada a la promoción de la tenencia responsable, que llevan a cabo los Centros de Zoonosis.To appreciate the magnitude of the problem of intestinal parasites in dogs with owners, prevalence was estimated in those dogs taken to the Zoonosis Center of the San Martin District, Buenos Aires Province, Argentine Republic. As some of these parasite diseases can affect man, this information is useful for deciding on the need to implement control measures and which measures and strategies to use. Fecal samples from 66 dogs were studied, using Telemann sedimentation and Bembrook fl otation techniques, in animals brought to the center. A 40.9% of the dogs had parasites and a fourth of these had more than one parasite species. Trichuris spp. and Ancylostoma spp were the genus most frequently found. Age was seen to

  17. A field survey on parasites and antibodies against selected pathogens in owned dogs in Lilongwe, Malawi

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    Karin Alvåsen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to screen for selected parasites and antibody levels against vectorborne pathogens in owned dogs in Lilongwe, Malawi. The study population consisted of 100 dogs; 80 participating in vaccination–spaying campaigns and 20 visiting a veterinary clinic as paying clients. All dogs went through a general physical examination including visual examination for signs of ectoparasites. A total of 100 blood samples were analysed using commercial snap tests and 40 faecal samples by egg flotation in saturated sodium chloride. The sampled dogs had a seroprevalence of 12% for Anaplasma spp., 22% for Ehrlichia spp., 4% for Dirofilaria immitis and 1% for Leishmania spp. Eggs from Ancylostoma spp. were found in 80% of the faecal samples, whereas eggs of Trichuris vulpis, Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina were only present in 3%, 8% and 13% of the samples, respectively. Ectoparasites such as Ctenocephalides sp., Trichodectes sp. and ticks were present on 98%, 25% and 11%, respectively, of the campaign dogs. Among client dogs, 35% had Ctenocephalides fleas, 10% had Trichodectes lice and none had ticks. Public education and prophylactic treatment could be used to improve the animal welfare of dogs; this would most likely also have positive impact on public health.

  18. Monitoreo de parásitos en efluentes domiciliarios

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    Semenas Liliana

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la presencia de parásitos en efluentes semisólidos y líquidos en distintas localidades de la Patagonia argentina considerando que ésta es una de las restricciones para su uso. MÉTODOS: Las muestras tomadas en 4 Plantas de Tratamiento de Efluentes Domiciliarios se analizaron siguiendo las normativas de Environmental Protection Agency, Organización Mundial de la Salud, Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater y de algunas clasificaciones. RESULTADOS: Solamente 2 de las 6 muestras de semisólidos analizadas tenían huevos de Ascaris lumbricoides no viables. De las 10 muestras líquidas, solamente 2 no tenían huevos mientras las restantes tenían patógenos de las categorías I (Giardia sp., Hymenolepis diminuta y Enterobius vermicularis y III (Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale y Trichuris trichiura. CONCLUSIONES: Todas las muestras de semisólidos analizadas fueron aptas para su uso como fertilizantes porque no se registró en ninguna de ellas la presencia de huevos viables de Ascaris lumbricoides y solamente 6 de las muestras líquidas fueron aptas para riego por carecer de huevos o por ser su concentración igual o inferior a 1 huevo por litro.

  19. Drug Repositioning and Pharmacophore Identification in the Discovery of Hookworm MIF Inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y Cho; J Vermeire; J Merkel; L Leng; X Du; R Bucala; M Cappello; E Lolis

    2011-12-31

    The screening of bioactive compound libraries can be an effective approach for repositioning FDA-approved drugs or discovering new pharmacophores. Hookworms are blood-feeding, intestinal nematode parasites that infect up to 600 million people worldwide. Vaccination with recombinant Ancylostoma ceylanicum macrophage migration inhibitory factor (rAceMIF) provided partial protection from disease, thus establishing a 'proof-of-concept' for targeting AceMIF to prevent or treat infection. A high-throughput screen (HTS) against rAceMIF identified six AceMIF-specific inhibitors. A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), sodium meclofenamate, could be tested in an animal model to assess the therapeutic efficacy in treating hookworm disease. Furosemide, an FDA-approved diuretic, exhibited submicromolar inhibition of rAceMIF tautomerase activity. Structure-activity relationships of a pharmacophore based on furosemide included one analog that binds similarly to the active site, yet does not inhibit the Na-K-Cl symporter (NKCC1) responsible for diuretic activity.

  20. Behavior of metals, pathogen parasites, and indicator bacteria in sewage effluents during biological treatment by activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonani, K A A; Julião, F C; Trevilato, T M B; Takayanagui, A M M; Bocio, Ana; Domingo, Jose L; Segura-Muñoz, Susana I

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the behavior of metals, pathogen parasites, and indicator bacteria in sewage effluents during biological treatment by activated sludge in a wastewater treatment plant in Ribeirão Preto (WTP-RP), Sao Paulo, Brazil. The evaluation was done during a period of 1 year. Results showed that metal concentrations in treated effluents decreased, reaching concentrations according to those established by national regulations. The activated sludge process at the WTP-RP promoted a partial removal of parasites considered as possible indicators according to the WHO guidelines. Reduction factors varied between 18.2% and 100% for agents such as Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hystolitica, Giardia sp., Ancylostoma sp., Ascaris sp., Fasciola hepatica, and Strongyloides stercoralis. A removal was also observed in total and fecal coliforms quantification. The present study represents an initial evaluation of the chemical and microbiological removal capacity of the WTP-RP. The results should be of interest for the authorities responsible for the environmental health at municipal, regional, national, and international levels.

  1. Rangelia vitalii in a free-ranging maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus and co-infections

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    Julia Angélica Gonçalves Silveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An adult free-ranged female maned wolf was rescued from a periurban area subject to anthropogenic disturbances in the Minas Gerais, Brazil. The animal presented poor body condition and anemia. The clinical condition rapidly deteriorated culminating in dead and a necropsy was performed. The main gross lesions were marked anemia and blood content in the intestines accompanied by many types of parasites. The protozoa Rangelia vitalii was identified by histopathological analysis predominantly within the cytoplasm of endothelial cells of capillaries of the small intestine. The lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, dermis, lungs and kidney had similar protozoal forms but with mild or moderate intensity. Rangelia vitalii was confirmed by molecular assays. Hepatozoon sp., Leishmania sp., and Entamoeba spp., apparently not related to the clinical signs were also detected. The myriad parasites found in the intestines included nematodes (Ancylostoma caninum, A. braziliensis,, Molineus sp., Pterygodermatites sp., and Trichuris sp., cestodes (Spirometra sp. and (acanthocephalans. To our knowledge, R. vitalii was identified in C. brachyurus for the first time. These findings emphasize the fragility of Brazilian ecosystems, especially in disturbed areas, reinforcing the necessity of efforts to preserve these areas and wild carnivores, some of which are threatened with extinction, such as the maned wolf.

  2. High prevalence of helminth parasites in feral cats in Majorca Island (Spain).

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    Millán, Javier; Casanova, Joan Carles

    2009-12-01

    Feral cats are widespread in the countryside of Majorca (Balearic Islands, Spain). Since they are not subject of sanitary control, they can act as reservoir of parasites of veterinary and zoonotic interest. The main organs of 58 wild-trapped cats in 16 different areas from Majorca were analyzed by helminths. All the cats were parasitized, and eight species of helminths were retrieved (mean = 3.4 species per cat, with 74% of the cats harboring three or more species). Seven of them presented a prevalence >20%: Joyeuxiella pasqualei (76%), Diplopylidium acanthotetra (60%), Dipylidium carracidoi (33%), Taenia taeniaeformis (22%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (91%), and Toxocara cati (35%) in the gastrointestinal tract, and Oslerus rostratus (24%) in lungs. The A. tubaeforme prevalence and intensity (mean = 30, up to 396) is the highest recorded for a population of cats. Prevalence and abundance of J. pasqualei and D. acanthotetra were strongly associated, secondary to the use of the same intermediary host (geckos). Other positive associations found are probably related to host susceptibility. Abundance of D. acanthotetra, T. cati, and A. tubaeforme and the number of species per host were negatively correlated with cat body condition (assessed by the kidney fat index). Females were more frequently parasitized by A. tubaeforme than males, and adult females were more heavily infested by J. pasqualei and D. acanthotetra than cats from other groups. These and other findings are discussed in relation with host ecology. Feral cats serve as reservoirs of helminths in the countryside of Majorca and their populations should be controlled.

  3. Prevalence and Types of Coinfections in Sleeping Sickness Patients in Kenya (2000/2009

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    J. M. Kagira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of coinfections in human African trypanosomiasis (HAT patients was investigated using a retrospective data of hospital records at the National Sleeping Sickness Referral Hospital in Alupe, Kenya. A total of 31 patients, 19 males and 12 females, were diagnosed with HAT between the years 2000 and 2009. The observed co-infections included malaria (100%, helminthosis (64.5%, typhoid (22.5%, urinary tract infections (16.1%, HIV (12.9%, and tuberculosis (3.2%. The species of helminthes observed included Ancylostoma duodenale (38.7%, Ascaris lumbricoides (45.7%, Strongyloides stercoralis (9.7%, and Taenia spp. (3.2%. The patients were also infected with Entamoeba spp. (32.3% and Trichomonas hominis (22.6% protozoan parasites. The main clinical signs observed at the point of admission included headache (74.2%, fever (48.4%, sleep disorders (45.2%, and general body pain (41.9%. The HAT patients were treated with suramin (early stage, 9/31 and melarsoprol (late stage, 22/31. In conclusion, the study has shown that HAT patients have multiple co-infections which may influence the disease pathogenesis and complicate management of HAT.

  4. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in domestic dogs in Tabasco, southeastern Mexico

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    Oswaldo Margarito Torres-Chablé

    Full Text Available Abstract The overall goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI parasites in dogs in the city of Villahermosa in Tabasco, Mexico. The study population consisted of 302 owned dogs that had limited access to public areas. A fecal sample was collected from each animal and examined for GI parasites by conventional macroscopic analysis and centrifugal flotation. Fecal samples from 80 (26.5% dogs contained GI parasites. Of these, 58 (19.2% were positive for helminths and 22 (7.3% were positive for protozoan parasites. At least seven parasitic species were identified. The most common parasite was Ancylostoma caninum which was detected in 48 (15.9% dogs. Other parasites detected on multiple occasions were Cystoisospora spp. (n = 19, Toxocara canis (n = 7 and Giardia spp. (n = 3. Three additional parasites, Dipylidium caninum, Trichuris vulpis and Uncinaria spp., were each detected in a single dog. No mixed parasitic infections were identified. In summary, we report a moderately high prevalence of GI parasites in owned dogs in Villahermosa, Tabasco. Several parasitic species identified in this study are recognized zoonotic pathogens which illustrates the important need to routinely monitor and treat dogs that live in close proximity to humans for parasitic infections.

  5. Diversity and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in seven non-human primates of the Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire

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    Kouassi Roland Yao Wa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasites and infectious diseases are well-known threats to primate populations. The main objective of this study was to provide baseline data on fecal parasites in the cercopithecid monkeys inhabiting Côte d’Ivoire’s Taï National Park. Seven of eight cercopithecid species present in the park were sampled: Cercopithecus diana, Cercopithecus campbelli, Cercopithecus petaurista, Procolobus badius, Procolobus verus, Colobus polykomos, and Cercocebus atys. We collected 3142 monkey stool samples between November 2009 and December 2010. Stool samples were processed by direct wet mount examination, formalin-ethyl acetate concentration, and MIF (merthiolate, iodine, formalin concentration methods. Slides were examined under microscope and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, and adult worms. A total of 23 species of parasites was recovered including 9 protozoa (Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba hartmanni, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Giardia sp., Balantidium coli, and Blastocystis sp., 13 nematodes (Oesophagostomum sp., Ancylostoma sp., Anatrichosoma sp., Capillariidae Gen. sp. 1, Capillariidae Gen. sp. 2, Chitwoodspirura sp., Subulura sp., spirurids [cf Protospirura muricola], Ternidens sp., Strongyloides sp., Trichostrongylus sp., and Trichuris sp., and 1 trematode (Dicrocoelium sp.. Diversity indices and parasite richness were high for all monkey taxa, but C. diana, C. petaurista, C. atys, and C. campbelli exhibited a greater diversity of parasite species and a more equitable distribution. The parasitological data reported are the first available for these cercopithecid species within Taï National Park.

  6. A novel, multi-parallel, real-time polymerase chain reaction approach for eight gastrointestinal parasites provides improved diagnostic capabilities to resource-limited at-risk populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Rojelio; Vicuña, Yosselin; Broncano, Nely; Sandoval, Carlos; Vaca, Maritza; Chico, Martha; Cooper, Philip J; Nutman, Thomas B

    2013-06-01

    Diagnosis of gastrointestinal parasites has traditionally relied on stool microscopy, which has low diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. We have developed a novel, rapid, high-throughput quantitative multi-parallel real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) platform. Species-specific primers/probes were used for eight common gastrointestinal parasite pathogens: Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba histolytica, Trichuris trichiura, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Stool samples from 400 13-month-old children in rural Ecuador were analyzed and the qPCR was compared with a standard direct wet mount slide for stool microscopy, as were 125 8-14-year-old children before and after anthelmintic treatment. The qPCR showed higher detection rates for all parasites compared with direct microscopy, Ascaris (7.0% versus 5.5%) and for Giardia (31.5% versus 5.8%). Using an enhanced DNA extraction method, we were able to detect T. trichiura DNA. These assays will be useful to refine treatment options for affected populations, ultimately leading to better health outcomes.

  7. [Prolactin as a modulator of antiparasitic immunity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płociński, Przemysław; Dzitko, Katarzyna; Długońska, Henryka

    2007-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone of the pituitary origin, that expresses over 300 separate biological activities, including its involvement in the regulation of immune functions. The hormone's immune capacities are related, among others, to comitogenic activity, prevention of immune cell apoptosis, stimulation of interleukins and antibodies production. Prolactin acts as a potent positive modulator of immunity to some protozoan parasites. It is well established that the hormone stimulates IFN-gamma and many other TH1-type cytokines production during Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania sp. and Acanthamoeba castellanii infections. Recent studies suggest that human prolactin may be a regulator of antiparasitic activity against Plasmodium falciparum. On the other hand pregnancy-associated hyperprolactinemia may have a relevant contribution to reactivation of latent infections caused by many helminthic parasites, like Ancylostoma sp. or Necator sp. It is possibly connected with the process of transmammary transmission of hookworm infection to breast-fed newborns. Moreover, an increase in endogenous circulating prolactin during late pregnancy and lactation in ewes infected with Haemonchus contortus, promotes the phenomenon of periparturient egg rise. High prolactin levels have also been seen in dairy cattle suffering from other trichostrongylids infections. In this article we have discussed the role of prolactin as an important regulator of immunity to parasites.

  8. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites of zoonotic significance in dogs and cats in lower Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    PUMIDONMING, Wilawan; SALMAN, Doaa; GRONSANG, Dulyatad; ABDELBASET, Abdelbaset E.; SANGKAEO, Khamphon; KAWAZU, Shin-ichiro; IGARASHI, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal zoonotic helminths of dogs and cats have a public health concern worldwide. We investigated the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths of zoonotic significance in dogs and cats in lower Northern Thailand and utilized molecular tools for species identification of hookworms and Opisthorchis viverrini. Fecal samples of 197 dogs and 180 cats were collected. Overall prevalence of infection using microscopy was 40.1% in dogs and 33.9% in cats. Helminth infection found in both dogs and cats included hookworms, Spirometra spp., Taenia spp., Toxocara spp., O. viverrini, Strongyloides spp. and Trichuris spp. Hookworms were the most common helminth in dogs, while Spirometra spp. were the most prevalent in cats. Among hookworm infection in dogs and cats, Ancylostoma ceylanicum was the most prevalent hookworm, being 82.1% in hookworm infected dogs and 95.8% in hookworm infected cats. Mixed-infection due to hookworms and Spirometra spp. was the most dominant in both dogs and cats. Our finding showed that zoonotic helminth infection is highly prevalent in dogs and cats in the lower Northern area of Thailand. PMID:27570099

  9. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in primate bushmeat and pets in Cameroon.

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    Pourrut, X; Diffo, J L D; Somo, R M; Bilong Bilong, C F; Delaporte, E; LeBreton, M; Gonzalez, J P

    2011-01-10

    To document the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Cameroonian monkeys and to assess the risk of transmission to humans, we sampled 125 primates belonging to 15 species, of which 78 had been captured for bushmeat in the wild, and 47 were pets kept in urban areas. Seven nematode species, one trematode, one cestode and three protozoa were detected. Eight different parasite species were found in Cercopithecus nictitans and six in C. neglectus, C. pogonias and Cercocebus agilis. Helminths were found in 77% of monkeys, and protozoa in 36%. Trichuris sp. and Entamoeba coli were the most frequent parasites, being found in 54% and 36% of animals, respectively. Helminths were more frequent in adults than in juveniles, while the prevalence of protozoa was not age-related. No significant gender difference was found. Bushmeat monkeys had a significantly higher prevalence of helminth infection than pets (92% versus 51%), whereas there was no significant difference in the prevalence of protozoa (32% versus 43%). Among helminth species, Strongyloides fulleborni was more prevalent in bushmeat monkeys than in pets (55% versus 15%), as were Ancylostoma spp. (62% versus 9%). As these parasites are transmitted transcutaneously by infectious larva, they have a high potential for transmission to humans, during butchering. One pet monkey kept in an urban household in Yaoundé was infected by Schistosoma mansoni. The potential public health implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. Efficacy of fenbendazole against giardiasis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, S C; Bowman, D D; Heller, R L

    1994-07-01

    Efficacy of fenbendazole at 2 dosages for treating naturally acquired giardiasis in dogs was assessed. Giardia cysts were not detected in the feces of 6 of 6 group-1 dogs (as determined by use of the zinc sulfate concentration technique) after fenbendazole treatment (50 mg/kg of body weight, PO, q 24 h, for 3 doses). Cysts were not detected in the feces of 6 of 6 group-2 dogs after fenbendazole treatment (50 mg/kg of body weight, PO, q 8 h, for 3 days). However, cysts were not detected in the feces of only 1 of 6 group-3 (nontreated control) dogs. Signs of toxicosis were not observed in any dog. These results indicate that the current label dosage (for the treatment of Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Trichuris vulpis, and Taenia pisiformis, but not Giardia spp) of fenbendazole (50 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h, for 3 doses) is also effective for treating giardiasis in dogs.

  11. Parasitic Infections among Restaurant Workers in Mukalla (Hadhramout/Yemen

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    AM AL-Haddad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: To identify intestinal parasites among restaurant workers in Mukalla, Yemen in 2007."nMethods: Stool specimens were collected and examined from a total of 500 restaurant workers at Hadhramout University Health Center .Three types of techniques were used: direct examination, saline sedimentation and formol-ether concentration."nResults:  The positivity in majority of them was single infection whereas 6 cases were double infection that constituted 1.3% of the prevalence. The prevalence was 14.8 % for Entamoeba histolytica/dispor, and 5.2 % for Giardia lamblia, while it was 4.4% for Hymenolepis nana. Other intestinal parasites including Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodinale were also detected. Additionally, the blood parasite Schistosoma mansoni was also detected in 4 cases. The double infection was only with E. histolytica/dispor and Giardia. The infection with these parasites was also accompanied by abdominal troubles "diarrhea, constipation", nausea and vomiting."nConclusion:  These results lead to understand that sanitary measurements are not effective, and this hazardous situation facilitate parasitic agents' distribution among clients. The effectiveness of current pre-employment screening policy must be annual and systematic surveillance is needed in addition to health education.

  12. Wild Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as Sentinels of Parasitic Diseases in the Province of Soria, Northern Spain.

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    Lledó, Lourdes; Giménez-Pardo, Consuelo; Saz, José Vicente; Serrano, José Luis

    2015-12-01

    Four hundred red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were examined for ecto- (arthropods) and endoparasites (Leishmania spp., Trichinella spp., and intestinal parasites). Different species of flea (total prevalence, 40.50%), tick (16.25%), mite (7.25%), and fly (1.50%) were identified. The most prevalent flea was Pulex irritans (found on 29% of the foxes); the most prevalent tick, mite, and fly were Ixodes canisuga (on 5%), Sarcoptes scabiei (on 5.25%), and Hippobosca equina (on 1%), respectively. The endoparasites identified included Leishmania spp. (found in 12% of the foxes), Trichinella spp. (in 15.5%, with T. britovi the most prevalent species in 15.25%), Cestoda (in 72.75%, with Mesocestoides spp. the most prevalent in 69.50%), and intestinal ascarids (in 73.25%, with Ancylostoma caninum the most prevalent in 12.50%). No animal was free of parasites. The present results suggest that foxes can act as sentinels of diseases transmitted by ecto- and endoparasites.

  13. Review of zoonotic parasites in medical and veterinary fields in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Heejeong

    2009-10-01

    Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., Fasciola hepatica, Heterophyes nocens, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Paragonimus westermani. Cestodes are Diphyllobothrium latum, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Raillietina tetragona, sparganum (Spirometra spp.), Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica. Nematodes are Ancylostoma caninum, Brugia malayi, Capillaria hepatica, Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma dololesi, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Loa loa, Onchocerca gibsoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Thelazia callipaeda, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus orientalis, Trichuris trichiura, and Trichuris vulpis. The one arthropod is Sarcoptes scabiei. Many of these parasites have disappeared or were in decline after the 1990's. Since the late 1990's, the important zoonotic protozoa have been C. parvum, E. nana, E. coli, E. hitolytica, G. lamblia, I. buetschlii, P. carinii and T. gondii. The important zoonotic helminths have been C. sinensis, H. nocens, M. yokogawai, P. westermani, D. latum, T. asiatica, sparganum, B. malayi, T. orientalis, T. callipaeda and T. spiralis. However, outbreaks of these parasites are only in a few endemic areas. The outbreaks of Enterobius vermicularis and head lice, human parasites, have recently increased in the kindergartens and primary schools in the Republic of Korea.

  14. Intestinal helminthes of schoolchildren of Chorrillos and Pachacamac, Lima, Peru

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    Iannacone, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Peru, intestinal helminthiases have been widely studied, because they are a very frequent problem in Public Health. The aim of current research was to determinate prevalence of infection of enteroparasites in primary schoolchildren of two national schools, both of rural zones from Pachacamac and Chorrillos district, Lima, Peru during 1999. A coproparasitological survey to 162 childrens (3 per child on consecutive days in stool samples fixed in 10 % formaline, previous homogenization employing conventional exams by direct microscopy dyed with lugol, and by spontaneous Tube Sedimentation technique were performed. In addition, the occurrence of eggs of Enterobius vermicularis was examined by adhesive cellotape anal swap method. Eight helminthes were diagnosed to Chorrillos (n=72 and Pachacamac (n=90: Diphyllobothrium pacificum (1.3%; 0%, Taenia sp. (0%; 1.1%, Hymenolepis nana (37.5%; 8.8%, Hymenolepis diminuta (8.3%; 0%, Ancylostoma duodenale Necator americanus (0%; 2.2%, Trichuris trichiura (9.7%; 6.6%, Ascaris lumbricoides(15.3%; 35.5%, y E. vermicularis (31.9%; 45.5%. Total prevalence of infection was 72.2% and 72.2% and polyparasitism was 25% and 22.2%, respectively. Jaccard index showed a 50 % and Sörensen index a 66.7% of similarity between helminthes of both districts. Programs of sanitary and environmental education and control campaigns of intestinal helminthes should be improved and implemented in Lima, Peru.

  15. Identification and characterization of onchoastacin, an astacin-like metalloproteinase from the filaria Onchocerca volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Nadine; Becker-Pauly, Christoph; Wagner, Antje; Fischer, Peter; Stöcker, Walter; Brattig, Norbert W

    2007-04-01

    The tissue-invasive nematode Onchocerca volvulus causes skin and eye pathology in human onchocerciasis. While the adult females reside sessile in subcutaneous nodules, the microfilariae are abundantly released from the nodules, males and juvenile worms migrate through the host tissue. Matrix-degrading metallo- and serine proteinases have been detected in excretory-secretory worm products that may be essential for migration of the mobile stages. In this study, a 1713bp long cDNA encoding for a putative proteinase of O. volvulus has been isolated. The predicted protein sequence includes a signal peptide indicating secretion to the extracellular space, a propeptide, an astacin-like protease domain, an EGF-like and a CUB-domain, thereby identifying the protein as a member of the astacin family of zinc endopeptidases. Onchoastacin, Ov-AST-1, is most closely related to a subfamily comprising nematode astacins including Caenorhabditis and Ancylostoma. Ov-AST-1 was expressed as a recombinant protein in baculovirus-infected insect cells and exhibited enzymatic activity. The exposure of onchoastacin to the host immune system is indicated by demonstration of IgG reacting with the recombinant Ov-AST-1 and with two peptides of the protein. Since a homologous metalloproteinase is part of a promising hookworm vaccine, Ov-AST-1 may be a candidate for intervention strategies in filarial infections.

  16. EVALUATION OF PROTOZOAN PARASITES CAUSING DIARRHOEA IN HIV POSITIVE PATIENTS

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    Uday Shankar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Opportunistic parasitic infections are among the most serious infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV positive patients and claim a number of lives every year. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and to elucidate the association between intestinal opportunistic parasitic infection and CD4 (CD4+ T lymphocyte counts in HIV positive patients. METHODS The study was carried out at Department of Microbiology, on 50 HIV positive patients admitted to or attending the OPD of a tertiary healthcare centre in Kolhapur during the period from June 2013 to June 2015. Air dried smears from stool samples were stained by modified Acid fast stain, directly and after formol ether concentration technique for demonstrating oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum, I. belli and C. cayetanensis. RESULTS Intestinal parasitic pathogens were detected in 54% patients and the major pathogens included Cryptosporidium parvum (18%, the most common followed by Entamoeba histolytica (14%, Giardia lamblia (10%, Ascaris lumbricoides (6% and 4% each of Isospora belli, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichiura and Strongyloides stercoralis. CONCLUSION Intestinal parasitic infections caused diarrhoea in fifty four percent of patients, which was much more than the control group (16%. Proportion of opportunistic pathogens in patients with CD4 count 200-499 and > 500 cells/mm3 .

  17. A 6 year Geohelminth infection profile of children at high altitude in Western Nepal

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    VS Binu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geohelminth infections are a major problem of children from the developing countries. Children with these infections suffer from developmental impairments and other serious illnesses. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of geohelminth infection, infection intensity as well as the change in the intensity in children from Western Nepal over years. Methods This 6-year hospital based prospective study at the Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara included children ( Results The overall prevalence in hospital - attending children was 9.2% with 7.6% in preschool (0 – 5 y and 11.0% in school-age (6 – 15 y children, and in community 17.7% with 14.8% in pre-school and 20.5% in school-age children. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma deodenale and Strongyloides stercoralis were the common geohelminths with a gradual decrease in worm load over the years. School-age children were found to be significantly more prone to geohelminth infection as compared to preschool children, but no statistical difference was detected by gender, district as well as season. Conclusion This heavy infection of geohelminths in children should be corrected by appropriate medication and maintaining strict personal hygiene. Health education, clean water, good sewage management and a congenial environment should be ensured to minimise infection.

  18. Public places contamination in Tirana from dogs intestinal geohelminths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Violeta Zanaj; Dhimitr Rrapti; Milidin Bakalli

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To assess the prevalence of infestation of stray dogs that attend public areas of Tirana by geohelminths zoonotic:Toxocara canis(T. canis),Ancylostomatids andTrichuris spp., and indirectly to assess the level of environment contamination by invasive exogenous stages of these parasites. Methods: A total of 240 fecal samples was collected from stray dogs in public three urban areas of Tirana. These samples were analyzed by using the centrifugation-flotation technique. Results: Result showed that 54.58% of the dogs were infested fromT. canis,Ancylostomatids (Ancylostoma spp. andUncinaria spp.) andTrichuris spp. Those infested dogs from Ancylostomatids were 37 (15.41%), from T. canis were 47 (19.58%) and fromTrichuris sp. were 47 (19.58%). Conclusions: Tirana public places are contaminated by exogenous stages of invasive intestinal dog’s geohelminths all through the year. But the contamination level is higher during the spring and autumn and the parks with trees and grass are more polluted than the bare areas. So these environments have become a permanent risk factor of infection from parasitic zoonoses for the humans and animals that frequent those places. It is the duty of local authorities who takes care of legislation compilation, to prevent the public areas to become fecalized from dogs and to implement a plan with different actions to minimize the number of stray dogs.

  19. Epizootic and zoonotic helminths of the bobcat (Lynx rufus in Illinois and a comparison of its helminth component communities across the American Midwest

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    Hiestand Shelby J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 6257 helminths of 19 taxa were recovered from the digestive tract and lungs of 67 bobcats in Illinois. Infections caused by Alaria mustelae, Diphyllobothrium latum, and Macracanthorhynchus ingens are reported for the first time in bobcats. From all the taxa recovered, only three species occurred in high prevalence and caused intense infections: Taenia rileyi, Alaria marcianae, and Toxocara cati, with prevalence and mean intensity of 70% and 6; 42% and 193, and 25% and 14 individuals, respectively. Prevalence lower than 15% of 14 helminth species suggests bobcats are not continuously exposed to infective stages of a single parasite, and may be exposed to a large variety of generalists during their lifespan. No significant difference in parasite species according to host sex or age was detected, except for Diphyllobothrium spp., which were found more frequently in females and in trapped bobcats, and the hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, which infected juveniles more frequently. Average species richness per infracommunity was 2.4 (±1.2, and the parasite component community showed low qualitative similarity with neighbor communities. The taxa A. caninum, Alaria spp., Diphyllobothrium spp., Paragonimus kellicotti, and T. cati are etiological agents of epizootic and zoonotic diseases.

  20. Neutrophil Inhibitory Factor Selectively Inhibits the Endothelium-Driven Transmigration of Eosinophils In Vitro and Airway Eosinophilia in OVA-Induced Allergic Lung Inflammation

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    Silvia Schnyder-Candrian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte adhesion molecules are involved in cell recruitment in an allergic airway response and therefore provide a target for pharmaceutical intervention. Neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF, derived from canine hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum, binds selectively and competes with the A-domain of CD11b for binding to ICAM-1. The effect of recombinant NIF was investigated. Intranasal administration of rNIF reduced pulmonary eosinophilic infiltration, goblet cell hyperplasia, and Th2 cytokine production in OVA-sensitized mice. In vitro, transendothelial migration of human blood eosinophils across IL-4-activated umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC monolayers was inhibited by rNIF (IC50: 4.6±2.6 nM; mean ± SEM, but not across TNF or IL-1-activated HUVEC monolayers. Treatment of eosinophils with rNIF together with mAb 60.1 directed against CD11b or mAb 107 directed against the metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS of the CD11b A-domain resulted in no further inhibition of transendothelial migration suggesting shared functional epitopes. In contrast, rNIF increased the inhibitory effect of blocking mAbs against CD18, CD11a, and VLA-4. Together, we show that rNIF, a selective antagonist of the A-domain of CD11b, has a prominent inhibitory effect on eosinophil transendothelial migration in vitro, which is congruent to the in vivo inhibition of OVA-induced allergic lung inflammation.

  1. Helminthiasis and culture change among the Cofán of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitton, Lori J.

    2000-07-01

    Blood and fecal samples and lifestyle interviews were obtained in August 1996 from two Cofán villages in Ecuador, Dureno and Zabalo, that are experiencing different degrees of acculturation. Dureno's territory has been divided by roads and encroached upon by oil companies and colonists, whereas Zabalo, 95 km downriver from Dureno, is located in the Cuyabeno Fauna Reserve, a protected area. This study examines how culture change affects the prevalence of parasitic infections. Fecal samples were examined for helminth eggs to determine helminthiasis in each village sample. Seventy-four samples were collected (Dureno n = 50; Zabalo n = 24), representing 20% of the population in each village. Hemoglobin (Hb) levels and eosinophil counts were determined for all adult participants (Dureno n = 39; Zabalo n = 13). Microscopic examination of prepared samples revealed ova from two parasitic nematodes: roundworm (Ascaris lumbercoides) and hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus). Roundworm and hookworm infections were higher in Dureno (44% positive) compared to Zabalo (17% positive), with infected adults from both villages showing eosinophilia. Hb levels were not significantly correlated with the prevalence of helminth infections. It appears that the transmission and prevalence of parasitic infections within each community is associated with the interaction of biological, cultural, and environmental factors. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:465-477, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Comparison of passive fecal flotation run by veterinary students to zinc-sulfate centrifugation flotation run in a diagnostic parasitology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Maureen C; Nolan, Thomas J

    2009-10-01

    The sensitivity of fecal examination methods can be influenced by both technician error and methodology. In this analysis, we compared the results of 335 passive fecal flotation examinations performed on the feces of stray dogs by 3rd-yr veterinary students at the University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine, to the results obtained through zinc-sulfate centrifugation performed by the diagnostic parasitology laboratory on the same fecal samples. The students' passive flotation results agreed with the laboratory zinc-sulfate centrifugation for only 62.4% of samples. Students were able to diagnose 75.0% of Ancylostoma caninum cases, 71.4% of Toxocara canis cases, 54.2% of Trichuris vulpis cases, 26.7% of Cystoisospora spp. (C. ohioensis-like and C. canis) cases, and 14.7% of Giardia lamblia cases. There were also 70 instances where students reported the presence of parasites in the sample that were not diagnosed by zinc-sulfate centrifugation. Based on the overall study findings, passive fecal flotation examinations run in private practice could be missing up to 50.5% of infected dogs, due to either technician error or inherent limitations to the passive fecal flotation technique.

  3. Molecular Diagnostics for Soil-Transmitted Helminths

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Elise M.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) (e.g., Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, and Ascaris lumbricoides) has relied on often-insensitive microscopy techniques. Over the past several years, there has been an effort to use molecular diagnostics, particularly quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), to detect intestinal pathogens. While some platforms have been approved by regulatory bodies (e.g., Food and Drug Administration) to detect intestinal bacteria, viruses, and protozoa, there are no approved tests currently available for STH. Although studies comparing qPCR to microscopy methods for STH are imperfect, due in large part to a lack of a sufficient gold standard, they do show a significant increase in sensitivity and specificity of qPCR compared with microscopic techniques. These studies, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of using qPCR for STH diagnosis, are discussed. Guidelines for those designing future studies utilizing qPCR are proposed for optimizing results, as is the proposition for using standardized molecular diagnostics routinely for STH in clinical laboratories and for field-based studies when possible. PMID:27481053

  4. A coproantigen diagnostic test for Strongyloides infection.

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    Alex M Sykes

    Full Text Available Accurate diagnosis of infection with the parasite Strongyloides stercoralis is hampered by the low concentration of larvae in stool, rendering parasitological diagnosis insensitive. Even if the more sensitive agar plate culture method is used repeated stool sampling is necessary to achieve satisfactory sensitivity. In this manuscript we describe the development of a coproantigen ELISA for diagnosis of infection. Polyclonal rabbit antiserum was raised against Strongyloides ratti excretory/secretory (E/S antigen and utilized to develop an antigen capture ELISA. The assay enabled detection of subpatent rodent S. ratti and human S. stercoralis infection. No cross-reactivity was observed with purified E/S from Schistosoma japonicum, the hookworms Ancylostoma caninum, A. ceylanicum, nor with fecal samples collected from rodents harboring Trichuris muris or S. mansoni infection. Strongyloides coproantigens that appear stable when frozen as formalin-extracted fecal supernatants stored at -20 °C remained positive up to 270 days of storage, whereas supernatants stored at 4 °C tested negative. These results indicate that diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis by detection of coproantigen is an approach worthy of further development.

  5. Evaluation of real-time PCR for Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm as diagnostic tool in asymptomatic schoolchildren in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schär, Fabian; Odermatt, Peter; Khieu, Virak; Panning, Marcus; Duong, Socheat; Muth, Sinuon; Marti, Hanspeter; Kramme, Stefanie

    2013-05-01

    Diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths such as Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus) is challenging due to irregular larval and egg output in infected individuals and insensitive conventional diagnostic procedures. Sensitive novel real-time PCR assays have been developed. Our study aimed to evaluate the real-time PCR assays as a diagnostic tool for detection of Strongyloides spp. and hookworms in a random stool sample of 218 asymptomatic schoolchildren in Cambodia. Overall prevalence of 17.4% (38/218) and 34.9% (76/218) were determined by real-time PCR for S. stercoralis and hookworms, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of S. stercoralis specific real-time PCR as compared to the combination of Baermann/Koga Agar as gold standard were 88.9% and 92.7%, respectively. For hookworm specific real-time PCR a sensitivity of 78.9% and specificity of 78.9% were calculated. Co-infections were detectable by PCR in 12.8% (28/218) of individuals. S. stercoralis real-time PCR applied in asymptomatic cases showed a lower sensitivity compared to studies undertaken with symptomatic patients with the same molecular tool, yet it proved to be a valid supplement in the diagnosis of STH infection in Cambodia.

  6. Helminth parasites of the wolf Canis lupus from Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrade, G; Kirjusina, M; Vismanis, K; Ozoliņs, J

    2009-03-01

    Thirty-four wolves were collected between 2003 and 2008 from throughout Latvia and examined for helminths. A total of 17 helminth species were recorded: the trematode Alaria alata (85.3%); the cestodes Diphyllobothrium latum (2.9%), Echinococcus granulosus (2.9%), Echinococcus multilocularis (5.9%), Mesocestoides lineatus (5.9%), Taenia crassiceps (8.8%), Taenia hydatigena (41.2%), Taenia (ovis) krabbei (8.8%), Taenia multiceps (47.1%), Taenia pisiformis (20.6%), Taenia polyacantha (11.8%), Taenia spp. (8.8%); and the nematodes Ancylostoma caninum (2.9%), Crenosoma vulpis (9.1%), Eucoleus aerophilus (36.4%), Pearsonema plica (41.4%), Trichinella spp. (69.7%), Toxocara canis (5.8%), and Uncinaria stenocephala (41.2%). Alaria alata presented the highest mean intensity (403.8). All animals were infected with at least one species of parasite, while the maximum recorded in one specimen was eight. No differences in the intensity or prevalence of any helminth species were found among the host based on age and gender, except for T. multiceps which was more prevalent in adults than in juveniles.

  7. Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, I; Maddox-Hyttel, C; Monrad, J; Kapel, C M O

    2006-06-30

    An epidemiological study of helminths in 1040 red foxes collected from various localities in Denmark during 1997-2002, revealed 21 helminth species at autopsy, including nine nematode species: Capillaria plica (prevalence 80.5%), Capillaria aerophila (74.1%), Crenosoma vulpis (17.4%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (48.6% from Northern Zealand (endemic area)), Toxocara canis (59.4%), Toxascaris leonina (0.6%), Uncinaria stenocephala (68.6%), Ancylostoma caninum (0.6%), and Trichuris vulpis (0.5%); seven cestodes: Mesocestoides sp. (35.6%), a number of Taeniid species (Taenia pisiformis, T. hydatigena, T. taeniaeformis, T. crassiceps, and unidentified Taenia spp.) (22.8%), and Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%); four trematodes: Alaria alata (15.4%), Cryptocotyle lingua (23.8%), Pseudamphystomum truncatum (3.6% from Northern Zealand), and Echinochasmus perfoliatus (2.4% from Northern Zealand); one acanthocephalan: Polymorphus sp. (1.2%). Significant difference in prevalence was found for T. canis and A. vasorum according to host sex, and for T. canis, U. stenocephala, Mesocestoides sp., Taenia spp., A. alata, A. vasorum, and Capillaria spp. according to age groups (adult, young or cub). Prevalence and average worm intensity for each helminth species varied considerably according to geographical locality, season, and year. Aggregated distribution was found for several helminth species. The two species E. multilocularis and E. perfoliatus are first records for Denmark.

  8. Parasites of free-ranging small canids and felids in the Bolivian Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorello, Christine V; Robbins, Richard G; Maffei, Leonardo; Wade, Susan E

    2006-06-01

    Parasite surveys of free-ranging wildlife provide important information for monitoring population health. Between March 2001 and March 2003, we sampled 10 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), eight Geoffroy's cats (Oncifelis geoffroyi), a jaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguarondi), five pampas foxes (Pseudalopex gymnocercus), and three crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) at three sites in the Bolivian Chaco. The objective of the study was to survey the parasite fauna of these carnivores and compare prevalence of parasites among the sites. The parasite community of these carnivores was diverse, with representatives from eight genera of nematodes, two families of cestodes, two protozoan species, and six arthropod species. Fecal parasites identified from 12 of the 13 felids and five of the six canids examined included Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Uncinaria sp., Crenosoma sp., Toxocara cati, Spirurida, Capillaria aerophila, Spirometra sp., Taeniidae, and Cystoisospora sp. Four tick species, Amblyomma parvum, A. tigrinum, A. ovale, and A. cajennense, and two flea species, Pulex irritans and Delostichus phyllotis, were identified. Two crab-eating foxes had serologic evidence of heartworm disease (HWD). Antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii were found in 15 of 26 animals. Although HWD was found only in canids inside the national park, parasite prevalence did not appear to differ among sites, and no evidence was found of parasite spillover from domestic to wild carnivores.

  9. Geohelminth contamination of public areas and epidemiological risk factors in Curitiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lew Kan Sprenger

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the frequency of geohelminthic contamination of public parks and squares in Curitiba, state of Paraná, Brazil, between August and December 2010. A total of 345 samples were collected from 69 sandboxes in different areas and were tested using the Faust, Lutz and Baermann parasitological techniques. Potential risk factors associated with soil contamination were also analyzed. A total of 36% of the samples (124/345 were positive for helminths and 65.2% of the areas (45/69 were classified as contaminated in one or more samples. The most commonly identified parasite eggs were Ancylostoma sp. (14.5%; 50/345; followed by Toxocara sp. (9.6%; 33/345 and the Strongyloidea superfamily (excluding hookworms (2.3%; 8/345. The analysis on the epidemiological risk factors indicated that the presence of dogs and feces in the sandboxes increased the chances of contamination of the site. Use of fences had a protective positive impact that reduced soil contamination. Health education programs should be applied within the community to minimize the risk of human contact with dogs' feces. Use of fencing in these areas is highly recommended to prevent or reduce the users' contact with animal excrement.

  10. OCURRENCE OF HELMINTHES EGGS AND LARVAE GROUND OF SQUARES, DAY CARE AND PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN THE CITY OF LUZIÂNIA-GOIÁS, BRAZIL

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    B. S. Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently domestic animals have changed the dynamics and family structure. They are present in most of Brazilian homes, often being considered as integral members of the family. However, this close contact with pets, may transmit several zoonoses. The contamination of children's play areas with parasites in the soil of parks, open public squares and sandboxes, are huge public health problem, since these areas are mostly open and available to dogs, cats, pigeons, sparrows and other animals. Those places bring potential risks to human health, when we think of the risk of contamination by infectious and parasitic diseases. The present study evaluated the occurrence of parasites in 15 kindergartens and schools and 05 municipal parks in Luziânia, Goiás, in the period from August to December 2013. The sand samples were collected at three different points of the study area, stored in plastic bags and sent to the Parasitological Laboratory of UNIDESC for processing through the techniques of Willis-Mollay. The samples studied showed the occurrence of Toxocara spp.s and Ancylostoma spp. We concluded that there is high risk of contamination by parasites up for the children of the area surveyed using public squares and some of the schools of Early Childhood Education.

  11. Parasitological and serological studies on Amoebiasis and other intestinal parasitic infections in Recife and its suburban area, northeast Brazil

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    Mitsu Okazaki

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological examinations were carried out during April to August, 1987, with 187 out-patients of the IMIP hospital, located in the center of Recife City, and 464 inhabitants of several villages around Cabo City, 50 Km southeast of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Approximately 71% of the IMIP patients and 92% of the Cabo inhabitants were infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. There was minimum difference in the prevalence rate of Trichuris trichiura between two areas, whereas the prevalence rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, Strongyloides stercoralis, Schistosoma mansoni and Entamoeba histolytica were higher in the inhabitants of the Cabo City area. Only Giardia lamblia was more prevalent in the out-patients of IMIP hospital. Test tube cultivation revealed that the prevalence rate of Necator americanus in both areas was much higher than that of Ancylostoma duodenale , and also that the prevalence rate of S. stercoralis of the IMIP patients and Cabo inhabitants were 4.5% and 9.6%, respectively. Six hundred and fifteen sera were serologically examined for amoebiasis by the gel diffusion precipitation test (GDP and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using the antigen prepared from axenically cultured trophozoite of E. histolytica (strain HM-ITMSS. No positive reaction was observed in all of the sera as examined by GDP, while 32 out of 615 sera were positive on ELISA.

  12. Enteric parasites in HIV-1/AIDS-infected patients from a Northwestern São Paulo reference unit in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era

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    Luciana Ventura Cardoso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We describe the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in patients from an AIDS reference service in Northeastern São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation was done for all HIV-1/AIDS-positive patients whose Hospital de Base/São José do Rio Preto laboratorial analysis was positive for enteroparasites after diagnosis of HIV-1 infection, from January 1998 to December 2008. Statistical analysis was performed using the R statistical software version 2.4.1. The level of significance adopted was 5%. RESULTS: The most frequent protozoan was Isospora belli (4.2%, followed by Giardia lamblia (3.5%, Entamoeba coli (2.8%, and Cryptosporidium parvum (0.3%. Ancylostoma duodenale (1.4% was the most frequently detected helminth, while Taenia saginata and Strongiloides stercoralis were found in 0.7% of the samples. The results showed that diarrhea was significantly associated with giardiasis and isosporiasis. However, no association was observed between CD4+ cell counts, viral load, and the characteristics of any particular parasite. CONCLUSIONS: Our data may be useful for further comparisons with other Brazilian regions and other developing countries. The data may also provide important clues toward improving the understanding, prevention, and control of enteric parasites around the world.

  13. 黑河沿江地域及俄罗斯布拉戈维申斯克市犬寄生蠕虫区系调查%Investigation of parasitic helminth fauna in dog at Heihe river valley and Bulageweishensike city, Russian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋成玉

    2001-01-01

    本文报道了黑河沿江地域(爱辉区、孙吴县、逊克县)及俄罗斯布拉戈维中斯克市寄生蠕虫调查结果,共剖检44只犬,经鉴定,寄生蠕虫的感染率为100%,分别属于3纲、9科、10属,其中吸虫4种为华枝睾吸虫(Clonorchis sinensis ) .日本棘隙吸虫(Echinochasmus japonicus ) .横川后殖吸虫(Metagonimus yokogawai ) .有翼翼形吸虫(Alaria alata ) ;绦虫3种为泡状带绦虫(Taenia hydatigena ) .线中殖孔绦虫(Mesocestoides lineatus ) ,犬复孔绦虫(Dipylidium caninum ) ;线虫3种为犬弓首蛔虫( Toxocara canis ) .犬钩口线虫(Ancylostoma caninum ) .旋毛形线虫( Trichinella spiralis ) .其中以犬弓首蛔虫感染率最高为68.18%,华枝睾吸虫27.27%,线中殖孔绦虫22.72%,旋毛形线虫13.64%.

  14. "EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF OXANTEL – PYRANTEL ON VARIOUS SOIL TRANSMITTED HELMINTHS IN IRAN "

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    E. Farahmandian

    1977-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a combination of Oxantel- Pyrantel with a single dose of 10 mg/ kg body weight on Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris, Trichostrongylus spp. and Ancylostoma duodenale has been evaluated among the population of two rural areas in Khuzestan, Southwest Iran (41 persons and Isfahan, Central (30 persons. All patients were infected with Trichuris trichiura and some simultaneously with one or more other helminthes. In addition to stool examinations, to elucidate the possible side- effects, several blood and urine tests were conducted before and after treatment. A cure rate of 83% has been found among Trichuris cases treated in both areas. Cure rates observes for ascariasis and trichostrongyliasis were 93. 3% and 23% in Khuzestan, as well as 90% and 50% in Isfahan, respectively. Cure rate for ancylostomiasis was 86% in Khuzestan.Significant reduction in the mean number of egg.gr of faeces has been observed.Side- effects encountered were mild and transient. The promisisng effect of this drug on soil – transmitted helminthes, particulary Trichuris trichiura has been proven.

  15. Current status of human hookworm infections, ascariasis, trichuriasis, schistosomiasis mekongi and other trematodiases in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laymanivong, Sakhone; Hangvanthong, Bouasy; Keokhamphavanh, Boualy; Phommasansak, Manisak; Phinmaland, Baunphone; Sanpool, Oranuch; Maleewong, Wanchai; Intapan, Pewpan M

    2014-04-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, and schistosomiasis and other trematodiases often have a high prevalence in developing countries. Here, we present updated information on the prevalence of these parasites in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) in 2012, arising from the annual national helminthiasis survey. Fecal specimens were collected from 8,610 inhabitants of 12 provinces and one municipality (Bokeo, Houaphan, Luang Namtha, Luang Prabang, Oudomxay, and Phongsaly Provinces from northern Lao PDR; Bolikhamxay and Xieng Khouang Provinces and Vientiane Municipality from the central part of the country; and Attapeu, Champasak, Saravan, and Sekong Provinces from southern Lao PDR). The overall prevalence of three major STHs, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale) were 11.6%, 8.5%, and 25.0%, respectively. Prevalence of Schistosoma mekongi infection was 0.1%, and of miscellaneous trematodiases (including opisthorchiasis) was 14.0%. Clearly, the nationwide parasite control project is still necessary to reduce morbidity caused by helminthic diseases.

  16. [Aetiology of intestinal parasites in a sample of students from Mozambique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Carlotta; Ricci, Lidia; Vecchia, Luigi

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this survey is to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites in a population of Mozambican students. Ninety five faecal samples were collected at the three schools in Marrere, Mozambique, for a period of about one week. Observations of fresh and Giemsa-stained samples were performed at the laboratory of the Geral de Marrere Hospital; observation after concentration (FEA) was performed later at the Microbiology Laboratory of the S. Maria Nuova Hospital (Reggio Emilia, Italy). The results show a high rate of intestinal parasites among the subjects examined, supported mainly by helminths (Strongyloides stercoralis and Ancylostoma/Necator americanus), and protozoa (Dientamoeba fragilis and Giardia intestinalis). Analysis of data shows that the search for pathogenic parasites with the formalin-ethyl acetate (FEA) stool concentration technique shows higher sensitivity than the observation of fresh samples (60% vs 30%) and in some cases allows the presence of a second or third parasite to be detected. The high rate of parasitosis in endemic areas underlines the importance of lending greater attention to immigrant patients in Italy, due also to the fact that parasitosis is often found in asymptomatic forms.

  17. 呼市地区犬寄生虫感染种类及感染情况的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘珍莲; 杨晓野; 杨莲茹; 乌云其其格; 程双燕

    2005-01-01

    对来自呼市不同品种、不同年龄的95只犬进行调查,查出体内外寄生虫8种,有20只犬被寄生虫所感染,总感染率为20.83%,其中感染犬弓首蛔虫(Toxocara canis)、犬狮弓蛔虫(Toxascaris leonina)、犬疥螨(Sarcoptes scabiei var.canina)、犬蠕形螨(Demodex canis)、犬钩虫(Ancylostoma caninum)、犬恶丝虫(Dirofilaria immitis)、犬丽嫩吸吮线虫(Thelazza callpaeda)和犬复孔绦虫(Dirofiaria caninum)分别为6只、2只、3只、2只、3只、2只、1只和1只,其感染率分别为6.32%、2.11%、3.16%、2.11%、3.16%、2.11%、1.05%和1.05%.雌雄感染率分别为40%和60%,2~19月龄的犬总感染率为75%.蛔虫的感率高,感染强度大.

  18. Endoparasites in dogs and cats in Germany 1999-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barutzki, D; Schaper, R

    2003-07-01

    Infections with endoparasites in dogs and cats have been determined by analysing the results of faecal examinations (Flotation, MIFC, sedimentation, Baermann, smear, ProSpecT Giardia Microplate Assay). Samples of 8438 dogs and 3167 cats from the years 1999 until 2002 have been included in the investigation. 2717 dogs (32.2%) and 771 cats (24.3%) have been infected with endoparasites. In the infected dogs the following parasites have been identified: Class Nematodea: Toxocara canis: 22.4%, Toxascaris leonina: 1.8%, Ancylostomatidae: 8.6%, Trichuris vulpis: 4.0%, Capillaria spp.: 2.3%, Crenosoma vulpis: 0.9%, Angiostrongylus vasorum: 0.3%; Class Cestodea: Taeniidae: 1.2%, Dipylidium caninum: 0.4%, Diplopylidium/Joyeuxiella: 0.1%, Mesocestoides: 0.2%, Diphyllobothrium latum: canis: 8.0%, C. ohioensis: 17.0%, Hammondia/Neospora: 1.7%; Class Zoomastigophorea: Giardia spp.: 51.6%. In the 771 infected cats the following prevalences of parasites have been found: Class Nematodea: Toxocara mystax: 26.2%, Ancylostoma tubaeforme: 0.3%, Capillaria spp.: 7.0%, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus: 2.7%; Class Cestodea: Taeniidae: 2.6%, Dipylidium caninum: 0.1%; Class Sporozoea: Sarcocystis spp.: 2.2%, Cystoisospora spp.: 21.9%, C. felis: 15.3%, C. rivolta: 7.9%, Toxoplasma/Hammondia: 4.5%; Class Zoomastigophorea: Giardia spp.: 51.6%.

  19. Specific detection of Neospora caninum oocysts in fecal samples from experimentally-infected dogs using the polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D E; Liddell, S; Jenkins, M C; Dubey, J P

    2001-04-01

    Neospora caninum oocysts, passed in the feces of a definitive host (dog), were isolated, and genomic DNA was extracted. A polymerase cahin reaction (PCR) targeting the N. caninum-specific Nc 5 genomic sequence was performed using the isolated DNA. A synthesized competitor molecule containing part of the Nc 5 sequence was included in the assay as a check against false-negative PCR results and to quantify N. caninum oocyst DNA in fecal samples. A standard curve of the ratio of fluorescence intensity of PCR-amplified competitor to that of oocyst DNA was constructed to compare oocyst equivalents from fecal samples containing unknown numbers of N. caninum oocysts and to assess the sensitivity of the assay. The specificity of the assay was determined using the Nc 5-specific primers in PCR assays against other parasites likely to be found in canine feces. Genomic DNA sequences from the canine coccidians Hammondia heydorni, Cryptosporidium parvum, Sarcocystis cruzi, S. tenella, and Isospora ohioensis and the canine helminth parasites Strongyloides stercoralis, Toxocara canis, Dipylidium caninum, and Ancylostoma caninum were not amplified. In addition, genomic DNA sequences from oocysts of coccidian parasites that might contaminate dog feces, such as Hammondia hammondi, Toxoplasma gondii, or Eimeria tenella, were not amplified in the PCR assay. The assay should be useful in epidemiological surveys of both domestic and wild canine hosts and in investigations of oocyst biology in experimental infections.

  20. An epidemiological study of gastrointestinal parasites of dogs from Southern Greater Buenos Aires (Argentina): age, gender, breed, mixed infections, and seasonal and spatial patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanarrosa, María F; Vezzani, Darío; Basabe, Julia; Eiras, Diego F

    2006-03-31

    A total of 2193 fecal samples from owned dogs were collected during the 2003-2004 period in Southern Greater Buenos Aires, and were evaluated for the presence of intestinal parasites by a flotation-centrifugation method. The overall prevalence was 52.4%, and the 11 species found were: Ancylostoma caninum (13%), Isospora ohioensis complex (12%), Toxocara canis (11%), Trichuris vulpis (10%), Sarcocystis sp. (10%), Giardia duodenalis (9%), Isospora canis (3%), Hammondia-Neospora complex (3%), Dipilydium caninum (18 cases), Cryptosporidium sp. (5 cases), and Toxascaris leonina (1 case). There was no significant difference in the overall prevalence between genders (female = 50.4%, male = 54.6%), and breeds (pure = 52.3%, mixed = 53%), but prevalence in puppies (canis, A. caninum, and T. vulpis were spatially heterogeneous with a clear Southwest-Northeast gradient. Only prevalences of Sarcocystis sp. and G. duodenalis showed seasonal variation. The frequency distribution of the number of species per fecal sample did not differ from a random distribution. Results obtained throughout the world were discussed.

  1. Imidacloprid/moxidectin topical solution for the prevention of heartworm disease and the treatment and control of flea and intestinal nematodes of cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arther, R G; Charles, S; Ciszewski, D K; Davis, W L; Settje, T S

    2005-10-24

    Sixteen controlled laboratory studies, involving 420 kittens and cats, were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topically applied formulations of imidacloprid and moxidectin for the prevention of feline heartworm disease, treatment of flea infestations and treatment and control of intestinal nematodes. Unit-dose applicators and the dosing schedule used in these studies were designed to provide a minimum of 10mg imidacloprid and 1mg moxidectin/kg. Treatments were applied topically by parting the hair at the base of the skull and applying the solution on the skin. Imidacloprid treatment alone did not display activity against Dirofilaria immitis or intestinal nematodes and moxidectin treatment alone provided little or no activity against adult Ctenocephalides felis infestations. The formulation containing 10% imidacloprid and 1% moxidectin was 100% efficacious against the development of adult D. immitis infections when cats were treated 30 days after inoculation with third-stage larvae. A single treatment with this formulation also provided 88.4-100% control of adult C. felis for 35 days. Imidacloprid/moxidectin was 100% efficacious against adult Toxocara cati and 91.0-98.3% efficacious against immature adults and fourth-stage T. cati larvae. The formulation provided 98.8-100% efficacy against adult Ancylostoma and immature adults and third-stage A. tubaeforme larvae. Monthly topical application with 10% imidacloprid/1% moxidectin is convenient, efficacious and safe for the prevention of feline heartworm disease, treatment of flea infestation and for the treatment and control of intestinal nematode infections of cats.

  2. Hematology, Parasitology, and Serology of Free-Ranging Coyotes (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Debra, Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Merrill, Anita; Kilgo, John; Ray, H., Scott; Karl V. Miller, Karl, V.; Baldwin, Charles, A.

    2009-07-01

    ABSTRACT: Blood and feces were collected from 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven juvenile (three males, one female, three not reported) free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) on the US Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (South Carolina, USA). Significant (P,0.05) hematologic differences by sex were noted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Biochemical differences by sex occurred only for albumen (P,0.05). Twentyone adults were antibody positive for at least one of four viruses: canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1; 68%), West Nile virus (WNV; 60%), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; 38%), and Canine distemper virus (CDV; 15%). Of the seven Leptospira serovars tested for, seven (25%) of 28 adults were positive for one or more of five serovars: Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Bratislava, and Autumnalis. Three (43%) of seven juveniles had seropositivity for a virus, one each for CDV, CAV-1, and WNV. No juveniles were seropositive for EEEV or any of the seven Leptospira serovars. Blood smears of 12 adults were positive for Dirofilaria immitis microfilaria, but blood smears from all juveniles were negative. Parvovirus was identified by electron microscopy from the feces of one adult. Ancylostoma spp., Trichuris spp., and Isospora spp. were observed in fecal samples. These data may aid in understanding the role of coyotes in disease ecology.

  3. 黑河沿江区域猫寄生蠕虫的区系调查报告%The investigative report on fauna of cat's parasitic helminth at Heihe alone river district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋成玉; 孙善华

    2001-01-01

    本文报道了黑龙江流域黑河沿江区域猫寄生蠕虫的调查结果,在剖检的32只猫体内,经鉴定结果,其中吸虫2种:华枝睾吸虫(Clonorchis sinensis)、横川后殖吸虫(Metagonimus yokogawai).绦虫2种:带状泡尾绦虫(Hydatigera taeniaeformis)和线中殖孔绦虫(Mesocestoides lineatus).线虫3种:猫弓首线虫(Toxocara cati)、管形钩口线虫(Ancylostoma tubaeforme)和旋毛形线虫(Trichinella spiralis).它们分属于3纲、7科、7属.在这7种蠕虫中猫弓首线虫感染率为90.63%;带状泡尾绦虫71.88%;线中殖孔绦虫40.63%;为黑龙江流域黑河沿江区域猫寄生蠕虫的优势种.

  4. [Modulation of inflammatory cells in helminth infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, F

    1997-01-01

    In this review, different mechanisms by which helminthic parasites modulate the activities of inflammatory cells are considered. Examples are presented of parasitic products interfering with lymphocytes and their products such as antibodies, then modifying both regulation and effector response of the immune system. Furthermore, examples of interference on the complement system are illustrated. Parasites such as Ancylostoma caninum produce factors such as the neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF) capable of inhibiting the neutrophil-endothelium adhesion, whereas Trichinella spiralis produces a glycoprotein, the 45gp, which inhibits different neutrophil functions. Parasites are also able to modulate the function of the monocytes-macrophages which in some infections play a crucial role; the modulation of NO synthesis is also relevant to the host-parasite relationship. Finally, the different anti-oxidant systems of helminthic parasites are described. The comprehension of such evasion mechanisms of the immune response is necessary to develop vaccines and new drugs, but it is also useful to clarify the contribution of parasites to immune system evolution.

  5. Structural and Functional Characterization of a Secreted Hookworm Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) that Interacts with the Human MIF Receptor CD74

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho,Y.; Jones, B.; Vermeire, J.; Leng, L.; DiFedele, L.; Harrison, L.; Xiong, H.; Kwong, Y.; Chen, Y.; et al

    2007-01-01

    Hookworms, parasitic nematodes that infect nearly one billion people worldwide, are a major cause of anemia and malnutrition. We hypothesize that hookworms actively manipulate the host immune response through the production of specific molecules designed to facilitate infection by larval stages and adult worm survival within the intestine. A full-length cDNA encoding a secreted orthologue of the human cytokine, Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) has been cloned from the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum. Elucidation of the three-dimensional crystal structure of recombinant AceMIF (rAceMIF) revealed an overall structural homology with significant differences in the tautomerase sites of the human and hookworm proteins. The relative bioactivities of human and hookworm MIF proteins were compared using in vitro assays of tautomerase activity, macrophage migration, and binding to MIF receptor CD74. The activity of rAceMIF was not inhibited by the ligand ISO-1, which was previously determined to be an inhibitor of the catalytic site of human MIF. These data define unique immunological, structural, and functional characteristics of AceMIF, thereby establishing the potential for selectively inhibiting the hookworm cytokine as a means of reducing parasite survival and disease pathogenesis.

  6. Gastrointestinal parasites of captive and free-roaming primates at the Afi Mountain Primate Conservation Area in Calabar, Nigeria and their zoonotic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaya, A W; Udendeye, U J

    2011-07-01

    A study on the gastrointestinal parasites among free-living and captive primates at the Afi Mountain, Primate Conservation Area in Calabar, Nigeria was undertaken for the first time to ascertain their zoonotic implications. Faecal samples were subjected to direct smear, floatation, quantitative estimation of helminth eggs (epg) and oocysts (opg), larval isolation and identification by modified Baerman's technique and oocyst sporulation for specie identification. Out of the 108 primates examined, 75(69.44%) were found to be shedding the ova and oocysts of several gastrointestinal parasites of which, the mona monkeys (Cercopethicus mona) 16(80%) followed by the white collared mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus) 7 (77.78) had the highest (p parasites such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Balantidium coli, Enterobius vermicularis, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana, Schistosoma mansoni, Ancylostosoma duodenale and Cryptosporidium species. Similarly, the drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus), Sclater's white-nosed monkey (Cercopethicus erythrotis sclateri), white-collared mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus) and others, had Ascaris lumbricoides or Ancylostoma duodenale. All captive primates were more infected than those under free-roam. The young (parasites of zoonotic importance.

  7. Public places contamination in Tirana from dogs intensinal geonematodis

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    Violeta Zanaj

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of infestation of stray dogs that attend public areas of Tirana by geohelminths zoonotic: Toxocara canis (T. canis, Ancylostomatids and Trichuris spp., and indirectly to assess the level of environment contamination by invasive exogenous stages of these parasites. Methods: A total of 240 fecal samples was collected from stray dogs in public three urban areas of Tirana. These samples were analyzed by using the centrifugation-flotation technique. Results: Result showed that 54.6% of the dogs were infested from T. canis, Ancylostomatids (Ancylostoma spp. and Uncinaria spp. and Trichuris spp. Those infested dogs from Ancylostomatids were 37 (15.4%, from T. canis were 47 (19.6% and from Trichuris sp. were 47 (19.6%. Conclusions: Tirana public places are contaminated by exogenous stages of invasive intestinal dog’s geohelminths all through the year. But the contamination level is higher during the spring and autumn and the parks with trees and grass are more polluted than the bare areas. So these environments have become a permanent risk factor of infection from parasitic zoonoses for the humans and animals that frequent those places. It is the duty of local authorities who takes care of legislation compilation, to prevent the public areas to become fecalized from dogs and to implement a plan with different actions to minimize the number of stray dogs.

  8. Prevention of soil-transmitted helminth infection

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    Luciene Mascarini-Serra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs form one of the most important groups of infectious agents and are the cause of serious global health problems. The most important STHs are roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoides, whipworms (Trichuris trichiura and hookworms (Necator americanus or Ancylostoma duodenale; on a global level, more than a billion people have been infected by at least one species of this group of pathogens. This review explores the general concepts of transmission dynamics and the environment and intensity of infection and morbidity of STHs. The global strategy for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis is based on (i regular anthelminthic treatment, (ii health education, (iii sanitation and personal hygiene and (iv other means of prevention with vaccines and remote sensoring. The reasons for the development of a control strategy based on population intervention rather than on individual treatment are discussed, as well as the costs of the prevention of STHs, although these cannot always be calculated because interventions in health education are difficult to measure. An efficient sanitation infrastructure can reduce the morbidity of STHs and eliminates the underlying cause of most poverty-related diseases and thus supports the economic development of a country.

  9. Environmental analyses of the parasitic profile found in the sandy soil from the Santos municipality beaches, SP, Brazil

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    Silvana Rocha

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The environmental contamination by geohelminths represents a world public health problem and has been well documented by several authors. However, few papers describe the presence of such contamination in saline soils of coastal beaches. A study was performed on the beaches of the municipality of Santos in the period between May 2004 to April 2005 with the aim of determining the degree of contamination, and the correlation between contamination level and seasonal conditions and characteristics of the environment. Of the 2,520 samples analyzed, 18.2% (458 were contaminated, 32.3% (148 of which were localized in children's recreational areas (playgrounds. The parasite profile found in the analyzed samples indicated the presence of several zoonotic parasites: Ancylostoma larvae (82.5%, Toxocara sp. eggs (59.4%, Ancylostomidae-like eggs (37.1%, coccid oocysts (13.5%, Trichostrongylus sp. eggs and larvae, Ascaris lumbricoides eggs, (11.6%, Entamoeba sp. cysts (10.0%, Strongyloides sp. (4.8%, several free nematoids and some non-identified parasitic structures (3.3%. It was established that the highest frequency of parasitic structures occurred in the months between May and October 2004, and from February to March 2005. An increase in the diversity of parasitic forms was documented in the months between February to December 2004 and from January to April 2005, these periods having the highest rainfall.

  10. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Dogs from Two Centers of Animal Welfare from Medellín and eastern Antioquia (Colombia, 2014

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    Verónica Sierra-Cifuentes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, there are very few studies about intestinal parasitosis in dogs, and street dogs constitute a high-risk group for the acquisition of parasitic zoonotic diseases. Through a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out in 2014, the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis and its associated factors were determined in 68 dogs of both sexes from two animal welfare centers in Medellin and eastern Antioquia (Colombia. The parasitological diagnosis was made by direct examination with saline solution at 0.8% and iodine, and the Sheather flotation method. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitosis was 72.1% (49, helminths 58.8% (40, protozoa 33.8% (23 and parasitism in 45.6% (31. 11 parasitic agents, of which the most prevalent were Uncinaria stenocephala with 39.7% (27, were identified; Ancylostoma caninum, with 20.6% (14; Trichuris vulpis, with 16.2% (11 and Toxocara spp., with 11.8% (8. These were statistically higher in eastern Antioquia (p value chi2 0.05. A high prevalence of intestinal parasitism in dogs from Medellin and eastern Antioquia was evidenced, as well as a great diversity in the prevalence of the subgroups studied. This information highlights the need to promote research in order to determine the magnitude and associated factors in specific populations as the foundation for targeting actions on veterinary health and public health, given the zoonotic potential of some parasitosis of dogs.

  11. Natural infection by endoparasites among free-living wild animals Infecção natural por endoparasitas em animais silvestres de vida-livre

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    Luciane Holsback

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence and variety of intestinal parasites among free-living wild animals. Fecal samples from wild mammals and birds at rehabilitation centers in the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and São Paulo were analyzed by sedimentation and flotation-centrifugation methods. Parasite eggs, oocysts, cysts and/or trophozoites were found in 71% of the samples. Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were detected in fecal samples from oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus and scaly-headed parrots (Pionus maximiliani. Giardia cysts were identified in the feces of a gray brocket (Mazama gouazoubira. Among the most common parasites found, there were eggs from Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina and Ancylostoma tubaeforme, and from Cestoda. Several Enterobius sp. eggs were found in the feces of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus. It can be concluded from this study that despite the small number of samples, the diversity of parasites found was noteworthy. Additional information about parasite endofauna in wild animals is needed, since their presence might suggest that there could be proximity to and interactions with domestic animals and/or humans. In addition, further studies on parasites from free-living wild animals are of prime importance for understanding the intensity of anthropic changes in wild environments.O objetivo deste trabalho foi pesquisar a frequência de ocorrência e a variedade de parasitas intestinais de animais silvestres de vida livre. Amostras de fezes de mamíferos e aves silvestres de centros de reabilitação dos Estados do Mato Grosso do Sul e São Paulo, foram analisadas pelos métodos de sedimentação e de centrífugo-flutuação. Foram encontrados ovos, oocistos, cistos e/ou trofozoítos de parasitas em 71% das amostras. Oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp. foram detectados em amostras de fezes de gato-do-mato-pequeno (Leopardus tigrinus e maritacas (Pionus maximiliani. Cistos de Giardia

  12. Ocorrência de enteroparasitas na população geronte de Nova Olinda do Norte Amazonas, Brasil Occurrence of enteroparasites in the elderly population of Nova Olinda do Norte, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Ana Felisa Hurtado-Guerrero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo para avaliar a prevalência de enteroparasitas em um grupo de idosos ribeirinhos, moradores do Município de Nova Olinda do Norte, Estado do Amazonas Brasil, no período de abril e agosto de 1999. Por meio de um estudo de corte transversal foram analisados 81 exames, através do método de Sedimentação Espontânea (Método de Hoffman et al., 1934. Foi constatada positividade em 72,8% dos idosos, predominando o monoparasitismo (43,2%. Os helmintos foram os mais freqüentes (70,4%, destacando-se: Ascaris lumbricoides (35,2%, Trichuris trichiura (16,0%, Ancylostoma duodenale (9,0% e Strongyloides stercoralis (9,0%. Dentre os protozoários (29,5%, a ocorrência de Entamoeba coli foi de 18,2%, Giárdia lamblia de 7,0% e Entamoeba histolytica 4,5%. Não houve associação estatisticamente significativa entre sexo e grau de parasitismo e entre faixas etárias e condição parasitária. Estes resultados evidenciam um quadro de alta prevalência de parasitas intestinais nesta população e discordam dos reportados por outros pesquisadores quando afirmam que a intensidade da infestação por parasitas diminui na idade avançada. Os achados anteriores exigem das autoridades governamentais medidas de controle e educação para melhorar a qualidade de vida desses idosos, considerando a grave repercussão que esses parasitas tem no estado nutricional dos gerontes de baixa renda.A study was carried out to determine the prevalence of enteroparasites attacking elderly people living in a riverside city of the Municipal district of Nova Olinda do Norte, Amazonas State Brazil. In this cross sectional study were examined the faecal material from 81 elderly people using the method of spontaneous sedimentation (Hoffman et al., 1934. It was found a positiveness in 72,8% of the elderly people examined, predominating the mono parasitism (43,2%. The helminths were more frequents (70,3%: Ascaris lumbricoides (35,2%, Trichuris trichiura (16

  13. Helmintos do cachorro do campo, Pseudalopex gymnocercus (Fischer, 1814 e do cachorro do mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 no sul do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Helminths of Pampas fox Pseudalopex gymnocercus (Fischer, 1814 and of Crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 in the Southern of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Jerônimo L. Ruas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Quarenta canídeos selvagens foram capturados por "live trap" nos municípios de Pedro Osório e Pelotas, sul do estado do Rio Grande do Sul e transportados para o Laboratório de Parasitologia da Universidade Federal de Pelotas. Após serem necropsiados, segmentos do intestino, respiratório, urinário e fígado foram separados e examinados. Os crânios dos animais foram usados para identificação taxonômica. Dos 40 animais capturados, 22 (55% foram Pseudalopex gymnocercus e 18 (45% Cerdocyon thous. Os nematóides mais prevalentes foram: Ancylostoma caninum (45,4 em P. gymnocercus e 22,2% em C. thous, Molineus felineus (9,9 em P. gymnocercus e 5,6% em C. thous, Strongyloides sp. (22,7 em P. gymnocercus e 16,7% em C. thous, Trichuris sp. (13,6 em P. gymnocercus e 11,1% em C. thous, e Capillaria hepatica (13,6 em P. gymnocercus e 5,5 % em C. thous. Os trematódeos observados foram: Alaria alata (50,0% em C. thous e 36,4 em P. gymnocercus, e Asthemia heterolecithodes em 5,6% dos C. thous. Cestóides foram identificados como Spirometra sp. (61,1% em C. thous e 54,5 em P. gymnocercus, Diphyllobothriidae (81,8 em P. gymnocercus e 77,8% em C. thous, e Acantocephala do gênero Centrorhynchus foi observado somente em 5,6% dos C. thous. Estes resultados indicaram a helmintofauna de canídeos selvagens nas áreas estudadas.Forty wild canids were captured by live trap at Municipalities of Pedro Osorio and Pelotas in Southern of the State of Rio Grande do Sul and they were transported to the Parasitology Laboratory at the Universidade Federal de Pelotas. After they were posted, segments of intestinal, respiratory and urinary tracts and liver were separated and examined. Animal skulls were used for taxonomic identification. Of forty wild animals trapped, 22 (55% were Pseudalopex gymnocercus and 22 (55% Cerdocyon thous. The most prevalent nematodes were: Ancylostoma caninum (45.4 in P. gymnocercus and 22.2% in C. thous, Molineus felineus (9.9 in P

  14. Contaminación fecal canina en plazas y veredas de Buenos Aires, 1991-2006 Dog fouling and helminth contamination in parks and sidewalks of Buenos Aires City, 1991-2006

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    Diana Rubel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue presentar y analizar los datos de contaminación fecal canina y parasitaria en plazas y veredas de Buenos Aires obtenidos entre 1991 y 2006 por la Cátedra Parasitología General (Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires. Se censaron las heces en varias plazas cada año en un único día entre 1991-2006. A partir del año 2000 se censaron heces en veredas circundantes. En cada plaza se seleccionaron al azar 30 heces frescas que se conservaron en formol 5% para su análisis parasitológico por el método de flotación de Willis con solución saturada de ClNa. Los 51 censos presentaron una mediana de heces de 288; un 82% de las heces se observaron en los canteros de tierra o pasto. La contaminación fecal en las plazas fue mayor en el período 2000-06 que en el anterior (p = 0.0000. La contaminación fecal de las plazas aumentó con la densidad humana en las manzanas lindantes (p = 0.0076. Las veredas mostraron un patrón inverso, ya que la contaminación fecal fue mayor en las áreas menos densamente pobladas (p = 0.0000. Se detectaron parásitos en un número variable de las heces colectadas en todas las plazas. Los géneros más frecuentes fueron Ancylostoma (20.47%, Trichuris (2.59% y Toxocara (1.70%. Nuestros resultados indican un aumento en la contaminación fecal de las plazas, posiblemente asociado con el aumento del número de perros en la ciudad combinado con las deficiencias en la implementación y el seguimiento de las medidas de control.The aim of this study was to provide data on canine fecal and helminthic contamination from parks and sidewalks in Buenos Aires City, collected by the Laboratory of General Parasitology, School of Sciences, University of Buenos Aires. A census of dog feces was performed in 1-11 parks per year between 1991 and 2006, a single day each year. In the period 2000-2006, the census included feces on sidewalks surrounding the park. Thirty fresh fecal

  15. Enteric parasites in HIV-1/AIDS-infected patients from a Northwestern São Paulo reference unit in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era Enteroparasitas em pacientes infectados pelo HIV-1/AIDS em uma unidade de referência do noroeste paulista na era da terapia antirretroviral de alto impacto

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    Luciana Ventura Cardoso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We describe the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in patients from an AIDS reference service in Northeastern São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation was done for all HIV-1/AIDS-positive patients whose Hospital de Base/São José do Rio Preto laboratorial analysis was positive for enteroparasites after diagnosis of HIV-1 infection, from January 1998 to December 2008. Statistical analysis was performed using the R statistical software version 2.4.1. The level of significance adopted was 5%. RESULTS: The most frequent protozoan was Isospora belli (4.2%, followed by Giardia lamblia (3.5%, Entamoeba coli (2.8%, and Cryptosporidium parvum (0.3%. Ancylostoma duodenale (1.4% was the most frequently detected helminth, while Taenia saginata and Strongiloides stercoralis were found in 0.7% of the samples. The results showed that diarrhea was significantly associated with giardiasis and isosporiasis. However, no association was observed between CD4+ cell counts, viral load, and the characteristics of any particular parasite. CONCLUSIONS: Our data may be useful for further comparisons with other Brazilian regions and other developing countries. The data may also provide important clues toward improving the understanding, prevention, and control of enteric parasites around the world.INTRODUÇÃO: Descrevemos a epidemiologia de enteroparasitoses em pacientes de um serviço de referência de AIDS, no noroeste paulista, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Durante o período de janeiro de 1998 a dezembro de 2008, foi realizado este estudo retrospectivo por meio da análise dos prontuários dos pacientes diagnosticados com HIV-1/AIDS atendidos no Ambulatório de Doenças Infecto-Parasitárias do Hospital de Base, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo. As análises estatísticas foram realizadas usando a versão 2.4.1 do software estatístico R. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: O protozoário mais frequente foi o Isospora belli

  16. Dog parasite incidence and risk factors, from sampling after one-year interval, in Pinhais, Brazil Incidência e fatores de risco de parasitas de cães, amostragem após um ano, Pinhais, Brasil

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    Camila Marinelli Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Domestic animals in urban areas may serve as reservoirs for parasitic zoonoses. The aim of this study was to monitor the parasitic status of household dogs in an urban area of Pinhais, in the metropolitan region of Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil, after a one-year period. In May 2009, fecal samples, skin scrapings and ticks were collected from 171 dogs. Questionnaires were applied to the owners (sex, age, environment and anthelmintic use. In May 2010, 26.3% (45/171 of the dogs were fecal samples reanalysed. From the fecal samples, 33.3% (57/171 in 2009 and 64.4% (29/45 in 2010 were positive. The parasite species most observed were, respectively in 2009 and 2010, Ancylostoma sp., 66.7 and 44.8%, and Strongyloidesstercoralis, 26.3 and 3.4%. All the skin scrapings were negative, and no ticks or protozoa were found. There was no statistical association (p > 0.05 between positive fecal tests and age, sex or environment. In 2009 alone, dogs with a history of antiparasitic drug administration were 2.3 times more likely to be negative. A great number of replacement dogs was noticed one year later. Therefore, isolated antiparasitic treatment strategies may have no impact on parasite control, given the risk of introduction of new agents, thereby limiting the prevention strategies.Animais domésticos em áreas urbanas podem servir de reservatório para zoonoses parasitárias. O objetivo deste trabalho foi monitorar a situação parasitária de cães domiciliados, após um ano, em área urbana de Pinhais, região metropolitana de Curitiba, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Em maio de 2009, foram coletadas amostras de fezes de 171 cães, realizados raspados cutâneos e pesquisa de carrapatos. Foi aplicado um questionário aos proprietários (sexo, idade, ambiente e uso de vermífugos. Em maio de 2010, 26,3% (45/171 dos cães tiveram as amostras de fezes analisadas novamente. Das amostras de fezes, 33,3% (57/171 em 2009 e 64,4% (29/45 em 2010, foram positivas. As

  17. Secretion of protective antigens by tissue-stage nematode larvae revealed by proteomic analysis and vaccination-induced sterile immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitson, James P; Ivens, Al C; Harcus, Yvonne; Filbey, Kara J; McSorley, Henry J; Murray, Janice; Bridgett, Stephen; Ashford, David; Dowle, Adam A; Maizels, Rick M

    2013-08-01

    Gastrointestinal nematode parasites infect over 1 billion humans, with little evidence for generation of sterilising immunity. These helminths are highly adapted to their mammalian host, following a developmental program through successive niches, while effectively down-modulating host immune responsiveness. Larvae of Heligmosomoides polygyrus, for example, encyst in the intestinal submucosa, before emerging as adult worms into the duodenal lumen. Adults release immunomodulatory excretory-secretory (ES) products, but mice immunised with adult H. polygyrus ES become fully immune to challenge infection. ES products of the intestinal wall 4th stage (L4) larvae are similarly important in host-parasite interactions, as they readily generate sterile immunity against infection, while released material from the egg stage is ineffective. Proteomic analyses of L4 ES identifies protective antigen targets as well as potential tissue-phase immunomodulatory molecules, using as comparators the adult ES proteome and a profile of H. polygyrus egg-released material. While 135 proteins are shared between L4 and adult ES, 72 are L4 ES-specific; L4-specific proteins correspond to those whose transcription is restricted to larval stages, while shared proteins are generally transcribed by all life cycle forms. Two protein families are more heavily represented in the L4 secretome, the Sushi domain, associated with complement regulation, and the ShK/SXC domain related to a toxin interfering with T cell signalling. Both adult and L4 ES contain extensive but distinct arrays of Venom allergen/Ancylostoma secreted protein-Like (VAL) members, with acetylcholinesterases (ACEs) and apyrase APY-3 particularly abundant in L4 ES. Serum antibodies from mice vaccinated with L4 and adult ES react strongly to the VAL-1 protein and to ACE-1, indicating that these two antigens represent major vaccine targets for this intestinal nematode. We have thus defined an extensive and novel repertoire of H

  18. Secretion of protective antigens by tissue-stage nematode larvae revealed by proteomic analysis and vaccination-induced sterile immunity.

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    James P Hewitson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematode parasites infect over 1 billion humans, with little evidence for generation of sterilising immunity. These helminths are highly adapted to their mammalian host, following a developmental program through successive niches, while effectively down-modulating host immune responsiveness. Larvae of Heligmosomoides polygyrus, for example, encyst in the intestinal submucosa, before emerging as adult worms into the duodenal lumen. Adults release immunomodulatory excretory-secretory (ES products, but mice immunised with adult H. polygyrus ES become fully immune to challenge infection. ES products of the intestinal wall 4th stage (L4 larvae are similarly important in host-parasite interactions, as they readily generate sterile immunity against infection, while released material from the egg stage is ineffective. Proteomic analyses of L4 ES identifies protective antigen targets as well as potential tissue-phase immunomodulatory molecules, using as comparators the adult ES proteome and a profile of H. polygyrus egg-released material. While 135 proteins are shared between L4 and adult ES, 72 are L4 ES-specific; L4-specific proteins correspond to those whose transcription is restricted to larval stages, while shared proteins are generally transcribed by all life cycle forms. Two protein families are more heavily represented in the L4 secretome, the Sushi domain, associated with complement regulation, and the ShK/SXC domain related to a toxin interfering with T cell signalling. Both adult and L4 ES contain extensive but distinct arrays of Venom allergen/Ancylostoma secreted protein-Like (VAL members, with acetylcholinesterases (ACEs and apyrase APY-3 particularly abundant in L4 ES. Serum antibodies from mice vaccinated with L4 and adult ES react strongly to the VAL-1 protein and to ACE-1, indicating that these two antigens represent major vaccine targets for this intestinal nematode. We have thus defined an extensive and novel

  19. Protection and Delivery of Anthelmintic Protein Cry5B to Nematodes Using Mesoporous Silicon Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Chen; Hu, Yan; Miller, Melanie; Aroian, Raffi V; Sailor, Michael J

    2015-06-23

    The ability of nano- and microparticles of partially oxidized mesoporous silicon (pSi) to sequester, protect, and deliver the anthelmintic pore-forming protein Cry5B to nematodes is assessed in vitro and in vivo. Thermally oxidized pSi particles are stable under gastric conditions and show relatively low toxicity to nematodes. Fluorescence images of rhodamine-labeled pSi particles within the nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and Ancylostoma ceylanicum show that ingestion is dependent on particle size: particles of a 0.4 ± 0.2 μm size are noticeably ingested by both species within 2 h of introduction in vitro, whereas 5 ± 2 μm particles are excluded from C. elegans but enter the pharynx region of A. ceylanicum after 24 h. The anthelmintic protein Cry5B, a pore-forming crystal (Cry) protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis, is incorporated into the pSi particles by aqueous infiltration. Feeding of Cry5B-loaded pSi particles to C. elegans leads to significant intoxication of the nematode. Protein-loaded particles of size 0.4 μm display the highest level of in vitro toxicity toward C. elegans on a drug-mass basis. The porous nanostructure protects Cry5B from hydrolytic and enzymatic (pepsin) degradation in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) for time periods up to 2 h. In vivo experiments with hookworm-infected hamsters show no significant reduction in worm burden with the Cry5B-loaded particles, which is attributed to slow release of the protein from the particles and/or short residence time of the particles in the duodenum of the animal.

  20. Parasitic infections of digestive tract of dogs in territory of Braničevo District

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    Đurić Boban

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of two-year investigations of parasitic infections of the digestive tract of dogs originating from the territories of eight municipalities of Braničevo District. Investigations were performed on 345 dogs of different breeds and age categories, originating from rural and urban environments. The investigations encompassed dogs bred in decent hygiene conditions, as well as dogs living in unhygienic conditions. Some of the dogs covered by these analyses were dewormed, but the bulk of the sampled material originated from dogs that were not treated with antihelminthics. Eight species of parasites of the digestive tract were diagnosed in the examined dogs from the territory of the Braničevo District: Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Trichuris vulpis, coccidiae, Dipylidium caninum, Taenia spp. and Alaria alata. Today, it is still necessary to keep dogs in rural environments and isolated areas, since these animals are used to guard real estate and cattle. For quite some time now, there has also been wide-spread interest in keeping dogs in urban areas as well. It is evident on the grounds of data from big towns that the number of dogs in urban environments has been increasing constantly all over the world. However, the conditions for naturally maintaining dogs in towns have become increasingly more difficult and complicated. The amount of free space and the number of yards are constantly being reduced, so that dog owners are compelled to keep their pets in apartments. These altered living and diet conditions have resulted in more complex and varied health problems of dogs.

  1. Differences in the faecal microbiome of non-diarrhoeic clinically healthy dogs and cats associated with Giardia duodenalis infection: impact of hookworms and coccidia.

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    Šlapeta, Jan; Dowd, Scot E; Alanazi, Abdullah D; Westman, Mark E; Brown, Graeme K

    2015-08-01

    The protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis causes a waterborne diarrhoeal disease in animals and humans, yet many Giardia-infected hosts remain asymptomatic. Mixed parasite infections are common in both animals and humans with unknown consequences for Giardia or other parasites. We compared the composition and diversity of bacterial communities from 40 dogs, including free-roaming dogs, and 21 surrendered cats from Australia. The dog cohort included 17 (42.5%) dogs positive for Giardia and 13 (32.5%) dogs positive for dog hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum). The cat samples included eight positive for Giardia and eight positive for Cystoisospora. The V4 region of 16S rRNA was sequenced at an average of 36,383 high quality sequences (>200 bp) per sample using the Ion Torrent PGM platform. In dogs we found significant (Pdogs. However, there was a modest but not significant separation of the Giardia-negative and -positive dogs (P=0.09, UniFrac) using principal coordinate analysis. Removal of dogs with hookworms further separated Giardia-positive and -negative groupings (P=0.06, UniFrac). In cats, the presence of Giardia was not associated with a significant difference based on bacterial genera (P>0.05, AnoSim). Cystoisospora-positive cats, however, exhibited significantly different profiles from Cystoisospora-negative cats (P=0.02, AnoSim) and UniFrac showed significant separation of Cystoisospora-positive and -negative samples (Pdogs and cats, helminths and protozoa are associated with different microbiomes and possibly variable gut microbiota functions. Understanding the association of parasites and microbiomes has important consequences for the administration of antiparasitic drugs in animals and humans.

  2. Discrimination of gastrointestinal nematode eggs from crude fecal egg preparations by inhibitor-resistant conventional and real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeler, Janina; Ramünke, Sabrina; Wolken, Sonja; Ianiello, Davide; Rinaldi, Laura; Gahutu, Jean Bosco; Cringoli, Giuseppe; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Krücken, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes relies predominantly on coproscopic methods such as flotation, Kato-Katz, McMaster or FLOTAC. Although FLOTAC allows accurate quantification, many nematode eggs can only be differentiated to genus or family level. Several molecular diagnostic tools discriminating closely related species suffer from high costs for DNA isolation from feces and limited sensitivity since most kits use only small amounts of feces (PCR from crude egg preparations was designed for full compatibility with FLOTAC to accurately quantify eggs per gram feces (epg) and determine species composition. Eggs were recovered from the flotation solution and concentrated by sieving. Lysis was achieved by repeated boiling and freezing cycles - only Trichuris eggs required additional mechanic disruption. Egg lysates were directly used as template for PCR with Phusion DNA polymerase which is particularly resistant to PCR inhibitors. Qualitative results were obtained with feces of goats, cattle, horses, swine, cats, dogs and mice. The finally established protocol was also compatible with quantitative real-time PCR in the presence of EvaGreen and no PCR inhibition was detectable when extracts were diluted at least fourfold. Sensitivity was comparable to DNA isolation protocols and spiked samples with five epg were reliably detected. For Toxocara cati a detection limit below one epg was demonstrated. It was possible to distinguish T. cati and Toxocara canis using high resolution melt (HRM) analysis, a rapid tool for species identification. In human samples, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and HRM analysis were used to discriminate Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. The method is able to significantly improve molecular diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes by increasing speed and sensitivity while decreasing overall costs. For identification of species or resistance alleles, analysis of PCR products with many different post PCR methods can

  3. ENTERIC PARASITES IN PATIENTS LIVING WITH HIV & AIDS

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    Ashwini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: HIV is a major global public health issue. Most of the patients with HIV disease die of infections other than HIV. Gastrointestinal infections are very common in patients with HIV infection or AIDS . AIMS : To detect opportunistic intestinal parasi tes in patients living with HIV & AIDS and relate it with CD4 count. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A single stool sample was obtained in sterile plastic containers from the patients attending pre ART. The stool samples were examined macroscopically and microscopica lly. Formalin ether concentration method was used. The modified Ziehl Neelsen staining method was used for the detection of the oocyst of coccidian parasites. CD4 count was measured on partec flow cytometry. RESULTS: Out of the 53 patient s, 33(62.26% were males and 20 (37.73% were femal es with age between 25 - 65 years . The study population consist of 4 patients with CD4 count > 500 cells/μl , 22 patients with CD4 count 200 - 499 cells/μl and 27 patients with CD4 count < 200 cells/μl. Enteric parasites we re detec ted by microscopy in 21 (39.62% stool samples . Number of samples showing parasites were Cryptospridium 11 (20.75%, Strongyloides stercoralis 3(5.6% , Cyclospora 1 (1.8%. Ascaris lumbricoides 3 (5.6%, Ancylostoma duodenale 1 (1.8% and Tenia eggs 2(3.7%. Ov erall, Cryptosporidium 11 (20.75% was the most frequently encountered pathogen in the study population. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study highlight the importance of evaluation of HIV infected individuals with diarrhoea for intestinal parasitic infect ions which may help in better management of these patients.

  4. Helminth species diversity and biology in the bobcat, Lynx rufus (Schreber), from Nebraska.

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    Tiekotter, K L

    1985-04-01

    Cestodes of 4 species and nematodes of 9 species were collected from 75 bobcats, Lynx rufus (Schreber), in Nebraska from 1977 to 1979. Of these 75, 11 were trapped from 6 border counties in 3 border states: South Dakota, 7 carcasses/3 counties; Kansas, 3/2; and Wyoming, 1/1. Helminths recovered included: Mesocestoides corti Hoeppli, 1925 (15% prevalence), Taenia rileyi Loewen, 1929 (67%), Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780) Gmelin, 1790 (27%), Taenia macrocystis (Diesing, 1850) Lühe, 1910 (19%), Physaloptera praeputialis von Linstow, 1889 (55%), Physaloptera rara Hall and Wigdor, 1918 (32%), Toxascaris leonina (von Linstow, 1902) Leiper, 1907 (31%), Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1780) (39%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (Zeder, 1800) von Linstow, 1885 (5%), Pterygodermatites (Multipectines) cahirensis (Jägerskiöld, 1909) Quentin, 1969 (1%), Vogeloides felis (Vogel, 1928) Davtian, 1933 (7%), Cylicospirura felineus (Chandler, 1925) Sandground, 1932 (12%), and Capillaria aerophila (Creplin, 1839) (4%). One bobcat was not infected; 74 had 1 to 7 species (means = 3). Simpson's index for helminth species was moderately low (0.12), indicating a relatively diverse helminth fauna. Mean levels of infection between prominent species pairs and within each species were compared with bobcat sex and age differences using Student's t-test. Mean intensity of Physaloptera praeputialis was significantly (P less than 0.01) greater than that of Toxocara cati; mean intensity of Mesocestoides corti was significantly (P less than 0.01) greater than that of all other prominent species. No significant intensity differences were indicated among bobcat sex and age categories. G-tests computed for prevalence of prominent species with bobcat age indicated no significance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Survey on parasitic infections in wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris Schreber, 1777) by scat collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Ettore; Anile, Stefano; Arrabito, Carmelo; Scornavacca, Davide; Mazzamuto, Maria Vittoria; Gaglio, Gabriella; Otranto, Domenico; Giannetto, Salvatore; Brianti, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Wildcats are endangered felid species living in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Regrettably, scientific information on parasites of wildcats is particularly meager and they often rely on data gained by necropsies of a small number of animals. In the present study, scat collection was used to assess the parasite spectrum of European wildcats living in the Etna Park (Sicily, Italy). Scat collection was performed from May to September 2010 by weekly walking four transects for a total of 391 km. Samples were then analyzed by flotation and sedimentation techniques to investigate wildcat parasitic fauna. A total of 121 scats of wildcats were collected, and parasitic forms (i.e., oocysts, eggs, and larvae) were retrieved in 110 (90.9 %) of the samples. Parasites found were Physaloptera sp. (52.1 %), tapeworms (45.5 %), Toxocara cati (43.8 %), Eucoleus aerophilus (27.3 %), Ancylostoma sp. (22.3 %), Troglostrongylus brevior (15.7 %), trematodes (9.9 %), Isospora felis (4.1 %), Cylicospirura sp. (1.7 %), and Acanthocephala (0.8 %). The prevalence of endoparasitic infections herein recorded is similar to that described in other studies conducted using necropsy technique. The species richness of parasites found in the present survey, with a total of nine helminths and one protozoon, is the highest ever reported for wildcat in Europe. Scat collection and examination are reliable and rapid non-invasive tools which can be used in a systematic survey design to study the parasite spectrum of wildcat as well as that of other endangered wild species.

  6. Sensitivity and efficiency of selected coproscopical methods-sedimentation, combined zinc sulfate sedimentation-flotation, and McMaster method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Ann-Christin; Kraemer, Amelie; Epe, Christian; Strube, Christina

    2016-07-01

    Coproscopical methods used in veterinary-parasitological diagnostics were validated according to their sensitivity (Se) and egg recovery rate [efficiency (Ef)]. Validation of the combined sedimentation-flotation method and the modified McMaster method was performed by using feces spiked with eggs of Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Cooperia oncophora, cyathostomins, Ascaris suum, Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Moniezia expansa, and Anoplocephala perfoliata. For validation of the sedimentation method, Fasciola hepatica eggs were used. With the combined sedimentation-flotation method using ZnSO4 as flotation medium [specific gravity (SG) 1.30], 5 g fecal samples of all tested parasite species (concentration levels 1, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 epg) were reproducibly detected "positive" (100 % Se) as of 80 epg. The Ef of the combined sedimentation-flotation method, defined as percentage of rediscovered eggs, revealed clear differences between parasites and showed the highest value for cyathostomins and the lowest for U. stenocephala and T. leonina eggs. The average Ef for all parasite species at 80 epg was 1.50 %. With the McMaster method (concentration levels 1, 30, 50, 80, 100, 500, and 1000 epg), all tested parasite species were detected reliably positive as of 500 epg with a mean Ef of 46.4 %. When evaluating the sedimentation method (concentration levels 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 epg), F. hepatica eggs were reproducibly found in 5 g fecal samples as of 20 epg with 20.0 % Ef. The result that the combined zinc sulfate sedimentation-flotation method (SG 1.30) as flotation medium provides diagnostic certainty only as of 80 epg has to be considered at preventing zoonoses. If pet owners wish to prevent any zoonotic infection ("zero tolerance"), a monthly anthelminthic treatment should be advised instead of monthly fecal examinations.

  7. [Larva migrans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabasse, D; Le Clec'h, C; de Gentile, L; Verret, J L

    1995-01-01

    Larbish, cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruption, is a serpiginous cutaneous eruption caused by skin penetration of infective larva from various animal nematodes. Hookworms (Ancylostoma brasiliense, A. caninum) are the most common causative parasites. They live in the intestines of dogs and cats where their ova are deposited in the animal feces. In sandy and shady soil, when temperature and moisture are elevated, the ova hatch and mature into infective larva. Infection occurs when humans have contact with the infected soil. Infective larva penetrate the exposed skin of the body, commonly around the feet, hands and buttocks. In humans, the larva are not able to complete their natural cycle and remain trapped in the upper dermis of the skin. The disease is widespread in tropical or subtropical regions, especially along the coast on sandy beaches. The diagnosis is easy for the patient who is returning from a tropical or subtropical climate and gives a history of beach exposure. The characteristic skin lesion is a fissure or erythematous cord which is displaced a few millimeters each day in a serpiginous track. Scabies, the larva currens syndrome due to Strongyloides stercoralis, must be distinguished from other creeping eruptions and subcutaneous swelling lesions caused by other nematodes or myiasis. Medical treatments are justified because it shortens the duration of the natural evolution of the disease. Topical tiabendazole is safe for localized invasions, but prolonged treatment may be necessary. Oral thiabendazole treatment for three days is effective, but sometimes is associated with adverse effects. Trials using albendazole for one or four consecutive days appear more efficacious. More recent trials using ivermectine showed that a single oral dose can cure 100% of the patients; thus, this drug looks very promising as a new form of therapy. Individual prophylaxis consists of avoiding skin contact with soil which has been contaminated with dog or cat feces

  8. Improved PCR-Based Detection of Soil Transmitted Helminth Infections Using a Next-Generation Sequencing Approach to Assay Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotte, Nils; Papaiakovou, Marina; Grant, Jessica R.; Bierwert, Lou Ann; Llewellyn, Stacey; McCarthy, James S.; Williams, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The soil transmitted helminths are a group of parasitic worms responsible for extensive morbidity in many of the world’s most economically depressed locations. With growing emphasis on disease mapping and eradication, the availability of accurate and cost-effective diagnostic measures is of paramount importance to global control and elimination efforts. While real-time PCR-based molecular detection assays have shown great promise, to date, these assays have utilized sub-optimal targets. By performing next-generation sequencing-based repeat analyses, we have identified high copy-number, non-coding DNA sequences from a series of soil transmitted pathogens. We have used these repetitive DNA elements as targets in the development of novel, multi-parallel, PCR-based diagnostic assays. Methodology/Principal Findings Utilizing next-generation sequencing and the Galaxy-based RepeatExplorer web server, we performed repeat DNA analysis on five species of soil transmitted helminths (Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides stercoralis). Employing high copy-number, non-coding repeat DNA sequences as targets, novel real-time PCR assays were designed, and assays were tested against established molecular detection methods. Each assay provided consistent detection of genomic DNA at quantities of 2 fg or less, demonstrated species-specificity, and showed an improved limit of detection over the existing, proven PCR-based assay. Conclusions/Significance The utilization of next-generation sequencing-based repeat DNA analysis methodologies for the identification of molecular diagnostic targets has the ability to improve assay species-specificity and limits of detection. By exploiting such high copy-number repeat sequences, the assays described here will facilitate soil transmitted helminth diagnostic efforts. We recommend similar analyses when designing PCR-based diagnostic tests for the detection of other

  9. Intestinal parassitosis in Reggio Emilia during 2007: critical analysis of results

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    Carlotta Guidetti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 were analyzed in 2032 samples from 1970 subjects: coprparassitologiacal standard examination was performed in 1916 of the subjects and scotch-test in the remaining 54. Of the 1970 subjects examined, 81, equivalent to 4.1%, resulted positive for one or more parasites (both pathogens and / or of questionable pathogenicity. Pathogenic parasites were found in 38 subjects, equivalent to 46.9% of the total positive: in 20 cases (24.7% cysts of Giardia intestinalis were found in 7 cases (8.6% it was Enterobius vermicularis, in another 5 (6.2% there was Hymenolepis nana, in 2 (2.4% Trichuris trichiura, in 1 (1.2% Ancylostoma / necator, in 1 (1.2%, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, in 1 (1.2% Dipylidium caninum, and in 1 (1.2% Ascaris lumbricoides. Protozoa of doubtful pathogenicity, either alone or in combination with pathogens,were found in 54 subjects: Blastocystis hominis in 30 cases (36.9%, Entamoeba coli in 15 (18.8%, Endolimax nana in 10 (12.3%, Entamoeba histlytica dispar in 4 (4.9%, Iodamoeba butschlii in 1 (1.2%, Entamoeba hartmanni in 1 (1.2%.These data represent only a first frame of the possible scope of the phenomenon, both in terms of diagnostic possibilities and in terms of real etiological significance in order to qualify the diagnosis, and to ensure careful monitoring of the phenomenon.We also wanted to evaluate retrospectively the existing diagnostic potential before embarking on some organizational and procedural changes in the field of diagnostic parasitology.

  10. A Con A- purified hydatid glycoprotein fraction effectively diagnoses human hydatidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Manal M; Maher, Kesmat M; Rabia, Ibrahim; Helmy, Ahmed H; El-Adawi, Azza I; Mousa, Mousa A; Mahgoub, Abeer M

    2006-12-01

    Diagnosis and quantification of Echinococcus granulosus infection in man and animal hosts are centralized to feasible control. This study included 93 serum samples, 25 sure positive hydatid cases confirmed surgically, 7 suspected cases diagnosed by indirect haemagglutination IHA and 41 cases other parasitic infections (15 S. mansoni, 8 Fasciola, 7 Ascaris, 5 H. nana & 6 Ancylostoma) diagnosed by microscopic examination and were negative by ELISA and/or IHA for anti-hydatid antibody. Twenty negative serum samples served as healthy controls. Six types of hydatid fluid antigens (crude, host-free & Con-A purified) of human and camel origin were subjected to electrophoretic separation (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting (EITB). The anti-hydatid IgG was detected in sera of the different groups for evaluation of sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic efficacy of each type of antigens. Detection of circulating hydatid antigen (CAg) was performed using anti rabbit hyperimmune sera raised against Con-A purified either human or camel hydatid antigen. SDS-PAGE revealed several bands ranging from 55-185 kDa with 10 kDa band shared by all antigens. The specific bands revealed by EITB for Con-A purified camel and human antigens were at 80, 110 & 55, 110 kDa respectively. ELISA highest sensitivity (96.9%) was by using host-free Con-A purified glycoprotein fraction of human hydatid antigen. Highest specificity (98.4%) was recorded upon use of either Con-A purified camel or human antigen with 94.5% & 97.7% diagnostic efficacy respectively. Detection of circulating antigen by polyclonal antibodies against Con-A purified human hydatid antigen revealed 91.8% specificity.

  11. Parasite communities in stray cat populations from Lisbon, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waap, H; Gomes, J; Nunes, T

    2014-12-01

    Stray cats live in high-density colonies in urban areas and pose a health hazard to household cats and humans. In Portugal, information on the parasitic fauna of stray cats is limited and relies mostly on results from faecal analysis. The present survey aimed to determine the prevalence, diversity and intensity of parasites in stray cats from the urban area of Lisbon by means of parasitological necropsy. Internal organs were collected from 162 cats captured in different areas of the city and systematically subjected to parasitological dissection. Helminths were identified by macro- and microscopic examination and protozoa by faecal floatation and sedimentation techniques. The overall prevalence of parasites was 90.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 85.3-94.6%). A total of 12 parasite species was recorded: Cystoisospora felis (14.2%), Cystoisospora rivolta (46.3%), Sarcocystis sp. (1.2%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (19.1%), Toxocara cati (38.3%), Ollulanus tricuspis (30.9%), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (12.4%), Eucoleus aerophilus (0.6%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3.1%), Dipylidium caninum (53.1%), Joyeuxiella pasqualei (15.4%) and Diplopylidium nölleri (3.7%). Overall mean species richness was 2.36 ±  1.52. Helminth mean intensity was highest for O. tricuspis (285.8), followed by D. caninum (42.4), J. pasqualei (14.4), A. tubaeforme (8.1) and T. cati (5.9). The prevalence and variety of parasites found in our sampling are substantially higher than the numbers previously reported in Portugal. Some of the parasites, including T. cati and A. tubaeforme, are zoonotic, which emphasizes the need for parasite control strategies based on demographic containment of stray cat populations in urban areas to promote public health protection.

  12. Effects of Treatment on IgE Responses against Parasite Allergen-Like Proteins and Immunity to Reinfection in Childhood Schistosome and Hookworm Coinfections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Frances M.; Wilson, Shona; Tukahebwa, Edridah; Fitzsimmons, Colin M.; Mwatha, Joseph K.; Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Dunne, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Naturally occurring human immunity to both schistosomiasis and hookworm infection has been associated with IgE responses against parasite allergen-like proteins. Since the two helminths frequently coinfect the same individuals, there is growing advocacy for their concurrent treatment. However, both helminths are known to exert strong immunomodulatory effects; therefore, coinfected individuals could have immune responses different from those characteristically seen in monoinfected individuals. In this study, we measured changes in IgE, IgG1, and IgG4 responses to schistosome and hookworm antigens, including the allergen-like proteins Schistosoma mansoni tegumental-allergen-like 1 protein (SmTAL1), SmTAL2, and Necator americanus Ancylostoma-secreted protein-2 (Na-ASP-2), following concurrent treatment of schoolchildren coinfected with Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm. Antibody responses to schistosome egg (soluble egg antigen and SmTAL2) or somatic adult hookworm (AHW) antigens either decreased after treatment or were unchanged, whereas those to schistosome worm antigens (soluble worm antigen and SmTAL1) increased. The observed different effects of treatment likely reflect the different modes of drug action and sites of infection for these two helminths. Importantly, there was no evidence that the simultaneous treatment of coinfected children with praziquantel and albendazole affected schistosome- and hookworm-specific humoral responses differently from those characteristic of populations in which only one organism is endemic; schistosome- and hookworm-specific responses were not associated, and there was no evidence for cross-regulation. Posttreatment increases in the levels of IgE to schistosome worm antigens were associated with lower Schistosoma mansoni reinfection intensity, while no associations between humoral responses to AHW antigen and protection from hookworm reinfection were observed in this sample of school-aged children. PMID:23071136

  13. Update on the mapping of prevalence and intensity of infection for soil-transmitted helminth infections in Latin America and the Caribbean: a call for action.

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    Martha Idalí Saboyá

    Full Text Available It is estimated that in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC at least 13.9 million preschool age and 35.4 million school age children are at risk of infections by soil-transmitted helminths (STH: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Although infections caused by this group of parasites are associated with chronic deleterious effects on nutrition and growth, iron and vitamin A status and cognitive development in children, few countries in the LAC Region have implemented nationwide surveys on prevalence and intensity of infection. The aim of this study was to identify gaps on the mapping of prevalence and intensity of STH infections based on data published between 2000 and 2010 in LAC, and to call for including mapping as part of action plans against these infections. A total of 335 published data points for STH prevalence were found for 18 countries (11.9% data points for preschool age children, 56.7% for school age children and 31.3% for children from 1 to 14 years of age. We found that 62.7% of data points showed prevalence levels above 20%. Data on the intensity of infection were found for seven countries. The analysis also highlights that there is still an important lack of data on prevalence and intensity of infection to determine the burden of disease based on epidemiological surveys, particularly among preschool age children. This situation is a challenge for LAC given that adequate planning of interventions such as deworming requires information on prevalence to determine the frequency of needed anthelmintic drug administration and to conduct monitoring and evaluation of progress in drug coverage.

  14. Odanacatib, a Cathepsin K Cysteine Protease Inhibitor, Kills Hookworm In Vivo

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    Jon J. Vermeire

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hookworm infection is chief among soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs for the chronic morbidly inflicted. Deworming via mass drug administration (MDA programs most often employs single doses of benzimidazole drugs to which resistance is a constant threat. To discover new drugs, we employ a hamster model of hookworm infection with Ancylostoma ceylanicum and use albendazole (ABZ; 10 mg/kg orally as the gold standard therapy. We previously showed that a single oral 100 mg/kg dose of the cathepsin cysteine protease (CP inhibitor, K11777, offers near cure of infection that is associated with a 95% reduction in the parasite’s resident CP activity. We confirm these findings here and demonstrate that odanacatib (ODN, Merck’s cathepsin K inhibitor and post-clinical Phase III drug candidate for treatment of osteoporosis, decreases worm burden by 73% at the same dose with a 51% reduction in the parasite’s CP activity. Unlike K11777, ODN is a modest inhibitor of both mammalian cathepsin B and the predominant cathepsin B-like activity measureable in hookworm extracts. ODN’s somewhat unexpected efficacy, therefore, may be due to its excellent pharmacokinetic (PK profile which allows for sustained plasma exposure and, possibly, sufficient perturbation of hookworm cathepsin B activity to be detrimental to survival. Accordingly, identifying a CP inhibitor(s that combines the inhibition potency of K11777 and the PK attributes of ODN could lead to a drug that is effective at a lower dose. Achieving this would potentially provide an alternative or back-up to the current anti-hookworm drug, albendazole.

  15. Correlation between gut pathogens and fecal calprotectin levels in young children with acute diarrhea

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    Yanever Angela Lam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In cases of acute diarrhea, it is difficult to distinguish between bacterial and non-bacterial causes. Increased fecal calprotectin (f-CP level is a marker of neutrophil migration in the intestinal lumen and is associated with intestinal inflammation. Previous studies reported an increase in f-CP levels in children with acute diarrhea, which is caused by bacteria, but only few have studied the relationship between intestinal pathogens with f-CP levels in acute diarrhea. Objective To assess for a correlation between gut pathogens and fecal calprotectin levels in children with acute diarrhea. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study between July to November 2012 on children aged 1-5 years with acute diarrhea, and underwent routine blood tests, stool microscopy, f-CP tests, and stool cultures. We used a simple linear regression and correlation analysis with a significance level of P<0.05. Results Forty-two children enrolled in this study. The mean age of subjects was 2.27 (SD 1.34 years. Their mean f-CP level was 93.88 (SD 14.68 μg/g. On microscopic stool examination, 26 patients (61.9% had positive leukocytes, 1 had Ancylostoma duodenale, 1 had Ascaris lumbricoides, and 2 had Blastocystis hominis. Positive stool cultures were found in 14 children (33.3% with acute diarrhea. There was a significant positive correlation between gut pathogens and f-CP levels (r=0.605; P<0.0001. Conclusion In young children with acute diarrhea, the average f-CP levels are higher in those with positive intestinal pathogens. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:193-7.].

  16. Necator americanus and helminth co-infections: further down-modulation of hookworm-specific type 1 immune responses.

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    Stefan Michael Geiger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helminth co-infection in humans is common in tropical regions of the world where transmission of soil-transmitted helminths such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and the hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale as well as other helminths such as Schistosoma mansoni often occur simultaneously. METHODOLOGY: We investigated whether co-infection with another helminth(s altered the human immune response to crude antigen extracts from either different stages of N. americanus infection (infective third stage or adult or different crude antigen extract preparations (adult somatic and adult excretory/secretory. Using these antigens, we compared the cellular and humoral immune responses of individuals mono-infected with hookworm (N. americanus and individuals co-infected with hookworm and other helminth infections, namely co-infection with either A. lumbricoides, Schistosoma mansoni, or both. Immunological variables were compared between hookworm infection group (mono- versus co-infected by bootstrap, and principal component analysis (PCA was used as a data reduction method. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to several animal studies of helminth co-infection, we found that co-infected individuals had a further downmodulated Th1 cytokine response (e.g., reduced INF-γ, accompanied by a significant increase in the hookworm-specific humoral immune response (e.g. higher levels of IgE or IgG4 to crude antigen extracts compared with mono- infected individuals. Neither of these changes was associated with a reduction of hookworm infection intensity in helminth co-infected individuals. From the standpoint of hookworm vaccine development, these results are relevant; i.e., the specific immune response to hookworm vaccine antigens might be altered by infection with another helminth.

  17. CARACTERIZACIÓN EPIDEMIOLÓGICA DE PARÁSITOS GASTROINTESTINALES ZOONÓTICOS EN CANINOS CON DUEÑO DEL ÁREA URBANA DEL MUNICIPIO DE LA MESA, CUNDINAMARCA

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    Z. K. Alarcón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue caracterizar los parásitos gastrointestinales zoonóticos en caninos con dueño del área urbana del Municipio de La Mesa, Cundinamarca. Con este fin, se realizó un censo tipo encuesta que determinó la población real de caninos y arrojó un total 1142 perros censados; de éstos, sólo se incluyeron 897 en el estudio por contar con información completa. Se tomaron 122 muestras de materia fecal de los caninos, las cuales fueron analizadas mediante la técnica de concentración de formol– acetato de etilo y leídas por microscopía. La prevalencia total de parasitosis encontrada fue 19.67% (24/122. El parásito hallado con mayor frecuencia fue Ancylostoma spp. (17.21%, seguido de Trichuris spp. (1.63% y Giardia spp. (0.81%. En comparación con otros estudios en Colombia, la prevalencia hallada fue menor y no se encontraron multiparasitosis. No se constató relación (P > 0.05 entre la presencia de parásitos y las variables estudiadas (raza, edad, sexo, desparasitación, vacunación, fuente de agua de consumo y lugar donde habita. Se concluye que la presencia de parásitos encontrada constituye un riesgo para la salud humana y animal, y por lo tanto, es necesario implementar estrategias educativas y sanitarias en la comunidad y elaborar planes de desparasitación y diagnóstico parasitológico para las mascotas.

  18. Blastocystis subtyping and its association with intestinal parasites in children from different geographical regions of Colombia

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    Flórez, Carolina; Olivera, Mario; Bernal, María Consuelo; Giraldo, Julio Cesar

    2017-01-01

    Blastocystis is a common enteric protist colonizing probably more than 1 billion people with a large variety of non-human hosts. Remarkable genetic diversity has been observed, leading to the subdivision of the genus into multiple subtypes (ST), some of which are exclusively found in non-human hosts. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of Blastocystis STs/18S alleles in symptomatic (abdominal pain, anal pruritus, diarrhea, headache, nauseas and/or vomit) and asymptomatic children from nine geographical regions of Colombia. A total of 2026 fecal samples were collected as part of a national survey to estimate the frequency of intestinal parasites in children. A set of 256 samples that were Blastocystis positive was finally selected. The samples were submitted to DNA extraction, Real Time PCR and sequencing using Blastocystis-specific primers targeting the small subunit rRNA gene for ST identification. DNA of Ascaris lumbricoides (16.4%), Trichuris trichiura (8.2%), hookworms (Necator americanus/Ancylostoma duodenale) (7.3%), Giardia duodenalis (23.1%), Entamoeba complex (82%), Entamoeba coli (55%), Hymenolepis nana (0.8%), Endolimax nana (33.2%) and Neobalantidium coli (2.7%) was detected in the Blastocystis-positive samples. We detected ST1 (21.4%), ST2 (19.5%), ST3 (55.5%), ST4 (0.8%), ST6 (2%) and ST7 (0.8%); alleles 1, 2, 4, 81, 82 and 83 for ST1; alleles 9, 11, 12, 15, 67, 71 and 73 for ST2; alleles 34, 36, 38, 45, 49, 55, 134 and 128 for ST3; allele 42 for ST4; allele 122 for ST6, and allele 142 for ST7. Further studies implementing high-resolution molecular markers are necessary to understand the dynamics of Blastocystis transmission and the role of this Stramenopila in health and disease. PMID:28222192

  19. An ELISA for sensitive and specific detection of circulating antigen of Angiostrongylus vasorum in serum samples of naturally and experimentally infected dogs.

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    Schnyder, M; Tanner, I; Webster, P; Barutzki, D; Deplazes, P

    2011-06-30

    Canine angiostrongylosis is an emerging cardiopulmonary disease in Europe which can be fatal if left untreated. We developed a sandwich-ELISA based on a monoclonal antibody (mAb Av 56/1/2) and on polyclonal rabbit antibodies directed against Angiostrongylus vasorum adult excretory/secretory - antigen for the detection of circulating serum antigen of A. vasorum. The sensitivity of the test was 95.7% (78.1-99.9, 95% CI) as determined with sera of 23 dogs naturally infected with A. vasorum. The specificity was 94.0% (83.5-98.7, 95% CI) using 50 dog sera (control group) submitted for reasons other than parasitic infections. Potential cross-reactions were investigated with sera of a group of totally 61 dogs with proven infections with Dirofilaria immitis (n=23), Crenosoma vulpis (n=14), Ancylostoma caninum (n=4) or Toxocara canis (n=20). No significant difference was observed concerning the proportion of positive reactions between the control group and the group with proven helminth infections other than A. vasorum. In experimentally inoculated dogs with proven worm burdens of A. vasorum, the proportion of seropositive dogs increased over the first 3 months of infection, starting from 35 days post inoculation (dpi) which was before the onset of larval excretion. Ten weeks post inoculation, 98.6% of the dogs were seropositive, and circulating antigen persisted in two dogs with long-term follow-up over 286 and 356 days, respectively. In contrast, in dogs with a single treatment with imidacloprid/moxidectin at four or 32 dpi, no circulating antigen was observed, while in dogs treated at 88-92 dpi, OD values decreased within 13-34 days. The specific detection of circulating A. vasorum antigen by ELISA represents a valid alternative for reliable diagnosis and for follow-up investigations after anthelmintic treatment. Moreover, the test can be used for mass screening in large epidemiological investigations.

  20. Drug target prediction and prioritization: using orthology to predict essentiality in parasite genomes

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    Hall Ross S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New drug targets are urgently needed for parasites of socio-economic importance. Genes that are essential for parasite survival are highly desirable targets, but information on these genes is lacking, as gene knockouts or knockdowns are difficult to perform in many species of parasites. We examined the applicability of large-scale essentiality information from four model eukaryotes, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Mus musculus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to discover essential genes in each of their genomes. Parasite genes that lack orthologues in their host are desirable as selective targets, so we also examined prediction of essential genes within this subset. Results Cross-species analyses showed that the evolutionary conservation of genes and the presence of essential orthologues are each strong predictors of essentiality in eukaryotes. Absence of paralogues was also found to be a general predictor of increased relative essentiality. By combining several orthology and essentiality criteria one can select gene sets with up to a five-fold enrichment in essential genes compared with a random selection. We show how quantitative application of such criteria can be used to predict a ranked list of potential drug targets from Ancylostoma caninum and Haemonchus contortus - two blood-feeding strongylid nematodes, for which there are presently limited sequence data but no functional genomic tools. Conclusions The present study demonstrates the utility of using orthology information from multiple, diverse eukaryotes to predict essential genes. The data also emphasize the challenge of identifying essential genes among those in a parasite that are absent from its host.

  1. Prevalence of intestinal parasite infections among patients in local public hospitals of Hail, Northwestern Saudi Arabia

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    Omar Hassen Amer; Ibraheem M Ashankyty; Najoua Al Sadok Haouas

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasites among patients in Hail, Northwestern Saudi Arabia. Methods: Stool samples were collected from 130 patients (69 females and 61 males) in Hail General Hospital. Each sample was examined by direct wet mount microscopic examination using both normal saline and Lugol’s iodine preparation and concentration techniques using salt and formol-ether solutions. Permanent stained smears were performed for intestinal coccidian using modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 45.38% (59 cases). Forty-four (33.84%) were found to be infected with one or more intestinal protozoa, 5 (3.84%) were infected with helminthes and 10 (7.69%) had mixed infection with both helminthes and protozoa. The most common intestinal helminth detected was Ancylostoma duodenale (n=5, 3.84%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia sp. and Trichuris trichiura (n=2 for each species, 1.5%). For intestinal protozoa, the coccidian Cryptosporidium parvum (n=25, 19.23%) was the most common followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (n=21, 16.15%), Giardia lamblia (n=15, 11.54%), Entamoeba coli (n=5, 3.85%) and Blastocystis hominis (n=3, 2.30%). The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in females was significantly higher than in males (P<0.05). Conclusions: This is the first study highlighting that intestinal parasites are still an important public health problem in Northwestern Saudi Arabia. Therefore, health education would be the best way to prevent from intestinal parasite infections which are mainly food borne diseases.

  2. Discrimination of gastrointestinal nematode eggs from crude fecal egg preparations by inhibitor-resistant conventional and real-time PCR.

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    Janina Demeler

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes relies predominantly on coproscopic methods such as flotation, Kato-Katz, McMaster or FLOTAC. Although FLOTAC allows accurate quantification, many nematode eggs can only be differentiated to genus or family level. Several molecular diagnostic tools discriminating closely related species suffer from high costs for DNA isolation from feces and limited sensitivity since most kits use only small amounts of feces (<1 g. A direct PCR from crude egg preparations was designed for full compatibility with FLOTAC to accurately quantify eggs per gram feces (epg and determine species composition. Eggs were recovered from the flotation solution and concentrated by sieving. Lysis was achieved by repeated boiling and freezing cycles - only Trichuris eggs required additional mechanic disruption. Egg lysates were directly used as template for PCR with Phusion DNA polymerase which is particularly resistant to PCR inhibitors. Qualitative results were obtained with feces of goats, cattle, horses, swine, cats, dogs and mice. The finally established protocol was also compatible with quantitative real-time PCR in the presence of EvaGreen and no PCR inhibition was detectable when extracts were diluted at least fourfold. Sensitivity was comparable to DNA isolation protocols and spiked samples with five epg were reliably detected. For Toxocara cati a detection limit below one epg was demonstrated. It was possible to distinguish T. cati and Toxocara canis using high resolution melt (HRM analysis, a rapid tool for species identification. In human samples, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP and HRM analysis were used to discriminate Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. The method is able to significantly improve molecular diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes by increasing speed and sensitivity while decreasing overall costs. For identification of species or resistance alleles, analysis of PCR products with many

  3. Neotropical Zoonotic Parasites in Bush Dogs (Speothos venaticus) from Upper Paraná Atlantic Forests in Misiones, Argentina.

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    Vizcaychipi, Katherina A; Rinas, Miguel; Irazu, Lucia; Miyagi, Adriana; Argüelles, Carina F; DeMatteo, Karen E

    2016-10-01

    Wildlife remains an important source of zoonotic diseases for the most vulnerable groups of humans, primarily those living in rural areas or coexisting with forest. The Upper Paraná Atlantic forest of Misiones, Argentina is facing ongoing environmental and anthropogenic changes, which affect the local biodiversity, including the bush dog (Speothos venaticus), a small canid considered Near Threatened globally and Endangered locally. This project aimed to expand the knowledge of zoonotic parasites present in the bush dog and the potential implications for human health and conservation medicine. From May to August 2011, a detection dog located 34 scats that were genetically confirmed as bush dog and georeferenced to northern Misiones. Of these 34 scats, 27 had sufficient quantity that allowed processing for zoonotic parasites using morphological (sedimentation and flotation) and antigen (coproantigen technique) analyses. Within these 27 scats, we determined that the parasitic prevalence was 63.0% (n = 17) with 8 (47.1%) having mixed infections with 2-4 parasitic genera. No significant differences (p > 0.05) between sampling areas, sex, and parasite taxa were found. We were able to summarize the predominant nematodes (Ancylostoma caninum, Toxocara canis, and Lagochilascaris spp.), cestodes (Taenia spp. and Spirometra spp.), and apicomplexa (Cystoisospora caninum) found in these bush dogs. With the copro-ELISA technique, 14.8% (n = 4) of the samples were positive for Echinococcus spp. This study represents the first comprehensive study about parasitic fauna with zoonotic potential in the free-ranging bush dog. This information combined with the innovative set of techniques used to collect the samples constitute a valuable contribution that can be used in control programs, surveillance of zoonotic diseases, and wildlife conservation, both regionally and across the bush dog's broad distribution.

  4. Nutritional status, body composition, and intestinal parasitism among the Mbyá-Guaraní communities of Misiones, Argentina.

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    Zonta, M L; Oyhenart, E E; Navone, G T

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous communities in Argentina represent socially and economically neglected populations. They are living in extreme poverty and environmental degradation conditions. New information about health status and socio-environmental features is urgently needed to be applied in future sanitary policies. Present study describes the nutritional status, body composition, and intestinal parasitism among Mbyá-Guaraní children from three communities in the Misiones Province. Anthropometric parameters were analyzed for 178 individuals (aged 1-14). Data were transformed to z-scores using NHANES I and II. Stunting showed the greatest prevalence (44.9%). Children were found to have low arm circumference and low arm muscle area, although with tricipital skinfold value near to the reference. They also tend to have shorter than normal lower limbs. Fecal samples and anal brushes (for Enterobius vermicularis) were collected in 45 children (aged 1-13). Ritchie's sedimentation and Willis' flotation techniques were used to determine parasitoses. Ninety five percent of children were infected with at least one species and 81.4% were polyparasitized. The higher prevalences corresponded to Blastocystis hominis, hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale/Necator americanus), and Entamoeba coli. Associations occurred between hookworms with B. hominis/E. coli and B. hominis with nonpathogenic amoebas. Thirty nine percent of the children with stunting presented B. hominis, Strongyloides, and hookworms. Our results indicate that this indigenous population is subjected to extreme poverty conditions and is one of the most marginalized in this country. Severe growth stunting and parasitic infection are still quite common among Mbyá children affecting about half of them along with significant changes in body composition and proportions.

  5. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Leafy Vegetables in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    Wafa A.I. Al-Megrin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate some of the leafy vegetable plants sold in local markets for human consumption to check whether they harbor different parasites stages. A total of 470 leafy vegetable samples were collected from 12 different plant species randomly from local markets in the Riyadh city during the period April and March 2008. The samples were analysed in the laboratory for parasitic stages contained in these samples after washing them in physiological saline and then examining the sediment. Results of the present study has shown that 76 out of 470 samples (16.2% contained parasite stages. Depending on the type of leafy plant, examined the prevalence of parasitic stages in these plants, was found to be 27.8% (17/61 in lettuce, 22.8% (13/57 in watercress, 20.6% (7/34 in leek, 19.1% (9/47 in green onion, 17.4% (15/87 in parsley, 15.4% (4/26 in spinach, 13.6% (3/22 in basil, 11.5% (3/26 in coriander, 9.4% (3/32 in radish, 5.3% (1/19 in dill and 4.7% (2/42 in mint. No parasites were detected in 17 samples collected from cabbage. Stages of intestinal parasites detected were Entamoeba coli (35.5%, Giardia lamblia (31.6%, Dicrocoelium sp. (28.9%, Ascaris sp. (26.3%, Taenia sp. (19.7%, Blastocystis hominis (17.1%, Fasciola sp. (14.5%, Hymenolepis sp. (14.5%, Ancylostoma sp. (11.8%, Toxoplasma gondii (6.6% and Trichostrongylus sp. (2.6%. The results indicated a significant seasonal variation (p<0.05, with highest prevalence in spring (23.1%, followed in descending order by Summer (17.9%, Autumn (10.6% and Winter (9.9%.

  6. ENTERIC PATHOGENS OF DOGS AND CATS WITH PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

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    M. Kantere

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs and cats play an important role in modern society, enhancing the psychological and physiological well-being of many people. However, there are well-documented health risks associated with human animal interactions. More specifically, enteric pathogens of zoonotic risk which are transmitted by feces of dogs and cats can be grouped as follows: (a Parasites such as Toxocara canis, T. cati, Ancylostoma sp, Uncinaria sp, Strongyloides stercoralis, Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis and Dipylidium caninum (b Protozoa including Toxoplasma gondii, Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. (c Bacteria of the genera Clostridium, Campylobacter, Salmonella, Escherichia, Yersinia and Helicobacter and (d Viruses mainly Rotaviruses and Coronaviruses. Among them, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Rotaviruses, Toxoplasma gondii, Echinococcus have been reported to be of considerable importance for many countries including Greece. Even though official records of the cases in humans and livestock in Greece continuously decline, cystic echinococcosis is considered to be a serious problem for public health and livestock economy. Regarding other parasites, the overall prevalence of parasitism was 26% in owned shepherd and hunting dogs examined in Serres. Furthermore, seroepidemiological studies revealed the presence of antibodies against T. gondii in a considerable percentage of hospitalized children. Rotaviruses were confirmed as a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in children. Finally, bacterial zoonotic enteropathogens were identified in a notable number of pediatric cases. Most of these zoonoses are associated with the exposure of immunodeficient people or children to pets and/or conditions of poor hygiene. Studies on the presence of all these pathogens in animals are required to identify the extent of problem, to define control

  7. Results of parasitological examinations of faecal samples from cats and dogs in Germany between 2003 and 2010.

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    Barutzki, Dieter; Schaper, Roland

    2011-08-01

    In a retrospective study, the results of parasitological examinations of faecal samples from 8,560 cats and 24,677 dogs between January 2003 and December 2010 in Germany were analysed. 30.4 % of the examined dogs and 22.8 % of the cats were infected with endoparasites. The examination of the faecal samples from dogs revealed stages of Giardia spp. (18.6 %), Toxocara canis (6.1 %), Toxascaris leonina (0.6 %), Ancylostomatidae (2.2 %), Trichuris vulpis (1.2 %), Capillaria spp. (1.3 %), Crenosoma vulpis (0.4 %), Angiostrongylus vasorum (0.5 %), Taeniidae (0.4 %), Dipylidiidae (canis (2.4 %), Sarcocystis spp. (2.2 %) and Hammondia heydorni/Neospora caninum (0.3 %). Dogs in the age groups up to 3 months and > 3 up to 6 months of age showed significantly higher infection rates with Giardia spp. (37.5 % and 38.2 %, respectively), Toxocara canis (12.0 % and 12.4 %, respectively), Toxascaris leonina (1.1 % and 1.6 %, respectively), Isospora spp. (23.4 % and 11.8 %, respectively), I. ohioensis-complex (15.6 % and 7.2 %, respectively) and I. canis (11.8 % and 5.2 %, respectively) compared to older dogs. In faecal samples from cats, stages of Giardia spp. (12.6 %), Toxocara cati (4.7 %), Toxascaris leonina (0.1 %), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (0.2 %), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (0.5 %), Capillaria spp. (1.0 %), Taeniidae (0.6 %), Dipylidium caninum ( 3 up to 6 months of age showed significantly higher infection rates with Giardia spp. (19.5 % and 24.0 %, respectively), T. cati (8.1 % and 6.9 %, respectively), Isospora spp. (12.8 % and 8.6 %, respectively), I. felis (10.0 % and 5.9%, respectively) and I. rivolta (4.6 % and 2.9%, respectively) compared to older cats.

  8. Dog overpopulation and burden of exposure to canine distemper virus and other pathogens on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos.

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    Diaz, Nicole M; Mendez, Gabriella S; Grijalva, C Jaime; Walden, Heather S; Cruz, Marilyn; Aragon, Eduardo; Hernandez, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Dog overpopulation and diseases are hazards to native island species and humans on the Galapagos. Vaccination and importation of dogs are prohibited on the Galapagos. Risk management of these hazards requires the use of science-based risk assessment and risk communication. The objectives of the study reported here were (i) to estimate the human:dog ratio and (ii) the prevalence of and identify exposure factors associated with positive antibody titers to canine distemper virus (CDV) and other pathogens, as well as infection with intestinal parasites in owned dogs on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos in September 2014. The observed human:dog ratio was 6.148:1 which extrapolates to 2503 dogs (two times more than a recent dog count conducted by Galapagos Biosecurity Agency in March 2014). The proportion of spayed female dogs (50%) was higher, compared to neutered male dogs (30%) (p=0.04). Prevalence of dogs with positive antibody titers to CDV was 36% (95% CI=26, 46%), to canine parvovirus was 89% (95% CI=82, 95%), and to canine adenovirus was 40% (95% CI=30, 51%). The frequency of seropositive dogs to CDV was lower in urban dogs (26%), compared to rural dogs (53%) (p<0.05). A positive interaction effect between rural residence and spay/neuter status on seropositivity to CDV was observed, which we discuss in this report. Because vaccination is prohibited, the dog population on Santa Cruz is susceptible to an outbreak of CDV (particularly among urban dogs) with potential spill over to marine mammals. Dog's age (1-2 or 3-14 years old, compared to younger dogs), and residence (rural, urban) were associated with positive antibody titers to parvovirus, adenovirus, Ehrlichia spp., or Anaplasma spp., as well as infection with Ancylostoma spp., an intestinal parasite in dogs that can be transmitted to humans, particularly children. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of dog overpopulation and exposure to CDV and other pathogens on the Galapagos to date.

  9. Personal Hygiene Behavior Relationships with Helminthiases Infestation on Craftsmen Brick in Bonto Ba’do’ Village Bonto Nompo’ District Gowa Regency

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    Sulasmi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Helminthiases caused by parasites such as worms, which can occur mild or severe infestation. Helminthiases infestation is a worm infestation caused by intestinal nematodes class Lumbricoides including Ascaris, Trichuris trichiura, and Hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator Americanus. Helminthiases is one disease in Indonesia due to lack of knowledge and personal hygiene community. The purpose of this study to determine the relationship of personal hygiene with the incidence of infestation helminthiases craftsmen brick. The method used are analytical survey with Cross Sectional approach, and using the chi-square test. The population is all worker craftsmen brick in the Ba’do Village. Bonto Nompo District. Gowa Regency in 2014 as many asa76 respondents, samples are 63 respondents. The distribution result of the data obtained personal hygiene habit of washing hands before eating eligible (50.8%, which are not eligible (49.2%, the habit of cutting nails are eligible (46.0%, which are not eligible (54.0% footwear use are eligible (33.3%, which are not eligible (66.7%. Craftsmen bricks positive helminthiases (84.1%, negative (15.9%. Statistical test result data obtained wash their hands before eating X2 hit. = 6.54> X2 table = 3.841, cutting nails X2 hit. = 5.52> X2 table = 3.841, footwear use X2 hit. = 32.6> X2 table = 3.841. Conclusion there is association between washing hands before eating, cutting nails, and footwear use with infestations of intestinal worms. Suggested to counseling about personal hygiene, helminthiases infestation as well as the impact that the respondents can be more understanding and more productive at work.

  10. Experience with excreta-disposal programmes in rural areas of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SANCHES, W R; WAGNER, E G

    1954-01-01

    As part of a wide public-health programme for rural areas of Brazil, the Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública (SESP) has, since 1944, placed considerable emphasis on the problem of excreta disposal. Except in a few cities where conditions justified the construction of sewer systems, projects were started for the erection of pit privies, some 18,000 having been built up to 1952. The projects are conducted by specially trained personnel ("guardas"), who first carry out a sanitary survey of the area concerned, at the same time explaining the benefits of sanitation to the people. A general plan having been drawn up, construction is begun under the supervision of the guardas, who strive to enlist the co-operation of the house-owners as far as possible.Various types of privy have been tried, local building materials being used wherever possible. In almost all cases, however, concrete slabs have been used, covering a hole which may vary in width, but which is generally 2 m deep. Where possible, the SESP has sought the financial collaboration of the local authorities, but the earlier projects were entirely financed by the SESP.Surveys carried out before the projects were started and 3-4 years later show that in certain areas the fall in the percentage of the examined population found positive for Ancylostoma was from 37.6 to 25.4 and all severe infestations (over 500 eggs per g of faeces) had disappeared. This result, though appreciable, would probably have been greater had all the inhabitants used the privies and had they been better maintained.

  11. Experience with excreta-disposal programmes in rural areas of Brazil*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Walter R.; Wagner, Edmund G.

    1954-01-01

    As part of a wide public-health programme for rural areas of Brazil, the Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública (SESP) has, since 1944, placed considerable emphasis on the problem of excreta disposal. Except in a few cities where conditions justified the construction of sewer systems, projects were started for the erection of pit privies, some 18,000 having been built up to 1952. The projects are conducted by specially trained personnel (“guardas”), who first carry out a sanitary survey of the area concerned, at the same time explaining the benefits of sanitation to the people. A general plan having been drawn up, construction is begun under the supervision of the guardas, who strive to enlist the co-operation of the house-owners as far as possible. Various types of privy have been tried, local building materials being used wherever possible. In almost all cases, however, concrete slabs have been used, covering a hole which may vary in width, but which is generally 2 m deep. Where possible, the SESP has sought the financial collaboration of the local authorities, but the earlier projects were entirely financed by the SESP. Surveys carried out before the projects were started and 3-4 years later show that in certain areas the fall in the percentage of the examined population found positive for Ancylostoma was from 37.6 to 25.4 and all severe infestations (over 500 eggs per g of faeces) had disappeared. This result, though appreciable, would probably have been greater had all the inhabitants used the privies and had they been better maintained. PMID:13160761

  12. A recombinant fusion protein derived from dog hookworm inhibits autoantibody-induced dermal-epidermal separation ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmer, Annette; Bieber, Katja; Abadpour, Aida; Yu, Xinhua; Mitschker, Nina; Roth, Sara; Kauderer, Claudia; Ludwig, Ralf J; Seeger, Karsten; Köhl, Jörg; Zillikens, Detlef; Recke, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    The proteins secreted by parasitic nematodes are evolutionarily optimized molecules with unique capabilities of suppressing the immune response of the host organism. Neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF), which is secreted by the dog hookworm Ancylostoma caninum, binds to the β2 integrin CD11b/CD18, which is expressed on human neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes and macrophages and inhibits neutrophil-dependent lung injury and neutrophil invasion of ischaemic brain tissue. Neutrophils are key players in the pathogenesis of subepidermal autoimmune blistering diseases (sAIBDs), and their pathogenic activities are crucially dependent on β2 integrin functionality. Based on the template of single-stranded, dimerizing antibody derivatives, which are already used in cancer treatment, we designed a novel biologic, NIF-IGHE-CH4, comprising NIF and the dimerizing but otherwise inert constant heavy subdomain 4 (CH4) of human IgE (IGHE). This molecule was evaluated in a variety of in vitro assays, demonstrating its ability to inhibit pathogenically relevant neutrophil functions such as migration, adhesion and spreading, and release of reactive oxygen species. Finally, we confirmed that NIF-IGHE-CH4 inhibits blister formation in an ex vivo assay of sAIBD. These results suggest that NIF-IGHE-CH4 is a novel potential anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of neutrophil-mediated diseases such as sAIBDs. This study promotes the drugs from bugs concept and encourages further research and development focused on turning parasite proteins into useful anti-inflammatory biologics.

  13. Intestinal helminths of golden jackals and red foxes from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmar, Samia; Boufana, Belgees; Ben Boubaker, Sarra; Landolsi, Faouzi

    2014-08-29

    Forty wild canids including 31 golden jackals (Canis aureus Linné, 1758) and 9 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linné, 1758) collected between 2008 and 2011 in the northeast, northwest and center of Tunisia were necropsied and examined for intestinal helminth parasites. All jackals and foxes were found infected with a prevalence rate of 95% for cestodes, 82.5% for nematodes and 7.5% for acanthocephalans. A total of twelve helminth species were recorded in red foxes: cestodes, Dipylidium caninum (55.6%), Diplopylidium noelleri (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes lineatus (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes litteratus (33%), Mesocestoïdes corti (22%); nematodes, Ancylostoma caninum (11%), Uncinaria stenocephala (44%), Spirura rytipleurites (11%), Trichuris vulpis (33%), Pterygodermatites affinis (67%), Oxynema linstowi (33%) and the acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (22%). The fifteen recovered helminth species in jackals were Echinococcus granulosus (9.7%), D. caninum (16%), D. noelleri (16%), M. lineatus (74%), M. litteratus (23%), M. corti (12.9%), Taenia pisiformis (3.2%), Taenia spp. (19%), Toxocara canis (16%), Toxascaris leonina (6.5%), A. caninum (9.7%), U. stenocephala (68%), P. affinis (6.5%), O. linstowi (3.2%) and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (3.2%). This is the first report on the presence of P. affinis, D. noelleri and O. linstowi in Tunisia. E. granulosus was found in young jackals, aged less than 4 years old, with a higher abundance in females (8.9 worms). M. lineatus presented the highest mean intensity of 231.86 and 108.8 tapeworms respectively in jackals and foxes. Canids from the northwest region had the highest prevalence (77.5%) and highest intensity (243.7) of helminth species compared to those from the northeast and central areas. U. stenocephala and O. linstowi had the highest mean intensity for nematodes in both jackals and foxes at 14.3 and 88 worms respectively.

  14. Gastrointestinal helminth parasites of pet and stray dogs as a potential risk for human health in Bahir Dar town, north-western Ethiopia

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    Tadiwos Abere

    Full Text Available Aim: A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2011 to April 2012 to determine the prevalence and species of gastrointestinal (GI helminth parasites in pet and stray dogs as a potential risk for human health in Bahir Dar town, northwestern Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: A total of 384 and 46 faecal samples were collected from pet and stray dogs, respectively and xamined by using standard coprologic techniques. Results: The overall prevalence of GI helminth infection in pet and stray dogs was 75.26 and 84.78%, respectively. The detected parasites with their frequencies in pet dogs were Ancylostoma caninum (78.89%, Toxocara canis (39.79%, Dipylidium caninum (29.75%, Strongyloides stercoralis (29.06%, Taeniidae (23.87% and Trichuris vulpis (7.95%. Stray dogs were found more likely to be polyparasitized and presented higher prevalence of A. caninum, T. canis, S. stercoralis, Trichuris vulpis and Taeniidae (P < 0.05 than domiciled ones. Diphyllobothrium latum was detected only in 10.25% of stray dogs. Toxocara canis and A. caninum (P < 0.05 were detected more frequently in dogs with less than 6 months of age (P <0.05 than old age dogs. The sex or breed groups didn't significantly affect the prevalence of parasites. A significant variation was recorded (P < 0.05 between different feeding systems where higher prevalence was observed in uncontrolled feeding group (82.18% compared to controlled feeding (32.08%. Conclusion: Different gastrointestinal parasites in pet and stray dogs were identified in the study area that can potentially infect humans and cause serious public-health problems. Thus, concerted efforts should therefore be made to educate dog owners to embrace modern dog disease control programs and measures have to be taken on stray dogs. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 388-392

  15. Survey of Gastrointestinal Parastites in Dogs in Fuzhou%福州地区犬肠道寄生虫感染情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓清; 余勋信

    2015-01-01

    From March 2009 to October 2010, 526 feces samples were collected from 526 dogs which are different species, different ages and different gender in Fuzhou districts including Fuqing and Minhou. Canine intestinal parasites were investigated with the feces samples by the methods of washing with water and precipitating method, saturated salt solution floating method and zinc sulfate cen-trifugal flotation method. The results were as follows:(1)6 species of intestinal parasites have been observed. They are Ancylostoma coninum, Toxocara canis, Taenia hydatigena,Dipylidium conium, Isospora canis and Clonorchis sinensis. (2)Intestinal parasite infection rate is 59.32%. (3)The infection rates for every canine with parasite species are different. Infection rates of Toxocara canis, Ancy-lostoma coninum, Dipylidium caninum, Taenia hydatigena, Isospora belli and Clonorchis sinensis were 53.80%, 22.62%, 25.86%, 47.91%, 7.98% and 2.09%, respectively. (4)121 cases were infected with two kinds of intestinal parasite synchronously, the rate was 23.00%; 98 cases were infected with three kinds of intestinal parasite synchronously, the rate was 18.63%. (5)Occurance of parasitic infection are different in ages, parasitic infection in puppies was higher than that in adult dog;occurance of parasitic infection are dif-ferent in environments, parasitic infection of dogs rearing outdoors was higher than that indoors. (6)No correlations were observed in the dog's species and gender in the intestinal parasitic infection.%2009年3月至2010年10月,对福州地区所辖福州市区、福清市和闽侯县的犬肠道寄生虫感染情况进行调查。收集来自福州市区、福清市和闽侯县的动物医院、农村散养户和流浪的不同品种,不同年龄,不同性别的526只犬的粪便,用水洗沉淀法、饱和盐水漂浮法和硫酸锌离心浮聚法进行肠道寄生虫检查,福州地区犬肠道寄生虫种类调查结果如下:(1)调查发现福

  16. Differences in transcription between free-living and CO2-activated third-stage larvae of Haemonchus contortus

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    Zhong Weiwei

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The disease caused by Haemonchus contortus, a blood-feeding nematode of small ruminants, is of major economic importance worldwide. The infective third-stage larva (L3 of this gastric nematode is enclosed in a cuticle (sheath and, once ingested with herbage by the host, undergoes an exsheathment process that marks the transition from the free-living (L3 to the parasitic (xL3 stage. This study explored changes in gene transcription associated with this transition and predicted, based on comparative analysis, functional roles for key transcripts in the metabolic pathways linked to larval development. Results Totals of 101,305 (L3 and 105,553 (xL3 expressed sequence tags (ESTs were determined using 454 sequencing technology, and then assembled and annotated; the most abundant transcripts encoded transthyretin-like, calcium-binding EF-hand, NAD(P-binding and nucleotide-binding proteins as well as homologues of Ancylostoma-secreted proteins (ASPs. Using an in silico-subtractive analysis, 560 and 685 sequences were shown to be uniquely represented in the L3 and xL3 stages, respectively; the transcripts encoded ribosomal proteins, collagens and elongation factors (in L3, and mainly peptidases and other enzymes of amino acid catabolism (in xL3. Caenorhabditis elegans orthologues of transcripts that were uniquely transcribed in each L3 and xL3 were predicted to interact with a total of 535 other genes, all of which were involved in embryonic development. Conclusion The present study indicated that some key transcriptional alterations taking place during the transition from the L3 to the xL3 stage of H. contortus involve genes predicted to be linked to the development of neuronal tissue (L3 and xL3, formation of the cuticle (L3 and digestion of host haemoglobin (xL3. Future efforts using next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic technologies should provide the efficiency and depth of coverage required for the determination of the

  17. Heavy metals and parasitic geohelminths toxicity among geophagous pregnant women: a case study of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odongo, A O; Moturi, W N; Mbuthia, E K

    2016-02-01

    Geophagia is defined as deliberate consumption of earths' materials, e.g. soil, clay and soft stones. The practice is widespread among pregnant women, and there are conflicting views as to whether it is beneficial to health or not. Geophagic materials may be a source of micronutrients though the materials may bind the micronutrients thus reducing or hindering their bioavailability in the body. Geophagia is closely associated with geohelminthic infections among pregnant women and heavy metal poisoning, which constitute significant public health problem in many developing countries such as Kenya. In our research, the geophagic materials consumed by the pregnant women were studied. A total of 38 geophagic materials in the possession by different pregnant women were analysed. The collected samples were subjected to standard digestion procedures and analysed for zinc, lead and iron by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results indicated that the geophagic materials contained elevated levels of Fe at mean concentration value of 80.10 ppm, Pb at 3.28 ppm and Zn 1.81 ppm for a 1.00 g sample. An average of 20 g of the geophagic materials was being consumed per day. Based on the average consumption, the pregnant women were exposed to 65.52 ppm Pb per day, 36.2 ppm Zn per day and 1602 ppm Fe per day. Lead exceeded the WHO-lead exposure limits of 25 ppm/day for pregnant women. The materials were also subjected to microscopic examination for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia Spp., Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. In conclusion, the women were exposed to heavy metals-iron, zinc and lead, but there was no observable eggs, larvae or adult species of the geohelminths. The key recommendation was that there is need to integrate public health education on geophagia, lead screening and testing with antenatal support care systems. This will enhance maternal and child health, thus reducing infant and maternal morbidity and mortality rates.

  18. CONTAMINAÇÃO AMBIENTAL POR LARVAS E OVOS DE HELMINTOS EM AMOSTRAS DE AREIA DE PRAIAS DO MUNICÍPIO DE FORTALEZA-CEARÁ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ésio Fortaleza Nascimento Chaves Pedrosa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: As praias são importantes focos de infecção humana por microrganismos, tanto através da água quanto do solo, sendo esta última um excelente meio de veiculação de várias espécies de parasitos, entre eles S. stercoralis, Toxocara canis, A. lumbricoides, Ancilostomídeos, entre outros. Objetivo do estudo: avaliar a contaminação das praias de Fortaleza (Praia do Futuro, Barra do Ceará e Beira Mar por parasitas de importância médica.Materiais e Métodos: Foram selecionados seis pontos de cada praia onde foi colhido material (100 g de areia em três amostras (uma superficial, uma com 10 cm de profundidade e outra com 20 cm, totalizando 54 amostras, que foram transportadas imediatamente ao laboratório para a análise. Resultados: Dentre as 54 amostras de areia analisadas, em 39 (72,2% foram encontradas larvas, das quais 35 (64,8% foram positivas para Ancylostoma sp , 3 (5,5% para Strongyloides stercoralis e 4 (7,4%  com ovos de Trichuris trichiura. Discussão: Os resultados apresentados comprovam a contaminação do solo da praia do Futuro, Beira Mar e Barra do Ceará, assim como a possibilidade de ocorrência de infecções humanas por enteroparasitas através do solo. Conclusão: Conclui-se que as praias da Barra do Ceará, Praia do Futuro e Beira Mar da cidade de Fortaleza encontram-se em situação precária de saneamento, visto que foram encontrados ovos e larvas de parasitas potencialmente infectantes em 72,2% das amostras, tornando-se necessário apoio e suporte de medidas da vigilância sanitária nestas praias imediatamente.

  19. CONTAMINAÇÃO AMBIENTAL POR LARVAS E OVOS DE HELMINTOS EM AMOSTRAS DE AREIA DE PRAIAS DO MUNICÍPIO DE FORTALEZA-CEARÁ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ésio Fortaleza Nascimento Chaves Pedrosa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: As praias são importantes focos de infecção humana por microrganismos, tanto através da água quanto do solo, sendo esta última um excelente meio de veiculação de várias espécies de parasitos, entre eles S. stercoralis, Toxocara canis, A. lumbricoides, Ancilostomídeos, entre outros. Objetivo do estudo: avaliar a contaminação das praias de Fortaleza (Praia do Futuro, Barra do Ceará e Beira Mar por parasitas de importância médica. Materiais e Métodos: Foram selecionados seis pontos de cada praia onde foi colhido material (100 g de areia em três amostras (uma superficial, uma com 10 cm de profundidade e outra com 20 cm, totalizando 54 amostras, que foram transportadas imediatamente ao laboratório para a análise. Resultados: Dentre as 54 amostras de areia analisadas, em 39 (72,2% foram encontradas larvas, das quais 35 (64,8% foram positivas para Ancylostoma sp , 3 (5,5% para Strongyloides stercoralis e 4 (7,4% com ovos de Trichuris trichiura. Discussão: Os resultados apresentados comprovam a contaminação do solo da praia do Futuro, Beira Mar e Barra do Ceará, assim como a possibilidade de ocorrência de infecções humanas por enteroparasitas através do solo. Conclusão: Conclui-se que as praias da Barra do Ceará, Praia do Futuro e Beira Mar da cidade de Fortaleza encontram-se em situação precária de saneamento, visto que foram encontrados ovos e larvas de parasitas potencialmente infectantes em 72,2% das amostras, tornando-se necessário apoio e suporte de medidas da vigilância sanitária nestas praias imediatamente.

  20. The Study on the Ferrokinetics and Acquired Immunity in Repeated Hookworm Infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mun Ho; Lee, Pyl Ung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1967-09-15

    In order to confirm whether acquired immunity or resistance can be developed by the repeated hookworm infections, the 150 mature actively moving filariform ancylostoma duodenale larvae obtained from the severe hookworm anemia patients were orally given to 8 healthy volunteers in three divided doses, 50 in each, at 5 day interval. Also the hematological changes as well as several ferrokinetics using {sup 59}Fe were done and were compared with 10 controls. The clinical symptoms and signs were checked every day for the first 3 weeks and then twice weekly until the end of the experiment. The appearance of the ova in the stool was examined by the formalin ether method and the ova was counted by the Stoll's method. The following laboratory tests were done:1) Red blood cell count, venous blood hematocrit (micromethod), hemoglobin count (cyanomethemoglobin method) were checked every 5 to 7 day interval. 2) Plasma iron concentration (Barkan's modified method) was determined every 2 to 3 week interval. 3) Radioisotope studies:a) Ferrokinetics: Huff et al and Bothwell's method were applied. Erythropoietic Index (% of normal)= ['Subject's turnover/100 ml whole bloodX100'] over ['Average normal turnover/100 ml whole blood'] b) Quantitative measurement of the gastrointestinal absorption of iron:Radioiron ({sup 59}Fe) balance method was applied. c) Determination of the plasma erythropoietin activity: Fried's method was applied. Following were the results: 1) The serum iron level was lower. The red cell volume was decreased, but with relative increase of plasma volume. 2) The plasma iron disappearance time was accelerated and the plasma iron turnover rate was decreased. The red cell iron turnover rate was markedly increased, while all of the red cell iron concentration, circulating red cell iron, plasma iron pool were decreased. The daily iron pool turnover and red cell renewal rate were increased. 3) The erythropoietic index

  1. Diagnosis of intestinal parasites in a rural community of Venezuela: Advantages and disadvantages of using microscopy or RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incani, Renzo Nino; Ferrer, Elizabeth; Hoek, Denise; Ramak, Robbert; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Kortbeek, Titia; Pinelli, Elena

    2017-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and diagnostic performance of microscopy and real time PCR (RT-PCR) for 14 intestinal parasites in a Venezuelan rural community with a long history of persistent intestinal parasitic infections despite the implementation of regular anthelminthic treatments. A total of 228 participants were included in this study. A multiplex RT-PCR was used for the detection of Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium sp. and a monoplex RT-PCR for Entamoeba histolytica. Furthermore, a multiplex PCR was performed for detection of Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis, Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Combined microscopy-PCR revealed prevalences of 49.3% for A. lumbricoides, 10.1% for N. americanus (no A. duodenale was detected), 2.0% for S. stercoralis, 40.4% for D. fragilis, 35.1% for G. intestinalis, and 7.9% for E. histolytica/dispar. Significant increases in prevalence at PCR vs. microscopy were found for A. lumbricoides, G. intestinalis and D. fragilis. Other parasites detected by microscopy alone were Trichuris trichiura (25.7%), Enterobius vermicularis (3.4%), Blastocystis sp. (65.8%), and the non-pathogenic Entamoeba coli (28.9%), Entamoeba hartmanni (12.3%), Endolimax nana (19.7%) and Iodamoeba bütschlii (7.5%). Age- but no gender-related differences in prevalences were found for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, G. intestinalis, and E. histolytica/dispar. The persistently high prevalences of intestinal helminths are probably related to the high faecal pollution as also evidenced by the high prevalences of non-pathogenic intestinal protozoans. These results highlight the importance of using sensitive diagnostic techniques in combination with microscopy to better estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites, especially in the case of D. fragilis trophozoites, which deteriorate very rapidly and would be missed by microscopy. In addition, the differentiation between

  2. Surveillance results of soil-transmitted nematode disease in Lingbi County from 2011 to 2013%2011~2013年安徽灵璧县土源性线虫病监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马超; 金伟; 尚军; 刘云章

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and severity of soil-transmitted nematode infec⁃tions in Lingbi County as well as endemic patterns and influencing factors for supplying scientific strategies with prevention and management of this infection. Methods Modified Kato-Katz thick smear technique was used to determine Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms from the stool samples(one stool specimen-three slides) collected from 1 000 local villagers of Lingbi County in yearly manner. Other parasite species, if detected, were registered as well. Another 15 soil samples were collected for microscopic examina⁃tion on the presence of tapeworms. Results A total of 3 000 persons were subjected to stool detection from 2011 to 2013. The average infection rate in the 3 years was 13.3%, 7.0%and 6.8%respectively. The infectiosi⁃ty was mild in general, and the infection was primarily involved in ancylostomiasis. The major species found in the soil was Ancylostoma duodenale. Conclusion Lingbi County falls into class 2 endemic area, and the infec⁃tiosity for infected people is generally mild.%目的:了解灵璧县土源性寄生虫病流行现状和感染程度,探索流行规律及影响因素,科学制订防治策略和防治措施。方法每年采用改良加藤厚涂片法(一送三检)对1000名居民的蛔虫、鞭虫和钩虫感染情况进行调查,调查中若发现其它寄生虫感染也一并记录。每年采用镜检方法对15份土壤样本中的钩蚴污染情况进行调查。结果从2011到2013年共调查3000人,3年的感染率分别为13.3%、7.0%和6.8%。感染者主要集中在轻度感染中,且以钩虫感染为主。土壤钩蚴污染以十二指肠钩蚴为主。结论灵璧县属Ⅱ类流行区,感染度以轻度为主。

  3. Impact of helminth diagnostic test performance on estimation of risk factors and outcomes in HIV-positive adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Arndt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traditional methods using microscopy for the detection of helminth infections have limited sensitivity. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays enhance detection of helminths, particularly low burden infections. However, differences in test performance may modify the ability to detect associations between helminth infection, risk factors, and sequelae. We compared these associations using microscopy and PCR. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was nested within a randomized clinical trial conducted at 3 sites in Kenya. We performed microscopy and real-time multiplex PCR for the stool detection and quantification of Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Schistosoma species. We utilized regression to evaluate associations between potential risk factors or outcomes and infection as detected by either method. RESULTS: Of 153 HIV-positive adults surveyed, 55(36.0% and 20(13.1% were positive for one or more helminth species by PCR and microscopy, respectively (p<0.001. PCR-detected infections were associated with farming (Prevalence Ratio 1.57, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.40, communal water source (PR 3.80, 95% CI: 1.01, 14.27, and no primary education (PR 1.54, 95% CI: 1.14, 2.33, whereas microscopy-detected infections were not associated with any risk factors under investigation. Microscopy-detected infections were associated with significantly lower hematocrit and hemoglobin (means of -3.56% and -0.77 g/dl and a 48% higher risk of anemia (PR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.88 compared to uninfected. Such associations were absent for PCR-detected infections unless infection intensity was considered, Infections diagnosed with either method were associated with increased risk of eosinophilia (PCR PR 2.42, 95% CI: 1.02, 5.76; microscopy PR 2.92, 95% CI: 1.29, 6.60. CONCLUSION: Newer diagnostic methods, including PCR, improve the detection of helminth infections. This heightened sensitivity may improve the

  4. Ocorrência de parasitos gastrointestinais e fatores de risco de parasitismo em gatos domésticos urbanos de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil

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    Felipe Lamberti Pivoto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, verificou-se a ocorrência de parasitos gastrointestinais em gatos urbanos domiciliados no município de Santa Maria, RS, no período de março a junho de 2011. Além disso, foram avaliados os fatores de riscos relacionados com a infecção dos parasitos gastrointestinais. Coletou-se 191 amostras de fezes de felinos para a realização de exames coproparasitológico e aplicado um questionário epidemiológico aos proprietários, contendo questões relativas aos hábitos e manejo dos seus animais. Das amostras fecais analisadas, 47,1% (90/191 foram positivas para um ou mais parasitas gastrointestinais, sendo 33,5% (64/191 identificadas como mono-infecção e 13,6% (26/191 como multi-infecção. Toxocara spp. (18,8% e Giardia spp. (4,2% foram os principais parasitos encontrados na mono-infecção. Na multi-infecção, as principais associações de parasitos detectadas incluíram: Ancylostoma spp. + Toxocara spp. (3,1% e Cystoisospora spp. + Cryptosporidium spp. + Giardia spp. + Toxoplasma spp. + Toxocara spp. (1,5%. Os dados epidemiológicos foram submetidos ao teste qui-quadrado, Fischer, análise da relação de chances (OR, também analisada a relação entre os diferentes fatores epidemiológicos e a presença de parasitos gastrointestinais (P>0,05. Os principais fatores de risco identificados foram: a escolaridade dos proprietários e a frequência de realização de tratamentos antiparasitários, os quais exerceram influência direta na ocorrência de parasitos gastrointestinais. Os dados obtidos contribuem para o conhecimento da epidemiologia das parasitoses gastrointestinais, bem como poderão auxiliar médicos veterinários e proprietários na elaboração de estratégias de controle e profilaxia antiparasitária para gatos domésticos.

  5. Application of a Multiplex Quantitative PCR to Assess Prevalence and Intensity Of Intestinal Parasite Infections in a Controlled Clinical Trial.

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    Stacey Llewellyn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate quantitative assessment of infection with soil transmitted helminths and protozoa is key to the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of these parasites, as well as for monitoring large scale treatment efficacy and effectiveness studies. As morbidity and transmission of helminth infections are directly related to both the prevalence and intensity of infection, there is particular need for improved techniques for assessment of infection intensity for both purposes. The current study aimed to evaluate two multiplex PCR assays to determine prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasite infections, and compare them to standard microscopy.Faecal samples were collected from a total of 680 people, originating from rural communities in Timor-Leste (467 samples and Cambodia (213 samples. DNA was extracted from stool samples and subject to two multiplex real-time PCR reactions the first targeting: Necator americanus, Ancylostoma spp., Ascaris spp., and Trichuris trichiura; and the second Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia. duodenalis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Samples were also subject to sodium nitrate flotation for identification and quantification of STH eggs, and zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation for detection of protozoan parasites. Higher parasite prevalence was detected by multiplex PCR (hookworms 2.9 times higher, Ascaris 1.2, Giardia 1.6, along with superior polyparasitism detection with this effect magnified as the number of parasites present increased (one: 40.2% vs. 38.1%, two: 30.9% vs. 12.9%, three: 7.6% vs. 0.4%, four: 0.4% vs. 0%. Although, all STH positive samples were low intensity infections by microscopy as defined by WHO guidelines the DNA-load detected by multiplex PCR suggested higher intensity infections.Multiplex PCR, in addition to superior sensitivity, enabled more accurate determination of infection intensity for Ascaris, hookworms and Giardia compared to microscopy, especially in samples

  6. SOIL-TRANSMITTED HELMINTHS IN CHILDREN WITH CLINICA L SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

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    Rudramuneswara Swamy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The study was conducted to know the prevalence of s oil-transmitted helminths (STH in children aged 1-14 years attending outpati ents and inpatients from both urban and rural background. Out of the 550 stool samples exami ned, 450 were from the study group and 100 from the control group. All the 450 children of the study group presented one or more of the classical symptoms like abdominal pain, low grade fever, diarrhoea, dysentery, constipation and pica. Hundred children from the control group did not have any classical symptoms. Thirty five per cent from the study group and 21 per cent fro m the control group were found positive for one or more of the helminthic infection. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris tr ichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale & Necator americanus (hookworm, Hymenolepis nana and Enterobius vermicularis were 27%, 15%, 0.4%, 2% and 0.22%, respectively in the study g roup and 15%, 10%, 4%, 2%, and 2%, respectively in the control group. Strongyloides ster coralis was not found either in the study or control groups. Helminthic infections were more comm on in 7-9 years of age group, urban children with low socio-economic strata, and with m ale preponderance. Majority of children who harboured STH were suffering from abdominal pain and low grade fever. Total 450 clinical samples (control group examined b y direct wet mount, saturated salt floatation, and formalin-ether sedimentation; and o nly 391 samples examined by Kato-Katz semiquantitative techniques. Twenty six per cent posi tive by direct wet mount, 35% by both saturated salt floatation and formalin-ether sedime ntation whereas 38% of the samples were found positive by Kato-Katz semiquantitative techniq ue. In conclusion, concentration techniques like saturated salt floatation and forma lin-ether sedimentation are the best diagnostic tools to get authentic and reliable resu lts and to rule out fallacious inference caused by relying only on direct wet mount

  7. Microarray-based analysis of differential gene expression between infective and noninfective larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis.

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    Roshan Ramanathan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Differences between noninfective first-stage (L1 and infective third-stage (L3i larvae of parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis at the molecular level are relatively uncharacterized. DNA microarrays were developed and utilized for this purpose. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Oligonucleotide hybridization probes for the array were designed to bind 3,571 putative mRNA transcripts predicted by analysis of 11,335 expressed sequence tags (ESTs obtained as part of the Nematode EST project. RNA obtained from S. stercoralis L3i and L1 was co-hybridized to each array after labeling the individual samples with different fluorescent tags. Bioinformatic predictions of gene function were developed using a novel cDNA Annotation System software. We identified 935 differentially expressed genes (469 L3i-biased; 466 L1-biased having two-fold expression differences or greater and microarray signals with a p value<0.01. Based on a functional analysis, L1 larvae have a larger number of genes putatively involved in transcription (p = 0.004, and L3i larvae have biased expression of putative heat shock proteins (such as hsp-90. Genes with products known to be immunoreactive in S. stercoralis-infected humans (such as SsIR and NIE had L3i biased expression. Abundantly expressed L3i contigs of interest included S. stercoralis orthologs of cytochrome oxidase ucr 2.1 and hsp-90, which may be potential chemotherapeutic targets. The S. stercoralis ortholog of fatty acid and retinol binding protein-1, successfully used in a vaccine against Ancylostoma ceylanicum, was identified among the 25 most highly expressed L3i genes. The sperm-containing glycoprotein domain, utilized in a vaccine against the nematode Cooperia punctata, was exclusively found in L3i biased genes and may be a valuable S. stercoralis target of interest. CONCLUSIONS: A new DNA microarray tool for the examination of S. stercoralis biology has been developed and provides new and valuable insights

  8. New tools for NTD vaccines: A case study of quality control assays for product development of the human hookworm vaccine Na-APR-1M74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Mark S; Jariwala, Amar R; Abbenante, Giovanni; Plieskatt, Jordan; Wilson, David; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J; Keegan, Brian; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Loukas, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Na-APR-1(M74) is an aspartic protease that is rendered enzymatically inactive by site-directed mutagenesis and is a candidate antigen component in the Human Hookworm Vaccine. The mutant protease exerts vaccine efficacy by inducing antibodies that neutralize the enzymatic activity of wild type enzyme (Na-APR-1wt) in the gut of the hookworm, thereby depriving the worm of its ability to digest its blood meal. Previously, canines immunized with Na-APR-1(M74) and challenged with Ancylostoma caninum were partially protected against hookworm challenge infection, especially from the loss in hemoglobin observed in control canines and canine immunoglobulin (Ig) G raised against Na-APR-1 was shown to inhibit the enzymatic activity of Na-APR-1 wt in vitro, thereby providing proof of concept of Na-APR-1(M74) as a vaccine antigen. The mutated version, Na-APR-1(M74), was then expressed at the cGMP level using a Nicotiana benthamiana expression system (Fraunhofer, CMB, Delaware, MD), formulated with Alhydrogel®, and used to immunize mice in a dose-ranging study to explore the enzyme-neutralizing capacity of the resulting anti- Na-APR-1(M74) IgG. As little as 0.99 μg of recombinant Na-APR-1(M74) could induce anti Na-APR-1(M74) IgG in mice that were capable of inhibiting Na-APR-1w t-mediated digestion of a peptide substrate by 89%. In the absence of enzymatic activity of Na-APR-1(M74) as a surrogate marker of protein functionality, we developed an assay based on the binding of a quenched fluorescence-labeled inhibitor of aspartic proteases, BODIPY-FL pepstatin A (BDP). Binding of BDP in the active site of Na-APR-1 wt was demonstrated by inhibition of enzymatic activity, and competitive binding with unlabelled pepstatin A. BDP also bound to Na-APR-1(M74) which was assessed by fluorescence polarization, but with an ∼ 50-fold reduction in the dissociation constant. Taken together, these assays comprise a "toolbox" that could be useful for the analyses of Na-APR-1(M74) as it

  9. Assessment of the anthelmintic efficacy of albendazole in school children in seven countries where soil-transmitted helminths are endemic.

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    Jozef Vercruysse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The three major soil-transmitted helminths (STH Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Necator americanus/Ancylostoma duodenale are among the most widespread parasites worldwide. Despite the global expansion of preventive anthelmintic treatment, standard operating procedures to monitor anthelmintic drug efficacy are lacking. The objective of this study, therefore, was to define the efficacy of a single 400 milligram dose of albendazole (ALB against these three STH using a standardized protocol. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Seven trials were undertaken among school children in Brazil, Cameroon, Cambodia, Ethiopia, India, Tanzania and Vietnam. Efficacy was assessed by the Cure Rate (CR and the Fecal Egg Count Reduction (FECR using the McMaster egg counting technique to determine fecal egg counts (FEC. Overall, the highest CRs were observed for A. lumbricoides (98.2% followed by hookworms (87.8% and T. trichiura (46.6%. There was considerable variation in the CR for the three parasites across trials (country, by age or the pre-intervention FEC (pre-treatment. The latter is probably the most important as it had a considerable effect on the CR of all three STH. Therapeutic efficacies, as reflected by the FECRs, were very high for A. lumbricoides (99.5% and hookworms (94.8% but significantly lower for T. trichiura (50.8%, and were affected to different extents among the 3 species by the pre-intervention FEC counts and trial (country, but not by sex or age. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that a FECR (based on arithmetic means of >95% for A. lumbricoides and >90% for hookworms should be the expected minimum in all future surveys, and that therapeutic efficacy below this level following a single dose of ALB should be viewed with concern in light of potential drug resistance. A standard threshold for efficacy against T. trichiura has yet to be established, as a single-dose of ALB is unlikely to be satisfactory for

  10. 吉林市人体肠道寄生虫感染调查%Investigation of human intestine parasitization in Jilin City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王典瑞; 梁兆祥; 侯毅鞠; 许国战; 赵大力; 陈芬

    2000-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the human intestine parasitization in Jilin City.Methods: Mass survey of feces and epidemiological survey were carried out in 1389 persons.Results:Nine kinds of intestinal parasites had been detected and the total infection rate was71.13%. From high to low, the infection rates were respectively(64.07%)for ascaris lumbri-coides(2.23%) for clonorchis sinensis, (1.94%) for giardia lamblia(1.51%) for entamoe-ba coli (0.74%) for trichuris trichiura(0.28%) for iodamoeba bvetschlii (0.14%) fortrichomonas hominis(0.07%) for entamoeba histolytica and ancylostoma duodenale. Conclusion :The intestinal parasitization rate is higher in Jilin City, and this result suggests that we setup a series of prophylectico-therapeutic measures.%目的:调查吉林市肠道寄生虫感染情况。方法:对1389人进行粪便普查和流行病学调查。结果:共检出肠道寄生虫9种,总感染率为71.13%,感染率从高到低依次为蛔虫(64.07%)、肝吸虫(2.23%)、贾第鞭毛虫(1.94%)、结肠阿米巴(1.51%)、鞭虫(0.79%)、嗜碘阿米巴(0.28%)、肠人毛滴虫(0.14%)、痢疾阿米巴及钩虫(均为0.07%)。结论:吉林市人体肠道寄生虫感染率较高,应注意建立一套完整的防治措施。

  11. 户县某镇散养犬肠道寄生虫种类及感染情况的调查%Investigation on Species and Infective Status of Enteroparasites of Scattered Dogs in A Town of Huxian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王银; 孙彬彬; 于三科

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the infective status of enteroparasites of scattered dogs in a town of Hux-ian,the saturated NaCl floating method was used to detect 120 fecal samples of scattered dogs in the area. The results showed that 8 canine intestinal parasites were found.They are Toxocara canis,Isospora sp., Ancylostomacaninum,Strongyloidesstercoralis,Giardiacanis,Trichuris sp.,Dipylidiumcaninum,Echi-nococcus granulosus.The infection rates were 65.83%,40.83%,35%,26.67%,9.17%,6.67%,2.50%, 1.67%,respectively.The total infection rate was 100%.In these infections of dogs,the mixed infection of two kinds of intestinal parasites was 44 cases,the mixed infection of more than three kinds of intestinal parasites was 31 cases,the mixed infection rate was 62.5%.Toxocaracanis,Isospora sp.and Ancylostoma caninum were predominant species.%为了解户县某镇散养犬肠道寄生虫感染情况,采用饱和食盐水漂浮法等对该地区散养犬120份粪便样品进行了检测。结果发现8种犬肠道寄生虫,分别是犬弓首蛔虫、等孢球虫、犬钩口线虫、粪类圆线虫、犬贾第虫、毛尾线虫、犬复孔绦虫、细粒棘球绦虫,其感染率分别为65.83%、40.83%、35.00%、26.67%、9.17%、6.67%、2.50%和1.67%。寄生虫总感染率为100%。在这些感染犬中,混合感染2种肠道寄生虫的为44例,混合感染3种以上肠道寄生虫的为31例,其混合感染率为62.5%;犬弓首蛔虫、等孢球虫和犬钩口线虫为优势种。

  12. PRELIMINARY RESEARCH FOR THE PRESENCE OF PARASITES IN SWINE IN ALBANIA

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    Edit Juka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we presented the results of 298 faecal samples and 42 post mortem pigs examination. In this study we included extensive, ½ intensive and intensive management farms in the different Albania districts such as: Gjirokastra, Tirana, Fier, Lac, Elbasan, Lushnjë, Lezhë etc. From 298 faeces samples, 198 belonged to piglets, and about 50% of animals were less and more than 6 months old, 38 sows before farrow, 30 uncastrated pigs and 32 samples were taken into slaughterhouses from imported pigs. The samples were collected randomly and were examined with the technique of simple and qualitative sedimentation for the evaluation of helminths and the technique of quantitative and qualitative fluctuation to evaluate the protozoans. In slaughterhouse we did post mortem examination on 42 piglets and we looked for the presence of parasites grown in gastro-intestinal tract (GIT. The results of this study showed that the most widespread helminth in pigs in Albania is Ascaris suum. It was present in more than 70 % of the examined samples, and in some cases was recorded as high as parasitic load up to 1200 e/g/f. In the economies of extensive menagement M. hirudinaceus was recorded in high level, particularly in farms located in north Albania. Both M. hirudinaceus and A.suum were most wudespread. In addition 28 % of the pig samples were positive for M. Apri. Copropositive results were found in 5,4 % of the faecal samples for Oesophagostomum spp, wheras 0,8 % of the faecal samples for were positive for Ancylostoma caninum, this was recorded mainly in extensive growth pig management. 21 % of the samples from piglets of extensive economies resulted positive for Strongyloides ransoni. For Physocephalus sexalatus 8,6 % of the samples resulted copropositive. Trikuris suis was founded in 5, 6 % of the samples. Protozoan forms were as cysts of Balantidium coli in 1.6 % from the total samples examined. In the post mortem examination frequency of A.suum was

  13. Diagnosing Polyparasitism in a High-Prevalence Setting in Beira, Mozambique: Detection of Intestinal Parasites in Fecal Samples by Microscopy and Real-Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polderman, Anton M.; Vinkeles Melchers, Natalie V. S.; Brienen, Eric A. T.; Verweij, Jaco J.; Groosjohan, Bernhard; Mendes, Felisberto; Mechendura, Manito; Hepp, Dagmar H.; Langenberg, Marijke C. C.; Edelenbosch, Rosanne; Polman, Katja; van Lieshout, Lisette

    2017-01-01

    Background Many different intestinal parasite species can co-occur in the same population. However, classic diagnostic tools can only frame a particular group of intestinal parasite species. Hence, one or two tests do not suffice to provide a complete picture of infecting parasite species in a given population. The present study investigated intestinal parasitic infections in Beira, Mozambique, i.e. in the informal settlement of Inhamudima. Diagnostic accuracy of five classical microscopy techniques and real-time PCR for the detection of a broad spectrum of parasites was compared. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional population-based survey was performed. One stool sample per participant (n = 303) was examined by direct smear, formal-ether concentration (FEC), Kato smear, Baermann method, coproculture and real-time PCR. We found that virtually all people (96%) harbored at least one helminth, and that almost half (49%) harbored three helminths or more. Remarkably, Strongyloides stercoralis infections were widespread with a prevalence of 48%, and Ancylostoma spp. prevalence was higher than that of Necator americanus (25% versus 15%), the hookworm species that is often assumed to prevail in East-Africa. Among the microscopic techniques, FEC was able to detect the broadest spectrum of parasite species. However, FEC also missed a considerable number of infections, notably S. stercoralis, Schistosoma mansoni and G. intestinalis. PCR outperformed microscopy in terms of sensitivity and range of parasite species detected. Conclusions/Significance We showed intestinal parasites—especially helminths—to be omnipresent in Inhamudima, Beira. However, it is a challenge to achieve high diagnostic sensitivity for all species. Classical techniques such as FEC are useful for the detection of some intestinal helminth species, but they lack sensitivity for other parasite species. PCR can detect intestinal parasites more accurately but is generally not feasible in

  14. Contaminación fecal canina en plazas y veredas de Buenos Aires, 1991-2006

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    Diana Rubel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue presentar y analizar los datos de contaminación fecal canina y parasitaria en plazas y veredas de Buenos Aires obtenidos entre 1991 y 2006 por la Cátedra Parasitología General (Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires. Se censaron las heces en varias plazas cada año en un único día entre 1991-2006. A partir del año 2000 se censaron heces en veredas circundantes. En cada plaza se seleccionaron al azar 30 heces frescas que se conservaron en formol 5% para su análisis parasitológico por el método de flotación de Willis con solución saturada de ClNa. Los 51 censos presentaron una mediana de heces de 288; un 82% de las heces se observaron en los canteros de tierra o pasto. La contaminación fecal en las plazas fue mayor en el período 2000-06 que en el anterior (p = 0.0000. La contaminación fecal de las plazas aumentó con la densidad humana en las manzanas lindantes (p = 0.0076. Las veredas mostraron un patrón inverso, ya que la contaminación fecal fue mayor en las áreas menos densamente pobladas (p = 0.0000. Se detectaron parásitos en un número variable de las heces colectadas en todas las plazas. Los géneros más frecuentes fueron Ancylostoma (20.47%, Trichuris (2.59% y Toxocara (1.70%. Nuestros resultados indican un aumento en la contaminación fecal de las plazas, posiblemente asociado con el aumento del número de perros en la ciudad combinado con las deficiencias en la implementación y el seguimiento de las medidas de control.

  15. Zoonotic gastrointestinal parasite burden of local dogs in Zaria, Northern Nigeria: Implications for human health

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    Christopher I. Ogbaje

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites of dogs are of the global problem particularly in the developing countries. Dogs are the most common pet animals worldwide and have been reported to be hosts of many intestinal parasites of zoonotic importance globally. In Nigeria, gastrointestinal helminthes of dogs is currently endemic in 20 of the 36 states. Aim: In general, dogs are the closest animals to humans and for that reason we decided to carry out a survey study to check the incidence of these parasites in dogs and to ascertain the level of environmental contamination in the study area. Materials and Methods: Fecal samples were collected from dog patients presented to small animal clinic of Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, dog’s fecal droppings from the streets, and residential Quarters of the University and gastrointestinal tracts (GIT of dogs from dogs slaughtering house at Basawa Barrack, Zaria. Three methods were used in the analysis of the samples; simple flotation, sedimentation, and GIT processing methods within 48 h of collection. Results: Out of 224 samples analyzed 76(33.9% were positive of at least one of the parasites. Of the 101 samples from streets and residential quarters of ABU, Zaria, Isospora spp. 12(11.9% recorded the highest prevalence rate followed by Taenia spp. 6(5.9%, then Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, and Dipylidium caninum were 5.0%, 4.0%, and 1.0%, respectively. Isospora spp. (19.0% recorded the highest prevalence rate for the 100 samples collected from small animal clinic. Other parasites encountered were T. canis (8.0%, A. caninum (8.0% and Taenia spp. (5.0%. Parasites observed from the 23 gastrointestinal contents from “dog slaughtered houses” were T. canis (17.3%, Isospora spp.(13.1% and A. caninum (4.3. Conclusion: The study revealed that zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites of dogs are endemic in Zaria and the general public in the

  16. The prevalence and abundance of helminth parasites in stray dogs from the city of Queretaro in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantó, G J; García, M P; García, A; Guerrero, M J; Mosqueda, J

    2011-09-01

    The prevalence of helminth species in stray dogs, from the capital city of the state of Queretaro, was evaluated. A total of 378 dogs were captured and examined for the presence of helminths from January to December 2008. The results showed that 275 (72.8%) of examined dogs were infected with one or more helminth species. Single infections were observed in 139 (50.5%) of infected dogs and 136 (49.5%) harboured mixed infections. Out of the 378 dogs examined, 208 (55.2%) presented nematodes and 182 (48.1%) cestodes. The prevalences (confidence interval) and mean intensities of infection ( ± SD) of nematodes and cestodes encountered were: Ancylostoma caninum 42.9% (37.9-47.8) and 22.1 ( ± 34.3); Toxocara canis 15.1% (11.8-19.0) and 8.3 ( ± 15.0); Spirocerca lupi 4.5% (2.7-7.1) and 3.9 ( ± 4.8); Toxascaris leonina 2.3% (1.1-4.5) and 4.8 ( ± 3.5); Physaloptera praeputialis 1.9% (0.8-3.8) and 9.7 ( ± 14.9); Dirofilaria immitis 1.3% (0.4-3.1) and 5.6 ( ± 2.1); Oslerus osleri 0.3% (0.0-1.6) and 5 ( ± 0.0); Dipylidium caninum 44.9% (40.0-50.0) and 18.1 ( ± 27.7); Taenia spp. 6.9% (4.7-9.9) and 6.9 ( ± 7.1). There were no significant differences in prevalences observed either between female (68.5%) and male (76.8%) or between young (70.6%) and adult (74.2%) animals. No differences were observed in the ANOVA test for the mean intensity of infection of any of the parasites (P>0.05).

  17. IMPORTANT NEMATODE INFECTIONS IN INDONESIA

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    Sri Oemijati

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available At least 13 species of intestinal nematodes and 4 species of blood and tissue nematodes have been reported infecting man in Indonesia. Five species of intestinal nematodes are very common and highly prevalent, especially in the rural areas and slums of the big cities. Those species are Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichiura and Oxyuris vermicularis, while Strongyloides stercoralis is disappearing. The prevalence of the soil transmitted helminths differs from place to place, depending on many factors such as the type of soil, human behaviour etc. Three species of lymph dwelling filarial worms are known to be endemic, the urban Wuchereria bancrofti is low endemic in Jakarta and a few other cities along the north coast of Java, with Culex incriminated as vector, high endemicity is found in Irian Jaya, where Anopheline mosquitoes act as vectors. Brugia malayi is widely distributed and is still highly endemic in many areas. The zoonotic type is mainly endemic in swampy areas, and has many species of Mansonia mosquitoes as vectors. B.timori so far has been found only in the south eastern part of the archipelago and has Anopheles barbirostris as vector. Human infections with animal parasites have been diagnosed properly only when adult stages were found either in autopsies or removed tissues. Cases of infections with A. caninum, A.braziliense, A.ceylanicum, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, T.axei and Oesophagostomum apiostomum have been desribed from autopsies, while infections with Gnathostoma spiningerum have been reported from removed tissues. Infections with the larval stages such as VLM, eosinophylic meningitis, occult filanasis and other could only be suspected, since the diagnosis was extremely difficult and based on the finding and identification of the parasite. Many cases of creeping eruption which might be caused by the larval stages of A.caninum and A.braziliense and Strongyloides stercoralis

  18. Efficacy of afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewable tablets against naturally acquired intestinal nematodes in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, Steffen; Dorr, Paul; Bowman, Dwight D; Crafford, Dionne; Kusi, Ilir; Postoli, Rezart; Yoon, Stephen; Chester, S Theodore; Dollhofer, Doris; Visser, Martin; Larsen, Diane L

    2016-02-15

    The efficacy of oral afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime combination chewable tablets (NexGard Spectra, Merial) against naturally acquired intestinal nematode infections in dogs was evaluated in six negative control, blinded studies including a total of 114 dogs. Dogs were selected based on a pre-treatment fecal examination indicating patent infections with hookworms (two studies), Toxocara or Toxascaris ascarids (one study each) or Trichuris whipworms (two studies). In each study, dogs were assigned to blocks of two animals each, based on decreasing pre-treatment body weight and were randomly allocated to one of two groups consisting of eight, nine or 10 dogs: untreated (control) or treated with the combination chewable tablet formulation. Chewable tablets were combined to provide doses of actives as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime, i.e., 2.5 mg/kg body weight and 0.5 mg/kg body weight, respectively, once on Day 0. For parasite recovery and count, dogs were euthanized humanely and necropsied seven or eight days after treatment. A single treatment with afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewable tablets provided 94.8% and 90.9% efficacy against adult Ancylostoma braziliense and A. caninum, respectively, 97.8% and 99.4% efficacy against adult Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina, respectively, and ≥98.3% efficacy against adult Trichuris vulpis. Compared to untreated controls, nematode counts of the treated dogs were significantly reduced (F-test; pafoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewable tablets reduced adult Uncinaria stenocephala burdens by 74.9% (p=0.002). All dogs tolerated the treatment well based on clinical observations post-treatment and daily clinical observations. No adverse experiences or other clinical problems related to the treatment were observed throughout the studies. The results of this series of controlled studies demonstrated high efficacy and excellent acceptability and safety of the afoxolaner

  19. Disintegrins from Hematophagous Sources

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    Ivo M. B. Francischetti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Bloodsucking arthropods are a rich source of salivary molecules (sialogenins which inhibit platelet aggregation, neutrophil function and angiogenesis. Here we review the literature on salivary disintegrins and their targets. Disintegrins were first discovered in snake venoms, and were instrumental in our understanding of integrin function and also for the development of anti-thrombotic drugs. In hematophagous animals, most disintegrins described so far have been discovered in the salivary gland of ticks and leeches. A limited number have also been found in hookworms and horseflies, and none identified in mosquitoes or sand flies. The vast majority of salivary disintegrins reported display a RGD motif and were described as platelet aggregation inhibitors, and few others as negative modulator of neutrophil or endothelial cell functions. This notably low number of reported disintegrins is certainly an underestimation of the actual complexity of this family of proteins in hematophagous secretions. Therefore an algorithm was created in order to identify the tripeptide motifs RGD, KGD, VGD, MLD, KTS, RTS, WGD, or RED (flanked by cysteines in sialogenins deposited in GenBank database. The search included sequences from various blood-sucking animals such as ticks (e.g., Ixodes sp., Argas sp., Rhipicephalus sp., Amblyomma sp., tabanids (e.g., Tabanus sp., bugs (e.g., Triatoma sp., Rhodnius prolixus, mosquitoes (e.g., Anopheles sp., Aedes sp., Culex sp., sand flies (e.g., Lutzomyia sp., Phlebotomus sp., leeches (e.g., Macrobdella sp., Placobdella sp. and worms (e.g., Ancylostoma sp.. This approach allowed the identification of a remarkably high number of novel putative sialogenins with tripeptide motifs typical of disintegrins (>450 sequences whose biological activity remains to be verified. This database is accessible

  20. Human behaviour and the epidemiology of parasitic zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Calum N L

    2005-10-01

    The behaviour of Homo sapiens has a pivotal role to play in the macro and microepidemiology of emerging or re-emerging parasitic zoonoses. Changing demographics and the concomitant alterations to the environment, climate, technology, land use and changes in human behavior, converge to favour the emergence and spread of parasitic zoonoses. The recent unprecedented movements of people, their animals and their parasites around the world, introduce and mix genes, cultural preferences, customs, and behavioral patterns. The increasing proclivity for eating meat, fish, crabs, shrimp, molluscs raw, undercooked, smoked, pickled or dried facilitates a number of protozoan (Toxoplasma), trematode (Fasciola sp., Paragonimus spp., Clonorchis sp., Opisthorchis spp., Heterophyes sp., Metagonimus sp., Echinostoma spp., Nanophyetus sp.) cestode (Taenia spp, Diphyllobothrum sp.) and nematode (Trichinella spp., Capillaria spp., Gnathostoma spp., Anisakis sp., Parastrongylus spp.) caused zoonoses. The increasing world population and the inability to keep pace with the provision of adequate sanitation and clean, safe drinking water, has led to an increased importance of waterborne zoonoses, such as those caused by Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma. Our close relationship with and the numerous uses to which we put companion animals and their ubiquitous distribution has resulted in dogs and cats unwitting participation in sharing over 60 parasite species including: Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, most foodborne trematode species, Diphyllobothrum, Echinococcus spp., Ancylostoma and Toxocara. Changing human behaviour through education, to encourage the proper cooking of food, which may have cultural and social significance, will remain as challenging as controlling stray and feral pet populations, improving hygiene levels and the provision of safe drinking water and the proper use of sanctuary facilities. Long pre-patent periods and the normally insidious sub-clinical nature of

  1. The complete mitochondrial genomes for three Toxocara species of human and animal health significance

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    Wu Xiang-Yun

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studying mitochondrial (mt genomics has important implications for various fundamental areas, including mt biochemistry, physiology and molecular biology. In addition, mt genome sequences have provided useful markers for investigating population genetic structures, systematics and phylogenetics of organisms. Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Toxocara malaysiensis cause significant health problems in animals and humans. Although they are of importance in human and animal health, no information on the mt genomes for any of Toxocara species is available. Results The sizes of the entire mt genome are 14,322 bp for T. canis, 14029 bp for T. cati and 14266 bp for T. malaysiensis, respectively. These circular genomes are amongst the largest reported to date for all secernentean nematodes. Their relatively large sizes relate mainly to an increased length in the AT-rich region. The mt genomes of the three Toxocara species all encode 12 proteins, two ribosomal RNAs and 22 transfer RNA genes, but lack the ATP synthetase subunit 8 gene, which is consistent with all other species of Nematode studied to date, with the exception of Trichinella spiralis. All genes are transcribed in the same direction and have a nucleotide composition high in A and T, but low in G and C. The contents of A+T of the complete genomes are 68.57% for T. canis, 69.95% for T. cati and 68.86% for T. malaysiensis, among which the A+T for T. canis is the lowest among all nematodes studied to date. The AT bias had a significant effect on both the codon usage pattern and amino acid composition of proteins. The mt genome structures for three Toxocara species, including genes and non-coding regions, are in the same order as for Ascaris suum and Anisakis simplex, but differ from Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus and Caenorhabditis elegans only in the location of the AT-rich region, whereas there are substantial differences when compared with Onchocerca volvulus

  2. Microfluidic platform for electrophysiological recordings from host-stage hookworm and Ascaris suum larvae: A new tool for anthelmintic research

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    Janis C. Weeks

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The screening of candidate compounds and natural products for anthelmintic activity is important for discovering new drugs against human and animal parasites. We previously validated in Caenorhabditis elegans a microfluidic device (‘chip’ that records non-invasively the tiny electrophysiological signals generated by rhythmic contraction (pumping of the worm's pharynx. These electropharyngeograms (EPGs are recorded simultaneously from multiple worms per chip, providing a medium-throughput readout of muscular and neural activity that is especially useful for compounds targeting neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels. Microfluidic technologies have transformed C. elegans research and the goal of the current study was to validate hookworm and Ascaris suum host-stage larvae in the microfluidic EPG platform. Ancylostoma ceylanicum and A. caninum infective L3s (iL3s that had been activated in vitro generally produced erratic EPG activity under the conditions tested. In contrast, A. ceylanicum L4s recovered from hamsters exhibited robust, sustained EPG activity, consisting of three waveforms: (1 conventional pumps as seen in other nematodes; (2 rapid voltage deflections, associated with irregular contractions of the esophagus and openings of the esophogeal-intestinal valve (termed a ‘flutter’; and (3 hybrid waveforms, which we classified as pumps. For data analysis, pumps and flutters were combined and termed EPG ‘events.’ EPG waveform identification and analysis were performed semi-automatically using custom-designed software. The neuromodulator serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5HT increased EPG event frequency in A. ceylanicum L4s at an optimal concentration of 0.5 mM. The anthelmintic drug ivermectin (IVM inhibited EPG activity in a concentration-dependent manner. EPGs from A. suum L3s recovered from pig lungs exhibited robust pharyngeal pumping in 1 mM 5HT, which was inhibited by IVM. These experiments validate the use of A

  3. Thrombolytic effect of rAcAP5 and its mechanism%rAcAP5的溶栓作用及作用机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁双; 刘晓岩; 朱元军; 王银叶

    2012-01-01

    犬钩虫抗凝肽(Ancylostoma caninum anticoagulant peptide,AcAP5)是一种已报道的FXa抑制剂,它对防止血栓溶解的TAFIa具有很强的抑制作用,本文进一步研究rAcAP5的纤溶活性和溶栓活性.采用发色产物法测定rAcAP5对TAFIa的抑制作用,用比浊法测定rAcAP5对尿激酶(UK)诱导的纤维蛋白溶解时间的影响,通过血栓称重法进行体外溶栓实验和体内动静脉旁路溶栓实验.采用常规方法测定正常大鼠优球蛋白溶解时间(ELT),血浆纤维蛋白原含量和纤维蛋白降解产物(FDP)含量.rAcAP5浓度依赖地抑制TAFIa活性,其IC50为63.7 nmol/L,为一个强的TAFIa抑制剂.rAcAP5 (5-40 nmol/L)能够显著地加速尿激酶诱导纤维蛋白的溶解,缩短纤溶时间.rAcAP5能够提高尿激酶诱导的血栓减重(P<0.05),单独使用rAcAP5也能显著增加体外实验的血栓减重(P<0.05).在大鼠体内的动静脉旁路模型中,单次静脉给予rAcAP5 (50-200 μg/kg)能够剂量依赖地增加血栓减重(P<0.01).rAcAP5在有效剂量对正常大鼠的ELT、血浆纤维蛋白原含量和FDP含量均无明显影响.研究结果提示:rAcAP5是一个强效溶栓多肽,它可能通过抑制TAFIa的活性而在血栓表面具有溶栓活性,而不影响循环血液中的纤溶活性和纤维蛋白原含量.%Ancylostoma caninum anticoagulant peptide 5 (AcAP5) has been reported as an FXa inhibitor.We found that this peptide showed potent inhibitory activity on activated thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFIa),which protects the fibrin clot against lysis.This study investigated the effects of recombinant AcAP5 (rAcAP5) on fibrinolytic activity in vitro and on thrombolytic activity in vitro and in vivo.In addition,euglobulin lysis time (ELT),fibrinogen content and fibrin degradation product (FDP) in normal rat plasma were all determined to evaluate the influence of rAcAP5 on fibrinolytic activity in circulation blood.TAFIa activity was detected by colorimetry

  4. Investigation on the Parasite Species and Infection Situation of 477 Cases of Outpatient Dogs%477例门诊犬寄生虫种类和感染情况的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    权中会; 陈冰洁; 郑博方; 马新武; 吕长荣; 梁永春

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand the species and infection situation of canine parasitic infection in Xi'an area and to provide scientific basis for the prevention and control of parasite infections in dogs,from 2013 to 2015,by the methods of routine examination and immunological test,the diagnosis of parasitic infection in dogs was carried out,and the classification statistics and analysis of 477 cases of canine parasitic infections were carried out.The results showed that 14 species of parasites were detected from the infected dogs.In all of the infected dogs,the positive rate of each parasite was as follows:Babesia gibsoni 51.79% (247/477),Isospora sp.16.15% (77/477),Giardia 11.74% (56/477),Txocara canis 6.71% (32/477),Sar-coptes 4.41% (21/477),Demodex 4.41% (21/477),Sarcoptes 3.78% (18/477),Ancylostoma caninum 2.31% (11/477),Otodectes cynotis 1.89% (9/477),Thelazia 0.63% (3/477 ),Clonorchis sinensis 0.42%(2/477)and Toxoplasma gondii 0.42% (2/477),Spirocerca lupi 0.21%(1/477)and Dirofilaria immitis 0.21% (1/477).Mixed infections of two or more parasites of dogs accounted for 5.45% (26/477).Intestinal parasites of Isospora sp.,Giardia,Txocara canis and Ancylostoma caninum were prone to mixed infection.Combined infection of parasites and viruses in dogs accounted for 8.39% (40/477).In-testinal parasites often merged with the viruses of canine parvovirus(CPV),canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine coronavirus (CCV)to infect the dogs.Many parasitic infections were closely related to the age of the dogs,and the seasons had an effect on the parasite infection.Protozoal infection especially Babesia gibsoni infection should pay attention to.It was very important to control the contact between the dogs and the parasite vectors,and to improve the condition of the dog's feeding and management.%对2012年-2015年西北农林科技大学西安动物医院门诊确诊的477例犬寄生虫感染资料进行分类统计和分析,以期了解西安地区犬寄生虫的种类和感

  5. Segurança alimentar de hortaliças orgânicas: aspectos sanitários e nutricionais Organic vegetables safety: sanitary and nutritional aspects

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    Kettelin Aparecida Arbos

    2010-05-01

    organic foods is expressive worldwide due to the population awareness about the health risks resulting from the presence of chemical residues in food. Several studies suggest that some practices of organic farming, such as the use of animal manure and rules prohibiting the use of conventional pesticides, can increase the microbiological and parasitic risks. Hence, these foods would not be suitable for human consumption. In this context, the present research aimed at determining the sanitary quality of organic vegetables through the evaluation of microbiological contamination by total and fecal and coliforms, Salmonella sp., and parasitological contamination. Moreover, samples of organic lettuce, carrots, and tomatoes from the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, Paraná, were submitted to physicochemical evaluation to assess their nutritional quality. Thermotolerant coliforms, or fecal coliforms, were detected in 40% of the lettuce and in 25% of the carrot samples. It was observed that 25% of the carrot and 20% of lettuce samples presented Salmonella sp., whereas the tomato samples did not present thermotolerant coliforms or Salmonella sp. The major parasites identified in the lettuce samples were acarus, Entamoeba sp., eggs of Ancylostoma sp., and insects. Entamoeba sp., eggs of Ancylostoma sp. and Toxocara sp. were identified in the organic carrot samples, while the tomato samples did not present any parasitological contamination. The data suggest that the organic lettuce and carrot samples might have been contaminated somehow by the soil, water, domestic animals, or non-suitable fertilizers.

  6. Zoonotic enteric parasites transmitted from dogs in Egypt with special concern to Toxocara canis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadallah, Maysa A. I.; Salem, Lobna M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This work aimed to study the role played by dogs in transmitting zoonotic enteric parasites to humans in Egypt and to analyze the risk factors associated with the occurrence of such infection in dogs. Serodiagnosis of anti-Toxocara immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies among human beings as well as analyzing risk factors predispose to Toxocara canis infection in human beings are another objectives of this study. Materials and Methods: From June to December 2013, a total of 130 fecal samples from 4 dog populations (Military, nomadic and domiciled dogs from rural and high standard districts) and 150 stool samples of 6 occupational groups were examined for the presence of enteric parasitic infection. Moreover, 150 serum samples were collected from humans from whom stool samples were collected and examined for the presence of anti-T. canis antibodies. Results: Enteric parasites were detected in 30% of fecal samples from 4 dog populations in Egypt. High infectivity had been reported in nomadic dogs (63.33%) (Crude odds ratios [COR]=67.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]=8.09-560.8, pHymenolepis diminuta (1.54%) and Entamoeba canis, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Paragonimus spp. (0.77%, each). Univariate logestic regression revealed significant association of age (COR=4.73, 95% CI=2.13-10.53, p0.05) did not seem to have a significant association among the examined dogs. Enteric parasitic infection was reported in 31/150 human stools (20.67%). Students were the most affected groups (37.14%), followed by nomadic people (24%), house wives (20%), house guarders and military workers (12%, each), and employees (10%). The identified parasites were Cryptosporidium spp. (9.33%), Ascaris lumbercoides (3.33%), Heterophyes spp. and Ancylostoma spp. (2.66%, each) and Paragonimus spp. and Hymenolepis nana (1.33%, each). Toxocara IgG antibodies were detected in 36/150 (24%) serum samples investigated. Toxocara IgG antibodies were more prevalent in males (26.66%) than females (20

  7. Prevalence and risk factors of Giardia duodenalis in dogs from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mircean, Viorica; Györke, Adriana; Cozma, Vasile

    2012-03-23

    in communities were identified as risk factors for infection by multivariate logistic regression analysis. 71.2% (37/52) Giardia cysts positive dogs presented co-infections with other intestinal parasites: Toxocara canis (14/52; 26.9%), Isospora ohioensis (12/52; 23.1%), Ancylostoma caninum (9/52; 17.3%), Uncinaria stenocephala (7/52; 13.5%), Trichocephalus vulpis (6/52; 11.5%), Hammondia heydorni/Neospora caninum (5/52; 9.6%), Sarcocystis spp. (5/52; 9.6%), Isospora canis (4/52; 7.7%), Capillaria aerophila (3/52; 5.8%), Strongyloides stercoralis (2/52; 93.8%), Dipylidium caninum (1/52; 1.9%) and Toxascaris leonina (1/52; 1.9%).

  8. Fitoterapia Mbyá-Guaraní en el control de las parasitosis intestinales. Un estudio exploratorio con Chenopodium ambrosioides L. var. anthelminticum en cinco comunidades de Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Navone

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En las comunidades Mbyá-Guaraní, el conocimiento local de las especies vegetales que habitan el “monte” se pone de manifi esto en el desarrollo de distintas actividades tales como su empleo medicinal en las parasitosis y dolencias asociadas. El objetivo de esta contribución fue evaluar la eficacia deChenopodium ambrosioidesL. var.anthelminticum(Ka´aré en el control de las enteroparasitosis. El estudio fue realizado durante septiembre de 1998 y abril de 1999 en las comunidades de Marangatú (MA, Ñamandú (ÑA, El Pocito (PO, Tabay (TB y Takuapí (TA del Departamento Libertador General San Martín, Misiones, Argentina. La muestra incluyó 148 personas que fueron agrupadas por sexo e intervalos etáreos. El tratamiento fitoterapéutico consistió en la administración de tintura de Ka´aré (maceración en alcohol etílico al 70%. El análisis coproparasitológico se realizó mediante examen directo y la técnica de enriquecimiento por flotación (Füllerbon previo y posterior al tratamiento con el Ka´aré. Los resultados indicaron altos porcentajes de individuos parasitados previo al tratamiento (PRET que fluctuaron entre 73.5% y 91.7%. Entre los protozoosEntamoeba colifue la especie más prevalente con porcentajes entre 18.4% y 37.5%.Hymenolepis nanaentre los cestodes presentó prevalencias entre 4.2% y 20.8%. Entre los nemátodosAncylostoma duodenale/Necator americanus(Ancylostomideos fue la más frecuente y su prevalencia fluctuó entre 55.1% y 83.3%.Trichuris trichiurasólo fue observado en ÑA y con una prevalencia muy baja (3.8%. El porcentaje de monoparasitismo fue mayor en ÑA (56.5%, el de biparasitismo en MA y TA (44.4%, mientras que el de poliparasitismo en TB (36.8%. En la evaluación postratamiento (POST la prevalencia total de parasitosis descendió respecto del pretratamiento (79.7% vs 68.9% (X2 Yates = 4.57; p E. coli(30.8%-0.0% y Ancylostomídeos (52.0%-11.5%. Así, en ÑA los Ancylostomídeos mostraron diferencias

  9. Um estudo sôbre a eosinofilia nas helmintoses

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    Ruy Gomes de Moraes

    1968-08-01

    Full Text Available 1 - Foram examinadas as fezes de 2.666 indivíduos, operários e funcionários de duas Emprésas industriais, situadas, uma na cidade do Rio de Janeiro e outra no Estado do Rio (Brasil; 2 - Dos 2.666 indivíduos, 1941 (72.80% estavam parasitados por um ou mais helmintos e 725 (27,20% tinham seus exames de fezes negativos; 3 - De cada um dos 2.666 indivíduos foi feito um hemograma completo, tendo sido aproveitada a taxa de eosinófilos que, em associação com os exames de fezes, constituiu o objeto principal dêste trabalho. 4 - Na Tabela A observa-se o número de vêzes em que cada um dos vermes foi observado e seus respectivos percentuais. Embora não seja um trabalho de epidemiologia, verifica-se que 46,81% são infestados pelo Trichuris trichiura; 23,85% pelo Strongyloides stercoralis; 22,46% pelo Necator americanus e/ou Ancylostoma duodenale; 20,51% pelo Ascaris lumbricóides; 1,65% pelo Schistosoma mansoni; 0.67% pelo Enterobius vermicularis; 0,26% por Taenia solium ou T. saginata e 0,11% por Hymenolepis nana; 5 - Os exames de fezes foram feitos pelos métodos de Faust (ou de Ritchie, de Willis, de Baermann e de sedimentação; 6 - A eosinofilia anotada foi a relativa ou em seu percentual, sendo considerada hipereosinofilia uma taxa de eosinófilos igual ou superior a 5% (Eo > 5%; 7 - Foram abordados de modo conciso os fatores que provocam oscilações na eosinofilia normal tais como a idade, a raça, as horas do nictêmero, os fatores físicos, o sexo, os fatores químicos e outros; 8 - Tratou-se de modo mais extenso das diferenças entre as hipereosinofilias parasitárias e não parasitárias, tendo sido focalizada a dinâmica da eosinofilia traduzida na curva de Lavier. 9 - A distribuição dos 2.666 casos foi feita pelos diferentes graus de eosinofilia, tendo sido levantados gráficos e traçadas curvas sôbre a distribuição de cada helminto e de suas associações. 10 - Por ser necessário à explanação do assunto, foi criado o

  10. Zoonotic enteric parasites transmitted from dogs in Egypt with special concern to Toxocara canis infection

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    Maysa A. I. Awadallah

    2015-08-01

    7.62, p˃0.05 did not seem to have a significant association among the examined dogs. Enteric parasitic infection was reported in 31/150 human stools (20.67%. Students were the most affected groups (37.14%, followed by nomadic people (24%, house wives (20%, house guarders and military workers (12%, each, and employees (10%. The identified parasites were Cryptosporidium spp. (9.33%, Ascaris lumbercoides (3.33%, Heterophyes spp. and Ancylostoma spp. (2.66%, each and Paragonimus spp. and Hymenolepis nana (1.33%, each. Toxocara IgG antibodies were detected in 36/150 (24% serum samples investigated. Toxocara IgG antibodies were more prevalent in males (26.66% than females (20%. Seroprevalence was highest (17/35, 48.57% in 7-15 years old (COR=6.93, 95% CI=1.75-27.43, p=0.006. Seroprevalence values for T. canis antibodies were higher in those; raising dogs (29.85%, eating raw vegetables (25.21% and not washing hands before meals (25.45%. T. canis antibodies were detected in 25% of those contacted with soil compared to 30% of those did not. Students were mostly affected (34.29%, followed by nomadic people (32%, house guarders (28%, housewives (20%, military workers (13%, and employees (10%. Conclusion: Detection of enteric parasites in dogs and humans in Egypt substantiates the role posed by dogs in transmitting zoonotic parasites to humans and knock an alarm for common sources of infection for humans and dogs. Common sources may be infected fish or contaminated vegetables that are consumed by dogs or humans or even infected rodents that may contaminate their feed. This pilot study necessitate the need for similar studies and tracing such infection in fish, vegetables, rodent that may be responsible for infecting humans and dogs in order to understand the epidemiology of zoonotic parasitic infection transmitted from dogs to humans.