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Sample records for ancylostoma

  1. Ancylostoma (Ancylostoma) buckleyi (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae): new wild host and distribution expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalia Paula Scioscia; Pablo Martín Beldomenico; Guillermo María Denegri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Here we report the occurrence of Ancylostoma (Ancylostoma) buckleyi (Le Roux and Biocca, 1957) (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) in the small intestine of Pampas foxes (Lycalopex gymnocercus) (Mammalia: Canidae). This fox is the most abundant native carnivore in southern South America, where it inhabits grasslands, open woodlands and areas highly modified by extensive ranching and agricultural activities. Material from 80 foxes in rural areas of southern Buenos Aires province, Argentina w...

  2. Zoonotic Ancylostoma ceylanicum Infection Detected by Endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Ismail, Wan Hafiz Wan; Lim, Kie Nyok; Mahmud, Rohela

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of Ancylostoma ceylanicum infection detected by endoscopy. It was diagnosed and confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The patient is a 58-year-old Malaysian woman who lives in a rural area, where uncontrolled populations of stray and semidomesticated dogs live in close proximity with humans.

  3. Mucosal immunity to the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum

    OpenAIRE

    Alkazmi, Luay Mahmood M. A.

    2004-01-01

    The host-parasite relationship of the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum was explored in a hamster model system, focusing on intestinal mucosal responses to infection. Primary infection induced a rapid reduction in villous height culminating in excess of 75% reduction by day 35. Crypts of Lieberkuhn increased in depth achieving maximum depth by day 35. Mitotic figures in crypts and mast cells increased until day 28. Goblet cells increased continuously from background levels of 50 cell/mm² to...

  4. Ancylostoma (Ancylostoma buckleyi (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae: new wild host and distribution expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Paula Scioscia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Here we report the occurrence of Ancylostoma (Ancylostoma buckleyi (Le Roux and Biocca, 1957 (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae in the small intestine of Pampas foxes (Lycalopex gymnocercus (Mammalia: Canidae. This fox is the most abundant native carnivore in southern South America, where it inhabits grasslands, open woodlands and areas highly modified by extensive ranching and agricultural activities. Material from 80 foxes in rural areas of southern Buenos Aires province, Argentina was examined. The intestinal tracts were carefully removed from each carcass and subsequently isolated by ligatures (pylorus and rectum. Examination of the intestinal content was performed using the sedimentation and counting technique. Four foxes (5% were found to be parasitized with adult specimens of A. buckleyi. This is the first report of Ancylostoma (A. buckleyi in Argentina and adds L. gymnocercus as new host of this nematode species.

  5. Ancylostoma (Ancylostoma) buckleyi (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae): new wild host and distribution expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scioscia, Nathalia Paula; Beldomenico, Pablo Martín; Denegri, Guillermo María

    2016-06-01

    Here we report the occurrence of Ancylostoma (Ancylostoma) buckleyi (Le Roux and Biocca, 1957) (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) in the small intestine of Pampas foxes (Lycalopex gymnocercus) (Mammalia: Canidae). This fox is the most abundant native carnivore in southern South America, where it inhabits grasslands, open woodlands and areas highly modified by extensive ranching and agricultural activities. Material from 80 foxes in rural areas of southern Buenos Aires province, Argentina was examined. The intestinal tracts were carefully removed from each carcass and subsequently isolated by ligatures (pylorus and rectum). Examination of the intestinal content was performed using the sedimentation and counting technique. Four foxes (5%) were found to be parasitized with adult specimens of A. buckleyi. This is the first report of Ancylostoma (A.) buckleyi in Argentina and adds L. gymnocercus as new host of this nematode species. PMID:27334825

  6. Molecular Detection of Ancylostoma duodenale, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, and Necator americanus in Humans in Northeastern and Southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Phosuk, Issarapong; Intapan, Pewpan M.; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Aamnart, Witthaya; Morakote, Nimit; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-01-01

    The 2 principal species of hookworms infecting humans are Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Case studies on zoonotic hookworm infections with Ancylostoma ceylanicum and/or Ancylostoma caninum are known mainly from Asian countries. Of these 2 zoonotic species, only A. ceylanicum can develop to adulthood in humans. In the present study, we report a molecular-based survey of human hookworm infections present in southern and northeastern Thailand. Thirty larval hookworm samples were o...

  7. Zinc sulfide in intestinal cell granules of Ancylostoma caninum adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianotti, A.J.; Clark, D.T.; Dash, J. (Portland State Univ., OR (USA))

    1991-04-01

    A source of confusion has existed since the turn of the century about the reddish brown, weakly birefringent 'sphaerocrystals' located in the intestines of strongyle nematodes, Strongylus and Ancylostoma. X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectrometric analyses were used for accurate determination of the crystalline order and elemental composition of the granules in the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum. The composition of the intestinal pigmented granules was identified unequivocally as zinc sulfide. It seems most probable that the granules serve to detoxify high levels of metallic ions (specifically zinc) present due to the large intake of host blood.

  8. Molecular Modeling and Structural Analysis of Arylesterase of Ancylostoma Duodenale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Subhamay; Panda, Santamay; Kumari, Leena

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic worm infection of humans is one of the most commonly prevalent helminth infection that has imposed great impact on society and public health in the developing world. The two species of hookworm, namely Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus may be primarily responsible for causing parasitic infections in human beings. The highly prevalent areas for Ancylostoma duodenale infections are mainly India, Middle East, Australia, northern Africa and other parts of the world. The serum arylesterases/paraoxonases are family of enzymes that is involved in the hydrolysis of a number of organophosphorus insecticides to the nontoxic products. The participation of the enzymes in the breakdown of a variety of organophosphate substrates that is generally made up of paraoxon and numerous aromatic carboxylic acid esters (e.g., phenyl acetate), and hence combats the toxic effect of organophosphates. The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the arylesterases of Ancylostoma duodenale giving special importance to structure generation, validation of the generated models, distribution of secondary structural elements and positive charge distribution over the structure. By the implementation of comparative modeling approach we propose the first molecular model structure of arylesterases of Ancylostoma duodenale.

  9. Characterizing Ancylostoma caninum transcriptome and exploring nematode parasitic adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Hawdon John; Wilson Richard K; Martin John; Abubucker Sahar; Wang Zhengyuan; Mitreva Makedonka

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Hookworm infection is one of the most important neglected diseases in developing countries, with approximately 1 billion people infected worldwide. To better understand hookworm biology and nematode parasitism, the present study generated a near complete transcriptome of the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum to a very high coverage using high throughput technology, and compared it to those of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasite Brugia malayi....

  10. Ancylostoma duodenale em estrangeiros radicados em Botucatu, SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence F.S. Kerr

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando-se a técnica de Harada & Mori foi efetuada verificação das espécies de Ancylostomidae prevalentes entre imigrantes europeus, asiáticos e brasileiros residentes no município de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Ancylostoma duodenale foi encontrado em 8,5% dos imigrantes asiáticos e Necator americanus em 3,5% dos europeus e em 18% dos brasileiros examinados.

  11. The mucosal cellular response to infection with Ancylostoma ceylanicum

    OpenAIRE

    Alkazmi, L.M.M.; Dehlawi, M.S.; BEHNKE, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Although hookworms are known to stimulate inflammatory responses in the intestinal mucosa of their hosts, there is little quantitative data on this aspect of infection. Here we report the results of experiments conducted in hamsters infected with Ancylostoma ceylanicum. Infection resulted in a marked increase in goblet cells in the intestinal mucosa, which was dependent on the number of adult worms present and was sustained as long as worms persisted (over 63 days) but returned to baseline le...

  12. Investigating hookworm genomes by comparative analysis of two Ancylostoma species

    OpenAIRE

    Kapulkin Wadim; Stajich Jason E; Xu Jian; Wylie Todd; Dante Mike; Martin John; Hawdon John; Arasu Prema; McCarter James P; Mitreva Makedonka; Clifton Sandra W; Waterston Robert H; Wilson Richard K

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Hookworms, infecting over one billion people, are the mostly closely related major human parasites to the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Applying genomics techniques to these species, we analyzed 3,840 and 3,149 genes from Ancylostoma caninum and A. ceylanicum. Results Transcripts originated from libraries representing infective L3 larva, stimulated L3, arrested L3, and adults. Most genes are represented in single stages including abundant transcripts like hsp-20 i...

  13. Aberrant Ancylostoma sp. in the brain of a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Amie; Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Bolling, Melanie; Rodrigues-Hoffmann, Aline

    2016-06-15

    A 14-month-old, male American Bulldog presented to Texas A&M University Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital in August of 2012 for anorexia, hydrophobia and gradually worsening neurologic signs. Grossly hemorrhage on the left side of the caudal cerebrum and cerebellum was observed and histologically corresponded with necrohemorrhagic and lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis associated with adult nematodes. Based on morphology and molecular analysis, these were identified as Ancylostoma sp. PMID:27198802

  14. Secretion of a proteolytic anticoagulant by Ancylostoma hookworms

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    Hookworms of the genus Ancylostoma secrete an anticoagulant that both inhibits the clotting of human plasma and promotes fibrin clot dissolution. This anticoagulant activity is attributable to a 36,000 dalton proteolytic enzyme. The protease can degrade fibrinogen into five smaller polypeptides that intrinsically have anticoagulating properties, covert plasminogen to a mini-plasminogen-like molecule, and hydrolyze a synthetic peptide substrate with specificity for elastolytic enzymes. It is h...

  15. Apparent contact dermatitis caused by Ancylostoma caninum: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, Human; Goldust, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Ancylostomum caninum larvae cause damage to the host at the point of entry through the skin leaving a wound vulnerable to secondary infections. As the larvae migrate through the skin an inflammatory response, dermatitis, is often stimulated which can be exacerbated in hosts which give hypersensitive responses. We assessed a 44-year-old man with contact dermatitis diagnosed as nickel allergy but caused by Ancylostoma caninum infection. PMID:26342510

  16. First report of Ancylostoma ceylanicum in wild canids ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Smout, Felicity A.; Thompson, R.C. Andrew; Skerratt, Lee F.

    2013-01-01

    The parasitic nematode Ancylostoma ceylanicum is common in dogs, cats and humans throughout Asia, inhabiting the small intestine and possibly leading to iron-deficient anaemia in those infected. It has previously been discovered in domestic dogs in Australia and this is the first report of A. ceylanicum in wild canids. Wild dogs (dingoes and dingo hybrids) killed in council control operations (n = 26) and wild dog scats (n = 89) were collected from the Wet Tropics region around Cairns, Far No...

  17. Neglected zoonotic helminths: Hymenolepis nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R C A

    2015-05-01

    The majority of helminth parasites that are considered by WHO to be the cause of 'neglected diseases' are zoonotic. In terms of their impact on human health, the role of animal reservoirs and polyparasitism are both emerging issues in understanding the epidemiology of a number of these zoonoses. As such, Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum all qualify for consideration. They have been neglected and there is increasing evidence that all three parasite infections deserve more attention in terms of their impact on public health as well as their control. PMID:25743998

  18. Ancylostoma duodenale em estrangeiros radicados em Botucatu, SP, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Florence F.S. Kerr; Corrêa, Fernando M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Utilizando-se a técnica de Harada & Mori foi efetuada verificação das espécies de Ancylostomidae prevalentes entre imigrantes europeus, asiáticos e brasileiros residentes no município de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Ancylostoma duodenale foi encontrado em 8,5% dos imigrantes asiáticos e Necator americanus em 3,5% dos europeus e em 18% dos brasileiros examinados.A survey of the species of Ancylostomidae causing infection among European inmigrants and Brazilian residents in Botucatu, ...

  19. Metalloproteases of infective Ancylostoma hookworm larvae and their possible functions in tissue invasion and ecdysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hotez, P; HAGGERTY, J; Hawdon, J.; Milstone, L; Gamble, H R; Schad, G.; Richards, F

    1990-01-01

    To infect their hosts, hookworm larvae must exsheath and migrate through connective tissue. A modified in vitro skin chamber was used to show that the human hookworm Ancylostoma duodenale and the zoonotic canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum penetrate epidermis, basement membrane, and dermis in similar ways. These similarities in tissue invasion properties reflect the observed biochemical similarities in parasite protease composition. The larvae of both species contain protease activity that i...

  20. Determination of Ancylostoma caninum ova viability using metabolic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, P; Beale, D J; Ahmed, W; Karpe, A V; Magalhaes, R J Soares; Morrison, P D; Palombo, E A

    2016-09-01

    Differentiation between viable and non-viable hookworm ova in environmental samples is necessary in order to implement strategies to mitigate re-infections in endemic regions. In this study, an untargeted metabolic profiling method was developed that utilised gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in order to investigate hookworm ova viability. Ancylostoma caninum was used to investigate the metabolites within viable and non-viable ova. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses of the data resulted in the identification of 53 significant metabolites across all hookworm ova samples. The major compounds observed in viable and non-viable hookworm ova were tetradecanoic acid, commonly known as myristic acid [fold change (FC) = 0.4], and dodecanoic acid, commonly known as lauric acid (FC = 0.388). Additionally, the viable ova had self-protecting metabolites such as prostaglandins, a typical feature absent in non-viable ova. The results of this study demonstrate that metabolic profiling using GC-MS methods can be used to determine the viability of canine hookworm ova. Further studies are needed to assess the applicability of metabolic profiling using GC-MS to detect viable hookworm ova in the mixed (viable and non-viable) populations from environmental samples and identify the metabolites specific to human hookworm species. PMID:27236650

  1. Investigating hookworm genomes by comparative analysis of two Ancylostoma species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapulkin Wadim

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hookworms, infecting over one billion people, are the mostly closely related major human parasites to the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Applying genomics techniques to these species, we analyzed 3,840 and 3,149 genes from Ancylostoma caninum and A. ceylanicum. Results Transcripts originated from libraries representing infective L3 larva, stimulated L3, arrested L3, and adults. Most genes are represented in single stages including abundant transcripts like hsp-20 in infective L3 and vit-3 in adults. Over 80% of the genes have homologs in C. elegans, and nearly 30% of these were with observable RNA interference phenotypes. Homologies were identified to nematode-specific and clade V specific gene families. To study the evolution of hookworm genes, 574 A. caninum / A. ceylanicum orthologs were identified, all of which were found to be under purifying selection with distribution ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous amino acid substitutions similar to that reported for C. elegans / C. briggsae orthologs. The phylogenetic distance between A. caninum and A. ceylanicum is almost identical to that for C. elegans / C. briggsae. Conclusion The genes discovered should substantially accelerate research toward better understanding of the parasites' basic biology as well as new therapies including vaccines and novel anthelmintics.

  2. Epidemiology of Ancylostoma spp. in the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) in the Don˜ ana National Park, south-west Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente, J. de; Palomares, Francisco; Ruíz de Ibáñez, R.; Ortíz, J.

    2004-01-01

    The epidemiology of Ancylostoma spp. was studied in the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) in the Don˜ ana National Park, south-west Spain. Faecal samples were collected throughout a complete annual cycle (August 1997 to September 1998). The overall egg prevalence of Ancylostoma spp. was 57.8%. The pattern of abundance of Ancylostoma spp. eggs in faeces was overdispersed. Juvenile lynx demonstrated a statistically higher prevalence and abundance of Ancylostoma spp. than i...

  3. Ovos de Toxocara sp. e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em praça pública de Lavras, MG Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. larva in public parks, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Marcos Guimarães

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Larva migrans visceral e cutânea são zoonoses parasitárias causadas pela infecção da larva de Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp., respectivamente. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a contaminação por ovos de Toxocara sp. e ovos e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em amostras de solos coletadas de praças públicas e de áreas de recreação infantil de Lavras, Estado de Minas Gerais, por meio da técnica de centrífugo-flutuação e do método de Baermann. A ocorrência de ovos de Toxocara sp. e, ovos e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. foi observada em 69,6% (16/23 das amostras de solo coletadas de praças públicas. A contaminação somente por ovos de Ancylostoma sp. em amostras de solo coletadas em escolas/creches foi de 22,2% (4/18. A percentagem de amostras de areia coletadas de escolas/creches contaminadas somente com larvas de Ancylostoma sp. foi de 11,1% (2/18. Praças públicas são as áreas com maior risco potencial de infecção por Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp. Exame coproparasitológico realizado em 174 amostras de fezes de cães observou 58% e 23%, respectivamente, com ovos de Ancylostoma sp. e Toxocara sp.Visceral and cutaneous larva migrans are parasitic zoonoses caused by the infection of larval nematodes Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. respectively. The objective of this study was to investigate the contamination by Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. eggs and larva of soil samples collected from public parks and children's playground areas in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using both Baermann's method and centrifugal flotation technique. Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. eggs were observed in soil samples collected from public squares in 17.4% (4/23 and 69.6 (16/23 respectively. In schools and child day care settings the contamination by Ancylostoma sp. larva in sand samples was 11.1% (2/18. Public parks are settings of more potential risk of Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. infection. Stool parasitology testing of 174 stool

  4. Molecular Characterization of Ancylostoma braziliense Larvae in a Patient with Hookworm-Related Cutaneous Larva Migrans

    OpenAIRE

    Joncour, Alexandre Le; Lacour, Sandrine A.; Lecso, Gabriel; Regnier, Stéphanie; Guillot, Jacques; Caumes, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans diagnosed microscopically. Viable hookworm larvae were found by microscopic examination of a skin scraping from follicular lesions. Amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 2 allowed the specific identification of the larvae as Ancylostoma braziliense.

  5. Concomitant infestation of Toxocara cati and Ancylostoma tubaeforme in a mongrel cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, M; Sarma, K; Mondal, D B; Ranjith Kumar, M; Vijayakumar, H

    2016-03-01

    A 3½ years old mongrel female cat was brought with the history of inappetence, seizure and lateral recumbency since 4 days and motion sickness since 2 days. Faecal examination confirmed Toxocara cati and Ancylostoma tubaeforme along with un-hatched live Toxocara cati larvae. Treatment has been initiated with Pyrantel pamoate and along with supportive therapy. PMID:27065627

  6. High prevalence of Ancylostoma ceylanicum hookworm infections in humans, Cambodia, 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Schär, Fabian; Dalsgaard, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a hookworm of canids and felids in Asia, is becoming the second most common hookworm infecting humans. In 2012, we investigated the prevalence and infection dynamics of and risk factors for hookworm infections in humans and dogs in a rural Cambodian village. Over 57% of the...

  7. Prevalencia y factores que favorecen la presentación de toxocara canis y ancylostoma caninum en canes de compañía (Prevalence and factors that favor of presentation of toxocara canis and ancylostoma caninum in companion dogs).

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Cuenca. Julio César; Morales Morales. Alcides; Molina Leyva. Eulises Alexander; Cepero Rodríguez. Omelio; Gutierrez Aguiar. Digna Ibis; Fernández Pérez. Julieta Zonia

    2012-01-01

    RESUMENEl presente trabajo tiene como objetivo determinar la prevalencia de Toxocara canis y Ancylostoma caninum y algunos factores que pudieran favorecer una mayor tasa de infestación por estos nematodos zoonóticosen canes de compañía en los consejos populares Universidad y Camilo Cienfuegos.SUMMARYThe present research aims at determining Toxocara canis and Ancylostoma caninum prevalence and some factors that may favor higher values of infestation in companion dogs from these zoonotic nemath...

  8. Infective larvae of the human hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale differ in their orientation behaviour when crawling on surfaces.

    OpenAIRE

    Syafruddin D

    2004-01-01

    The infective third stage larvae of hookworms infect their hosts by active skin invasion, and they find and recognize their hosts by the behavioural phases of activation, directed crawling, and penetration. Here we analyse the orientation of the infective larvae of the human hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale when crawling on surfaces. Their behaviour differed from that of the larvae of the dog hookworm Ancylostoma caninum, but the two species also differed from each other...

  9. Contamination of public parks and squares from Guarulhos (São Paulo State, Brazil ) by Toxocara spp. and Ancylostoma spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacó Pereira Marques; Catarina de Rezende Guimarães; Ailton Vilas Boas; Paulo Usignolo Carnaúba; Josué de Moraes

    2012-01-01

    The contaminated soil with mammal feces is an important factor of risk to infection with zoonotic diseases. Amongst these zoonoses are visceral larva migrans and cutaneous larva migrans caused by Toxocara spp. and Ancylostoma spp., respectively. The aim of this study was to assess the environmental contamination by Toxocara spp. eggs and hookworms (Ancylostoma spp.) in public parks and squares in the city of Guarulhos, a metropolitan area of São Paulo, São Paulo State, Brazil. Soil samples we...

  10. High Prevalence of Ancylostoma ceylanicum Hookworm Infections in Humans, Cambodia, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Schär, Fabian; Dalsgaard, Anders; Khieu, Virak; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Chhoun, Chamnan; Sok, Daream; Marti, Hanspeter; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter; Traub, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a hookworm of canids and felids in Asia, is becoming the second most common hookworm infecting humans. In 2012, we investigated the prevalence and infection dynamics of and risk factors for hookworm infections in humans and dogs in a rural Cambodian village. Over 57% of the population was infected with hookworms; of those, 52% harbored A. ceylanicum hookworms. The greatest intensities of A. ceylanicum eggs were in persons 21-30 years of age. Over 90% of dogs also harbo...

  11. Immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia : possible association with Ancylostoma caninum infection in three dogs : case report

    OpenAIRE

    Lobetti, R. G.; T. Schoeman

    2001-01-01

    Immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA) may be primary or secondary. In primary IMHA, no underlying cause can be found, whereas secondary IMHA is triggered by an underlying cause, such as neoplasia, infectious diseases, or drugs. This paper describes 3 dogs with typical signs of IMHA that was possibly associated with the intestinal parasite Ancylostoma caninum. As intestinal helminths can be difficult to diagnose on faecal examination, it would be pertinent to performmultiple faecal examina...

  12. The canine hookworm genome: analysis and classification of Ancylostoma caninum survey sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Abubucker, Sahar; Martin, John; Yin, Yong; Fulton, Lucinda; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kym; Johnston, J. Spencer; Hawdon, John; McCarter, James P.; Wilson, Richard K.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2007-01-01

    Hookworms infect nearly a billion people. The Ancylostoma caninum hookworm of canids is a model for studying human infections and information from its genome coupled with functional genomics and proteomics can accelerate progress towards hookworm control. As a step towards a full-scale A. caninum genome project, we generated 104,000 genome survey sequences (GSSs) and determined the genome size of the canine hookworm. GSSs assembled into 57.6 Mb of unique sequence from a ge...

  13. The genome and transcriptome of the zoonotic hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum identify infection-specific gene families

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Erich M.; Hu, Yan; Antoshechkin, Igor; Miller, Melanie M.; Paul W Sternberg; Aroian, Raffi V.

    2015-01-01

    Hookworms infect over 400 million people, stunting and impoverishing them 1–3 . Sequencing hookworm genomes and finding which genes they express during infection should help in devising new drugs or vaccines against hookworms 4,5 . Unlike other hookworms, Ancylostoma ceylanicum infects both humans and other mammals, providing a laboratory model for hookworm disease 6,7 . We determined an A. ceylanicum genome sequence of 313 Mb, with transcriptomic data throughout infection showing expression ...

  14. First report of Ancylostoma tubaeforme in Persian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor)

    OpenAIRE

    Youssefi, MR; BA Zaheri; SM Hoseini; SH Hoseini; M Abouhosseini Tabari

    2010-01-01

    Ancylostoma tubaeforme was originally described as a separate species parasitizing the cat. The adults of A. tubaeforme are 7 to 12 mm long. A. tubaeforme can be differentiated from the adults of A. braziliense and A. ceylanicum by the presence of three teeth. Here we describe the first re­port of A. tubaeforme in a Persian young female leopard, 2-3 years old, with head and trunk length 120 centimeters, length of tail 98 centimeters and body weight 35 kilograms.

  15. Ancylostoma caninum anticoagulant peptide: a hookworm-derived inhibitor of human coagulation factor Xa.

    OpenAIRE

    Cappello, M; Vlasuk, G P; Bergum, P W; Huang, S.; Hotez, P. J.

    1995-01-01

    Human hookworm infection is a major cause of gastrointestinal blood loss and iron deficiency anemia, affecting up to one billion people in the developing world. These soil-transmitted helminths cause blood loss during attachment to the intestinal mucosa by lacerating capillaries and ingesting extravasated blood. We have isolated the major anticoagulant used by adult worms to facilitate feeding and exacerbate intestinal blood loss. This 8.7-kDa peptide, named the Ancylostoma caninum anticoagul...

  16. The Zoonotic Risk of Ancylostoma ceylanicum Isolated from Stray Dogs and Cats in Guangzhou, South China

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanjia Liu; Guochao Zheng; Muhamd Alsarakibi; Xinheng Zhang; Wei Hu; Liqin Lin; Liping Tan; Qin Luo; Pengyun Lu; Guoqing Li

    2014-01-01

    Canine and feline hookworm infection is endemic in many countries with zoonotic transmission representing a potentially significant public health concern. However, there is limited data available on the zoonotic transmission of canine and feline hookworms in China. This study was conducted to evaluate the zoonotic risk of Ancylostoma ceylanicum isolated from stray dogs and cats in Guangzhou, south China. Primer pairs CAF/CAR were designed to amplify complete ITS sequences of obtained A. ceyla...

  17. Evaluation of Biochemical, Hematological and Parasitological Parameters of Protein-Deficient Hamsters Infected with Ancylostoma ceylanicum

    OpenAIRE

    Pacanaro, Carina P.; Dias, Sílvia R.; Serafim, Luciana R.; Costa, Mariana P.; Edenil Aguilar; Paulo R Paes; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline I.; Rabelo, Elida M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hookworms infect millions of people worldwide and can cause severe clinical symptoms in their hosts. Prospective cohort studies in Brazil show high rates of hookworm reinfection in malnourished children compared to well-nourished children, despite previous treatment. Additionally, soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections can worsen the nutritional status of affected populations. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the effects of host malnutrition during Ancylostoma ceylanicum i...

  18. Prevalencia y factores que favorecen la presentación de toxocara canis y ancylostoma caninum en canes de compañía (Prevalence and factors that favor of presentation of toxocara canis and ancylostoma caninum in companion dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Cuenca. Julio César

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEl presente trabajo tiene como objetivo determinar la prevalencia de Toxocara canis y Ancylostoma caninum y algunos factores que pudieran favorecer una mayor tasa de infestación por estos nematodos zoonóticosen canes de compañía en los consejos populares Universidad y Camilo Cienfuegos.SUMMARYThe present research aims at determining Toxocara canis and Ancylostoma caninum prevalence and some factors that may favor higher values of infestation in companion dogs from these zoonotic nemathods in the University and Camilo Cienfuegos county.

  19. Molecular Identification of Ancylostoma caninum Isolated from Cats in Southern China Based on Complete ITS Sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanjia Liu; Guochao Zheng; Muhamd Alsarakibi; Xinheng Zhang; Wei Hu; Pengyun Lu; Liqin Lin; Liping Tan; Qin Luo; Guoqing Li

    2013-01-01

    Ancylostoma caninum is a blood-feeding parasitic intestinal nematode which infects dogs, cats, and other mammals throughout the world. A highly sensitive and species-specific PCR-RFLP technique was utilised to detect the prevalence of A. caninum in cats in Guangzhou, southern China. Of the 102 fecal samples examined, the prevalence of A. caninum in cats was 95.1% and 83.3% using PCR-RFLP and microscopy, respectively. Among them, the prevalence of single hookworm infection with A. caninum was ...

  20. Occurrence of Ancylostoma in dogs, cats and public places from Andradina city, São Paulo state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Willian Marinho Dourado Coelho; Alessandro Francisco Talamini do Amarante; Juliana de Carvalho Apolinário; Natalia Marinho Dourado Coelho; Katia Denise Saraiva Bresciani

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and intensity of Ancylostoma spp. in 33 dogs and 52 cats by means of coproparasitological examinations and parasitological necropsy, and assess the presence of contaminated feces with eggs of that parasite in public places of Andradina Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil. Willis-Mollay and Sedimentation methods indicated Ancylostoma spp. eggs in 87.8% (29/33) dogs and 94.2% (49/52) cats. The species A. caninum and A. braziliense were foun...

  1. Contamination of public parks and squares from Guarulhos (São Paulo State, Brazil by Toxocara spp. and Ancylostoma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacó Pereira Marques

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The contaminated soil with mammal feces is an important factor of risk to infection with zoonotic diseases. Amongst these zoonoses are visceral larva migrans and cutaneous larva migrans caused by Toxocara spp. and Ancylostoma spp., respectively. The aim of this study was to assess the environmental contamination by Toxocara spp. eggs and hookworms (Ancylostoma spp. in public parks and squares in the city of Guarulhos, a metropolitan area of São Paulo, São Paulo State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected, between September and December 2010, and examined using the centrifugal flotation technique with sodium dichromate and zinc sulphate as well as the modified Baermann method. Notably, 35 (74.5% of the 47 districts surveyed in Guarulhos possessed samples contaminated with Toxocara spp. and/or eggs or larvae of Ancylostoma spp. The frequency of Toxocara spp. and Ancylostoma spp. in the samples from public areas was 68.1% and 46.8%, respectively. Overall, the eastern side of Guarulhos is the region with the highest occurrence of causative agents of larva migrans. In all collection sites, the presence of feces from dogs and cats accompanied by their owners and stray animals were observed. Notably, it is important to adopt measures to control dog and cat breeding, to treat infected animals, and provide health education to the population.

  2. Efficacy of a topically administered combination of emodepside and praziquantel against mature and immature Ancylostoma tubaeforme in domestic cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altreuther, G.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Buch, J.; Charles, S.D.; Cruthers, L.; Epe, C.; Young, D.R.; Krieger, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the efficacy of emodepside/praziquantel spot¿on (Profender®, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany), a novel broadspectrum anthelmintic for dermal application, against L4 larvae and immature adult and adult stages of Ancylostoma tubaeforme in cats. The formulation contains 2.14% (w/w) emo

  3. Epidemiological and genetic data supporting the transmission of Ancylostoma ceylanicum among human and domestic animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Ngui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Currently, information on species-specific hookworm infection is unavailable in Malaysia and is restricted worldwide due to limited application of molecular diagnostic tools. Given the importance of accurate identification of hookworms, this study was conducted as part of an ongoing molecular epidemiological investigation aimed at providing the first documented data on species-specific hookworm infection, associated risk factors and the role of domestic animals as reservoirs for hookworm infections in endemic communities of Malaysia. METHODS/FINDINGS: A total of 634 human and 105 domestic canine and feline fecal samples were randomly collected. The overall prevalence of hookworm in humans and animals determined via microscopy was 9.1% (95% CI = 7.0-11.7% and 61.9% (95% CI = 51.2-71.2%, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that participants without the provision of proper latrine systems (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.53-8.00; p = 0.003, walking barefooted (OR = 5.6; 95% CI = 2.91-10.73; p<0.001 and in close contact with pets or livestock (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.19-7.15; p = 0.009 were more likely to be infected with hookworms. Molecular analysis revealed that while most hookworm-positive individuals were infected with Necator americanus, Ancylostoma ceylanicum constituted 12.8% of single infections and 10.6% mixed infections with N. americanus. As for cats and dogs, 52.0% were positive for A. ceylanicum, 46.0% for Ancylostoma caninum and 2.0% for Ancylostoma braziliense and all were single infections. CONCLUSION: This present study provided evidence based on the combination of epidemiological, conventional diagnostic and molecular tools that A. ceylanicum infection is common and that its transmission dynamic in endemic areas in Malaysia is heightened by the close contact of human and domestic animal (i.e., dogs and cats populations.

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of a C-type lectin from Ancylostoma ceylanicum: evidence for a role in hookworm reproductive physiology.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Allison C.; Harrison, Lisa M.; Kapulkin, Wadim; Jones, Brian F.; Sinha, Anindita; Savage, Amy; Villalon, Nicholas; Cappello, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Lectins comprise a family of related proteins that mediate essential cell functions through binding to carbohydrates. Within this protein family, C-type lectins are defined by the requirement of calcium for optimal biologic activity. Using reverse transcription PCR, a cDNA corresponding to a putative C-type lectin has been amplified from the hookworm parasite Ancylostoma ceylanicum. The 550 nucleotide open reading frame of the Ancylostoma ceylanicum C-type Lectin-1 (AceCTL-1) cDNA corresponds...

  5. In vitro biological control of infective larvae of Ancylostoma ceylanicum Controle biológico in vitro de larvas infectantes de Ancylostoma ceylanicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Mara Fernandes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the predatory activity of the fungus Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001 on infective larvae of Ancylostoma ceylanicum after gastrointestinal transit in hamsters. Twenty animals were used in the experiment, divided into two groups: a treated group (10 animals and a control group (10 animals. In the group treated with D. flagrans, each animal received mycelium from the AC001 isolate, at an oral dose of 5 mg/25 g of live weight. To evaluate the predatory activity of the fungus, fecal samples were collected from the animals in both groups, at the times of 6, 8, 12, 24 and 36 hours after the treatment. Then, subsamples of 2 g of feces were placed in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar (2% WA culture medium and 1000 L3 of A. ceylanicum. Over the study period, the following percentage reductions were observed: 43.2% (6 hours, 30.8% (8 hours, 25.8% (12 hours, 30% (24 hours and 11% (36 hours. The fungus D. flagrans presented predatory activity on the L3 of A. ceylanicum, after passing through the hamsters' gastrointestinal tract. It was therefore concluded that the fungus D. flagrans may be an alternative for biological control of the L3 of A. ceylanicum.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade predatória do fungo Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001 sobre larvas infectantes de Ancylostoma ceylanicum após o trânsito gastrintestinal em hamsters. Foram utilizados vinte animais no experimento, divididos em dois grupos: um grupo tratado (10 animais e um grupo controle (10 animais. No grupo tratado com D. flagrans, cada animal recebeu 5mg/25g de peso vivo de micélio do isolado AC001, por via oral. Para avaliar a atividade predatória do fungo, amostras fecais foram coletadas de ambos os grupos de animais nos horários de: 6, 8, 12, 24 e 36 após o tratamento. A seguir, 2g de fezes foram colocadas em placas de Petri contendo o meio de cultura ágar-água 2% (AA2% e 1000 L3 de A. ceylanicum. Ao longo dos hor

  6. Ovos de Toxocara sp. e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em praça pública de Lavras, MG Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. larva in public parks, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Antônio Marcos Guimarães; Endrigo Gabellini Leonel Alves; Glycia Ferreira de Rezende; Marcelo Costa Rodrigues

    2005-01-01

    Larva migrans visceral e cutânea são zoonoses parasitárias causadas pela infecção da larva de Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp., respectivamente. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a contaminação por ovos de Toxocara sp. e ovos e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em amostras de solos coletadas de praças públicas e de áreas de recreação infantil de Lavras, Estado de Minas Gerais, por meio da técnica de centrífugo-flutuação e do método de Baermann. A ocorrência de ovos de Toxocara sp. e, ovos e larvas de ...

  7. INMUNOGENICIDAD DE LA PROTEÍNA RECOMBINANTE ASP1R DE Ancylostoma caninum EN UN MODELO MURINO

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Giraldo G; Jhon C Castaño O

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo. Construir un plásmido recombinante que exprese la proteína ASP1r de Ancylostoma caninum y evaluar su capacidad inmunogénica en un modelo murino. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó extracción de ARN de parásitos adultos de Ancylostoma caninum, se amplificó por RT –PCR el gen de la proteína ASP1. Este gen fue insertado en el vector pcDNA3. El inserto fue digerido con Bamh1 y EcoR1 y clonado direccionalmente. Posteriormente, se llevó a cabo transformación y selección de las células de E....

  8. Ancylostoma caninum MTP-1, an Astacin-Like Metalloprotease Secreted by Infective Hookworm Larvae, Is Involved in Tissue Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, Angela L.; Lustigman, Sara; Oksov, Yelena; Deumic, Vehid; Plieskatt, Jordan; Mendez, Susana; Zhan, Bin; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J.; Loukas, Alex

    2006-01-01

    Infective larvae (L3) of nematodes secrete macromolecules that are critical to infection and establishment of the parasite in the host. The dog hookworm Ancylostoma caninum secretes an astacin-like metalloprotease, Ac-MTP-1, upon activation in vitro with host serum. Recombinant Ac-MTP-1 was expressed in the baculovirus/insect cell system as a secreted protein and was purified from culture medium by two separate methods, cation-exchange fast-performance liquid chromatography and gelatin-affini...

  9. Occurrence of Ancylostoma in dogs, cats and public places from Andradina city, São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Marinho Dourado Coelho

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and intensity of Ancylostoma spp. in 33 dogs and 52 cats by means of coproparasitological examinations and parasitological necropsy, and assess the presence of contaminated feces with eggs of that parasite in public places of Andradina Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil. Willis-Mollay and Sedimentation methods indicated Ancylostoma spp. eggs in 87.8% (29/33 dogs and 94.2% (49/52 cats. The species A. caninum and A. braziliense were found in 63.6% (21/33 and 30.3% (10/33 of dogs, respectively. Considering cats, 67.3% (35/52 were parasitized by A. braziliense, 21.1% (11/52 by A. caninum, and 9.6% (5/52 by A. tubaeforme. Forty-two canine fecal samples were collected from public environments, including 23 squares/gardens and 19 streets/sidewalks. Positive samples for Ancylostoma spp. accounted for 64.3% (27/42; squares/gardens had 60.9% (14/23 positive samples, and streets and sidewalks, 68.4% (13/19. No association was observed between the number of Ancylostoma spp parasites and age, sex and breed of the animals and also the ratio of EPG counts and the parasitic intensity observed at necropsy (p > 0.05. Based on the high occurrence of hookworm in dogs and cats in this study, the treatment with anti helminthics are needed even in those animals with negative stool tests, besides adopting control of the number of animals in public places, in order to decrease the likelihood of environmental contamination, since this parasite represents a potential hazard to human and animal health.

  10. Efficacy of a topically administered combination of emodepside and praziquantel against mature and immature Ancylostoma tubaeforme in domestic cats

    OpenAIRE

    Altreuther, G.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Buch, J; S.D. Charles; Cruthers, L.; Epe, C.; Young, D. R.; Krieger, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the efficacy of emodepside/praziquantel spot¿on (Profender®, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany), a novel broadspectrum anthelmintic for dermal application, against L4 larvae and immature adult and adult stages of Ancylostoma tubaeforme in cats. The formulation contains 2.14% (w/w) emodepside and 8.58% (w/v) praziquantel, with emodepside being active against gastrointestinal nematodes and praziquantel against cestodes. Five randomized, blinded and controlled laboratory studies d...

  11. Peroxiredoxin-1 from the human hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum forms a stable oxidized decamer and is covalently inhibited by conoidin A

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Jennifer B.; Pool, Christopher D.; Wong, Christina Y.B.; Treger, Rebecca S.; Williams, David L.; Cappello, Michael; Lea, Wendy A.; Simeonov, Anton; Vermeire, Jon J.; Modis, Yorgo

    2013-01-01

    Hookworms are parasitic nematodes that have a devastating impact on global health, particularly in developing countries. We report a biochemical and structural analysis of a peroxiredoxin from the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum, AcePrx-1. Peroxiredoxins provide antioxidant protection and act as signaling molecules and chaperones. AcePrx-1 is expressed in adult hookworms and can be inactivated by 2,3-bis(bromomethyl)quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide (conoidin A). Conoidin A inactivates AcePrx-1 by alky...

  12. Host Cytokine Production, Lymphoproliferation, and Antibody Responses during the Course of Ancylostoma ceylanicum Infection in the Golden Syrian Hamster

    OpenAIRE

    Mendez, Susana; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Wu, Wenhui; Hotez, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    The Syrian Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) has been used to model infections with the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum. New molecular immunological reagents to measure cellular immune responses in hamsters were developed and used to determine the impact of A. ceylanicum hookworm infection on host cytokine responses and lymphoproliferation. Initial larval infection with 100 third-stage A. ceylanicum larvae resulted in predominant Th1 responses (upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines) t...

  13. A Multiplex PCR for Simultaneous Detection of Three Zoonotic Parasites Ancylostoma ceylanicum, A. caninum, and Giardia lamblia Assemblage A

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Hu; Sheng Wu; Xingang Yu; Auwalu Yusuf Abullahi; Meiran Song; Liping Tan; Zhen Wang; Biao Jiang; Guoqing Li

    2015-01-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum, A. caninum, and Giardia lamblia assemblage A are common intestinal parasites of dogs and cats; they can also infect humans, causing parasitic zoonoses. In this study, a multiplex PCR method was developed for simultaneous identification and detection of those three zoonotic parasites. Three pairs of specific primers were designed based on ITS sequence of A. ceylanicum and A. caninum and TPI gene of G. lamblia available in the GenBank. The multiplex PCR reaction system w...

  14. The effect of the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum on the mucosal architecture of the small intestine in hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    Alkazmi, L.M.M.; Dehlawi, M.S.; BEHNKE, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Hookworms are known to cause marked changes to the intestinal mucosa, especially in relation to erosion of the villi. However, since the development of enteropathy has not been examined thoroughly through quantitative experiments on infected animals, the results of experiments conducted in hamsters infected with Ancylostoma ceylanicum are reported. Changes to intestinal architecture were first apparent between 12 and 14 days after infection, and then increased in intensity for 3–4 weeks, pers...

  15. Contaminação de praças públicas de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil, por ovos de Toxocara e Ancylostoma em fezes de cães Contamination of public squares of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, by eggs of Toxocara and Ancylostoma in dog feces

    OpenAIRE

    Flábio Ribeiro Araújo; Adalberto José Crocci; Ráucia Gleick Carneiro Rodrigues; Janine da Silva Avalhaes; Michely Isis Miyoshi; Fabiana Pessoa Salgado; Márcio Antônio da Silva; Marcelo Lima Pereira

    1999-01-01

    De fevereiro a outubro de 1998, avaliou-se a contaminação de praças públicas de Campo Grande, MS, Brasil, por ovos de Toxocara e Ancylostoma, em amostras de fezes de cães. Das 74 praças examinadas, 42 (56,8%) estavam contaminadas por ovos de Ancylostoma, 8 (10,8%) com ovos de Toxocara e 7 (9,5%) com ambos.From February to October 1998, the contamination of public squares of Campo Grande, MS, Brazil, by eggs of Toxocara and Ancylostoma was evaluated in dog fecal samples. Out of the 74 public p...

  16. Ancylostoma caninum: the finger cell neurons mediate thermotactic behavior by infective larvae of the dog hookworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopale, V M; Kupprion, E K; Ashton, F T; Boston, R; Schad, G A

    2001-02-01

    Bhopale, V. M., Kupprion, E. K., Ashton, F. T., Boston, R., and Schad, G. A. 2001. Ancylostoma caninum: The finger cell neurons mediate thermotactic behavior by infective larvae of the dog hookworm. Experimental Parasitology 97, 70-76. In the amphids (anteriorly positioned, paired sensilla) of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the so-called finger cells (AFD), a pair of neurons, each of which ends in a cluster of microvilli-like projections, are known to be the primary thermoreceptors. A similar neuron pair in the amphids of the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus is also known to be thermoreceptive. The hookworm of dogs, Ancylostoma caninum, has apparent structural homologs of finger cells in its amphids. The neuroanatomy of the amphids of A. caninum and H. contortus is strikingly similar, and the amphidial cell bodies in the lateral ganglia of the latter nematode have been identified and mapped. When the lateral ganglia of first-stage larvae (L1) of A. caninum are examined with differential interference contrast microscopy, positional homologs of the recognized amphidial cell bodies in the lateral ganglia of H. contortus L1 are readily identified in A. caninum. The amphidial neurons in A. caninum were consequently given the same names as those of their apparent homologs in H. contortus. It was hypothesized that the finger cell neurons (AFD) might mediate thermotaxis by the skin-penetrating infective larvae (L3) of A. caninum. Laser microbeam ablation experiments with A. caninum were conducted, using the H. contortus L1 neuronal map as a guide. A. caninum L1 were anesthetized and the paired AFD class neurons were ablated. The larvae were then cultured to L3 and assayed for thermotaxis on a thermal gradient. L3 with ablated AFD-class neuron pairs showed significantly reduced thermotaxis compared to control groups. The thermoreceptive function of the AFD-class neurons associates this neuron pair with the host-finding process of the A. caninum

  17. Characterization of the phytochelatin synthase from the human parasitic nematode Ancylostoma ceylanicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigouin, Coraline; Vermeire, Jon J; Nylin, Elyse; Williams, David L

    2013-09-01

    Hookworm disease is a debilitating worm infection that affects hundreds of millions of people. Despite the existence of anthelmintic drugs, reports have testified of a decrease in efficacy of these drugs. Therefore, it is imperative to find new drugs and drug targets for hookworm disease treatment. In this study we identify the gene encoding the phytochelatin synthase in the human hookworm, Ancylostoma ceylanicum (AcePCS). Phytochelatin synthase catalyzes the production of metal chelating peptides, the phytochelatins, from glutathione (GSH). In plants, algae, and fungi phytochelatin production is important for metal tolerance and detoxification. Phytochelatin synthase proteins also function in the elimination of xenobiotics by processing GSH S-conjugates. We found that in vitro AcePCS could both synthesize phytochelatins and hydrolyze a GSH S-conjugate. Interestingly, the enzyme works through a thiol-dependent and, notably, metal-independent mechanism for both transpeptidase (phytochelatin synthesis) and peptidase (hydrolysis of GSH S-conjugates) activities. AcePCS mRNAs are expressed in vivo throughout the life cycle of A. ceylanicum. Mature adult male hookworms isolated from the small intestines of their hosts displayed significantly enhanced expression of AcePCS with transcript levels 5-fold greater than other developmental forms. Although the role of AcePCS in A. ceylanicum biology has yet to be fully investigated the results reported here provide encouraging evidence of the potential that this enzyme holds as a target for new chemotherapeutic intervention. PMID:23916800

  18. Vaccination with a cocktail of Ancylostoma ceylanicum recombinant antigens leads to worm burden reduction in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewski, Marcin; Łapiński, Maciej; Daniłowicz-Luebert, Emilia; Jaros, Sławomir; Długosz, Ewa; Wędrychowicz, Halina

    2016-09-01

    Hookworms, a group to which Ancylostoma ceylanicum belongs, are gastrointestinal nematodes that infect more than 700 million people around the world. They are a leading cause of anemia in developing countries. In order to effectively prevent hookworm infections research is conducted to develop an effective vaccine using recombinant antigens of the parasite. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the hosts' on protection against ancylostomiasis and the shaping of the humoral immune response among Syrian hamsters after immunization with a cocktail of five A. ceylanicum recombinant antigens. Ace-ASP-3, Ace-ASP-4, Ace-APR-1, Ace-MEP-6 and Ace-MEP-7 were obtained in the pET expression system. Immunization with a vaccine cocktail resulted in a 33.5% worm burden reduction. The immunogenicity of the recombinant proteins were determined using ELISA. Statistical analysis showed that vaccinated hamsters developed stronger humoral responses to four of five recombinant antigens (the exception being Ace-ASP-3) compared to hamsters from the control group. PMID:27447220

  19. The genome and transcriptome of the zoonotic hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum identify infection-specific gene families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Erich M; Hu, Yan; Antoshechkin, Igor; Miller, Melanie M; Sternberg, Paul W; Aroian, Raffi V

    2015-04-01

    Hookworms infect over 400 million people, stunting and impoverishing them. Sequencing hookworm genomes and finding which genes they express during infection should help in devising new drugs or vaccines against hookworms. Unlike other hookworms, Ancylostoma ceylanicum infects both humans and other mammals, providing a laboratory model for hookworm disease. We determined an A. ceylanicum genome sequence of 313 Mb, with transcriptomic data throughout infection showing expression of 30,738 genes. Approximately 900 genes were upregulated during early infection in vivo, including ASPRs, a cryptic subfamily of activation-associated secreted proteins (ASPs). Genes downregulated during early infection included ion channels and G protein-coupled receptors; this downregulation was observed in both parasitic and free-living nematodes. Later, at the onset of heavy blood feeding, C-lectin genes were upregulated along with genes for secreted clade V proteins (SCVPs), encoding a previously undescribed protein family. These findings provide new drug and vaccine targets and should help elucidate hookworm pathogenesis. PMID:25730766

  20. Hamsters vaccinated with Ace-mep-7 DNA vaccine produced protective immunity against Ancylostoma ceylanicum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewski, Marcin; Jaros, Sławomir; Bąska, Piotr; Cappello, Michael; Długosz, Ewa; Wędrychowicz, Halina

    2016-04-01

    Hookworms are intestinal nematodes that infect up to 740 million people, mostly in tropical and subtropical regions. Adult worms suck blood from damaged vessels in the gut mucosa, digesting hemoglobin using aspartic-, cysteine- and metalloproteases. Targeting aspartic hemoglobinases using drugs or vaccines is therefore a promising approach to ancylostomiasis control. Based on homology to metalloproteases from other hookworm species, we cloned the Ancylostoma ceylanicum metalloprotease 7 cDNA (Ace-mep-7). The corresponding Ace-MEP-7 protein has a predicted molecular mass of 98.8 kDa. The homology to metallopeptidases from other hookworm species and its predicted transmembrane region support the hypothesis that Ace-MEP-7 may be involved in hemoglobin digestion in the hookworm gastrointestinal tract, especially that our analyses show expression of Ace-mep-7 in the adult stage of the parasite. Immunization of Syrian golden hamsters with Ace-mep-7 cDNA resulted in 50% (p < 0.01) intestinal worm burden reduction. Additionally 78% (p < 0.05) egg count reduction in both sexes was observed. These results suggest that immunization with Ace-mep-7 may contribute to reduction in egg count released into the environment during the A. ceylanicum infection. PMID:26795262

  1. The Zoonotic Risk of Ancylostoma ceylanicum Isolated from Stray Dogs and Cats in Guangzhou, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjia Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine and feline hookworm infection is endemic in many countries with zoonotic transmission representing a potentially significant public health concern. However, there is limited data available on the zoonotic transmission of canine and feline hookworms in China. This study was conducted to evaluate the zoonotic risk of Ancylostoma ceylanicum isolated from stray dogs and cats in Guangzhou, south China. Primer pairs CAF/CAR were designed to amplify complete ITS sequences of obtained A. ceylanicum. The results were compared with fourteen ITS reference sequences of human-derived A. ceylanicum registered in GenBank, and phylogenetic trees were established by using NJ and ML methods. The sequence similarity of three dog-derived and five cat-derived A. ceylanicum with fourteen human-derived A. ceylanicum were 96.8%~100% and 97.8%~100%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis placed A. ceylanicum isolated from dogs and cats in the same group with A. ceylanicum human isolates. Due to the ability of A. ceylanicum to cause a patent infection in humans, the zoonotic risk arising from dog and cat reservoirs to communities in this region should be determined.

  2. A novel isothermal microcalorimetry tool to assess drug effects on Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Necator americanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Dayana; Panic, Gordana; Braissant, Olivier; Keiser, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths, which affect the poorest communities, worldwide cause a range of symptoms and morbidity, yet few treatment options are available and drug resistance is a concern. To improve and accelerate anthelminthic drug discovery, novel drug screening tools such as isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC) have been tested with great potential. In this study, we used a novel microcalorimeter, the calScreener™, to study the viability on the hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma ceylanicum as well as the whipworm Trichuris muris. Significant heat flow signals could be obtained with already one adult worm per channel for all three species. High-amplitude oscillations were observed for the hookworms; however, adult T. muris showed a twofold heat flow decrease during the first 24 h. Antinematodal effects of ivermectin and levamisole at 1, 10, and 100 μg/ml were evaluated on adult N. americanus and A. ceylanicum. Levamisole-treated hookworms showed a decline in heat flow and oscillation amplitude in a dose-response manner. Heat flow for ivermectin-treated hookworms increased proportionally with increased concentrations of ivermectin, though the wavelet analysis showed an opposite trend as observed by flatter wavelets. In conclusion, the calScreener™ is an excellent tool to study drug effects on intestinal hookworms at the adult worm stage as it offers a lower detection limit than other IMC devices and the possibility to monitor worm viability online. PMID:26519051

  3. Contaminação de canteiros da orla marítima do Município de Praia Grande, São Paulo, por ovos de Ancylostoma e Toxocara em fezes de cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro João Manoel de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a contaminação dos canteiros da orla marítima de Praia Grande, SP, Brasil, por ovos de Ancylostoma e Toxocara, em amostras de fezes de cães. Do total das amostras analisadas, 45,9% estavam contaminadas por ovos de Ancylostoma e 1,2% com ovos de Toxocara.

  4. Contaminação de canteiros da orla marítima do Município de Praia Grande, São Paulo, por ovos de Ancylostoma e Toxocara em fezes de cães

    OpenAIRE

    Castro João Manoel de; Santos Sérgio Vieira dos; Monteiro Nabor Alves

    2005-01-01

    Avaliou-se a contaminação dos canteiros da orla marítima de Praia Grande, SP, Brasil, por ovos de Ancylostoma e Toxocara, em amostras de fezes de cães. Do total das amostras analisadas, 45,9% estavam contaminadas por ovos de Ancylostoma e 1,2% com ovos de Toxocara.

  5. Ação ovicida do extrato bruto enzimático do fungo Pochonia chlamydosporia sobre ovos de Ancylostoma sp

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Ribeiro Braga; Juliana Milani Araujo; André Ricardo e Silva; Jackson Victor de Araújo; Rogério Oliva Carvalho; Filippe Elias de Freitas Soares; José Humberto de Queiroz; Hugo Leonardo André Gênier

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: Ancylostoma sp é um geo-helminto potencialmente zoonótico. MÉTODOS: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar in vitro a ação do extrato bruto enzimático de Pochonia chlamydosporia (VC4) sobre ovos de Ancylostoma sp, em meio ágar-água 2% e em cultura de fezes. RESULTADOS: Observou-se um percentual de redução na eclosão dos ovos de Ancylostoma sp, de 76,8% na placas de Petri do grupo tratado em relação ao grupo controle. CONCLUSÕES: O extrato bruto enzimático de Pochonia chlamydosporia...

  6. The structure of hookworm platelet inhibitor (HPI), a CAP superfamily member from Ancylostoma caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongying; Francischetti, Ivo M B; Ribeiro, Jose M C; Andersen, John F

    2015-06-01

    Secreted protein components of hookworm species include a number of representatives of the cysteine-rich/antigen 5/pathogenesis-related 1 (CAP) protein family known as Ancylostoma-secreted proteins (ASPs). Some of these have been considered as candidate antigens for the development of vaccines against hookworms. The functions of most CAP superfamily members are poorly understood, but one form, the hookworm platelet inhibitor (HPI), has been isolated as a putative antagonist of the platelet integrins αIIbβ3 and α2β1. Here, the crystal structure of HPI is described and its structural features are examined in relation to its possible function. The HPI structure is similar to those of other ASPs and shows incomplete conservation of the sequence motifs CAP1 and CAP2 that are considered to be diagnostic of CAP superfamily members. The asymmetric unit of the HPI crystal contains a dimer with an extensive interaction interface, but chromatographic measurements indicate that it is primarily monomeric in solution. In the dimeric structure, the putative active-site cleft areas from both monomers are united into a single negatively charged depression. A potential Lys-Gly-Asp disintegrin-like motif was identified in the sequence of HPI, but is not positioned at the apex of a tight turn, making it unlikely that it interacts with the integrin. Recombinant HPI produced in Escherichia coli was found not to inhibit the adhesion of human platelets to collagen or fibrinogen, despite having a native structure as shown by X-ray diffraction. This result corroborates previous analyses of recombinant HPI and suggests that it might require post-translational modification or have a different biological function. PMID:26057788

  7. Transcriptional Changes in the Hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, during the Transition from a Free-Living to a Parasitic Larva

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett J D Datu; Robin B Gasser; Shivashankar H Nagaraj; Ong, Eng K.; Peter O'Donoghue; Russell McInnes; Shoba Ranganathan; Alex Loukas

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Third-stage larvae (L3) of the canine hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, undergo arrested development preceding transmission to a host. Many of the mRNAs up-regulated at this stage are likely to encode proteins that facilitate the transition from a free-living to a parasitic larva. The initial phase of mammalian host invasion by A. caninum L3 (herein termed "activation") can be mimicked in vitro by culturing L3 in serum-containing medium. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The mRNAs diff...

  8. Molecular cloning and analysis of Ancylostoma ceylanicum glutamate-cysteine ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewski, Marcin; Lapiński, Maciej; Zdziarska, Anna; Długosz, Ewa; Bąska, Piotr

    2014-08-01

    Glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL) is a heterodimer enzyme composed of a catalytic subunit (GCLC) and a modifier subunit (GCLM). This enzyme catalyses the synthesis of γ-glutamylcysteine, a precursor of glutathione. cDNAs of the putative glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic (Ace-GCLC) and modifier subunits (Ace-GCLM) of Ancylostoma ceylanicum were cloned using the RACE-PCR amplification method. The Ace-gclc and Ace-gclm cDNAs encode proteins with 655 and 254 amino acids and calculated molecular masses of 74.76 and 28.51kDa, respectively. The Ace-GCLC amino acid sequence shares about 70% identity and 80% sequence similarity with orthologs in Loa loa, Onchocerca volvulus, Brugia malayi, and Ascaris suum, whereas the Ace-GCLM amino acid sequence has only about 30% sequence identity and 50% similarity to homologous proteins in those species. Real-time PCR analysis of mRNA expression in L3, serum stimulated L3 and adult stages of A. ceylanicum showed the highest level of Ace-GCLC and Ace-GCLM expression occurred in adult worms. No differences were detected among adult hookworms harvested 21 and 35dpi indicating expression of Ace-gclc and Ace-gclm in adult worms is constant during the course of infection. Positive interaction between two subunits of glutamate-cysteine ligase was detected using the yeast two-hybrid system, and by specific enzymatic reaction. Ace-GCL is an intracellular enzyme and is not exposed to the host immune system. Thus, as expected, we did not detect IgG antibodies against Ace-GCLC or Ace-GCLM on days 21, 60 and 120 of A. ceylanicum infection in hamsters. Furthermore, vaccination with one or both antigens did not reduce worm burdens, and resulted in no improvement of clinical parameters (hematocrit and hemoglobin) of infected hamsters. Therefore, due to the significant role of the enzyme in parasite metabolism, our analyses raises hope for the development of a successful new drug against ancylostomiasis based on the specific GCL inhibitor. PMID

  9. Larva migrans cutânea: ocorrência de casos humanos e identificação de larvas de Ancylostoma spp em parque público do município de Taciba, São Paulo Cutaneous larva migrans: reports of pediatric cases and contamination by Ancylostoma spp larvae in public parks in Taciba, São Paulo State

    OpenAIRE

    Vamilton Alvares Santarém; Rogério Giuffrida; Gabriel Arantes Zanin

    2004-01-01

    Descreve-se a ocorrência de larva migrans cutânea em crianças de Taciba, São Paulo, Brasil, pelo contato com areia de parques públicos, onde observou-se larvas de Ancylostoma spp. A enfermidade foi controlada após adotar-se medidas educacionais sanitárias, desativação e isolamento dos locais para reduzir acesso de animais e troca de areia.Cutaneous larva migrans in children from Taciba, São Paulo, Brazil, was related to contact with sand in public squares, where Ancylostoma spp larvae were de...

  10. The mitochondrial genomes of Ancylostoma caninum and Bunostomum phlebotomum – two hookworms of animal health and zoonotic importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littlewood D Timothy J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hookworms are blood-feeding nematodes that parasitize the small intestines of many mammals, including humans and cattle. These nematodes are of major socioeconomic importance and cause disease, mainly as a consequence of anaemia (particularly in children or young animals, resulting in impaired development and sometimes deaths. Studying genetic variability within and among hookworm populations is central to addressing epidemiological and ecological questions, thus assisting in the control of hookworm disease. Mitochondrial (mt genes are known to provide useful population markers for hookworms, but mt genome sequence data are scant. Results The present study characterizes the complete mt genomes of two species of hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum (from dogs and Bunostomum phlebotomum (from cattle, each sequenced (by 454 technology or primer-walking, following long-PCR amplification from genomic DNA (~20–40 ng isolated from individual adult worms. These mt genomes were 13717 bp and 13790 bp in size, respectively, and each contained 12 protein coding, 22 transfer RNA and 2 ribosomal RNA genes, typical for other secernentean nematodes. In addition, phylogenetic analysis (by Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood of concatenated mt protein sequence data sets for 12 nematodes (including Ancylostoma caninum and Bunostomum phlebotomum, representing the Ascaridida, Spirurida and Strongylida, was conducted. The analysis yielded maximum statistical support for the formation of monophyletic clades for each recognized nematode order assessed, except for the Rhabditida. Conclusion The mt genomes characterized herein represent a rich source of population genetic markers for epidemiological and ecological studies. The strong statistical support for the construction of phylogenetic clades and consistency between the two different tree-building methods employed indicate the value of using whole mt genome data sets for systematic studies of

  11. Contaminação de praças públicas de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil, por ovos de Toxocara e Ancylostoma em fezes de cães

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo Flábio Ribeiro de; Crocci Adalberto José; Rodrigues Ráucia Gleick Carneiro; Avalhaes Janine da Silva; Miyoshi Michely Isis; Salgado Fabiana Pessoa; Silva Márcio Antônio da; Pereira Marcelo Lima

    1999-01-01

    De fevereiro a outubro de 1998, avaliou-se a contaminação de praças públicas de Campo Grande, MS, Brasil, por ovos de Toxocara e Ancylostoma, em amostras de fezes de cães. Das 74 praças examinadas, 42 (56,8%) estavam contaminadas por ovos de Ancylostoma, 8 (10,8%) com ovos de Toxocara e 7 (9,5%) com ambos.

  12. Hyaluronidase from infective Ancylostoma hookworm larvae and its possible function as a virulence factor in tissue invasion and in cutaneous larva migrans.

    OpenAIRE

    Hotez, P. J.; Narasimhan, S; HAGGERTY, J; Milstone, L; Bhopale, V; Schad, G A; Richards, F F

    1992-01-01

    During skin penetration, infective hookworm larvae encounter hyaluronic acid as they migrate between epidermal keratinocytes and through the ground substance of the dermis. A hyaluronidase would facilitate passage through the epidermis and dermis during larval invasion. Zoonotic hookworm larvae of the genus Ancylostoma were shown to contain a hyaluronidase activity that migrated on modified sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) hyaluronic acid gels with an appar...

  13. A case of mistaken identity – reappraisal of the species of canid and felid hookworms (Ancylostoma) present in Australia and India

    OpenAIRE

    Traub, Rebecca J; Hobbs, R.P.; Adams, P.J.; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Harris, Philip D; Thompson, R.C.A.

    2007-01-01

    This study serves to clarify the current status of canid and felid Ancylostoma species present in Australia. The morphological identification of A. ceylanicum from cats for the first time in Townsville, Australia, appears to be in error, together with the genetic markers provided for the species. Morphological and genetic data presented herein provide strong evidence that the hookworms from cats in Towsville are not A. ceylanicum as previously identified (i.e. the first report of this species...

  14. Ancylostoma ceylanicum Excretory-Secretory Protein 2 Adopts a Netrin-Like Fold and Defines a Novel Family of Nematode Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Kucera, Kaury; Harrison, Lisa M.; Cappello, Michael; Modis, Yorgo

    2011-01-01

    Hookworms are human parasites that have devastating effects on global health, particularly in underdeveloped countries. Ancylostoma ceylanicum infects humans and animals, making it a useful model organism to study disease pathogenesis. A. ceylanicum excretory-secretory protein 2 (AceES-2), a highly immunoreactive molecule secreted by adult worms at the site of intestinal attachment, is partially protective when administered as a mucosal vaccine against hookworm anemia. The crystal structure o...

  15. Larval migration in PERL chambers as an in vitro model for percutaneous infection stimulates feeding in the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum

    OpenAIRE

    Welz Claudia; Epe Christian; Strube Christina; Franke Daniela; Schnieder Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Ancylostoma caninum third-stage larvae are the non-feeding infective stage of this parasite and are able to infect potential hosts via different infection routes. Since percutaneous infection is one of the most important routes and skin penetration is the first step into parasitic life, an existing in vitro model for percutaneous migration was modified and evaluated. The main parameter used to evaluate migration was the migration ratio (migrated larvae as a percentage of t...

  16. Effect of experimental single Ancylostoma caninum and mixed infections of Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma congolense on the humoural immune response to anti-rabies vaccination in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Nwoha Rosemary Ijeoma Ogechi; Anene Boniface Maduka

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of Ancylostoma caninum (A. caninum) and trypanosome parasites on the immune response to vaccination in dogs in endemic environments. Methods: Sixteen dogs for the experiment were grouped into 4 of 4 members each. Group I was the uninfected control one, and GPII was infected with A. caninum; GPIII was infected with A. caninum/Trypanosoma congolense (T. congolense), and GPIV was infected with Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei)/A. caninum. The dogs w...

  17. A Multiplex PCR for Simultaneous Detection of Three Zoonotic Parasites Ancylostoma ceylanicum, A. caninum, and Giardia lamblia Assemblage A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancylostoma ceylanicum, A. caninum, and Giardia lamblia assemblage A are common intestinal parasites of dogs and cats; they can also infect humans, causing parasitic zoonoses. In this study, a multiplex PCR method was developed for simultaneous identification and detection of those three zoonotic parasites. Three pairs of specific primers were designed based on ITS sequence of A. ceylanicum and A. caninum and TPI gene of G. lamblia available in the GenBank. The multiplex PCR reaction system was established by optimizing the reaction condition, and a series of tests on the sensitivity, specificity, and clinical application were also conducted. Results showed that three target fragments were amplified specifically; the detection limit was 10 eggs for both A. ceylanicum and A. caninum, 72 pg DNA for G. lamblia. Of 112 clinical fecal samples, 34.8% and 17.8% samples were positive for A. caninum and A. ceylanicum, respectively, while only 2.7% samples were positive for G. lamblia assemblage A. It is concluded that the established multiplex PCR assay is a convenient, rapid, cost-effective, and high-efficiency method for molecular detection and epidemiological investigation of three zoonotic parasites.

  18. A Multiplex PCR for Simultaneous Detection of Three Zoonotic Parasites Ancylostoma ceylanicum, A. caninum, and Giardia lamblia Assemblage A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Wu, Sheng; Yu, Xingang; Abullahi, Auwalu Yusuf; Song, Meiran; Tan, Liping; Wang, Zhen; Jiang, Biao; Li, Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum, A. caninum, and Giardia lamblia assemblage A are common intestinal parasites of dogs and cats; they can also infect humans, causing parasitic zoonoses. In this study, a multiplex PCR method was developed for simultaneous identification and detection of those three zoonotic parasites. Three pairs of specific primers were designed based on ITS sequence of A. ceylanicum and A. caninum and TPI gene of G. lamblia available in the GenBank. The multiplex PCR reaction system was established by optimizing the reaction condition, and a series of tests on the sensitivity, specificity, and clinical application were also conducted. Results showed that three target fragments were amplified specifically; the detection limit was 10 eggs for both A. ceylanicum and A. caninum, 72 pg DNA for G. lamblia. Of 112 clinical fecal samples, 34.8% and 17.8% samples were positive for A. caninum and A. ceylanicum, respectively, while only 2.7% samples were positive for G. lamblia assemblage A. It is concluded that the established multiplex PCR assay is a convenient, rapid, cost-effective, and high-efficiency method for molecular detection and epidemiological investigation of three zoonotic parasites. PMID:26447336

  19. Efficacy of UV-irradiated larval vaccine of Ancylostoma ceylanicum (Looss, 1911) in golden hamsters (Merocricetus auratus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vaccination trial in golden hamsters with UV-irradiated infective larvae of Ancylostoma ceylanicum was attempted. One oral vaccination of hamsters with 100 infective larvae irradiated by means of UV-tube (390 nm) at different time intervals induced the development of resistance. As the time exposure of irradiation was increased, there was a corresponding decrease in the subsequent worm establishment. A high level of protection afforded by larvae irradiated for 15 min UV-exposure was recorded giving 99.0% and 95.0% worm reduction against the challenge doses of 100 and 1000 normal larvae respectively. There was no marked difference in worm establishment in hamsters vaccinated either orally or subcutaneously, followed by oral challenge. In the vaccinated hamsters, the manifestations of resistance at 15 min UV-exposure were shown by marked reduction in worm establishment and highly reduced epg in pellets with significantly higher blood haemoglobin levels compared with those given normal larvae as vaccine and challenge controls. (author)

  20. Avaliação da contaminação ambiental por ovos de Ancylostoma spp. em logradouros públicos de Curitiba-Paraná-Brasil / Evaluation of environmental contamination by Ancylostoma spp. eggs in public squares in Curitiba–Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Leite

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar estatisticamente a prevalência de ovos de Ancylostoma spp. em locais públicos e a relevância desses dados, em relação à contaminação ambiental por agentes potenciais de doenças parasitárias, transmissíveis aos animais e ao homem. No sentido de identificar locais que apresentem possíveis riscos de infecções provocadas no homem e animais domésticos por enteroparasitas, foram avaliados trinta logradouros públicos localizados em dezesseis bairros da cidade de Curitiba – Paraná, escolhidos ao acaso para investigação de prevalência da contaminação do solo por ovos de Ancylostoma spp., mediante exames de amostras de fezes de cães, colhidas entre 10 de janeiro e 10 de julho de 2006. Foram recolhidas cinco amostras de fezes em cada um desses locais, num total de cento e cinquenta, posteriormente processadas e analisadas em laboratório através da técnica de sedimentação espontânea. Vinte e uma amostras, recolhidas de dezessete locais, albergavam ovos de Ancylostoma spp. Desse total foram encontradas sete contendo ovos do parasita em fase embrionária.AbstractThe purpose of this study was to evaluate statistically the prevalence of Ancylostoma spp. eggs in public places and the relevance of these data concerning to environmental contamination by parasitical zoonosis. To identificate places that presented possible infection risks to man and domestic animals by enteroparasites, the present study evaluated one hundred fifty samples of dog faces. These samples were collected from thirty public squares in Curitiba, Parana from January 15 to July 15, 2006, and were tested for the presence of Ancylostoma spp. eggs, that can potencially contaminate the soil. From each square it was taken five sampling units of dog feces, that were evaluated by spontaneous sedimentation technique. Twenty one samples recovered of seventheen places had Ancylostoma spp. eggs. Of this total, was found seven with parasite

  1. Transcriptional changes in the hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, during the transition from a free-living to a parasitic larva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett J D Datu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Third-stage larvae (L3 of the canine hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, undergo arrested development preceding transmission to a host. Many of the mRNAs up-regulated at this stage are likely to encode proteins that facilitate the transition from a free-living to a parasitic larva. The initial phase of mammalian host invasion by A. caninum L3 (herein termed "activation" can be mimicked in vitro by culturing L3 in serum-containing medium. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The mRNAs differentially transcribed between activated and non-activated L3 were identified by suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH. The analysis of these mRNAs on a custom oligonucleotide microarray printed with the SSH expressed sequence tags (ESTs and publicly available A. caninum ESTs (non-subtracted yielded 602 differentially expressed mRNAs, of which the most highly represented sequences encoded members of the pathogenesis-related protein (PRP superfamily and proteases. Comparison of these A. caninum mRNAs with those of Caenorhabditis elegans larvae exiting from developmental (dauer arrest demonstrated unexpectedly large differences in gene ontology profiles. C. elegans dauer exiting L3 up-regulated expression of mostly intracellular molecules involved in growth and development. Such mRNAs are virtually absent from activated hookworm larvae, and instead are over-represented by mRNAs encoding extracellular proteins with putative roles in host-parasite interactions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although this should not invalidate C. elegans dauer exit as a model for hookworm activation, it highlights the limitations of this free-living nematode as a model organism for the transition of nematode larvae from a free-living to a parasitic state.

  2. 犬钩虫(Ancylostoma caninum)daf-1基因的克隆和表达鉴定%Cloning, expressing and identifying daf-1 gene of Ancylostoma caninum in E.coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔莹; 杨玉荣

    2013-01-01

    The aim is to clone, express and identify the TGF-β type Ⅰ receptor daf- 1 from Ancylosloma caniniun for the further study. The gene encoding a TGF-β type Ⅰ receptor daf-1 of Ancylosloma caniniun was amplified from the total RNA by using RT-PCR. The amplified product was cloned into pMD-18T vector. After PCR selection, enzyme digestion, and sequencing, the right plasmid was digested by enzyme and ligated with expression vector pET-32a and transformed into E. coli DH5a strain. The plasmid containing the right insert was sequenced to confirm its identity, and then retransformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3)strain. Bacterial lysates from cultures induced with IPTG were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The expression of AcDAF-1 in larval stage, adult male and females were detected by western blot. Results showed that a specific protein band with a molecular mass of 58 kDa could be visualized in gel after IPTG induction. The recombinant protein was used to raise the antibody and AcDAF-1 was expressed in larvae and adult worm stages by western blot. A TGF-β type Ⅰ receptor was successful cloned from A. caninum and expressing in E. coli, and AcDAF-1 was expressed in larvae and adult worm stages of A. caninum.%目的 对犬钩虫(Ancylostoma caninum)TGF-βⅠ型受体daf-1基因进行了克隆和鉴定,并在原核系统中进行表达.方法 以犬钩虫总RNA为模板,用RT-PCR对犬钩虫TGF-β受体基因daf-1的cDNA进行扩增和克隆,用PCR筛选阳性克隆,双酶切鉴定并测序.将测序正确的阳性克隆双酶切后构建到表达载体pET-32m中,转化到E.coli DH5α内,提取质粒,酶切鉴定阳性,再转化入表达宿主E.coli BL21(DE3)菌株内,对转化菌株用IPTG进行诱导培养.收集培养液,破菌、离心进行SDS-PAGE检测重组蛋白的表达.蛋白纯化后进行免疫,并通过免疫印迹检测在钩虫各时期的表达.结果 电泳发现转化了重组质粒的菌株在IPTG诱导下表达的重组蛋白为58 kDa,

  3. Avaliação da contaminação ambiental por ovos de Ancylostoma spp. em logradouros públicos de Curitiba-Paraná-Brasil / Evaluation of environmental contamination by Ancylostoma spp. eggs in public squares in Curitiba–Paraná State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Carlos Leite; Silvana Maris Cirio; Ana Carolina Bazo Zadorosnei; Selene Cirio Leite; Marcelle Cirio Leite; Luciano Augusto Benin

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar estatisticamente a prevalência de ovos de Ancylostoma spp. em locais públicos e a relevância desses dados, em relação à contaminação ambiental por agentes potenciais de doenças parasitárias, transmissíveis aos animais e ao homem. No sentido de identificar locais que apresentem possíveis riscos de infecções provocadas no homem e animais domésticos por enteroparasitas, foram avaliados trinta logradouros públicos localizados em dezesseis bairros da cidade de Cu...

  4. The anticoagulant effects of the hookworm, ancylostoma ceylanicum: observations on human and dog blood in vitro and infected dogs in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, S M; Howse, D J; Grove, D I

    1984-04-30

    Extracts of adult Ancylostoma ceylanicum prolonged the prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time with kaolin ( PPTK ) of both human and dog plasmas in vitro. Excretory/secretory (E/S) products of these worms had similar effects while larval extract prolonged the PTTK only. Thus, the anticoagulant activities of this parasite are dependent upon the stage of the worm's life cycle. Collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation were inhibited by adult and larval extracts. When the peripheral blood and bleeding times of dogs with varying worm burdens were examined, the only abnormality was shortening of the PTTK in the most heavily infected animals. Homogenates of dog small bowel subjacent to adult hookworms prolonged the PT of dog plasma and electron microscopical examination of this tissue revealed aggregation of platelets in blood venules without fibrin deposition. Thus, this study provides evidence that the anticoagulant properties of hookworms may have biological significance in infected animals. PMID:6740554

  5. Larva migrans cutânea: ocorrência de casos humanos e identificação de larvas de Ancylostoma spp em parque público do município de Taciba, São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Santarém Vamilton Alvares; Giuffrida Rogério; Zanin Gabriel Arantes

    2004-01-01

    Descreve-se a ocorrência de larva migrans cutânea em crianças de Taciba, São Paulo, Brasil, pelo contato com areia de parques públicos, onde observou-se larvas de Ancylostoma spp. A enfermidade foi controlada após adotar-se medidas educacionais sanitárias, desativação e isolamento dos locais para reduzir acesso de animais e troca de areia.

  6. Ancylostoma ceylanicum Excretory-Secretory Protein 2 Adopts a Netrin-Like Fold and Defines a Novel Family of Nematode Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K Kucera; L Harrison; M Cappello; Y Modis

    2011-12-31

    Hookworms are human parasites that have devastating effects on global health, particularly in underdeveloped countries. Ancylostoma ceylanicum infects humans and animals, making it a useful model organism to study disease pathogenesis. A. ceylanicum excretory-secretory protein 2 (AceES-2), a highly immunoreactive molecule secreted by adult worms at the site of intestinal attachment, is partially protective when administered as a mucosal vaccine against hookworm anemia. The crystal structure of AceES-2 determined at 1.75 {angstrom} resolution shows that it adopts a netrin-like fold similar to that found in tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteases (TIMPs) and in complement factors C3 and C5. However, recombinant AceES-2 does not significantly inhibit the 10 most abundant human matrix metalloproteases or complement-mediated cell lysis. The presence of a highly acidic surface on AceES-2 suggests that it may function as a cytokine decoy receptor. Several small nematode proteins that have been annotated as TIMPs or netrin-domain-containing proteins display sequence homology in structurally important regions of AceES-2's netrin-likefold. Together, our results suggest that AceES-2 defines a novel family of nematode netrin-like proteins, which may function to modulate the host immune response to hookworm and other parasites.

  7. Development of a new amplification-refractory mutation system for detection of a single nucleotide polymorphism linked to drug resistance in Ancylostoma caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, L F; Rabelo, É M

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms at codons 167, 198, and 200 in the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene have been associated with benz-imidazole resistance. Until now, the only mutation observed in Ancy-lostoma caninum was at codon 200 of this gene. However, the standard-ized methodologies used to detect mutations in this species are faulty. The objective of this study was to standardize a molecular technique based on amplification-refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) for detecting the mutation at codon 200 in the A. caninum β-tubulin isotype 1 gene. Controls were synthesized both for the absence of the mutation, using conventional PCR, and for the presence of the mutation, using the Megaprimer-PCR technique. After standardization of the ARMS-PCR using the controls, the technique was validated through an analysis of 75 A. caninum DNA samples, fol-lowed by sequencing. The results revealed that the developed technique has high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, which allow its ap-plication in the field. PMID:26125702

  8. Levels of Ancylostoma infections and phylogenetic analysis of cox 1 gene of A. ceylanicum in stray cat faecal samples from Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, W; Yu, X G; Wu, S; Tan, L P; Song, M R; Abdulahi, A Y; Wang, Z; Jiang, B; Li, G Q

    2016-07-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum is a common zoonotic nematode. Cats act as natural reservoirs of the hookworm and are involved in transmitting infection to humans, thus posing a potential risk to public health. The prevalence of feline A. ceylanicum in Guangzhou (South China) was surveyed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). In total, 112 faecal samples were examined; 34.8% (39/112) and 43.8% (49/112) samples were positive with hookworms by microscopy and PCR method, respectively. Among them, 40.8% of samples harboured A. ceylanicum. Twelve positive A. ceylanicum samples were selected randomly and used for cox 1 sequence analysis. Sequencing results revealed that they had 97-99% similarity with A. ceylanicum cox 1 gene sequences deposited in GenBank. A phylogenetic tree showed that A. ceylanicum isolates were divided into two groups: one comprising four isolates from Guangzhou (South China), and the other comprising those from Malaysia, Cambodia and Guangzhou. In the latter group, all A. ceylanicum isolates from Guangzhou were clustered into a minor group again. The results indicate that the high prevalence of A. ceylanicum in stray cats in South China poses a potential risk of hookworm transmission from pet cats to humans, and that A. ceylanicum may be a species complex worldwide. PMID:26123649

  9. In vitroanthelmintic sensitivity of milbemycin oxime to Ancylostoma caninum%米尔贝肟对犬钩虫的体外作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐倩倩; 李继昌; 郭时金; 沈志强

    2012-01-01

    Anthelmintic sensitivity of milbemycin oxime to Ancylostoma caninum in vitrowas studied.Milbemycin oxime groups with concentrations of 1×10-5,1×10-6,1×10-7,1×10-8 and 1×10-9 g/mL respectively,as well as ivermectin group and control group were adopted to detect effects of milbemycin oxime on the morphology of quiescent larvae,larval motility and larval migration.It showed that most larvae under drug-free conditions assumed a straight morphology,free from deviations,and kinking or coiling.However,in subsequent drug-exposed wells,an increasing proportion of quiescent larvae had major deviations(kinking) at angles of greater than 45°,and these deviations involved a greater portion of the body than those associated with normally quiescent larvae under control conditions.Anthelmintic rate of milbemycin oxime can achieve 100% in the 8th hour at concentration of 1×10-5 g/mL,and milbemycin oxime has the same effects with ivermectin at the concentration of 1×10-6 g/mL(P0.05).Both milbemycin oxime and ivermectin had significant inhibitory effects on larval motility.In conclusion,Ancylostoma caninum is sensitive to milbemycin oxime.%为了评价犬钩虫对米尔贝肟的体外敏感性,试验设空白对照组,米尔贝肟高、中、低剂量组及伊维菌素对照组,考察了药物对犬钩蚴三期幼虫形态和活力的影响及对其移行能力的影响。结果显示,未添加药物的钩蚴大部分保持笔直,而几乎没有弯曲或者卷曲,而在药物添加组,部分钩蚴出现大于45°角的弯曲,弯曲程度远远大于未添加药物的正常虫体;米尔贝肟用药量在1×10-5 g/mL时,8h杀虫率达100%,米尔贝肟用药量为1×10-6 g/mL时杀灭犬钩虫幼虫的显效时间及杀虫效果与伊维菌素组差异不显著(P〉0.05);米尔贝肟和伊维菌素对犬钩蚴的移行有显著的抑制作用。结果表明,犬钩虫对米尔贝肟在体外具有一定的敏感性。

  10. Sequence conservation in the Ancylostoma secreted protein-2 of Necator americanus (Na-ASP-2) from hookworm infected individuals in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungcharoensuk, Charoenchai; Putaporntip, Chaturong; Pattanawong, Urassaya; Jongwutiwes, Somchai

    2012-12-01

    The Ancylostoma secreted protein-2 of Necator americanus (Na-ASP-2) was one of the promising vaccine candidates against the most prevalent human hookworm species as adverse vaccine reaction has compromised further human vaccine trials. To elucidate the gene structure and the extent of sequence diversity, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the Na-asp-2 gene of individual larvae from 32 infected subjects living in 3 different endemic areas of Thailand. Sequence analysis revealed that the gene encoding Na-ASP-2 comprised 8 exons. Of 3 nucleotide substitutions in these exons, only one causes an amino acid change from leucine to methionine. A consensus conserved GT and AG at the 5' and the 3' boundaries of each intron was observed akin to those found in other eukaryotic genes. Introns of Na-asp-2 contained 23 nucleotide substitutions and 0-18 indels. The mean number of nucleotide substitutions per site (d) in introns was not significantly different from the mean number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (d(S)) in exons whereas d in introns was significantly exceeded d(N) (the mean number of nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site) in exons (pOnchocerca volvulus, Heterodera glycines, Caenorhabditis elegans and human were relatively conserved, suggesting evolutionary conservation of these genes. Sequence conservation in Na-ASP-2 may not compromise further vaccine design if adverse vaccine effects could be resolved whereas microheterogeneity in introns of this locus may be useful for population genetics analysis of N. americanus. PMID:22964044

  11. Larval migration in PERL chambers as an in vitro model for percutaneous infection stimulates feeding in the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welz Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ancylostoma caninum third-stage larvae are the non-feeding infective stage of this parasite and are able to infect potential hosts via different infection routes. Since percutaneous infection is one of the most important routes and skin penetration is the first step into parasitic life, an existing in vitro model for percutaneous migration was modified and evaluated. The main parameter used to evaluate migration was the migration ratio (migrated larvae as a percentage of total number of larvae recovered. Additionally, the skin lag was calculated, expressing the percentage of larvae remaining in the skin and therefore not being recovered. Since initiation of feeding is proposed to be an important step in the transition from free-living to parasitic A. caninum larvae, feeding assays were performed with in vitro percutaneously migrated larvae. Additionally, infective larvae of A. caninum were activated via serum-stimulation and feeding behaviour was analysed and compared between percutaneously migrated and serum-stimulated larvae. Results Maximum skin migration levels of infective larvae were observed at temperatures above 32°C when larvae were placed on the epidermal side of skin for more than 12 hours. The medium beneath the skin had no effect on migration ratio, and no significant difference between the migration ratios through fresh and frozen/thawed skin was observed. Maximum feeding levels of 93.2% were observed for percutaneously migrated larvae after 48 h incubation, whereas serum-stimulated larvae reached the maximum of 91.0% feeding larvae after 24 h. Conclusions The PERL chamber system was optimised and standardised as an in vitro model for percutaneous migration. The larvae recovered after percutaneous migration showed characteristic signs of activation similar to that of serum-stimulated larvae. The observed difference in time course of resumption of feeding indicates that percutaneously migrated larvae are not

  12. Effect of experimental single Ancylostoma caninum and mixed infections of Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma congolense on the humoural immune response to anti-rabies vaccination in dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nwoha Rosemary Ijeoma Ogechi; Anene Boniface Maduka

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the effect of Ancylostoma caninum (A. caninum) and trypanosome parasites on the immune response to vaccination in dogs in endemic environments. Methods:Sixteen dogs for the experiment were grouped into 4 of 4 members each. Group I was the uninfected control one, and GPII was infected with A. caninum; GPIII was infected with A. caninum/Trypanosoma congolense (T. congolense), and GPIV was infected with Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei)/A. caninum. The dogs were first vaccinated with antirabies vaccine before infecting GPII, GPIII and GPIV with A. caninum which were done 4 weeks after vaccination. By 2-week post-vaccination, trypanosome parasites were superimposed on both GPIII and GPIV. A secondary vaccination was given to GPI, GPII, GPIII, and GPIV by Week 12 of the experiment (4 weeks post treatment). Results:The prepatent period was (3.00 ± 1.40) days, in the conjunct infection of T. brucei/A. caninum. It was (9.00 ± 1.10) days, in conjunct T. congolense/A. caninum. The prepatent period of A. caninum was (14.0 ± 2.0) days in the single A. caninum group and (13.0 ± 1.0) days in the conjunct trypanosome/A. caninum. At the 1st week after vaccination, the antibody titer in all the vaccinated groups (GPI, GPII, GPIII, and GPIV) significantly increased (P Conclusions:It was therefore concluded that A. caninum, T. brucei and T. congolense induced immunosuppression in antirabies vaccination in dogs.

  13. 十二指肠钩虫ASP-1成熟蛋白基因的克隆、原核表达及纯化%Cloning, expression, and purification of mature ancylostoma-secreted protein 1 of Ancylostoma duodenale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏晓玲; 孙炜

    2013-01-01

    Objective To obtain the gene encoding the mature ancylostoma-secreted protein 1 of Ancylostoma duodenale (mAd-ASP-1) and express it in E. coli. Methods In accordance with the published nucleotide sequence of mAd-ASP-l primers were designed and synthesized to amply the gene using RT-PCR. After sequencing, the target gene was cloned into the pET-22b( + ) plasmid, transformed into E. coli, and purified by affinity chromatography. Results The cDNA coding for mAd-ASP-1 was amplified with RT-PCR, and the plasmid pET-22b-mAd-ASP-l was successfully constructed. After induction with IPTG, the recombinant protein Ad-ASP-1 was expressed in solution with a relative molecular mass of 47 ku. The recombinant protein Ad-ASP-1 was purified using an affinity column, and the optimal concentration of im-idazole eluate was 100 mmol/L. Western blot analysis revealed that the recombinant mAd-ASP-1 protein could be combined with mouse anti-His-Tag, so the expressed protein was definitely confirmed to be the target protein. Conclusion The full-length gene coding for mAd-ASP-1 was obtained and a system for its prokaryotic expression was constructed. This provides a basis for large-scale production of the recombinant protein Ad-ASP-1.%目的 获得十二指肠钩虫(Ancylostoma duodenale)分泌蛋白1(mAd-ASP-1)编码基因全长并实现其原核表达. 方法 根据GenBank AAD13339公布的序列,设计并合成引物,RT-PCR扩增mAd-ASP-1的成熟肽全基因序列,测序后克隆至pET-22b(+)载体,转化大肠埃希菌,诱导表达Ad-ASP-1,亲和层析纯化. 结果 RT-PCR扩增获得了mAd-ASP-1基因全长,成功构建了原核表达质粒pET-22b-mAd-ASP-1,转化大肠埃希菌Rosetta-gami 2(DE3)菌株,经IPTG诱导,表达预期47 ku的重组蛋白Ad-ASP-1,且主要以可溶形式存在.利用His Trap HP亲和柱获得了纯化的重组蛋白Ad-ASP-1,确定纯化重组蛋白咪唑洗脱液最佳浓度为100 mmol/L.Western blot显示,该融合蛋白可被鼠抗His tag抗体识别.

  14. Effect of experimental single Ancylostoma caninum and mixed infections of Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma congolense on the humoural immune response to anti-rabies vaccination in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwoha Rosemary Ijeoma Ogechi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effect of Ancylostoma caninum (A. caninum and trypanosome parasites on the immune response to vaccination in dogs in endemic environments. Methods: Sixteen dogs for the experiment were grouped into 4 of 4 members each. Group I was the uninfected control one, and GPII was infected with A. caninum; GPIII was infected with A. caninum/Trypanosoma congolense (T. congolense, and GPIV was infected with Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei/A. caninum. The dogs were first vaccinated with antirabies vaccine before infecting GPII, GPIII and GPIV with A. caninum which were done 4 weeks after vaccination. By 2-week post-vaccination, trypanosome parasites were superimposed on both GPIII and GPIV. A secondary vaccination was given to GPI, GPII, GPIII, and GPIV by Week 12 of the experiment (4 weeks post treatment. Results: The prepatent period was (3.00 ± 1.40 days, in the conjunct infection of T. brucei/ A. caninum. It was (9.00 ± 1.10 days, in conjunct T. congolense/A. caninum. The prepatent period of A. caninum was (14.0 ± 2.0 days in the single A. caninum group and (13.0 ± 1.0 days in the conjunct trypanosome/A. caninum. At the 1st week after vaccination, the antibody titer in all the vaccinated groups (GPI, GPII, GPIII, and GPIV significantly increased (P < 0.05 and peaked at the 3rd week after vaccination. Following infections, there were marked significant decreases (P < 0.05 in the antibody production against rabies in GPII, GPIII and GPIV. The significant decrease (P < 0.05 in antibody titer was highest in the conjunct groups (GPIII and GPIV compared to the single infection (GPII. Treatment with diminazene aceturate and mebendazole did not significantly improve antibody response in the dogs. A secondary vaccination administered at the 12th week after the primary vaccination significantly increased (P < 0.05 the antibody titer with a peak at the 3rd week after the secondary vaccination. Conclusions: It was therefore concluded

  15. 犬钩虫(Ancylostoma caninum)天冬氨酸蛋白酶基因的克隆和在大肠杆菌中的表达%Cloning, expression and identification of aspartic protease gene of Ancylostoma caninum in E.coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉荣; 韦华

    2007-01-01

    目的 对犬钩虫(Ancylostoma caninum)天冬氨酸蛋白酶Asp基因进行了克隆,鉴定,并在原核系统中进行表达.方法 以犬钩虫总RNA为模板,用RT-PCR法对犬钩虫天冬氨酸蛋白酶Asp基因进行扩增,获得的Asp cDNA产物克隆进pMD-18T载体,用PCR筛选阳性克隆.碱裂解法进行质粒提取,单、双酶切进行鉴定并测序.将测序正确的阳性克隆进行双酶切,构建到表达载体pET-32a中,将此重组质粒先转化到E.coli DH5a内,提取质粒,酶切鉴定阳性,再转化入表达宿主 E.coli BL21(DE3)菌株内,对转化菌株用IPTG进行诱导培养.收集培养液,破菌、离心,上清进行SDS-PAGE,通过电转移将胶中蛋白转到硝酸纤维素膜上后进行免疫印迹分析.结果 电泳发现转化了重组质粒的菌株有表达蛋白,所表达蛋白相对分子量为40kDa,抗体检测有特异条带大小为40kDa.结论 成功进行了犬钩虫天冬氨酸蛋白酶Asp基因的克隆表达.

  16. 十二指肠钩虫ASP-2基因密码子优化及在大肠杆菌中高效表达%A study on codon optimization and expression of mature Ancylostoma-secreted protein 2 of Ancylostoma duodenale in Escherichia coil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏晓玲; 俞敏; 孙炜

    2014-01-01

    目的:获得十二指肠钩虫(Ancylostoma duodenale)分泌蛋白2(mAd-ASP-2)编码基因,构建其高效表达的大肠杆菌表达体系.方法:以RT-PCR的方法得到克隆了编码mAd-ASP-2的成熟肽全基因序列,克隆入原核表达载体pET-22b(+)中,组装成表达载体pET-22b-mAd-ASP-2.利用大肠杆菌偏爱密码子和GenScript rare codon analysis软件获得优化密码子优化的mAd-ASP-2*基因序列并人工合成该基因,将其克隆入原核表达载体pET-22b(+),组装成表达载体pET-22b-mAd-ASP-2*.将这2个表达载体分别转化入大肠杆菌表达菌株Rosetta-gami-2(DE3)中,经IPTG诱导表达.结果:同样条件下,密码子优化的mAd-ASP-2*基因比优化前能够获得较高的表达,且以可溶形式存在.利用His Trap HP亲和柱获得了纯化的重组蛋白mAd-ASP-2*,确定了纯化重组蛋白咪唑洗脱液最佳浓度为200 mmol/L.Western blot分析结果进一步显示,该融合蛋白可与鼠抗His-tag抗体发生特异性结合,说明表达蛋白为目的蛋白.结论:通过密码子优化实现了十二指肠钩虫ASP-2的高效表达,为进一步研究Ad-ASP-2的功能和以其作为血清学诊断抗原或保护性疫苗奠定了基础.

  17. Study on Ancylostoma caninum in dogs and the observation of different stages of life cycle%宠物犬犬钩虫的调查及生活史各期形态观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦华; 杨玉荣

    2006-01-01

    目的 犬钩虫(Ancylostoma canium)幼虫可以感染人体,但不能发育为成虫,仅引起皮肤幼虫移行症.方法 采用饱和盐水漂浮法和涂片法检查钩虫卵;用"T"滤纸条培养犬钩蚴;皮肤感染和灌喂人工感染实验狗.感染后不同时间解剖狗,从狗小肠获取钩虫,镜下观察和拍照.结果 厦门市30只宠物犬样本犬钩虫感染率为3.33%(1/30),蛔虫感染率为10.00%(3/30).对犬钩虫生活史各期的形态进行观察.结论 厦门市存在宠物犬犬钩虫感染,特别是农家狗的犬钩虫感染为多.

  18. 十二指肠钩虫热休克蛋白HSP60基因的克隆及重组表达%Cloning and expression of AduHSP60, a heat shock protein from Ancylostoma duodenale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许琴英; 邵正; 邓莉; 何庆丰; 彭礼飞

    2013-01-01

    目的 克隆十二指肠钩虫(Anc ylostoma duodenale)热休克蛋白60(heat shock protein 60,HSP60)基因,并在大肠埃希菌中表达获得重组AduHSP60蛋白.方法 以十二肠钩虫成虫cDNA为模板,PCR扩增AduHSP60基因.将获得的目的基因编码序列连接至原核表达载体pETHF,构建重组表达质粒pETHF/AduHSP60.重组质粒转化大肠埃希菌BL21(DE3),经IPTG诱导表达、Ni-NTA亲和层析分离纯化重组蛋白,SDS-PAGE分析重组蛋白的表达及纯化情况.结果 成功扩增到AduHSP60全长编码序列,编码序列长度为1 701 bp,编码566个氨基酸.构建了重组表达质粒pETHF/AduHSP60,经诱导表达、分离纯化获得了分子质量单位为60 ku的可溶性重组AduHSP60蛋白.结论 本研究从十二指肠钩虫中分离获得了HSP60基因,构建的pETHF/AduHSP60重组质粒能在大肠埃希菌中表达重组蛋白,为进一步研究AduHSP60的生物学功能奠定了基础.%Objective To clone and express heat shock protein 60 (AduHSP60) of the hookworm Ancylostoma duodenale.Methods The nucleotide sequence encoding AduHSP60 was amplified by PCR from adult A.duodenale cDNA and ligated into vector pETHF to construct the recombinant plasmid pETHF/AduHSP60.The recombinant plasmid was transformed into E.coli BL21(DE3) and induced with IPTG.The recombinant AduHSP60 was purified with Ni-NTA affinity chromatography.Results Full-length cDNA encoding AduHSP60 was successfully amplified.AduHSP60 consisted of 1,701 nucleotides and encoded 566 amino acids.The recombinant plasmid pETHF/AduHSP60 was constructed and the recombinant protein was expressed with IPTG.A protein with a molecular weight of about 60 ku was obtained and mainly existed in a soluble form.Conclusion The HSP60 gene in A.duodenale was isolated in this study and the recombinant AduHSP60 was expressed and purified in E.coli.This work has laid a foundation for further study of the function of AduHSP60.

  19. Infestação por ancilostomídeos e toxocarídeos em cães e gatos apreendidos em vias públicas, São Paulo (Brasil) Ancylostoma and toxocara infestation in dogs and cats impounded on through-fares of S. Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Valdson de Angelis Côrtes; Gil Vianna Paim; Rufino Antunes de Alencar Filho

    1988-01-01

    Foram examinadas fezes, coletadas após o sacrifício, de 9.150 cães e 674 gatos, capturados nas vias públicas do Município de São Paulo, SP (Brasil), visando o encontro de ovos e parásitos das famílias Ancylostomidae e Ascaridae. A coleta do material ocorreu durante os anos de 1980-1985. As seguintes taxas de infestação foram observadas: 59,83% dos cães e 22,26% dos gatos estiveram positivos para ovos de Ancylostoma sp., enquanto que 11,70% dos cães e 17,65% dos gatos apresentaram ovos de Toxo...

  20. 犬钩虫核糖体蛋白L36及S4A全长cDNA克隆与蛋白特性分析%Cloning and characterization analysis of the full-length RPL36 and RPS4A cDNA from Ancylostoma caninum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭礼飞; 邓莉; 吴亚敏; 胡晶晶; 杨陈; 甘伟琼

    2007-01-01

    目的 克隆犬钩虫Ancylostoma caninum核糖体蛋白L36(AcaRPL36)及S4A(AcaRPS4A) 全长cDNA序列,并对编码的蛋白特性进行分析,探讨它们在研究系统发育中的应用.方法 运用3'RACE技术并结合RT-PCR技术先后分别从犬钩虫中克隆核糖体蛋白L36及S4A的部分序列,经拼接后获得全长cDNA序列.用BlastP搜索相似性序列及保守结构域,所获序列在GenBank中登记,并用Neighbor-Joining(NJ ) 法构建基于RPL36及RPS4氨基酸序列的系统发育树.结果 AcaRPL36 全长cDNA序列(GenBank登录号为EF490128)为390 bp,开放阅读框为315 bp,编码104个氨基酸组成的蛋白;AcaRPS4A 全长cDNA序列(GenBank登录号为EF490129)为880 bp,开放阅读框为786 bp,编码261个氨基酸组成的蛋白.RPL36及RPS4序列较保守,与Caenorhabditis elegans等的亲缘关系较近的生物,在系统发育树中的遗传距离也较近.结论 首次获得犬钩虫RPL36及RPS4A,RPL36和RPS4可能作为分子指标应用于研究生物系统发育.

  1. Ueber Ancylostoma perniciosum v. Linstow und die Strongyliden des Elefanten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ihle, J.E.W.

    1919-01-01

    Als Herr Prof. MAX WEBER mich aufforderte einen Beitrag zu liefern zur Festschrift zum 70. Geburtstag des Herrn Dr. C. KERBERT, des verdienstvollen Direktors der Königlichen Zoologischen Gesellschaft „Natura Artis Magistra”, leistete ich mit Freude dieser Einladung Folge, da ich in den Jahren, in we

  2. 十二指肠钩虫金属蛋白酶组织抑制剂同源物Ad-TIMPL-1基因克隆及其原核表达%Cloning and prokaryotic expression of Ad-TIMPL-1, a tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase homologue from Ancylostoma duodenale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓莉; 邵正; 许琴英; 胡晶晶; 彭礼飞

    2011-01-01

    目的 克隆十二指肠钩虫金属蛋白酶组织抑制剂同源物(TIMPL)Ad-TIMPL-1基因并进行原核表达.方法 分别用3'RACE及RT-PCR技术从十二指肠钩虫成虫cDNA中扩增编码Ad-TIMPL-1的cDNA 3’末端及5’末端序列;序列经拼接后进行初步生物信息学分析;将Ad-TIMPL-1成熟肽编码序列克隆至原核表达载体pET-32a,构建重组表达质粒;重组质粒转化至大肠杆菌BL21( DE3)后,用IPIG诱导表达,SDS-PAGE分析表达情况.结果 成功克隆获得了编码Ad-TIMPL-1的全长cDNA序列并登记到GenBank (accession no.EF495071);Ad-TIMPL-1完整阅读框为396bp,编码132个氨基酸残基组成的蛋白,含16个氨基酸残基组成的信号肽;成功构建了原核表达重组质粒pET-32a/Ad-TIMPL-1,并在大肠杆菌中得到了表达.结论 本研究首先从十二指肠钩虫中克隆到了Ad-TIMPL-1基因并进行了原核表达,为进一步研究其生物学功能奠定了基础.%Objective To clone and express the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase homologue (TIMP like,TIMPL),Ad-TIMPL-1 ,from the hookworm Ancylostoma duodenale. Methods The 5' and 3' end of cDNA encoding Ad-TIMPL-1 were amplified by 3'RACE and RT-PCR from the cDNA of adult A. Duodenale, respectively .The nucleotide sequence encoding mature Ad-TIMPL-1 was ligated into pET32a to construct the recombinant plasmid pET32a/Ad-TIMPL-l. The recombinant plasraid was transformed into E.coli BL21 (DE3),and then expressed by inducing with IPTG and analysed by SDS-PAGE. Results The full-length cDNA of Ad-TIMPL-1 was obtained from A.duodenale and deposited in CenBank (accession no. EF495071). The full-length cDNA contains an open reading frame of 396 bp, which encoding the Ad-TIMPL-1 precursor of 132 amino acids with a signal peptide of 16 amino-acid-residue. The mature Ad-TIMPL-1 was expressed in E.coli BL21(DE3) after inducing by IPTG. Conclusion This study is the first report on the isolation, expression of a TIMP homologue from the

  3. Pathomorphology observation on nude mice immunized and challenged with third-stage infective hook worm (Ancylostoma caninum) larvae%犬钩虫第三期钩蚴免疫裸鼠再感染AcL3的组织病理学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭俭; 吴嘉形; 杨元清; 薛剑; 强慧琴; 肖树华

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe the inflammatory responses and morphology changes in the lung and skin of nude mice immunized and challenged with third stage hookworm larvae of Ancylostoma caninum (AcL3),and then,to investigate the feasibility of nude mice as vaccine screening animal model.Methods Nude mice BALB/c-nu/nu were immunized subcutaneously with three doses of 500 AcL3 at 2-week intervals,and then challenged percutaneously with 500 AcL3.Lungs and skins were excised from post-challenged nude mice after 6,24,72 h and 7 d,and then examined by light microscopy.Non-immunized nude mice served as negative controls.Results In both non-immunized mice and majority of immunized mice,the AcL3 exhibited no structural damage and infiltrating inflammatory cells were absent at the surrounding tissues.There were no changes in the architecture of skin and lung tissues.However.about 0.5%-2.2% AcL3 in the skin of immunized mice exhibited euticular swelling,damage and even death,and the surrounding tissue was infihrated by polymorphonuclear inflammatory cells.From 24 h to 72 h post-challenge,granulomata were observed surrounding the dead AcL3.ConchLsion Weak post-vaccination host immune response against challenged AcL3 was seen in nude mice,indicating that it was unsuitable to be used as vaccine screening animal model.%目的 观察裸鼠经犬钩虫第三期钩蚴(AcL3)免疫后,其皮肤和肺内AcL3的形态变化及宿主的组织细胞反应,评价其作为疫苗筛选动物模型的可能性. 方法取BALB/c-nu/nu 小鼠,每两周由皮下免疫接种活的AcL3 500条,共3次,并丁末次免疫后1周由皮肤攻击感染AcL3 500条.用未免疫的感染AcL3 裸鼠作对照,攻击感染后不同时间取感染部位皮肤和肺脏,观察宿卡皮肤和肺内AcL3的组织病理学变化. 结果攻击感染后6、24、72 h及7 d,皮肤内的绝人部分虫体切面形态和组织结构与感染对照裸鼠皮肤内的相似,仪0.5%~2.2%的虫体切而示有变性、死亡,偶见

  4. Cloning and expression of AduMIF-1, a macrophage migration inhibitory factor from Ancylostoma duodenale%十二指肠钩虫巨噬细胞迁移抑制因子基因的克隆和表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵正; 邓莉; 何庆丰; 彭礼飞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To clone and express AduMIF-1, a macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), from the hookworm Ancylostoma duodenale. Methods The nucleotide sequence encoding AduMIF-1 was amplified by PCR from the adult A. duodenale cDNA library and cloned to construct the recombinant plasmid pET32a/AduMIF-l. The recombi-nant AduMIF-1 fusion protein was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) and purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Results Full-length cDNA encoding AduMIF-1 was obtained from A. duodenale. The open reading frame of AduMIF-1 consisted of 360 nucleotides that encoded 119 amino acids. The AduMIF-1 fusion protein with a MW of 33 ku. was successfully expressed in E. coli after induction with IPTG and purification by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Conclusion A MIF from A. duodenale was cloned, expressed, and purified in this study, thus contributing to the further study of the biological function of AduMIF-1.%目的 克隆、表达十二指肠钩虫巨噬细胞迁移抑制因子(MIF) AduMIF-1基因.方法 设计、合成特异引物,以十二肠钩虫成虫cDNA为模板,通过PCR扩增AduMIF-1基因.将获得的AduMIF-1编码序列克隆至原核表达载体pET32a,构建重组表达质粒pET32a/AduMIF-1.重组表达质粒转入大肠埃希菌BL21(DE3)中,IPTG诱导表达并分离纯化重组AduMIF-1.结果 成功扩增到AduMIF-1全长编码序列,完整阅读框长度为360 bp,编码119个氨基酸.构建了重组表达质粒pET32a/AduMIF-1,经IPTG诱导表达和分离、纯化,获得了重组AduMIF-1,融和蛋白分子质量单位约为33 ku.结论 本研究从十二指肠钩虫中分离到MIF基因,并成功进行了重组表达、分离与纯化,为进一步研究AduMIF-1的生物学功能奠定了基础.

  5. 十二指肠钩虫谷胱甘肽转移酶AduGST-1基因的克隆和重组表达%Cloning and expression of AduGST-1, a glutathione S-transferase from Ancylostoma duodenale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵正; 何庆丰; 邓莉; 彭礼飞

    2012-01-01

    目的 克隆十二指肠钩虫谷胱甘肽转移酶(GST) AduGST-1基因,并在大肠埃希菌中表达获得重组AduGST-1.方法 设计特异引物,以十二肠钩虫成虫cDNA为模板,通过PCR扩增AduGST-1基因.将获得的AduGST-1编码序列克隆至原核表达载体pETHF,构建重组表达质粒pETHF/AduGST-1.重组质粒转化至大肠埃希菌BL21 (DE3),用IPTG诱导表达、Ni亲和层析分离纯化重组AduGST-1,SDS-PAGE分析重组蛋白表达及纯化情况.结果 成功扩增到AduGST-1全长编码序列,并登记到GenBank (accession no.JQ812812).AduGST-1编码序列长度为624 bp,编码307个氨基酸残基.成功构建了重组表达质粒pETHF/AduGST-1,在BL21(DE3)中表达并纯化了重组AduGST-1.结论 首次报道从十二指肠钩虫中分离到GST基因,该基因可在大肠埃希菌中高效表达,并分离纯化了重组GST蛋白,为进一步研究AduGST-1功能与应用奠定了基础.%Objective To clone and express AduGST-1, a glutathione S-transferase (GST) from the human hookwrom Ancylostoma duodenale. Methods The nucleotide sequence encoding AduGST-1 was amplified by PCR from adult A. duodenale cDNA and used to construct the recombinant plasmid pETHF/AduGST-1. The recombinant AduGST-1 was expressed in E.coli BL21 (DE3) and purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Results The full length of cDNA encoding AduGST-1 was obtained from A. duodenale and deposited in GenBank (accession no. JQ812812). It was composed of 624 nucleotides and encoded 307 amino acids. The recombinant plasmid pETHF/AduGST-1 was successfully constructed. The recombinant AduGST-1 was successfully expressed in E.coli,purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Conclusion It was the first time cloning, expression and purification of a GST in A. duodenale. This study will contribute to the further study on the functions and applications of AduGST-1.

  6. КОНТАМИНАЦИЯ ОБЪЕКТОВ ВНЕШНЕЙ СРЕДЫ ЯЙЦАМИ И ЛИЧИНКАМИ ANCYLOSTOMA CANINUM И UNCINARIA STENOCEPHALA В ЕВРОПЕЙСКОЙ ЧАСТИ РОССИИ

    OpenAIRE

    Петров, Ю.; Крючкова, Е.; Шахбиев, Х.; Шинкаренко, А.

    2012-01-01

    Установлена высокая обсемененность яйцами и личинками нематод Ancylostoma caninum и Uncinaria stenocephala почвы территорий парков, придомовых территорий и детских дошкольных учреждений в городах Волгоград, Грозный и Иваново, что создает серьезную опасность для человека и домашних животных...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (Ancylostoma tubaeforme), and large roundworms (Toxocara cati) in cats and kittens. (iii) Limitations. Not for... (Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma braziliense, and Uncinaria stenocephala), and tapeworms (Dipylidium...

  8. Molecular cloning and DNA binding characterization of DAF-16 orthologs from Ancylostoma hookworms⋆

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Xin; Frank, Daniel; John M Hawdon

    2008-01-01

    Infective hookworm L3s encounter a host-specific signal during infection that re-initiates a suspended developmental pathway, resulting in development to the adult stage. This resumption of development in the host is analogous to recovery of developmentally arrested Caenorhabditis elegans dauer larvae in response to favorable environmental signals. Dauer recovery in C. elegans dauers and hookworm L3s is mediated by insulin-like signaling (ILS). A key output of ILS in C. elegans is the forkhea...

  9. Studies on Immunological Reaction of Ancylostoma canimum Recombinant Protein Ac—rAsp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WenLi-yong; HotezPJ

    2001-01-01

    目的 分析犬钩虫基因重组蛋白Ac-rAsp,以了解该候选疫苗蛋白的免疫反应性。方法 采用SDS-PAGE和ELIB技术。结果 重组Ac-rAsp-I蛋白组分为45kDa,其免疫血清能识别Ac-L3抗原和Ac-rAsp-1蛋白,不与Ad-A、Ad-L3、Na-A、Ac-A、Nb-A抗原和Ac-rAsp-2蛋白起反应;重组Ac-rAsp-2蛋白组分为24kDa,其免疫血清能识别Ad-A、Ad-L3、Na-A、Ac-A、Ac-L3抗原和Ac-rAsp-2蛋白,不与Nb-A抗原和Ac-rAsp-1蛋白起反应。结论 该结果为钩虫免疫学和疫苗研究提供基础资料。

  10. A serologically diagnosed human case of cutaneous larva migrans caused by Ancylostoma caninum

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, In-Ho; Kim, Hyung-Su; Lee, Jong-Hee; Choi, Min-Ho; Chai, Jong-Yil; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Nawa, Yukifumi; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2003-01-01

    A 15-year-old boy, who had recently arrived back from a trip to Cambodia for a missionary camp, presented with several serpiginous thread-like skin lesions that began as small papules on the left upper extremities 2 weeks before his visit to Hospital. The skin lesions were pruritic and erythematous, and had migrated to the chest and abdomen. The histopathological findings showed only lymphocytic and eosinophilic infiltrations in the dermis of the biopsied skin lesion. The patient's serum reac...

  11. SERUM IgE LEVEL IN MICE INFECTED WITH SINGLE DOSES OF ANCYLOSTOMA CANINUM LARVAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. VIVEKA VARDHANI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of IgE in the serum of singly infected mice (group A, 500 dose; B, 1000 dose; group C, 2000 dose wasstudied during murine ancylostomiasis in all the 3 groups of singly infected animals, IgE level began to decreaseon 1st day of infection, reached the lowest value on day 30 and progressively declined from day 1 to 30 ofexperimental period. Statistical analysis indicated a significant decrease in all the 3 groups when compared withcontrols. These studies demonstrated that the larval antigens provoked an immune response resulting into a lowlevel of serum IgE in the mouse system.

  12. The structure of hookworm platelet inhibitor (HPI), a CAP superfamily member from Ancylostoma caninum

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Dongying; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Ribeiro, Jose M C; Andersen, John F

    2015-01-01

    Hookworm platelet inhibitor belongs to the cysteine-rich/antigen-5/pathogenesis-related 1 (CAP) protein family. It has been linked to integrin-antagonist, antiplatelet activity found in extracts of A. caninum hookworms.

  13. Hookworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hookworm disease; Ground itch; Ancylostoma duodenale infection; Necator americanus infection; Parasitic infection - hookworm ... with any of the following roundworms: Necator americanus Ancylostoma ... Ancylostoma ceylanicum Ancylostoma braziliense The first 2 ...

  14. 21 CFR 520.260 - n-Butyl chloride capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma braziliense, and Uncinaria stenocephala) from dogs and of the ascarid (Toxocara cati) and hookworm (Ancylostoma tubaeforme) from cats. (ii)(a) Animals should not be fed... (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina) and hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma braziliense,...

  15. 犬钩虫(Ancylostoma caninum)不同发育时期蛋白质组分分析%Analysis of the Protein Components of Ancylostoma caninum at Different Development Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦华; 杨玉荣

    2006-01-01

    为了解犬钩虫在不同发育时期蛋白质的表达情况,我们运用SDS-PAGE凝胶电泳对犬钩虫不同发育时期L3、L4和雌、雄虫的可溶性蛋白组分进行了分析,结果发现,L3期幼虫有22条蛋白带,L4期有17条蛋白带,雄虫有22条,雌虫有22条,各期既有共同的蛋白条带也有期特异性的蛋白条带.其中L3期蛋白条带较多,L3、L4期幼虫的蛋白条带和成虫的蛋白质条带有较大差别,而雄虫和雌虫之间差别很小.这可能与L3是感染期幼虫,需要分泌更多酶穿透宿主皮肤.对犬钩虫不同发育时期表达的蛋白进行分析,为进一步开展钩虫致病和期特异性抗原的免疫保护机制以及以抗原为基础的免疫学诊断研究奠定了基础.

  16. Molecular evidence of shared hookworm Ancylostoma tubaeforme haplotypes between the critically endangered Iberian lynx and sympatric domestic cats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Millán, J.; Blasco-Costa, Maria Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 186, 3-4 (2012), s. 518-522. ISSN 0304-4017 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Ancylostomiasis * Hookworm * Reservoir * Spain Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.381, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S030440171100759X#

  17. 21 CFR 520.905b - Fenbendazole granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... control of ascarids (Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina), hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria..., Toxascaris leonina), Hookworm (Ancylostoma spp.). (B) Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus): Ascarid (Toxocara cati... (Panthera onca): Ascarid (Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina), Hookworm (Ancylostoma spp.), Tapeworm...

  18. 21 CFR 520.600 - Dichlorvos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of use in dogs. (1) For removal of Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina (roundworms), Ancylostoma... of intestinal roundworms (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina) and hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum... (Toxocara cati and Toxascaris leonina) and hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme and Uncinaria stenocephala)....

  19. 21 CFR 524.1146 - Imidacloprid and moxidectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... leonina), hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala), and whipworms (Trichuris vulpis... (Toxocara cati), and hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme); kills adult fleas and treats flea...

  20. 77 FR 47511 - New Animal Drugs; Cephalexin; Fentanyl; Milbemycin Oxime and Praziquantel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... (Ancylostoma caninum), adult whipworm (Trichuris vulpis), and adult tapeworm (Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus..., Toxascaris leonina), adult hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum), adult whipworm (Trichuris vulpis), and...

  1. 21 CFR 520.903d - Febantel-praziquantel paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use. (i) Dogs and puppies: For removal of hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala... caninum and Taenia pisiformis). (ii) Cats and kittens: For removal of hookworms (Ancylostoma...

  2. 21 CFR 520.903e - Febantel tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... (2) Indications for use. (i) For removal of hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala...) For removal of hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme) and ascarids (Toxocara cati) in cats and kittens....

  3. Solid Medium-Filter Paper Cultivation of Ancylostoma caninum Larvae%犬钩蚴固体培养基滤纸培养法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许正敏; 李智山; 孙莉; 武小樱; 陶永平; 李明华

    2007-01-01

    作者采用固体培养基滤纸培养法培养的犬钩蚴检出率高,操作简便、快速,优于传统的试管滤纸培养法.固体培养基由牛肉膏(3g),蛋白胨(10g),氯化钠(5g),琼脂(20g)及蒸馏水配制.该法可用于快速诊断钩虫病.

  4. 犬钩虫(Ancylostoma caninum)不同发育时期蛋白质组分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦华; 杨玉荣

    2006-01-01

    为了解犬钩虫在不同发育时期蛋白质的表达情况,我们运用SDS-PAGE凝胶电泳对犬钩虫不同发育时期L3、L4和雌、雄虫的可溶性蛋白组分进行了分析,结果发现,L3期幼虫有22条蛋白带,L4期有17条蛋白带,雄虫有22条,雌虫有22条,各期既有共同的蛋白条带也有期特异性的蛋白条带。其中L3期蛋白条带较多,L3、L4期幼虫的蛋白条带和成虫的蛋白质条带有较大差别,而雄虫和雌虫之间差别很小.这可能与L3是感染期幼虫,需要分泌更多酶穿透宿主皮肤.对犬钩虫不同发育时期表达的蛋白进行分析,为进一步开展钩虫致病和期特异性抗原的免疫保护机制以及以抗原为基础的免疫学诊断研究奠定了基础.

  5. Advances in the studies on zoonotic Ancylostoma ceylanicum%人兽共患锡兰钩虫的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡伟; 郑国超; 李国清

    2014-01-01

    A ncylostoma ceylanicum is a parasite belonging to A ncylostoma,Ancylostomatidae,Strongylata,Secernentea,Nemathelminthes,mainly distributes in Asia and can infect humans and many mammals,such as dogs and cats.Since it was firstly reported in humans,the hookworm has always been regarded as a negligible parasite.Subsequent studies showed that human infections with A.ceylanicum could produce severe symptoms,such as ‘ground itch’,gastrointestinal discomfort and anemia.Recent molecular epidemiological surveys in some Asian countries have demonstrated that A.ceylanicum infection in humans was positively related to its prevalence in animals of same region.Dogs and cats,as natural reservoirs for A.ceylanicum,can cause environmental contamination to human life,therefore,prevention and control measures should be focused on protecting populations who directly contact with them.%锡兰钩虫是线形动物门、尾感器纲、圆线目、钩口科、钩口属的一种寄生虫,在亚洲地区广泛流行,可感染犬、猫等多种哺乳动物和人.该虫曾被认为是可忽略的寄生虫;后来的研究表明,锡兰钩虫可引起人体严重的症状,包括“钩虫痒”、腹部不适和贫血等.近年来亚洲地区的分子流行病学调查表明,人体的锡兰钩虫感染与犬、猫的锡兰钩虫感染呈正相关.犬、猫作为锡兰钩虫的自然宿主,可以对人类生活环境造成污染,因此在该病的防控措施中需要对接触犬、猫的人群进行重点保护.

  6. Cloning and Expression of Specific Antigen Genes of Ancylostoma caninum%犬钩虫特异性抗原基因的克隆与表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭湘荣; 薛海筹; 李铁华; 刘森

    2003-01-01

    目的寻找可诱发宿主保护性免疫力的犬钩虫特异性抗原.方法用犬钩蚴免疫获得保护性免疫力的家犬血清,免疫筛选犬钩虫Ⅲ期幼虫λZAPⅡcDNA文库,阳性克隆基因经测序,在质粒PUC18、PET28中进行一系列亚克隆,重组pET28C质粒诱导表达并对表达产物进行SDS-PAGE和Western blotting分析.结果从cDNA文库中筛获5个相同的阳性克隆,携带的犬钩虫抗原(AcAg)外源基因片段在原核体系(pET28C)中表达分子量为43kDa的融合蛋白.Western blotting分析该重组蛋白可与筛库的犬血清反应.结论 AcAg为新的犬钩虫特异性抗原,其基因与美丽纤杆线虫(Caenorhabditis elegans)基因unc-89同源性为35%.该抗原诱发宿主保护性免疫力及作为疫苗的潜力值得进一步研究.

  7. 钩虫致上消化道大出血1例%Upper gastrointestinal massive bleeding caused by ancylostoma (a case report)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫军

    2000-01-01

    @@ 患者女,20岁.5年来反复出现上腹部疼痛伴反酸嗳气.出现解黑便及呕血,伴头晕、眼花及乏力2d入院,体查:体温38.2℃,脉搏126次/min,呼吸22次/min,血压120/75mmHg,急性重病容,贫血貌,心肺正常,腹平软,上腹部轻压痛,无反跳痛,肝脾未触及,未触及包块,腹水征(-),肠鸣音活跃.

  8. A case with Ancylostoma duodenale larvae in ascitic acid%腹水中发现十二指肠钩虫幼虫一例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张潞渝; 朱朝君; 张静

    2000-01-01

    @@ 患者,男性,72岁.5年前从辽宁省沈阳市来到重庆市居住.因不明原因的腹胀、厌油、纳差和乏力,随后出现腹部进行性膨隆2 wk,于1999年8月30日入重庆市巴南区第二人民医院就诊.体检:体温36.8℃,心率80次/min,律齐,呼吸20次/min,BP14/7 kPa,眼睑水肿,双下肢轻微水肿.B超:脾大,肝区回声增粗,门静脉及脾静脉扩张,腹腔大量积液,门诊以"腹水待查”收治入院.腹穿:取半侧卧位,以脐与左侧髂前上棘连线的中外1/3处为穿刺点,用9号穿刺针头抽出淡黄色透明液体1 500ml,内见线状虫体3条,其中一条送病理科,另两条送我室鉴定.临床拟诊断血吸虫性肝硬化.虫种鉴定:肉眼观察,虫体乳白色半透明细线状,一条虫体中部有破损,头尾均完整.

  9. 十二指肠钩虫直肠寄生1例报道%Ancylostoma duodenale parasitized in human rectum——a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑德福; 严瑾; 田洪春; 李明惠; 陈漪澜

    2007-01-01

    寄生人体小肠的十二指肠钩虫以其钩齿咬附于肠壁摄取血液和粘膜为营养,并不断将吸人的血液迅速从肛门排出,同时不断分泌抗凝血酶,致使伤口常渗血不止。加之钩虫不断迁移咬附部位,造成新老伤口持续流血。2006—09收治1名因十二指肠钩虫直肠寄生所致的失血患者,经及时驱虫治疗与对症处理,病情得以明显控制与改善,现报告如下。

  10. Effect of Tribendimidine on the Ultrastructure of Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus%三苯双脒对钩虫超微结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许世锷; 吴中兴; 金立群

    2003-01-01

    应用透射电镜观察了用三苯双脒在人体驱出的十二指肠钩虫和美洲钩虫的超微结构变化,结果显示三苯双脒400mg顿服对两种钩虫的体壁、肠管及卵巢的细胞膜、细胞核及多种细胞器均有明显的破坏作用,其中以对卵巢的破坏作用最为严重.

  11. Molecular analysis of the F167Y SNP in the β-tubulin gene by screening genotypes of two Ancylostoma caninum populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Luis Fernando Viana; Rabelo, Élida Mara Leite

    2015-05-30

    Mutations in the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene at codons 167 (F167Y), 198 (E198A) and 200 (F200Y) have been associated with benzimidazole resistance in helminths. The F200Y polymorphism has previously been described for Ancylostom caninum; however, the F167Y polymorphism has not been investigated in members of the Ancylostomatidae family. The aim of this study was to screen for the F167Y polymorphism in A. caninum isolates recovered from naturally infected dogs in two Brazilian states. No mutation was observed at codon 167 in the 230 analyzed samples from the two populations; however, it is possible that this change may be present at a low frequency in other populations of the same species. These results highlight the importance of monitoring the genetic basis involved in the drug resistance process. PMID:25865406

  12. Влияние комбинаций пирантела эмбоната с фебантелом и празиквантелом (Дронтал), пирантела эмбоната с оксантела эмбонатом и празиквантелом и милбемицин оксима на инвазию анкилостомами Ancylostoma caninum у собак

    OpenAIRE

    Теренс, Джон; Пол, Гир; Аннет, Шиммель

    2012-01-01

    В данном исследовании оценивали эффективность пяти антигельминтных препаратов широкого спектра действия для собак при естественной инвазии зрелыми формами Ancylostoma caninum. Три препарата содержали пирантела эмбонат в комбинации с оксантела эмбонатом и празиквантелом, один препарат – пирантела эмбонат в комбинации с фебантелом и празиквантелом (Дронтал). Каждый из этих препаратов вводили однократно перорально в группах по 11 инвазированных собак в дозе по 14,3 мг/кг веса тела (мг/кг) пирант...

  13. Seria o Ancylostoma caninum um dos agentes da neurorretinite sub-aguda difusa unilateral (D.U.S.N.) no Brasil? Would Ancylostoma caninum be one of the agents of diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (D.U.S.N) in Brazil?

    OpenAIRE

    Antônio Marcelo Barbante Casella; Roberto Augusto Machado; Andréa Tsuro; Maurício Hato; Rogério Costa; Michel Eid Farah

    2001-01-01

    Os autores apresentam um caso de neurorretinite subaguda difusa unilateral (D.U.S.N) confirmada com a identificação da larva em uma criança de 6 anos associada a quadro de larva migrans cutânea, bem como a análise de outros sete casos de D.U.S.N. e sua associação sorológica à toxocaríase e antecedentes de larva migrans cutânea. Este é o primeiro caso descrito na literatura de D.U.S.N. concomitante a larva migrans cutânea na fase ativa.The autors present a confirmed case of diffuse unilateral ...

  14. 十二指肠钩虫天冬氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂的克隆与表达%Cloning and expression of an aspaartyl protease inhibitors(Ad-API-1)from Ancylostoma duodenale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振林; 邓莉; 杨陈; 彭礼飞

    2009-01-01

    目的 克隆并表达十二指肠钩虫天冬氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂(Ad-API-1). 方法 根据犬钩虫及锡兰钩虫API保守序列设计引物,RT-PCR扩增获得Ad-API-1完整阅读框序列,并将Ad_API-1成熟肽编码序列克隆、连接到原核表达栽体pET32a,以构建重组表达质粒,转化至大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)中用IPTG诱导表达,用Ni亲和层析进行纯化. 结果 成功克隆获得Ad-API-1完整阅读框序列;构建了pgl32a/Ad-API-1重组质粒.Ad-API-1在大肠杆菌中得到了高效表达. 结论 成功克隆并表达Ad-API-1,为进一步研究Ad-API-1的功能,探讨其作为血清学诊断抗原或保护性疫苗奠定了基础.

  15. 十二指肠钩虫锰超氧化物岐化酶基因的克隆与表达%Cloning and expression of the manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) gene from Ancylostoma duodenale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付汉维; 邓莉; 何庆丰; 吴亚敏; 彭礼飞

    2009-01-01

    目的 克隆十二指肠钩虫锰超氧化物岐化酶(AdMn-SOD)基因,并在大肠埃希菌中表达. 方法 用3'RACE及RT-PCR技术扩增获得AdMn-SOD全长cDNA编码序列;设计引物,克隆AdMn-SOD成熟肽编码序列,连接到原核表达载体pET32a,构建重组表达质粒,转化大肠埃希菌BL21(DE3)并用IPTG诱导表达,SDS-PAGE分析表达情况,诱导表达的重组蛋白用Ni亲和层析进行纯化. 结果 成功克隆获得AdMn-SOD全长cDNA序列,推导编码的氨基酸序列具有Mn-SOD的保守结构特征;构建了pET32a/AdMn-SOD原核表达重组质粒,AdMn-SOD在大肠埃希菌中得到高效表达,表达的融合蛋白的分子质量单位约为40 ku. 结论 成功克隆并表达了十二指肠钩虫锰超氧化物岐化酶基因,为进一步了解十二指肠钩虫锰超氧化物岐化酶的特性与功能奠定了基础.

  16. 重组犬钩虫分泌蛋白抗血清的免疫反应性%Studies on Immunological Reaction of the Antiserum of Recombinant Secreted Protein from Ancylostoma Caninum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻礼永; Hotez PJ

    2001-01-01

    目的分析重组犬钩虫分泌蛋白抗血清与钩虫不同种、期抗原的免疫反应性.方法用微型垂直电泳槽进行SDS-PAGE,以低分子量标准蛋白作参照.ELIB试验:以重组犬钩虫分泌蛋白-1(Ac-rAsp-1)或重组犬钩虫分泌蛋白-2(Ac-rAsp-2)免疫鼠血清作第一抗体,羊抗鼠IgG-HRP作第二抗体,用Western blotting发光底物试剂反应,全自动摄影,按照底片中显示带的位置测出相应分子量.结果与结论 Ac-rAsp-1组分为45kDa,其免疫血清能识别犬钩虫第Ⅲ期幼虫(Ac-L3)抗原和Ac-rAsp-1,不与十二指肠钩虫成虫(Ad-A)、十二指肠钩虫第Ⅲ期幼虫(Ad-L3)、美洲钩虫成虫(Na-A)、犬钩虫成虫(Ac-A)、巴西日圆线虫成虫(Nb-A)抗原和Ac-rAsp-2起反应;Ac-rAsp-2组分为24 kDa,其免疫血清能识别Ad-A、Ad-L3、Na-A、Ac-A、Ac-L3抗原和Ac-rAsp-2,不与Nb-A抗原和Ac-rAsp-1起反应.

  17. 犬钩虫C型凝集素AcaCTL-1基因的克隆及表达%Cloning and expression of a C-type lectin(AcaCTL-1)gene from Ancylostoma caninum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓莉; 金娴; 何庆丰; 许琴英; 吴亚敏; 彭礼飞

    2010-01-01

    目的 分离鉴定犬钩虫C型凝集素AcaCTL-1基因,并在大肠埃希菌中表达.方法 根据EST序列设计引物,用RT-PCR及3,(RACE技术扩增获得AcaCTL-1伞长cDNA序列,并对其进行初步生物信息学分析;将AcaCTL-l成熟肽编码序列克隆、连接到表达载体pET32a.构建重组质粒pET32a/AcaCTL-1;在大肠埃希菌BL21(DE3)中诱导表达重组蛋白,SDS-PAGE分析表达情况,Ni亲和层析纯化可溶性蛋白.结果 成功克隆了AcaCTL-1全长cDNA序列,其最大开放阅读框由525 bp组成,预测编码174个氨基酸残基组成的蛋白,含17个氨基酸组成的信号肽,为C型凝集索家族蛋白成员;构建pET32a/AcaCTL-1莺组质粒,并在大肠埃希菌中高效表达.表达产物多以包涵体形式存在,小部分为可溶性蛋白.结论 成功克隆并表达了犬钩虫C型凝集素AcaCTL-基因,为进一步了解AcaCTL-1的功能奠定了基础.

  18. 中药全蝎对体外培养犬钩口线虫钩蚴作用的观察%In vitro Effect of Medicinal Scorpion on the Larvae of Ancylostoma caninum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许正敏; 李智山; 温茂兴; 彭荣越; 孙莉; 武小樱; 周乐翔; 陶永平; 杨雷

    2008-01-01

    为了解中药全蝎 (scorpion) 对犬钩口线虫 (Arcylostoma caninum) 钩蚴的作用,取感染钩口线虫犬粪便(含钩虫卵)5 g.均匀平铺于紧贴细菌干粉固体培养基的滤纸上,轻压使其紧密接触滤纸,置平皿中,盖上平皿盖,并用湿毛巾保持湿度.35℃培养24 h.水洗沉淀,分离钩蚴,分装3瓶 [2ml/瓶(低倍镜每个视野1~3个钩蚴)].实验组分别加入中药全蝎(2 ml)、阿苯达唑(10 mg),对照组加2 ml生理盐水.同上法继续培养24 h.显微镜观察钩蚴生长发育情况.结果显示,中药全蝎组虫体明显缩小,停止发育,内部结构模糊不清,呈粒沙状.阿苯达唑组虫体僵直、萎缩,体表不光滑、无蛋白质折光性,内部结构不清,团块状,凸凹不一.表明中药全蝎、阿苯达唑对钩蚴发育有明显的抑制作用,后者更为明显.

  19. 钩虫抗原组份分析及其免疫反应性的研究%ANALYSIS OF ANTIGEN COMPONENTS OF ANCYLOSTOMA DUODENALE AND COMPARISION OF THEIR IMMUNE REACTIVITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻礼永; 邓珊珊; 任苏平; 宋昌存

    2000-01-01

    应用SDS-PAGE和ELIB对十二指肠钩虫第三期幼虫和成虫可溶性抗原蛋白组份及免疫反应性进行了比较研究.SDS-PAGE电泳结果显示,钩虫幼虫和成虫蛋白区带数分别为21条和19条.ELIB反应表明,钩虫幼虫和成虫特异性抗原组份为40~41 kDa和54~56 kDa.该结果为钩虫病免疫学及其疫苗的研究提供了科学资料.

  20. 阿苯达唑氟苯达唑和吡喹酮对犬钩蚴的作用%Effect of albendazole, flubendazole and praziquantel against larvae of Ancylostoma caninum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许正敏; 李智山; 孙莉; 武小樱; 陶永平; 李明华

    2008-01-01

    目的 了解阿苯达唑、氟苯达唑和吡喹酮对犬钩蚴的作用.方法 将药物与标本充分混匀,置于固体培养基滤纸上,均匀按压后,盖上平皿盖.置35 ℃培养(孵化)箱培养24 h,分别将药物与培养物钩蚴混匀,用水洗沉淀法镜下分别观察药物作用24、48 h的沉淀物中钩蚴的生长发育情况.结果 药物作用24、48 h后,与对照组相比,阿苯达唑效果明显,钩蚴发育停止、轮廓模糊、内部结构不清消失.氟苯达唑几乎无作用.吡喹酮结果与对照组相同,可见钩蚴明显长大,体态自然、虫体透明、轮廓明显、结构清晰.结论 阿苯达唑对犬钩蚴发育有明显的抑制作用,氟苯达唑和吡喹酮对犬钩蚴发育无抑制作用.

  1. 胃镜下直视虫体准确诊断十二指肠钩虫病%Accurate diagnosis of Ancylostoma duodenele under direct vision of gastroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐芳

    2004-01-01

    肠道钩虫病是基层医院常见疾病,该病是由钩虫寄生人体小肠引起的疾病,临床上以贫血、营养不良、胃肠功能失调为主要表现,严重者可致发育障碍及心功能不全。既往诊断钩虫病主要依靠临床症状及粪便检查,但粪便检查找钩虫阳性率低,容易造成漏诊误诊。本文通过对40例粪集卵阴性、最后经胃镜找到钩虫而确诊的病例,分析其临床特点及确诊经过。

  2. 米尔贝肟片治疗犬弓蛔虫病与钩虫病的疗效观察%Therapeutic Observation of Milbemycin Oxime Tablet on Toxocara canis and Ancylostoma caninum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓蕾; 李继昌; 张耀腾; 曲明丽; 向文胜

    2011-01-01

    为了观察米尔贝肟片对犬弓蛔虫和钩虫驱虫效果,采用人工感染方式,对犬弓蛔虫和钩虫的动物模型进行疗效研究.结果表明,单次口服0.5 mg/kg米尔贝肟片对犬弓蛔虫和犬钩虫的虫卵减少率、驱虫有效率和治愈率均可达到100%.说明米尔贝肟片在治疗犬弓蛔虫和钩虫时具有剂量小、疗效高、作用快、副反应轻等特点,在临床治疗方面有十分广阔的应用前景.

  3. Study on the Genetic Diversity of Ancylostoma duodenale Collected from Anhui and Sichuan Provinces in China%我国安徽和四川十二指肠钩虫遗传差异的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铁华; 郭湘荣; 胡铃; 薛海筹; John M HAWDON

    2003-01-01

    比较我国十二指肠钩虫不同地理株之间的遗传差异.采集安徽和四川两省的十二指肠钩虫,用PCR技术扩增COI基因,同时测序并用MEGA软件进行遗传差异的分析.根据DNA序列结果分析,来自两个省的十二指肠钩虫遗传差异较小,相似性为96%~100%,序列差异值在0.5%~3.24%之间;从构建的NJ树和MP树结果分析,两省的十二指肠钩虫存在不同的基因型.结果表明,从安徽和四川B点采集的十二指肠钩虫与四川A点的十二指肠钩虫分别为两个不同的基因型.

  4. 伊维菌素驱除犬钩虫和人钩虫感染的效果观察%OBSERVATION ON THE EFFICACY OF IVERMECTIN AGAINST ANCYLOSTOMA CANINUM AND HUMAN HOOKWORM INFECTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严晓岚; 闻礼永; 杨明瑾; 漏磊君

    2007-01-01

    为观察伊维菌素驱治犬钩虫和人钩虫感染的效果,采用伊维菌素6.25、12.5和25 μg/kg灌服治疗犬钩虫感染犬,同时用10.6 mg/kg阿苯哒唑作对照;采用伊维菌素0.2 mg/kg顿服治疗人钩虫感染者,并用400 mg/次阿苯哒唑作对照.结果6.25、12.5和25 μg/kg伊维菌素对犬钩虫治愈率分别为20%(1/5)、60%(3/5)和100.0%(5/5);而对照组阿苯哒唑对犬钩虫治愈率为0(0/5).伊维菌素与阿苯哒唑对人钩虫感染者的治愈率分别为20.5%(9/44)和76.5%(26/34),对十二指肠钩虫较美洲钩虫敏感.因此,伊维菌素治疗犬钩虫感染疗效优于阿苯哒唑,治疗人钩虫感染疗效不及阿苯哒唑.

  5. Cloning, expression and anticoagulant activities of anticoagulant peptide AcaNAP8 from Ancylostoma caninum%犬钩虫抗凝肽AcaNAP8的原核表达及其抗凝活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷环; 邓莉; 王会兰; 吴亚敏; 彭礼飞

    2010-01-01

    目的 在大肠杆菌中重组表达犬钩虫抗凝肽AcaNAP8基因,并检测表达产物抗凝活性.方法 设计引物,将AcaNAP8成熟肽编码序列克隆、连接到原核表达载体pET32a,构建重组表达质粒;成功构建的重组表达质粒转化到大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)中用IPTG诱导表达,SDS-PAGE分析表达情况;诱导表达的重组蛋白用Ni亲和层析进行纯化;用凝血酶原时问(PT)和活化的部分凝血活酶时间(aPTTr)检测重组产物体外抗凝活性.结果 成功构建了pET32a/AcaNAP8原核表达重组质粒,在大肠杆菌中成功表达并获得了重组AcaNAP8,表达产物能明显延长PT及aPTT.结论 在大肠杆菌中成功表达了AcaNAP8融合蛋白,表达产物具有显著抗凝活性.该实验为进一步探讨AcaNAP8的作用机制及应用奠定了基础.

  6. 胃钩虫感染与胃十二指肠溃疡两例报告%Two cases of Ancylostoma duodenale infection complicated with gastro-duodenal ulcer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩; 张永年; 陈韶红; 常正山

    2009-01-01

    @@ 病例资料 病例1,男性,45岁,浙江省永嘉县农民.2008年7月上腹不适有压痛半月余,经常赤脚在菜地施肥、浇水,近两年来上海经商,身体消瘦乏力,上腹饱闷不适,胃部隐痛,近半月有痛加剧.

  7. Intestinal nematodes of stray dogs as zoonoses agents in D. Pedrito city (RS-Brazil) Nematodes intestinales de perros callejeros como agentes de zoonosis en la ciudad de D. Pedrito (RS-Brasil)

    OpenAIRE

    Adriane N. Hoffmann; Nilzane Beltrão; Sônia de Avila Botton; Brasil Xavier Caminha; Mario Luiz de la Rue

    2000-01-01

    La prevalencia de nematodes intestinales en perros fue el objetivo de esta investigación, principalmente debido al riego de zoonosis. Fueran analizadas heces de 65 perros aleatoriamente capturados en las calles de la ciudad de D. Pedrito (RS-Brasil). En 43 (66,2%) del total de las muestras analizadas, fueran encontrados huevos de nematodes intestinales, como sigue: Toxocara sp. 1 (1,5%), Ancylostoma sp. 30 (46,2%), Trichuris sp. 6 (9,2%), Ancylostoma sp. / Trichuris sp. 4 (6,2%) y Ancylostoma...

  8. 十二指肠钩虫抗凝蛋白AduNAP7的原核表达、纯化及抗凝活性鉴定%Prokaryotic expression,purification and anticoagulant activities analysis of AduNAP7,an anticoagulant protein from Ancylostoma duodenale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭礼飞; 邓莉; 杨陈; 胡晶晶; 甘伟琼; 吴亚敏; 付汉维

    2007-01-01

    目的 在大肠杆菌中表达十二指肠钩虫抗凝蛋白AduNAP7并鉴定抗凝活性.方法 运用RT-PCR扩增十二指肠钩虫抗凝蛋白AduNAP7成熟蛋白及其组成肽段AduNAP7A、AduNAP7B的编码序列;将编码序列克隆、连接到原核表达载体pET32a及pICET32,构建重组表达质粒;成功构建的重组表达质粒转化到大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)中,用IPTG诱导表达;用镍亲和层析一步纯化融合有硫氧还蛋白(Trx)的目的蛋白;先后用几丁质亲和层析及镍亲和层析两个步骤纯化自切割后带6×his-tag的目的蛋白;用凝血酶原时间(PT)和活化部分凝血活酶时间(aPTT)检测纯化表达产物的体外抗凝活性.结果 获得AduNAP7、AduNAP7A及AduNAP7B的编码序列并成功构建了原核表达重组质粒;AduNAP7、AduNAP7A及AduNAP7B均在大肠中得到了高效可溶表达,纯化产物具有一定抗凝活性,它们延长aPTT比延长PT更有效.AduNAP7B的抗凝活性显著强于AduNAP7及AduNAP7A.结论 AduNAP7具有较强抗凝活性,但显著弱于AcAP5、AcaNAP7及AcAPc2.AduNAP7的抗凝效应可能利于钩虫在人体内的吸血寄生生活,其抗凝作用机制有待进一步研究.

  9. Record on Three Cases of Severe Infection Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichostrongylus orientalis and Strongyloides stercoralis%十二指肠钩虫、东方毛圆线虫和粪类圆线虫3例重度感染的记述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪家旭; 潘沧桑; 牛建军; 刘凡; 王阶平

    2010-01-01

    从病原学、个案感染史、症状和体征等方面,对近几年寄生虫病项目进行调查,确诊了十二指肠钩虫、东方毛圆线虫和粪类圆线虫各1例重度感染者,其每克粪虫卵数(EPG)分别为3 744,3 016,4 139.其中,前者是其他医院误诊的对象,后两者是闽西南人体感染的首次报道.人群抽样调查结果表明,厦门市某农村钩虫感染率高达44.86%,应引起高度关注.

  10. 重庆荣昌犬钩虫ITS及5.8S rDNA的克隆及序列分析%On Cloning and Sequence Analysis of ITS and 5.8S rDNA of Ancylostoma Caninum in Rongchang, Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽; 周荣琼; 林洁; 谭燕财; 马光旭; 敖冯虎

    2013-01-01

    利用聚合酶链式反应(PCR)扩增犬钩虫rDNA的ITS及5.8S序列,然后将PCR扩增产物回收纯化后连接到pMDTM 19-T载体上进行克隆.重组质粒通过菌落PCR鉴定,将阳性重组质粒进行序列测定并且进行序列分析.结果显示,5株犬钩虫荣昌分离株ITS序列的总长为833 bp~834 bp.ITS-1序列总长无差异,但存在个别碱基的差异;5.8S序列总长与序列均无差异;ITS-2序列总长存在差异(221 bp~222 bp).通过与GeneBank上报道的其他钩虫的ITS序列进行相似性分析,发现犬钩虫荣昌分离株(RCF)与犬钩虫广州分离株相似性最高,为99.9%,与美国北海狮弯口属钩口线虫ITS序列的相似性最低,为86.1%.表明ITS可作为分子标记用于犬钩虫种属以及种间的鉴定.该研究结果旨在为今后犬钩虫的分类鉴定、种群遗传关系、分子流行病学调查以及对该病的防治等方面的更深入研究奠定基础.

  11. STUDY ON THE POTENCY OF IVERMECTIN AGAINST NIPPOSTRONGYLUS BRAZILIENSIS , ANCYLOSTOMA CARINUM EGGS AND LARVAE%伊维菌素抗巴西日圆线虫感染及对犬钩虫卵和杆状蚴的药效研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓立君; 王继春; 梁再赋

    2000-01-01

    目的为提供国产伊维菌素临床应用的科学依据,本文就其抗巴西日圆线虫感染及对犬钩虫卵和杆状蚴的作用进行了体内及体外的实验研究。方法取巴西日圆线虫卵用滤纸培养法进行体外培养,收集感染性幼虫经皮接种Wistai大鼠;采用水洗沉淀法收集钩虫卵,通过试管滤纸法培养杆状蚴。结果伊维菌素投与量在0.1mg/kg~0.3mg/kg,对中度感染巴西日圆线虫的大鼠具有明显的驱虫效果,0.1mg/kg时的驱虫率为92.07±5.66%,0.3mg/kg时的驱虫率为100%。而左旋咪唑投与量在15mg/kg时,才能取得与伊维菌素相同的驱虫效果。伊维菌素在0.005mg/ml~0.1mg/ml的范围内均有杀灭钩虫卵的作用,而相同剂量的左旋咪唑未见有此作用。然而伊维菌素在0.001mg/ml~0.3mg/ml剂量范围内对犬钩虫杆状蚴虽有一定的杀灭作用,但其效果低于相同浓度的左旋咪唑。结论进一步揭示伊维菌素对某些寄生虫具有高效的杀灭作用。

  12. 阿苯达唑、氟苯达唑、芬苯达唑和吡喹酮对犬钩口线虫卵的作用%Effect of abdendazole,flubendazole,fenbendazole and praziquantel on Ancylostoma caninum eggs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许正敏; 李智山; 孙莉; 武小樱; 陶永平; 李明华

    2007-01-01

    目的 观察阿苯达唑、芬苯达唑、氟苯达唑和吡喹酮对犬钩口线虫卵作用.方法 分别将药物与标本充分混匀,置于固体培养基滤纸上,用竹签轻轻的均匀按压,使之与滤纸广泛、紧密接触,盖上平皿盖.放350C培养(孵化)箱培养,分别将培养物,用水洗沉淀后的沉淀物镜下观察.结果 培养24h后,对照组,镜下可见正常发育钩蚴;阿苯达唑组之虫卵与培养前虫卵形态结构相似,但未见发育.氟苯达唑组,可见卵细胞分裂.芬苯达唑组虫卵发育成含胚卵.吡喹酮组之虫卵发育成含卷曲钩蚴.结论 阿苯达唑对虫卵发育有明显的抑制作用,氟苯达唑次之.芬苯达唑和吡喹酮对虫卵发育无抑制作用.

  13. 基于核糖体RNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2基因序列的十二指肠钩虫分子系统发育分析%Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Ancylostoma duodenales based on ITS1-5.8SrRNA-ITS2 gene sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪家旭; 苏成豪; 黄建炜; 叶曦; 李国伟

    2015-01-01

    目的 通过克隆十二指肠钩虫的ITS1-5.8S-ITS2,初步分析钩口属的系统发育,构建基于ITS1、ITS2的圆线目线虫的系统进化树,为进一步研究其遗传进化关系奠定基础.方法 从厦门海沧东孚镇收集标本,分离,形态鉴定为十二指肠钩虫,分别克隆了供试钩虫的ITS1-5.8S-ITS2序列,经NCBI网站的BLAST比对以及基于ITS1和ITS2序列的钩口属的系统发育分析.结果 供试钩虫的ITS1、5.8S和ITS2序列,它们的长度分别为366 bp、153 bp和221 bp,登陆http://WWW.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov进行BLAST,在数据库中没有与之相匹配的序列,将获得的序列作为新的序列上传至GenBank中进行注册,各序列的GenBank登录号分别为:5.8S rRNA基因:EU344796、ITS1-5.8S-ITS2:EU344797.结论 从系统进化树中,本实验的供试十二指肠钩虫均与GenBank中已公布的十二指肠钩口线虫自然聚类在一起.

  14. 十二指肠钩虫脂肪酸与视黄醇结合蛋白(Ad-FAR-1) 基因的克隆及原核表达%Cloning and Prokaryotic Expression of Fatty Acid and Retinol Binding Protein (Ad-FAR-1) from Ancylostoma duodenale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭礼飞; 胡晶晶; 邓莉; 杨陈; 甘伟琼; 吴亚敏; 付汉维

    2007-01-01

    目的 克隆十二指肠钩虫脂肪酸与视黄醇结合蛋白(Ad-FAR-1)基因并在大肠杆菌中表达.方法 运用3'RACE及RT-PCR技术分别扩增Ad-FAR-1 cDNA部分片段,获得序列经拼接后利用在线BLAST程序检索GenBank中相似的核酸序列及推导的氨基酸序列;设计引物,将Ad-FAR-1成熟肽编码序列克隆、连接到原核表达载体pET32a,构建重组表达质粒并转化到大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)中用IPTG诱导表达,SDS-PAGE分析表达情况.结果 成功克隆到Ad-FAR-1全长cDNA序列并构建了pET32a/Ad-FAR-1原核表达重组质粒,Ad-FAR-1融合蛋白在大肠中得到了高效表达.结论 成功获得并表达了十二指肠钩虫脂肪酸与视黄醇结合蛋白(Ad-FAR-1)基因,为进一步研究该蛋白的特性与功能奠定了基础.

  15. 我国犬钩虫ITS及5.8S rDNA的克隆与序列分析%Cloning and sequence analysis of the ITS and 5.8S rDNA of Ancylostoma caninum in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋慧群; 李宾; 林瑞庆; 朱兴全

    2007-01-01

    以从我国广东湛江犬小肠中采集的2条犬钩虫作为研究对象,用保守引物NC5及NC2扩增犬钩虫rDNA的ITS-1、5.8S及ITS-2片段,将PCR扩增出的片段纯化后克隆至pGEM-T Easy载体,重组质粒通过菌落PCR和酶切鉴定后,对阳性菌落进行序列测定并进行序列分析.结果显示,来自湛江的2条犬钩虫ITS及5.8S rDNA序列总长均为738 bp,其中ITS-1序列长为364 bp,5.8S序列长为153 bp,ITS-2序列长为221 bp;2个不同样品之间ITS序列存在多态性,ITS-1序列存在5个碱基的差异,ITS-2序列存在1个碱基的差异,5.8S rDNA序列无差异.研究结果为犬钩虫进一步的分类、鉴定和遗传变异研究奠定了基础.

  16. 21 CFR 520.580 - Dichlorophene and toluene capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on GPO... the removal of ascarids (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina) and hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum...

  17. An extensive comparison of the effect of anthelmintic classes on diverse nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil-transmitted helminths are parasitic nematodes that inhabit the human intestine. These parasites, which include two hookworm species, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus, the whipworm Trichuris trichiura, and the large roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides, infect upwards of two billion people...

  18. Simple pulmonary eosinophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pneumocystis jirovecii A parasite, including the roundworms Ascariasis lumbricoides , or Necator americanus , or the hookworm Ancylostoma duodenale ... contents ( gastric lavage ) may show signs of the Ascaris worm or another parasite. Treatment If you are ...

  19. 都市部内で見出されたズビニ鉤虫の二症例

    OpenAIRE

    原田, 良策; 木下, 耶夫; 高橋, 正純 [訂正; 宇佐, 利隆; 曽我, 節子; 月舘, 説子; 藤田, 紘一郎

    1986-01-01

    We have reported two cases of Ancylostoma duodenale which were found in Saga City. Case 1: A 82-year-old woman who had anemia, edema and back pain was admitted to Saga National Hospital because of palpitation. The radiological and endoscopic studies revealed no existence of abnormality. But the eggs of hookworm were detected in the stool, and subsequently the larvae of Ancylostoma duodenale were also detected by the faecal culture. She received the therapy with pyrantel pamoate and the eggs i...

  20. Freqüência de helmintos em gatos de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais Frequency of helminthes parasites in cats of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais

    OpenAIRE

    T.C.D. Mundim; S.D. Oliveira Júnior; Rodrigues, D. C.; M.C. Cury

    2004-01-01

    Necropsies in 50 cats, males and females of different ages were performed from August 2000 to December 2001. Forty five (90%) of them had parasites. Eleven cats (22%) had single infection, 34 (75.6%) multiple infection, and only 5 (10%) were free of infection. The parasitic frequencies were as follow: Platynosomum fastosum (40%), Ancylostoma braziliensis (38%), Physaloptera praeputialis (34%), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (18%), Dipylidium caninum (14%), Ancylostoma caninum (14%), Toxocara mist...

  1. Comparison of three concentration methods for the recovery of canine intestinal parasites from stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, S; Oliveira-Sequeira, T C G

    2010-10-01

    The aim of present study was to compare the efficiency of a commercial assay and two conventional methods for fecal concentration in detecting canine gastrointestinal parasites. Fecal samples from 254 dogs were processed by centrifugation-sedimentation (CS), centrifugation-flotation (CF) and a commercial assay for fecal concentration (TF-test). The following parasites were detected: Ancylostoma (37.8%), Giardia (16.9%), Toxocara canis (8.7%), Trichuris vulpis (7.1%), Isospora (3.5%), and Sarcocystis (2.7%). The calculated analytical sensitivity indicated that CF was more accurate (Pvulpis and Giardia infections. However, CF showed significantly higher sensitivity only for Ancylostoma, compared to the other two methods. The kappa index value of diagnostic agreement between TF-test and CF was high for T. canis (83%) and moderate for Giardia (72%) and Ancylostoma (63%). The advantages and limitations of each method were assessed for individual diagnosis and epidemiological investigation. PMID:20452348

  2. Freqüência de parasitos gastrintestinais em cães e gatos atendidos em hospital-escola veterinário da cidade de São Paulo Frequency of gastrointestinal parasites in dogs and cats referred to a veterinary school hospital in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Funada

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Fecal samples from 1755 dogs and 327 cats were examined for the presence of helminths and protozoan forms. From the total samples, 486 (27.7% dogs and 103 (31.5% cats presented at least one parasite. The main genus of parasite in dogs were Ancylostoma (12.7%, Giardia (8.5%, Cystoisosopora (4.4%, Toxocara (2.6%, and Cryptosporidium (2.4%. The ocurrence of Ancylostoma was associated to male dogs, older than one year, while Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Cystoisospora and Toxocara were associated to dogs younger than one year (P<0.05. Among cats, the most frequent parasites were Cryptosporidium (11.3%, Giardia (8.3%, Cystoisosopora (8.3%, Toxocara (6.1%, and Ancylostoma (2.1%. Cryptosporidium and Cystoisosopora were more prevalent in cats younger than one year (P < 0.05.

  3. TRAIAL OF PHENYLEN DI-ISOTHIOCYANATE (JOINT IN THE MASS – TREATMET OF INTESTNAL HELMINTHIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Arfaa

    1973-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Phenylen di-isothiocyanate (Jonit in the mass treatment of various intestinal helminthiases was evaluated among the inhabitants of a village in Dezful, southwest Iran. Stool samples collected and examined from 17 persons showed infection rates of 80% for Ancylostoma duodenale, 57.3% for Ascaris, 46.7% for Trichostronylus spp. and 22.8% for H. nana.Seventy- one persons (41 children and 30 adults, 92.9% of whom were infected with Ancylostoma, 63.3% with Ascaris, 61.9% with Trichostrongylus spp. and 28.1% with H. nana, were treated with doses of 100 to 300 mg of the drug according to their age. A stool examination of these patiennts undertaken 30 days after treatment showed cure rates of 50 % for H. Nana, 39.3% for Ancylostoma, 38.6% for Trichostrongylus spp, and 6.6% for Ascaris. The side effects observed, in order of severity, were nausea,

  4. Intestinal nematodes of stray dogs as zoonoses agents in D. Pedrito city (RS-Brazil Nematodes intestinales de perros callejeros como agentes de zoonosis en la ciudad de D. Pedrito (RS-Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane N. Hoffmann

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available La prevalencia de nematodes intestinales en perros fue el objetivo de esta investigación, principalmente debido al riego de zoonosis. Fueran analizadas heces de 65 perros aleatoriamente capturados en las calles de la ciudad de D. Pedrito (RS-Brasil. En 43 (66,2% del total de las muestras analizadas, fueran encontrados huevos de nematodes intestinales, como sigue: Toxocara sp. 1 (1,5%, Ancylostoma sp. 30 (46,2%, Trichuris sp. 6 (9,2%, Ancylostoma sp. / Trichuris sp. 4 (6,2% y Ancylostoma sp. / Toxocara sp. 2 (3,0%. Los resultados indican alta prevalencia de animales infectados lo que posibilita una posterior contaminación ambiental que es un un serio factor de riesgo para seres humanos

  5. Disease: H01092 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hookworm infection are iron-deficiency anemia and malnutrition, which are associ...ty of human hookworm infections are caused by Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus. These worms att...ated with varying degrees of cognitive and growth delay in children. Infectious disease Ancylostoma duodenale Necator americanu...ion: new developments and prospects for control. Curr Opin Infect Dis 17:421-6 (2004) PMID:15771680 (descrip...arasite Immunol 26:443-54 (2004) PMID:9616967 (description, env_factor) Albonico

  6. Freqüência de helmintos em gatos de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais Frequency of helminthes parasites in cats of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C.D. Mundim

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Necropsies in 50 cats, males and females of different ages were performed from August 2000 to December 2001. Forty five (90% of them had parasites. Eleven cats (22% had single infection, 34 (75.6% multiple infection, and only 5 (10% were free of infection. The parasitic frequencies were as follow: Platynosomum fastosum (40%, Ancylostoma braziliensis (38%, Physaloptera praeputialis (34%, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (18%, Dipylidium caninum (14%, Ancylostoma caninum (14%, Toxocara mistax (14%, Toxocara canis (10%, Trichuris campanula (6%, Toxascaris leonina (4%, Spirometra mansonoides (4%, Taenia taeniaeformis (4% e Trichuris vulpis (2%.

  7. Freqüência de parasitos gastrintestinais em cães e gatos atendidos em hospital-escola veterinário da cidade de São Paulo Frequency of gastrointestinal parasites in dogs and cats referred to a veterinary school hospital in the city of São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    M.R. Funada; Pena, H.F.J.; R. de M. Soares; M. Amaku; Gennari, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Fecal samples from 1755 dogs and 327 cats were examined for the presence of helminths and protozoan forms. From the total samples, 486 (27.7%) dogs and 103 (31.5%) cats presented at least one parasite. The main genus of parasite in dogs were Ancylostoma (12.7%), Giardia (8.5%), Cystoisosopora (4.4%), Toxocara (2.6%), and Cryptosporidium (2.4%). The ocurrence of Ancylostoma was associated to male dogs, older than one year, while Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Cystoisospora and Toxocara were associa...

  8. New hosts and localities for helminths of carnivores in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moleón, María Soledad; Kinsella, John Mike; Moreno, Pablo Gastón; Ferreyra, Hebe Del Valle; Pereira, Javier; Pía, Mónica; Beldomenico, Pablo Martín

    2015-01-01

    A total of 111 samples (43 faeces and 79 gastrointestinal tracts) of 14 wild carnivore species from 12 Argentine provinces were analyzed. Helminth eggs were identified in 73% of the faecal samples and adult worms were recovered from 81% of the gastrointestinal tracts. We found 19 helminth species. Among the most frequent findings were parasites of domestic carnivores, namely Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma tubaeforme and Uncinaria stenocephala. In addition, new hosts are reported for 6 nematode species and 5 helminth species are recorded for the first time in Argentina: Aonchotheca putorii, Molineus brachiurus, Cyathospirura chevreuxi, Physaloptera praeputialis and Oncicola martini. PMID:26701468

  9. In vitro evaluation of nematophagous fungi patogenicity against nematode of domestic animals/
    Avaliação in vitro da patogenicidade de fungos predadores de nematóides parasitos de animais domésticos

    OpenAIRE

    Alvimar José da Costa; Giane Serafim da Silva; Regina Célia Cândido; Jaime Maia dos Santos; Arlete Silveira Maia; Érika Barbosa Neves Graminha

    2001-01-01

    Biological control is a promising alternative for the control of pre-parasitic stages through the action of nematophagous fungi’s. The present study evaluated in vitro the patogenicity of both Arthrobotrys musiformis and A. conoides fungi on “infective larvae (or L3 state larvae)” of Haemonchus contortus, L3 larvae of Ancylostoma spp. And larvated eggs of the nematode Ascaridia galli. Nine groups were formed: six treated groups (G1A and G2A: L3 of H. contortus; G1B and G2B: L3 of Ancylostoma ...

  10. 21 CFR 520.1320 - Mebendazole oral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala), whipworms (Trichuris vulpis), and tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis.... 000061 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (d) Conditions of use—(1) Horses—(i) Amount. 1 gram of... for use. It is used in horses for treatment of infections caused by large roundworms...

  11. Parasites diversity in carnivorous animals in the territory of Dnipropetrovsk

    OpenAIRE

    О. О. Boyko; L. I. Faly; V. V. Brygadyrenko

    2011-01-01

    In Dnipropetrovsk sity (Ukraine, Dnipropetrovsk region) in carnivorous animals 10 species of parasites (helminths and coccidia) were found: Uncinaria sp., Ancylostoma sp., Dictyocaulus immitis (Nematoda, Strongylata), Strongyloides stercoralis (Nematoda, Rhabditata), Spirocerca lupi (Nematoda, Spirurata), Toxocara canis (Nematoda, Ascaridata), Trichuris vulpis (Nematoda, Trichurata), Dipylidium caninum (Cestoda, Hymenolepidata), Cystoisospora sp. and Toxoplasma gondii (Sporozoa, Coccidia). In...

  12. A survey of intestinal helminths in wild carnivores from the Tatra National Park, southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borecka, Anna; Gawor, Jakub; Zieba, Filip

    2013-01-01

    From January 2011 to July 2012, 144 faecal samples of wild carnivores from the Tatra National Park were examined to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal helminths--72 of wolves (Canis lupus), 45 of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 15 of pine martens (Martes martes) and 12 of brown bears (Ursus arctos). In wolves, monospecific infection with Trichuris vulpis (13.9%), Toxocara canis (6.9%), Ancylostoma/Uncinaria (5.6%) and taeniids (1.4%) was revealed. In red foxes, the most prevalent infection was 7 vulpis (64.4%), followed by T. canis (11.1%), Ancylostoma/Uncinaria (8.9%) and taeniids (2.2%). Monospecific infection with T. vulpis was more frequent (44.4%), than infection with two species, i.e. T > vulpis with Ancylostoma/Uncinaria, T. vulpis with T. canis or T. vulpis with taeniids (17.8%). In pine martens, Trichuris spp. was the most prevalent (40.0%), while T. cati and Ancylostoma/Uncinaria were found in 13.3% and 6.7% samples, respectively. In faeces from brown bears, no parasite eggs were found. The present survey of wild carnivores revealed a significant prevalence of parasites such as Toxocara spp. and Trichuris spp. (8.3% and 31.0% in all examined samples, respectively), which are hazardous to human and animal health. PMID:24791342

  13. Zoonotic Parasites of Bobcats around Human Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Carver, Scott; Scorza, Andrea V.; Bevins, Sarah N.; Seth P D Riley; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue; Lappin, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed Lynx rufus fecal parasites from California and Colorado, hypothesizing that bobcats shed zoonotic parasites around human landscapes. Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium, Ancylostoma, Uncinaria, and Toxocara cati were shed. Toxoplasma gondii serology demonstrated exposure. Giardia and Cryptosporidium shedding increased near large human populations. Genotyped Giardia may indicate indirect transmission with humans.

  14. РЕАБИЛИТАЦИЯ СОБАК ПРИ ГЕЛЬМИНТОЗАХ В УСЛОВИЯХ ПИТОМНИКОВ Г. МОСКВЫ С ПРИМЕНЕНИЕМ ПРАЗИЦИДА

    OpenAIRE

    Богачева А.П.; Архипов И.А.

    2009-01-01

    Prazicide showed 100% against Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Dipylidium caninum, Taenia spp. and 99% against Trichocephalus vulpis at dose levels of 5 and 15 mg/kg of body weight according to praziquantel and pyrantel respectively. The agent was safe for dogs.

  15. Larva migrans: a case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velho Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of massive Ancylostoma sp. larval infestation is presented in a patient who had received systemic corticosteroid therapy. What attracts attention in this case is the exuberance and rarity of clinical manifestation. Based on the pertinent literature, we discuss the mechanisms of parasital infection, the natural history of the disease and its treatment.

  16. A survey of helminth parasites of cats from Saskatoon.

    OpenAIRE

    Pomroy, W E

    1999-01-01

    In a survey of 52 cats from the Saskatoon area, Ollulanus tricuspis were found in 2 animals with burdens of 2308 and 533, respectively. Small burdens of the following helminths were also found: Physaloptera spp., Toxocara cati, Taenia spp., Dipylidium caninum, and Ancylostoma sp.

  17. Larva migrans: a case report and review

    OpenAIRE

    Velho Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira; Faria Andreia Vasconcellos; Cintra Maria Letícia; Souza Elemir Macedo de; Moraes Aparecida Machado de

    2003-01-01

    A case of massive Ancylostoma sp. larval infestation is presented in a patient who had received systemic corticosteroid therapy. What attracts attention in this case is the exuberance and rarity of clinical manifestation. Based on the pertinent literature, we discuss the mechanisms of parasital infection, the natural history of the disease and its treatment.

  18. ECENT ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE OF SOIL-TRANSMITTED HELMINTHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Beaver

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available New observations in recent years have accented differences between the two common hookworms, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus,"nwith respect to modes of transmision and pathogenicity, and have established Ancylostoma ceylanicum as a species distinct from A. braziliense. Transmammary and paratenic transmission are now considered to be natural modes of infection in Ancylostoma caninum and possibly 111 other Ancylostoma species including A. duodenale, but not in Necator. The question of relative blood losses from laceration hemorrhage and blood-sucking in hookworm anemia is unresolved. The prevalence of Loeffler's syndrome in pulmonary ascariasis appears to be greatest in areas where transmission is sharply seasonal. Recent studies have failed to confirm reports of blood-sucking by Trichuris. Milk-borne transmission from mother to the newborn has been demonstrated for numberous species of Strongyloides not including S. stercoralis. Zoonotic soil-transmitted helminths 0; dogs and cats have become recognized as frequently causing visceral larva migrans and occasionally blindness in most parts of the world. Two major advances were made in diagnostic techniques - the Harada-Mori test-tube hookworm culture for species diagnosis and the Kato cellophane-covered thick fecal film ror ranid and quantitative diagnosis of intestinal helminth infections.

  19. Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, I.; Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte; Monrad, J.;

    2006-01-01

    .4%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (48.6% from Northern Zealand (endemic area)), Toxocara canis (59.4%), Toxascaris leonina (0.6%), Uncinaria stenocephala (68.6%), Ancylostoma caninum (0.6%), and Trichuris vulpis (0.5%); seven cestodes: Mesocestoides sp. (35.6%), a number of Taeniid species (Taenia pisiformis, T. hydatigena...

  20. Efficacy of pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin for the treatment of canine nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Jesus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficacy of pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin on gastrointestinal nematodes in dogs. Fecal egg counts per gram (EPG were measured by the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT in order to evaluate the anthelmintic efficiency and fecal float exams were also performed to assess the concordance between coproparasitological techniques. A total of 45 naturally infected dogs in the city of Bandeirantes, Paraná State, were selected and divided into three groups: Group 1, 15 animals that received pyrantel pamoate (145 mg in a single dose; Group 2, 15 animals that received ivermectin (3 mg; and Group 3, 15 animals that comprised an untreated control group. Fecal testing was performed two and 10 days after treatment. Toxocara was the most prevalent genus, followed by Ancylostoma and Trichuris. Ancylostoma had low resistance to ivermectin and pyrantel pamoate treatment, while Toxocara were resistant to both treatments. Statistical correlation testing to compare coproparasitogical techniques revealed moderate concordance, substantial and almost perfect concordance for detection of Ancylostoma, Trichuris, and Toxocara, respectively. The results of this study suggest that the gender Ancylostoma had low resistance and Toxocara is resistant to both drugs and because of their high prevalence in young animals means that others anthelmintic drugs may be recommended to combat infections. Additionally, the Gordon and Whitlock modified and Willis-Mollay techniques are effective for detection particularly of Toxocara in dogs.

  1. 新潟県佐渡島産タヌキの内部寄生蠕虫相

    OpenAIRE

    的場, 洋平; 坂田, 金正; 浅川, 満彦

    2002-01-01

    A helminthological survey of raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) captured in Sado Island, Japan was conducted in 2001. Eight species of helminths were detected in 35 raccoon dogs autopsied, including five nematode species, namely, Toxocara tanuki, Ancylostoma kushinnaense, Arthrostoma miyazakiense, Dirofilaria innnitis, Molineus sp.; two trematode species, namely, Metagonimus sp. and Echinostoma sp.; and one cestode species, Spirometra erinaceieuropaei. Seven out of eight species detected...

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16376-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 ( DW713082 ) JARO001014H04 001 Bothrops jararaca cDNA, mRNA se... 60 9e-11 2 ( EL821265 ) CBWN5685.g1 NIC...Hawdon Ancylostoma caninum L3 Ancylost... 58 1e-08 2 ( BM401720 ) GH077R Snake Bothrops insularis library IL

  3. Ocorrência de larva migrans na areia de áreas de lazer das escolas municipais de ensino infantil, Araçatuba, SP, Brasil Presence of larva migrans in sand boxes of public elementary schools, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cáris M Nunes

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A areia das áreas de lazer de escolas podem constituir vias de transmissão para várias zoonoses parasitárias, representando risco potencial para as crianças que brincam nesses locais. Foi avaliada a ocorrência de agentes de larva migrans em 28 escolas municipais de ensino infantil de Araçatuba, SP. Foram colhidas 535 amostras de areia das áreas de lazer dessas escolas nos meses de janeiro (verão e julho (inverno de 1997 para estabelecimento da freqüência de isolamento de larvas e/ou ovos de Ancylostoma spp. e de ovos de Toxocara spp., pelos métodos de centrífugo-flutuação e de Baermann, respectivamente. A presença de larvas de Ancylostoma spp. foi observada, em pelo menos uma das amostras, em 35,7% (10/28 das amostras da primeira colheita (verão e em 46,4% (13/28 quando da segunda colheita (inverno. Ovos de Toxocara spp. não foram encontrados e a presença de ovos de Ancylostoma spp. foi observada em 0,56% (3/535 das amostras.There are sandboxes in public elementary school playground areas in Brazil, which can be harmful to children. They are at risk of cutaneous and visceral larva migrans infection caused by Ancylostoma spp. and Toxocara spp., respectively. The study was designed to investigate contamination by Toxocara spp. and/or their eggs and Ancylostoma spp. larvae in sand samples collected from the schools' sandboxes. Five hundred and thirty-five sand samples from 28 public elementary schools were collected during summer and winter and analyzed by both Baermann´s method and centrifugal flotation technique. Ancylostoma spp. larvae were found in 35.7% (10/28 schools in summer time and in 46.4% (13/28 schools in the winter time. Eggs of Toxocara spp. could not be recovered from the samples analyzed and eggs from Ancylostoma spp. were seen in 0.56% (3/535 of the samples.

  4. In vitro evaluation of nematophagous fungi patogenicity against nematode of domestic animals/ Avaliação in vitro da patogenicidade de fungos predadores de nematóides parasitos de animais domésticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvimar José da Costa

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Biological control is a promising alternative for the control of pre-parasitic stages through the action of nematophagous fungi’s. The present study evaluated in vitro the patogenicity of both Arthrobotrys musiformis and A. conoides fungi on “infective larvae (or L3 state larvae” of Haemonchus contortus, L3 larvae of Ancylostoma spp. And larvated eggs of the nematode Ascaridia galli. Nine groups were formed: six treated groups (G1A and G2A: L3 of H. contortus; G1B and G2B: L3 of Ancylostoma spp.; G1C and G2C: larvated eggs of A. galli, being that G1 with A. musiformis and G2 with A. conoides and three untreated groups (G3A, G3B and G3C: larvae of H. contortus, Ancylostoma spp. And eggs of A. galli, respectively, without fungi. Each treatment had ten repetitions (ten Petri dishes with an average of 120 larvae of H. contortus and 200 larvae of Ancylostoma spp. and, approximately, 100 larvated A. galli eggs. The results showed A. musiformis plundered 66% and 94% of Ancylostoma spp. L3 larvae and H. contortus L3 larvae, respectively. While that A. conoides plundered 51,7% and 89,4% at the same larvae. The nematophagous fungi evaluated have not presented any predation type on A. galli larvated eggs. Afterwards, both are promising fungi as to their use for biological control of parasitic helminths of animal hosts.O controle biológico é uma alternativa promissora no controle dos estágios pré-parasitários de helmintos, por meio da ação de fungos nematófagos. Com este propósito, o presente estudo avaliou in vitro a patogenicidade dos fungos Arthrobotrys musiformis e A. conoides sobre larvas infectantes de Haemonchus contortus, Ancylostoma spp. e ovos larvados de Ascaridia galli. Foram utilizados nove grupos: seis tratamentos (G1A e G2A: L3 de H. contortus; G1B e G2B: L3 de Ancylostoma spp.; G1C e G2C: ovos larvados de A. galli, com A. musiformis (G1 e A. conoides (G2, respectivamente e três testemunhos (G3A, G3B e G3C: larvas de H

  5. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), Durban and Coast, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, S; Singh, V P

    2010-06-01

    Coprological examination was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), Durban and Coast, South Africa. Helminth and protozoan parasites were found in faeces of 240 dogs with an overall prevalence of 82.5% (helminth parasites 93.1% and protozoan parasites 6.9%). The following parasites and their prevalences were detected; Ancylostoma sp. (53.8%), Trichuris vulpis (7.9%), Spirocerca lupi (5.4%), Toxocara canis (7.9%), Toxascaris leonina (0.4%) Giardia intestinalis (5.6%) and Isospora sp. (1.3%). Dogs harbouring a single parasite species were more common (41.7%) than those harbouring 2 (15%) or multiple (2.1%) species. Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara canis and Giardia intestinalis have zoonotic potential and were detected in 66.7% of the samples. PMID:21247022

  6. SOIL CONTAMINATION IN PUBLIC SQUARES IN BELO HORIZONTE, MINAS GERAIS, BY CANINE PARASITES IN DIFFERENT DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Madureira Ribeiro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY To evaluate soil contamination by parasites in different developmental stages in public squares used as recreation and leisure areas for children in Belo Horizonte (MG, Brazil, 210 soil samples and 141 canine fecal samples were collected from 42 squares in the city. These samples were analyzed by the Caldwell and Caldwell technique and the Hoffman, Pons, and Janer technique. Of the samples analyzed, 89 (42.4% soil samples and 104 (73.5% fecal samples were contaminated with Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara sp., Trichuris sp., or Dipylidium sp. eggs; Giardia sp. cysts; or Isospora sp. oocysts. The commonest parasite was Ancylostoma sp., found in 85% soil and 99% fecal samples, followed by Toxocara sp., found in 43.7% soil and 30.7% fecal samples.

  7. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA, Durban and Coast, South Africa : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Coprological examination was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA, Durban and Coast, South Africa. Helminth and protozoan parasites were found in faeces of 240 dogs with an overall prevalence of 82.5% (helminth parasites 93.1% and protozoan parasites 6.9 %. The following parasites and their prevalences were detected; Ancylostoma sp. (53.8 %, Trichuris vulpis (7.9 %, Spirocerca lupi (5.4 %, Toxocara canis (7.9 %, Toxascaris leonina (0.4 % Giardia intestinalis (5.6 % and Isospora sp. (1.3 %. Dogs harbouring a single parasite species were more common (41.7 % than those harbouring 2 (15 % or multiple (2.1 % species. Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara canis and Giardia intestinalis have zoonotic potential and were detected in 66.7 % of the samples.

  8. INTESTINAL PARASITES IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohammad

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the status and epidemiology of Intestinal Parasites in Iran. The information was driven from an extensive Health Survey which was done by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, deputy of Research Affairs in 1990-92. Sampling fraction was 1 per 1000 of individuals aged between 2 and 69, the sampling method was cluster sampling and each cluster consisted of 7 families. Formal-ether was the method of finding parasites which included: Oxior, Ascariasis, Giardiasis, Entamoeba-histolytica, Tinea, Strongyloidiasis, Ancylostoma, and Trichocephaliasis. The highest prevalence rate belonged to Giardiasis with 14.4% and the lowest one belonged to Tinea and Ancylostoma with 0.2%. The prevalence rate in rural area was significantly lower than urban area (p<0.0001.

  9. Ocorrência de protozoários e helmintos em amostras de fezes de cães errantes da Cidade de Itapema, Santa Catarina Occurrence of protozoa and helminthes in faecal samples of stray dogs from Itapema City, Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renê Darela Blazius

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas amostras fecais de cães apreendidos em logradouros públicos, pela vigilância sanitária de Itapema, SC. De 158 amostras examinadas, 121 (76,6% foram positivas, com uma prevalência maior para Ancylostoma spp (70,9%, seguida por Toxocara canis (14,5%, Trichuris vulpis (13,9%, Isospora spp. (6,3% e Dipylidium caninum (1,9%.Samples of feces from dogs seized by the health surveillance program of Itapema city, SC, were studied. From 158 samples examined 121 (76.6% were positive, with a prevalence of Ancylostoma spp (70.9%, followed by Toxocara canis (14.5%, Trichuris vulpis (13.9%, Isospora spp (6.3% and Dipylidium caninum (1.9%.

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04780-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ium perfringens str. 13... 85 2e-15 CU207211_786( CU207211 |pid:none) Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans chr... 85..., single read. 48 0.43 1 ( AC133780 ) Medicago truncatula clone mth2-27f3, complete seq... 32 0.44 9 ( AC173864 ) Bos taurus...Ancylostoma ceylanicum L3 Ancylostoma ... 44 6.7 1 ( GE813038 ) EST_scau_evk_974138 scauevk mixed_tissue Sebastes...... 44 6.7 1 ( GE802768 ) EST_scau_evk_897256 scauevk mixed_tissue Sebastes... 44 6.7 1 ( GE802767 ) EST_scau_evk_896872 scau...evk mixed_tissue Sebastes... 44 6.7 1 ( GE800881 ) EST_scau_evk_891797 scau

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15529-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne: ola1-011A11.F, genomi... 46 5.0 1 ( CZ290142 ) cp68b11.f Candida parapsilosis Random Genomic Lib... 46 ...8, W... 40 7.2 5 ( CZ282933 ) cp27b02.f Candida parapsilosis Random Genomic Lib... 40 7.2 2 ( ET711386 ) CHO...telium discoideum cDNA clone:ddv33n01, 3' ... 42 7.4 2 ( CZ287439 ) cp52e11.r Candida parapsilos...bdella robusta Primary Ear... 52 0.080 1 ( EX545412 ) AIAC-aab22h07.b1 Ancylostoma_caninum_EST_Male_pSM...... 52 0.080 1 ( EX538817 ) AIAC-aaa56f01.b1 Ancylostoma_caninum_EST_Male_pSM... 52 0.080 1 ( EX249143 ) PY0

  12. ENTERIC PATHOGENS OF DOGS AND CATS WITH PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Kantere; Athanasiou, L. V.; D. C. Chatzopoulos; Spyrou, V.; Valiakos, G.; V. Kontos; Billinis, C.

    2014-01-01

    Dogs and cats play an important role in modern society, enhancing the psychological and physiological well-being of many people. However, there are well-documented health risks associated with human animal interactions. More specifically, enteric pathogens of zoonotic risk which are transmitted by feces of dogs and cats can be grouped as follows: (a) Parasites such as Toxocara canis, T. cati, Ancylostoma sp, Uncinaria sp, Stron...

  13. Identification of Hookworm DAF-16/FOXO Response Elements and Direct Gene Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Gao; Zhengyuan Wang; John Martin; Sahar Abubucker; Xu Zhang; Makedonka Mitreva; John M Hawdon

    2010-01-01

    Background:The infective stage of the parasitic nematode hookworm is developmentally arrested in the environment and needs to infect a specific host to complete its life cycle. The canine hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum) is an excellent model for investigating human hookworm infections. The transcription factor of A. caninum, Ac-DAF-16, which has a characteristic fork head or ‘‘winged helix’’ DNA binding domain (DBD), has been implicated in the resumption of hookworm development in the host...

  14. Prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and other zoonotic intestinal parasites in private household dogs of the Hachinohe area in Aomori prefecture, Japan in 1997, 2002 and 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Itoh, Naoyuki; KANAI, Kazutaka; Hori, Yasutomo; HOSHI, Fumio; HIGUCHI, Seiichi

    2009-01-01

    An epidemiological study on canine intestinal parasites was undertaken to evaluate changes in the prevalence among private household dogs from the Hachinohe region of Aomori prefecture, Japan, in 1997, 2002 and 2007, using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. The risk of zoonotic transmission from household dogs to humans was also discussed. All intestinal parasites detected in the present study (Giardia intestinalis, Isospora spp., Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Trichuri...

  15. Ocorrência de protozoários e helmintos em amostras de fezes de cães errantes da Cidade de Itapema, Santa Catarina

    OpenAIRE

    Blazius Renê Darela; Emerick Sheila; Prophiro Josiane Somariva; Romão Pedro Roosevelt Torres; Silva Onilda Santos da

    2005-01-01

    Foram estudadas amostras fecais de cães apreendidos em logradouros públicos, pela vigilância sanitária de Itapema, SC. De 158 amostras examinadas, 121 (76,6%) foram positivas, com uma prevalência maior para Ancylostoma spp (70,9%), seguida por Toxocara canis (14,5%), Trichuris vulpis (13,9%), Isospora spp. (6,3%) e Dipylidium caninum (1,9%).

  16. Parasitic zoonoses: survey in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in the northern Apennines / Zoonosi parassitarie: indagini in volpi (Vulpes vulpes) dell'Appennino settentrionale

    OpenAIRE

    Vittorio Guberti; Giovanni Poglayen

    1991-01-01

    Abstract A parasitological survey on 153 foxes was carried out in the northern Apennines, during the period 1984-1987. The following parasites were identified: Toxocara canis (46.4%), Taenia sp. (17%), Uncinaria stenocephala (11.8%), Mesocestoides lineatus (11.1%), Ancylostoma caninum (3.9%), Taenia hydatigena (3.3%), Trichuris v...

  17. Proteomic analysis of secretory products from the model gastrointestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus reveals dominance of Venom Allergen-Like (VAL) proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Hewitson, James P.; Harcus, Yvonne; Murray, Janice; van Agtmaal, Maaike; Filbey, Kara J.; Grainger, John R.; Bridgett, Stephen; Blaxter, Mark L; Ashton, Peter D.; Ashford, David; Rachel S Curwen; Wilson, R Alan; Dowle, Adam A.; Maizels, Rick M.

    2011-01-01

    The intestinal helminth parasite, Heligmosomoides polygyrus offers a tractable experimental model for human hookworm infections such as Ancylostoma duodenale and veterinary parasites such as Haemonchus contortus. Parasite excretory-secretory (ES) products represent the major focus for immunological and biochemical analyses, and contain immunomodulatory molecules responsible for nematode immune evasion. In a proteomic analysis of adult H. polygyrus secretions (termed HES) matched to an extensi...

  18. Gastrointestinal parasites of cats in Brazil: frequency and zoonotic risk

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Fernanda Melo Monteiro; Rafael Antonio Nascimento Ramos; Andréa Maria Campos Calado; Victor Fernando Santana Lima; Ingrid Carla do Nascimento Ramos; Rodrigo Ferreira Lima Tenório; Maria Aparecida da Glória Faustino; Leucio Câmara Alves

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gastrointestinal helminths are considered to be the most common parasites affecting cats worldwide. Correct diagnosis of these parasites in animals living in urban areas is pivotal, especially considering the zoonotic potential of some species (e.g. Ancylostoma sp. and Toxocarasp.). In this study, a copromicroscopic survey was conducted using fecal samples (n = 173) from domestic cats living in the northeastern region of Brazil. Samples were examined through the FLOTAC technique and ...

  19. CD4+ T cells mediate mucosal and systemic immune responses to experimental hookworm infection

    OpenAIRE

    DONDJI, B.; Sun, T.; BUNGIRO, R. D.; VERMEIRE, J. J.; HARRISON, L. M.; BIFULCO, C.; Cappello, M

    2010-01-01

    Hookworm infection is associated with anaemia and malnutrition in many resource-limited countries. Ancylostoma hookworms have previously been shown to modulate host cellular immune responses through multiple mechanisms, including reduced mitogen-mediated lymphocyte proliferation, impaired antigen presentation/processing, and relative reductions in CD4+ T cells in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. Syrian hamsters were depleted of CD4+ for up to 9 days following intraperitoneal injection (...

  20. S1 guideline diagnosis and therapy of cutaneous larva migrans (creeping disease)

    OpenAIRE

    Sunderkötter, C.; von Stebut, E.; Schöfer, H.; Mempel, M; Reinel, D; Wolf, G.; Meyer, V.; Nast, A; Burchard, GD

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans is a skin infection with a typical clinical appearance caused by active penetration of nematode larvae and their subsequent epidermal migration. The typical clinical appearance is caused by hookworm larvae, usually Ancylostoma braziliense but sometimes other canine or feline types of hookworm.This guideline aims to enhance patient care by optimizing the diagnosis and treatment of infections due to creeping disease (cutaneous larva migrans) and to raise awareness among ...

  1. 笠岡市真鍋島における最近の寄生虫感染の実相

    OpenAIRE

    富田, 精一郎; 田中, 勇夫; 頓宮, 廉正; 村主, 節雄; 作本,台五郎; 安治,敏樹; 板野, 一男; 稲臣, 成一

    1981-01-01

    A fecal examination for each of 471 residents of Manabe island was performed to clarify the status of parasitic infection by direct smear in August, 1977. The results were as follows: 1. Helminths found included Ascaris lumbricoides (2 cases, 0.4%), Trichuris trichiura (18 cases, 3.8%), Ancylostoma duodenale (5 cases, 1.1%) and Heterophyes heterophyes (4 cases, 0.9%). 2. The average infection rate was 6.2% for the whole area.

  2. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), Durban and Coast, South Africa : short communication

    OpenAIRE

    Mukaratirwa, S.; Singh, V.P.

    2010-01-01

    Coprological examination was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), Durban and Coast, South Africa. Helminth and protozoan parasites were found in faeces of 240 dogs with an overall prevalence of 82.5% (helminth parasites 93.1% and protozoan parasites 6.9 %). The following parasites and their prevalences were detected; Ancylostoma sp. (53.8 %), Trichuris vulpis (7.9 %)...

  3. New records of three species of nematodes in Cerdocyon thous from the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Ana Paula Nascimento; Olifiers, Natalie; Santos, Michele Maria Dos; Simões, Raquel de Oliveira; Maldonado Júnior, Arnaldo

    2015-01-01

    We report the occurrence of nematodes collected from the gut of roadkilled crab-eating foxes (two adult males and one juvenile female), Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766), found on the BR 262 highway in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil in 2011. Three helminth species were identified: Ancylostoma buckleyi, Pterygodermatites (Multipectines) pluripectinata, and Ascaridia galli. These nematodes are reported for the first time to infect C. thous from the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands, thereby expanding their geographical distribution. PMID:26444063

  4. Rapid detection and identification of human hookworm infections through high resolution melting (HRM analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Ngui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hookworm infections are still endemic in low and middle income tropical countries with greater impact on the socioeconomic and public health of the bottom billion of the world's poorest people. In this study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR coupled with high resolution melting-curve (HRM analysis was evaluated for an accurate, rapid and sensitive tool for species identification focusing on the five human hookworm species. METHODS: Real-time PCR coupled with HRM analysis targeting the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2 of nuclear ribosomal DNA as the genetic marker was used to identify and distinguish hookworm species in human samples. Unique and distinct characteristics of HRM patterns were produced for each of the five hookworm species. The melting curves were characterized by peaks of 79.24±0.05°C and 83.00±0.04°C for Necator americanus, 79.12±0.10°C for Ancylostoma duodenale, 79.40±0.10°C for Ancylostoma ceylanicum, 79.63±0.05°C for Ancylostoma caninum and 79.70±0.14°C for Ancylostoma braziliense. An evaluation of the method's sensitivity and specificity revealed that this assay was able to detect as low as 0.01 ng/µl hookworm DNA and amplification was only recorded for hookworm positive samples. CONCLUSION: The HRM assay developed in this study is a rapid and straightforward method for the diagnosis, identification and discrimination of five human hookworms. This assay is simple compared to other probe-based genotyping methods as it does not require multiplexing, DNA sequencing or post-PCR processing. Therefore, this method offers a new alternative for rapid detection of human hookworm species.

  5. Molecular Identification of Human Hookworm Infections in Economically Disadvantaged Communities in Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ngui, Romano; Ching, Lee Soo; Kai, Tan Tiong; Roslan, Muhammad Aidil; Lim, Yvonne A. L.

    2012-01-01

    Species identification of human hookworm infections among eight communities in rural areas of Peninsular Malaysia was determined during 2009–2011. Fecal samples were examined by microscopy and subsequently, the internal transcribed spacer 2 and 28S ribosomal RNA region of Necator americanus and Ancylostoma spp. were sequenced. Overall, 9.1% (58 of 634) were identified positive by microscopy for hookworm infection, and 47 (81.0%) of 58 were successfully amplified and sequenced. Sequence compar...

  6. A Novel, Multi-Parallel, Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Approach for Eight Gastrointestinal Parasites Provides Improved Diagnostic Capabilities to Resource-Limited At-Risk Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Mejia, Rojelio; Vicuña, Yosselin; Broncano, Nely; Sandoval, Carlos; Vaca, Maritza; Chico, Martha; Cooper, Philip J.; Nutman, Thomas B

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of gastrointestinal parasites has traditionally relied on stool microscopy, which has low diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. We have developed a novel, rapid, high-throughput quantitative multi-parallel real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) platform. Species-specific primers/probes were used for eight common gastrointestinal parasite pathogens: Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba histolytica, Tri...

  7. Prevention of Soil-transmitted Helminth Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Luciene Mascarini-Serra

    2011-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) form one of the most important groups of infectious agents and are the cause of serious global health problems. The most important STHs are roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworms (Trichuris trichiura) and hookworms (Necator americanus or Ancylostoma duodenale); on a global level, more than a billion people have been infected by at least one species of this group of pathogens. This review explores the general concepts of transmission dynamics and the env...

  8. Intestinal obstruction by eosinophilic jejunitis Aspectos quirúrgicos de la enteritis eosinofílica

    OpenAIRE

    J. M. Álamo Martínez; F. Ibáñez Delgado; A. Galindo Galindo; C. Bernal Bellido; I. Durán Ferreras; G. Suárez Artacho; A. Martínez Vieira

    2004-01-01

    Eosinophilic enteritis is an uncommon disease that rarely devel-ops as a surgical emergency. Although it may be associated with infestation by Ancylostoma caninum, its etiology is unknown and often related to a personal or family history of atopy. A transmural involvement may cause intestinal obstruction -more frequently in the jejunum- or even acute abdomen, which may or may not be accompanied by intestinal perforation. The latter two conditions tend to be more commonly associated with ileum...

  9. Comparison of coproparasitological exams and necropsy for diagnosis of gastro-intestinal helminth infection in mongrel dogs (Canis familiaris, Linnaeus, 1758 from the Metropolitan Region of Recife – state of Pernambuco – Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auxiliadora de Moraes Ostermann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to compare the coproparasitological and necropsy exams for diagnosis of gastrointestinal helminth infection, evaluating the parasitism frequency in stray dogs captured by the Centro de Vigilância Ambiental of the city of Recife, Pernambuco. A total of 96 dogs of both sexes, with variying ages and races, were used. The animals were sacrificed and necropsied for the collection of adult helminthes. In parallel, fecal samples were collected directly from the rectum of the animals and processed using Willis’s technique and spontaneous sedimentation. The results obtained in the necropsy indicated a positivity of 96.8% (93∕96, being 83.3%, 34.4%, 30.2%, 28.1%, 14.6%, 6.3% and 2.1% for Ancylostoma caninum, Dypilidium caninum, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Ancylostoma braziliense, Toxascaris leonina and Spirocerca lupi, respectively. Results from the Willis technique, sedimentation and necropsy were only significantly different (p<0.05 in the detection of infection by Ancylostoma spp. The Willis technique and sedimentation did notpresent any differences for the other gastrointestinal helminthes.

  10. Gastrointestinal parasites of cats in Brazil: frequency and zoonotic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Maria Fernanda Melo; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Calado, Andréa Maria Campos; Lima, Victor Fernando Santana; Ramos, Ingrid Carla do Nascimento; Tenório, Rodrigo Ferreira Lima; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Glória; Alves, Leucio Câmara

    2016-04-12

    Gastrointestinal helminths are considered to be the most common parasites affecting cats worldwide. Correct diagnosis of these parasites in animals living in urban areas is pivotal, especially considering the zoonotic potential of some species (e.g. Ancylostoma sp. and Toxocara sp.). In this study, a copromicroscopic survey was conducted using fecal samples (n = 173) from domestic cats living in the northeastern region of Brazil. Samples were examined through the FLOTAC technique and the overall results showed positivity of 65.31% (113/173) among the samples analyzed. Coinfections were observed in 46.01% (52/113) of the positive samples. The most common parasites detected were Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara cati, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris sp., Dipylidium caninum and Cystoisospora sp. From an epidemiological point of view, these findings are important, especially considering that zoonotic parasites (e.g. Ancylostoma sp. and Toxocara sp.) were the nematodes most frequently diagnosed in this study. Therefore, the human population living in close contact with cats is at risk of infection caused by the zoonotic helminths of these animals. In addition, for the first time the FLOTAC has been used to diagnosing gastrointestinal parasites of cats in Brazil. PMID:27096530

  11. 南海市沙皮犬肠道寄生虫的调查%Investigation of intestinal parasites in shar-pei in nanhai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海全; 李翠娥; 谢绍辉; 华一元

    2001-01-01

    对广东省南海市的69只沙皮犬进行了肠道寄生虫调查。采用粪便检查法,检出虫卵9种,其中绦虫2种(细粒棘球绦虫和复孔绦虫);线虫6种(犬弓首蛔虫、犬钩虫、狮蛔虫、巴西钩口线虫、犬鞭虫和犬胃线虫);吸虫1种(抱茎隙吸虫)。检出优势种为犬复孔绦虫,犬钩虫,犬弓首蛔虫,是驱虫的主要对象。%69 shar-peis from Dali town Nanhai city Guang Dong province,wereexamined for intestinal perasies by scatoscopy .There are 9 kinds of worm ovum to be examinated,and 2 kinds of them are Cestoidea (Echinoccus granulosus and Dipylidium);6 kinds of them are Nematoda(Toxocara ganis,Toxascaris leouina ,Capillaria, Ancylostoma braziliese, Physaloptera canis and Ancylostoma ganinum);1 kind of them is Trematoda(Echinochasmus pertoliatus).The Dipylidium caninum ,Ancylostoma and Toxocara ganis are preponderance and the major object in repelling worm.

  12. Occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in dogs (Canis familiaris with acute diarrhea from metropolitan region of Londrina, Parana State, Brazil/ Ocorrência de parasitos gastrintestinais em cães (Canis familiaris com diarréia aguda oriundos da região metropolitana de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz de Camargo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and fifty fecal samples from dogs with acute diarrhea (Group 1 and from 50 dogs without diarrhea (Group 2 were collected and analyzed at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the State University of Londrina, between October, 2004 and October 2005. From the positive samples (29.3% of Group 1, 72.7% were infected by only one agent, while 27.3% had mixed infection. The following genera wereobserved by coproparasitologic evaluation: Giardia sp. (9.3%, Ancylostoma sp. (7.3%, Cystoisospora (7.3%, Entamoeba sp. (6.7%, Toxocara sp.(4%, Pentatrichomanas hominis (3.3%, and Trichurisvulpis (1.3%. From the 50 animals without diarrhea, six (12% were positive by coproparasitologic evaluation: two (4% for Ancylostoma sp., three (6% with Giardia sp., and one (2% for both Ancylostoma sp. and Cystoisospora sp. There was a significant relationship between infection and diarrhea (P=0,005, age and infection (PForam examinadas 150 amostras de fezes colhidas de cães com diarréia aguda (Grupo 1, e outras 50 de animais sem diarréia (Grupo 2, atendidos entre outubro de 2004 e outubro 2005, no Hospital Veterinário Escola da Universidade Estadual de Londrina. Dos 150 animais do G1, 44 (29,3% estavam infectados por helmintos e/ou protozoários, sendo que destes, 32 (72,7% apresentavam infecção simples e 12 (27,3% infecções múltiplas. Os gêneros identificados nestes animais foram: Giardia sp. (9,3%, Cystoisospora sp. (7,3%, Ancylostoma sp. (7,3%, Entamoeba sp. (6,7%, Toxocara sp. (4%, Pentatrichomonas hominis (3,3% e Trichuris vulpis (1,3%. Dos 50 animais sem diarréia, seis (12% eram positivos, dois (4% para Ancylostoma sp., três (6% para Giardia sp. e um (2% para Ancylostoma sp. e Cystoisospora simultaneamente. Houve relação estatisticamente significativa (P=0,005 entre o parasitismo e a ocorrência de diarréia, assim como entre a faixa etária e a proporção de infecções (P<0,001, porém, machos e fêmeas foram igualmente acometidos (P=0,08. O

  13. Epidemiology of intestinal helminth parasites of dogs in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowemimo, O A; Asaolu, S O

    2008-03-01

    An epidemiological study of gastrointestinal helminths of dogs (Canis familiaris) in two veterinary clinics in Ibadan, Nigeria, was conducted between January 2001 and December 2002. Faecal samples collected from 959 dogs were processed by modified Kato-Katz technique and then examined for helminth eggs. The results of the study showed that 237 (24.7%) of the dogs examined were infected with different types of helminths. The prevalences for the various helminth eggs observed were: Toxocara canis 9.0%, Ancylostoma spp. 17.9%, Toxascaris leonina 0.6%, Trichuris vulpis 0.5%, Uncinaria stenocephala 0.4% and Dipylidium caninum 0.2%. The faecal egg intensities, determined as mean egg count/gram of faeces ( +/- SEM), were: T. canis 462.0 +/- 100.5, Ancylostoma spp. 54.1 +/- 8.6, T. leonina 0.8 +/- 0.4, T. vulpis 0.1 +/- 0.0, U. stenocephala 1.0 +/- 0.7 and D. caninum 0.2 +/- 0.1. Host age was found to be a significant factor with respect to the prevalence and intensity of T. canis and Ancylostoma spp. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of intestinal helminth parasites between male (27.0%) and female (22.5%) dogs (P>0.05). The prevalence of helminth parasites was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the local breed (African shepherd) (41.2%) than in Alsatian dogs (16.2%) or in other exotic breeds (21.0%). Single parasite infections (85.7%) were more common than mixed infections (3.5%). PMID:18053301

  14. Stray animal and human defecation as sources of soil-transmitted helminth eggs in playgrounds of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Zain, S N; Rahman, R; Lewis, J W

    2015-11-01

    Soil contaminated with helminth eggs and protozoan cysts is a potential source of infection and poses a threat to the public, especially to young children frequenting playgrounds. The present study determines the levels of infection of helminth eggs in soil samples from urban and suburban playgrounds in five states in Peninsular Malaysia and identifies one source of contamination via faecal screening from stray animals. Three hundred soil samples from 60 playgrounds in five states in Peninsular Malaysia were screened using the centrifugal flotation technique to identify and determine egg/cyst counts per gram (EPG) for each parasite. All playgrounds, especially those in Penang, were found to be contaminated with eggs from four nematode genera, with Toxocara eggs (95.7%) the highest, followed by Ascaris (93.3%), Ancylostoma (88.3%) and Trichuris (77.0%). In addition, faeces from animal shelters were found to contain both helminth eggs and protozoan cysts, with overall infection rates being 54% and 57% for feline and canine samples, respectively. The most frequently occurring parasite in feline samples was Toxocara cati (37%; EPG, 42.47 ± 156.08), while in dog faeces it was Ancylostoma sp. (54%; EPG, 197.16 ± 383.28). Infection levels also tended to be influenced by season, type of park/playground and the texture of soil/faeces. The occurrence of Toxocara, Ancylostoma and Trichuris eggs in soil samples highlights the risk of transmission to the human population, especially children, while the presence of Ascaris eggs suggests a human source of contamination and raises the issue of hygiene standards and public health risks at sites under investigation. PMID:25273274

  15. Cutaneous larva migrans in northern climates. A souvenir of your dream vacation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelglass, J.W.; Douglass, M.C.; Stiefler, R.; Tessler, M.

    1982-09-01

    Three young women recently returned to the metropolitan Detroit area with cutaneous larva migrans. All three had vacationed at a popular club resort on the Caribbean island of Martinique. Cutaneous larva migrans is frequently seen in the southern United States, Central and South America, and other subtropical areas but rarely in northern climates. Several organisms can cause cutaneous larva migrans, or creeping eruption. The larvae of the nematode Ancylostoma braziliense are most often the causative organisms. Travel habits of Americans make it necessary for practitioners in northern climates to be familiar with diseases contracted primarily in warmer locations. The life cycle of causative organisms and current therapy are reviewed.

  16. Intestinal nematodes: biology and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epe, Christian

    2009-11-01

    A variety of nematodes occur in dogs and cats. Several nematode species inhabit the small and large intestines. Important species that live in the small intestine are roundworms of the genus Toxocara (T canis, T cati) and Toxascaris (ie, T leonina), and hookworms of the genus Ancylostoma (A caninum, A braziliense, A tubaeforme) or Uncinaria (U stenocephala). Parasites of the large intestine are nematodes of the genus Trichuris (ie, whipworms, T vulpis). After a comprehensive description of their life cycle and biology, which are indispensable for understanding and justifying their control, current recommendations for nematode control are presented and discussed thereafter. PMID:19932365

  17. Molecular Cloning, Biochemical Characterization, and Partial Protective Immunity of the Heme-Binding Glutathione S-Transferases from the Human Hookworm Necator americanus▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Zhan, Bin; Perally, Samirah; Brophy, Peter M.; Xue, Jian; Goud, Gaddam; Liu, Sen; Deumic, Vehid; de Oliveira, Luciana M; Bethony, Jeffrey; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Jiang, Desheng; Gillespie, Portia; Xiao, Shu-Hua; Gupta, Richi; Loukas, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Hookworm glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are critical for parasite blood feeding and survival and represent potential targets for vaccination. Three cDNAs, each encoding a full-length GST protein from the human hookworm Necator americanus (and designated Na-GST-1, Na-GST-2, and Na-GST-3, respectively) were isolated from cDNA based on their sequence similarity to Ac-GST-1, a GST from the dog hookworm Ancylostoma caninum. The open reading frames of the three N. americanus GSTs each contain 20...

  18. Ectoparasitosis humanas: Estado actual en el Uruguay Human ectoparasitoses: Present status in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Alejandro Conti Díaz

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The present status of human ectoparasitoses in Uruguay is analized with the main purpose of performing in the future, comparative studies in the region. After classifying ectoparasitores in temporaries and permanents, comments are made on particular clinical and epidemiological aspects of some of them. For remarking: the high prevalence of pediculosis capitis and scabies; the frequent observation of cutaneous myiasis by Dermatobia hominis with a very interesting modification of the geographical national distribution of the fly and the presence of an endemic area of creeping eruption by Ancylostoma braziliense and A. caninum in the north of the country.

  19. Albendazole in the treatment of intestinal helminthiasis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, P K; Pande, N K; Jagota, S C

    1985-01-01

    A single dose of 2% albendazole suspension (400 mg in 20 ml) was administered to 77 patients (42 males and 35 females), ages ranging between 2 to 12 years, with helminthic infections. Ascariasis was the most prevalent infection. Patients were followed-up for 3 weeks. The results showed that albendazole was highly effective against Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale and Enterobius vermicularis. Significant improvement was also observed in patients having infections due to Trichuris trichiura. Albendazole was well tolerated and did not produce any significant side-effects. Single dose albendazole appears to be appropriate for mass chemotherapy to control intestinal nematode infections in highly infected communities. PMID:4028809

  20. Parasites diversity in carnivorous animals in the territory of Dnipropetrovsk

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    О. О. Boyko

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In Dnipropetrovsk sity (Ukraine, Dnipropetrovsk region in carnivorous animals 10 species of parasites (helminths and coccidia were found: Uncinaria sp., Ancylostoma sp., Dictyocaulus immitis (Nematoda, Strongylata, Strongyloides stercoralis (Nematoda, Rhabditata, Spirocerca lupi (Nematoda, Spirurata, Toxocara canis (Nematoda, Ascaridata, Trichuris vulpis (Nematoda, Trichurata, Dipylidium caninum (Cestoda, Hymenolepidata, Cystoisospora sp. and Toxoplasma gondii (Sporozoa, Coccidia. In soil S. stercoralisand Uncinaria sp. weredominanted. In most carnivorous animals registered in L. Globa park and T. Shevchenko park the S. stercoralisand Uncinaria sp., Cystoisosporasp. and T. gondii were found.

  1. A Coprological Survey of Intestinal Helminthes in Stray Dogs Captured in Osaka Prefecture, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Akio; MORISHIMA, Yasuyuki; NAGAHAMA, Shinya; HORIKOSHI, Takashi; Edagawa, Akiko; Kawabuchi-Kurata, Takako; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Yamasaki, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate intestinal helminth infection in stray dogs in Osaka Prefecture by surveying coprological samples from dogs captured from 2006–2011. Of 212 fecal samples collected, overall prevalence of infection was 39.2%. The most common species was Toxocara canis (25.0%), followed by Trichuris vulpis (8.0%), Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (3.3%), Taeniidae (2.4%), Ancylostoma caninum (1.9%) and Toxascaris leonine (0.5%). In the molecular analysis, all of the taeniid e...

  2. A case report of cutaneous larva migrans in a Mexican population of high marginalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Isaac Aguirre Maldonadoa; Silvia Cruz Duartea; Felipe Gonzlez Velzqueza; Alfonso Alexander Aguilerab

    2014-01-01

    The creeping verminous dermatitis or cutaneous larva migrans is a parasitosis caused by percutaneous penetration and migration of larval nematode parasites characterized by producing one or more serpiginous erythematous, indurated, raised and pruritic lesion. The most common cause of cutaneous larva migrans is the Ancylostoma braziliense located in warm climate zones. In the present study, authors reported a case of cutaneous larva migrans with a characteristic clinical picture: erythematous-papular and vesicular lesion and serpiginous path, with progressive, and pruritic growth and it shown that a living area with immigration, tropical weather conditions and poverty may lead to this common infection.

  3. [Soil contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs in the Elblag area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, W

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of Toxocara spp. eggs in Elbl4g was studied. Out of 72 soil samples collected in public places of the city 13.9% were positive and the mean egg density was 3.75/100g soil. The city backyards were much more contaminated with Toxocara spp. eggs (18.0%) than the playgrounds (4.5%). In sandpits examined the eggs were not found. Almost 80% of Toxocara spp. eggs recovered were infective. T. cati eggs were more frequent than T. canis eggs. Additionally in examined samples two eggs of Ancylostoma caninum and one egg of Ascaris lumbricoides were recognized. PMID:16888965

  4. Intestinal helminthiases in Ecuador: the relatíonship between prevalence, genetic, and socioeconomic factors

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    Philip J. Cooper

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of infection with the intestinal helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale and Strongyloides stercoralis was examinedin 632 residents of communities in Esmeraldas province of Ecuador. These communities were divided into two groups according to area of habitation which reflected different socioeconomic circumstances. Attempts were made to correlate infection status with race and ABO blood group phenotype. The racial groups included blacks, Chachi amerindians, and mixed-race mestizos. Greater prevalences of infection were seen in the area oflower socioeconomic status. No racial or blood group associations with helminth infection were seen controlling for socioeconomic status.

  5. Ocorrência de protozoários e helmintos em amostras de fezes de cães errantes da Cidade de Itapema, Santa Catarina Occurrence of protozoa and helminthes in faecal samples of stray dogs from Itapema City, Santa Catarina

    OpenAIRE

    Renê Darela Blazius; Sheila Emerick; Josiane Somariva Prophiro; Pedro Roosevelt Torres Romão; Onilda Santos da Silva

    2005-01-01

    Foram estudadas amostras fecais de cães apreendidos em logradouros públicos, pela vigilância sanitária de Itapema, SC. De 158 amostras examinadas, 121 (76,6%) foram positivas, com uma prevalência maior para Ancylostoma spp (70,9%), seguida por Toxocara canis (14,5%), Trichuris vulpis (13,9%), Isospora spp. (6,3%) e Dipylidium caninum (1,9%).Samples of feces from dogs seized by the health surveillance program of Itapema city, SC, were studied. From 158 samples examined 121 (76.6%) were positiv...

  6. 人畜共患钩虫病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周化媛

    2004-01-01

    钩虫病是一种常见的寄生于小肠的线虫引起的。钩虫属于钩口科(Ancylostomatidae)钩虫属(Ancylostoma)或弯口属(Uncimaria),它在世界各地如欧美、非洲及日本均有分布,尤其以热带地区为多。在我国各地均有发生,但多于气候温暖的南方省市。

  7. Occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in dogs (Canis familiaris) with acute diarrhea from metropolitan region of Londrina, Parana State, Brazil/
    Ocorrência de parasitos gastrintestinais em cães (Canis familiaris) com diarréia aguda oriundos da região metropolitana de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Luiz Camargo; Odilon Vidotto; Milton Hissashi Yamamura; Fábio Augusto Galli dos Santos

    2007-01-01

    One hundred and fifty fecal samples from dogs with acute diarrhea (Group 1) and from 50 dogs without diarrhea (Group 2) were collected and analyzed at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the State University of Londrina, between October, 2004 and October 2005. From the positive samples (29.3%) of Group 1, 72.7% were infected by only one agent, while 27.3% had mixed infection. The following genera wereobserved by coproparasitologic evaluation: Giardia sp. (9.3%), Ancylostoma sp. (7.3%), Cystoi...

  8. Cutaneous Larva Migrans in Early Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddalingappa, Karjigi; Murthy, Sambasiviah Chidambara; Herakal, Kallappa; Kusuma, Marganahalli Ramachandra

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruptions is a cutaneous dermatosis caused by hookworm larvae, Ancylostoma braziliense. A 2-month-old female child presented with a progressive rash over the left buttock of 4 days duration. Cutaneous examination showed an urticarial papule progressing to erythematous, tortuous, thread-like tract extending a few centimeters from papule over the left gluteal region. A clinical diagnosis of cutaneous larva migrans was considered. Treatment with albendazole led to complete resolution, confirming the diagnosis. This is to the best of our knowledge, the youngest age at which this condition is being reported. PMID:26538729

  9. A survey on environmental contamination of suburban parks and playgrounds in Harare, Zimbabwe, with canine helminths of zoonotic significance

    OpenAIRE

    Mukaratirwa, S.; M. Taruvinga

    1999-01-01

    In an attempt to assess the possible risk to humans of soil-transmitted canine helminths of of zoonotic significance, 161 faecal samples and 81 soil samples were collected from 6 public parks and playgrounds in Harare between March and June 1998 and examined for nematode ova. Of the 161 faecal samples collected, 17.4 % were positive for Ancylostoma sp. ova and 5.6 % were positive for T. canis ova. No other nematode species ova were found. Over 50 % of the faecal samples positive for Ancylosto...

  10. PARASITISMO POR ANCILOSTOMATÍDEOS EM CÃES (Canis familiaris) DOMICILIADOS EM CAMPOS DOS GOYTACAZES, RJ. PARASITISM BY ANCYLOSTOMIDES IN DOGS (Canis familiaris) DOMICILIATED IN CAMPOS DOS GOYTACAZES, RJ.

    OpenAIRE

    Francimar Fernandes Gomes; Antonio Peixoto Albernaz; Farlen Jose Bebber Miranda; Luize Néli Nunes Garcia

    2008-01-01

    Os ancilostomatídeos são nematóides hematófagos parasitas do intestino delgado, podendo causar retardo no crescimento, inapetência, anorexia, apatia, anemia e até a morte. No homem, algumas espécies como Ancylostoma caninum, A. braziliense e A. tubaeforme podem causar larva migrans cutânea, quando as larvas infectantes de terceiro estágio penetram ativamente a pele íntegra. O objetivo deste trabalho foi detectar o parasitismo por ancilostomatídeos em fezes de cães domiciliados e assintomático...

  11. 间接ELISA检测犬钩虫特异性抗体方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何光志; 田维毅; 王平; 王文佳; 韩洁; 安永如; 周颖; 简昌友; 崔小东

    2010-01-01

    @@ 犬钩虫病(ancylostomiasis)是由钩口科钩口属中的犬钩口线虫(又称犬钩虫,Ancylostoma caninum)寄生于犬的肠道主要是十二指肠所引起的一种寄生虫病[1].研究以犬钩虫抗原基因原核表达的重组蛋白为抗原,采用ELISA法检测犬血清中的抗钩虫抗体,以探讨ELISA检测在犬钩虫感染中的应用价值.

  12. Prevalence of selected zoonotic and vector-borne agents in dogs and cats in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Andrea V; Duncan, Colleen; Miles, Laura; Lappin, Michael R

    2011-12-29

    To estimate the prevalence of enteric parasites and selected vector-borne agents of dogs and cats in San Isidro de El General, Costa Rica, fecal and serum samples were collected from animals voluntarily undergoing sterilization. Each fecal sample was examined for parasites by microscopic examination after fecal flotation and for Giardia and Cryptosporidium using an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Giardia and Cryptosporidium IFA positive samples were genotyped after PCR amplification of specific DNA if possible. The seroprevalence rates for the vector-borne agents (Dirofilaria immitis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum) were estimated based on results from a commercially available ELISA. Enteric parasites were detected in samples from 75% of the dogs; Ancylostoma caninum, Trichuris vulpis, Giardia, and Toxocara canis were detected. Of the cats, 67.5% harbored Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Ancylostoma tubaeforme, or Toxocara cati. Both Cryptosporidium spp. isolates that could be sequenced were Cryptosporidium parvum (one dog isolate and one cat isolate). Of the Giardia spp. isolates that were successfully sequenced, the 2 cat isolates were assemblage A and the 2 dog isolates were assemblage D. D. immitis antigen and E. canis antibodies were identified in 2.3% and 3.5% of the serum samples, respectively. The prevalence of enteric zoonotic parasites in San Isidro de El General in Costa Rica is high in companion animals and this information should be used to mitigate public health risks. PMID:21846585

  13. Helminths parasites of stray dogs (Canis lupus familiaris from Cuiabá, Midwestern of Brazil

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    Dirceu Guilherme de Souza Ramos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Helminths cause respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in animals, especially in neonates and young animals. Some species of helminth parasites of domestic animals have zoonotic potential, becoming a public health problem, especially when combined with lack of information about the population of these zoonosis and lack of control over of their hosts. This study aimed to identify and quantify the species of helminths from dogs that are not domiciled in the region of Cuiabá, in the Midwest region of Brazil. A total of 100 animals, from the Center for Zoonosis Control of Cuiabá were euthanized and necropsied for helminth searching. Overall 8,217 helminths were found in 85 animals identified in six species: Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma. braziliense, Trichuris vulpis, Toxocara canis, Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum. It was evidenced the wide distribution of helminths pathogenic to domestic dogs and especially with zoonotic potential as A. caninum, T. canis, D. caninum and D. immitis. The presence of D. immitis is an important finding, since it is a potentially zoonotic agent, however, this finding is considered sporadic.

  14. [Current prevalence of toxocariasis and other intestinal parasitoses among dogs in Bratislava].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totková, A; Klobusický, M; Holková, R; Friedová, L

    2006-02-01

    Contamination of public open spaces with dog feces was monitored in five Bratislava districts. Only two of 459 fecal samples collected originated from cats and tested positive for Toxocara cati while the remaining samples were dog feces. Intestinal parasites were detected in 215 (46.8%) samples, with Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati being recovered from 86 (18.7%) and 2 (0.4%) samples, respectively. Taenia sp., Dipilidium caninum, Ancylostoma sp., Capillaria sp., Trichuris vulpis and Strongyloides sp. were also among intestinal worms detected. Of these, parasitic helminths of the genera Ancylostoma, Taenia and Strongyloides appeared to be of epizootic importance. Giardia was the significantly most frequent genus among intestinal protozoans while Isospora, Sarcocystis and Cryptosporidium were considerably less common. Toxocara canis showed similar distribution in all districts monitored. The prevalence rates ranged from 18.6% to 20.7% in districts I to IV. The lowest prevalence rate of 16.1% was found in district V situated on the other bank of the Danube, which can be explained by a particular epizootic process in the city district separated by the river. The detection rates of parasites from dog feces suggested a seasonal trend, ranging from 40.5% in winter to 50% in autumn. Toxocara canis also showed 10% higher prevalence rates in autumn (23.5%) compared to winter (13.5%). Significantly higher rates of parasites were recovered from fresh dog feces. PMID:16528895

  15. Intestinal and lung parasites in owned dogs and cats from central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggio, Francesca; Mannella, Riccardo; Ariti, Gaetano; Perrucci, Stefania

    2013-03-31

    Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal and lung parasites were investigated in 239 owned dogs and 81 owned cats from central Italy. In 36 dogs and 20 cats found infected by nematodes, pre and post-treatment faecal egg count (FEC) was also evaluated. About 31% of dogs and about 35% of cats resulted positive for at least one intestinal or lung parasitic species. Helminthic, intestinal and zoonotic infections resulted prevalent in examined animals. Examined dogs resulted infected by Toxocara canis (13.0%), Toxascaris leonina (1.7%), Trichuris vulpis (3.3%), Ancylostoma caninum (2.0%), Uncinaria stenocephala (1.25%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.8%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (0.4%), Dipylidium caninum (1.25%), Taeniidae eggs (0.4%), Giardia duodenalis (3.8%), and Cystoisospora (Isospora) spp. (7.5%). Examined cats were infected by Toxocara cati (22.2%), Capillaria aerophila (1.2%), Ancylostoma tubaeformae (1.2%), U. stenocephala (3.7%), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (1.2%), Mesocestoides sp. (1.2%), D. caninum (1.2%), G. duodenalis (1.2%) and Cystoisospora spp. (4.5%). The presence of clinical signs and the young age (less than 6 months) were identified as risk factors by univariate and multivariate statistical analysis. In 63.9% treated dogs and in 80.0% treated cats, percentages of post-treatment FEC reduction higher than 90% were found. Results obtained in this study are discussed. PMID:23265188

  16. Seasonal fluctuations in prevalence of dog intestinal parasites in public squares of Mar del Plata city, Argentina and its risk for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresiuk, V; Sardella, N; Denegri, G

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze whether there is a seasonal prevalence of parasites in dog feces from public squares in Mar del Plata city, Argentina, and to evaluate the climatic conditions that promote the development of parasites and allow the transmission to people. The study was performed in 21 squares from June 2001 to May 2002. Samples were processed by the Willis technique. Differences in prevalence of parasites were examined for significance by the Chi-square test. Climatic data were obtained from the Library of the National Meteorological Service of Argentina. Total parasitic prevalence was higher in winter than in summer. The prevalence of Ancylostoma spp. was higher in the summer-autumn period. For Toxocara canis, the prevalence was higher in winter whereas for Trichuris vulpis, it was higher in winter, spring and summer. This work shows high prevalence of total parasites throughout the year. For Ancylostoma spp., summer and autumn might be the seasons with higher sanitary risk. On the other hand, T. canis could present the higher risk to people in winter and, T. vulpis, would be transmitted throughout the whole year. The seasonal variation in prevalence of dog parasites results in continuous exposure to people visiting the squares, not only Mar del Plata residents but also tourists from other regions of Argentina and the world, with at least one species of parasite with sanitary risk. PMID:18390156

  17. The prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of dogs in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowemimo, Oluyomi A

    2009-03-01

    A study of gastrointestinal parasites in 269 faecal samples from dogs (Canis familiaris) collected from Ile-Ife, Nigeria between January and December 2004, revealed seven helminth species: Toxocara canis 33.8%, Ancylostoma sp. 34.6%, Toxascaris leonina 3.3%, Trichuris vulpis 3.7%, Dipylidium caninum 4.1%, Uncinaria stenocephala 0.7% and Taenia sp. 1.1%. The faecal egg intensities, determined as mean eggs per gram of faeces ( +/- SEM) were: T. canis 393.8 +/- 83.4, Ancylostoma sp. 101.5 +/- 32.8, T. leonina 14.3 +/- 7.9, T. vulpis 3.4 +/- 1.5, D. caninum 2.2 +/- 0.8, U. stenocephala 0.2 +/- 0.2. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was significantly higher (P 0.05). The prevalence of helminth parasites was significantly higher (P 0.05) except in T. vulpis. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites may continue to rise due to lack of functional veterinary clinics for dog care in Ile-Ife. Therefore, there is the need to establish a veterinary facility in Ile-Ife. PMID:18838021

  18. Cross transmission of gastrointestinal nematodes between captive neotropical felids and feral cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Franco, Emilio; Romero-Callejas, Evangelina; Villanueva-García, Claudia; Osorio-Sarabia, David; Muñoz-García, Claudia I

    2013-12-01

    Pathogen cross transmission between wildlife and domestic animals represents an extinction risk for wildlife; however, reliable verification is difficult to perform, and in some cases, it is even considered unlikely to be conducted. The aim of this work was to identify cross transmission of helminths between feral cats and captive wild felids at a zoological park in southeastern Mexico. Feces were collected from jaguars (Panthera onca), cougars (Puma concolor), ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), margays (Leopardus wiedii), and jaguarundis (Puma yagouaroundi). A flotation technique and macroscopic sieving were performed on the feces. Additionally, as part of the noxious fauna control program of the park, feral cats were captured and euthanized. To perform parasitologic studies, helminths from these animals were recovered. Toxocara cati and Trichuris campanula were shared by jaguarundis and feral cats. Ancylostoma sp. was found in jaguar and ocelot and Ancylostoma tubaeforme in feral cats. Additionally, during this study, a couple of jaguarundis died with clinical signs of trichuriasis. This is the first report of T. campanula in jaguarundi. Because feral cats roam freely in the park, transmission could occur from these vertebrates to wild felids. This study shows the risk that parasites represent to wild felids; a similar situation could be found in free-living species, especially in fragmented habitats that favor contact with domestic animals. PMID:24450052

  19. Epidemiological assessment of intestinal parasitic infections in dogs at animal shelter in Veracruz,Mexico

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cosme; Alvarado-Esquivel; Dora; Romero-Salas; Mariel; Aguilar-Domínguez; Anabel; Cruz-Romero; Nelly; Ibarra-Priego; dalberto; Angel; Pérez-de-Len

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the prevalence of infection with intestinal parasites in 101 dogs in an animal shelter in Veracruz.Mexico,and investigate whether any general characteristics of the dogs were associated with infections.Methods:Parasitologiesl examination of fecal samples from the dogs was performed by means of centrifuge-flotation using Sheather’s sucrose and zinc sulfate flotation media.In addition,hematocrit was determined in each canine blood sample.Results:Intestinal parasites were found in 99(98.0%) of the 101 dogs studied.About five different intestinal parasites were identified:Ancylostoma caninum in 89 dogs(88.1%).Giardia canis in 46(45.5%).Unciiuiria stenocephalia in 43(42.6%).Trichuris vulpis in 19(18.8%)and Strongyloides canis in 16(15.8%).Multivariate analysis showed:I) Giardia infection was associated with young age and mixed breed;2) Ancylostoma was associated with young age and no rabies vaccination:and 3) Strongyloides was associated with no rabies vaccination.Unciiuiria and Trichuris infections were not associated with the variables assessed.Conclusions:A high prevalence of intestinal parasites was found in the dogs studied.This suggests that the environment is highly contaminated with intestinal parasites.Preventive and therapeutic measures should be taken against infection with intestinal parasites in dogs in this region.

  20. Gastrointestinal Helminthic Parasites in Stray Cats (Felis catus from North of Iran

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    A Rezaei-Doust

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cats play a crucial role in the epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminthic parasites and also play a major role in transmitting of these parasites through faecal contamination of soil, food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the species of gastrointestinal helminthes parasites in stray cats from a rural area of Bandar-e-Anzali, Iran.Method: Gastrointestinal helminthes were collected from 50 necropsied stray cats (Felis catus after capturing them by trapping from different regions of the city and humanely euthanatized in Bandar-e-Anzali, a port in the Caspian Sea in northern Iran, from March to November 2003. Results: The prevalence of infection was 90%, with those of individual parasites being Diplopylidium nolleri 54%, Phy­saloptera praeputialis 32%, Ancylostoma tubaeforme 20%, Joyeuxiella pasqualei 10%, Toxocara cati 8%, Pterygoderma­tites affinis 6%, Ancylostoma caninum 4%, and Taenia taeniaeformis 2%. Concurrent infections with two or more parasites were recorded in 34% of the individuals. In relation to the sex, the differences were not significant. Conclusion: P. praeputialis, T. cati, D. nolleri and sometime J. pasqualei are the commonest Helminthes in cats. This is the first reported isolation of P. affinis and A. caninum infections from cats in Iran.

  1. Intestinal Nematode Parasites of Dogs: Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Awoke

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal nematode parasites of dogs from November 2009 to April 2010 in Gondar. The study discovered that Zoonotically important parasites are also serious problems of dogs in this area. Coprological examination of direct fecal smear and simple floatation techniques were deployed to screen parasite and determine their species. In this study the prevalence of intestinal nematodes was analyzed in relation to age, sex and types of breeds. Of the total 326 dogs' faecal samples examined, 14.7% (n = 48 were found to harbor one or more parasite species. The prevalence of intestinal nematode parasites was 4.6, 8.3 and 1.8% in less than 1 year, 1-3 years and greater than 3 years of age groups, respectively. The prevalence recorded on sex basis are 7.1% (female and 7.7% (male, and those of local and cross breeds were 10.7% and 4.0%, respectively. But the difference in prevalence among age, sex and age groups was not found statistically significant (p>0.05. Parasites from the four genera were identified and these include Ancylostoma caninum, Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara canis and Strongyloides stercoralis. Ancylostoma caninum (4.6% was the most prevalent parasites encountered as compared to other three types of nematode parasites.

  2. Macroparasite communities in stray cat populations from urban cities in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Zain, Siti Nursheena; Sahimin, Norhidayu; Pal, Paul; Lewis, John W

    2013-09-23

    The occurrence of macroparasites was studied from 543 stray cats in four urban cities from the west (Kuala Lumpur), east (Kuantan), north (Georgetown) and south (Malacca) of Peninsular Malaysia from May 2007 to August 2010. Five ectoparasites species were recovered namely, Ctenocephalides felis, Felicola subrostratus, Haemaphysalis bispinosa, Heterodoxus spiniger and Lynxacarus radovskyi. Two cats from Georgetown were infested with the dog louse, H. spiniger and this represented the first host record for this species in Malaysia. Up to nine species of helminths were recovered with overall high prevalences of infection of 83% in Kuantan, followed by 75.1% in Kuala Lumpur, 71.6% in Georgetown and 68% in Malacca. The helminth species comprised five nematodes, Toxocara malaysiensis, Toxocara cati, Ancylostoma braziliensis, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Physaloptera praeputialis, two cestodes Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium caninum and one trematode, Playtnosomum fastosum. The majority of helminths were present in the four study sites except for the absence of P. praeputialis in Kuala Lumpur. The prevalence and abundance of infections were analysed taking intrinsic (host age and sex) and extrinsic (season) factors into consideration. Levels of infection and infestation were mainly influenced by host age and to a lesser extent sex and season, whereas four nematode species exhibited significant interactions within the intestine of the cat host. The potential for transmission of some macroparasite species from stray cats to the human population in urban areas is discussed. PMID:23664711

  3. Enteric Parasitic in canines (Canis familiaris in the urban area of Coroico, Nor Yungas department of La Paz Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llanos Mariana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety species of intestinal protozoa and helminthes are pathogen for the domestic animals. Between April and November 2009, a study was done with the purpose of determining the enteric parasitic infection in dogs (Cannis familiaris, 96 dogs (58 males and 38 females with owner of 10 species, one hybrid, eight age groups in two seasons of the urban area of the Coroico town, Nor Yungas, department of La Paz, Bolivia. The coproparasitology diagnostic was made by direct examination, with the Willis-Molloy flotation simple technique with a solution oversaturated of sodium chloride. It was detected one or more species of helminthes and protozoa, was used the chi-square and descriptive method for the statistical analysis. The results were: from the 96 sampled dogs, in 87% is present at less one type of parasitic shape, were identify: Ancylostoma spp, Toxocara canis, Strogyloides spp, Giardia spp, Isospora canis, Trichuris vulpis, Ancylostoma spp/Uncinaria spp and Dipylidium caninum. The evaluation by season show a (p ≤ 0,05 for the Giardia spp. In a humidity season, but not for a dry season, the rest of parasites can be found in both seasons. By sex in a humidity season T.canis in females 43% and 22% in males, in dry season by sex was found T.vulpis in female with a high frequency (p ≤ 0,05, the rest of parasites do not show statistic differences in both seasons. By age in dry season T. canis and Stronyiloides sp. prevails 1-24 months and 49-72 months respectively, in a humidity season T. canis prevails in the same age (p ≤ 0,05. By race in dry season Ancylostoma spp Uncinaria spp prevails in the race Pekingese, in humidity season Strongyloides sp prevails in the Cocker race. Prevail in both seasons A. canis y T. canis. In relation to the mono-parasitism and multi-parasitism, was viewed, in both seasons the dogs multi-parasitism are more than the mono-parasitism.

  4. Data on the parasitological status of golden jackal (Canis aureus L., 1758) in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, András; Szabó, László; Juhász, Lajos; Takács, András Attila; Lanszki, József; Takács, Péter Tamás; Heltai, Miklós

    2014-03-01

    In Hungary, twenty Canis aureus individuals were submitted to parasitological examinations in 2010-2012. Two Coccidia: Cystoisospora canis (15%) and Toxoplasma-type oocysts (5%), one Trematoda: Alaria alata (10%), six Cestoda: Mesocestoides lineatus (20%), Echinococcus granulosus (10%), Dipylidium caninums (5%), Taenia hydatigena (15%), Taenia pisiformis (20%), Taenia crassiceps (40%), and nine Nematoda: Angiostrongylus vasorum (10%), Crenosoma vulpis (30%), Capillaria aerophila (5%), Toxocara canis (20%), Toxascaris leonina (15%), Trichuris vulpis (10%), Ancylostoma caninum (45%), Uncinaria stenocephala (40%), Capillaria plica (45%) have been identified. Angiostronglyus vasorum has been reported from carnivores in Europe, Africa, South America and North America. The helminth A. vasorum or French heartworm is a metastrongylid nematode, widely distributed in Western Europe, that infects the pulmonary arterial tree of dogs, various species of foxes, wolves, Eurasian badgers, coyotes and stoats. To our knowledge, this is the first report of natural A. vasorum infection in golden jackal. PMID:24334089

  5. Angiogenesis and parasitic helminth-associated neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Roger D; Schubert, Uwe; Bauer, Christian

    2011-04-01

    Successful metazoan parasitism, among many other factors, requires a supply of nutrients and the removal of waste products. There is a prerequisite for a parasite-defined vasculature. The angiogenic mechanism(s) involved presumably depend on the characteristics of the tissue- and vascular system-dwelling, parasitic helminths. Simplistically, 2 possibilities or a combination of both have been considered in this review. The multifactorial induction of parasitic helminth-associated neovascularization could arise through, either a host-, a parasite- or a host-/parasite-dependent, angiogenic switch. Most studies appear to support the first and third hypotheses, but evidence exists for the intrahepatic cestode Echinococcus multilocularis, the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the intravascular trematode Schistosoma mansoni for the second inference. In contrast, the nematode anti-coagulant protein NAPc2 from adult Ancylostoma caninum is also an anti-angiogenic factor. PMID:21232174

  6. Intestinal parasitism--protozoa and helminths--in primates at the Barcelona Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soledad Gómez, M; Gracenea, M; Montoliu, I; Feliu, C; Monleon, A; Fernandez, J; Enseñat, C

    1996-12-01

    The faunistic results regarding intestinal parasitism by protozoa and helminths in 21 primate species (three Cebidae, thirteen Cercopithecidae, one Hylobatidae, one Lemuridae, three Pongidae) are reported. The primate species were housed in four separate galleries. Six faecal samples of each host species were subjected to coprological analysis. Fifteen parasite species were detected: 11 protozoa (Entamoeba coli, E. chattoni, E. hartmanni, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Endolimax nana, Giardia intestinalis, Chilomastix mesnilii, Enteromonas hominis, Trichomonas intestinalis, Balantidium coli, and Blastocystis hominis) and 4 helminths (Ancylostoma sp., Strongyloides fuelleborni, Strongyloides sp., and Trichuris trichiura). The results reveal certain parasitic similarities between host species housed in the same gallery; however, these primate species do not always carry identical parasite species. PMID:9210027

  7. Intestinal parasites of man in Northern Bohol, Philippines, with emphasis on schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, W P; Banzon, T; De Veyra, V; Daña, E; Cross, J H

    1980-12-01

    A survey for intestinal parasites with emphasis on Oriental schistosomiasis was conducted in the townships of Trinidad and Talibon, Bohol Province, Philippines and approximately 1,700 stool samples were examined. Schistosoma japonicum is still endemic to these areas of northern Bohol but infection rates were much lower than expected, 5% rather than 30%. Soil-transmitted helminths were the most common parasitic infections. Hookworms were found in 71% of the samples tested, most infections were due to Necator americanus 97% and Ancylostoma duodenale accounted for only 3%. Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs were diagnosed in 58% and 45% respectively of the fecal samples examined. Other helminths and protozoan parasites detected were Enterobius vermicularis, Stronglyoides stercoralis, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Giardia lamblia and Chilomastix mesnili. PMID:7221688

  8. Epidemiology of hookworm infection in Itagua, Paraguay: a cross sectional study

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    Nora Labiano-Abello

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study in Itagua, Paraguay tested 192 people for the presence, intensity and species of hookworm infection. Fifty-nine percent of these individuals were found to be infected. Intensity of infection was determined on 92% of infected individuals by quantitative egg counts. The high intensity hookworm infections, which cause the greatest morbidity, were clustered between the ages of five and 14 years. No differences were seen between genders. The species of hookworm was determined for parasites reared from 72% of infected individuals. Both Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale were identified, although the former species predominated. We conclude that hookworm infection continues to be a public health problem in Paraguay, particularly among children and adolescents who suffer from high intensity infections. A. duodenale continues to persist in the Western Hemisphere and has not been completely displaced by N. americanus.

  9. Serine proteases of parasitic helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Wen, Yun jun; Cai, Ya Nan; Vallée, Isabelle; Boireau, Pascal; Liu, Ming Yuan; Cheng, Shi Peng

    2015-02-01

    Serine proteases form one of the most important families of enzymes and perform significant functions in a broad range of biological processes, such as intra- and extracellular protein metabolism, digestion, blood coagulation, regulation of development, and fertilization. A number of serine proteases have been identified in parasitic helminths that have putative roles in parasite development and nutrition, host tissues and cell invasion, anticoagulation, and immune evasion. In this review, we described the serine proteases that have been identified in parasitic helminths, including nematodes (Trichinella spiralis, T. pseudospiralis, Trichuris muris, Anisakis simplex, Ascaris suum, Onchocerca volvulus, O. lienalis, Brugia malayi, Ancylostoma caninum, and Steinernema carpocapsae), cestodes (Spirometra mansoni, Echinococcus granulosus, and Schistocephalus solidus), and trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica, and Schistosoma mansoni). Moreover, the possible biological functions of these serine proteases in the endogenous biological phenomena of these parasites and in the host-parasite interaction were also discussed. PMID:25748703

  10. Frequency of parasites and Salmonella infection in captive maned-wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, kept in Zoos at the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Gilioli R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one captive maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger 1815 from 11 Zoos at the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were screened to investigate the presence of parasites and Salmonella infection by parasitological diagnostic methods and fecal selective culture. The most frequent ecto and endoparasites found were Ctenocephalides felis (56.2%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (12.5%, Ancylostoma caninum (45.1%, Strongyloides sp. (29.0%, Uncinaria stenocephala (3.2%, Capillaria sp. (3.2%, Entamoeba sp. (22.9%, Sarcocystis sp. (29.0%, Cryptosporidium sp. (19.3%, Eimeria sp. (19.3%, Giardia sp. (9.6% and Isospora sp. (3.2%. Four different serotypes of Salmonella were identified in six animals (25%. Only one infected animal showed clinical signs of diarrhea. The ability to harbor Salmonella spp. as normal nonpathogenic bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract may be a physiological adaptation of this specie.

  11. Gastrointestinal nematodes in dogs from Debre Zeit, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacob, H T; Ayele, T; Fikru, R; Basu, A K

    2007-09-01

    The study was conducted during the period between January 2005 and June 2006 to determine the frequency of gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections of dogs in and around Debre Zeit, using qualitative and quantitative coprological (N = 100) and postmortem examinations (N = 20). By coproscopy 51% dogs were positive for different types of nematodal eggs, out of which 23.5% were with mixed infections. On necropsy 95% animals were found positive for adult parasites, of which 31.6% were showing more than one species of adult nematodes. The coproscopical examination revealed 32% infection with Ancylostoma caninum followed by Toxocara canis (21%), Spirocerca lupi (7%) and Trichuris vulpis (3%), while postmortem examination showed 70, 45, 23.5 and 5% infection, respectively. The study further indicated significant difference (P 0.05) between sexes. PMID:17614203

  12. [Zoonotic parasites in dog feces at public squares in the municipality of Itabuna, Bahia, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos Filho, Pedro C; Barros, Laise M; Campos, Jamille O; Braga, Vânia B; Cazorla, Irene M; Albuquerque, George R; Carvalho, Sílvia M S

    2008-01-01

    The contamination of public squares by zoonotic potential parasites was evaluated at the urban areas in the municipality of Itabuna Brasil. For such, 119 fecal samples of dogs were collected at 10 public squares. After that, these feces samples were transported to the Parasitology Laboratory in the UESC and they were analyzed by Mariano and Carvalho's method. Of the total analized samples, 56.3% show some parasitic evolutive form. Ancylostoma sp. was the most frequently (47.9%), followed by Strongyloides stercortalis (6.7%), Toxocara canis and Trichuris vulpis eggs (4.2%) each, Endolimax nana cysts (2.5%), and Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba coli cysts (0.8%) each. PMID:19265579

  13. Gastrointestinal parasites of shepherd and hunting dogs in the Serres Prefecture, Northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazahariadou, M; Founta, A; Papadopoulos, E; Chliounakis, S; Antoniadou-Sotiriadou, K; Theodorides, Y

    2007-09-01

    A total of 281 faecal samples from owned shepherd and hunting dogs were collected in the Serres Prefecture, Northern Greece and were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. The overall prevalence of parasitism was 26% and the 11 species found were: Toxocara canis (12.8%), Trichuris vulpis (9.6%), Giardia spp. (4.3%), Isospora (Cystoisospora) spp. (3.9%), Ancylostoma/Uncinaria spp. (2.8%), Cryptosporidium spp. (2.8%), Alaria alata (2.5%), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.8%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (1.1%), Toxascaris leonina (0.7%) and Dipylidium caninum (0.3%). The prevalence of T. canis and Isospora (Cystoisospora) spp. was significantly higher in young than in adult dogs (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in prevalence between genders, except for T. canis, which was more common in male dogs (p < 0.05). PMID:17573197

  14. A coprological survey of intestinal helminthes in stray dogs captured in osaka prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Akio; Morishima, Yasuyuki; Nagahama, Shinya; Horikoshi, Takashi; Edagawa, Akiko; Kawabuchi-Kurata, Takako; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Yamasaki, Hiroshi

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate intestinal helminth infection in stray dogs in Osaka Prefecture by surveying coprological samples from dogs captured from 2006-2011. Of 212 fecal samples collected, overall prevalence of infection was 39.2%. The most common species was Toxocara canis (25.0%), followed by Trichuris vulpis (8.0%), Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (3.3%), Taeniidae (2.4%), Ancylostoma caninum (1.9%) and Toxascaris leonine (0.5%). In the molecular analysis, all of the taeniid eggs were negative for Echinococcus multilocularis and were identified as other taeniid species (e.g., Taenia pisiformis). Our results suggest that stray dogs remain important infection reservoirs of zoonotic parasites in Osaka Prefecture. Therefore, control of stray dogs is crucial for reducing the risk of public health problems due to parasitic infections. PMID:23774027

  15. [The evaluation of soil contamination with geohelminth eggs in the area of Wrocław, Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perec-Matysiak, Agnieszka; Hildebrand, Joanna; Zaleśny, Grzegorz; Okulewicz, Anna; Fatuła, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The main source of many zoonoses is soil contaminated with feline and canine faeces. The aim of this study was to examine the degree of soil contamination with geohelminth eggs in the area of Wrocław. Within 2006-2007 a total of 185 soil samples (parks, backyards, playgrounds and city squares) from area were collected and then examined using flotation technique in saturated sodium nitrate. The helminth eggs were found in 37 (20%) samples. The highest rate of contamination was in the city squares (38.2%). The eggs were also found in 29.1% of backyards. Parks and playgrounds with sandpits were free of any contamination. The prevalence of helminth eggs in positive samples was as follows: Toxocara spp. 3.2%, Uncinaria stenocephala 7.0%, Ancylostoma caninum 4.9% and Trichuris vulpis 4.9%. PMID:19338223

  16. Epidemiological survey on gastro-intestinal and blood-borne helminths of dogs in north-east Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoust, B; Normand, T; Bourry, O; Dang, H; Leroy, E; Bourdoiseau, G

    2008-12-01

    A survey of helminth parasites was carried out on 198 dogs living in almost complete liberty in villages in the northeast of Gabon. Faeces and blood samples were collected and analysed. Dirofilaria immitis antigen was detected in 13.6% of dogs using the SNAP 3Dx test, a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Faecal examination revealed that 91.4% of dogs were infected by intestinal helminths. Ascarids were found in 58.5% of the samples. Trichuris vulpis was observed in 49.5% of cases, and Uncinaria spp. and Ancylostoma spp. in 34.8%, Spirocerca lupi in 25.3% and Capillaria spp. in 10.6%. Cestode embryophores were found in 8.6% of the samples. PMID:19294992

  17. Parasitas zoonóticos em fezes de cães em praças públicas do município de Itabuna, Bahia, Brasil Zoonotic parasites in dog feces at public squares in the municipality of Itabuna, Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro C. Campos Filho; Laise M. Barros; Jamille O. Campos; Vânia B. Braga; Irene M. Cazorla; George R. Albuquerque; Sílvia M.S. Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Avaliou-se a contaminação de praças públicas da área urbana do município de Itabuna, BA, Brasil, por parasitos zoonóticos presentes em fezes de cães. Foram coletadas 119 amostras fecais de cães em 10 praças. Logo após, estas fezes foram encaminhadas ao Laboratório de Parasitologia da UESC e analisadas pelo método de Mariano e Carvalho. Do total das amostras analisadas, 56,3% continham alguma forma evolutiva parasitária, sendo o parasita mais freqüente Ancylostoma sp. com 47,9%, seguido por 6,...

  18. Helminthic phaune of dogs and cats of some municipalities of São Paulo State/ Fauna helmíntica de cães e gatos provenientes de alguns municípios do Estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adjair Antônio do Nascimento

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty eight dogs and 11 cats from São Paulo State Municipalities (Araraquara, Cosmorama, Jaboticabal, Pontal, Sertãozinho and Taiuva cities were submeeted to nechropsy. The animals, males and females, no defined race, with different ages and naturally infected by parasites were transported to the CPPAR – Centro de Pesquisas em Sanidade Animal – UNESP. After a five days period, in which the animals have recived water and ration “ ad libitum”, they were killed under normal ethic anesthetic scientific research procedures. A total of 1010 parasites were identified in the dogs, with the following occurrence and infection range: Toxocara canis (71,43% and 0 to 58%; Ancylostoma caninum (76,14% and 0 to 77, Ancylostoma braziliense (57,14% and 0 to 117; Dipylidium caninum (42,86% and 0 to 73 and Physaloptera praeputialis (3,57% and 0 to 1. Among the 750 helminths identified in the felidae the occurrence and infection range were: A.caninum (100% and 3 to 275, D. caninum (54,54% and 0 to 33, Hydatigera taeniformis (45,45% and 0 to 45, P. praeputialis (54,54% and 0 to 20 and Platynosomum fastosum (27,27% and 0 to 5.Foram submetidos à necropsia 28 cães e 11 gatos, provenientes dos canis municipais de Araraquara, Cosmorama, Jaboticabal, Pontal, Sertãozinho e Taiúva, Estado de São Paulo. Os animais, machos ou fêmeas, sem raça definida, de diferentes faixas etárias e naturalmente infectados por parasitos, foram alocados no “Setor de Cães e Gatos” do CPPAR – Centro de Pesquisas em Sanidade Animal – UNESP, durante cinco dias (período de adaptação, recebendo água e ração “ad libitum”. O sacrifício dos animais foi efetuado de acordo com os procedimentos anestésicos recomendados pelas normas éticas utilizadas na pesquisa científica. Nos cães, 1010 helmintos foram diagnosticados. A ocorrência e amplitude de infecção foram: Toxocara canis (71,43% e 0 – 58, Ancylostoma caninum (67,86% e 0 – 77, Ancylostoma braziliense

  19. Gastrointestinal parasites in dogs from the Island of St. Pierre off the south coast of Newfoundland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, Kimberly E; Whitney, Hugh

    2009-05-26

    The present work was performed to survey the gastrointestinal parasites of domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and also to determine if any were infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum (French Heartworm), on the French Island of St. Pierre off the south coast of Newfoundland. A total of 57 fecal samples were collected and examined for intestinal parasites. The overall prevalence of parasitism was 57.9% and the six species found were: Uncinaria stenocephala/Ancylostoma caninum (47.4%), Toxocara canis (22.8%), Isospora canis (8.8%), Trichuris vulpis (7.0%), and Alaria canis (1.8%). There was no significant difference in overall prevalence between genders, except for T. canis, which was more common in female dogs than male dogs (p<0.05). PMID:19303213

  20. Rhynchorhina mauritaniensis, a new genus and species of wedgefish from the eastern central Atlantic (Elasmobranchii: Batoidea: Rhinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séret, Bernard; Naylor, Gavin J P

    2016-01-01

    A new wedgefish, Rhynchorhina mauritaniensis gen. et sp. nov., is described from three specimens collected in the shallow waters of the shoal "Banc d'Arguin", off Mauritania (Eastern Central Atlantic). The new genus is mainly distinguished from its close relatives, members of the genus Rhynchobatus, by its snout shape, more broadly rounded like that of the shark-ray Rhina ancylostoma, instead of being typically wedge-shaped as in Rhynchobatus species. The new species resembles the common West African wedgefish, Rhynchobatus lubberti, in having a similar colour pattern, but differs in snout shape. The new genus is supported as genetically distinct by comparative analysis of the mitochondrial NADH2 gene. PMID:27470765

  1. Study on prevalence of ancylostomosis in dogs at Anand district, Gujarat, India

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    Nilima N. Brahmbhatt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was undertaken to derive the prevalence rate of ancylostomosis in dogs by a collection of fecal samples from Anand district. Materials and Methods: The fecal samples were collected from the dogs brought to the Hospital of Veterinary College (Teaching Veterinary Clinical Service Complex and the surrounding areas of Anand district. On the day of collection, fecal samples were collected and brought to the Department of Veterinary Parasitology and processed for standard qualitative examination. The sedimentation technique was used to detect the presence of Ancylostoma spp. eggs in the samples. Result: The highest prevalence rate was observed in the month of May (36.66% fecal samples and the lowest in the month of December (13.79% fecal samples at Anand district. Conclusion: It can be concluded that heavy infection is present in Anand district especially in the season of summer followed by monsoon and the least in winter.

  2. Identification, isolation, and molecular cloning of a hookworm protease: an approach towards a defined vaccine for ancylostomiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotez, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The hookworm Ancylostoma caninum was shown to release in vitro a 37 kDa protease that catalyzed the hydrolysis of fibrinogen, plasminogen, and elastin. The enzyme was purified from parasite extracts by ion-exchange chromatography, followed by gel filtration and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. An amino-terminal sequence was determined. When assayed with radiolabeled fibrin as substrate, the enzyme displayed optimal activity at pH 9-11; it was inactivated by dialysis against ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid. Antiserum raised against the protease in rabbits cross-reacted on western blots with soluble antigen from the infective larval stage of the parasite. A cDNA library from hookworm mRNA was constructed in the expression vector bacteriophage lambdagtll. A positive clone was identified with the rabbit antiserum that was shown to contain an 800-bp insert. The insert was mapped, subcloned into M13, and sequenced, revealing an open reading frame of 789 nucleotides corresponding to 263 amino acids.

  3. РАЗНООБРАЗИЕ ПАРАЗИТОВ ХИЩНЫХ ЖИВОТНЫХ НА ТЕРРИТОРИИ Г. ДНЕПРОПЕТРОВСК

    OpenAIRE

    Бойко, А.; Фалы, Л.; Бригадиренко, В.

    2011-01-01

    На территории г. Днепропетровск выявлено 10 видов возбудителей гельминтозов и кокцидиозов хищных: Uncinaria sp., Ancylostoma sp., Dictyocaulus immitis (Nematoda, Strongylata), Strongyloides stercoralis (Nematoda, Rhabditata), Spirocerca lupi (Nematoda, Spirurata), Toxocara canis (Nematoda, Ascaridata), Trichuris vulpis (Nematoda, Trichurata), Dipylidium caninum (Cestoda, Hymenolepidata), Cystoisospora sp., Toxoplasma gondii (Sporozoa, Coccidia). В пробах почвы доминировали S. stercoralis и Un...

  4. [The Caribbean origins of the National Public Health System in the USA: a global approach to the history of medicine and public health in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Mariola

    2015-01-01

    This article defines global history in relation to the history of medicine and public health. It argues that a global approach to history opens up a space for examining the reverberations transmitted from the geographic periphery towards western regions, which have traditionally dominated modern historiography. It analyzes two medical interventions in the Caribbean in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, showing how these events had profound consequences in the USA. The successes achieved in the Caribbean in terms of yellow fever and ancylostoma control, as well as providing a model for health campaigns in the southern USA, inspired the centralization of public health in North America under the centralizing control of the federal government. PMID:25742109

  5. PREVALÊNCIA DE ENDOPARASITAS EM CÃES ERRANTES NA CIDADE DE MANAUS-AM

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    Geraldo PEREIRA JUNIOR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar a prevalência de endoparasitas em cães errantes na cidade de Manaus-AM. Foram coletadas amostras de fezes de 80 cães errantes nas feiras municipais das zonas: Norte, Leste, Sul e Centro, da cidade de Manaus-Am. Para o diagnóstico coproparasitológico as amostras foram utilizados os métodos de Willis-Mollay e centrífugo- flutuação em solução saturada de sacarose. Todas as amostras foram positivas para a presença de endoparasitas, sendo o Ancylostoma sp. o de maior prevalência (85%. O estudo demonstrou à elevada disseminação das parasitoses intestinais de cães errantes na cidade de Manaus.

  6. Immune polarization by hookworms: taking cues from T helper type 2, type 2 innate lymphoid cells and alternatively activated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Meera G; Herbert, De'Broski R

    2016-06-01

    Cellular and molecular investigation of parasitic helminth infections has greatly accelerated the understanding of type 2 immune responses. However, there remains considerable debate regarding the specific leucocytes that kill parasites and whether these mechanisms are distinct from those responsible for tissue repair. Herein, we chronicle discoveries over the past decade highlighting current paradigms in type 2 immunity with a particular emphasis upon how CD4(+) T helper type 2 cells, type 2 innate lymphoid cells and alternatively activated macrophages coordinately control helminth-induced parasitism. Primarily, this review will draw from studies of the murine nematode parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, which bears important similarities to the human hookworms Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. Given that one or more hookworm species currently infect millions of individuals across the globe, we propose that vaccine and/or pharmaceutical-based cure strategies targeting these affected human populations should incorporate the conceptual advances outlined herein. PMID:26928141

  7. PENYAKIT CACING DI UNIT PERMUKIMAN TRANSMIGRASI PROPINSI BENGKULU PADA ANAK SEKOLAH DASAR

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    Djarismawati Helmy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Propinsi Bengkulu merupakan salah satu dari propinsi di Sumatera yang menerima transmigran pada tahun 1996/1997. Terdapat 30 (tiga puluh Unit Permukiman Transmigrasi (UPT yang telah dihuni dan tersebar di 3 (tiga kabupaten. Dari laporan Dirjen P2M & PLP diketahui bahwa kualitas air dan lingkungan masih belum seperti yang diharapkan. Sarana air bersih dan kondisi fisik lainnya 75,8% belum memenuhi syarat kesehatan, jamban keluarga 60% tidak memenuhi syarat kesehatan. Ditjen P2M & PLP Depkes tahun 1998 melakukan penelitian mengenai penyakit cacing di 30 (tiga puluh unit penerima transmigrasi dengan hasil tingkat penyakit kecacingan cukup tinggi. Prevalensi penyakit cacing Ascaris 65%, Trichuris 55% dan Negator & Ancylostoma 22%. Masyarakat di UPT Propinsi Bengkulu masih mempunyai perilaku kurang memperhatikan kesehatan lingkungan dan kebersihan pribadi serta kurang tersedianya sarana sanitasi. Untuk itu disarankan penyuluhan tentang kesehatan lingkungan dan higiene sanitasi serta perbaikan sarana sanrtasi.

  8. Exame parasitológico de fezes de gatos (Felis catus domesticus domiciliados e errantes da Região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    Serra Cathia Maria Barrientos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas 131 amostras de fezes de gatos de comportamento domiciliado e errante da Região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, obtendo-se uma positividade de 63,4% das amostras, com maior ocorrência no grupo de animais errantes. Foi observado predomínio de parasitismo por Ancylostoma sp (43,5%, Toxocara sp (19,1% e Cystoisospora sp (43,5% em ambos os grupos. Também foram encontrados ovos de Uncinaria sp (1,5%, Toxascaris leonina (7,6%, cistos de Giardia sp (6,1% e esporocistos de Sarcocystis sp (0,8%. A alta prevalência de enteroparasitas na amostra estudada ressalta a importância de um maior controle parasitológico nesses animais, para proteção da saúde animal e humana.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors associated with endoparasitosis of dogs and cats in Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Diefrey Ribeiro; Oliveira, Luanna Castro; de Siqueira, Daniele Fassina; Perin, Lívia Reisen; Campos, Nayara Camatta; Aptekmann, Karina Preising; Martins, Isabella Vilhena Freire

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for the occurrence of endoparasitosis in dogs and cats in Espírito Santo, Brazil. For the study, 345 dogs and 160 cats were examined. Faecal samples from the animals were collected, and owners were interviewed about their handling of their animals. For the diagnosis of the infections, the Willis-Molley, simple centrifugal flotation and formalin-ether sedimentation techniques were performed. The data found in the tests were tabulated and analysed with a chi-square test (p Ancylostoma was the most prevalent (45%). Supplying filtered water, not feeding raw foods, standardisation of a defecation site and cleaning up the faeces reduced the chances of developing intestinal parasites. An increased frequency of deworming was also shown to be a protective factor; specifically animals which received anthelmintic more than once a year had a lower predisposition for intestinal parasites. PMID:27447218

  10. Epidemiological survey on gastro-intestinal and blood-borne helminths of dogs in north-east Gabon : research communication

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    B. Davoust

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of helminth parasites was carried out on 198 dogs living in almost complete liberty in villages in the northeast of Gabon. Faeces and blood samples were collected and analysed. Dirofilariaimmitis antigen was detected in 13.6 % of dogs using the SNAP 3Dx® test, a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Faecal examination revealed that 91.4 % of dogs were infected by intestinal helminths. Ascarids were found in 58.5 % of the samples. Trichuris vulpis was observed in 49.5 % of cases, and Uncinaria spp. and Ancylostoma spp. in 34.8 %, Spirocerca lupi in 25.3 % and Capillaria spp. in 10.6 %. Cestode embryophores were found in 8.6 % of the samples.

  11. Faecal helminth egg and oocyst counts of a small population of African lions (Panthera leo in the southwestern Kalahari, Namibia : research communication

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    Y. Smith

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available An endoparasite survey of a small pride of African lions (Panthera leo was conducted at Intu Afrika Kalahari Game Reserve, southwestern Namibia, during winter and summer of 2003 and 2004, respectively. Overall, 23 fresh lion scats were collected opportunistically during fieldwork trials. A flotation technique was employed for the diagnosis of parasites. Three nematodes, Ancylostoma braziliense, Gnathostoma spinigerum and Uncinaria stenocephala and two coccidians, Toxoplasma gondii and Isospora felis were recorded. By using the McMaster method for quantification, a maximum number of 14 866 oocysts per gram of faeces was obtained for I. felis during winter 2003. Endoparasite taxa carried by the different individuals in the pride were found to be related to their levels of association. Rates of infection were relatively low as a result of the habitat, semi-captive conditions and earlier sporadic deworming.

  12. [Geohelminths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Pérez, Laura; Pérez-Tanoira, Ramón; Cabello-Úbeda, Alfonso; Petkova-Saiz, Elizabet; Górgolas-Hernández-Mora, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Millions of people in in rural areas and deprived tropical and subtropical regions are infected by soil-transmitted helminths: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus), and Strongyloides stercoralis. Large migratory flows have made their worldwide distribution easier. Besides being debilitating and producing a significant mortality, they cause high morbidity, leading to physical and intellectual impairment in millions of children who live in poverty. Along with the use of benzimidazoles (albendazole and mebendazole), large-scale international campaigns for treatment and prevention have decreased the number of affected individuals. However, re-infestations and benzimidazole-resistance are frequent, so there needs to be awareness about the importance and consequences of these neglected parasites. PMID:26980233

  13. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Jenin Governorate, Palestine:a 10-year retrospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sami Bdir; Ghaleb Adwan

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites among Jenin Governorate (Northern Palestine) population.Methods:A retrospective laboratory analysis of stool specimens was carried out for intestinal parasite examination in Jenin Governmental Hospital, Jenin Governorate, Northern Palestine. The records were collected from the clinical microbiology laboratory of the Jenin Governmental Hospital between January2000and December2009. Results: Our retrospective study showed that the prevalence of intestinal parasite infection during10 years ranged from32.0-41.5%. There are at least7 different parasitesencountered. The most common pathogenic parasites identified were:Entamoeba histolytica(8.2-18.2%),Enterobius vermicularis(15.6-28.9%). The other parasites present wereGiardia lamblia, Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis,Taenia species andAncylostoma duodenale (Hookworms).Conclusions:Intestinal parasitic infection is an important public health problem in Jenin governorate, Palestine. It is necessary to develop effective prevention and control strategies including health education and environmental sanitation improvement.

  14. Metazoan parasites of dogs in Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAdam, I; Gudan, D; Timbs, D V; Urquhart, H R; Sewell, M M

    1984-02-01

    The parasites which occurred most frequently in 175 owned or stray dogs in Sabah were Ancylostoma spp. present in 68% of the animals. Dirofilaria immitis occurred in 70% of the adult dogs but neither D. immitis nor Spirocerca lupi were present in puppies under four months of age. The latter attained a prevalence of 30% in the adults. In contrast Toxocara canis occurred in 81% of the puppies but infrequently in older dogs. Dipylidium caninum was moderately prevalent (15 to 25%) in dogs of all ages. Ticks were the most common arthropod parasite being present on 26% of the dogs and were mainly Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Demodectic and sarcoptic mange were confirmed and fleas and lice were also recovered. PMID:6730003

  15. Intestinal helminthiases in Ecuador: the relatíonship between prevalence, genetic, and socioeconomic factors

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    Philip J. Cooper

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of infection with the intestinal helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale and Strongyloides stercoralis was examinedin 632 residents of communities in Esmeraldas province of Ecuador. These communities were divided into two groups according to area of habitation which reflected different socioeconomic circumstances. Attempts were made to correlate infection status with race and ABO blood group phenotype. The racial groups included blacks, Chachi amerindians, and mixed-race mestizos. Greater prevalences of infection were seen in the area oflower socioeconomic status. No racial or blood group associations with helminth infection were seen controlling for socioeconomic status.A prevalência de infecções com helmintos Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale e Strongyloides stercoralis foi examinada em 632 pessoas em diferentes comunidades na Região de Esmeraldas no Equador. Estas comunidades foram divididas em dois grupos conforme a área na qual residem, o que reflete diferentes circunstâncias sócio- econômicas. Intentou-se correlacionar os tiposde infecção com a raça e os grupos sanguíneos ABO. Nestes grupos raciais estão incluídos negros, ameríndios Chachi, e mestiços. Notou-se a prevalência de infecções nas áreas sócio-econômicasmais baixas. Não se encontrou nenhuma relação com a infecção helmíntica e raça ou grupo sanguíneo depois de controlar-se o status sócio- econômico.

  16. Parasitas zoonóticos em fezes de cães em praças públicas do município de Itabuna, Bahia, Brasil Zoonotic parasites in dog feces at public squares in the municipality of Itabuna, Bahia, Brazil

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    Pedro C. Campos Filho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a contaminação de praças públicas da área urbana do município de Itabuna, BA, Brasil, por parasitos zoonóticos presentes em fezes de cães. Foram coletadas 119 amostras fecais de cães em 10 praças. Logo após, estas fezes foram encaminhadas ao Laboratório de Parasitologia da UESC e analisadas pelo método de Mariano e Carvalho. Do total das amostras analisadas, 56,3% continham alguma forma evolutiva parasitária, sendo o parasita mais freqüente Ancylostoma sp. com 47,9%, seguido por 6,7% de Strongyloides stercortalis, 4,2% tanto para ovos de Toxocara canis quanto de Trichuris vulpis, 2,5% para cistos de Endolimax nana, e 0,8% tanto para cistos de Giardia intestinalis quanto para os de Entamoeba coli.The contamination of public squares by zoonotic potential parasites was evaluated at the urban areas in the municipality of Itabuna Brasil. For such, 119 fecal samples of dogs were collected at 10 public squares. After that, these feces samples were transported to the Parasitology Laboratory in the UESC and they were analyzed by Mariano and Carvalho's method. Of the total analized samples, 56.3% show some parasitic evolutive form. Ancylostoma sp. was the most frequently (47.9%, followed by Strongyloides stercortalis (6.7%, Toxocara canis and Trichuris vulpis eggs (4.2% each, Endolimax nana cysts (2.5%, and Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba coli cysts (0.8% each.

  17. A field and laboratory evaluation of a commercial ELISA for the detection of Giardia coproantigens in humans and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, R M; Deplazes, P; Meloni, B P; Reynoldson, J A; Thompson, R C

    1993-01-01

    A capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (CELISA) was evaluated for its ability to detect Giardia coproantigens in the faeces of humans and dogs in the Perth metropolitan area and Aboriginal communities in Fitzroy Crossing, Western Australia. Using zinc sulphate flotation and light microscopy, Giardia cysts and/or trophozoites were observed in 8 of 57 (14%) human stool samples from Perth and 21 of 55 (38%) stool samples from Fitzroy Crossing, after 2 separate examinations. Analysis of diagnostic sensitivity using the ELISA revealed that coproantigens were detected in all 29 human samples (100%) in which Giardia cysts and/or trophozoites were also present. Coproantigens were detected in one further sample from Perth and in 3 samples from Fitzroy Crossing in which no Giardia cyst or trophozoite was observed. The specificity of the test, as defined using Fitzroy Crossing samples free from Giardia, was 91%. The assay did not cross-react with Giardia-free stool samples containing Hymenolepis nana, Entamoeba coli, E. hartmanni, Chilomastix mesnili or Ancylostoma duodenale. Giardia cysts and/or trophozoites were also observed in 11 of 32 dog faecal samples (34%) in Perth and 11 of 29 dog samples (38%) in Fitzroy Crossing, after one zinc sulphate examination. The sensitivity of the ELISA for dogs was 64% and 55% for Perth and Fitzroy Crossing specimens respectively. The specificity was 95% when Fitzroy Crossing samples were used. Other parasites observed in Giardia-free faecal samples from dogs which did not produce a positive reaction with the kit were Ancylostoma caninum, Sarcocystis sp. and Isospora sp.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8465392

  18. The prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal parasites of stray and refuge dogs in four locations in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, Rebecca J; Pednekar, Riddhi P; Cuttell, Leigh; Porter, Ronald B; Abd Megat Rani, Puteri Azaziah; Gatne, Mukulesh L

    2014-09-15

    A gastrointestinal parasite survey of 411 stray and refuge dogs sampled from four geographical and climactically distinct locations in India revealed these animals to represent a significant source of environmental contamination for parasites that pose a zoonotic risk to the public. Hookworms were the most commonly identified parasite in dogs in Sikkim (71.3%), Mumbai (48.8%) and Delhi (39.1%). In Ladakh, which experiences harsh extremes in climate, a competitive advantage was observed for parasites such as Sarcocystis spp. (44.2%), Taenia hydatigena (30.3%) and Echinococcus granulosus (2.3%) that utilise intermediate hosts for the completion of their life cycle. PCR identified Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Ancylostoma caninum to occur sympatrically, either as single or mixed infections in Sikkim (Northeast) and Mumbai (West). In Delhi, A. caninum was the only species identified in dogs, probably owing to its ability to evade unfavourable climatic conditions by undergoing arrested development in host tissue. The expansion of the known distribution of A. ceylanicum to the west, as far as Mumbai, justifies the renewed interest in this emerging zoonosis and advocates for its surveillance in future human parasite surveys. Of interest was the absence of Trichuris vulpis in dogs, in support of previous canine surveys in India. This study advocates the continuation of birth control programmes in stray dogs that will undoubtedly have spill-over effects on reducing the levels of environmental contamination with parasite stages. In particular, owners of pet animals exposed to these environments must be extra vigilant in ensuring their animals are regularly dewormed and maintaining strict standards of household and personal hygiene. PMID:25139393

  19. Parasites of importance for human health in Nigerian dogs: high prevalence and limited knowledge of pet owners

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    Heukelbach Jorg

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dogs are the most common pet animals worldwide. They may harbour a wide range of parasites with zoonotic potential, thus causing a health risk to humans. In Nigeria, epidemiological knowledge on these parasites is limited. Methods In a community-based study, we examined 396 dogs in urban and rural areas of Ilorin (Kwara State, Central Nigeria for ectoparasites and intestinal helminths. In addition, a questionnaire regarding knowledge and practices was applied to pet owners. Results Nine ectoparasite species belonging to four taxa and six intestinal helminth species were identified: fleas (Ctenocephalides canis, Pulex irritans, Tunga penetrans, mites (Demodex canis, Otodectes sp., Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis, ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes sp., and lice (Trichodectes canis; and Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma sp., Trichuris vulpis, Dipylidium caninum, Taenidae and Strongyloides sp. Overall prevalence of ectoparasites was 60.4% and of intestinal helminths 68.4%. The occurrence of C. canis, R. sanguineus, T. canis, Ancylostoma sp. and T. vulpis was most common (prevalence 14.4% to 41.7%. Prevalence patterns in helminths were age-dependent, with T. canis showing a decreasing prevalence with age of host, and a reverse trend in other parasite species. Knowledge regarding zoonoses was very limited and the diseases not considered a major health problem. Treatment with antiparasitic drugs was more frequent in urban areas. Conclusion Parasites of importance for human health were highly prevalent in Nigerian dogs. Interventions should include health education provided to dog owners and the establishment of a program focusing on zoonotic diseases.

  20. Field evaluation of the efficacy and the safety of a combination of oxantel/pyrantel/praziquantel in the treatment of naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematode and/or cestode infestations in dogs in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandemange, E; Claerebout, E; Genchi, C; Franc, M

    2007-04-10

    In five multicentre field trials, the efficacy and safety of a combination of oxantel/pyrantel/praziquantel (Dolpac), Vetoquinol SA) in the treatment of naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematode and/or cestode infestation in dogs was evaluated in northern and southern Europe. Forty-eight investigators from France, Belgium, Germany, Italy and Spain enrolled 329 dogs to be treated with the tested combination; 235 of these dogs complied with the inclusion criteria of the protocol and had a tested helminth identified on Day 0. A pooled analysis was performed on each of the following helminth species: Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Taenia spp. and Dipylidium caninum, which were isolated on Day 0. The main efficacy criterion was the egg per gram (epg) percent reduction of the nematodes and the absence of proglottids and or eggs for the cestodes. After treatment, dogs were examined on Day 7, Day 14 and Day 21. The efficacy of the combination against Toxocara canis was 99.1%, 98.8% and 98.9% on Day 7, Day 14 and Day 21, respectively. At the same occasions the efficacy was, respectively, 99.2%, 99.2% and 99.3% against Ancylostoma caninum, 97.3%, 97.2% and 98.4% against Trichuris vulpis, 98.4%, 98.8% and 98.8% against Uncinaria stenocephala, 98.9%, 99.5% and 99.9% against Toxascaris leonina, 97.1%, 100% and 100% against Dipylidium caninum and 100% against Taenia spp. PMID:17184919

  1. Prevalence of dog intestinal parasites and risk perception of zoonotic infection by dog owners in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, S; Oliveira-Sequeira, T C G

    2008-10-01

    Coprological examination was used to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in stray and domiciled dogs from Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Risk factors for dog infection were assessed in relation to demographic, husbandry and management data. The dog owners completed a questionnaire survey on some aspects of dog parasitism such as parasite species, mechanisms of infection, awareness of zoonotic diseases and history of anthelmintic usage. Parasites were found in the faeces of 138 dogs, with an overall prevalence of 54.3%. Dogs harbouring one parasite were more common (31.4%) than those harbouring two (18.5%), three (3.2%) or four (1.2%). The following parasites and their respective frequencies were detected: Ancylostoma (37.8%), Giardia (16.9%), Toxocara canis (8.7%), Trichuris vulpis (7.1%), Dipylidium caninum (2.4%), Isospora (3.5%), Cryptosporidium (3.1%) and Sarcocystis (2.7%). Stray dogs were found more likely to be poliparasitized (P0.05). Except for Ancylostoma, that showed a significantly higher prevalence in dogs living in a multi-dog household (P<0.01), parasite prevalences were similar in single- and multi-dog household. The answers of dog owners to the questionnaire showed that the majority does not know the species of dog intestinal parasites, the mechanisms of transmission, the risk factors for zoonotic infections, and specific prophylactic measures. The predominance of zoonotic species in dogs in the studied region, associated with the elevated degree of misinformation of the owners, indicates that the risk of zoonotic infection by canine intestinal parasite may be high, even in one of the most developed regions of Brazil. PMID:18811905

  2. Activity of oxantel pamoate monotherapy and combination chemotherapy against Trichuris muris and hookworms: revival of an old drug.

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    Jennifer Keiser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely recognized that only a handful of drugs are available against soil-transmitted helminthiasis, all of which are characterized by a low efficacy against Trichuris trichiura, when administered as single doses. The re-evaluation of old, forgotten drugs is a promising strategy to identify alternative anthelminthic drug candidates or drug combinations. METHODOLOGY: We studied the activity of the veterinary drug oxantel pamoate against Trichuris muris, Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Necator americanus in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the dose-effect of oxantel pamoate combined with albendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin was studied against T. muris in vitro and additive or synergistic combinations were followed up in vivo. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We calculated an ED50 of 4.7 mg/kg for oxantel pamoate against T. muris in mice. Combinations of oxantel pamoate with pyrantel pamoate behaved antagonistically in vitro (combination index (CI = 2.53. Oxantel pamoate combined with levamisole, albendazole or ivermectin using ratios based on their ED50s revealed antagonistic effects in vivo (CI = 1.27, 1.90 and 1.27, respectively. A highly synergistic effect (CI = 0.15 was observed when oxantel pamoate-mebendazole was administered to T. muris-infected mice. Oxantel pamoate (10 mg/kg lacked activity against Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Necator americanus in vivo. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study confirms the excellent trichuricidal properties of oxantel pamoate. Since the drug lacks activity against hookworms it is necessary to combine oxantel pamoate with a partner drug with anti-hookworm properties. Synergistic effects were observed for oxantel pamoate-mebendazole, hence this combination should be studied in more detail. Since, of the standard drugs, albendazole has the highest efficacy against hookworms, additional investigations on the combination effect of oxantel pamoate-albendazole should be

  3. A Survey on Gastro-Intestinal Parasites of Non-Descript Dogs in and Around Arusha Municipality, Tanzania

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    Emmanuel Senyael

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dogs are the most common pet animals worldwide and perform a range of cultural, social, and economic functions in society. The objective of this study is to investigate, through cross-sectional survey, the distribution, types and prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites affecting dogs in and around Arusha municipality, Tanzania. Faecal samples collected from 241 non-descript, apparent healthy dogs w ere processed by sedimentation and floatations technique and then examined for protozoan oocyst and helminth eggs. Coprological examination revealed that 59.3% of the dogs excreted helminth eggs in their faeces. Dogs harbouring one-parasite eggs were more common (73.8% than those harbouring two (12.4% or three (0.4%. The data on the distribution of the various worm species in the positive dogs indicate that Ancylostoma caninum eggs were by far the most common (57.2%. The other detected worm egg species and their respective frequencies were: Toxocara canis (13.7% , Mesostesphanus spp. (1.66% and Taenia spp. (0.4%. Protozoan eggs (E. canis were detected in two samples. The prevalence of helminth eggs was higher in young dogs (puppies compared to adults (p 0.05. The high prevalence of gastro-intestinal helminth parasites of zoonotic potential registered in the dog population from a highly urban area in Arusha indicates a potential risk to human health. Increased awareness of their potential threat to human health coupled with additional research into the zoonotic capacity of Toxocara spp. and Ancylostoma spp. is desirable.

  4. Comparison of concentration methods for rapid detection of hookworm ova in wastewater matrices using quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, P; Ahmed, W; Jagals, P; Sidhu, J P S; Toze, S

    2015-12-01

    Hookworm infection contributes around 700 million infections worldwide especially in developing nations due to increased use of wastewater for crop production. The effective recovery of hookworm ova from wastewater matrices is difficult due to their low concentrations and heterogeneous distribution. In this study, we compared the recovery rates of (i) four rapid hookworm ova concentration methods from municipal wastewater, and (ii) two concentration methods from sludge samples. Ancylostoma caninum ova were used as surrogate for human hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus). Known concentration of A. caninum hookworm ova were seeded into wastewater (treated and raw) and sludge samples collected from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Brisbane and Perth, Australia. The A. caninum ova were concentrated from treated and raw wastewater samples using centrifugation (Method A), hollow fiber ultrafiltration (HFUF) (Method B), filtration (Method C) and flotation (Method D) methods. For sludge samples, flotation (Method E) and direct DNA extraction (Method F) methods were used. Among the four methods tested, filtration (Method C) method was able to recover higher concentrations of A. caninum ova consistently from treated wastewater (39-50%) and raw wastewater (7.1-12%) samples collected from both WWTPs. The remaining methods (Methods A, B and D) yielded variable recovery rate ranging from 0.2 to 40% for treated and raw wastewater samples. The recovery rates for sludge samples were poor (0.02-4.7), although, Method F (direct DNA extraction) provided 1-2 orders of magnitude higher recovery rate than Method E (flotation). Based on our results it can be concluded that the recovery rates of hookworm ova from wastewater matrices, especially sludge samples, can be poor and highly variable. Therefore, choice of concentration method is vital for the sensitive detection of hookworm ova in wastewater matrices. PMID:26358269

  5. Rapid concentration and sensitive detection of hookworm ova from wastewater matrices using a real-time PCR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, P; Sidhu, J P S; Ahmed, W; Jagals, P; Toze, S

    2015-12-01

    The risk of human hookworm infections from land application of wastewater matrices could be high in regions with high hookworm prevalence. A rapid, sensitive and specific hookworm detection method from wastewater matrices is required in order to assess human health risks. Currently available methods used to identify hookworm ova to the species level are time consuming and lack accuracy. In this study, a real-time PCR method was developed for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of canine hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum) ova from wastewater matrices. A. caninum was chosen because of its morphological similarity to the human hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus). The newly developed PCR method has high detection sensitivity with the ability to detect less than one A. caninum ova from 1 L of secondary treated wastewater at the mean threshold cycle (CT) values ranging from 30.1 to 34.3. The method is also able to detect four A. caninum ova from 1 L of raw wastewater and from ∼4 g of treated sludge with mean CT values ranging from 35.6 to 39.8 and 39.8 to 39.9, respectively. The better detection sensitivity obtained for secondary treated wastewater compared to raw wastewater and sludge samples could be attributed to sample turbidity. The proposed method appears to be rapid, sensitive and specific compared to traditional methods and has potential to aid in the public health risk assessment associated with land application of wastewater matrices. Furthermore, the method can be adapted to detect other helminth ova of interest from wastewater matrices. PMID:26297680

  6. Infectious diseases in dogs rescued during dogfighting investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, S H; Levy, J K; Kirk, S K; Crawford, P C; Leutenegger, C M; Shuster, J J; Liu, J; Chandrashekar, R

    2016-05-01

    Dogs used for dogfighting often receive minimal preventive health care, and the potential for spread of infectious diseases is high. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of infectious diseases in dogs rescued from fighting operations to guide medical protocols for their immediate and long-term care. A total of 269 pit bull-type dogs were seized in a multi-state investigation. Fleas were present on most dogs, but few ticks were observed. Testing performed at intake included packed cell volume (PCV), serology and PCR for vector-borne pathogens, and fecal analysis. The most common infections were Babesia gibsoni (39%), 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum' (32%), Mycoplasma haemocanis (30%), Dirofilaria immitis (12%), and Ancylostoma (23%). Anemia was associated with B. gibsoni infection (63% of infected dogs, odds ratio = 2.5, P Ancylostoma. Pit bull heritage and dogfighting are known risk factors for B. gibsoni infection, possibly via blood transmission from bites and vertical transmission. Hemotropic mycoplasmas have a similar risk pattern. Empirical care for dogs from dogfighting cases should include broad-spectrum internal and external parasiticides and monitoring for anemia. Dogfighting case responders should be prepared for mass screening and treatment of B. gibsoni and heartworm infections and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of infectious and zoonotic diseases in the shelter and following adoption. Former fighting dogs and dogs with possible dog bite scars should not be used as blood donors due to the risk of vector-borne pathogens that can escape detection and for which curative treatment is difficult to document. PMID:27056107

  7. Larva migrans cutanea: reporte de cuatro casos

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    Melvis Vivian Pérez Ruch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la larva migrans cutánea es una parasitosis que constituye una zoonosis frecuente en zonas tropicales, producida por la penetración y desplazamiento a través de la piel de larvas de nemátodos, como Ancylostoma brazilensis y Ancylostoma caninum. El cuadro clínico es característico y se diagnostica mediante la observación macroscópica de las lesiones serpiginosas debajo de la piel. Los antecedentes están dados por contacto con tierra o arena contaminadas como ocurre en niños que juegan en esos lugares. Objetivo: reportar los hallazgos de esta parasitosis en infantes pertenecientes a dos áreas de salud del municipio Camagüey, durante el período 2010 - 2013. Caso Clínico: en el laboratorio de Microbiología de la policlínica de especialidades pediátricas, se diagnosticaron cuatro niños con larva migrans cutánea de 1, 2, 7 y 11 años de edad, el primero con localización perineal, el segundo, en la espalda, el tercero en glúteos, miembros inferiores y superiores y el cuarto en región glútea y vulvar. En los cuatro casos las lesiones fueron características y se observó el trayecto ondulado del parásito a través de la piel. Los cuatros pacientes evolucionaron satisfactoriamente con tratamiento antiparásito. Conclusiones: dada la molestia, e irritabilidad que ocasiona esta parasitosis, así como la posible evolución tórpida de la misma es importante que en las áreas de 218 salud se tenga en cuenta para su oportuno diagnóstico y tratamiento satisfactorio en bien de los pacientes afectados.

  8. PCR identification of two hookworm species in China%中国两种钩虫成虫的PCR虫种鉴定研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑琪; 沈海默; 陈家旭; 胡薇; 张皓冰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale in China by PCR.Methods Adult hookworms were collected through treating patients in 5 provinces of China with Pyrantel Pamoate.Total DNA from 25 Necators and 25 A.duodenales was extracted separately.Specific primers ( NaF-NaR for Nacator and AdF-AdR for A.duodenale) according to cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene were used for PCR amplification.The products were analyzed by electrophoresis and sequencing.DNA of Schistosoma japomicum,Trichuris trichiura,Ancylostoma caninum were also tested with the same primers for PCR.Results 500 bp fragment was amplified from all 25 Necator DNA by primer NaF-NaR,while 700 bp fragment was amplified by primer AdF-AdR from all 25 Ancylostoma duodenale DNA.Sequence alignment analysis showed that the two PCR products had 98% consistency with N. americanus CO1 (GenBank Accession No.AF303136.1 ) and A.duodenale CO1 ( GenBank Accession No.AJ417718.1 ).No band was shown when the same primer was used on other helminthes.Conclusion Primer NaF-NaR,AdF-AdR could be used to identify N.americanus and A.duodenale in China.%目的 对中国流行的美洲钩虫和十二指肠钩虫进行PCR鉴别.方法 通过对中国五省钩虫患者使用双羟萘酸噻嘧啶驱虫获得钩虫成虫,抽提单条美洲钩虫和十二指肠钩虫总DNA(各25条),用美洲钩虫和十二指肠钩虫线粒体DNA细胞色素氧化酶亚基1(mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1,CO1)基因特异性引物(NaF-NaR,AdF-AdR)进行PCR扩增.对PCR产物进行电泳、测序.使用相同引物对日本血吸虫、鞭虫、犬钩虫DNA进行PCR扩增.结果 25份美洲钩虫和25份十二指肠钩虫均能各扩增出约500 bp和700 bp的条带,2种PCR产物分别与美洲钩虫CO1(GenBank登录号为AF303136.1)和十二指肠钩虫CO1(GenBank登录号为AJ417718.1)基因片段序列一致性为99%和98%.但2对引物用于其他虫种DNA则无条带.结论 引物NaF-NaR、AdF-AdR能够用于区分在

  9. Monitoreo de parásitos en efluentes domiciliarios Control of parasites in domestic sewage

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    Liliana Semenas

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la presencia de parásitos en efluentes semisólidos y líquidos en distintas localidades de la Patagonia argentina considerando que ésta es una de las restricciones para su uso. MÉTODOS: Las muestras tomadas en 4 Plantas de Tratamiento de Efluentes Domiciliarios se analizaron siguiendo las normativas de Environmental Protection Agency, Organización Mundial de la Salud, Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater y de algunas clasificaciones. RESULTADOS: Solamente 2 de las 6 muestras de semisólidos analizadas tenían huevos de Ascaris lumbricoides no viables. De las 10 muestras líquidas, solamente 2 no tenían huevos mientras las restantes tenían patógenos de las categorías I (Giardia sp., Hymenolepis diminuta y Enterobius vermicularis y III (Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale y Trichuris trichiura. CONCLUSIONES: Todas las muestras de semisólidos analizadas fueron aptas para su uso como fertilizantes porque no se registró en ninguna de ellas la presencia de huevos viables de Ascaris lumbricoides y solamente 6 de las muestras líquidas fueron aptas para riego por carecer de huevos o por ser su concentración igual o inferior a 1 huevo por litro.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de parasitas em efluentes semi-sólidos e líquidos, em diferentes localidades da Patagonia argentina, por ser fato uma das restrições para seu uso. MÉTODOS: As amostras selecionadas de 4 Centros de Tratamento de Efluentes Domiciliários foram analisadas de acordo com as normas da "Environmental Protection Agenty", Organização Mundial da Saúde e do "Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater", além de algumas classificações. RESULTADOS: Somente 2 das 6 amostras de semi-sólidos analisadas continham ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides não viáveis. Das 10 amostras líquidas, somente 2 não continham ovos, enquanto as restantes continham patógenos das categorias I (Giardia sp., Hymenolepis diminuta e Enterobius

  10. Avaliação parasitológica de alfaces (Lactuca sativa comercializadas em feiras livres e supermercados do município de Campo Mourão, Estado do Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i4.1514 Occurence of parasites in lettuce (Lactuca sativa commercializaed in the street markets and supermarkets of Campo Mourão, state of Paraná, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i4.1514

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    Sandra Maria Simonelli

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou e comparou a contaminação por enteroparasitas em alfaces (Lactuca sativa comercializadas em supermercados e feiras livres do município de Campo Mourão, Estado do Paraná. Foram analisadas 150 amostras de alfaces, pelo método de sedimentação espontânea (Hoffmann, sendo 75 amostras provenientes de supermercados e 75 amostras de feiras livres. O sedimento foi analisado em microscópio óptico. Das amostras analisadas, 56% (42/75 e 58,7% (44/75 apresentaram contaminação por parasitas, dos supermercados e feiras livres, respectivamente. Os principais parasitas encontrados em supermercados foram: Ascaris spp 54,7%, Toxocara spp 2,4%, Strongyloides spp 4,8%, Entamoeba spp 35,7% e Taenia spp 2,4%; e em feiras livres foram: Ascaris spp 13,6%, Strongyloides spp 11,4%, Entamoeba spp 47,7%, Ancylostoma spp 9,1%, /em>Taenia spp 2,3%, Fasciola hepatica 6,8% e Trichuris spp 9,1%. Esses resultados indicam que as amostras de alfaces estão em desacordo com a legislação vigente e salientam a necessidade de aplicação de um programa de educação sanitária direcionado a horticultores e manipuladores de hortaliçasThis work researched and compared the contamination by enteroparasites in lettuce (Lactuca sativa commercialized in the supermarkets and street markets of Campo Mourão, State of Paraná. 150 samples of lettuce were analyzed through sedimentation method (Hoffmam, being 75 samples from supermarkets and 75 from street markets. The sediment was analyzed in optic microscope. The supermarkets samples showed contamination by parasites of 56% (42/75; while contamination of street markets samples showed 58.7% (44/75. The principal parasites observed in supermarkets samples were: Ascaris spp 54.7%, Toxocara spp 2.4%, Strongyloides spp 4.8%, Entamoeba spp 35.7% and Taenia spp 2.4%. Important parasites observed in street markets were: Ascaris spp 13.6%, Strongyloides spp 11.4%, Entamoeba spp 47.7%, Ancylostoma spp 9.1%, Taenia

  11. Ocorrência de Cryptosporidium spp. e outros parasitas em hortaliças consumidas in natura, no Recife Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and others parasites in vegetables consumed in natura, Recife, Brazil

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    Celiane Gomes Maia da Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a ocorrência de enteroparasitas em hortaliças comercializadas e consumidas em Pernambuco. Foram utilizadas 100 amostras de hortaliças: 40 amostras de alface lisa (Lactuca sativa, 40 de agrião (Nasturtium officinale e 20 de acelga (Beta vulgaris, provenientes de feiras livres e supermercados. A detecção de Cryptosporidium spp. foi realizada conforme Monge e Arias sendo utilizado dois métodos de coloração, Koster modificado e Ziehl-Nielsen. Foi usada a técnica de sedimentação espontânea de Gelli et al. para a análise parasitológica. As análises de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli foram realizadas de acordo com Andrews. Os resultados obtidos mostraram um percentual de contaminação parasitária em 60% de alface, 30% de agrião e 20% de acelga, destacando-se o Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis e Ancylostoma duodenale dentre os helmintos, e o Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba coli e o complexo Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba díspar, dentre os protozoários com maior freqüência. As hortaliças mais contaminadas por coliformes totais e Escherichia coli foram alface nas amostras de supermercado e agrião em feira livre. Esses dados sugerem a necessidade da adoção de medidas educativas aos produtores, e do monitoramento das águas destinadas à irrigação das hortas.The study was carried with the aim to evaluate the occurrence of enteroparasites in vegetables commercialized and consumed in natural form in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Horticultural samples purchased from supermarket and free market: 40 from lettuce (Lactuca sativa, 40 from watercress (Nasturtium officinale and 20 from chard (Beta vulgaris were analyzed. Cryptosporidium spp. detection was realized following Monge and Arias methodology, using two staining processes (Koster modified and Ziehl-Nielsen. Parasitological analysis was determined by the spontaneous sedimentation technique (Gelli et al., and total

  12. Parasitosis entéricas en caninos de un área del Gran Buenos Aires. 2003 - 2004 Enteric parasitosis in dogs from an area of Great Buenos Aires, 2003 - 2004

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    A Betti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estimó la prevalencia de parasitosis entéricas en perros atendidos en el Centro de Zoonosis del Partido de General San Martín, Provincia de Buenos Aires, República de Argentina para apreciar la magnitud de ese problema en animales con dueño. Puesto que algunas pueden afectar al hombre, esa información es de utilidad para decidir la necesidad de implementar medidas de control, cuáles y con qué estrategia. Se estudió una muestra de 66 perros que concurrieron a ese Centro para su atención. Sus heces fueron analizadas según las técnicas de sedimentación modificada de Telemann y de flotación de Bembrook. Se halló un 40,9% de caninos parasitados, una cuarta parte de los cuales tenía más de una especie de parásito. Trichuris spp. y Ancylostoma spp fueron los géneros más comúnmente encontrados. La edad resultó una característica relacionada con las enteroparasitosis ya que los menores de 2 años presentaron una prevalencia significativamente mayor que el resto de los animales (77% y 28% respectivamente. La información sobre estas parasitosis y las medidas para controlarlas deberían incluirse en la comunicación en salud, destinada a la promoción de la tenencia responsable, que llevan a cabo los Centros de Zoonosis.To appreciate the magnitude of the problem of intestinal parasites in dogs with owners, prevalence was estimated in those dogs taken to the Zoonosis Center of the San Martin District, Buenos Aires Province, Argentine Republic. As some of these parasite diseases can affect man, this information is useful for deciding on the need to implement control measures and which measures and strategies to use. Fecal samples from 66 dogs were studied, using Telemann sedimentation and Bembrook fl otation techniques, in animals brought to the center. A 40.9% of the dogs had parasites and a fourth of these had more than one parasite species. Trichuris spp. and Ancylostoma spp were the genus most frequently found. Age was seen to

  13. Occurrence of helminth eggs on vegetables sold in the city of Apucarana (PR Ocorrência de ovos de helmintos em hortaliças comercializadas na cidade de Apucarana (PR

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    Heloísa de Camargo Tozato

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The vegetable diseases transmitted represents a major public health problem, because it is estimated that millions of people worldwide are affected by parasites. This study aimed to quantify and identify the rate of contamination by helminth eggs on vegetables like watercress and endive marketed in four major supermarkets of Apucarana (PR. Were analyzed 128 sample of vegetables being: 64 of chicory and 64 of watercress, which were trimmer, weighed and washed in a tryptose lauryl sulfate 1% solution. There was a high rate of contamination in both varieties studied, with higher prevalence of chicory. Were found eggs of Ancylostoma sp., Ascaris sp. Diphilobotrium sp. Dipylidium sp. Hymenolepis sp. Taenia sp. and Enterobius sp. Considering these results, we stress the urgent need for official oversight and regulation by the competent local authorities in order to improve the hygienic quality of vegetables offered to the population, and minimize the rates of parasitic infections in adults and children (the most affected.As doenças veiculadas por hortaliças representam um importante problema de saúde pública, pois estima-se que milhões de pessoas de todo o mundo estejam acometidas por parasitoses. O presente estudo teve por objetivo quantificar e identificar o índice de contaminação por ovos de helmintos em hortaliças do tipo agrião e almeirão comercializadas em quatro grandes supermercados da cidade de Apucarana (PR. Foram analisadas 128 amostras de hortaliças sendo 64 de almeirão e 64 de agrião. As hortaliças foram desfolhadas, pesadas e lavadas em solução lauril sulfato triptose a 1%. Observou-se um índice elevado de contaminação nas duas variedades estudadas, com maior prevalência no almeirão. Foram encontrados ovos de Ancylostoma sp., Ascaris sp., Diphilobotrium sp., Dipylidium sp., Hymenolepis sp., Taenia sp. e Enterobius sp. Considerando esses resultados, salienta-se a necessidade urgente de fiscalização e regulamenta

  14. Prevalencia del Enteroparasitismo en escolares de comunidades nativas del Alto Marañon, Amazonas, Perú

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    Nicanor Ibáñez H

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de infección por protozoarios y helmintos intestinales y su relación con el sexo, localidad de procedencia y grupo etáreo, en escolares nativos de la zona selvática del Alto Marañón, provincia de Bagua, departamento de Amazonas, Perú. Materiales y métodos: En este estudio transversal-observacional se seleccionó a los colegios representativos de la mencionada región lográndose examinar las muestras fecales de 1049 escolares de seis a 15 años de edad, entre octubre de 2001 y octubre de 2002, usando las técnicas microscópicas de observación directa, con solución salina fisiológica y lugol, de Teleman y de Kinnyoun. Resultados: La prevalencia de los protozoos y helmintos intestinales hallados es: Entamoeba coli 68,0%; Blastocystis hominis 28,4%; Endolimax nana 23,9%; Iodamoeba butschlii 32,9%; Giardia lamblia 21,4%; Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 12,9%; Cryptosporidium sp 01,9%; Paragonimus peruvianus 00,7% y Fasciola hepatica 00,2% (que no son parásitos intestinales sino de ubicación pulmonar y de vías biliares, respectivamente, pero sus huevos se encuentran en el contenido intestinal; Ancylostoma/Necartor 30,4%; Ascaris lumbricoides 28,9%; Trichocephalus trichiura 16,6%; Enterobius vermicularis 03,6%; Hymenolepis nana 03,5%; Taenia solium/saginata 00,2%; Strongyloides stercoralis 00,8% e H. diminuta 00,2%. Conclusiones: Ancylostoma/Necartor y A. lumbricoides se presentaron con mayor prevalencia en las poblaciones de menor edad de las comunidades de Mesones Muro y Nazaret, mientras que la infección humana por P. peruvianus se registra por primera vez en la región nororiental del Perú.

  15. Ocorrência de parasitas com potencial zoonótico em fezes de cães coletadas em áreas públicas do município de Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil Parasites with zoonotic potential in dog feces collected from public areas of the city of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil

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    Divani Maria Capuano

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a ocorrência de parasitos zoonóticos em fezes de cães colhidas em áreas públicas do município de Ribeirão Preto, enfatizando o risco da ocorrência de infecção humana. MÉTODOS: Entre os meses de maio a dezembro de 2003 foram visitadas 78 praças, localizadas em cinco diferentes áreas do município: sudoeste, noroeste, norte, central e sudeste. Foram recolhidos 331 "pools" de material fecal canino, os quais foram processados pela técnica de sedimentação espontânea. RESULTADOS: Em 56,8% "pools" foram observados os parasitos zoonóticos: Ancylostoma spp. (41,7%, Toxocara canis (24,2%, Trichuris vulpis (15,7%, Giardia spp. (10,2% e Isospora spp. (3,3%. A prevalência de parasitos foi maior nas praças localizadas na área norte do município (70%. CONCLUSÕES: É necessária a adoção de programas de preservação sanitária destes locais, no sentido de prevenir a contaminação ambiental por parasitos potencialmente patogênicos para o homem.OBJECTIVE: To assess the occurrence of zoonotic parasites in dog feces collected in public areas of the city of Ribeirão Preto, to alert to the risk of human infection. METHODS: From May to December, 2003, 78 public squares located in five different areas of the city were visited: southwest, northwest, north, central and southeast. We collected 331 fecal canine pools that were processed by the spontaneous sedimentation technique. RESULTS: 56.8% of pools presented zoonotic parasites such as: Ancylostoma spp. (41.7%, Toxocara canis (24.2%, Trichuris vulpis (15.7%, Giardia spp. (10.2% and Isospora spp. (3.3%. The prevalence of parasites was higher in squares located in the north area of the city (70%. CONCLUSIONS: The adoption of sanitary preservation programs in these sites is necessary in order to prevent environmental contamination by parasites potentially pathogenic to man.

  16. Parasitos de aves e mamíferos silvestres em cativeiro no estado de Pernambuco

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    Pauline Marie de Souza Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Os animais silvestres são hospedeiros de uma grande variedade de parasitos que podem interferir em sua conservação ex situ. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar os parasitos gastrointestinais (PGI e ectoparasitos dos animais do Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres (CETAS do Instituto Brasileiro de Meio Ambiente e Recursos Naturais Renováveis (IBAMA de Recife, Pernambuco, além de determinar os aspectos do manejo em cativeiro que possam estar relacionados com os parasitos identificados. Foram coletados ectoparasitos e amostras fecais de 223 aves e mamíferos, as quais foram processadas pelos métodos: microscopia direta, flutuação e sedimentação. Helmintos e/ou protozoários foram detectados em 91 (40,8% amostras fecais, sendo 64 (70,3% de aves e 27 (29,7% de mamíferos. Ovos de Capillaria sp., Ascaridida, Spirurida e oocistos de Eimeria sp. foram detectados nas amostras fecais das aves, enquanto ovos de Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides sp., Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma sp., Strongylida e oocistos de Coccídios foram encontrados nas amostras fecais de mamíferos. Os ectoparasitos identificados em aves foram Colpocephalum turbinatum, Kurodaia (Kurodaia fulvofasciata, Halipeurus sp., Naubates sp., Saemundssonia sp., Austromenopon sp., Paragoniocotes sp., Brueelia sp., Myrsidea sp. and Pseudolynchia sp., enquanto em mamíferos os ectoparasitos identificados foram Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma varium, A. calcaratum, A. nodosum, Ornithodoros talaje e Ctenocephalides felis felis. A. calcaratum e O. talaje são registrados pela primeira vez em Pernambuco e T. tetradactyla é apresentado como novo hospedeiro de O. talaje. Nenhum dos animais estudados apresentou sinais clínicos em decorrência da infecção/infestação parasitária. Parasitos com potencial zoonótico como T. trichiura, Strongyloides sp., T. canis e Ancylostoma sp. foram identificados em primatas não humanos e carnívoros. Precárias condições estruturais

  17. Massively parallel sequencing and analysis of the Necator americanus transcriptome.

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    Cinzia Cantacessi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The blood-feeding hookworm Necator americanus infects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. In order to elucidate fundamental molecular biological aspects of this hookworm, the transcriptome of the adult stage of Necator americanus was explored using next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic analyses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 19,997 contigs were assembled from the sequence data; 6,771 of these contigs had known orthologues in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and most of them encoded proteins with WD40 repeats (10.6%, proteinase inhibitors (7.8% or calcium-binding EF-hand proteins (6.7%. Bioinformatic analyses inferred that the C. elegans homologues are involved mainly in biological pathways linked to ribosome biogenesis (70%, oxidative phosphorylation (63% and/or proteases (60%; most of these molecules were predicted to be involved in more than one biological pathway. Comparative analyses of the transcriptomes of N. americanus and the canine hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, revealed qualitative and quantitative differences. For instance, proteinase inhibitors were inferred to be highly represented in the former species, whereas SCP/Tpx-1/Ag5/PR-1/Sc7 proteins ( = SCP/TAPS or Ancylostoma-secreted proteins were predominant in the latter. In N. americanus, essential molecules were predicted using a combination of orthology mapping and functional data available for C. elegans. Further analyses allowed the prioritization of 18 predicted drug targets which did not have homologues in the human host. These candidate targets were inferred to be linked to mitochondrial (e.g., processing proteins or amino acid metabolism (e.g., asparagine t-RNA synthetase. CONCLUSIONS: This study has provided detailed insights into the transcriptome of the adult stage of N. americanus and examines similarities and differences between this species and A. caninum. Future efforts should focus on comparative transcriptomic and

  18. Ocorrência de parasitos gastrintestinais em amostras fecais de felinos no município de Andradina, São Paulo Occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in fecal samples of cats in Andradina City, São Paulo

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    Willian Marinho Dourado Coelho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a ocorrência de parasitos gastrintestinais em amostras fecais de felinos do Município de Andradina, SP. Este trabalho foi realizado no período de março a novembro de 2007, sendo utilizados 51 gatos de procedências diversas, endereçados ao Centro de Controle de Zoonoses do referido Município. Para o diagnóstico coproparasitológico foram associadas as técnicas de Willis e Faust, observando-se ocorrência de Ancylostoma spp. em 96,1% dos animais; Toxocara spp. em 43,1%; Cystoisospora spp. em 43,1%; Dipylidium caninum em 21,6% e Giardia spp. em 5,9% dos animais. Oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. foram detectados em 3,9% das amostras pela técnica de coloração negativa com verde malaquita. Não foi verificada associação significativa entre a ocorrência de endoparasitos e a consistência das amostras fecais. Os resultados obtidos confirmam que esses felinos são importantes hospedeiros de parasitos, alguns com alto potencial zoonótico.The purpose of this study was to verify the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in fecal samples from cats of the Andradina city, SP. This work was carried out from March to November of 2007, and used 51 cats delivered to the Center of Zoonoses Control of that city. Techniques of Willis and Faust were used in the fecal examination and resulted in detection of Ancylostoma spp. in 96.1% of the animals; Toxocara spp. in 43.1%; Cystoisospora spp. in 43.1%; Dipylidium caninum in 21.6% and Giardia spp. in 5.9% samples. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 3.9% fecal samples by the use of malachite green negative stain. There was no significant association between the occurrence of endoparasites and consistency of fecal samples. The results confirm that these cats represent important hosts of parasites, some of those with high zoonotic potential.

  19. Efficacy of oral afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewables against induced gastrointestinal nematode infections in dogs.

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    Fankhauser, Rebecca; Hamel, Dietmar; Dorr, Paul; Reinemeyer, Craig R; Crafford, Dionne; Bowman, Dwight D; Ulrich, Michael; Yoon, Stephen; Larsen, Diane L

    2016-07-30

    The efficacy of oral afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime combination chewables against induced gastrointestinal nematode infections in dogs was evaluated in six separate studies. Two studies were performed to evaluate the efficacy of the product against Toxocara canis, two studies evaluated the efficacy against Toxascaris leonina, one study evaluated the efficacy against Ancylostoma braziliense, and one study evaluated the efficacy against Ancylostoma caninum. In the A. caninum study, the efficacy of milbemycin oxime alone and afoxolaner alone was also evaluated. Dogs in all studies were inoculated with infective eggs or larvae and confirmed to have patent infections based on a fecal examination prior to allocation to study group and treatment. Each study utilized a randomized block design with blocks based on pre-treatment body weight. All dogs were assigned to blocks based on body weight, and then each dog within a block was randomly assigned to treatment group. There were two groups of 10 dogs each in the T. canis, T. leonina, and A. braziliense studies: 1) an untreated (control) group and 2) a group treated with afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewables (NexGard Spectra(®), Merial). This group was treated at a dose as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime (2.5mg+0.5mg per kg body weight, respectively) once on Day 0 using whole chews. There were four groups of 10 dogs each in the A. caninum study: 1) untreated (control), 2) NexGard Spectra(®) as described above, 3) milbemycin oxime alone (dose of at least 0.5mg per kg of body weight) and 4) afoxalaner alone (dose of at least 2.5mg per kg body weight). For parasite recovery and counts, dogs were euthanized humanely and necropsied seven days after treatment. The efficacy of the afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime combination was ≥98% against T. canis, ≥95.8% against T. leonina, and 90.2% against A. braziliense. Efficacy of the combination against A. caninum was 99

  20. [Cutaneous larva migrans: report of three cases from the Western Black Sea Region, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalışkan, Emel; Uslu, Esma; Turan, Hakan; Başkan, Elife; Kılıç, Nida

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) is a parasitosis frequently seen in persons who have travelled to tropical or subtropical regions and in those who have worked in contact with soil. The disease frequently develops due to Ancylostoma braziliensis and Ancylostoma caninum species. After penetrating the skin and entering the body, the hookworm larva proceeds to bore tunnels through the epidermis, creating pruritic, erythematous, serpiginous lesions. Secondary bacterial infections of the lesions can often be seen, especially on the legs and buttocks. In this article we presented three atypical local cases which have not been declared previously in our country. The first case, a 54-year-old male who was admitted to hospital in August with complaints of an obverse body rash and itching lasting for a week. Eruptions were observed over a small area on the right side of the abdomen, consisting of itchy, raised, erythematous, curvilinear string-like lesions. Moreover, no eosinophilia was detected in the patient, whose culture showed a growth of Streptococcus pyogenes. The patient was clinically diagnosed with CLM accompanied by secondary bacterial infection and treated for three days with 1 g of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, mupirocin cream and albendazole 400 mg/d. Under this regime, the lesions were seen to decline. The second case, a 38-year-old male was also admitted in August, complaining of itching and redness on his body. The patient, whose blood count values were normal, exhibited itchy, raised, serpiginous string-like lesions located on the left side of his body. The patient, whose bacterial culture was negative, was clinically diagnosed as CLM and treated for three days with albendazole 400 mg/d and the lesions were seen to improve. The third case, a 23-year old male was admitted in September complaining of itching and redness on his neck. An itchy, crescent-shaped erythematous lesion was detected on his neck; bacteriological cultures and blood count were normal. The

  1. Studies on Ancylostomiasis: II.Clinical Symptomatology, Effects of Drugs, especially of Iron Compounds, with Relation to the Severity of Artificial Infection

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    Lee, Mun Ho; Kim, Dong Jip; Lee, Jang Kyu; Seo, Byong Sul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1967-09-15

    This study was aimed; firstly to observe various clinical symptomatology with relation to the number of Ancylostoma duodenale larvae orally given to the human beings, secondly to evaluate the effects of some drugs like steroid hormones, antihistaminics and antitussives, and, thirdly to study the influences of some iron compounds in prevention and treatment of anemia of such origin. Ten healthy volunteers free from the previous history of hookworm infection were divided into 4 groups, to whom various numbers of actively moving filariform Ancylostoma duodenale larvae were orally given; 500 to 4 cases, 250 to 3 cases and 100 to 3 cases. Following were the results: 1. Clinical symptomatology. 1) The most frequently encountered symptoms and signs were general malaise, cough and hoarseness. The tracheal itching and pain, low back pain, arthralgia, sputum and salivation, acid belching, loss of appetite, abdominal pain and vomiting were also noted. 2) If the larger number of the larvae was given, the clinical symptomatology was more severe. 3) Prednisolone medication caused some improvement of such symptomatology, while the antihistaminics and antitussives like codeine or ephedrine were ineffective. 4) In volunteers whose nutritional conditions were rather poor appeared to show more severe symptomatology. 2. Effects of iron compounds. 1) The oral administration of ferrous fumarate induced a slight increase of serum iron levels in the initial stage of the infection, then a decrease from 15-20 days later and a recovery after 2 months. 2) The intravenous administration of saccharated ferric oxide induced a steady upkeep of the serum iron levels. 3) The hemoglobin contents also showed the upkeeps after either the oral or intravenous administration of the iron compounds. 4) The iron compounds, therefore, are considered to have the preventive as well as the therapeutic effects on hookworm anemia, which may strongly suggest that hookworm anemia is essentially the iron deficiency

  2. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of Monepantel (AAD 1566 against laboratory models of human intestinal nematode infections.

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    Lucienne Tritten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few effective drugs are available for soil-transmitted helminthiases and drug resistance is of concern. In the present work, we tested the efficacy of the veterinary drug monepantel, a potential drug development candidate compared to standard drugs in vitro and in parasite-rodent models of relevance to human soil-transmitted helminthiases. METHODOLOGY: A motility assay was used to assess the efficacy of monepantel, albendazole, levamisole, and pyrantel pamoate in vitro on third-stage larvae (L3 and adult worms of Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Necator americanus and Trichuris muris. Ancylostoma ceylanicum- or N. americanus-infected hamsters, T. muris- or Ascaris suum-infected mice, and Strongyloides ratti-infected rats were treated with single oral doses of monepantel or with one of the reference drugs. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Monepantel showed excellent activity on A. ceylanicum adults (IC(50 = 1.7 µg/ml, a moderate effect on T. muris L3 (IC(50 = 78.7 µg/ml, whereas no effect was observed on A. ceylanicum L3, T. muris adults, and both stages of N. americanus. Of the standard drugs, levamisole showed the highest potency in vitro (IC(50 = 1.6 and 33.1 µg/ml on A. ceylanicum and T. muris L3, respectively. Complete elimination of worms was observed with monepantel (10 mg/kg and albendazole (2.5 mg/kg in A. ceylanicum-infected hamsters. In the N. americanus hamster model single 10 mg/kg oral doses of monepantel and albendazole resulted in worm burden reductions of 58.3% and 100%, respectively. Trichuris muris, S. ratti and A. suum were not affected by treatment with monepantel in vivo (following doses of 600 mg/kg, 32 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg, respectively. In contrast, worm burden reductions of 95.9% and 76.6% were observed following treatment of T. muris- and A. suum infected mice with levamisole (200 mg/kg and albendazole (600 mg/kg, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Monepantel reveals low or no activities against N. americanus

  3. Parasitic zoonoses: survey in foxes (Vulpes vulpes in the northern Apennines / Zoonosi parassitarie: indagini in volpi (Vulpes vulpes dell'Appennino settentrionale

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    Vittorio Guberti

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A parasitological survey on 153 foxes was carried out in the northern Apennines, during the period 1984-1987. The following parasites were identified: Toxocara canis (46.4%, Taenia sp. (17%, Uncinaria stenocephala (11.8%, Mesocestoides lineatus (11.1%, Ancylostoma caninum (3.9%, Taenia hydatigena (3.3%, Trichuris vulpis (3.3%, Dipylidium caninum (2.6%, Taenia crassiceps (2%. All foxes were negative for Trichinella sp. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate differences in the parasitic fauna according to the sex and age classes of the hosts. The role that the fox could have as a reservoir of helminthic zoonoses is discussed. The results are compared with those of similar studies carried out in Italy. Riassunto Nel periodo 1984-1987 è stata condotta un'indagine parassitologica su 153 volpi abbattute nell'Appennino romagnolo. Sono stati reperiti i seguenti parassiti: Toxocara canis (46,4%, Taenia sp. (17%, Uncinaria stenocephala (11,8%, Mesocestoides lineatus (11,1%, Ancylostoma caninum (3,9%, Taenia hydatigena (3,3%, Trichuris vulpis (3,3%, Dipylidium caninum (2,6%, Taenia crassiceps (2%. Tutte le volpi esaminate sono risultate negative per Trichinella sp. È stata effettuata l'analisi statistica dei dati per evidenziare eventuali differenze della fauna parassitaria in relazione al sesso e all'età delle volpi. Sulla base dei dati ottenuti viene discussa l'importanza che la Volpe può assumere come serbatoio di zoonosi elmintiche. I risultati acquisiti sono inoltre comparati con quelli ottenuti in analoghe ricerche condotte in Italia.

  4. Discrimination of gastrointestinal nematode eggs from crude fecal egg preparations by inhibitor-resistant conventional and real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeler, Janina; Ramünke, Sabrina; Wolken, Sonja; Ianiello, Davide; Rinaldi, Laura; Gahutu, Jean Bosco; Cringoli, Giuseppe; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Krücken, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes relies predominantly on coproscopic methods such as flotation, Kato-Katz, McMaster or FLOTAC. Although FLOTAC allows accurate quantification, many nematode eggs can only be differentiated to genus or family level. Several molecular diagnostic tools discriminating closely related species suffer from high costs for DNA isolation from feces and limited sensitivity since most kits use only small amounts of feces (Phusion DNA polymerase which is particularly resistant to PCR inhibitors. Qualitative results were obtained with feces of goats, cattle, horses, swine, cats, dogs and mice. The finally established protocol was also compatible with quantitative real-time PCR in the presence of EvaGreen and no PCR inhibition was detectable when extracts were diluted at least fourfold. Sensitivity was comparable to DNA isolation protocols and spiked samples with five epg were reliably detected. For Toxocara cati a detection limit below one epg was demonstrated. It was possible to distinguish T. cati and Toxocara canis using high resolution melt (HRM) analysis, a rapid tool for species identification. In human samples, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and HRM analysis were used to discriminate Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. The method is able to significantly improve molecular diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes by increasing speed and sensitivity while decreasing overall costs. For identification of species or resistance alleles, analysis of PCR products with many different post PCR methods can be used such as RFLP, reverse-line-blot, Sanger sequencing and HRM. PMID:23620739

  5. Levels of infection of intestinal helminth species in the golden jackal Canis aureus from Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćirović, D; Pavlović, I; Penezić, A; Kulišić, Z; Selaković, S

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, golden jackal populations have substantially increased, yet little is known of their potential for transmitting parasites within animal and human hosts. In the present study, between 2005 and 2010, 447 jackals from six localities in Serbia were examined for intestinal parasites. Two species of trematodes (Alaria alata, Pseudamphistomum truncatum), three nematodes (Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Gongylonema sp.), and seven cestodes (Taenia pisiformis, Taenia hydatigena, Multiceps multiceps, Multiceps serialis, Mesocestoides lineatus, Mesocestoides litteratus, Dipylidium caninum) were identified. Pseudamphistomum truncatum and M. serialis species were recorded for the first time. The overall prevalence of parasitic infection was 10.3%. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of infection between males and females (P>0.817), between localities (P>0.502), or with regard to annual cycles (P>0.502). In the infected jackal population, 65% harboured multiple infections and one individual was a host to five different types of parasite species, the highest number of parasites we recorded in a single host. These findings indicate that although the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in the jackal population in Serbia is significantly lower than expected from earlier studies, further monitoring is required given the jackal's rapid population increase. PMID:23941681

  6. Antibodies to selected canine pathogens and infestation with intestinal helminths in golden jackals (Canis aureus) in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, M; Yakobson, B; Baneth, G; King, R; Dar-Verker, S; Markovics, A; Aroch, I

    2001-07-01

    Blood and fecal samples, collected from 46 healthy adult free-ranging golden jackals captured in two different locations in Israel, were examined. A serological Study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of circulating antibodies reacting with four common canine pathogens: canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), Ehrlichia canis and Leishmania infantum. Faecal flotation and haematological tests were also performed. The seroprevalence of CPV, E. canis, CDV, and L. infantum were 72.3% (34/47), 54.3% (25/46), 52.2% (24/46), and 6.5% (3/46) respectively. Faecal flotation tests revealed a high prevalence of Ancylostoma caninum (13/17, 76%) and a low prevalence of Dipilidium caninum infestation. Examination of blood smears revealed Hepatazoon canis gamonts in one jackal. Golden jackals are among the most common free-ranging carnivores in Israel and neighboring countries. Their habitats are in proximity to densely populated areas and they bear close phylogenic relation to the domestic dog. These facts, combined with the high prevalence of the jackals' exposure to the major canine pathogens demonstrated in this study, suggest that they may serve as a reservoir for the transmission of certain diseases to domestic dogs. PMID:11409931

  7. A field survey on parasites and antibodies against selected pathogens in owned dogs in Lilongwe, Malawi

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    Karin Alvåsen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to screen for selected parasites and antibody levels against vectorborne pathogens in owned dogs in Lilongwe, Malawi. The study population consisted of 100 dogs; 80 participating in vaccination–spaying campaigns and 20 visiting a veterinary clinic as paying clients. All dogs went through a general physical examination including visual examination for signs of ectoparasites. A total of 100 blood samples were analysed using commercial snap tests and 40 faecal samples by egg flotation in saturated sodium chloride. The sampled dogs had a seroprevalence of 12% for Anaplasma spp., 22% for Ehrlichia spp., 4% for Dirofilaria immitis and 1% for Leishmania spp. Eggs from Ancylostoma spp. were found in 80% of the faecal samples, whereas eggs of Trichuris vulpis, Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina were only present in 3%, 8% and 13% of the samples, respectively. Ectoparasites such as Ctenocephalides sp., Trichodectes sp. and ticks were present on 98%, 25% and 11%, respectively, of the campaign dogs. Among client dogs, 35% had Ctenocephalides fleas, 10% had Trichodectes lice and none had ticks. Public education and prophylactic treatment could be used to improve the animal welfare of dogs; this would most likely also have positive impact on public health.

  8. Parasites of free-ranging small canids and felids in the Bolivian Chaco.

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    Fiorello, Christine V; Robbins, Richard G; Maffei, Leonardo; Wade, Susan E

    2006-06-01

    Parasite surveys of free-ranging wildlife provide important information for monitoring population health. Between March 2001 and March 2003, we sampled 10 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), eight Geoffroy's cats (Oncifelis geoffroyi), a jaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguarondi), five pampas foxes (Pseudalopex gymnocercus), and three crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) at three sites in the Bolivian Chaco. The objective of the study was to survey the parasite fauna of these carnivores and compare prevalence of parasites among the sites. The parasite community of these carnivores was diverse, with representatives from eight genera of nematodes, two families of cestodes, two protozoan species, and six arthropod species. Fecal parasites identified from 12 of the 13 felids and five of the six canids examined included Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Uncinaria sp., Crenosoma sp., Toxocara cati, Spirurida, Capillaria aerophila, Spirometra sp., Taeniidae, and Cystoisospora sp. Four tick species, Amblyomma parvum, A. tigrinum, A. ovale, and A. cajennense, and two flea species, Pulex irritans and Delostichus phyllotis, were identified. Two crab-eating foxes had serologic evidence of heartworm disease (HWD). Antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii were found in 15 of 26 animals. Although HWD was found only in canids inside the national park, parasite prevalence did not appear to differ among sites, and no evidence was found of parasite spillover from domestic to wild carnivores. PMID:17312790

  9. Enteric parasites in HIV-1/AIDS-infected patients from a Northwestern São Paulo reference unit in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era

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    Luciana Ventura Cardoso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We describe the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in patients from an AIDS reference service in Northeastern São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation was done for all HIV-1/AIDS-positive patients whose Hospital de Base/São José do Rio Preto laboratorial analysis was positive for enteroparasites after diagnosis of HIV-1 infection, from January 1998 to December 2008. Statistical analysis was performed using the R statistical software version 2.4.1. The level of significance adopted was 5%. RESULTS: The most frequent protozoan was Isospora belli (4.2%, followed by Giardia lamblia (3.5%, Entamoeba coli (2.8%, and Cryptosporidium parvum (0.3%. Ancylostoma duodenale (1.4% was the most frequently detected helminth, while Taenia saginata and Strongiloides stercoralis were found in 0.7% of the samples. The results showed that diarrhea was significantly associated with giardiasis and isosporiasis. However, no association was observed between CD4+ cell counts, viral load, and the characteristics of any particular parasite. CONCLUSIONS: Our data may be useful for further comparisons with other Brazilian regions and other developing countries. The data may also provide important clues toward improving the understanding, prevention, and control of enteric parasites around the world.

  10. Parasitological and serological studies on Amoebiasis and other intestinal parasitic infections in Recife and its suburban area, northeast Brazil

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    Mitsu Okazaki

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological examinations were carried out during April to August, 1987, with 187 out-patients of the IMIP hospital, located in the center of Recife City, and 464 inhabitants of several villages around Cabo City, 50 Km southeast of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Approximately 71% of the IMIP patients and 92% of the Cabo inhabitants were infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. There was minimum difference in the prevalence rate of Trichuris trichiura between two areas, whereas the prevalence rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, Strongyloides stercoralis, Schistosoma mansoni and Entamoeba histolytica were higher in the inhabitants of the Cabo City area. Only Giardia lamblia was more prevalent in the out-patients of IMIP hospital. Test tube cultivation revealed that the prevalence rate of Necator americanus in both areas was much higher than that of Ancylostoma duodenale , and also that the prevalence rate of S. stercoralis of the IMIP patients and Cabo inhabitants were 4.5% and 9.6%, respectively. Six hundred and fifteen sera were serologically examined for amoebiasis by the gel diffusion precipitation test (GDP and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using the antigen prepared from axenically cultured trophozoite of E. histolytica (strain HM-ITMSS. No positive reaction was observed in all of the sera as examined by GDP, while 32 out of 615 sera were positive on ELISA.

  11. Contaminación por helmintos en espacios públicos de la provincia de Chubut, Argentina Contamination by helminths in public places of the province of Chubut, Argentina

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    Marina G. Zunino

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Canine-borne helminthiases constitute a worldwide problem. Some of these parasites can originate serious pathologies in humans. Given the potential existence of these zoonoses in Argentina, horizontal surveys on contamination degree evaluated as faeces per hectare and on parasite prevelence in faeces were carried out in six localities of the Province of Chubut. The behaviour of people visiting public places was also analyzed qualitatively. All of the survey sites were contaminated with faeces and with some parasitic forms. Contamination degrees ranged from 32 to 147 faeces/ha. Toxocara sp. (17.4%, Strongyloides sp. (5.1%, and Ancylostoma. sp (5.6% were the main genera among other parasites detected. As a whole, the analysis revealed that contamintion degree, prevalence and human behaviuor in relation to the exposure to the parasite would be the main factors to be taken into account in formulating control measures. Transmission risk patterns in Chubut were not homogenous; therefore, studies and control strategies should be devised and implemented at the local scale.

  12. Diversity and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in seven non-human primates of the Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouassi, Roland Yao Wa; McGraw, Scott William; Yao, Patrick Kouassi; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Brunet, Julie; Pesson, Bernard; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N’goran, Eliezer Kouakou; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    Parasites and infectious diseases are well-known threats to primate populations. The main objective of this study was to provide baseline data on fecal parasites in the cercopithecid monkeys inhabiting Côte d’Ivoire’s Taï National Park. Seven of eight cercopithecid species present in the park were sampled: Cercopithecus diana, Cercopithecus campbelli, Cercopithecus petaurista, Procolobus badius, Procolobus verus, Colobus polykomos, and Cercocebus atys. We collected 3142 monkey stool samples between November 2009 and December 2010. Stool samples were processed by direct wet mount examination, formalin-ethyl acetate concentration, and MIF (merthiolate, iodine, formalin) concentration methods. Slides were examined under microscope and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, and adult worms. A total of 23 species of parasites was recovered including 9 protozoa (Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba hartmanni, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Giardia sp., Balantidium coli, and Blastocystis sp.), 13 nematodes (Oesophagostomum sp., Ancylostoma sp., Anatrichosoma sp., Capillariidae Gen. sp. 1, Capillariidae Gen. sp. 2, Chitwoodspirura sp., Subulura sp., spirurids [cf Protospirura muricola], Ternidens sp., Strongyloides sp., Trichostrongylus sp., and Trichuris sp.), and 1 trematode (Dicrocoelium sp.). Diversity indices and parasite richness were high for all monkey taxa, but C. diana, C. petaurista, C. atys, and C. campbelli exhibited a greater diversity of parasite species and a more equitable distribution. The parasitological data reported are the first available for these cercopithecid species within Taï National Park. PMID:25619957

  13. Diversity and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in seven non-human primates of the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouassi, Roland Yao Wa; McGraw, Scott William; Yao, Patrick Kouassi; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Brunet, Julie; Pesson, Bernard; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N'goran, Eliezer Kouakou; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    Parasites and infectious diseases are well-known threats to primate populations. The main objective of this study was to provide baseline data on fecal parasites in the cercopithecid monkeys inhabiting Côte d'Ivoire's Taï National Park. Seven of eight cercopithecid species present in the park were sampled: Cercopithecus diana, Cercopithecus campbelli, Cercopithecus petaurista, Procolobus badius, Procolobus verus, Colobus polykomos, and Cercocebus atys. We collected 3142 monkey stool samples between November 2009 and December 2010. Stool samples were processed by direct wet mount examination, formalin-ethyl acetate concentration, and MIF (merthiolate, iodine, formalin) concentration methods. Slides were examined under microscope and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, and adult worms. A total of 23 species of parasites was recovered including 9 protozoa (Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba hartmanni, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Giardia sp., Balantidium coli, and Blastocystis sp.), 13 nematodes (Oesophagostomum sp., Ancylostoma sp., Anatrichosoma sp., Capillariidae Gen. sp. 1, Capillariidae Gen. sp. 2, Chitwoodspirura sp., Subulura sp., spirurids [cf Protospirura muricola], Ternidens sp., Strongyloides sp., Trichostrongylus sp., and Trichuris sp.), and 1 trematode (Dicrocoelium sp.). Diversity indices and parasite richness were high for all monkey taxa, but C. diana, C. petaurista, C. atys, and C. campbelli exhibited a greater diversity of parasite species and a more equitable distribution. The parasitological data reported are the first available for these cercopithecid species within Taï National Park. PMID:25619957

  14. Diversity and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in seven non-human primates of the Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouassi Roland Yao Wa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasites and infectious diseases are well-known threats to primate populations. The main objective of this study was to provide baseline data on fecal parasites in the cercopithecid monkeys inhabiting Côte d’Ivoire’s Taï National Park. Seven of eight cercopithecid species present in the park were sampled: Cercopithecus diana, Cercopithecus campbelli, Cercopithecus petaurista, Procolobus badius, Procolobus verus, Colobus polykomos, and Cercocebus atys. We collected 3142 monkey stool samples between November 2009 and December 2010. Stool samples were processed by direct wet mount examination, formalin-ethyl acetate concentration, and MIF (merthiolate, iodine, formalin concentration methods. Slides were examined under microscope and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, and adult worms. A total of 23 species of parasites was recovered including 9 protozoa (Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba hartmanni, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Giardia sp., Balantidium coli, and Blastocystis sp., 13 nematodes (Oesophagostomum sp., Ancylostoma sp., Anatrichosoma sp., Capillariidae Gen. sp. 1, Capillariidae Gen. sp. 2, Chitwoodspirura sp., Subulura sp., spirurids [cf Protospirura muricola], Ternidens sp., Strongyloides sp., Trichostrongylus sp., and Trichuris sp., and 1 trematode (Dicrocoelium sp.. Diversity indices and parasite richness were high for all monkey taxa, but C. diana, C. petaurista, C. atys, and C. campbelli exhibited a greater diversity of parasite species and a more equitable distribution. The parasitological data reported are the first available for these cercopithecid species within Taï National Park.

  15. Soil-transmitted nematode infections and mebendazole treatment in Mafia Island schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albonico, M; Ramsan, M; Wright, V; Jape, K; Haji, H J; Taylor, M; Savioli, L; Bickle, Q

    2002-10-01

    In August 2000, a cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted nematode infections in schoolchildren on Mafia Island. Hookworm infection was widespread (72.5% prevalence) whereas Trichuris trichiura was less prevalent (39.7%) and Ascaris lumbricoides was present at a low prevalence (4.2%), mainly in urban areas. In a subsample of the study population, both Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale were found, although N. americanus was more prevalent. This survey was followed by a parasitological evaluation of mebendazole treatment using a single, 500-mg dose. The data on outcome were used for comparison with those from recent studies of similar treatment regimens in the neighbouring island of Pemba, Zanzibar, where periodic chemotherapy with mebendazole to schoolchildren has been implemented as part of a helminth-control programme since 1994. A higher efficacy of mebendazole against hookworm infection was found in Mafia Island (where a cure 'rate' of 31.3% and an egg-reduction 'rate' of 78.1% were recorded) when compared with that observed in Pemba Island, possibly indicating that hookworms may be developing mebendazole resistance on Pemba Island as a result of intense exposure to the drug there. PMID:12537633

  16. Molecular Diagnostics for Soil-Transmitted Helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Elise M; Nutman, Thomas B

    2016-09-01

    Historically, the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) (e.g., Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, and Ascaris lumbricoides) has relied on often-insensitive microscopy techniques. Over the past several years, there has been an effort to use molecular diagnostics, particularly quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), to detect intestinal pathogens. While some platforms have been approved by regulatory bodies (e.g., Food and Drug Administration) to detect intestinal bacteria, viruses, and protozoa, there are no approved tests currently available for STH. Although studies comparing qPCR to microscopy methods for STH are imperfect, due in large part to a lack of a sufficient gold standard, they do show a significant increase in sensitivity and specificity of qPCR compared with microscopic techniques. These studies, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of using qPCR for STH diagnosis, are discussed. Guidelines for those designing future studies utilizing qPCR are proposed for optimizing results, as is the proposition for using standardized molecular diagnostics routinely for STH in clinical laboratories and for field-based studies when possible. PMID:27481053

  17. Hematology, Parasitology, and Serology of Free-Ranging Coyotes (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Debra, Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Merrill, Anita; Kilgo, John; Ray, H., Scott; Karl V. Miller, Karl, V.; Baldwin, Charles, A.

    2009-07-01

    ABSTRACT: Blood and feces were collected from 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven juvenile (three males, one female, three not reported) free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) on the US Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (South Carolina, USA). Significant (P,0.05) hematologic differences by sex were noted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Biochemical differences by sex occurred only for albumen (P,0.05). Twentyone adults were antibody positive for at least one of four viruses: canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1; 68%), West Nile virus (WNV; 60%), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; 38%), and Canine distemper virus (CDV; 15%). Of the seven Leptospira serovars tested for, seven (25%) of 28 adults were positive for one or more of five serovars: Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Bratislava, and Autumnalis. Three (43%) of seven juveniles had seropositivity for a virus, one each for CDV, CAV-1, and WNV. No juveniles were seropositive for EEEV or any of the seven Leptospira serovars. Blood smears of 12 adults were positive for Dirofilaria immitis microfilaria, but blood smears from all juveniles were negative. Parvovirus was identified by electron microscopy from the feces of one adult. Ancylostoma spp., Trichuris spp., and Isospora spp. were observed in fecal samples. These data may aid in understanding the role of coyotes in disease ecology.

  18. Parasitic Infections among Restaurant Workers in Mukalla (Hadhramout/Yemen

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    AM AL-Haddad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: To identify intestinal parasites among restaurant workers in Mukalla, Yemen in 2007."nMethods: Stool specimens were collected and examined from a total of 500 restaurant workers at Hadhramout University Health Center .Three types of techniques were used: direct examination, saline sedimentation and formol-ether concentration."nResults:  The positivity in majority of them was single infection whereas 6 cases were double infection that constituted 1.3% of the prevalence. The prevalence was 14.8 % for Entamoeba histolytica/dispor, and 5.2 % for Giardia lamblia, while it was 4.4% for Hymenolepis nana. Other intestinal parasites including Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodinale were also detected. Additionally, the blood parasite Schistosoma mansoni was also detected in 4 cases. The double infection was only with E. histolytica/dispor and Giardia. The infection with these parasites was also accompanied by abdominal troubles "diarrhea, constipation", nausea and vomiting."nConclusion:  These results lead to understand that sanitary measurements are not effective, and this hazardous situation facilitate parasitic agents' distribution among clients. The effectiveness of current pre-employment screening policy must be annual and systematic surveillance is needed in addition to health education.

  19. A survey of intestinal helminths of well-cared-for dogs in Jamaica, and their potential public health significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R D; Thompson, D L; Lindo, J F

    1989-03-01

    This study investigates the level of helminthic infestation in better-cared-for dogs in a middle-class community in suburban Kingston. A canine zoographic study was conducted, and fresh faecal deposits were collected and analysed for helminth life-cycle stages. The survey indicated that 73% (n = 93) of households in the study area owned one dog or more (mean = 1.4). Resident's attitudes towards canine management suggested that the dog population was, in general, restricted to the residential estate, and most owners claimed to have dewormed their dogs at least as young animals. Of 141 faecal specimens, 58% contained eggs or larvae of one or more of eight helminths: Uncinaria stenocephala (26%), Ancylostoma sp. (23%), Trichuris vulpis (9%), Toxocara canis (8%), Spirocerca lupi (6%), Strongyloides sp. (6%), Apophallus sp. (4%) and taeniids (1%). There was a high level of multiple infection in the host animals, with approximately one fifth of the infected samples containing three or more helminth types. Infection intensity was apparently low, but some dogs harboured heavy worm loads. PMID:2723384

  20. Albendazole in the treatment of intestinal helminthiasis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, R; Mathur, P P; Taneja, V K; Jagota, S C

    1985-01-01

    One hundred sixteen children between 2 and 15 years of age entered a clinical trial of albendazole after examination of their stools revealed ova of one or more intestinal helminths. The drug was administered as a single 400-mg dose (20 ml of 2% suspension) to all the patients except those having Hymenolepis nana infection, who received treatment for three consecutive days. The stools were reexamined on days 7 and 14 posttreatment and after three months for Taenia infections. Patients were considered cured if all parasitological examinations of the feces were negative after treatment. After a single oral dose, albendazole was highly effective in ascariasis (91.9%), ancylostomiasis caused by Ancylostoma duodenale (87.2%), and H nana infection (71.4%). The drug was well tolerated, and no abnormalities were observed in hematological or blood chemistry values. Since the drug is safe and effective as a single-dose treatment of common helminthic infections, it should be considered for mass therapy in the community. PMID:3986860

  1. Monitoreo de parásitos en efluentes domiciliarios

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    Liliana Semenas

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la presencia de parásitos en efluentes semisólidos y líquidos en distintas localidades de la Patagonia argentina considerando que ésta es una de las restricciones para su uso. MÉTODOS: Las muestras tomadas en 4 Plantas de Tratamiento de Efluentes Domiciliarios se analizaron siguiendo las normativas de Environmental Protection Agency, Organización Mundial de la Salud, Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater y de algunas clasificaciones. RESULTADOS: Solamente 2 de las 6 muestras de semisólidos analizadas tenían huevos de Ascaris lumbricoides no viables. De las 10 muestras líquidas, solamente 2 no tenían huevos mientras las restantes tenían patógenos de las categorías I (Giardia sp., Hymenolepis diminuta y Enterobius vermicularis y III (Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale y Trichuris trichiura. CONCLUSIONES: Todas las muestras de semisólidos analizadas fueron aptas para su uso como fertilizantes porque no se registró en ninguna de ellas la presencia de huevos viables de Ascaris lumbricoides y solamente 6 de las muestras líquidas fueron aptas para riego por carecer de huevos o por ser su concentración igual o inferior a 1 huevo por litro.

  2. A faecal analysis of helminth infections in wild and captive wolves, Canis lupus L., in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafrańska, E; Wasielewski, O; Bereszyński, A

    2010-12-01

    One hundred and three samples of faeces of reared grey wolves from four locations (Stobnica Park and Zoological Gardens in Bydgoszcz, Wrocław and Cracow) and twenty-six samples of faeces from two free-roaming packs of grey wolf (Canis lupus L.) in Piła (Forest Divisions: Borne Sulinowo, Czarnobór, Jastrowo) and Zielona Góra (Forest Divisions: Torzym, Krosno Odrzańskie) were collected between 2005 and 2007. Helminth eggs were detected in 78.6% of faecal samples of reared grey wolves and in 88.4% of those of free-roaming wolves. The trematode Alaria alata (80.1%) and nematodes Eucoleus aerophilus (23.1%) and Spirocerca lupi (11.5%) were only detected from wild packs of wolves and the nematodes Ancylostoma caninum (35.9%), Trichuris vulpis (15.5%) and Toxocara canis (3.9%) were only detected from reared wolves. Differences were observed in the prevalence and composition of helminth fauna between reared and wild grey wolves and our results are compared with those from studies within Poland and elsewhere in Europe. PMID:20236557

  3. Nematodes from raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus) introduced recently on Yakushima Island, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kazuo; Aoki, Masanari

    2006-07-01

    Nematodes were collected from 14 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus) on Yakushima Island, Kagoshima Prefecture (Kyushu), Japan, that were the progeny of recently introduced animals to this World Natural Heritage Area, probably within the last 2 decades. Seven nematode species (Toxocara tanuki, Ancylostoma kusimaense, Arthrostoma miyazakiense, Strongyloides planiceps, Trichuris vulpis, Gongylonema sp., and Dirofilaria immitis) were collected from the raccoon dogs. Two nematode species (Molineus legerae and Strongyloides martis) were collected from 2 Japanese weasels (Mustela itatsi) indigenous to this island that were killed by traffic accidents. Considering that foxes and other carnivores, except for weasels, dogs and cats, are not distributed on this island, most of soil-borne nematodes such as roundworms, hookworms, and threadworms in raccoon dogs should have been introduced by the original population from the mainland Japan, and the infection hence maintained at a high level by new generations. Recovery of the third-stage larvae of Gongylonema sp. from the esophagus of raccoon dogs was remarkably frequent (79%), suggesting that the animals might vigorously take insect hosts. Although S. martis have never been recorded from weasels in Japan until this study, this threadworm might be prevalent in a variety of mustelids in Eurasia. PMID:16891782

  4. Geographical Information Systems and canine faecal contamination: the experience in the city of Naples (southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziano, V; Rinaldi, L; Carbone, S; Biggeri, A; Cringoli, G

    2006-06-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can be used to make transect sampling when non-moving objects are to be counted, involving choosing a line or series of lines along which the counts are to take place. This approach has been used by us in order to study canine faecal contamination in the city of Naples (southern Italy), and to evaluate the consequent presence of canine parasitic elements. A GIS was constructed utilizing the geo-referenced digital photographs and the cadastral maps of Naples. In order to uniformly evaluate the canine faecal contamination throughout the city, a grid representing sub-areas of 1 km x 700 m was overlaid on the city map within the GIS. The territory of Naples was divided in 218 equal, rectangular sub-areas. In each sub-area a 1 km transect was drawn, and digitalized on-screen in the GIS. Canine faeces (copros in Greek) were counted along the transects in 143 sub-areas. In these sub-areas, 415 copros were collected and examined. Out of the 143 sub-areas, 141 contained canine copros. The results of the negative binomial regression model showed a positive association between the number of copros and the human population density. Out of the total of 415 copros, 70 (16.9%) were positive for parasitic elements; eggs of Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma caninum and Trichuris vulpis were found, as well as oocysts of Isospora canis. PMID:16881413

  5. An epidemiological study of gastrointestinal parasites of dogs from Southern Greater Buenos Aires (Argentina): age, gender, breed, mixed infections, and seasonal and spatial patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanarrosa, María F; Vezzani, Darío; Basabe, Julia; Eiras, Diego F

    2006-03-31

    A total of 2193 fecal samples from owned dogs were collected during the 2003-2004 period in Southern Greater Buenos Aires, and were evaluated for the presence of intestinal parasites by a flotation-centrifugation method. The overall prevalence was 52.4%, and the 11 species found were: Ancylostoma caninum (13%), Isospora ohioensis complex (12%), Toxocara canis (11%), Trichuris vulpis (10%), Sarcocystis sp. (10%), Giardia duodenalis (9%), Isospora canis (3%), Hammondia-Neospora complex (3%), Dipilydium caninum (18 cases), Cryptosporidium sp. (5 cases), and Toxascaris leonina (1 case). There was no significant difference in the overall prevalence between genders (female = 50.4%, male = 54.6%), and breeds (pure = 52.3%, mixed = 53%), but prevalence in puppies (vulpis were spatially heterogeneous with a clear Southwest-Northeast gradient. Only prevalences of Sarcocystis sp. and G. duodenalis showed seasonal variation. The frequency distribution of the number of species per fecal sample did not differ from a random distribution. Results obtained throughout the world were discussed. PMID:16364551

  6. Efficacy of emodepside plus toltrazuril oral suspension for dogs (Procox®, Bayer) against Trichuris vulpis in naturally infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Gabriele; Altreuther, Gertraut; Wolken, Sonja; Swart, Petro; Kok, Dawie J

    2013-08-01

    The efficacy of emodepside plus toltrazuril oral suspension for dogs (Procox®, Bayer) against Trichuris vulpis was evaluated in a controlled, blinded and randomised laboratory study. Twenty naturally infected dogs were included. Dogs in the treatment group received the minimum therapeutic dose of 0.45 mg emodepside and 9 mg toltrazuril per kg body weight, while dogs in the control group were left untreated. Efficacy was calculated based on worm counts after necropsy on Day 7 post treatment. Additionally, all faeces were collected and examined for expelled worms. The treatment was 100 % effective. A total of 233 adult worms (geometric mean 17.0) and 3 immature adult worms were found in the control group at necropsy. Adequacy of infection was demonstrated. The treated group excreted a total of 186 adult worms within 2 days after treatment. Additionally, all dogs were co-infected with Uncinaria stenocephala. Efficacy against this parasite was 99.8 %. No side effects of the treatment were observed. This study demonstrates that in addition to the formerly proven efficacy against Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala, emodepside plus toltrazuril suspension is also effective against T. vulpis and thus represents a convenient treatment option for dogs co-infected with whipworms and coccidia. PMID:23756961

  7. Comparison of passive fecal flotation run by veterinary students to zinc-sulfate centrifugation flotation run in a diagnostic parasitology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Maureen C; Nolan, Thomas J

    2009-10-01

    The sensitivity of fecal examination methods can be influenced by both technician error and methodology. In this analysis, we compared the results of 335 passive fecal flotation examinations performed on the feces of stray dogs by 3rd-yr veterinary students at the University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine, to the results obtained through zinc-sulfate centrifugation performed by the diagnostic parasitology laboratory on the same fecal samples. The students' passive flotation results agreed with the laboratory zinc-sulfate centrifugation for only 62.4% of samples. Students were able to diagnose 75.0% of Ancylostoma caninum cases, 71.4% of Toxocara canis cases, 54.2% of Trichuris vulpis cases, 26.7% of Cystoisospora spp. (C. ohioensis-like and C. canis) cases, and 14.7% of Giardia lamblia cases. There were also 70 instances where students reported the presence of parasites in the sample that were not diagnosed by zinc-sulfate centrifugation. Based on the overall study findings, passive fecal flotation examinations run in private practice could be missing up to 50.5% of infected dogs, due to either technician error or inherent limitations to the passive fecal flotation technique. PMID:19284803

  8. Prevalence of dog intestinal nematode parasites in south central West Virginia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savilla, Tashina M; Joy, James E; May, Jeffrey D; Somerville, Charles C

    2011-05-31

    Coprological examination was used to determine prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes in a sample of 231 dogs (117 females and 114 males) during the summer of 2009 at a veterinary clinic in south central West Virginia, USA. Clinical signs (e.g., diarrhea, vomiting, weight gain or loss) were noted in addition to a history of anthelmintic usage. A total of 79 dogs (33.6%) were infected with one or more intestinal nematodes. Most dogs (58) were parasitized with a single species, 19 were parasitized with 2 species, and 2 were parasitized by 3 species. There was no significant difference (i.e., X(2)0.05) in prevalence of infection between female and male dogs for any of the identified nematode species. The chi-square test for equality of proportions was used to determine prevalence of infection in 3 age categories of dogs (females and males combined): young dogs (≤12 months of age); mature dogs (13-83 months); and old dogs >83 months. Prevalences of infection for Ancylostoma caninum and Toxocara canis were significantly (P0.05) in prevalence by age category for Trichuris vulpis. Dogs exhibiting clinical signs were no more likely to harbor intestinal nematodes than dogs that were asymptomatic. Additionally, dogs receiving heartworm treatment were significantly less likely to be parasitized than dogs receiving no heartworm prophylaxis. PMID:21277089

  9. Epidemiological study of non-systemic parasitism in dogs in southeast Mediterranean Spain assessed by coprological and post-mortem examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Carrasco, C; Berriatua, E; Garijo, M; Martínez, J; Alonso, F D; de Ybáñez, R Ruiz

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence and risk factors of non-systemic canine ecto- and endoparasitism and anthelminthic use in Murcia located at the centre of the Spanish Mediterranean coastal arch, was investigated by coprology and necropsy in up to 275 pet, city shelter and stray dogs in 2001-2004. Faecal parasite stages were detected in 25% of dogs. Species frequency was 6-10% for Toxocara canis, Ancylostomatidae spp., Toxascaris leonina and Isospora canis, and 0.4-1% for Trichuris vulpis, Giardia lamblia, and Dipylidium caninum. Logistic regression indicated that the risk of intestinal parasitism was highest for dogs Ancylostoma spp. This was further supported by necropsy findings; however, the degree of agreement between post-mortem and coprological examination for intestinal parasites was generally poor. Necropsy revealed 10%G. lamblia, 12%Taenia spp. 38%D. caninum infections. Fleas, ticks and lice were also found in 38%, 6% and 2% of necropsied stray dogs. These results demonstrate the need for an urgent parasite control programme at the city dog shelter and the need to improve the owner's education on zoonotic risks, the proper use of anthelminthics, and other parasite control practices. PMID:17542962

  10. Prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and other zoonotic intestinal parasites in private household dogs of the Hachinohe area in Aomori prefecture, Japan in 1997, 2002 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Naoyuki; Kanai, Kazutaka; Hori, Yasutomo; Hoshi, Fumio; Higuchi, Seiichi

    2009-12-01

    An epidemiological study on canine intestinal parasites was undertaken to evaluate changes in the prevalence among private household dogs from the Hachinohe region of Aomori prefecture, Japan, in 1997, 2002 and 2007, using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. The risk of zoonotic transmission from household dogs to humans was also discussed. All intestinal parasites detected in the present study (Giardia intestinalis, Isospora spp., Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Trichuris vulpis and Strongyloides stercoralis) showed no changes in prevalence over the past 10 years based on analysis considering canine epidemiological profiles. In particular, prevalence of Giardia intestinalis in dogs under 1 year old, derived from pet shops/breeding kennels and kept indoors was unchanged, remaining at a high level of >15.0% at each time point. Toxocara canis also showed no changes in the group of dogs under 1 year old, bred by private owners and kept outdoors, and the prevalence was >10.0% every year. The present results indicate that the prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and other intestinal parasites in private household dogs has not always decreased, and the potential for direct parasitic zoonotic transmission from dogs to humans may be relatively high level, than from the environment (indoors and outdoors). We recommend careful surveillance of intestinal parasites and aggressive use of anthelminthic in private household dogs under considering the epidemiological factors. PMID:19934595

  11. Review of zoonotic parasites in medical and veterinary fields in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Heejeong

    2009-10-01

    Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., Fasciola hepatica, Heterophyes nocens, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Paragonimus westermani. Cestodes are Diphyllobothrium latum, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Raillietina tetragona, sparganum (Spirometra spp.), Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica. Nematodes are Ancylostoma caninum, Brugia malayi, Capillaria hepatica, Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma dololesi, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Loa loa, Onchocerca gibsoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Thelazia callipaeda, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus orientalis, Trichuris trichiura, and Trichuris vulpis. The one arthropod is Sarcoptes scabiei. Many of these parasites have disappeared or were in decline after the 1990's. Since the late 1990's, the important zoonotic protozoa have been C. parvum, E. nana, E. coli, E. hitolytica, G. lamblia, I. buetschlii, P. carinii and T. gondii. The important zoonotic helminths have been C. sinensis, H. nocens, M. yokogawai, P. westermani, D. latum, T. asiatica, sparganum, B. malayi, T. orientalis, T. callipaeda and T. spiralis. However, outbreaks of these parasites are only in a few endemic areas. The outbreaks of Enterobius vermicularis and head lice, human parasites, have recently increased in the kindergartens and primary schools in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19885329

  12. Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, I; Maddox-Hyttel, C; Monrad, J; Kapel, C M O

    2006-06-30

    An epidemiological study of helminths in 1040 red foxes collected from various localities in Denmark during 1997-2002, revealed 21 helminth species at autopsy, including nine nematode species: Capillaria plica (prevalence 80.5%), Capillaria aerophila (74.1%), Crenosoma vulpis (17.4%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (48.6% from Northern Zealand (endemic area)), Toxocara canis (59.4%), Toxascaris leonina (0.6%), Uncinaria stenocephala (68.6%), Ancylostoma caninum (0.6%), and Trichuris vulpis (0.5%); seven cestodes: Mesocestoides sp. (35.6%), a number of Taeniid species (Taenia pisiformis, T. hydatigena, T. taeniaeformis, T. crassiceps, and unidentified Taenia spp.) (22.8%), and Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%); four trematodes: Alaria alata (15.4%), Cryptocotyle lingua (23.8%), Pseudamphystomum truncatum (3.6% from Northern Zealand), and Echinochasmus perfoliatus (2.4% from Northern Zealand); one acanthocephalan: Polymorphus sp. (1.2%). Significant difference in prevalence was found for T. canis and A. vasorum according to host sex, and for T. canis, U. stenocephala, Mesocestoides sp., Taenia spp., A. alata, A. vasorum, and Capillaria spp. according to age groups (adult, young or cub). Prevalence and average worm intensity for each helminth species varied considerably according to geographical locality, season, and year. Aggregated distribution was found for several helminth species. The two species E. multilocularis and E. perfoliatus are first records for Denmark. PMID:16580775

  13. Epidemiology of intestinal helminth parasites in stray dogs from markets in south-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoye, I C; Obiezue, N R; Okorie, C E; Ofoezie, I E

    2011-12-01

    A survey of gastrointestinal helminth parasites of stray dogs (Canis familiaris) was conducted at Obollo-Afor and Ekwulobia markets, in Enugu and Anambra States, south-eastern Nigeria, respectively, to determine the patterns of infection among dogs in different parts of south-eastern Nigeria. Faecal samples collected, using long forceps, from every dog encountered in the markets between June 2007 and December 2008 were analysed by the Kato-Katz technique. Out of 413 dogs examined in both markets, 217 (52.6%) were infected with at least one of five parasites (Toxocara spp., Dipylidium caninum, Ancylostoma caninum, Taenia spp. and Trichuris vulpis). Overall faecal egg intensity of infection was 49.9 ± 58.7 eggs/g (epg). The prevalence of infection was comparable between the markets and between the male and female dogs, but varied significantly (P vulpis was the least important (1.9%; 0.7 ± 5.4 epg). Generally, prevalence and intensity patterns of each parasite were also comparable between the markets and between sexes, but significantly (P < 0.05) age-dependent. The implications of these findings to public health in Nigeria and other endemic countries are discussed in relation to options for cost-effective control design and implementation. PMID:21144127

  14. Field evaluation of the efficacy and safety of emodepside plus praziquantel tablets (Profender tablets for dogs) against naturally acquired nematode and cestode infections in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altreuther, Gertraut; Radeloff, Isabelle; LeSueur, Christophe; Schimmel, Annette; Krieger, Klemens J

    2009-08-01

    A controlled, blinded and randomised multicentre field study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a new anthelmintic tablet formulation containing emodepside plus praziquantel (Profender tablets for dogs) in the treatment of gastrointestinal nematode and cestode infections in dogs in France, Germany, Portugal and Slovakia. Dogs positive for nematodes and/or cestodes (demonstrated by faecal egg counts and/or the presence of proglottids) were treated with emodepside plus praziquantel tablets (n = 239) or the reference product containing milbemycin oxime and praziquantel (Milbemax [n = 115]) at the recommended dose rate. Two faecal samples collected between 7 and 13 days after treatment were evaluated for proglottids, nematode and cestode eggs. No suspected adverse drug reactions were observed in the study. The following parasite species were identified: Trichuris vulpis, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Uncinaria stenocephala, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, Taeniidae and Mesocestoides spp. Geometric mean nematode egg counts in dogs treated with emodepside plus praziquantel tablets were reduced by 99.9 % compared with a reduction of 99.6 % for the reference product. Statistical analysis demonstrated noninferiority of investigational versus reference product (p = 0.0342). None of the dogs treated with emodepside plus praziquantel or reference product remained positive for cestodes after treatment. The study demonstrated that emodepside plus praziquantel tablets are safe and highly efficacious against a broad spectrum of nematodes and cestodes under field conditions. PMID:19575222

  15. Helminths of the ocelot from southern Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Danny B; Tewes, Michael E; Laack, Linda L

    2003-07-01

    In the USA, the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is a highly endangered felid found only in a few remaining vestiges of native thornshrub brushland in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of extreme southern Texas. From 1987-1998, carcasses of 15 adult ocelots that died of vehicular accidents or natural causes were examined for helminths. All cats had 1-8 (mean = 3) helminth species. All were infected with 1-101 (mean +/- SE = 32 +/- 7) Toxascaris leonina. Other helminths from these ocelots were Alaria marcianae, Brachylaima sp., Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia rileyi, Oncicola canis, Dirofilaria immitis, Physaloptera rara, Ancylostoma tubaeformae, Cylicospirura chevreuxi, Vogeloides felis, and Metathelazia californica. Additionally, two cats had scarring of the aorta with lesions typical of those caused by Spriocerca lupi, although larval nematodes were not seen. A clinal variation in size of nearly three orders of magnitude was noted in the diplostomatid trematodes in the small intestine of one adult male ocelot. Despite the differences in size, all specimens appeared morphologically identical and were regarded as A. marcianae. Helminth prevalences and abundances, including those of potentially pathogenic species like D. immitis, were low. Although a single heartworm infection may have contributed to the death of one ocelot, helminth infections in general seemed to be of no great consequence to this endangered ocelot population. The helminth fauna of ocelots in the LRGV is reflective of that from wild felids in general; all have been reported previously from the bobcat (Lynx rufus) and mountain lion (Puma concolor) elsewhere in Texas. PMID:14567231

  16. PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL HELMINTHES IN STUDENTS OF IHIALA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ANAMBRA STATE

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    EMMY-EGBE, I.O.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The status of human intestinal helminthiasis was studied in primary school pupils, secondary schools as well as university students in Ihiala Local Government Area of Anambra State between November 2006 and October 2007.Consent was obtained from the local government health authorities, from the heads of the various schools used as well as consents from the older students involved in the study before it commenced fully. Data was collected in the form of stool samples as well as personal questions on per-tested questionnaires. The samples were prepared and examined using the formal-ether concentration method. A total of 1, 913 stool samples were collected and examined. Results obtained showed 948 (49.5% studied participants to be infected with one or more parasites with the following prevalence rates: Necator americanus 85(4.4%, Ancylostoma duodanales 85(4.4%, Enterobius vermincularis 151 (7.9%, Ascaris Iumbricoides 353(37.2%, Trichuris trichura 143(2.6% and Schistosoma mansoni 31 (1.6 %. The prevalence of intestinal helminth was significantly higher in females than males especially in the school age groups (p <0.05. Control measures could include; regular environmental sanitation health education, good identification and treatment of infected individuals.

  17. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in the Greek population: local people and refugees

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    M.G. Papazahariadou, E.G. Papadopoulos S.E. Frydas, Ch. Mavrovouniotis,T.C. Constantinidis, K. Antoniadou-Sotiriadou,

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY A total of 455 faecal samples from the Greek population and refugees was examined and 18.02% were found to be infected with one or more species of parasites. The prevalence of infection with intestinal parasites of the Greek (264 population was 11.36% and that of foreigners (191 originating from Europe, Africa and Asia was 27.23%. Found were a protozoan parasites: Blastocystis hominis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Entamoeba coli and Giardia lamblia (found in both groups examined and b metazoan parasites: Enterobius vermicularis, Taenia spp. and Strongyloides stercoralis (in both groups and Ancylostoma duodenale, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Schistosoma mansoni (only in foreigners. Among the parasites found in foreigners only the helminth species A. duodenale and S. mansoni are considered as imported parasites from tropical and subtropical regions to European countries. The use of the multiple logistic regression showed that the odds ratio comparing Greeks to refugees, adjusted for age and gender, was 3.8 for Africans, 3.0 for Europeans and 2.6 for Asians. No correlation was found between age, gender or symptoms (diarrhea or abdominal pain with the presence of parasites. The overall prevalence of infection with parasites was high in both the Greek population and refugees and therefore a screening for parasite infection is recommended for the prevention of further spread of the infections. Key words: parasites, immigrants, Greece

  18. Engineering Factor Xa Inhibitor with Multiple Platelet-Binding Sites Facilitates its Platelet Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuanjun; Li, Ruyi; Lin, Yuan; Shui, Mengyang; Liu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Huan; Wang, Yinye

    2016-01-01

    Targeted delivery of antithrombotic drugs centralizes the effects in the thrombosis site and reduces the hemorrhage side effects in uninjured vessels. We have recently reported that the platelet-targeting factor Xa (FXa) inhibitors, constructed by engineering one Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif into Ancylostoma caninum anticoagulant peptide 5 (AcAP5), can reduce the risk of systemic bleeding than non-targeted AcAP5 in mouse arterial injury model. Increasing the number of platelet-binding sites of FXa inhibitors may facilitate their adhesion to activated platelets, and further lower the bleeding risks. For this purpose, we introduced three RGD motifs into AcAP5 to generate a variant NR4 containing three platelet-binding sites. NR4 reserved its inherent anti-FXa activity. Protein-protein docking showed that all three RGD motifs were capable of binding to platelet receptor αIIbβ3. Molecular dynamics simulation demonstrated that NR4 has more opportunities to interact with αIIbβ3 than single-RGD-containing NR3. Flow cytometry analysis and rat arterial thrombosis model further confirmed that NR4 possesses enhanced platelet targeting activity. Moreover, NR4-treated mice showed a trend toward less tail bleeding time than NR3-treated mice in carotid artery endothelium injury model. Therefore, our data suggest that engineering multiple binding sites in one recombinant protein is a useful tool to improve its platelet-targeting efficiency. PMID:27432161

  19. Neutrophil Inhibitory Factor Selectively Inhibits the Endothelium-Driven Transmigration of Eosinophils In Vitro and Airway Eosinophilia in OVA-Induced Allergic Lung Inflammation

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    Silvia Schnyder-Candrian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte adhesion molecules are involved in cell recruitment in an allergic airway response and therefore provide a target for pharmaceutical intervention. Neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF, derived from canine hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum, binds selectively and competes with the A-domain of CD11b for binding to ICAM-1. The effect of recombinant NIF was investigated. Intranasal administration of rNIF reduced pulmonary eosinophilic infiltration, goblet cell hyperplasia, and Th2 cytokine production in OVA-sensitized mice. In vitro, transendothelial migration of human blood eosinophils across IL-4-activated umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC monolayers was inhibited by rNIF (IC50: 4.6±2.6 nM; mean ± SEM, but not across TNF or IL-1-activated HUVEC monolayers. Treatment of eosinophils with rNIF together with mAb 60.1 directed against CD11b or mAb 107 directed against the metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS of the CD11b A-domain resulted in no further inhibition of transendothelial migration suggesting shared functional epitopes. In contrast, rNIF increased the inhibitory effect of blocking mAbs against CD18, CD11a, and VLA-4. Together, we show that rNIF, a selective antagonist of the A-domain of CD11b, has a prominent inhibitory effect on eosinophil transendothelial migration in vitro, which is congruent to the in vivo inhibition of OVA-induced allergic lung inflammation.

  20. A coproantigen diagnostic test for Strongyloides infection.

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    Alex M Sykes

    Full Text Available Accurate diagnosis of infection with the parasite Strongyloides stercoralis is hampered by the low concentration of larvae in stool, rendering parasitological diagnosis insensitive. Even if the more sensitive agar plate culture method is used repeated stool sampling is necessary to achieve satisfactory sensitivity. In this manuscript we describe the development of a coproantigen ELISA for diagnosis of infection. Polyclonal rabbit antiserum was raised against Strongyloides ratti excretory/secretory (E/S antigen and utilized to develop an antigen capture ELISA. The assay enabled detection of subpatent rodent S. ratti and human S. stercoralis infection. No cross-reactivity was observed with purified E/S from Schistosoma japonicum, the hookworms Ancylostoma caninum, A. ceylanicum, nor with fecal samples collected from rodents harboring Trichuris muris or S. mansoni infection. Strongyloides coproantigens that appear stable when frozen as formalin-extracted fecal supernatants stored at -20 °C remained positive up to 270 days of storage, whereas supernatants stored at 4 °C tested negative. These results indicate that diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis by detection of coproantigen is an approach worthy of further development.

  1. 黑河沿江地域及俄罗斯布拉戈维申斯克市犬寄生蠕虫区系调查%Investigation of parasitic helminth fauna in dog at Heihe river valley and Bulageweishensike city, Russian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋成玉

    2001-01-01

    本文报道了黑河沿江地域(爱辉区、孙吴县、逊克县)及俄罗斯布拉戈维中斯克市寄生蠕虫调查结果,共剖检44只犬,经鉴定,寄生蠕虫的感染率为100%,分别属于3纲、9科、10属,其中吸虫4种为华枝睾吸虫(Clonorchis sinensis ) .日本棘隙吸虫(Echinochasmus japonicus ) .横川后殖吸虫(Metagonimus yokogawai ) .有翼翼形吸虫(Alaria alata ) ;绦虫3种为泡状带绦虫(Taenia hydatigena ) .线中殖孔绦虫(Mesocestoides lineatus ) ,犬复孔绦虫(Dipylidium caninum ) ;线虫3种为犬弓首蛔虫( Toxocara canis ) .犬钩口线虫(Ancylostoma caninum ) .旋毛形线虫( Trichinella spiralis ) .其中以犬弓首蛔虫感染率最高为68.18%,华枝睾吸虫27.27%,线中殖孔绦虫22.72%,旋毛形线虫13.64%.

  2. Detection of intestinal parasites by use of the cuvette-based automated microscopy analyser sediMAX(®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intra, J; Taverna, E; Sala, M R; Falbo, R; Cappellini, F; Brambilla, P

    2016-03-01

    Microscopy is the reference method for intestinal parasite identification. The cuvette-based automated microscopy analyser, sediMAX 1, provides 15 digital images of each sediment sample. In this study, we have evaluated this fully automated instrument for detection of enteric parasites, helminths and protozoa. A total of 700 consecutively preserved samples consisting of 60 positive samples (50 protozoa, ten helminths) and 640 negative samples were analysed. Operators were blinded to each others' results. Samples were randomized and were tested both by manual microscopy and sediMAX 1 for parasite recognition. The sediMAX 1 analysis was conducted using a dilution of faecal samples, allowing determination of morphology. The data obtained using sediMAX 1 showed a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 100%. Some species of helminths, such as Enterobius vermicularis, Strongyloides stercolaris, the Ancylostoma duodenale/Necator americanus complex, and schistosomes were not considered in this work, because they are rare in stool specimens, are not easily detectable with microscopy analysis, and require specific recovery techniques. This study demonstrated for the first time that sediMAX 1 can be an aid in enteric parasite identification. PMID:26679923

  3. Structural and Functional Characterization of a Secreted Hookworm Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) that Interacts with the Human MIF Receptor CD74

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    Cho,Y.; Jones, B.; Vermeire, J.; Leng, L.; DiFedele, L.; Harrison, L.; Xiong, H.; Kwong, Y.; Chen, Y.; et al

    2007-01-01

    Hookworms, parasitic nematodes that infect nearly one billion people worldwide, are a major cause of anemia and malnutrition. We hypothesize that hookworms actively manipulate the host immune response through the production of specific molecules designed to facilitate infection by larval stages and adult worm survival within the intestine. A full-length cDNA encoding a secreted orthologue of the human cytokine, Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) has been cloned from the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum. Elucidation of the three-dimensional crystal structure of recombinant AceMIF (rAceMIF) revealed an overall structural homology with significant differences in the tautomerase sites of the human and hookworm proteins. The relative bioactivities of human and hookworm MIF proteins were compared using in vitro assays of tautomerase activity, macrophage migration, and binding to MIF receptor CD74. The activity of rAceMIF was not inhibited by the ligand ISO-1, which was previously determined to be an inhibitor of the catalytic site of human MIF. These data define unique immunological, structural, and functional characteristics of AceMIF, thereby establishing the potential for selectively inhibiting the hookworm cytokine as a means of reducing parasite survival and disease pathogenesis.

  4. High Prevalence of Covert Infection With Gastrointestinal Helminths in Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Susan; Adolph, Chris; Downie, Kathryn; Snider, Tim; Reichard, Mason

    2015-01-01

    Fecal flotation is routinely used to identify feline helminth infections in clinical practice, but it is known to have limitations of sensitivity, particularly for cestodes. To determine the prevalence of helminths in a contemporary population of cats and evaluate the ability of fecal flotation to detect these infections, helminths were recovered from intestinal tracts removed from 116 adult cats humanely euthanized by an animal control shelter in northeastern Oklahoma. Results were compared to those of fecal flotation performed using both passive and centrifugal techniques. Helminths were identified in 78/116 (67.2%) cats, including Toxocara cati (48/116; 41.4%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (8/116; 6.9%), Dipylidium caninum (40/116; 34.5%), and Taenia taeniaeformis (30/116; 25.9%). Cats with T. cati were significantly more likely to harbor T. taeniaeformis (P = .001) than cats without ascarids. Centrifugal fecal flotation with sugar solution identified 37/48 (77.1%) T. cati infections, 8/30 (26.7%) T. taeniaeformis infections, and no D. caninum infections. Proglottids were detected on external examination in 19.0% (12/63) of cats with cestodes. Cestodes were present in over half of the cats examined in this study, but the majority of these infections were not evident by the detection of external proglottids or recovery of characteristic stages on fecal flotation. PMID:26535453

  5. Multiplex real-time PCR monitoring of intestinal helminths in humans reveals widespread polyparasitism in Northern Samar, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Catherine A; McManus, Donald P; Acosta, Luz P; Olveda, Remigio M; Williams, Gail M; Ross, Allen G; Gray, Darren J; Gobert, Geoffrey N

    2015-06-01

    The global socioeconomic importance of helminth parasitic disease is underpinned by the considerable clinical impact on millions of people. While helminth polyparasitism is considered common in the Philippines, little has been done to survey its extent in endemic communities. High morphological similarity of eggs between related species complicates conventional microscopic diagnostic methods which are known to lack sensitivity, particularly in low intensity infections. Multiplex quantitative PCR diagnostic methods can provide rapid, simultaneous identification of multiple helminth species from a single stool sample. We describe a multiplex assay for the differentiation of Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma, Taenia saginata and Taenia solium, building on our previously published findings for Schistosoma japonicum. Of 545 human faecal samples examined, 46.6% were positive for at least three different parasite species. High prevalences of S. japonicum (90.64%), A. lumbricoides (58.17%), T. saginata (42.57%) and A. duodenale (48.07%) were recorded. Neither T. solium nor N. americanus were found to be present. The utility of molecular diagnostic methods for monitoring helminth parasite prevalence provides new information on the extent of polyparasitism in the Philippines municipality of Palapag. These methods and findings have potential global implications for the monitoring of neglected tropical diseases and control measures. PMID:25858090

  6. Wild Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as Sentinels of Parasitic Diseases in the Province of Soria, Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lledó, Lourdes; Giménez-Pardo, Consuelo; Saz, José Vicente; Serrano, José Luis

    2015-12-01

    Four hundred red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were examined for ecto- (arthropods) and endoparasites (Leishmania spp., Trichinella spp., and intestinal parasites). Different species of flea (total prevalence, 40.50%), tick (16.25%), mite (7.25%), and fly (1.50%) were identified. The most prevalent flea was Pulex irritans (found on 29% of the foxes); the most prevalent tick, mite, and fly were Ixodes canisuga (on 5%), Sarcoptes scabiei (on 5.25%), and Hippobosca equina (on 1%), respectively. The endoparasites identified included Leishmania spp. (found in 12% of the foxes), Trichinella spp. (in 15.5%, with T. britovi the most prevalent species in 15.25%), Cestoda (in 72.75%, with Mesocestoides spp. the most prevalent in 69.50%), and intestinal ascarids (in 73.25%, with Ancylostoma caninum the most prevalent in 12.50%). No animal was free of parasites. The present results suggest that foxes can act as sentinels of diseases transmitted by ecto- and endoparasites. PMID:26565688

  7. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in domestic dogs in Tabasco, southeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Chablé, Oswaldo Margarito; García-Herrera, Ricardo Alfonso; Hernández-Hernández, Melchor; Peralta-Torres, Jorge Alonso; Ojeda-Robertos, Nadia Florencia; Blitvich, Bradley John; Baak-Baak, Carlos Marcial; García-Rejón, Julián Everardo; Machain-Wiliams, Carlos Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The overall goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in dogs in the city of Villahermosa in Tabasco, Mexico. The study population consisted of 302 owned dogs that had limited access to public areas. A fecal sample was collected from each animal and examined for GI parasites by conventional macroscopic analysis and centrifugal flotation. Fecal samples from 80 (26.5%) dogs contained GI parasites. Of these, 58 (19.2%) were positive for helminths and 22 (7.3%) were positive for protozoan parasites. At least seven parasitic species were identified. The most common parasite was Ancylostoma caninum which was detected in 48 (15.9%) dogs. Other parasites detected on multiple occasions were Cystoisospora spp. (n = 19), Toxocara canis (n = 7) and Giardia spp. (n = 3). Three additional parasites, Dipylidium caninum, Trichuris vulpis and Uncinaria spp., were each detected in a single dog. No mixed parasitic infections were identified. In summary, we report a moderately high prevalence of GI parasites in owned dogs in Villahermosa, Tabasco. Several parasitic species identified in this study are recognized zoonotic pathogens which illustrates the important need to routinely monitor and treat dogs that live in close proximity to humans for parasitic infections. PMID:26648011

  8. An epidemiological survey on intestinal helminths of stray dogs in Mashhad, North-east of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamapour, Seyed Rasoul; Borji, Hassan; Nagibi, Abolghasem

    2015-06-01

    This research was conducted to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in stray dogs in the northeast of Iran, with special attention to those parasites that can be transmitted to human. In this experiment, a total of 72 adult and 18 juvenile stray dogs were collected and necropsied for the presence of helminth parasites from October 2011 to August 2012. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths was 86 % (95 % CI: 79.2-92.8 %). The observed helminths of the gastrointestinal tract were listed as follows: Toxocara canis (29 %), Toxascaris leonina (7 %), Ancylostoma caninum (2 %), Taenia hydatigena (43 %), Dipylidium caninum (39 %), Echinococcus granulosus (38 %), Mesocestoides lineatus (16 %), Taenia multiceps (11 %), Taenia ovis (3 %). There were no significant differences for the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths between female (83.6 %) and male (89.7 %) and between young (89 %) and adult (72.2 %) animals. However, the prevalence of E. granulosus, T. hydatigena and D. caninum showed an increasing trend with increasing host age, significantly. Based on our data, it is important to point out the presence of zoonotic agents, namely E. granulosus and T. canis in stray dogs in the investigated area. Due to its impact on public health, appropriate control measures should be taken and it is recommended to determine the most appropriate preventive methods. PMID:26064015

  9. 黑白仰鼻猴肠道寄生虫感染调查%Investigation on Intestinal Parasite Infection of Rhinopithecus bieti

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李延鹏; 和晓斌; 和鑫明; 杨荣; 和益开; 杨毅梅; 崔亮伟; 肖文

    2014-01-01

    为了解黑白仰鼻猴野生种群的肠道寄生虫感染现状,对分布于云南塔城境内的一群90只个体的黑白仰鼻猴种群进行了粪便虫卵检查.共采集了225份样品,记录了粪便供体的性别、年龄、所在单元和采集时间,分别采用水洗过滤沉淀法、饱和盐水浮聚法和改良加藤氏厚涂片法进行检查.实验结果表明该猴群感染的寄生虫种类有灵长类肠道常见寄生虫毛首线虫Trichuris sp.,感染率在不同年龄段间存在显著差异;钩虫Ancylostoma sp.和结节线虫Oesophagostomum sp.在黑白仰鼻猴中的感染存在季节性,旱雨季差异性显著;同时粪便样品中还检出了少量的肝毛细线虫Capillaria hepatica和蛔虫Ascaris sp..

  10. 黑河沿江区域猫寄生蠕虫的区系调查报告%The investigative report on fauna of cat's parasitic helminth at Heihe alone river district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋成玉; 孙善华

    2001-01-01

    本文报道了黑龙江流域黑河沿江区域猫寄生蠕虫的调查结果,在剖检的32只猫体内,经鉴定结果,其中吸虫2种:华枝睾吸虫(Clonorchis sinensis)、横川后殖吸虫(Metagonimus yokogawai).绦虫2种:带状泡尾绦虫(Hydatigera taeniaeformis)和线中殖孔绦虫(Mesocestoides lineatus).线虫3种:猫弓首线虫(Toxocara cati)、管形钩口线虫(Ancylostoma tubaeforme)和旋毛形线虫(Trichinella spiralis).它们分属于3纲、7科、7属.在这7种蠕虫中猫弓首线虫感染率为90.63%;带状泡尾绦虫71.88%;线中殖孔绦虫40.63%;为黑龙江流域黑河沿江区域猫寄生蠕虫的优势种.

  11. INTESTINAL PARASITES IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC ABDOMINAL PAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, Eman Kh; Mohammad, Asmaa N

    2015-08-01

    Information about intestinal parasites in Sohag (Upper Egypt) in patients with chronic abdominal pain is scarce. This study determined the intestinal parasites symptoms in 130 patients with chronic abdominal pain and cross-matched 20 healthy persons. Parasitic infection was confirmed by stool analysis.The most commonest clinical data with stool analysis was as following: 1-Entamoeba histolytica associated with nausea 20 (3 7.74%) followed by anorexia 19 (35.85%), 2-Entamoeba coli associated with diarrhea 3 (100%) followed by nausea 2 (66.67%) and vomiting 2 (66.67%), 3-Enetrobius vermicularis associated with nausea 2 (66.67%), diarrhea 2 (66.67%) followed by flatulence 1(33.33%), 4-Giardia lamblia associated with anorexia 3 (42.86%), vomiting 3 (42.86%) followed by diarrhea 2 (28.57%)., 6-Hymenolepis nana associated with anorexia 10 (40.00%) followed by flatulence 9 (36.00%), 7-Taenia saginata associated with dyspepsia 3 (60.00%) followed by flatulence 2 (40.00%), and 8-Ancylostoma duodenal associated with anorexia 2 (66.67%) and diarrhea 2 (66.67%). PMID:26485858

  12. Engineering Factor Xa Inhibitor with Multiple Platelet-Binding Sites Facilitates its Platelet Targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuanjun; Li, Ruyi; Lin, Yuan; Shui, Mengyang; Liu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Huan; Wang, Yinye

    2016-01-01

    Targeted delivery of antithrombotic drugs centralizes the effects in the thrombosis site and reduces the hemorrhage side effects in uninjured vessels. We have recently reported that the platelet-targeting factor Xa (FXa) inhibitors, constructed by engineering one Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif into Ancylostoma caninum anticoagulant peptide 5 (AcAP5), can reduce the risk of systemic bleeding than non-targeted AcAP5 in mouse arterial injury model. Increasing the number of platelet-binding sites of FXa inhibitors may facilitate their adhesion to activated platelets, and further lower the bleeding risks. For this purpose, we introduced three RGD motifs into AcAP5 to generate a variant NR4 containing three platelet-binding sites. NR4 reserved its inherent anti-FXa activity. Protein-protein docking showed that all three RGD motifs were capable of binding to platelet receptor αIIbβ3. Molecular dynamics simulation demonstrated that NR4 has more opportunities to interact with αIIbβ3 than single-RGD-containing NR3. Flow cytometry analysis and rat arterial thrombosis model further confirmed that NR4 possesses enhanced platelet targeting activity. Moreover, NR4-treated mice showed a trend toward less tail bleeding time than NR3-treated mice in carotid artery endothelium injury model. Therefore, our data suggest that engineering multiple binding sites in one recombinant protein is a useful tool to improve its platelet-targeting efficiency. PMID:27432161

  13. Environmental analyses of the parasitic profile found in the sandy soil from the Santos municipality beaches, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Rocha

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The environmental contamination by geohelminths represents a world public health problem and has been well documented by several authors. However, few papers describe the presence of such contamination in saline soils of coastal beaches. A study was performed on the beaches of the municipality of Santos in the period between May 2004 to April 2005 with the aim of determining the degree of contamination, and the correlation between contamination level and seasonal conditions and characteristics of the environment. Of the 2,520 samples analyzed, 18.2% (458 were contaminated, 32.3% (148 of which were localized in children's recreational areas (playgrounds. The parasite profile found in the analyzed samples indicated the presence of several zoonotic parasites: Ancylostoma larvae (82.5%, Toxocara sp. eggs (59.4%, Ancylostomidae-like eggs (37.1%, coccid oocysts (13.5%, Trichostrongylus sp. eggs and larvae, Ascaris lumbricoides eggs, (11.6%, Entamoeba sp. cysts (10.0%, Strongyloides sp. (4.8%, several free nematoids and some non-identified parasitic structures (3.3%. It was established that the highest frequency of parasitic structures occurred in the months between May and October 2004, and from February to March 2005. An increase in the diversity of parasitic forms was documented in the months between February to December 2004 and from January to April 2005, these periods having the highest rainfall.

  14. STUDIES ON INTESTINAL HELMINTHIASIS IN THE SOUTH OF IRAN

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    E. Ghadirian

    1972-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of various intestinal helminthiasis have been determined by the examination of 8109 inhabitants of 20 villages located in the mountainous and coastal regions of the Bandar Abbas and Minab areas in southern Iran. A portion of people infected with each parasite were treated with the appropriate drug I and the worms expelled were collected, identified and counted. The results indicate that the prevalence of most helminthiasis is rather low in all areas expect for hookworm, which was as high as 65 % in the coastal area of Minab, Trichostrongylus spp. Which had a prevalence of 88.2% and 41% in the coastal and mountainous areas of Minab, and H. nana which had prevalence higher than 20% in most villages? The mass-treatment of cases indicated that 89% of the inhabitants are infected with E. vermicularis. Ninety-seven percent of the hookworms found were Ancylostoma doudenale with a mean worm burden of 20.2, the species of Trichostrongylus found were T. Problurus, T. colubriformis, T. vitrinus and T. axei. About 6% of the infected cases in the Bandar Abbas and 30% in the Minab areas had mixed infection (with two or more parasites. The prevalence of the infections found in these two areas is compared with results obtained from surveys in other parts of the country.

  15. Intestinal helminthes of schoolchildren of Chorrillos and Pachacamac, Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iannacone, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Peru, intestinal helminthiases have been widely studied, because they are a very frequent problem in Public Health. The aim of current research was to determinate prevalence of infection of enteroparasites in primary schoolchildren of two national schools, both of rural zones from Pachacamac and Chorrillos district, Lima, Peru during 1999. A coproparasitological survey to 162 childrens (3 per child on consecutive days in stool samples fixed in 10 % formaline, previous homogenization employing conventional exams by direct microscopy dyed with lugol, and by spontaneous Tube Sedimentation technique were performed. In addition, the occurrence of eggs of Enterobius vermicularis was examined by adhesive cellotape anal swap method. Eight helminthes were diagnosed to Chorrillos (n=72 and Pachacamac (n=90: Diphyllobothrium pacificum (1.3%; 0%, Taenia sp. (0%; 1.1%, Hymenolepis nana (37.5%; 8.8%, Hymenolepis diminuta (8.3%; 0%, Ancylostoma duodenale Necator americanus (0%; 2.2%, Trichuris trichiura (9.7%; 6.6%, Ascaris lumbricoides(15.3%; 35.5%, y E. vermicularis (31.9%; 45.5%. Total prevalence of infection was 72.2% and 72.2% and polyparasitism was 25% and 22.2%, respectively. Jaccard index showed a 50 % and Sörensen index a 66.7% of similarity between helminthes of both districts. Programs of sanitary and environmental education and control campaigns of intestinal helminthes should be improved and implemented in Lima, Peru.

  16. 呼市地区犬寄生虫感染种类及感染情况的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘珍莲; 杨晓野; 杨莲茹; 乌云其其格; 程双燕

    2005-01-01

    对来自呼市不同品种、不同年龄的95只犬进行调查,查出体内外寄生虫8种,有20只犬被寄生虫所感染,总感染率为20.83%,其中感染犬弓首蛔虫(Toxocara canis)、犬狮弓蛔虫(Toxascaris leonina)、犬疥螨(Sarcoptes scabiei var.canina)、犬蠕形螨(Demodex canis)、犬钩虫(Ancylostoma caninum)、犬恶丝虫(Dirofilaria immitis)、犬丽嫩吸吮线虫(Thelazza callpaeda)和犬复孔绦虫(Dirofiaria caninum)分别为6只、2只、3只、2只、3只、2只、1只和1只,其感染率分别为6.32%、2.11%、3.16%、2.11%、3.16%、2.11%、1.05%和1.05%.雌雄感染率分别为40%和60%,2~19月龄的犬总感染率为75%.蛔虫的感率高,感染强度大.

  17. Monitoreo de parásitos en efluentes domiciliarios

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    Semenas Liliana

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la presencia de parásitos en efluentes semisólidos y líquidos en distintas localidades de la Patagonia argentina considerando que ésta es una de las restricciones para su uso. MÉTODOS: Las muestras tomadas en 4 Plantas de Tratamiento de Efluentes Domiciliarios se analizaron siguiendo las normativas de Environmental Protection Agency, Organización Mundial de la Salud, Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater y de algunas clasificaciones. RESULTADOS: Solamente 2 de las 6 muestras de semisólidos analizadas tenían huevos de Ascaris lumbricoides no viables. De las 10 muestras líquidas, solamente 2 no tenían huevos mientras las restantes tenían patógenos de las categorías I (Giardia sp., Hymenolepis diminuta y Enterobius vermicularis y III (Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale y Trichuris trichiura. CONCLUSIONES: Todas las muestras de semisólidos analizadas fueron aptas para su uso como fertilizantes porque no se registró en ninguna de ellas la presencia de huevos viables de Ascaris lumbricoides y solamente 6 de las muestras líquidas fueron aptas para riego por carecer de huevos o por ser su concentración igual o inferior a 1 huevo por litro.

  18. Vaccination with recombinant aspartic hemoglobinase reduces parasite load and blood loss after hookworm infection in dogs.

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    Alex Loukas

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hookworms infect 730 million people in developing countries where they are a leading cause of intestinal blood loss and iron-deficiency anemia. At the site of attachment to the host, adult hookworms ingest blood and lyse the erythrocytes to release hemoglobin. The parasites subsequently digest hemoglobin in their intestines using a cascade of proteolysis that begins with the Ancylostoma caninum aspartic protease 1, APR-1. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We show that vaccination of dogs with recombinant Ac-APR-1 induced antibody and cellular responses and resulted in significantly reduced hookworm burdens (p = 0.056 and fecal egg counts (p = 0.018 in vaccinated dogs compared to control dogs after challenge with infective larvae of A. caninum. Most importantly, vaccinated dogs were protected against blood loss (p = 0.049 and most did not develop anemia, the major pathologic sequela of hookworm disease. IgG from vaccinated animals decreased the catalytic activity of the recombinant enzyme in vitro and the antibody bound in situ to the intestines of worms recovered from vaccinated dogs, implying that the vaccine interferes with the parasite's ability to digest blood. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a recombinant vaccine from a hematophagous parasite that significantly reduces both parasite load and blood loss, and it supports the development of APR-1 as a human hookworm vaccine.

  19. Larva migrans in India: veterinary and public health perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajnish; Singh, B B; Gill, J P S

    2015-12-01

    Despite an important public health problem in developing world like India, larva migrans remains a neglected zoonosis. Cutaneous larva migrans, Visceral larva migrans, and Ocular larva migrans are the important clinical manifestations seen in humans in India. Although many nematode parasites have the ability to cause the infection, the disease primarily occurs due to Ancylostoma caninum and Toxocara canis. Presence of the infection in dogs is an indirect indication of its incidence in humans in endemic regions. In India, sporadic cases of this neglected but important parasitic zoonosis are the main implications of lack of diagnostic methods and under-reporting of human cases. Tropical climate in addition to overcrowding, poor hygiene and sanitation problems, stray dogs, open defecation by dogs and improper faecal disposal are the important factors for persistence of this disease in the country. Sanitary and hygienic measures, improved diagnostic techniques and surveillance programme in dogs as well as humans should be adopted for its effective control. Comprehensive collaborative efforts by physicians and veterinarians are required to tackle this problem in order to attain optimal health for humans, animals and the environment. Moreover, recognition of larva migrans as an important public health problem is the most important step to combat this neglected disease in developing countries like India. PMID:26688621

  20. Drug Repositioning and Pharmacophore Identification in the Discovery of Hookworm MIF Inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y Cho; J Vermeire; J Merkel; L Leng; X Du; R Bucala; M Cappello; E Lolis

    2011-12-31

    The screening of bioactive compound libraries can be an effective approach for repositioning FDA-approved drugs or discovering new pharmacophores. Hookworms are blood-feeding, intestinal nematode parasites that infect up to 600 million people worldwide. Vaccination with recombinant Ancylostoma ceylanicum macrophage migration inhibitory factor (rAceMIF) provided partial protection from disease, thus establishing a 'proof-of-concept' for targeting AceMIF to prevent or treat infection. A high-throughput screen (HTS) against rAceMIF identified six AceMIF-specific inhibitors. A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), sodium meclofenamate, could be tested in an animal model to assess the therapeutic efficacy in treating hookworm disease. Furosemide, an FDA-approved diuretic, exhibited submicromolar inhibition of rAceMIF tautomerase activity. Structure-activity relationships of a pharmacophore based on furosemide included one analog that binds similarly to the active site, yet does not inhibit the Na-K-Cl symporter (NKCC1) responsible for diuretic activity.

  1. Standardization and application of the tetraprimer ARMS-PCR technique for screening of the E198A SNP in the β-tubulin gene of hookworm populations in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Luis Fernando Viana; Alves, William Pereira; Moreira, Thayse Batista; Costa Junior, Livio Martins; Miranda, Rodrigo Rodrigues Cambraia; Rabelo, Élida Mara Leite

    2016-07-15

    The tetraprimer ARMS-PCR technique is efficient for SNP detection and can be used to search for polymorphisms associated with drug resistance. However, the establishment of this methodology is not always straightforward because of the constraints on primer design due to the restrictions of the polymorphic regions. Here, we describe the standardization of the tetraprimer ARMS-PCR methodology for the detection of a SNP at codon 198 of the Ancylostoma caninum β-tubulin gene. This SNP is associated with resistance to albendazole in various nematodes. The methodology was used to screen 327 individuals from 6 different locations. No mutation was found in any of the samples. This methodology will be useful for screening for the E198A SNP in the β-tubulin gene of canine hookworms in a broader population to determine whether this SNP is associated with benzimidazole resistance in this species. The method could also be adapted for the analysis of other SNPs in other nematode species. PMID:27270392

  2. Epidemiological survey of zoonotic helminths in feral cats in Gran Canaria island (Macaronesian archipelago-Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ponce, Eligia; González, Jorge F; Conde de Felipe, Magnolia; Hernández, Julia N; Raduan Jaber, J

    2016-09-01

    The presence of zoonotic parasites in feral cats have been widely considered all over the world. In Gran Canaria (Macaronesian archipelago, Canary Islands, Spain) the number of feral cats has grown out of control in urban and rural areas. 48 of Felis catus captured in different Gran Canaria areas were studied. Animals were necropsied and several organs were systematically examined in order to collect and identify macroscopic parasites. In addition, coprological tests were done in 28 cats. There were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence rate among sex, age or capture area, showing an overall prevalence of helminths of 77.1%. The most common tapeworms were Dipylidium caninum (64.6%) and Taenia taeniaeformis (31.3%), followed by the nematodes Toxocara cati (20.8%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (18.8%), Aelurostrongylusabstrusus (10.4%) and Trichuris vulpis (2.08%). We also find several eggs of Alaria alata in the small intestine of one cat (2.08%), being the first description of this trematode in cats in the Canary Islands. Aproximatelly, 40% of the studied cats harboured more than one parasite. High rates of zoonotic species found in these animals suggest the need of controling parasitic infections and preventive measures against them. PMID:27447205

  3. Prevalence and Types of Coinfections in Sleeping Sickness Patients in Kenya (2000/2009

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    J. M. Kagira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of coinfections in human African trypanosomiasis (HAT patients was investigated using a retrospective data of hospital records at the National Sleeping Sickness Referral Hospital in Alupe, Kenya. A total of 31 patients, 19 males and 12 females, were diagnosed with HAT between the years 2000 and 2009. The observed co-infections included malaria (100%, helminthosis (64.5%, typhoid (22.5%, urinary tract infections (16.1%, HIV (12.9%, and tuberculosis (3.2%. The species of helminthes observed included Ancylostoma duodenale (38.7%, Ascaris lumbricoides (45.7%, Strongyloides stercoralis (9.7%, and Taenia spp. (3.2%. The patients were also infected with Entamoeba spp. (32.3% and Trichomonas hominis (22.6% protozoan parasites. The main clinical signs observed at the point of admission included headache (74.2%, fever (48.4%, sleep disorders (45.2%, and general body pain (41.9%. The HAT patients were treated with suramin (early stage, 9/31 and melarsoprol (late stage, 22/31. In conclusion, the study has shown that HAT patients have multiple co-infections which may influence the disease pathogenesis and complicate management of HAT.

  4. Comparative study of five techniques for the diagnosis of canine gastrointestinal parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Willian Marinho Dourado; Gomes, Jancarlo Ferreira; Falcão, Alexandre Xavier; dos Santos, Bianca Martins; Soares, Felipe Augusto; Suzuki, Celso Tetsuo Nagase; do Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2015-01-01

    Differences in the efficacy of diagnostic techniques employed in the parasitological examination of feces are a limiting factor of this laboratory procedure in the field of Veterinary Parasitology. To verify advances in this type of examination in dogs, we conducted a study using a new technique (TFGII/Dog). Fifty naturally infected dogs were housed in individual stalls, and their feces were evaluated comparatively using this technique and four other conventional techniques. The TFGII/Dog showed high levels of sensitivity and efficiency, surpassing the diagnostic accuracy of the other techniques with a kappa concordance index of 0.739 (Substantial), as opposed to 0.546 (Moderate), 0.485 (Moderate), 0.467 (Moderate), and 0.325 (Fair) of the Spontaneous-Sedimentation, Centrifugal-Flotation in Saturated Zinc Sulfate Solution, Centrifugal-Flotation in Saturated Sugar Solution, and Spontaneous-Flotation in Saturated Sodium Chloride Solution techniques, respectively. The combination of positive results of all techniques comprises eight genera of parasites, with Ancylostoma spp. predominating among helminths, and Cystoisospora spp. among protozoa. The TFGII/Dog technique showed better diagnostic performance, and can therefore be considered an important tool for optimizing the results of laboratory routines and for the control of canine gastrointestinal parasites. PMID:26154964

  5. 经电子胃镜检查发现十二指肠钩虫病16例分析%Analysis of 16 cases of duodenal hookworm disease examined by electronic gastroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡桂英

    2014-01-01

    Objective To diagnose hookworm disease and to describe and analyze hookworm disease endoscopic features with electronic gastroscopy.Methods The patients were detected with one to ten ancylostoma duodenale by using Fuji electronic gastroscope imported from Japan.Results 16 cases of 6680 patientsdetected by gastroscopy were found hookworm, 0.068% in this group.Conclusion Electronic gastroscopy is a reliable method for diagnosis of hookworm disease. It can help suspected patient to check as early as possible to help diagnosis.%目的:用电子胃镜检查诊断十二指肠钩虫病,并就十二指肠钩虫病的镜下表现特点进行描述分析。方法本组患者全部采用日本进口富士能电子胃镜检查发现十二指肠钩虫一至十多条不等。结果本组6680例胃镜检查中发现钩虫16例占0.068%。结论电子胃镜检查是诊断十二指肠钩虫病的一种可靠手段,对可疑病员尽早检查助诊。

  6. PARASITIC INFECTIONS: IS MALE AND FEMALE DIFFERENCE FOR ANEMIA AND GROWTH RETARDATION EVIDENT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar, Hebatalla H; Eldash, Hanaa H

    2015-12-01

    Parasitoses are the commonest health problem among school age clildren, which impair children's growth and development and causing anemia. To detect the role of parasitic infections and both anemia and growth affection, on one hand, and if so the common complications among males and females on the other hand, a cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among the outpatient attended the Pediatrics Clinic, Al-Fayoum University's Hospitals. A total of 314 children aged from 1 to 13 years were subjected to clinical examination as well as stool analysis and CBC examination. The detected parasites were Entameba histolytica, Giardia lamblia (Protozoa) and Enterobius vermicularis, Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lambricoides and Ancylostoma duodenale (Helminthes). There was significance difference (P<0.05) between males and females regarding E. histolytica in females (60%) as to G. lamblia and H. nana in males (16.1%, & 11.5% respecttively). Also, there was significance difference (P<0.05) between males and females regarding to hemoglobin level, and weight percentiles with anemia (92%) and underweight& borderline weight (34.5%) in males. The overall anemia was 89.8%. However, there was no significance difference (P<0.05) regarding to height percentiles. PMID:26939224

  7. OCURRENCE OF HELMINTHES EGGS AND LARVAE GROUND OF SQUARES, DAY CARE AND PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN THE CITY OF LUZIÂNIA-GOIÁS, BRAZIL

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    B. S. Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently domestic animals have changed the dynamics and family structure. They are present in most of Brazilian homes, often being considered as integral members of the family. However, this close contact with pets, may transmit several zoonoses. The contamination of children's play areas with parasites in the soil of parks, open public squares and sandboxes, are huge public health problem, since these areas are mostly open and available to dogs, cats, pigeons, sparrows and other animals. Those places bring potential risks to human health, when we think of the risk of contamination by infectious and parasitic diseases. The present study evaluated the occurrence of parasites in 15 kindergartens and schools and 05 municipal parks in Luziânia, Goiás, in the period from August to December 2013. The sand samples were collected at three different points of the study area, stored in plastic bags and sent to the Parasitological Laboratory of UNIDESC for processing through the techniques of Willis-Mollay. The samples studied showed the occurrence of Toxocara spp.s and Ancylostoma spp. We concluded that there is high risk of contamination by parasites up for the children of the area surveyed using public squares and some of the schools of Early Childhood Education.

  8. Gastrointestinal parasitic infection in diverse species of domestic ruminants inhabiting tribal rural areas of southern Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubisa, S L; Jaroli, V J

    2013-10-01

    A total of 415 adult domesticated ruminants, 130 cattle (Bos taurus), 108 buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), 94 goats (Capra hircus) and 83 sheep (Ovis aries) inhabiting tribal rural areas of southern Rajasthan, India were investigated for evidence of gastrointestinal protozoan and helminthic infections. In southern Rajasthan humid ecosystem is predominant and has number of perennial freshwater bodies. Fresh faecal samples of these animals were examined microscopically by direct wet smear with saline and 1 % Lugol's iodine and formalin ether concentration. Of these 296 (71.32 %) were found to be infected with different species of gastrointestinal parasites. The highest (93.84 %) prevalence of these parasitic infections was found in cattle followed by goats (82.97 %), sheep (55.42 %) and buffaloes (46.29 %). Except cattle no other ruminants revealed protozoan infection. A total 8 species of gastrointestinal parasites were encountered. Among these parasites Fasciola hepatica was the commonest (15.18 %) followed by Haemonchus contortus (11.32 %), Ancylostoma duodenale (10.36 %), Trichuris trichiura (9.15 %), Amphistome species (7.95 %), Moniezia expansa (6.98 %), Strongyloides stercoralis (4.57 %) and Balantidium coli (3.37 %). The prevalence rate of these parasitic infections also varied seasonally. The highest prevalence rate was found in rainy season (84.21 %) followed by winter (73.9 %) and summer (52.8 %). The possible causes for variation in prevalence of parasitic infections are also discussed. PMID:24431582

  9. [Harmony in oncogenesis based on the evidence of the cytoarjic function: microoncozoa and results 1944-2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vicente Jordana, Román

    2004-01-01

    The importance of the external forms (images) to get the real ideas of any thing, as being the basis of human knowledge is discussed. If no image, the imagination gets up and hundred of creative ideas (good and wrong) arose. Such happens in cancer research: too many theories and much darkness. Then, I ask: why sponges, sharks and tortoises, e.g., have not change, nor mutate and neither transform in millions of years; meanwhile, cells of human breasts, lungs and prostate, e.g., can brake the rule between thirty to fifty years? The characters of each tumour are well described, as a constant, once it is identified by analytical citological techniques. So, this means that tumours have proper genetic lines, as every natural spices has, according to biological laws for development and growth of living organisms, both plants and animals. Besides, the author gives experimental evidence on the closed similarities he found between certain nematodes isolated from bacterial cultures associated to plant tumours and those developed in cultures of blood and other materials from Hodgkin lymphoma. The nematodes appeared to be related to Ancylostoma duodenale (spices type attached to Suborder: Strongilina; family: Strongiloidea). The cytoarjic oikos is a concept of ecological niche involved with and the basis of the cytoarjic function. PMID:15997587

  10. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Dogs from Two Centers of Animal Welfare from Medellín and eastern Antioquia (Colombia, 2014

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    Verónica Sierra-Cifuentes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, there are very few studies about intestinal parasitosis in dogs, and street dogs constitute a high-risk group for the acquisition of parasitic zoonotic diseases. Through a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out in 2014, the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis and its associated factors were determined in 68 dogs of both sexes from two animal welfare centers in Medellin and eastern Antioquia (Colombia. The parasitological diagnosis was made by direct examination with saline solution at 0.8% and iodine, and the Sheather flotation method. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitosis was 72.1% (49, helminths 58.8% (40, protozoa 33.8% (23 and parasitism in 45.6% (31. 11 parasitic agents, of which the most prevalent were Uncinaria stenocephala with 39.7% (27, were identified; Ancylostoma caninum, with 20.6% (14; Trichuris vulpis, with 16.2% (11 and Toxocara spp., with 11.8% (8. These were statistically higher in eastern Antioquia (p value chi2 0.05. A high prevalence of intestinal parasitism in dogs from Medellin and eastern Antioquia was evidenced, as well as a great diversity in the prevalence of the subgroups studied. This information highlights the need to promote research in order to determine the magnitude and associated factors in specific populations as the foundation for targeting actions on veterinary health and public health, given the zoonotic potential of some parasitosis of dogs.

  11. Environmental Monitoring and Analysis of Faecal Contamination in an Urban Setting in the City of Bari (Apulia Region, Italy: Health and Hygiene Implications

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    Maria Tempesta

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been conducted in Italy to quantify the potential risk associated with dynamics and distribution of pathogens in urban settings. The aim of this study was to acquire data on the environmental faecal contamination in urban ecosystems, by assessing the presence of pathogens in public areas in the city of Bari (Apulia region, Italy. To determine the degree of environmental contamination, samples of dog faeces and bird guano were collected from different areas in the city of Bari (park green areas, playgrounds, public housing areas, parkways, and a school. A total of 152 canine faecal samples, in 54 pools, and two samples of pigeon guano from 66 monitored sites were examined. No samples were found in 12 areas spread over nine sites. Chlamydophila psittaci was detected in seven canine and two pigeon guano samples. Salmonella species were not found.  On the other hand, four of 54 canine faecal samples were positive for reovirus. Thirteen canine faecal samples were positive for parasite eggs: 8/54 samples contained Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina eggs and 5/54 samples contained Ancylostoma caninum eggs. Our study showed that public areas are often contaminated by potentially zoonotic pathogens.

  12. "EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF OXANTEL – PYRANTEL ON VARIOUS SOIL TRANSMITTED HELMINTHS IN IRAN "

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    E. Farahmandian

    1977-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a combination of Oxantel- Pyrantel with a single dose of 10 mg/ kg body weight on Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris, Trichostrongylus spp. and Ancylostoma duodenale has been evaluated among the population of two rural areas in Khuzestan, Southwest Iran (41 persons and Isfahan, Central (30 persons. All patients were infected with Trichuris trichiura and some simultaneously with one or more other helminthes. In addition to stool examinations, to elucidate the possible side- effects, several blood and urine tests were conducted before and after treatment. A cure rate of 83% has been found among Trichuris cases treated in both areas. Cure rates observes for ascariasis and trichostrongyliasis were 93. 3% and 23% in Khuzestan, as well as 90% and 50% in Isfahan, respectively. Cure rate for ancylostomiasis was 86% in Khuzestan.Significant reduction in the mean number of egg.gr of faeces has been observed.Side- effects encountered were mild and transient. The promisisng effect of this drug on soil – transmitted helminthes, particulary Trichuris trichiura has been proven.

  13. Prevention of soil-transmitted helminth infection

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    Luciene Mascarini-Serra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs form one of the most important groups of infectious agents and are the cause of serious global health problems. The most important STHs are roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoides, whipworms (Trichuris trichiura and hookworms (Necator americanus or Ancylostoma duodenale; on a global level, more than a billion people have been infected by at least one species of this group of pathogens. This review explores the general concepts of transmission dynamics and the environment and intensity of infection and morbidity of STHs. The global strategy for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis is based on (i regular anthelminthic treatment, (ii health education, (iii sanitation and personal hygiene and (iv other means of prevention with vaccines and remote sensoring. The reasons for the development of a control strategy based on population intervention rather than on individual treatment are discussed, as well as the costs of the prevention of STHs, although these cannot always be calculated because interventions in health education are difficult to measure. An efficient sanitation infrastructure can reduce the morbidity of STHs and eliminates the underlying cause of most poverty-related diseases and thus supports the economic development of a country.

  14. Natural infection by endoparasites among free-living wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsback, Luciane; Cardoso, Mauro José Lahm; Fagnani, Rafael; Patelli, Thaís Helena Constantino

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence and variety of intestinal parasites among free-living wild animals. Fecal samples from wild mammals and birds at rehabilitation centers in the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and São Paulo were analyzed by sedimentation and flotation-centrifugation methods. Parasite eggs, oocysts, cysts and/or trophozoites were found in 71% of the samples. Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were detected in fecal samples from oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus) and scaly-headed parrots (Pionus maximiliani). Giardia cysts were identified in the feces of a gray brocket (Mazama gouazoubira). Among the most common parasites found, there were eggs from Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina and Ancylostoma tubaeforme, and from Cestoda. Several Enterobius sp. eggs were found in the feces of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). It can be concluded from this study that despite the small number of samples, the diversity of parasites found was noteworthy. Additional information about parasite endofauna in wild animals is needed, since their presence might suggest that there could be proximity to and interactions with domestic animals and/or humans. In addition, further studies on parasites from free-living wild animals are of prime importance for understanding the intensity of anthropic changes in wild environments. PMID:23778826

  15. In vitro anthelmintic effects of cysteine proteinases from plants against intestinal helminths of rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepek, Gillian; Lowe, Ann E; Buttle, David J; Duce, Ian R; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2007-12-01

    Infections with gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are amongst the most prevalent worldwide, especially in tropical climates. Control of these infections is primarily through treatment with anthelmintic drugs, but the rapid development of resistance to all the currently available classes of anthelmintic means that alternative treatments are urgently required. Cysteine proteinases from plants such as papaya, pineapple and fig are known to be substantially effective against three rodent GI nematodes, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Trichuris muris and Protospirura muricola, both in vitro and in vivo. Here, based on in vitro motility assays and scanning electron microscopy, we extend these earlier reports, demonstrating the potency of this anthelmintic effect of plant cysteine proteinases against two GI helminths from different taxonomic groups - the canine hookworm, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, and the rodent cestode, Rodentolepis microstoma. In the case of hookworms, a mechanism of action targeting the surface layers of the cuticle indistinguishable from that reported earlier appears to be involved, and in the case of cestodes, the surface of the tegumental layers was also the principal location of damage. Hence, plant cysteine proteinases have a broad spectrum of activity against intestinal helminths (both nematodes and cestodes), a quality that reinforces their suitability for development as a much-needed novel treatment against GI helminths of humans and livestock. PMID:18005461

  16. Efficacy of fenbendazole against giardiasis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, S C; Bowman, D D; Heller, R L

    1994-07-01

    Efficacy of fenbendazole at 2 dosages for treating naturally acquired giardiasis in dogs was assessed. Giardia cysts were not detected in the feces of 6 of 6 group-1 dogs (as determined by use of the zinc sulfate concentration technique) after fenbendazole treatment (50 mg/kg of body weight, PO, q 24 h, for 3 doses). Cysts were not detected in the feces of 6 of 6 group-2 dogs after fenbendazole treatment (50 mg/kg of body weight, PO, q 8 h, for 3 days). However, cysts were not detected in the feces of only 1 of 6 group-3 (nontreated control) dogs. Signs of toxicosis were not observed in any dog. These results indicate that the current label dosage (for the treatment of Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Trichuris vulpis, and Taenia pisiformis, but not Giardia spp) of fenbendazole (50 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h, for 3 doses) is also effective for treating giardiasis in dogs. PMID:7978640

  17. Dog parasite incidence and risk factors, from sampling after one-year interval, in Pinhais, Brazil Incidência e fatores de risco de parasitas de cães, amostragem após um ano, Pinhais, Brasil

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    Camila Marinelli Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Domestic animals in urban areas may serve as reservoirs for parasitic zoonoses. The aim of this study was to monitor the parasitic status of household dogs in an urban area of Pinhais, in the metropolitan region of Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil, after a one-year period. In May 2009, fecal samples, skin scrapings and ticks were collected from 171 dogs. Questionnaires were applied to the owners (sex, age, environment and anthelmintic use. In May 2010, 26.3% (45/171 of the dogs were fecal samples reanalysed. From the fecal samples, 33.3% (57/171 in 2009 and 64.4% (29/45 in 2010 were positive. The parasite species most observed were, respectively in 2009 and 2010, Ancylostoma sp., 66.7 and 44.8%, and Strongyloidesstercoralis, 26.3 and 3.4%. All the skin scrapings were negative, and no ticks or protozoa were found. There was no statistical association (p > 0.05 between positive fecal tests and age, sex or environment. In 2009 alone, dogs with a history of antiparasitic drug administration were 2.3 times more likely to be negative. A great number of replacement dogs was noticed one year later. Therefore, isolated antiparasitic treatment strategies may have no impact on parasite control, given the risk of introduction of new agents, thereby limiting the prevention strategies.Animais domésticos em áreas urbanas podem servir de reservatório para zoonoses parasitárias. O objetivo deste trabalho foi monitorar a situação parasitária de cães domiciliados, após um ano, em área urbana de Pinhais, região metropolitana de Curitiba, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Em maio de 2009, foram coletadas amostras de fezes de 171 cães, realizados raspados cutâneos e pesquisa de carrapatos. Foi aplicado um questionário aos proprietários (sexo, idade, ambiente e uso de vermífugos. Em maio de 2010, 26,3% (45/171 dos cães tiveram as amostras de fezes analisadas novamente. Das amostras de fezes, 33,3% (57/171 em 2009 e 64,4% (29/45 em 2010, foram positivas. As

  18. Natural infection by endoparasites among free-living wild animals Infecção natural por endoparasitas em animais silvestres de vida-livre

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    Luciane Holsback

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence and variety of intestinal parasites among free-living wild animals. Fecal samples from wild mammals and birds at rehabilitation centers in the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and São Paulo were analyzed by sedimentation and flotation-centrifugation methods. Parasite eggs, oocysts, cysts and/or trophozoites were found in 71% of the samples. Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were detected in fecal samples from oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus and scaly-headed parrots (Pionus maximiliani. Giardia cysts were identified in the feces of a gray brocket (Mazama gouazoubira. Among the most common parasites found, there were eggs from Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina and Ancylostoma tubaeforme, and from Cestoda. Several Enterobius sp. eggs were found in the feces of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus. It can be concluded from this study that despite the small number of samples, the diversity of parasites found was noteworthy. Additional information about parasite endofauna in wild animals is needed, since their presence might suggest that there could be proximity to and interactions with domestic animals and/or humans. In addition, further studies on parasites from free-living wild animals are of prime importance for understanding the intensity of anthropic changes in wild environments.O objetivo deste trabalho foi pesquisar a frequência de ocorrência e a variedade de parasitas intestinais de animais silvestres de vida livre. Amostras de fezes de mamíferos e aves silvestres de centros de reabilitação dos Estados do Mato Grosso do Sul e São Paulo, foram analisadas pelos métodos de sedimentação e de centrífugo-flutuação. Foram encontrados ovos, oocistos, cistos e/ou trofozoítos de parasitas em 71% das amostras. Oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp. foram detectados em amostras de fezes de gato-do-mato-pequeno (Leopardus tigrinus e maritacas (Pionus maximiliani. Cistos de Giardia

  19. Contaminación fecal canina en plazas y veredas de Buenos Aires, 1991-2006 Dog fouling and helminth contamination in parks and sidewalks of Buenos Aires City, 1991-2006

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    Diana Rubel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue presentar y analizar los datos de contaminación fecal canina y parasitaria en plazas y veredas de Buenos Aires obtenidos entre 1991 y 2006 por la Cátedra Parasitología General (Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires. Se censaron las heces en varias plazas cada año en un único día entre 1991-2006. A partir del año 2000 se censaron heces en veredas circundantes. En cada plaza se seleccionaron al azar 30 heces frescas que se conservaron en formol 5% para su análisis parasitológico por el método de flotación de Willis con solución saturada de ClNa. Los 51 censos presentaron una mediana de heces de 288; un 82% de las heces se observaron en los canteros de tierra o pasto. La contaminación fecal en las plazas fue mayor en el período 2000-06 que en el anterior (p = 0.0000. La contaminación fecal de las plazas aumentó con la densidad humana en las manzanas lindantes (p = 0.0076. Las veredas mostraron un patrón inverso, ya que la contaminación fecal fue mayor en las áreas menos densamente pobladas (p = 0.0000. Se detectaron parásitos en un número variable de las heces colectadas en todas las plazas. Los géneros más frecuentes fueron Ancylostoma (20.47%, Trichuris (2.59% y Toxocara (1.70%. Nuestros resultados indican un aumento en la contaminación fecal de las plazas, posiblemente asociado con el aumento del número de perros en la ciudad combinado con las deficiencias en la implementación y el seguimiento de las medidas de control.The aim of this study was to provide data on canine fecal and helminthic contamination from parks and sidewalks in Buenos Aires City, collected by the Laboratory of General Parasitology, School of Sciences, University of Buenos Aires. A census of dog feces was performed in 1-11 parks per year between 1991 and 2006, a single day each year. In the period 2000-2006, the census included feces on sidewalks surrounding the park. Thirty fresh fecal

  20. OCORRÊNCIA DE PARASITAS INTESTINAIS COM POTENCIAL ZOONÓTICO EM AMOSTRAS FECAIS DE CÃES, COLETADAS EM PRAÇAS PÚBLICAS DO MUNICÍPIO DE ITUVERAVA, SP, BRASIL

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    Romeu Moreira dos Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In many cities, large canine population circulates freely in the streets and public squares, some of them taken by the owners. In these locations, the dogs can defecate and contaminate the soil with various types and forms of parasites potentially causing zoonoses. Currently there is great concern with regard to these parasites, due to the increasingly close contact of people with their pets. The objective of this study was to verify the occurrence of main intestinal parasites with zoonotic potential in fecal samples of dogs, collected in the public squares from Ituverava-SP, Brazil. We collected 84 samples of fresh feces of dogs in seven public squares from Ituverava-SP, in the period from March to June 2009. As analysis method of the fecal samples was used the technique of WillisMollay (fecal flotation. At total of samples 49 were negative and 35 positive for the presence of helminth eggs, observing a higher incidence of eggs of Ancylostoma sp. (29 samples and in smaller numbers Toxocara sp. (4 samples and Dipilidium sp. (2 samples, but not been found in any sample eggs Giardia sp., Isospora sp. and Trichuris sp. It was concluded that there is a risk of contagion to animals and people who frequent these places, indicating the existence of a public health problem.Em várias cidades do país, numerosa população canina circula livremente pelas ruas e praças públicas, alguns deles levados pelos proprietários. Nesses locais, os cães podem defecar, contaminando o solo com vários tipos e formas de parasitas potencialmente causadores de zoonoses. Atualmente existe uma preocupação muito grande com relação a estes parasitas, devido ao contato cada vez mais próximo de pessoas com seus animais de estimação. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar a ocorrência dos principais parasitas intestinais com potencial zoonóticoem amostras fecais de cães, coletadas em praças públicas do município de Ituverava-SP. Foram coletadas 84

  1. Ocorrência de enteroparasitas na população geronte de Nova Olinda do Norte Amazonas, Brasil Occurrence of enteroparasites in the elderly population of Nova Olinda do Norte, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Ana Felisa Hurtado-Guerrero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo para avaliar a prevalência de enteroparasitas em um grupo de idosos ribeirinhos, moradores do Município de Nova Olinda do Norte, Estado do Amazonas Brasil, no período de abril e agosto de 1999. Por meio de um estudo de corte transversal foram analisados 81 exames, através do método de Sedimentação Espontânea (Método de Hoffman et al., 1934. Foi constatada positividade em 72,8% dos idosos, predominando o monoparasitismo (43,2%. Os helmintos foram os mais freqüentes (70,4%, destacando-se: Ascaris lumbricoides (35,2%, Trichuris trichiura (16,0%, Ancylostoma duodenale (9,0% e Strongyloides stercoralis (9,0%. Dentre os protozoários (29,5%, a ocorrência de Entamoeba coli foi de 18,2%, Giárdia lamblia de 7,0% e Entamoeba histolytica 4,5%. Não houve associação estatisticamente significativa entre sexo e grau de parasitismo e entre faixas etárias e condição parasitária. Estes resultados evidenciam um quadro de alta prevalência de parasitas intestinais nesta população e discordam dos reportados por outros pesquisadores quando afirmam que a intensidade da infestação por parasitas diminui na idade avançada. Os achados anteriores exigem das autoridades governamentais medidas de controle e educação para melhorar a qualidade de vida desses idosos, considerando a grave repercussão que esses parasitas tem no estado nutricional dos gerontes de baixa renda.A study was carried out to determine the prevalence of enteroparasites attacking elderly people living in a riverside city of the Municipal district of Nova Olinda do Norte, Amazonas State Brazil. In this cross sectional study were examined the faecal material from 81 elderly people using the method of spontaneous sedimentation (Hoffman et al., 1934. It was found a positiveness in 72,8% of the elderly people examined, predominating the mono parasitism (43,2%. The helminths were more frequents (70,3%: Ascaris lumbricoides (35,2%, Trichuris trichiura (16

  2. AcAP5蛋白N端片段的表达、纯化与活性评价%Expression, purification and evaluation of N-terminal domain of AcAP5 with Factor Xa inhibitory activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爱华; 朱元军; 刘晓岩; 王银叶

    2013-01-01

    Ancylostoma anticoagulant peptide 5 (AcAP5) is a strong inhibitor of human coagulation factor Xa (FXa).The N-terminal residues (N40) of AcAP5 contains a domain that could combine with FXa.In order to determine whether N40 protein has FXa inhibitory effect,we cloned,expressed and purified the protein for activity evaluation.The DNA fragment coding N40 was amplified by PCR,cloned into pET-30a to construct recombinant plasmid pET30a-N40,and subsequently transformed into E.coli.BL21 (DE3).Expression of N40 was induced by isopropyl β-D-l-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG),and the interest protein was identified by SDS-PAGE and purified using one-step nickel (Ni) affinity chromatography.Under the optimal expression condition (0.05 mM IPTG for 6 h at 37 ℃),the purity of N40 reached 90%.We also evaluated the inhibition activity of N40 protein on FXa,finding the IC50 was 4.58× 10 5 mol/L.This study suggests the N40 of AcAP5 could combine with FXa to inhibit FXa activity.%犬钩虫抗凝肽5 (Ancylostoma anticoagulant peptide 5,AcAP5)N端40个氨基酸片段(N40)含有与FXa结合的结构域.为研究N40的FXa抑制作用,我们克隆、表达和纯化了N40,并检测其生物活性.用PCR扩增N40基因;将PCR产物克隆至原核表达载体pET-30a中,构建质粒pET30a-N40;将其转化入大肠杆菌E.coli.BL21 (DE3)中,IPTG诱导目的蛋白表达,SDS-PAGE电泳鉴定,经过镍柱亲和层析纯化,用BCA法进行蛋白定量,测定该蛋白抑制FXa的活性.限制性酶切鉴定和基因测序结果显示重组质粒构建成功;SDS-PAGE结果显示目的蛋白在E.coli.BL21(DE3)中为可溶性表达,亲和层析纯化后获得了纯度约90%的蛋白,经活性鉴定该蛋白确有抑制FXa的活性.

  3. Expression profile of heat shock response factors during hookworm larval activation and parasitic development.

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    Gelmedin, Verena; Delaney, Angela; Jennelle, Lucas; Hawdon, John M

    2015-07-01

    When organisms are exposed to an increase in temperature, they undergo a heat shock response (HSR) regulated by the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1). The heat shock response includes the rapid changes in gene expression initiated by binding of HSF-1 to response elements in the promoters of heat shock genes. Heat shock proteins function as molecular chaperones to protect proteins during periods of elevated temperature and other stress. During infection, hookworm infective third stage larvae (L3) undergo a temperature shift from ambient to host temperature. This increased temperature is required for the resumption of feeding and activation of L3, but whether this increase initiates a heat shock response is unknown. To investigate the role of the heat shock in hookworm L3 activation and parasitic development, we identified and characterized the expression profile of several components of the heat shock response in the hookworm Ancylostoma caninum. We cloned DNAs encoding an hsp70 family member (Aca-hsp-1) and an hsp90 family member (Aca-daf-21). Exposure to a heat shock of 42°C for one hour caused significant up-regulation of both genes, which slowly returned to near baseline levels following one hour attenuation at 22°C. Neither gene was up-regulated in response to host temperature (37°C). Conversely, levels of hsf-1 remained unchanged during heat shock, but increased in response to incubation at 37°C. During activation, both hsp-1 and daf-21 are down regulated early, although daf-21 levels increase significantly in non-activated control larvae after 12h, and slightly in activated larvae by 24h incubation. The heat shock response modulators celastrol and KNK437 were tested for their effects on gene expression during heat shock and activation. Pre-incubation with celastrol, an HSP90 inhibitor that promotes heat shock gene expression, slightly up-regulated expression of both hsp-1 and daf-21 during heat shock. KNK437, an inhibitor of heat shock

  4. Enteric parasites in HIV-1/AIDS-infected patients from a Northwestern São Paulo reference unit in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era Enteroparasitas em pacientes infectados pelo HIV-1/AIDS em uma unidade de referência do noroeste paulista na era da terapia antirretroviral de alto impacto

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    Luciana Ventura Cardoso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We describe the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in patients from an AIDS reference service in Northeastern São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation was done for all HIV-1/AIDS-positive patients whose Hospital de Base/São José do Rio Preto laboratorial analysis was positive for enteroparasites after diagnosis of HIV-1 infection, from January 1998 to December 2008. Statistical analysis was performed using the R statistical software version 2.4.1. The level of significance adopted was 5%. RESULTS: The most frequent protozoan was Isospora belli (4.2%, followed by Giardia lamblia (3.5%, Entamoeba coli (2.8%, and Cryptosporidium parvum (0.3%. Ancylostoma duodenale (1.4% was the most frequently detected helminth, while Taenia saginata and Strongiloides stercoralis were found in 0.7% of the samples. The results showed that diarrhea was significantly associated with giardiasis and isosporiasis. However, no association was observed between CD4+ cell counts, viral load, and the characteristics of any particular parasite. CONCLUSIONS: Our data may be useful for further comparisons with other Brazilian regions and other developing countries. The data may also provide important clues toward improving the understanding, prevention, and control of enteric parasites around the world.INTRODUÇÃO: Descrevemos a epidemiologia de enteroparasitoses em pacientes de um serviço de referência de AIDS, no noroeste paulista, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Durante o período de janeiro de 1998 a dezembro de 2008, foi realizado este estudo retrospectivo por meio da análise dos prontuários dos pacientes diagnosticados com HIV-1/AIDS atendidos no Ambulatório de Doenças Infecto-Parasitárias do Hospital de Base, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo. As análises estatísticas foram realizadas usando a versão 2.4.1 do software estatístico R. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: O protozoário mais frequente foi o Isospora belli

  5. Discrimination of gastrointestinal nematode eggs from crude fecal egg preparations by inhibitor-resistant conventional and real-time PCR.

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    Janina Demeler

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes relies predominantly on coproscopic methods such as flotation, Kato-Katz, McMaster or FLOTAC. Although FLOTAC allows accurate quantification, many nematode eggs can only be differentiated to genus or family level. Several molecular diagnostic tools discriminating closely related species suffer from high costs for DNA isolation from feces and limited sensitivity since most kits use only small amounts of feces (<1 g. A direct PCR from crude egg preparations was designed for full compatibility with FLOTAC to accurately quantify eggs per gram feces (epg and determine species composition. Eggs were recovered from the flotation solution and concentrated by sieving. Lysis was achieved by repeated boiling and freezing cycles - only Trichuris eggs required additional mechanic disruption. Egg lysates were directly used as template for PCR with Phusion DNA polymerase which is particularly resistant to PCR inhibitors. Qualitative results were obtained with feces of goats, cattle, horses, swine, cats, dogs and mice. The finally established protocol was also compatible with quantitative real-time PCR in the presence of EvaGreen and no PCR inhibition was detectable when extracts were diluted at least fourfold. Sensitivity was comparable to DNA isolation protocols and spiked samples with five epg were reliably detected. For Toxocara cati a detection limit below one epg was demonstrated. It was possible to distinguish T. cati and Toxocara canis using high resolution melt (HRM analysis, a rapid tool for species identification. In human samples, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP and HRM analysis were used to discriminate Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. The method is able to significantly improve molecular diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes by increasing speed and sensitivity while decreasing overall costs. For identification of species or resistance alleles, analysis of PCR products with many

  6. Molecular Identification of Hookworm Isolates in Humans, Dogs and Soil in a Tribal Area in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Santosh; Levecke, Bruno; Kattula, Deepthi; Velusamy, Vasanthakumar; Roy, Sheela; Geldhof, Peter; Sarkar, Rajiv; Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-01-01

    Background Hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale) remain a major public health problem worldwide. Infections with hookworms (e.g., A. caninum, A. ceylanicum and A. braziliense) are also prevalent in dogs, but the role of dogs as a reservoir for zoonotic hookworm infections in humans needs to be further explored. Methodology/Principal Findings As part of an open-label community based cluster-randomized trial in a tribal area in Tamil Nadu (India; 2013–2015), a total of 143 isolates of hookworm eggs from human stool were speciated based on a previously described PCR-RFLP methodology. The presence of hookworm DNA was confirmed in 119 of 143 human samples. N. americanus (100%) was the most prevalent species, followed by A. caninum (16.8%) and A. duodenale (8.4%). Because of the high prevalence of A. caninum in humans, dog samples were also collected to assess the prevalence of A. caninum in dogs. In 68 out of 77 canine stool samples the presence of hookworms was confirmed using PCR-RFLP. In dogs, both A. caninum (76.4%) and A. ceylanicum (27.9%) were identified. Additionally, to determine the contamination of soil with zoonotic hookworm larvae, topsoil was collected from defecating areas. Hookworm DNA was detected in 72 out of 78 soil samples that revealed presence of hookworm-like nematode larvae. In soil, different hookworm species were identified, with animal hookworms being more prevalent (A. ceylanicum: 60.2%, A. caninum: 29.4%, A. duodenale: 16.6%, N. americanus: 1.4%, A. braziliense: 1.4%). Conclusions/Significance In our study we regularly detected the presence of A. caninum DNA in the stool of humans. Whether this is the result of infection is currently unknown but it does warrant a closer look at dogs as a potential reservoir. PMID:27486798

  7. Intestinal helminths of golden jackals and red foxes from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmar, Samia; Boufana, Belgees; Ben Boubaker, Sarra; Landolsi, Faouzi

    2014-08-29

    Forty wild canids including 31 golden jackals (Canis aureus Linné, 1758) and 9 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linné, 1758) collected between 2008 and 2011 in the northeast, northwest and center of Tunisia were necropsied and examined for intestinal helminth parasites. All jackals and foxes were found infected with a prevalence rate of 95% for cestodes, 82.5% for nematodes and 7.5% for acanthocephalans. A total of twelve helminth species were recorded in red foxes: cestodes, Dipylidium caninum (55.6%), Diplopylidium noelleri (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes lineatus (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes litteratus (33%), Mesocestoïdes corti (22%); nematodes, Ancylostoma caninum (11%), Uncinaria stenocephala (44%), Spirura rytipleurites (11%), Trichuris vulpis (33%), Pterygodermatites affinis (67%), Oxynema linstowi (33%) and the acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (22%). The fifteen recovered helminth species in jackals were Echinococcus granulosus (9.7%), D. caninum (16%), D. noelleri (16%), M. lineatus (74%), M. litteratus (23%), M. corti (12.9%), Taenia pisiformis (3.2%), Taenia spp. (19%), Toxocara canis (16%), Toxascaris leonina (6.5%), A. caninum (9.7%), U. stenocephala (68%), P. affinis (6.5%), O. linstowi (3.2%) and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (3.2%). This is the first report on the presence of P. affinis, D. noelleri and O. linstowi in Tunisia. E. granulosus was found in young jackals, aged less than 4 years old, with a higher abundance in females (8.9 worms). M. lineatus presented the highest mean intensity of 231.86 and 108.8 tapeworms respectively in jackals and foxes. Canids from the northwest region had the highest prevalence (77.5%) and highest intensity (243.7) of helminth species compared to those from the northeast and central areas. U. stenocephala and O. linstowi had the highest mean intensity for nematodes in both jackals and foxes at 14.3 and 88 worms respectively. PMID:24938826

  8. A study on intestinal helminthes of dogs, foxes and jackals in the western part of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalimi, A; Sattari, A; Motamedi, Gh

    2006-11-30

    Human infection especially with helminth parasites is an emerging health issue, as the human environment is increasingly shared with infected animals, either pets or wild life. In this survey, the intestinal content of 83 stray dogs, 22 red foxes and 10 golden Jackals collected from the West Azarbaijan, Kordestan and Kermanshah provinces in the west of Iran, were studied for the presence of helminth parasites. The percentage of different species recovered from these animals is listed as follows: From stray dogs: Toxocara canis (6.02%), Toxascaris leonina (32.53%), Ancylostoma caninum (3.61%), Oxynema sp. (1.35%), Rictularia affinis (12.05%), Taenia hydatigena (53.01%), Taenia ovis (7.23%), Taenia multiceps (4.82%), Echinococcus granulosus (13.25%), Dipylidium caninum (38.55%), Mesocestoides lineatus (26.50%) and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (4.82%). From red foxes: T. canis (4.54%), T. leonina (31.82%), A. caninum (4.54%), Uncinaria stenocephala (13.64%), Oxynema sp. (9.09%), R. affinis (54.54%), Strongyloides sp. (4.54%), Physaloptera sp. (4.54%), T. hydatigena (9.09%), E. granulosus (4.54%), D. caninum (9.09%), M. lineatus (81.82%), Joyeuxiella pasqalei (27.27%), Diplopylidium nolleri (4.54%), M. hirudinaceus (22.72%) and Macracanthorhynchus sp. (9.09%). From golden jackals: T. canis (10%), T. leonina (30%), R. affinis (50%), T. hydatigena (10%), D. caninum (20%), M. lineatus (70%), J. pasqalei (30%.), Alaria canis (10%), M. hirudinaceus (30%) and Macracanthomynchus sp. (10%). PMID:16899340

  9. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Leafy Vegetables in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    Wafa A.I. Al-Megrin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate some of the leafy vegetable plants sold in local markets for human consumption to check whether they harbor different parasites stages. A total of 470 leafy vegetable samples were collected from 12 different plant species randomly from local markets in the Riyadh city during the period April and March 2008. The samples were analysed in the laboratory for parasitic stages contained in these samples after washing them in physiological saline and then examining the sediment. Results of the present study has shown that 76 out of 470 samples (16.2% contained parasite stages. Depending on the type of leafy plant, examined the prevalence of parasitic stages in these plants, was found to be 27.8% (17/61 in lettuce, 22.8% (13/57 in watercress, 20.6% (7/34 in leek, 19.1% (9/47 in green onion, 17.4% (15/87 in parsley, 15.4% (4/26 in spinach, 13.6% (3/22 in basil, 11.5% (3/26 in coriander, 9.4% (3/32 in radish, 5.3% (1/19 in dill and 4.7% (2/42 in mint. No parasites were detected in 17 samples collected from cabbage. Stages of intestinal parasites detected were Entamoeba coli (35.5%, Giardia lamblia (31.6%, Dicrocoelium sp. (28.9%, Ascaris sp. (26.3%, Taenia sp. (19.7%, Blastocystis hominis (17.1%, Fasciola sp. (14.5%, Hymenolepis sp. (14.5%, Ancylostoma sp. (11.8%, Toxoplasma gondii (6.6% and Trichostrongylus sp. (2.6%. The results indicated a significant seasonal variation (p<0.05, with highest prevalence in spring (23.1%, followed in descending order by Summer (17.9%, Autumn (10.6% and Winter (9.9%.

  10. Dog overpopulation and burden of exposure to canine distemper virus and other pathogens on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Nicole M; Mendez, Gabriella S; Grijalva, C Jaime; Walden, Heather S; Cruz, Marilyn; Aragon, Eduardo; Hernandez, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Dog overpopulation and diseases are hazards to native island species and humans on the Galapagos. Vaccination and importation of dogs are prohibited on the Galapagos. Risk management of these hazards requires the use of science-based risk assessment and risk communication. The objectives of the study reported here were (i) to estimate the human:dog ratio and (ii) the prevalence of and identify exposure factors associated with positive antibody titers to canine distemper virus (CDV) and other pathogens, as well as infection with intestinal parasites in owned dogs on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos in September 2014. The observed human:dog ratio was 6.148:1 which extrapolates to 2503 dogs (two times more than a recent dog count conducted by Galapagos Biosecurity Agency in March 2014). The proportion of spayed female dogs (50%) was higher, compared to neutered male dogs (30%) (p=0.04). Prevalence of dogs with positive antibody titers to CDV was 36% (95% CI=26, 46%), to canine parvovirus was 89% (95% CI=82, 95%), and to canine adenovirus was 40% (95% CI=30, 51%). The frequency of seropositive dogs to CDV was lower in urban dogs (26%), compared to rural dogs (53%) (p<0.05). A positive interaction effect between rural residence and spay/neuter status on seropositivity to CDV was observed, which we discuss in this report. Because vaccination is prohibited, the dog population on Santa Cruz is susceptible to an outbreak of CDV (particularly among urban dogs) with potential spill over to marine mammals. Dog's age (1-2 or 3-14 years old, compared to younger dogs), and residence (rural, urban) were associated with positive antibody titers to parvovirus, adenovirus, Ehrlichia spp., or Anaplasma spp., as well as infection with Ancylostoma spp., an intestinal parasite in dogs that can be transmitted to humans, particularly children. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of dog overpopulation and exposure to CDV and other pathogens on the Galapagos to date. PMID

  11. Intestinal parasites of dogs on the Galapagos Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, E N; Scorza, A V; Clifford, E L; Olea-Popelka, F J; Lappin, M R

    2010-05-11

    Dogs on the Galapagos Islands are a unique population created by isolation from the mainland and regulations prohibiting further importation. The effect of infectious agents of these domestic dogs on the indigenous fauna is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs on the Galapagos Islands. Fecal samples were collected from 97 dogs presented during neutering campaigns on Santa Cruz (n=51), San Cristobal (n=17), and Isabela (n=29) islands. Feces were evaluated for parasites by microscopic examination after zinc sulfate centrifugation flotation as well as by a commercially available IFA for Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. Polymerase chain reaction for Cryptosporidium spp. DNA and Giardia spp. DNA was performed on all positive samples to provide the infecting genotypes. Ancylostoma caninum (57.7%) and Toxocara canis (16.5%) were most commonly detected, followed by Giardia spp. (5.2%), Isospora canis (4.1%), Sarcocystis canis (3.1%), and Cryptosporidium spp. (1%). Adequate DNA for sequencing was available for one Giardia spp. which was shown to be assemblage D. Despite being isolated, the dogs on the Galapagos have many of the same enteric parasites detected on the mainland of South America. These dogs are not routinely administered anthelmintics or other drugs, but are often allowed to roam the streets and live in close proximity to humans. Parasite prophylaxis is necessary to decrease the parasite burden within the population and to lessen the risk of spread to humans or other animals also inhabiting the islands. PMID:20176441

  12. Intestinal parasites of children and adults in a remote Aboriginal community of the Northern Territory, Australia, 1994-1996

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    Jennifer Shield

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Parasitic infections can adversely impact health, nutritional status and educational attainment. This study investigated hookworm and other intestinal parasites in an Aboriginal community in Australia from 1994 to 1996. Methods: Seven surveys for intestinal parasites were conducted by a quantitative formol-ether method on faecal samples. Serological testing was conducted for Strongyloides stercoralis and Toxocara canis IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results: Of the 314 participants, infections were as follows: Trichuris trichiura (86%; hookworm, predominantly Ancylostoma duodenale (36%; Entamoeba spp. (E. histolytica complex [E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moskovski], E. coli and E. hartmanni (25%; S. stercoralis (19%; Rodentolepis nana (16%; and Giardia duodenalis (10%. Serological diagnosis for 29 individuals showed that 28% were positive for S. stercoralis and 21% for T. canis. There was a decrease in the proportion positive for hookworm over the two-year period but not for the other parasite species. The presence of hookworm, T. trichiura and Entamoeba spp. was significantly greater in 5–14 year olds (n = 87 than in 0–4 year olds (n = 41, while the presence of S. stercoralis, R. nana, G. duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. in 5–14 year olds was significantly greater than 15–69 year olds (n = 91. Discussion: Faecal testing indicated a very high prevalence of intestinal parasites, especially in schoolchildren. The decrease in percentage positive for hookworm over the two years was likely due to the albendazole deworming programme, and recent evidence indicates that the prevalence of hookworm is now low. However there was no sustained decrease in percentage positive for the other parasite species.

  13. Intestinal parasitic infections in Campalagian district, south Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangali, A; Sasabone, P; Syafruddin; Abadi, K; Hasegawa, H; Toma, T; Kamimura, K; Miyagi, I

    1993-06-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections were surveyed in the inhabitants of 3 coastal and 2 inland villages of Campalagian District, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, in July 1992. A total of 398 fecal samples were examined by using Kato-Katz thick smear, Harada-Mori culture and agar-plate culture techniques. Protozoan cysts were examined by formalin ether concentration technique on 380 fecal samples. Soil-transmitted helminth infections were highly prevalent with the overall positive rates as follows: Ascaris lumbricoides 25.3%, Trichuris trichiura 59.3%, hookworm 68.3% and Strongyloides stercoralis 2.3%. Eight species of protozoan were detected with the overall prevalence as follows: Entamoeba histolytica 10.9%, E. hartmanni 16.3%, E. coli 31.9%, Endolimax nana 12.5%, Iodamoeba buetschlii 5.4%, Giardia lamblia 4.6%, Chilomastix mesnili 0.8% and Blastocystis hominis 18.0%. In the inland villages, prevalence of hookworm infection was higher than Ascaris and Trichuris infections, while in the coastal villages Trichuris infection was predominant. Egg count revealed that the infection level was light in most of the hookworm and Trichuris carriers. Prevalence of lavatories among houses appeared to be inversely proportional to the prevalence of hookworm infection. Meanwhile, the incomplete structure of the lavatories might result in contamination of environment with Ascaris and Trichuris eggs. Harada-Mori culture was the most efficient method in the detection of hookworm infection compared to other techniques. Both Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale were found in all villages, but the former was the predominant species. An adult pinworm was detected by agar-plate culture of feces. Two types of pinworm males, corresponding to Enterobius vermicularis and E. gregorii, were observed. PMID:8266235

  14. Intestinal parassitosis in Reggio Emilia during 2007: critical analysis of results

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    Carlotta Guidetti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 were analyzed in 2032 samples from 1970 subjects: coprparassitologiacal standard examination was performed in 1916 of the subjects and scotch-test in the remaining 54. Of the 1970 subjects examined, 81, equivalent to 4.1%, resulted positive for one or more parasites (both pathogens and / or of questionable pathogenicity. Pathogenic parasites were found in 38 subjects, equivalent to 46.9% of the total positive: in 20 cases (24.7% cysts of Giardia intestinalis were found in 7 cases (8.6% it was Enterobius vermicularis, in another 5 (6.2% there was Hymenolepis nana, in 2 (2.4% Trichuris trichiura, in 1 (1.2% Ancylostoma / necator, in 1 (1.2%, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, in 1 (1.2% Dipylidium caninum, and in 1 (1.2% Ascaris lumbricoides. Protozoa of doubtful pathogenicity, either alone or in combination with pathogens,were found in 54 subjects: Blastocystis hominis in 30 cases (36.9%, Entamoeba coli in 15 (18.8%, Endolimax nana in 10 (12.3%, Entamoeba histlytica dispar in 4 (4.9%, Iodamoeba butschlii in 1 (1.2%, Entamoeba hartmanni in 1 (1.2%.These data represent only a first frame of the possible scope of the phenomenon, both in terms of diagnostic possibilities and in terms of real etiological significance in order to qualify the diagnosis, and to ensure careful monitoring of the phenomenon.We also wanted to evaluate retrospectively the existing diagnostic potential before embarking on some organizational and procedural changes in the field of diagnostic parasitology.

  15. Intestinal parasites of children and adults in a remote Aboriginal community of the Northern Territory, Australia, 1994–1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aland, Kieran; Kearns, Thérèse; Gongdjalk, Glenda; Holt, Deborah; Currie, Bart; Prociv, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Parasitic infections can adversely impact health, nutritional status and educational attainment. This study investigated hookworm and other intestinal parasites in an Aboriginal community in Australia from 1994 to 1996. Methods Seven surveys for intestinal parasites were conducted by a quantitative formol-ether method on faecal samples. Serological testing was conducted for Strongyloides stercoralis and Toxocara canis IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results Of the 314 participants, infections were as follows: Trichuris trichiura (86%); hookworm, predominantly Ancylostoma duodenale (36%); Entamoeba spp. (E. histolytica complex [E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moskovski], E. coli and E. hartmanni) (25%); S. stercoralis (19%); Rodentolepis nana (16%); and Giardia duodenalis (10%). Serological diagnosis for 29 individuals showed that 28% were positive for S. stercoralis and 21% for T. canis. There was a decrease in the proportion positive for hookworm over the two-year period but not for the other parasite species. The presence of hookworm, T. trichiura and Entamoeba spp. was significantly greater in 5–14 year olds (n = 87) than in 0–4 year olds (n = 41), while the presence of S. stercoralis, R. nana, G. duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. in 5–14 year olds was significantly greater than 15–69 year olds (n = 91). Discussion Faecal testing indicated a very high prevalence of intestinal parasites, especially in schoolchildren. The decrease in percentage positive for hookworm over the two years was likely due to the albendazole deworming programme, and recent evidence indicates that the prevalence of hookworm is now low. However there was no sustained decrease in percentage positive for the other parasite species. PMID:25960921

  16. Parasite communities in stray cat populations from Lisbon, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waap, H; Gomes, J; Nunes, T

    2014-12-01

    Stray cats live in high-density colonies in urban areas and pose a health hazard to household cats and humans. In Portugal, information on the parasitic fauna of stray cats is limited and relies mostly on results from faecal analysis. The present survey aimed to determine the prevalence, diversity and intensity of parasites in stray cats from the urban area of Lisbon by means of parasitological necropsy. Internal organs were collected from 162 cats captured in different areas of the city and systematically subjected to parasitological dissection. Helminths were identified by macro- and microscopic examination and protozoa by faecal floatation and sedimentation techniques. The overall prevalence of parasites was 90.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 85.3-94.6%). A total of 12 parasite species was recorded: Cystoisospora felis (14.2%), Cystoisospora rivolta (46.3%), Sarcocystis sp. (1.2%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (19.1%), Toxocara cati (38.3%), Ollulanus tricuspis (30.9%), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (12.4%), Eucoleus aerophilus (0.6%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3.1%), Dipylidium caninum (53.1%), Joyeuxiella pasqualei (15.4%) and Diplopylidium nölleri (3.7%). Overall mean species richness was 2.36 ±  1.52. Helminth mean intensity was highest for O. tricuspis (285.8), followed by D. caninum (42.4), J. pasqualei (14.4), A. tubaeforme (8.1) and T. cati (5.9). The prevalence and variety of parasites found in our sampling are substantially higher than the numbers previously reported in Portugal. Some of the parasites, including T. cati and A. tubaeforme, are zoonotic, which emphasizes the need for parasite control strategies based on demographic containment of stray cat populations in urban areas to promote public health protection. PMID:23719370

  17. Spatial distribution of canine zoonotic enteroparasites in Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sala, Luciano F; Leiboff, Anastasia; Burgos, Julián M; Costamagna, Sixto R

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were: (1) to determine the occurrence of zoonotic enteroparasites in dog feces from Bahía Blanca, Argentina; (2) to characterize the spatial distribution of the parasites found in association with the quality of life index (QLI) in neighborhoods of Bahía Blanca; and (3) to determine if the presence of a particular parasite genus in a stool sample was facilitated or impeded by the presence of other parasite genera. Samples of dog stools (n=475) were collected between December 2012 and December 2013 in areas with varying QLI. The association between QLI values and the presence of parasites was analyzed using logistic regression. Overall enteroparasite occurrence was 36.6%. Parasitic forms found included nematode larvae, cysts of Blastocystis spp., Giardia spp., and oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp., and eggs of Ancylostoma caninum, Toxocara canis, cestodes and Trichuris spp. For certain enteroparasites, we detected significant associations between their occurrence and QLI. Feces collected in areas with medium and low QLI were 2.46 and 5.43 times more likely, respectively, to contain A. caninum than stools from the high-QLI area. Samples from areas with low QLI were 2.36 times more likely to contain Trichuris spp. than those from the high QLI area. Regarding protozoa, feces from areas with low QLI were 2.4 times more likely to be positive than those from areas with high QLI. We demonstrated that canine zoonotic parasites have a wide distribution in the study area, and that occurrence is higher in neighborhoods with lower QLI. PMID:25705047

  18. ENTERIC PATHOGENS OF DOGS AND CATS WITH PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

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    M. Kantere

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs and cats play an important role in modern society, enhancing the psychological and physiological well-being of many people. However, there are well-documented health risks associated with human animal interactions. More specifically, enteric pathogens of zoonotic risk which are transmitted by feces of dogs and cats can be grouped as follows: (a Parasites such as Toxocara canis, T. cati, Ancylostoma sp, Uncinaria sp, Strongyloides stercoralis, Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis and Dipylidium caninum (b Protozoa including Toxoplasma gondii, Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. (c Bacteria of the genera Clostridium, Campylobacter, Salmonella, Escherichia, Yersinia and Helicobacter and (d Viruses mainly Rotaviruses and Coronaviruses. Among them, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Rotaviruses, Toxoplasma gondii, Echinococcus have been reported to be of considerable importance for many countries including Greece. Even though official records of the cases in humans and livestock in Greece continuously decline, cystic echinococcosis is considered to be a serious problem for public health and livestock economy. Regarding other parasites, the overall prevalence of parasitism was 26% in owned shepherd and hunting dogs examined in Serres. Furthermore, seroepidemiological studies revealed the presence of antibodies against T. gondii in a considerable percentage of hospitalized children. Rotaviruses were confirmed as a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in children. Finally, bacterial zoonotic enteropathogens were identified in a notable number of pediatric cases. Most of these zoonoses are associated with the exposure of immunodeficient people or children to pets and/or conditions of poor hygiene. Studies on the presence of all these pathogens in animals are required to identify the extent of problem, to define control

  19. Secretion of protective antigens by tissue-stage nematode larvae revealed by proteomic analysis and vaccination-induced sterile immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitson, James P; Ivens, Al C; Harcus, Yvonne; Filbey, Kara J; McSorley, Henry J; Murray, Janice; Bridgett, Stephen; Ashford, David; Dowle, Adam A; Maizels, Rick M

    2013-08-01

    Gastrointestinal nematode parasites infect over 1 billion humans, with little evidence for generation of sterilising immunity. These helminths are highly adapted to their mammalian host, following a developmental program through successive niches, while effectively down-modulating host immune responsiveness. Larvae of Heligmosomoides polygyrus, for example, encyst in the intestinal submucosa, before emerging as adult worms into the duodenal lumen. Adults release immunomodulatory excretory-secretory (ES) products, but mice immunised with adult H. polygyrus ES become fully immune to challenge infection. ES products of the intestinal wall 4th stage (L4) larvae are similarly important in host-parasite interactions, as they readily generate sterile immunity against infection, while released material from the egg stage is ineffective. Proteomic analyses of L4 ES identifies protective antigen targets as well as potential tissue-phase immunomodulatory molecules, using as comparators the adult ES proteome and a profile of H. polygyrus egg-released material. While 135 proteins are shared between L4 and adult ES, 72 are L4 ES-specific; L4-specific proteins correspond to those whose transcription is restricted to larval stages, while shared proteins are generally transcribed by all life cycle forms. Two protein families are more heavily represented in the L4 secretome, the Sushi domain, associated with complement regulation, and the ShK/SXC domain related to a toxin interfering with T cell signalling. Both adult and L4 ES contain extensive but distinct arrays of Venom allergen/Ancylostoma secreted protein-Like (VAL) members, with acetylcholinesterases (ACEs) and apyrase APY-3 particularly abundant in L4 ES. Serum antibodies from mice vaccinated with L4 and adult ES react strongly to the VAL-1 protein and to ACE-1, indicating that these two antigens represent major vaccine targets for this intestinal nematode. We have thus defined an extensive and novel repertoire of H

  20. Secretion of protective antigens by tissue-stage nematode larvae revealed by proteomic analysis and vaccination-induced sterile immunity.

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    James P Hewitson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematode parasites infect over 1 billion humans, with little evidence for generation of sterilising immunity. These helminths are highly adapted to their mammalian host, following a developmental program through successive niches, while effectively down-modulating host immune responsiveness. Larvae of Heligmosomoides polygyrus, for example, encyst in the intestinal submucosa, before emerging as adult worms into the duodenal lumen. Adults release immunomodulatory excretory-secretory (ES products, but mice immunised with adult H. polygyrus ES become fully immune to challenge infection. ES products of the intestinal wall 4th stage (L4 larvae are similarly important in host-parasite interactions, as they readily generate sterile immunity against infection, while released material from the egg stage is ineffective. Proteomic analyses of L4 ES identifies protective antigen targets as well as potential tissue-phase immunomodulatory molecules, using as comparators the adult ES proteome and a profile of H. polygyrus egg-released material. While 135 proteins are shared between L4 and adult ES, 72 are L4 ES-specific; L4-specific proteins correspond to those whose transcription is restricted to larval stages, while shared proteins are generally transcribed by all life cycle forms. Two protein families are more heavily represented in the L4 secretome, the Sushi domain, associated with complement regulation, and the ShK/SXC domain related to a toxin interfering with T cell signalling. Both adult and L4 ES contain extensive but distinct arrays of Venom allergen/Ancylostoma secreted protein-Like (VAL members, with acetylcholinesterases (ACEs and apyrase APY-3 particularly abundant in L4 ES. Serum antibodies from mice vaccinated with L4 and adult ES react strongly to the VAL-1 protein and to ACE-1, indicating that these two antigens represent major vaccine targets for this intestinal nematode. We have thus defined an extensive and novel

  1. Identification of hookworm DAF-16/FOXO response elements and direct gene targets.

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    Xin Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The infective stage of the parasitic nematode hookworm is developmentally arrested in the environment and needs to infect a specific host to complete its life cycle. The canine hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum is an excellent model for investigating human hookworm infections. The transcription factor of A. caninum, Ac-DAF-16, which has a characteristic fork head or "winged helix" DNA binding domain (DBD, has been implicated in the resumption of hookworm development in the host. However, the precise roles of Ac-DAF-16 in hookworm parasitism and its downstream targets are unknown. In the present study, we combined molecular techniques and bioinformatics to identify a group of Ac-DAF-16 binding sites and target genes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The DNA binding domain of Ac-DAF-16 was used to select genomic fragments by in vitro genomic selection. Twenty four bound genomic fragments were analyzed for the presence of the DAF-16 family binding element (DBE and possible alternative Ac-DAF-16 bind motifs. The 22 genes linked to these genomic fragments were identified using bioinformatics tools and defined as candidate direct gene targets of Ac-DAF-16. Their developmental stage-specific expression patterns were examined. Also, a new putative DAF-16 binding element was identified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that Ac-DAF-16 is involved in diverse biological processes throughout hookworm development. Further investigation of these target genes will provide insights into the molecular basis by which Ac-DAF-16 regulates its downstream gene network in hookworm infection.

  2. Necator americanus and helminth co-infections: further down-modulation of hookworm-specific type 1 immune responses.

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    Stefan Michael Geiger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helminth co-infection in humans is common in tropical regions of the world where transmission of soil-transmitted helminths such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and the hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale as well as other helminths such as Schistosoma mansoni often occur simultaneously. METHODOLOGY: We investigated whether co-infection with another helminth(s altered the human immune response to crude antigen extracts from either different stages of N. americanus infection (infective third stage or adult or different crude antigen extract preparations (adult somatic and adult excretory/secretory. Using these antigens, we compared the cellular and humoral immune responses of individuals mono-infected with hookworm (N. americanus and individuals co-infected with hookworm and other helminth infections, namely co-infection with either A. lumbricoides, Schistosoma mansoni, or both. Immunological variables were compared between hookworm infection group (mono- versus co-infected by bootstrap, and principal component analysis (PCA was used as a data reduction method. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to several animal studies of helminth co-infection, we found that co-infected individuals had a further downmodulated Th1 cytokine response (e.g., reduced INF-γ, accompanied by a significant increase in the hookworm-specific humoral immune response (e.g. higher levels of IgE or IgG4 to crude antigen extracts compared with mono- infected individuals. Neither of these changes was associated with a reduction of hookworm infection intensity in helminth co-infected individuals. From the standpoint of hookworm vaccine development, these results are relevant; i.e., the specific immune response to hookworm vaccine antigens might be altered by infection with another helminth.

  3. Population dynamics across selected habitat variables of the helminth community in coyotes, Canis latrans, from south Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, D B; Windberg, L A

    1984-10-01

    The effects of selected intrinsic variables operating on host subpopulations and of extrinsic variables across the collective host population on the distributions of 10 common helminth species from coyotes in south Texas were compared. The intrinsic variables of host sex and presence and severity of sarcoptic mange had little effect on the distributions of most helminth species. The combined influences of (1) seasonal changes across the collective host population and (2) host subpopulations delineated by age were responsible for the overdispersed distributions of Oncicola canis, Physaloptera rara, and Protospirura numidica. Overdispersion in Ancylostoma caninum, Alaria marcianae, and Spirocerca lupi populations resulted almost exclusively from the heterogeneity of factors contributing to their rates of establishment, survival, and reproduction as generated across host age subpopulations. Aggregated abundances of A. caninum and A. marcianae occurred in young hosts, but were cumulative in older animals infected with S. lupi. The hypothesis that heterogeneity within the host population, rather than across the collective host population, is the main factor generating overdispersion in natural populations was confirmed for only 3 of 10 helminth species (A. caninum, A. marcianae, and S. lupi). The effects of extrinsic factors operating across the collective host population appeared to be equal to, or in some instances of greater importance than, these forces operating over host subpopulations in determining the dispersion patterns of some helminth species (O. canis, P. rara, and P. numidica). The distributions of Taenia pisiformis, Mesocestoides lineatus, Oslerus osleri, and Toxascaris leonina were not affected, or only minimally influenced, by these intrinsic or extrinsic variables. The effects of these habitat variables on dispersion patterns are highly correlated with the life cycle and mode of transmission of the respective helminth species. PMID:6512639

  4. Structure of a two-CAP-domain protein from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite N. americanus refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å is presented. Major proteins secreted by the infective larval stage hookworms upon host entry include Ancylostoma secreted proteins (ASPs), which are characterized by one or two CAP (cysteine-rich secretory protein/antigen 5/pathogenesis related-1) domains. The CAP domain has been reported in diverse phylogenetically unrelated proteins, but has no confirmed function. The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite Necator americanus was refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å. The structure was solved by molecular replacement (MR) using Na-ASP-2, a one-CAP-domain ASP, as the search model. The correct MR solution could only be obtained by truncating the polyalanine model of Na-ASP-2 and removing several loops. The structure reveals two CAP domains linked by an extended loop. Overall, the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain is more similar to Na-ASP-2 than to the amino-terminal CAP domain. A large central cavity extends from the amino-terminal CAP domain to the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain, encompassing the putative CAP-binding cavity. The putative CAP-binding cavity is a characteristic cavity in the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain that contains a His and Glu pair. These residues are conserved in all single-CAP-domain proteins, but are absent in the amino-terminal CAP domain. The conserved His residues are oriented such that they appear to be capable of directly coordinating a zinc ion as observed for CAP proteins from reptile venoms. This first structure of a two-CAP-domain ASP can serve as a template for homology modeling of other two-CAP-domain proteins

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasites and its impact on nutritional status among preschool children living in Damanhur City, El-Behera Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Adham Mohammad; Younis, Neveen Tawakol; Aminou, Heba Abdelkader; Badr, Ayman Mohamed

    2014-08-01

    This cross sectional study was done in Damanhur City, the Capital of El-Behera Governorate to detect the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among preschool aged children and to find out its effect on their nutritional status. Five-hundreds children aged between 2-6 years were enrolled; a detailed questionnaire, complete clinical and anthropometric assessment as well as complete stool analysis and blood picture were done. The study revealed that 51.8% preschool children were infected; Cysts of Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia were found in 16.8%, and 14.8% respectively. In 1.8% of cases, both cysts were found together. Ova of Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostoma duodenale and Hymenolepis nana were detected in 14%, 3.4%, 5% & 0.2% of cases, respectively. In 0.4% of cases, ova of A. lumbricoides and E. vermicularis were found together. Mixed infections were found in 3.6% of children. Significantly lower weight for age z-score (WAZ) and weight for height z-score (WHZ) were found among infested children compared to non-infested ones (P < 0.05). Moreover, stunting was found in 44.1%, underweight in 39.1% and wasting in 11.5% of infested children. Prevalence of anemia among all studied population was 39%; 48.6% in infested group compared to 28.8% in non-infested children (x = 20, P < 0.001). Improper hand washing, and playing in the street bare footed, together with playing with animals and family history of parasitic infestation were considered the independent predictors of parasitic infestation by using binary logistic regression. PMID:25597166

  6. Gastrointestinal and ectoparasites from urban stray dogs in Fortaleza (Brazil): high infection risk for humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimpel, Sven; Heukelbach, Jörg; Pothmann, David; Rückert, Sonja

    2010-08-01

    Dogs are important definite or reservoir hosts for zoonotic parasites. However, only few studies on the prevalence of intestinal parasites in urban areas in Brazil are available. We performed a comprehensive study on parasites of stray dogs in a Brazilian metropolitan area. We included 46 stray dogs caught in the urban areas of Fortaleza (northeast Brazil). After euthanization, dogs were autopsied. Ectoparasites were collected, and the intestinal content of dogs were examined for the presence of parasites. Faecal samples were collected and analysed using merthiolate iodine formaldehyde concentration method. A total of nine different parasite species were found, including five endoparasite (one protozoan, one cestode and three nematode species) and four ectoparasite species (two flea, one louse and one tick species). In the intestinal content, 3,162 specimens of four helminth species were found: Ancylostoma caninum (prevalence, 95.7%), Dipylidium caninum (45.7%), Toxocara canis (8.7%) and Trichuris vulpis (4.3%). A total of 394 ectoparasite specimens were identified, including Rhipicephalus sanguineus (prevalence, 100.0%), Heterodoxus spiniger (67.4%), Ctenocephalides canis (39.1%) and Ctenocephalides felis (17.4%). In the faeces, intestinal parasites were detected in 38 stray dogs (82.6%), including oocysts of Giardia sp. (2.2%) and eggs of the nematode A. caninum (82.6%). Neither eggs nor larval stages of D. caninum, T. canis or T. vulpis were detected in dog faeces. Sensitivity of faecal examination for A. caninum was 86.4% (95% confidence interval, 72.0-94.3) but zero percentage for the other intestinal helminth species. Our data show that stray dogs in northeast Brazil carry a multitude of zoonotic ecto- and endoparasites, posing a considerable risk for humans. With the exception of A. caninum, sensitivity of faecal examination was negligible. PMID:20532563

  7. Results of parasitological examinations of faecal samples from cats and dogs in Germany between 2003 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barutzki, Dieter; Schaper, Roland

    2011-08-01

    In a retrospective study, the results of parasitological examinations of faecal samples from 8,560 cats and 24,677 dogs between January 2003 and December 2010 in Germany were analysed. 30.4 % of the examined dogs and 22.8 % of the cats were infected with endoparasites. The examination of the faecal samples from dogs revealed stages of Giardia spp. (18.6 %), Toxocara canis (6.1 %), Toxascaris leonina (0.6 %), Ancylostomatidae (2.2 %), Trichuris vulpis (1.2 %), Capillaria spp. (1.3 %), Crenosoma vulpis (0.4 %), Angiostrongylus vasorum (0.5 %), Taeniidae (0.4 %), Dipylidiidae ( 3 up to 6 months of age showed significantly higher infection rates with Giardia spp. (37.5 % and 38.2 %, respectively), Toxocara canis (12.0 % and 12.4 %, respectively), Toxascaris leonina (1.1 % and 1.6 %, respectively), Isospora spp. (23.4 % and 11.8 %, respectively), I. ohioensis-complex (15.6 % and 7.2 %, respectively) and I. canis (11.8 % and 5.2 %, respectively) compared to older dogs. In faecal samples from cats, stages of Giardia spp. (12.6 %), Toxocara cati (4.7 %), Toxascaris leonina (0.1 %), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (0.2 %), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (0.5 %), Capillaria spp. (1.0 %), Taeniidae (0.6 %), Dipylidium caninum ( 3 up to 6 months of age showed significantly higher infection rates with Giardia spp. (19.5 % and 24.0 %, respectively), T. cati (8.1 % and 6.9 %, respectively), Isospora spp. (12.8 % and 8.6 %, respectively), I. felis (10.0 % and 5.9%, respectively) and I. rivolta (4.6 % and 2.9%, respectively) compared to older cats. PMID:21739375

  8. [Prevalence of intestinal canine and feline parasites in Saitama Prefecture, Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Norishige; Kon, Marina; Saito, Toshikazu; Maeno, Naohiro; Koyama, Masaya; Sunaoshi, Katsuhiko; Yamaguchi, Masanori; Morishima, Yasuyuki; Kawanaka, Masanori

    2009-05-01

    We studied the prevalence of intestinal parasites in animal companions in Saitama Prefecture, Japan, where no detailed data is currently available. Between May 1999 and December 2007, fecal samples were collected from 906 dogs and 1,079 cats in public animal shelters and examined by microscopy. Overall, prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs was 38.6% and cats 43.1%. Trichuris vulpis was the most prevalent canine parasite species (22.3%), followed by Toxocara canis (12.5%), Ancylostoma caninum (10.4%), Isospora ohioensis (2.1%), Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (1.0%), Crypstosporidium sp. (0.9%), Giardia intestinalis (0.9%), I. canis (0.6%), Taeniidae (0.3%), Dipylidium caninum (0.2%), Echinostoma sp. (0.1%), and Pentatrichomonas hominis (0.1%). T. cati was the most prevalent feline parasite species (21.8%), followed by A. tubaeforme (13.2%), S. erinaceieuropaei (8.3%), I. felis (4.5%), Cryptosporidium sp. (2.8%), I. rivolta (2.2%), Pharyngostomum cordatum (1.6%), D. caninum (1.4%), Eimeria sp. (0.3%), Taeniidae (0.2%), Trichuris sp. (0.2%), Capillaria sp. (0.1%), Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense (0.1%), and Metagonimus yokogawai (0.1%). Further molecular analysis to identify canine Taeniidae species and canine and feline Cryptosporidium species identified one canine taeniid positive species as Echinococcus multilocularis. Cryptosporidium species were identified as C. canis and C. felis. Parasites E. multilocularis and Cryptosporidium spp. in animal hosts were the first to be recorded in this prefecture. Compared to previous surveys conducted in the same area, the endemicity of some parasites appeared to have decreased, but some others remain. Given that most of these parasites have zoonotic potential, indicates the importance of having current data on parasite dissemination among animal companions. Government public health agencies should be responsible for educating pet owners about the control and prevention of zoonotic risk from such parasites. PMID:19522305

  9. Confirmation of the efficacy of a combination tablet of spinosad and milbemycin oxime against naturally acquired infections of canine intestinal nematode parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Beate; Hayes, Brad; Wiseman, Scott; Snyder, Daniel E

    2012-03-23

    Four separate controlled and blinded studies were conducted to confirm the dose of spinosad and milbemycin oxime (MO) administered orally in combination to dogs for the treatment and control of naturally acquired infections of adult whipworm (Trichuris vulpis), hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum) and ascarids (Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina). Dogs were allocated randomly based on pre-treatment quantitative nematode egg counts of each species of interest to one of two treatment groups of 10 or 11 animals each. In each study, spinosad and MO in combination, was given orally to dogs using the lower half (30-45 mg/kg spinosad; 0.5-0.75 mg/kg MO) of the US commercial dose band (30-60 mg/kg spinosad; 0.5-1.0mg/kg MO) of each active ingredient on Day 0 using a tablet formulation. A corresponding vehicle control group was treated similarly in each individual study. Dogs were necropsied post-treatment on Day 7/8. All nematodes in the intestinal tract collected at necropsy were identified and counted by species and stage. The spinosad and MO combination group demonstrated significantly different adult intestinal nematode efficacy in each individual study as compared to the vehicle control group. Efficacy values for whipworm, hookworm, T. canis and T. leonina were 100%, 99.8%, 100%, 93.3%, respectively. Minor non-serious adverse events were observed in a small number of control and treated dogs that were attributed primarily to the natural nematode infections. In summary, flavored spinosad and MO combination tablets administered orally to dogs were both safe and highly efficacious delivering >93% up to 100% adult intestinal nematode control in naturally infected dogs. PMID:22115944

  10. Potential risk of zoonotic infections in recreational areas visited by Sus scrofa and Vulpes vulpes. Case study--Wolin Island, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizgajska-Wiktor, Hanna; Jarosz, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    The relation between intestinal parasite prevalence in wild boars and red foxes and the sanitary condition of the soil in recreational estates were determined. The analysis was made based on 36 samples of boar faeces and 22 samples of fox faeces, collected in their habitat as well as 60 samples of soil from two recreational areas. Two methods were used for faecal samples--flotation and direct faecal smear; and flotation in NaNO3 for soil samples examination. Zoonotic nematode eggs were recovered from 25.5% of boar faecal samples; they were Ascaris suum (22.2%) and Trichuris suis (5.6%). Other parasites found were: Metastrongylus sp. (69.4%), Oesophagostomum sp., Strongyloides sp. (36.6%) and Physocephalus sp. (8.6%) as well as coccidia (69.4%). In fox faeces, zoonotic nematode eggs were recovered from 31.8% of samples, and they were Toxocara canis (27.2%) and Ancylostoma caninum (18.2%). Tapeworm eggs were found in 36.4% of samples including Taenia sp. (22.7%). The presence of Uncinaria stenocephala (45.5%), Capillaria sp. (36.4%), Trichuris vulpis (4.5%) and coccidia (40.1%) was also detected. It was shown that both, flotation and faecal smear, as mutually complementary should be used for higher rate of detection of parasites in faeces. No eggs of zoonotic helminths in soil from recreational areas were found despite these areas were accessible to wild animals and pets. This could be explained by characteristics of the soil (loose sand soil) as well as by behaviour of the parasite hosts in the examined areas. PMID:21174955

  11. Principal intestinal parasites of dogs in Tirana, Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhaxhiu, Dashamir; Kusi, Ilir; Rapti, Dhimitër; Kondi, Elisabeta; Postoli, Rezart; Rinaldi, Laura; Dimitrova, Zlatka M; Visser, Martin; Knaus, Martin; Rehbein, Steffen

    2011-02-01

    From 2004 to 2009, the digestive tracts of 111 dogs from suburban areas around Tirana, Albania, were examined for intestinal helminths. In addition, rectal faecal samples of all dogs were examined for protozoan infections and 48 faecal samples from dogs >6 months of age were processed with the Baermann technique to test for the excretion of lungworm larvae. The heart and pulmonary arteries of 30 dogs >6 months of age also were examined for nematode parasites. The intestinal parasite fauna of the dogs included three protozoan species (Cystoisospora canis, Cystoisospora ohioensis/burrowsi, Sarcocystis spp.), three cestode species (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia hydatigena, Echinococcus granulosus), five nematode species (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis) and one acanthocephalan (Centrorhynchus buteonis). Rates of infection were: 15.3% for C. canis, 31.5% for C. ohioensis/burrowsi, 1.8% for Sarcocystis spp., 65.8% for D. caninum, 16.2% for T. hydatigena, 2.7% for E. granulosus (genotype G1), 13.5% for A. caninum, 64.9% for U. stenocephala, 75.7% for T. canis, 0.9% for T. leonina, 21.6% for T. vulpis and 0.9% for C. buteonis. Up to six species of gastrointestinal parasites were found per dog. The 63 ≤ 6-month-old dogs harboured significantly (p6 months of age harboured significantly (pvulpis compared to younger dogs. Conversely, the younger dogs harboured significantly (p6 months of age: Male dogs harboured significantly (p<0.05) more tapeworms than female dogs. Based on faecal examination, there was no indication for lungworm infection; however, two adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) were found in the right ventricle of one dog. PMID:20878182

  12. Efficacy, safety and palatability of a new broad-spectrum anthelmintic formulation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, K; Rohdich, N; Zschiesche, E; Kok, D J; Allan, M J

    2010-10-23

    The efficacy, safety and palatability of a new flavoured chewable anthelmintic tablet were investigated in dogs. The efficacy, based on worm counts, of a single recommended therapeutic dose (RTD) of 5 mg pyrantel + 20 mg oxantel + 5 mg praziquantel/kg bodyweight was assessed in experimental infections (EI) and natural infections (NI) with Trichuris vulpis, Echinococcus granulosus and Toxocara canis. For T vulpis, the efficacy of the treatment was 99.3 per cent in EI (comparing groups of six treated and six control dogs) and 100 per cent in NI (nine treated and nine control dogs). For E granulosus, the efficacy was more than 99.9 per cent in EI (11 treated and 11 control dogs). For T canis, the efficacy was 94.3 per cent in EI (10 treated and 10 control dogs) and 100 per cent in NI (12 treated and 13 control dogs). In a field study, Ancylostoma caninum (11 dogs) and T canis (11 dogs) faecal egg counts were reduced by more than 99 per cent, and in eight dogs with Dipylidium caninum proglotides in the faeces the efficacy was 100 per cent. The tablets were readily consumed by 56 of 64 (87.5 per cent) privately owned dogs. Safety was assessed in groups of six dogs treated either once with twice the RTD, once with six times the RTD, with twice the RTD on three consecutive days, or untreated. There were no significant differences in blood parameters between the groups, and no abnormal clinical findings. Two dogs treated with six times the RTD vomited, but no vomiting was observed when administration was repeated two days later. PMID:21257464

  13. Gastrointestinal helminths of dogs in Western Pomerania, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylkowska, Agnieszka; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Gregorczyk, Aneta; Templin, Ewelina

    2010-01-01

    A total of 763 fecal samples were collected from dogs in Western Pomerania during 2006-2007 to determine the gastrointestinal parasite fauna of dogs in this region. In the city of Szczecin, 648 fecal samples were collected every month in the annual cycle from nine city areas and analysed. Six fecal samples were taken at each collection time from each site. A total of 115 fecal samples from rural areas were investigated. Each fecal sample was dissected with a needle, checked for tapeworm segments and adult forms of nematodes, and examined for parasite eggs using Willis-Schlaff flotation method. The mean prevalence of gastrointestinal parasite infection among dogs in Western Pomerania was 34.84%. The greatest number of samples containing parasites came from the Chociwel commune (46.67%), and the smallest number from the city of Szczecin (23.92%). The greatest number of samples containing parasites from the city of Szczecin originated from the Słoneczne estate (34.72%), and the smallest number from the Kasprowicz Park (13.89%). Dogs' feces were found to contain segments of Dipylidium caninum (4.07%) and Taenia sp. (3.45%) tapeworms and eggs of five species of gastrointestinal nematodes: Uncinaria stenocephala (11%), Toxocara canis (20.62%), Toxascaris leonina (2.91%), Ancylostoma sp. (4.61%), and Trichuris vulpis (0.27%). The highest prevalence of endoparasite infection among dogs was found in July (42.60%) and the lowest in February (5.56%). Both single- and multi-species infections were observed. In the area of Szczecin, single-species infections were the most common (18.83%). PMID:21174956

  14. Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Southwestern China: A Cross-Sectional Study of Links to Cognitive Ability, Nutrition, and School Performance among Children.

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    Chengfang Liu

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence suggests that the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections in remote and poor rural areas is still high among children, the most vulnerable to infection. There is concern that STH infections may detrimentally affect children's healthy development, including their cognitive ability, nutritional status, and school performance. Medical studies have not yet identified the exact nature of the impact STH infections have on children. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between STH infections and developmental outcomes among a primary school-aged population in rural China.We conducted a large-scale survey in Guizhou province in southwest China in May 2013. A total of 2,179 children aged 9-11 years living in seven nationally-designated poverty counties in rural China served as our study sample. Overall, 42 percent of the sample's elementary school-aged children were infected with one or more of the three types of STH--Ascaris lumbricoides (ascaris, Trichuris trichuria (whipworm and the hookworms Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus. After controlling for socioeconomic status, we observed that infection with one or more STHs is associated with worse cognitive ability, worse nutritional status, and worse school performance than no infection. This study also presents evidence that children with Trichuris infection, either infection with Trichuris only or co-infected with Trichuris and Ascaris, experience worse cognitive, nutritional and schooling outcomes than their uninfected peers or children infected with only Ascaris.We find that STH infection still poses a significant health challenge among children living in poor, rural, ethnic areas of southwest China. Given the important linkages we find between STH infection and a number of important child health and educational outcomes, we believe that our results will contribute positively to the debate surrounding the recent Cochrane report.

  15. Improved PCR-Based Detection of Soil Transmitted Helminth Infections Using a Next-Generation Sequencing Approach to Assay Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotte, Nils; Papaiakovou, Marina; Grant, Jessica R.; Bierwert, Lou Ann; Llewellyn, Stacey; McCarthy, James S.; Williams, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The soil transmitted helminths are a group of parasitic worms responsible for extensive morbidity in many of the world’s most economically depressed locations. With growing emphasis on disease mapping and eradication, the availability of accurate and cost-effective diagnostic measures is of paramount importance to global control and elimination efforts. While real-time PCR-based molecular detection assays have shown great promise, to date, these assays have utilized sub-optimal targets. By performing next-generation sequencing-based repeat analyses, we have identified high copy-number, non-coding DNA sequences from a series of soil transmitted pathogens. We have used these repetitive DNA elements as targets in the development of novel, multi-parallel, PCR-based diagnostic assays. Methodology/Principal Findings Utilizing next-generation sequencing and the Galaxy-based RepeatExplorer web server, we performed repeat DNA analysis on five species of soil transmitted helminths (Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides stercoralis). Employing high copy-number, non-coding repeat DNA sequences as targets, novel real-time PCR assays were designed, and assays were tested against established molecular detection methods. Each assay provided consistent detection of genomic DNA at quantities of 2 fg or less, demonstrated species-specificity, and showed an improved limit of detection over the existing, proven PCR-based assay. Conclusions/Significance The utilization of next-generation sequencing-based repeat DNA analysis methodologies for the identification of molecular diagnostic targets has the ability to improve assay species-specificity and limits of detection. By exploiting such high copy-number repeat sequences, the assays described here will facilitate soil transmitted helminth diagnostic efforts. We recommend similar analyses when designing PCR-based diagnostic tests for the detection of other

  16. Parasitic infections of digestive tract of dogs in territory of Braničevo District

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    Đurić Boban

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of two-year investigations of parasitic infections of the digestive tract of dogs originating from the territories of eight municipalities of Braničevo District. Investigations were performed on 345 dogs of different breeds and age categories, originating from rural and urban environments. The investigations encompassed dogs bred in decent hygiene conditions, as well as dogs living in unhygienic conditions. Some of the dogs covered by these analyses were dewormed, but the bulk of the sampled material originated from dogs that were not treated with antihelminthics. Eight species of parasites of the digestive tract were diagnosed in the examined dogs from the territory of the Braničevo District: Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Trichuris vulpis, coccidiae, Dipylidium caninum, Taenia spp. and Alaria alata. Today, it is still necessary to keep dogs in rural environments and isolated areas, since these animals are used to guard real estate and cattle. For quite some time now, there has also been wide-spread interest in keeping dogs in urban areas as well. It is evident on the grounds of data from big towns that the number of dogs in urban environments has been increasing constantly all over the world. However, the conditions for naturally maintaining dogs in towns have become increasingly more difficult and complicated. The amount of free space and the number of yards are constantly being reduced, so that dog owners are compelled to keep their pets in apartments. These altered living and diet conditions have resulted in more complex and varied health problems of dogs.

  17. Survey on parasitic infections in wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris Schreber, 1777) by scat collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Ettore; Anile, Stefano; Arrabito, Carmelo; Scornavacca, Davide; Mazzamuto, Maria Vittoria; Gaglio, Gabriella; Otranto, Domenico; Giannetto, Salvatore; Brianti, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Wildcats are endangered felid species living in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Regrettably, scientific information on parasites of wildcats is particularly meager and they often rely on data gained by necropsies of a small number of animals. In the present study, scat collection was used to assess the parasite spectrum of European wildcats living in the Etna Park (Sicily, Italy). Scat collection was performed from May to September 2010 by weekly walking four transects for a total of 391 km. Samples were then analyzed by flotation and sedimentation techniques to investigate wildcat parasitic fauna. A total of 121 scats of wildcats were collected, and parasitic forms (i.e., oocysts, eggs, and larvae) were retrieved in 110 (90.9 %) of the samples. Parasites found were Physaloptera sp. (52.1 %), tapeworms (45.5 %), Toxocara cati (43.8 %), Eucoleus aerophilus (27.3 %), Ancylostoma sp. (22.3 %), Troglostrongylus brevior (15.7 %), trematodes (9.9 %), Isospora felis (4.1 %), Cylicospirura sp. (1.7 %), and Acanthocephala (0.8 %). The prevalence of endoparasitic infections herein recorded is similar to that described in other studies conducted using necropsy technique. The species richness of parasites found in the present survey, with a total of nine helminths and one protozoon, is the highest ever reported for wildcat in Europe. Scat collection and examination are reliable and rapid non-invasive tools which can be used in a systematic survey design to study the parasite spectrum of wildcat as well as that of other endangered wild species. PMID:26377843

  18. Drug target prediction and prioritization: using orthology to predict essentiality in parasite genomes

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    Hall Ross S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New drug targets are urgently needed for parasites of socio-economic importance. Genes that are essential for parasite survival are highly desirable targets, but information on these genes is lacking, as gene knockouts or knockdowns are difficult to perform in many species of parasites. We examined the applicability of large-scale essentiality information from four model eukaryotes, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Mus musculus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to discover essential genes in each of their genomes. Parasite genes that lack orthologues in their host are desirable as selective targets, so we also examined prediction of essential genes within this subset. Results Cross-species analyses showed that the evolutionary conservation of genes and the presence of essential orthologues are each strong predictors of essentiality in eukaryotes. Absence of paralogues was also found to be a general predictor of increased relative essentiality. By combining several orthology and essentiality criteria one can select gene sets with up to a five-fold enrichment in essential genes compared with a random selection. We show how quantitative application of such criteria can be used to predict a ranked list of potential drug targets from Ancylostoma caninum and Haemonchus contortus - two blood-feeding strongylid nematodes, for which there are presently limited sequence data but no functional genomic tools. Conclusions The present study demonstrates the utility of using orthology information from multiple, diverse eukaryotes to predict essential genes. The data also emphasize the challenge of identifying essential genes among those in a parasite that are absent from its host.

  19. Zoonotic parasites in feces and fur of stray and private dogs from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, Barbara; Traversa, Donato; Iorio, Raffaella; De Berardinis, Alberto; Bartolini, Roberto; Salini, Romolo; Di Cesare, Angela

    2015-06-01

    The present study evaluated the occurrence of zoonotic parasites in feces and on fur of stray and private dogs living in Italy. Individual fecal samples collected from 117 and 385 kenneled (i.e., rescue shelter) and privately owned dogs, respectively, were examined by conventional copromicroscopy. Samples positive for Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were subjected to further genetic characterization. Additionally, 174 fur samples of private and kenneled dogs living in the same area, 27 of which were also subjected to copromicroscopical examinations, were examined for the presence and viability of parasite elements. Out of 502 fecal samples, forty-one (8.2%) scored positive for G. duodenalis cysts while one (0.2%) for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Nine private dogs were molecularly positive for G. duodenalis assemblage C (n. 7), assemblage D (n. 1), and assemblages C + D (n. 1), while 11 kenneled dogs were positive for assemblage C (n. 8), assemblage D (n. 1), and assemblages C + D (n. 2). Cryptosporidium spp. were identified as C. canis in a private dog. One hundred and seventy-two dogs (34.3%), i.e., 92 private and 80 kenneled, were positive for zoonotic nematodes: Toxocara canis (6.6 %), Ancylostoma caninum (6.8%), and Capillaria aerophila (0.6%). Unviable eggs of Toxocara spp. were found on the hair of five (2.9%) private dogs. The present findings indicate that canine feces from both private and kenneled animals may contain zoonotic parasites and may be a potential risk for humans and other animals, especially when they contaminate the environment. The role of dog fur as source of human infections should be further investigated. PMID:25773179

  20. Structure-guided creation of AcAP5-derived and platelet targeted factor Xa inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuanjun; Lin, Yuan; Liu, Aihua; Shui, Mengyang; Li, Ruyi; Liu, Xiaoyan; Hu, Wenhui; Wang, Yinye

    2015-06-15

    Anticoagulants and anti-platelet agents are simultaneously administrated in clinical practice (i.e. percutaneous coronary intervention), which cause significant risk of systemic bleeding. Targeted delivery of anticoagulants to the activated platelets at sites of vascular injuries may condense the site-specific anticoagulant effect and reduce the hemorrhage side effects in uninjured vessels. To this end, we prepared three ancylostoma caninum anticoagulant peptide 5 (AcAP5) variants NR1, NR2 and NR3 engineered with a platelet-binding Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif and evaluated their anti-Factor Xa (FXa) and platelet-binding effects. These RGD-containing AcAP5 variants were capable of interacting with platelet receptor αIIbβ3 as shown in computational analysis. All variants, especially NR2 and NR3, retained entirely the anti-FXa function of parent AcAP5. Moreover, they prevented the formation of occlusive thrombi in rat carotid artery injury model, suggesting that they inhibit platelet aggregation in vivo. Further functional investigation of NR3 demonstrated that NR3 inhibited platelet aggregation in vitro and FXa activity in vivo, and prolonged the coagulation time, all in a dose-dependent manner. Through flow cytometry assay, we confirmed the binding of NR3 to αIIbβ3 receptor. In mouse model of carotid artery endothelium injury, NR3-treated mice showed less tail bleeding time than AcAP5-treated mice, and aspirin plus NR3 treatment exhibited moderate reduction of blood loss compared with aspirin plus AcAP5 treatment. These results indicate the feasibility to engineer a novel FXa inhibitor specifically targeting the activated platelets, which centralizes its anticoagulation efficacy in the injured vascular endothelium and reduces the risk of systemic bleeding. PMID:25887920

  1. Prevalence of endoparasitic infections of non descript dogs in Mathura, Uttar Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan, Vikrant; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Shanker, Daya; Kanojiya, Dharamendra; Sachan, Amreesh

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate, through cross-sectional survey, the distribution, types and prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites affecting stray dogs in and around Mathura, India. Freshly voided faecal samples of 108 identified, stray, non descript dogs of either sex and different age groups were collected and examined for coprological examination by direct faecal smear method; simple flotation and sedimentation techniques to detect parasitic oocysts and/or eggs. A total of 96 samples (88.9 %) were found positive for helminthic eggs (nematodes and cestodes) while 16 (14.2 %) were found to be positive for protozoan infections with a overall parasitic prevalence of 98 (90.7 %). Single parasite infections (72.2 %) were more common than two or more infections (27.8 %). The data on the distribution of the various worm species in the positive dogs indicate that Ancylostoma caninum eggs were by far the most common (55.6 %). The other detected worm egg species and their respective frequencies were: Toxocara canis (51.9 %), Dypilidium caninim (50.0 %), Taenids (33.3 %), Toxocara leonina (25.9 %), Diphylobothrium latum (5.6 %), Spirocerca lupi (3.7 %) and Physaloptera canis (3.7 %). Eimeria canis oocysts were detected in eight samples (7.4 %) besides, total coccidian oocysts in 16 samples (14.8 %). The prevalence of helminth eggs was higher in puppies compared to adults. The prevalence of different species of helminths also varied in different age groups. The high prevalence of gastro-intestinal helminth parasites of zoonotic potential registered in the dogs indicates a potential risk to human health. The public health significance of the encountered parasitic infections is described and the prevalence is compared with the surrounding areas. PMID:26345058

  2. A recombinant fusion protein derived from dog hookworm inhibits autoantibody-induced dermal-epidermal separation ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmer, Annette; Bieber, Katja; Abadpour, Aida; Yu, Xinhua; Mitschker, Nina; Roth, Sara; Kauderer, Claudia; Ludwig, Ralf J; Seeger, Karsten; Köhl, Jörg; Zillikens, Detlef; Recke, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    The proteins secreted by parasitic nematodes are evolutionarily optimized molecules with unique capabilities of suppressing the immune response of the host organism. Neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF), which is secreted by the dog hookworm Ancylostoma caninum, binds to the β2 integrin CD11b/CD18, which is expressed on human neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes and macrophages and inhibits neutrophil-dependent lung injury and neutrophil invasion of ischaemic brain tissue. Neutrophils are key players in the pathogenesis of subepidermal autoimmune blistering diseases (sAIBDs), and their pathogenic activities are crucially dependent on β2 integrin functionality. Based on the template of single-stranded, dimerizing antibody derivatives, which are already used in cancer treatment, we designed a novel biologic, NIF-IGHE-CH4, comprising NIF and the dimerizing but otherwise inert constant heavy subdomain 4 (CH4) of human IgE (IGHE). This molecule was evaluated in a variety of in vitro assays, demonstrating its ability to inhibit pathogenically relevant neutrophil functions such as migration, adhesion and spreading, and release of reactive oxygen species. Finally, we confirmed that NIF-IGHE-CH4 inhibits blister formation in an ex vivo assay of sAIBD. These results suggest that NIF-IGHE-CH4 is a novel potential anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of neutrophil-mediated diseases such as sAIBDs. This study promotes the drugs from bugs concept and encourages further research and development focused on turning parasite proteins into useful anti-inflammatory biologics. PMID:26174039

  3. Gastrointestinal helminth parasites of pet and stray dogs as a potential risk for human health in Bahir Dar town, north-western Ethiopia

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    Tadiwos Abere

    Full Text Available Aim: A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2011 to April 2012 to determine the prevalence and species of gastrointestinal (GI helminth parasites in pet and stray dogs as a potential risk for human health in Bahir Dar town, northwestern Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: A total of 384 and 46 faecal samples were collected from pet and stray dogs, respectively and xamined by using standard coprologic techniques. Results: The overall prevalence of GI helminth infection in pet and stray dogs was 75.26 and 84.78%, respectively. The detected parasites with their frequencies in pet dogs were Ancylostoma caninum (78.89%, Toxocara canis (39.79%, Dipylidium caninum (29.75%, Strongyloides stercoralis (29.06%, Taeniidae (23.87% and Trichuris vulpis (7.95%. Stray dogs were found more likely to be polyparasitized and presented higher prevalence of A. caninum, T. canis, S. stercoralis, Trichuris vulpis and Taeniidae (P < 0.05 than domiciled ones. Diphyllobothrium latum was detected only in 10.25% of stray dogs. Toxocara canis and A. caninum (P < 0.05 were detected more frequently in dogs with less than 6 months of age (P <0.05 than old age dogs. The sex or breed groups didn't significantly affect the prevalence of parasites. A significant variation was recorded (P < 0.05 between different feeding systems where higher prevalence was observed in uncontrolled feeding group (82.18% compared to controlled feeding (32.08%. Conclusion: Different gastrointestinal parasites in pet and stray dogs were identified in the study area that can potentially infect humans and cause serious public-health problems. Thus, concerted efforts should therefore be made to educate dog owners to embrace modern dog disease control programs and measures have to be taken on stray dogs. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 388-392

  4. Sensitivity and efficiency of selected coproscopical methods-sedimentation, combined zinc sulfate sedimentation-flotation, and McMaster method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Ann-Christin; Kraemer, Amelie; Epe, Christian; Strube, Christina

    2016-07-01

    Coproscopical methods used in veterinary-parasitological diagnostics were validated according to their sensitivity (Se) and egg recovery rate [efficiency (Ef)]. Validation of the combined sedimentation-flotation method and the modified McMaster method was performed by using feces spiked with eggs of Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Cooperia oncophora, cyathostomins, Ascaris suum, Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Moniezia expansa, and Anoplocephala perfoliata. For validation of the sedimentation method, Fasciola hepatica eggs were used. With the combined sedimentation-flotation method using ZnSO4 as flotation medium [specific gravity (SG) 1.30], 5 g fecal samples of all tested parasite species (concentration levels 1, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 epg) were reproducibly detected "positive" (100 % Se) as of 80 epg. The Ef of the combined sedimentation-flotation method, defined as percentage of rediscovered eggs, revealed clear differences between parasites and showed the highest value for cyathostomins and the lowest for U. stenocephala and T. leonina eggs. The average Ef for all parasite species at 80 epg was 1.50 %. With the McMaster method (concentration levels 1, 30, 50, 80, 100, 500, and 1000 epg), all tested parasite species were detected reliably positive as of 500 epg with a mean Ef of 46.4 %. When evaluating the sedimentation method (concentration levels 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 epg), F. hepatica eggs were reproducibly found in 5 g fecal samples as of 20 epg with 20.0 % Ef. The result that the combined zinc sulfate sedimentation-flotation method (SG 1.30) as flotation medium provides diagnostic certainty only as of 80 epg has to be considered at preventing zoonoses. If pet owners wish to prevent any zoonotic infection ("zero tolerance"), a monthly anthelminthic treatment should be advised instead of monthly fecal examinations. PMID:26997342

  5. Structure of a two-CAP-domain protein from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus

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    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A., E-mail: oasojo@unmc.edu [Pathology and Microbiology Department, 986495 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-6495 (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite N. americanus refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å is presented. Major proteins secreted by the infective larval stage hookworms upon host entry include Ancylostoma secreted proteins (ASPs), which are characterized by one or two CAP (cysteine-rich secretory protein/antigen 5/pathogenesis related-1) domains. The CAP domain has been reported in diverse phylogenetically unrelated proteins, but has no confirmed function. The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite Necator americanus was refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å. The structure was solved by molecular replacement (MR) using Na-ASP-2, a one-CAP-domain ASP, as the search model. The correct MR solution could only be obtained by truncating the polyalanine model of Na-ASP-2 and removing several loops. The structure reveals two CAP domains linked by an extended loop. Overall, the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain is more similar to Na-ASP-2 than to the amino-terminal CAP domain. A large central cavity extends from the amino-terminal CAP domain to the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain, encompassing the putative CAP-binding cavity. The putative CAP-binding cavity is a characteristic cavity in the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain that contains a His and Glu pair. These residues are conserved in all single-CAP-domain proteins, but are absent in the amino-terminal CAP domain. The conserved His residues are oriented such that they appear to be capable of directly coordinating a zinc ion as observed for CAP proteins from reptile venoms. This first structure of a two-CAP-domain ASP can serve as a template for homology modeling of other two-CAP-domain proteins.

  6. Update on the mapping of prevalence and intensity of infection for soil-transmitted helminth infections in Latin America and the Caribbean: a call for action.

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    Martha Idalí Saboyá

    Full Text Available It is estimated that in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC at least 13.9 million preschool age and 35.4 million school age children are at risk of infections by soil-transmitted helminths (STH: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Although infections caused by this group of parasites are associated with chronic deleterious effects on nutrition and growth, iron and vitamin A status and cognitive development in children, few countries in the LAC Region have implemented nationwide surveys on prevalence and intensity of infection. The aim of this study was to identify gaps on the mapping of prevalence and intensity of STH infections based on data published between 2000 and 2010 in LAC, and to call for including mapping as part of action plans against these infections. A total of 335 published data points for STH prevalence were found for 18 countries (11.9% data points for preschool age children, 56.7% for school age children and 31.3% for children from 1 to 14 years of age. We found that 62.7% of data points showed prevalence levels above 20%. Data on the intensity of infection were found for seven countries. The analysis also highlights that there is still an important lack of data on prevalence and intensity of infection to determine the burden of disease based on epidemiological surveys, particularly among preschool age children. This situation is a challenge for LAC given that adequate planning of interventions such as deworming requires information on prevalence to determine the frequency of needed anthelmintic drug administration and to conduct monitoring and evaluation of progress in drug coverage.

  7. Odanacatib, a Cathepsin K Cysteine Protease Inhibitor, Kills Hookworm In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeire, Jon J; Suzuki, Brian M; Caffrey, Conor R

    2016-01-01

    Hookworm infection is chief among soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) for the chronic morbidly inflicted. Deworming via mass drug administration (MDA) programs most often employs single doses of benzimidazole drugs to which resistance is a constant threat. To discover new drugs, we employ a hamster model of hookworm infection with Ancylostoma ceylanicum and use albendazole (ABZ; 10 mg/kg orally) as the gold standard therapy. We previously showed that a single oral 100 mg/kg dose of the cathepsin cysteine protease (CP) inhibitor, K11777, offers near cure of infection that is associated with a 95% reduction in the parasite's resident CP activity. We confirm these findings here and demonstrate that odanacatib (ODN), Merck's cathepsin K inhibitor and post-clinical Phase III drug candidate for treatment of osteoporosis, decreases worm burden by 73% at the same dose with a 51% reduction in the parasite's CP activity. Unlike K11777, ODN is a modest inhibitor of both mammalian cathepsin B and the predominant cathepsin B-like activity measureable in hookworm extracts. ODN's somewhat unexpected efficacy, therefore, may be due to its excellent pharmacokinetic (PK) profile which allows for sustained plasma exposure and, possibly, sufficient perturbation of hookworm cathepsin B activity to be detrimental to survival. Accordingly, identifying a CP inhibitor(s) that combines the inhibition potency of K11777 and the PK attributes of ODN could lead to a drug that is effective at a lower dose. Achieving this would potentially provide an alternative or back-up to the current anti-hookworm drug, albendazole. PMID:27384569

  8. Differences in the faecal microbiome of non-diarrhoeic clinically healthy dogs and cats associated with Giardia duodenalis infection: impact of hookworms and coccidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šlapeta, Jan; Dowd, Scot E; Alanazi, Abdullah D; Westman, Mark E; Brown, Graeme K

    2015-08-01

    The protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis causes a waterborne diarrhoeal disease in animals and humans, yet many Giardia-infected hosts remain asymptomatic. Mixed parasite infections are common in both animals and humans with unknown consequences for Giardia or other parasites. We compared the composition and diversity of bacterial communities from 40 dogs, including free-roaming dogs, and 21 surrendered cats from Australia. The dog cohort included 17 (42.5%) dogs positive for Giardia and 13 (32.5%) dogs positive for dog hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum). The cat samples included eight positive for Giardia and eight positive for Cystoisospora. The V4 region of 16S rRNA was sequenced at an average of 36,383 high quality sequences (>200 bp) per sample using the Ion Torrent PGM platform. In dogs we found significant (PAncylostoma-positive and -negative dogs. However, there was a modest but not significant separation of the Giardia-negative and -positive dogs (P=0.09, UniFrac) using principal coordinate analysis. Removal of dogs with hookworms further separated Giardia-positive and -negative groupings (P=0.06, UniFrac). In cats, the presence of Giardia was not associated with a significant difference based on bacterial genera (P>0.05, AnoSim). Cystoisospora-positive cats, however, exhibited significantly different profiles from Cystoisospora-negative cats (P=0.02, AnoSim) and UniFrac showed significant separation of Cystoisospora-positive and -negative samples (P<0.01). The results suggest that in clinically heathy dogs and cats, helminths and protozoa are associated with different microbiomes and possibly variable gut microbiota functions. Understanding the association of parasites and microbiomes has important consequences for the administration of antiparasitic drugs in animals and humans. PMID:25934152

  9. Protection and Delivery of Anthelmintic Protein Cry5B to Nematodes Using Mesoporous Silicon Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Chen; Hu, Yan; Miller, Melanie; Aroian, Raffi V; Sailor, Michael J

    2015-06-23

    The ability of nano- and microparticles of partially oxidized mesoporous silicon (pSi) to sequester, protect, and deliver the anthelmintic pore-forming protein Cry5B to nematodes is assessed in vitro and in vivo. Thermally oxidized pSi particles are stable under gastric conditions and show relatively low toxicity to nematodes. Fluorescence images of rhodamine-labeled pSi particles within the nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and Ancylostoma ceylanicum show that ingestion is dependent on particle size: particles of a 0.4 ± 0.2 μm size are noticeably ingested by both species within 2 h of introduction in vitro, whereas 5 ± 2 μm particles are excluded from C. elegans but enter the pharynx region of A. ceylanicum after 24 h. The anthelmintic protein Cry5B, a pore-forming crystal (Cry) protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis, is incorporated into the pSi particles by aqueous infiltration. Feeding of Cry5B-loaded pSi particles to C. elegans leads to significant intoxication of the nematode. Protein-loaded particles of size 0.4 μm display the highest level of in vitro toxicity toward C. elegans on a drug-mass basis. The porous nanostructure protects Cry5B from hydrolytic and enzymatic (pepsin) degradation in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) for time periods up to 2 h. In vivo experiments with hookworm-infected hamsters show no significant reduction in worm burden with the Cry5B-loaded particles, which is attributed to slow release of the protein from the particles and/or short residence time of the particles in the duodenum of the animal. PMID:25950754

  10. Infection with Soil-Transmitted Helminths Is Associated with Increased Insulin Sensitivity.

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    Aprilianto E Wiria

    Full Text Available Given that helminth infections have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in animal studies, which may be explained by beneficial effects on energy balance or by a shift in the immune system to an anti-inflammatory profile, we investigated whether soil-transmitted helminth (STH-infected subjects are more insulin sensitive than STH-uninfected subjects.We performed a cross-sectional study on Flores island, Indonesia, an area with high prevalence of STH infections.From 646 adults, stool samples were screened for Trichuris trichiura by microscopy and for Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, and Strongyloides stercoralis by qPCR. No other helminth was found. We collected data on body mass index (BMI, kg/m2, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, fasting blood glucose (FBG, mmol/L, insulin (pmol/L, high sensitive C-reactive protein (ng/ml and Immunoglobulin E (IU/ml. The homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMAIR was calculated and regression models were used to assess the association between STH infection status and insulin resistance.424 (66% participants had at least one STH infection. STH infected participants had lower BMI (23.2 vs 22.5 kg/m2, p value = 0.03 and lower HOMAIR (0.97 vs 0.81, p value = 0.05. In an age-, sex- and BMI-adjusted model a significant association was seen between the number of infections and HOMAIR: for every additional infection with STH species, the HOMAIR decreased by 0.10 (p for linear trend 0.01. This effect was mainly accounted for by a decrease in insulin of 4.9 pmol/L for every infection (p for trend = 0.07.STH infections are associated with a modest improvement of insulin sensitivity, which is not accounted for by STH effects on BMI alone.

  11. Transgenic C. elegans dauer larvae expressing hookworm phospho null DAF-16/FoxO exit dauer.

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    Verena Gelmedin

    Full Text Available Parasitic hookworms and the free-living model nematode Caenorhabtidis elegans share a developmental arrested stage, called the dauer stage in C. elegans and the infective third-stage larva (L3 in hookworms. One of the key transcription factors that regulate entrance to and exit from developmental arrest is the forkhead transcription factor DAF-16/FoxO. During the dauer stage, DAF-16 is activated and localized in the nucleus. DAF-16 is negatively regulated by phosphorylation by the upstream kinase AKT, which causes DAF-16 to localize out of the nucleus and the worm to exit from dauer. DAF-16 is conserved in hookworms, and hypothesized to control recovery from L3 arrest during infection. Lacking reverse genetic techniques for use in hookworms, we used C. elegans complementation assays to investigate the function of Ancylostoma caninum DAF-16 during entrance and exit from L3 developmental arrest. We performed dauer switching assays and observed the restoration of the dauer phenotype when Ac-DAF-16 was expressed in temperature-sensitive dauer defective C. elegans daf-2(e1370;daf-16(mu86 mutants. AKT phosphorylation site mutants of Ac-DAF-16 were also able to restore the dauer phenotype, but surprisingly allowed dauer exit when temperatures were lowered. We used fluorescence microscopy to localize DAF-16 during dauer and exit from dauer in C. elegans DAF-16 mutant worms expressing Ac-DAF-16, and found that Ac-DAF-16 exited the nucleus during dauer exit. Surprisingly, Ac-DAF-16 with mutated AKT phosphorylation sites also exited the nucleus during dauer exit. Our results suggest that another mechanism may be involved in the regulation DAF-16 nuclear localization during recovery from developmental arrest.

  12. Is the infectiousness of dogs naturally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi associated with poly-parasitism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez, G F; Garbossa, G; Macchiaverna, N P; Argibay, H D; Bua, J; Gürtler, R E; Cardinal, M V

    2016-06-15

    Interactions among different species of parasites co-infecting the same host could be synergistic or antagonistic. These interactions may modify both the frequency of infected hosts and their infectiousness, and therefore impact on transmission dynamics. This study determined the infectiousness of Trypanosoma cruzi-seropositive dogs (using xenodiagnosis) and their parasite load (quantified by qPCR), and tested the association between both variables and the presence of concomitant endoparasites. A cross-sectional serosurvey conducted in eight rural villages from Pampa del Indio and neighboring municipalities (northeastern Argentina) detected 32 T. cruzi-seropositive dogs out of 217 individuals examined for infection. Both the infectiousness to the vector Triatoma infestans and parasite load of T. cruzi-seropositive dogs examined were heterogeneous. A statistically significant, nine-fold higher mean infectiousness was registered in T. cruzi-seropositive dogs co-infected with Ancylostoma caninum and a trematode than in T. cruzi-seropositive dogs without these infections. The median parasite load of T. cruzi was also significantly higher in dogs co-infected with these helminths. An opposite trend was observed in T. cruzi-seropositive dogs that were serologically positive to Toxoplasma gondii or Neospora caninum relative to dogs seronegative for these parasites. Using multiple logistic regression analysis with random effects, we found a positive and significant association between the infectiousness of T. cruzi-seropositive dogs and co-infections with A. caninum and a trematode. Our results suggest that co-infections may be a modifier of host infectiousness in dogs naturally infected with T. cruzi. PMID:27198799

  13. Evaluation of gastrointestinal helminths in canine population of Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India: a public health appraisal

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    P. N. Panigrahi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the presence of gastrointestinal helminthic parasites in clinically apparent canines of Bhubaneswar, Odisha and to determine the risk of zoonotic infection to dog owners through questionnaire survey. Materials and Methods: A total of 154 dogs, with clinical signs of gastroenteritis were examined for the presence of helminthic ova and /or larvae in their faecal sample by direct smear and/ or floatation and centrifugation method. Prevalence was determined by sex wise, age wise, and breed wise. A structured questionnaire on 50 dog owners was designed to gather information on dog ownership, management and related risks on public health. Results: In the present investigation, the overall prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths infection was 41.46%. The infection rate was highest for mixed parasitic infection (26.57% followed by Ancylostoma caninum (23.44%, Toxocara canis (20.31% and lowest for Taenia spp. (3.13%. In relation to different groups, the prevalence was higher in male than female, highest in younger animals and it was shown a decreasing trend as age increased. It was also higher in non-descriptive breeds than pure and exotic breeds. Very few dog owners (10% were conscious about that canine parasite could be transmitted to humans but none of them could provide correct information on the mode of transmission. Only 12 % dog owners had maintained standard deworming schedule. Conclusion: The findings showed that the high levels of ignorance among dog owners about canine helminthic parasites and transmission coupled with significant infection rates among the dogs in the community warrants immediate action needs to be taken to decrease infection rate in dogs and to raise awareness among the community about zoonotic diseases.

  14. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in breeding kennel dogs in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Naoyuki; Kanai, Kazutaka; Kimura, Yuya; Chikazawa, Seishiro; Hori, Yasutomo; Hoshi, Fumio

    2015-03-01

    The present study is the first to show overall prevalences of intestinal parasites among breeding kennel dogs in Japan. A total of 573 fresh fecal samples were collected from dogs at 12 breeding kennels. Giardia-specific coproantigen was examined by ELISA kit (SNAP(®) Giardia, IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Maine, USA). Other intestinal parasites were determined microscopically using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. Overall prevalences of two genera of protists, Giardia spp. and Cystoisospora spp., were 25.7 and 1.2 %, respectively. The prevalence of helminthes was recorded as: Toxocara canis 0.2 %, Toxascaris leonina 0.9 %, Ancylostoma caninum 0.2 %, Trichuris vulpis 2.1 %, and Spirometra erinacei 0.4 %. According to age categories, Giardia spp., Cystoisospora spp., and T. leonina in <1-year-old dogs were significantly more prevalent than in ≥ 1-year-old dogs (61.0 vs. 19.8 %, P < 0.0001; 7.3 vs. 0.2 %, P < 0.0001; and 4.9 vs. 0.2 %, P < 0.001; respectively). With respect to fecal condition, the prevalences of T. leonina and T. vulpis were significantly higher in unformed stool dogs than in formed ones (2.4 vs. 0 %, P < 0.01, and 4.3 vs. 0.8 %, P < 0.05, respectively). In all of the breeding kennels except for one kennel, intestinal parasite infections were found at the high prevalent, ranging from 16.0 to 70.0 %. PMID:25627028

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Na-ASP-1, a multi-domain pathogenesis-related-1 protein from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A., E-mail: oasojo@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer and Allied Diseases, 987696 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-7696 (United States); Loukas, Alex [Department of Microbiology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University Medical Center, Washington DC 20037 (United States); Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, QLD 4006 (Australia); Inan, Mehmet; Barent, Rick; Huang, Jicai; Plantz, Brad; Swanson, Amber; Gouthro, Mark; Meagher, Michael M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0643 (United States); Hotez, Peter J. [Department of Microbiology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University Medical Center, Washington DC 20037 (United States); Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer and Allied Diseases, 987696 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-7696 (United States)

    2005-04-01

    In order to clarify the structural basis of the pathogenesis-related-1 domain, Na-ASP-1, the first multi-domain ASP from the human hookworm parasite N. americanus, has been crystallized. 2.2 Å resolution data have been collected from a crystal belonging to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}. Human hookworm infection is a major cause of anemia and malnutrition in the developing world. In an effort to control hookworm infection, the Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative has identified candidate vaccine antigens from the infective larval stage (L3) of the parasite, including a family of pathogenesis-related-1 (PR-1) proteins known as the ancylostoma-secreted proteins (ASPs). The functions of the ASPs are unknown. In addition, it is unclear why some ASPs have one while others have multiple PR-1 domains. There are no known structures of a multi-domain ASP and in an effort to remedy this situation, recombinant Na-ASP-1 has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Na-ASP-1 is a 406-amino-acid multi-domain ASP from the prevalent human hookworm parasite Necator americanus. Useful X-ray data to 2.2 Å have been collected from a crystal that belongs to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1} with unit-cell parameters a = 67.7, b = 74.27, c = 84.60 Å, β = 112.12°. An initial molecular-replacement solution has been obtained with one monomer in the asymmetric unit.

  16. Recombinant nematode anticoagulant protein c2 inhibits cell invasion by decreasing uPA expression in NSCLC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yu; Yue, Jun; Mao, Meng; Liu, Qingqing; Zhou, Jing; Yang, Jiyun

    2015-04-01

    Nematode anticoagulant protein c2 (NAPc2) is an 85-residue polypeptide originally isolated from the hematophagous hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum. Several studies have shown that rNAPc2 inhibits the growth of primary and metastatic tumors in mice independently of its ability to initiate coagulation. We obtained bioactive recombinant rNAPc2 by splicing of the rNAPc2-intein-CBD fusion proteins expressed in E. coli ER2566. In the in vitro assay, rNAPc2 obviously inhibited the invasive ability of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, rNAPc2 suppressed tumor growth in vivo by daily intraperitoneal injection of rNAPc2 in an NSCLC cell xenograft model of nude mice. Respectively, rNAPc2 downregulated the production of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) (P<0.05) and suppressed nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity. We also identified that inhibition of NF-κB activity impaired cell invasion and reduced the uPA production in NSCLC cells. Meanwhile, NF-κB was found to directly bind to the uPA promoter in vitro. These results demonstrated that rNAPc2 inhibits cell invasion at least in part through the downregulation of the NF-κB-dependent metastasis-related gene expression in NSCLC. Our results also suggest that uPA, a known metastasis-promoting gene, is indirectly regulated by rNAPc2 through NF-κB activation. These results indicate that rNAPc2 may be a potent agent for the prevention of NSCLC progression. PMID:25672417

  17. Odanacatib, a Cathepsin K Cysteine Protease Inhibitor, Kills Hookworm In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon J. Vermeire

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hookworm infection is chief among soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs for the chronic morbidly inflicted. Deworming via mass drug administration (MDA programs most often employs single doses of benzimidazole drugs to which resistance is a constant threat. To discover new drugs, we employ a hamster model of hookworm infection with Ancylostoma ceylanicum and use albendazole (ABZ; 10 mg/kg orally as the gold standard therapy. We previously showed that a single oral 100 mg/kg dose of the cathepsin cysteine protease (CP inhibitor, K11777, offers near cure of infection that is associated with a 95% reduction in the parasite’s resident CP activity. We confirm these findings here and demonstrate that odanacatib (ODN, Merck’s cathepsin K inhibitor and post-clinical Phase III drug candidate for treatment of osteoporosis, decreases worm burden by 73% at the same dose with a 51% reduction in the parasite’s CP activity. Unlike K11777, ODN is a modest inhibitor of both mammalian cathepsin B and the predominant cathepsin B-like activity measureable in hookworm extracts. ODN’s somewhat unexpected efficacy, therefore, may be due to its excellent pharmacokinetic (PK profile which allows for sustained plasma exposure and, possibly, sufficient perturbation of hookworm cathepsin B activity to be detrimental to survival. Accordingly, identifying a CP inhibitor(s that combines the inhibition potency of K11777 and the PK attributes of ODN could lead to a drug that is effective at a lower dose. Achieving this would potentially provide an alternative or back-up to the current anti-hookworm drug, albendazole.

  18. [Non-indigenous and non-specific parasitic nematodes--the background and the consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulewicz, Anna

    2009-01-01

    different climatic conditions contribute to introduction of non-native nematodes: Dirofilaria immitis--in dogs, D. repens or Ancylostoma brasiliense--in humans. PMID:20209803

  19. Prevalence of intestinal parasite infections among patients in local public hospitals of Hail, Northwestern Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omar Hassen Amer; Ibraheem M Ashankyty; Najoua Al Sadok Haouas

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasites among patients in Hail, Northwestern Saudi Arabia. Methods: Stool samples were collected from 130 patients (69 females and 61 males) in Hail General Hospital. Each sample was examined by direct wet mount microscopic examination using both normal saline and Lugol’s iodine preparation and concentration techniques using salt and formol-ether solutions. Permanent stained smears were performed for intestinal coccidian using modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 45.38% (59 cases). Forty-four (33.84%) were found to be infected with one or more intestinal protozoa, 5 (3.84%) were infected with helminthes and 10 (7.69%) had mixed infection with both helminthes and protozoa. The most common intestinal helminth detected was Ancylostoma duodenale (n=5, 3.84%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia sp. and Trichuris trichiura (n=2 for each species, 1.5%). For intestinal protozoa, the coccidian Cryptosporidium parvum (n=25, 19.23%) was the most common followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (n=21, 16.15%), Giardia lamblia (n=15, 11.54%), Entamoeba coli (n=5, 3.85%) and Blastocystis hominis (n=3, 2.30%). The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in females was significantly higher than in males (P<0.05). Conclusions: This is the first study highlighting that intestinal parasites are still an important public health problem in Northwestern Saudi Arabia. Therefore, health education would be the best way to prevent from intestinal parasite infections which are mainly food borne diseases.

  20. Correlation between gut pathogens and fecal calprotectin levels in young children with acute diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanever Angela Lam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In cases of acute diarrhea, it is difficult to distinguish between bacterial and non-bacterial causes. Increased fecal calprotectin (f-CP level is a marker of neutrophil migration in the intestinal lumen and is associated with intestinal inflammation. Previous studies reported an increase in f-CP levels in children with acute diarrhea, which is caused by bacteria, but only few have studied the relationship between intestinal pathogens with f-CP levels in acute diarrhea. Objective To assess for a correlation between gut pathogens and fecal calprotectin levels in children with acute diarrhea. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study between July to November 2012 on children aged 1-5 years with acute diarrhea, and underwent routine blood tests, stool microscopy, f-CP tests, and stool cultures. We used a simple linear regression and correlation analysis with a significance level of P<0.05. Results Forty-two children enrolled in this study. The mean age of subjects was 2.27 (SD 1.34 years. Their mean f-CP level was 93.88 (SD 14.68 μg/g. On microscopic stool examination, 26 patients (61.9% had positive leukocytes, 1 had Ancylostoma duodenale, 1 had Ascaris lumbricoides, and 2 had Blastocystis hominis. Positive stool cultures were found in 14 children (33.3% with acute diarrhea. There was a significant positive correlation between gut pathogens and f-CP levels (r=0.605; P<0.0001. Conclusion In young children with acute diarrhea, the average f-CP levels are higher in those with positive intestinal pathogens. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:193-7.].

  1. Epidemiology of human hookworm infections among adult villagers in Hejiang and Santai Counties, Sichuan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changhua, L; Xiaorong, Z; Dongchuan, Q; Shuhua, X; Hotez, P J; Defu, Z; Hulian, Z; Mingden, L; Hainan, R; Bing, Z; Haichou, X; Hawdon, J; Zheng, F

    1999-10-15

    Hookworm infection as well as other intestinal nematodiases are endemic to Sichuan Province in China. In order to research the prevalence and intensity of these infections we visited two villages in Hejiang County (southern Sichuan Province) and Santai County (northwestern Sichuan Province) between July and October of 1997. Fecal examinations were performed on adult villagers over the age of 15 years (currently children under this age are dewormed annually with anthelmintic drugs). Among 310 residents of Lugao Village (Hejiang County), 87, 63 and 60% were infected with hookworm, Ascaris or Trichuris, respectively. The prevalence of hookworm determined to rise linearly with age (r = 0.97). High intensity infections with hookworm still occur in this region as 22% of the residents have over 3000 eggs per gram (PEG) of feces as determined by quantitative egg counts. The majority of these individuals harbored mixed infection with Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale, although the former predominated when adult hookworms were collected from 30 village residents treated with pyrantel pamoate. In contrast, among the 334 Xinjian villagers examined (Santai County) the majority harbored predominantly light hookworm infections--66.1% of the residents has less than 400 EPG by quantitative fecal examination and only 3.7% exhibited greater than 3000 EPG. Again, N. americanus was the predominant hookworm seen after worm expulsion. We have round that despite economic development which is occurring in some parts of China, significant hookworm infections and clinical hookworm anemia still exist in areas of Sichuan Province. In Hejiang County we found that the intensity of hookworm infection has actually risen within the last 10 years. Hookworm is a medical problem among the elderly in Sichuan. PMID:10546842

  2. Gastrointestinal parasites in rural dogs and cats in Selangor and Pahang states in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, Romano; Lee, Soo Ching; Yap, Nan Jiun; Tan, Tiong Kai; Aidil, Roslan Muhammad; Chua, Kek Heng; Aziz, Shafie; Sulaiman, Wan Yusoff Wan; Ahmad, Arine Fadzlun; Mahmud, Rohela; Lian, Yvonne Lim Ai

    2014-10-01

    To estimate the current prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in dogs and cats, a total of 105 fresh faecal samples were collected from rural areas in Peninsular Malaysia. Each faecal sample was examined for the presence of GI parasites by microscopic examination after formalin-ether concentration technique and for protozoa, trichrome and Ziehl-Neelsen staining were employed. The overall prevalence of GI parasitic infection was 88.6% (95% CI = 82.5-94.7) in which 88.3% of dogs and 89.3% of cats were infected with at least one parasites species, respectively. There were 14 different GI parasites species (nematodes, cestodes and protozoa) detected, including Ancylostoma spp. (62.9%), Toxocara spp. (32.4%), Trichuris vulpis (21.0%), Spirometra spp. (9.5%), Toxascaris leonina (5.7%), Dipylidium caninum (4.8%), Ascaris spp. (2.9%), Hymenolepis diminuta (1.0%) and others. General prevalence of GI parasites showed a significant difference between helminth (84.4%) and protozoa (34.3%) infections. Monoparasitism (38.1%) was less frequent than polyparasitism (46.7%). As several of these GI parasites are recognized as zoonotic agents, the results of this investigation revealed that local populations may be exposed to a broad spectrum of zoonotic agents by means of environmental contamination with dogs and cats faeces and this information should be used to mitigate public health risks. Prevention and control measures have to be taken in order to reduce the prevalence rates especially in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities where animals live in close proximity to people, poor levels of hygiene and overcrowding together with a lack in veterinary attention and zoonotic awareness. PMID:25236287

  3. Survey of Gastrointestinal Parastites in Dogs in Fuzhou%福州地区犬肠道寄生虫感染情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓清; 余勋信

    2015-01-01

    From March 2009 to October 2010, 526 feces samples were collected from 526 dogs which are different species, different ages and different gender in Fuzhou districts including Fuqing and Minhou. Canine intestinal parasites were investigated with the feces samples by the methods of washing with water and precipitating method, saturated salt solution floating method and zinc sulfate cen-trifugal flotation method. The results were as follows:(1)6 species of intestinal parasites have been observed. They are Ancylostoma coninum, Toxocara canis, Taenia hydatigena,Dipylidium conium, Isospora canis and Clonorchis sinensis. (2)Intestinal parasite infection rate is 59.32%. (3)The infection rates for every canine with parasite species are different. Infection rates of Toxocara canis, Ancy-lostoma coninum, Dipylidium caninum, Taenia hydatigena, Isospora belli and Clonorchis sinensis were 53.80%, 22.62%, 25.86%, 47.91%, 7.98% and 2.09%, respectively. (4)121 cases were infected with two kinds of intestinal parasite synchronously, the rate was 23.00%; 98 cases were infected with three kinds of intestinal parasite synchronously, the rate was 18.63%. (5)Occurance of parasitic infection are different in ages, parasitic infection in puppies was higher than that in adult dog;occurance of parasitic infection are dif-ferent in environments, parasitic infection of dogs rearing outdoors was higher than that indoors. (6)No correlations were observed in the dog's species and gender in the intestinal parasitic infection.%2009年3月至2010年10月,对福州地区所辖福州市区、福清市和闽侯县的犬肠道寄生虫感染情况进行调查。收集来自福州市区、福清市和闽侯县的动物医院、农村散养户和流浪的不同品种,不同年龄,不同性别的526只犬的粪便,用水洗沉淀法、饱和盐水漂浮法和硫酸锌离心浮聚法进行肠道寄生虫检查,福州地区犬肠道寄生虫种类调查结果如下:(1)调查发现福

  4. Application of a Multiplex Quantitative PCR to Assess Prevalence and Intensity Of Intestinal Parasite Infections in a Controlled Clinical Trial.

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    Stacey Llewellyn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate quantitative assessment of infection with soil transmitted helminths and protozoa is key to the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of these parasites, as well as for monitoring large scale treatment efficacy and effectiveness studies. As morbidity and transmission of helminth infections are directly related to both the prevalence and intensity of infection, there is particular need for improved techniques for assessment of infection intensity for both purposes. The current study aimed to evaluate two multiplex PCR assays to determine prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasite infections, and compare them to standard microscopy.Faecal samples were collected from a total of 680 people, originating from rural communities in Timor-Leste (467 samples and Cambodia (213 samples. DNA was extracted from stool samples and subject to two multiplex real-time PCR reactions the first targeting: Necator americanus, Ancylostoma spp., Ascaris spp., and Trichuris trichiura; and the second Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia. duodenalis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Samples were also subject to sodium nitrate flotation for identification and quantification of STH eggs, and zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation for detection of protozoan parasites. Higher parasite prevalence was detected by multiplex PCR (hookworms 2.9 times higher, Ascaris 1.2, Giardia 1.6, along with superior polyparasitism detection with this effect magnified as the number of parasites present increased (one: 40.2% vs. 38.1%, two: 30.9% vs. 12.9%, three: 7.6% vs. 0.4%, four: 0.4% vs. 0%. Although, all STH positive samples were low intensity infections by microscopy as defined by WHO guidelines the DNA-load detected by multiplex PCR suggested higher intensity infections.Multiplex PCR, in addition to superior sensitivity, enabled more accurate determination of infection intensity for Ascaris, hookworms and Giardia compared to microscopy, especially in samples

  5. Cure of hookworm infection with a cysteine protease inhibitor.

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    Jon J Vermeire

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hookworm disease is a major global health problem and principal among a number of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs for the chronic disability inflicted that impacts both personal and societal productivity. Mass drug administration most often employs single-dose therapy with just two drugs of the same chemical class to which resistance is a growing concern. New chemical entities with the appropriate single-dose efficacy are needed. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using various life-cycle stages of the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum in vitro and a hamster model of infection, we report the potent, dose-dependent cidal activities of the peptidyl cysteine protease inhibitors (CPIs K11002 (4-mopholino-carbonyl-phenylalanyl-homophenylalanyl- vinyl sulfone phenyl and K11777 (N-methylpiperazine-phenylalanyl-homophenylalanyl-vinylsulfone phenyl. The latter is in late pre-clinical testing for submission as an Investigational New Drug (IND with the US Federal Drug Administration as an anti-chagasic. In vitro, K11002 killed hookworm eggs but was without activity against first-stage larvae. The reverse was true for K11777 with a larvicidal potency equal to that of the current anti-hookworm drug, albendazole (ABZ. Both CPIs produced morbidity in ex vivo adult hookworms with the activity of K11777 again being at least the equivalent of ABZ. Combinations of either CPI with ABZ enhanced morbidity compared to single compounds. Strikingly, oral treatment of infected hamsters with 100 mg/kg K11777 b.i.d. (i.e., a total daily dose of 200 mg/kg for one day cured infection: a single 100 mg/kg treatment removed >90% of worms. Treatment also reversed the otherwise fatal decrease in blood hemoglobin levels and body weights of hosts. Consistent with its mechanism of action, K11777 decreased by >95% the resident CP activity in parasites harvested from hamsters 8 h post-treatment with a single 100 mg/kg oral dose. CONCLUSION: A new, oral single-dose anthelmintic that

  6. The complete mitochondrial genomes for three Toxocara species of human and animal health significance

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    Wu Xiang-Yun

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studying mitochondrial (mt genomics has important implications for various fundamental areas, including mt biochemistry, physiology and molecular biology. In addition, mt genome sequences have provided useful markers for investigating population genetic structures, systematics and phylogenetics of organisms. Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Toxocara malaysiensis cause significant health problems in animals and humans. Although they are of importance in human and animal health, no information on the mt genomes for any of Toxocara species is available. Results The sizes of the entire mt genome are 14,322 bp for T. canis, 14029 bp for T. cati and 14266 bp for T. malaysiensis, respectively. These circular genomes are amongst the largest reported to date for all secernentean nematodes. Their relatively large sizes relate mainly to an increased length in the AT-rich region. The mt genomes of the three Toxocara species all encode 12 proteins, two ribosomal RNAs and 22 transfer RNA genes, but lack the ATP synthetase subunit 8 gene, which is consistent with all other species of Nematode studied to date, with the exception of Trichinella spiralis. All genes are transcribed in the same direction and have a nucleotide composition high in A and T, but low in G and C. The contents of A+T of the complete genomes are 68.57% for T. canis, 69.95% for T. cati and 68.86% for T. malaysiensis, among which the A+T for T. canis is the lowest among all nematodes studied to date. The AT bias had a significant effect on both the codon usage pattern and amino acid composition of proteins. The mt genome structures for three Toxocara species, including genes and non-coding regions, are in the same order as for Ascaris suum and Anisakis simplex, but differ from Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus and Caenorhabditis elegans only in the location of the AT-rich region, whereas there are substantial differences when compared with Onchocerca volvulus

  7. Contaminación fecal canina en plazas y veredas de Buenos Aires, 1991-2006

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    Diana Rubel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue presentar y analizar los datos de contaminación fecal canina y parasitaria en plazas y veredas de Buenos Aires obtenidos entre 1991 y 2006 por la Cátedra Parasitología General (Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires. Se censaron las heces en varias plazas cada año en un único día entre 1991-2006. A partir del año 2000 se censaron heces en veredas circundantes. En cada plaza se seleccionaron al azar 30 heces frescas que se conservaron en formol 5% para su análisis parasitológico por el método de flotación de Willis con solución saturada de ClNa. Los 51 censos presentaron una mediana de heces de 288; un 82% de las heces se observaron en los canteros de tierra o pasto. La contaminación fecal en las plazas fue mayor en el período 2000-06 que en el anterior (p = 0.0000. La contaminación fecal de las plazas aumentó con la densidad humana en las manzanas lindantes (p = 0.0076. Las veredas mostraron un patrón inverso, ya que la contaminación fecal fue mayor en las áreas menos densamente pobladas (p = 0.0000. Se detectaron parásitos en un número variable de las heces colectadas en todas las plazas. Los géneros más frecuentes fueron Ancylostoma (20.47%, Trichuris (2.59% y Toxocara (1.70%. Nuestros resultados indican un aumento en la contaminación fecal de las plazas, posiblemente asociado con el aumento del número de perros en la ciudad combinado con las deficiencias en la implementación y el seguimiento de las medidas de control.

  8. CONTAMINAÇÃO AMBIENTAL POR LARVAS E OVOS DE HELMINTOS EM AMOSTRAS DE AREIA DE PRAIAS DO MUNICÍPIO DE FORTALEZA-CEARÁ.

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    Ésio Fortaleza Nascimento Chaves Pedrosa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: As praias são importantes focos de infecção humana por microrganismos, tanto através da água quanto do solo, sendo esta última um excelente meio de veiculação de várias espécies de parasitos, entre eles S. stercoralis, Toxocara canis, A. lumbricoides, Ancilostomídeos, entre outros. Objetivo do estudo: avaliar a contaminação das praias de Fortaleza (Praia do Futuro, Barra do Ceará e Beira Mar por parasitas de importância médica.Materiais e Métodos: Foram selecionados seis pontos de cada praia onde foi colhido material (100 g de areia em três amostras (uma superficial, uma com 10 cm de profundidade e outra com 20 cm, totalizando 54 amostras, que foram transportadas imediatamente ao laboratório para a análise. Resultados: Dentre as 54 amostras de areia analisadas, em 39 (72,2% foram encontradas larvas, das quais 35 (64,8% foram positivas para Ancylostoma sp , 3 (5,5% para Strongyloides stercoralis e 4 (7,4%  com ovos de Trichuris trichiura. Discussão: Os resultados apresentados comprovam a contaminação do solo da praia do Futuro, Beira Mar e Barra do Ceará, assim como a possibilidade de ocorrência de infecções humanas por enteroparasitas através do solo. Conclusão: Conclui-se que as praias da Barra do Ceará, Praia do Futuro e Beira Mar da cidade de Fortaleza encontram-se em situação precária de saneamento, visto que foram encontrados ovos e larvas de parasitas potencialmente infectantes em 72,2% das amostras, tornando-se necessário apoio e suporte de medidas da vigilância sanitária nestas praias imediatamente.

  9. CONTAMINAÇÃO AMBIENTAL POR LARVAS E OVOS DE HELMINTOS EM AMOSTRAS DE AREIA DE PRAIAS DO MUNICÍPIO DE FORTALEZA-CEARÁ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ésio Fortaleza Nascimento Chaves Pedrosa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: As praias são importantes focos de infecção humana por microrganismos, tanto através da água quanto do solo, sendo esta última um excelente meio de veiculação de várias espécies de parasitos, entre eles S. stercoralis, Toxocara canis, A. lumbricoides, Ancilostomídeos, entre outros. Objetivo do estudo: avaliar a contaminação das praias de Fortaleza (Praia do Futuro, Barra do Ceará e Beira Mar por parasitas de importância médica. Materiais e Métodos: Foram selecionados seis pontos de cada praia onde foi colhido material (100 g de areia em três amostras (uma superficial, uma com 10 cm de profundidade e outra com 20 cm, totalizando 54 amostras, que foram transportadas imediatamente ao laboratório para a análise. Resultados: Dentre as 54 amostras de areia analisadas, em 39 (72,2% foram encontradas larvas, das quais 35 (64,8% foram positivas para Ancylostoma sp , 3 (5,5% para Strongyloides stercoralis e 4 (7,4% com ovos de Trichuris trichiura. Discussão: Os resultados apresentados comprovam a contaminação do solo da praia do Futuro, Beira Mar e Barra do Ceará, assim como a possibilidade de ocorrência de infecções humanas por enteroparasitas através do solo. Conclusão: Conclui-se que as praias da Barra do Ceará, Praia do Futuro e Beira Mar da cidade de Fortaleza encontram-se em situação precária de saneamento, visto que foram encontrados ovos e larvas de parasitas potencialmente infectantes em 72,2% das amostras, tornando-se necessário apoio e suporte de medidas da vigilância sanitária nestas praias imediatamente.

  10. 户县某镇散养犬肠道寄生虫种类及感染情况的调查%Investigation on Species and Infective Status of Enteroparasites of Scattered Dogs in A Town of Huxian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王银; 孙彬彬; 于三科

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the infective status of enteroparasites of scattered dogs in a town of Hux-ian,the saturated NaCl floating method was used to detect 120 fecal samples of scattered dogs in the area. The results showed that 8 canine intestinal parasites were found.They are Toxocara canis,Isospora sp., Ancylostomacaninum,Strongyloidesstercoralis,Giardiacanis,Trichuris sp.,Dipylidiumcaninum,Echi-nococcus granulosus.The infection rates were 65.83%,40.83%,35%,26.67%,9.17%,6.67%,2.50%, 1.67%,respectively.The total infection rate was 100%.In these infections of dogs,the mixed infection of two kinds of intestinal parasites was 44 cases,the mixed infection of more than three kinds of intestinal parasites was 31 cases,the mixed infection rate was 62.5%.Toxocaracanis,Isospora sp.and Ancylostoma caninum were predominant species.%为了解户县某镇散养犬肠道寄生虫感染情况,采用饱和食盐水漂浮法等对该地区散养犬120份粪便样品进行了检测。结果发现8种犬肠道寄生虫,分别是犬弓首蛔虫、等孢球虫、犬钩口线虫、粪类圆线虫、犬贾第虫、毛尾线虫、犬复孔绦虫、细粒棘球绦虫,其感染率分别为65.83%、40.83%、35.00%、26.67%、9.17%、6.67%、2.50%和1.67%。寄生虫总感染率为100%。在这些感染犬中,混合感染2种肠道寄生虫的为44例,混合感染3种以上肠道寄生虫的为31例,其混合感染率为62.5%;犬弓首蛔虫、等孢球虫和犬钩口线虫为优势种。

  11. Ocorrência de parasitos gastrointestinais e fatores de risco de parasitismo em gatos domésticos urbanos de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil

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    Felipe Lamberti Pivoto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, verificou-se a ocorrência de parasitos gastrointestinais em gatos urbanos domiciliados no município de Santa Maria, RS, no período de março a junho de 2011. Além disso, foram avaliados os fatores de riscos relacionados com a infecção dos parasitos gastrointestinais. Coletou-se 191 amostras de fezes de felinos para a realização de exames coproparasitológico e aplicado um questionário epidemiológico aos proprietários, contendo questões relativas aos hábitos e manejo dos seus animais. Das amostras fecais analisadas, 47,1% (90/191 foram positivas para um ou mais parasitas gastrointestinais, sendo 33,5% (64/191 identificadas como mono-infecção e 13,6% (26/191 como multi-infecção. Toxocara spp. (18,8% e Giardia spp. (4,2% foram os principais parasitos encontrados na mono-infecção. Na multi-infecção, as principais associações de parasitos detectadas incluíram: Ancylostoma spp. + Toxocara spp. (3,1% e Cystoisospora spp. + Cryptosporidium spp. + Giardia spp. + Toxoplasma spp. + Toxocara spp. (1,5%. Os dados epidemiológicos foram submetidos ao teste qui-quadrado, Fischer, análise da relação de chances (OR, também analisada a relação entre os diferentes fatores epidemiológicos e a presença de parasitos gastrointestinais (P>0,05. Os principais fatores de risco identificados foram: a escolaridade dos proprietários e a frequência de realização de tratamentos antiparasitários, os quais exerceram influência direta na ocorrência de parasitos gastrointestinais. Os dados obtidos contribuem para o conhecimento da epidemiologia das parasitoses gastrointestinais, bem como poderão auxiliar médicos veterinários e proprietários na elaboração de estratégias de controle e profilaxia antiparasitária para gatos domésticos.

  12. Mechanistic and single-dose in vivo therapeutic studies of Cry5B anthelmintic action against hookworms.

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    Yan Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hookworm infections are one of the most important parasitic infections of humans worldwide, considered by some second only to malaria in associated disease burden. Single-dose mass drug administration for soil-transmitted helminths, including hookworms, relies primarily on albendazole, which has variable efficacy. New and better hookworm therapies are urgently needed. Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein Cry5B has potential as a novel anthelmintic and has been extensively studied in the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we ask whether single-dose Cry5B can provide therapy against a hookworm infection and whether C. elegans mechanism-of-action studies are relevant to hookworms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test whether the C. elegans invertebrate-specific glycolipid receptor for Cry5B is relevant in hookworms, we fed Ancylostoma ceylanicum hookworm adults Cry5B with and without galactose, an inhibitor of Cry5B-C. elegans glycolipid interactions. As with C. elegans, galactose inhibits Cry5B toxicity in A. ceylanicum. Furthermore, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, which controls one of the most important Cry5B signal transduction responses in C. elegans, is functionally operational in hookworms. A. ceylanicum hookworms treated with Cry5B up-regulate p38 MAPK and knock down of p38 MAPK activity in hookworms results in hypersensitivity of A. ceylanicum adults to Cry5B attack. Single-dose Cry5B is able to reduce by >90% A. ceylanicum hookworm burdens from infected hamsters, in the process eliminating hookworm egg shedding in feces and protecting infected hamsters from blood loss. Anthelmintic activity is increased about 3-fold, eliminating >97% of the parasites with a single 3 mg dose (∼30 mg/kg, by incorporating a simple formulation to help prevent digestion in the acidic stomach of the host mammal. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies advance the development of Cry5B protein as a potent, safe single

  13. PRELIMINARY RESEARCH FOR THE PRESENCE OF PARASITES IN SWINE IN ALBANIA

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    Edit Juka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we presented the results of 298 faecal samples and 42 post mortem pigs examination. In this study we included extensive, ½ intensive and intensive management farms in the different Albania districts such as: Gjirokastra, Tirana, Fier, Lac, Elbasan, Lushnjë, Lezhë etc. From 298 faeces samples, 198 belonged to piglets, and about 50% of animals were less and more than 6 months old, 38 sows before farrow, 30 uncastrated pigs and 32 samples were taken into slaughterhouses from imported pigs. The samples were collected randomly and were examined with the technique of simple and qualitative sedimentation for the evaluation of helminths and the technique of quantitative and qualitative fluctuation to evaluate the protozoans. In slaughterhouse we did post mortem examination on 42 piglets and we looked for the presence of parasites grown in gastro-intestinal tract (GIT. The results of this study showed that the most widespread helminth in pigs in Albania is Ascaris suum. It was present in more than 70 % of the examined samples, and in some cases was recorded as high as parasitic load up to 1200 e/g/f. In the economies of extensive menagement M. hirudinaceus was recorded in high level, particularly in farms located in north Albania. Both M. hirudinaceus and A.suum were most wudespread. In addition 28 % of the pig samples were positive for M. Apri. Copropositive results were found in 5,4 % of the faecal samples for Oesophagostomum spp, wheras 0,8 % of the faecal samples for were positive for Ancylostoma caninum, this was recorded mainly in extensive growth pig management. 21 % of the samples from piglets of extensive economies resulted positive for Strongyloides ransoni. For Physocephalus sexalatus 8,6 % of the samples resulted copropositive. Trikuris suis was founded in 5, 6 % of the samples. Protozoan forms were as cysts of Balantidium coli in 1.6 % from the total samples examined. In the post mortem examination frequency of A.suum was

  14. 吉林市人体肠道寄生虫感染调查%Investigation of human intestine parasitization in Jilin City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王典瑞; 梁兆祥; 侯毅鞠; 许国战; 赵大力; 陈芬

    2000-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the human intestine parasitization in Jilin City.Methods: Mass survey of feces and epidemiological survey were carried out in 1389 persons.Results:Nine kinds of intestinal parasites had been detected and the total infection rate was71.13%. From high to low, the infection rates were respectively(64.07%)for ascaris lumbri-coides(2.23%) for clonorchis sinensis, (1.94%) for giardia lamblia(1.51%) for entamoe-ba coli (0.74%) for trichuris trichiura(0.28%) for iodamoeba bvetschlii (0.14%) fortrichomonas hominis(0.07%) for entamoeba histolytica and ancylostoma duodenale. Conclusion :The intestinal parasitization rate is higher in Jilin City, and this result suggests that we setup a series of prophylectico-therapeutic measures.%目的:调查吉林市肠道寄生虫感染情况。方法:对1389人进行粪便普查和流行病学调查。结果:共检出肠道寄生虫9种,总感染率为71.13%,感染率从高到低依次为蛔虫(64.07%)、肝吸虫(2.23%)、贾第鞭毛虫(1.94%)、结肠阿米巴(1.51%)、鞭虫(0.79%)、嗜碘阿米巴(0.28%)、肠人毛滴虫(0.14%)、痢疾阿米巴及钩虫(均为0.07%)。结论:吉林市人体肠道寄生虫感染率较高,应注意建立一套完整的防治措施。

  15. New tools for NTD vaccines: A case study of quality control assays for product development of the human hookworm vaccine Na-APR-1M74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Mark S; Jariwala, Amar R; Abbenante, Giovanni; Plieskatt, Jordan; Wilson, David; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J; Keegan, Brian; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Loukas, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Na-APR-1(M74) is an aspartic protease that is rendered enzymatically inactive by site-directed mutagenesis and is a candidate antigen component in the Human Hookworm Vaccine. The mutant protease exerts vaccine efficacy by inducing antibodies that neutralize the enzymatic activity of wild type enzyme (Na-APR-1wt) in the gut of the hookworm, thereby depriving the worm of its ability to digest its blood meal. Previously, canines immunized with Na-APR-1(M74) and challenged with Ancylostoma caninum were partially protected against hookworm challenge infection, especially from the loss in hemoglobin observed in control canines and canine immunoglobulin (Ig) G raised against Na-APR-1 was shown to inhibit the enzymatic activity of Na-APR-1 wt in vitro, thereby providing proof of concept of Na-APR-1(M74) as a vaccine antigen. The mutated version, Na-APR-1(M74), was then expressed at the cGMP level using a Nicotiana benthamiana expression system (Fraunhofer, CMB, Delaware, MD), formulated with Alhydrogel®, and used to immunize mice in a dose-ranging study to explore the enzyme-neutralizing capacity of the resulting anti- Na-APR-1(M74) IgG. As little as 0.99 μg of recombinant Na-APR-1(M74) could induce anti Na-APR-1(M74) IgG in mice that were capable of inhibiting Na-APR-1w t-mediated digestion of a peptide substrate by 89%. In the absence of enzymatic activity of Na-APR-1(M74) as a surrogate marker of protein functionality, we developed an assay based on the binding of a quenched fluorescence-labeled inhibitor of aspartic proteases, BODIPY-FL pepstatin A (BDP). Binding of BDP in the active site of Na-APR-1 wt was demonstrated by inhibition of enzymatic activity, and competitive binding with unlabelled pepstatin A. BDP also bound to Na-APR-1(M74) which was assessed by fluorescence polarization, but with an ∼ 50-fold reduction in the dissociation constant. Taken together, these assays comprise a "toolbox" that could be useful for the analyses of Na-APR-1(M74) as it

  16. Field evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a combination of spinosad and milbemycin oxime in the treatment and prevention of naturally acquired flea infestations and treatment of intestinal nematode infections in dogs in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brad; Schnitzler, Beate; Wiseman, Scott; Snyder, Daniel E

    2015-01-15

    Two separate randomised, blinded, multicentre field trials were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a combination of spinosad and milbemycin oxime (MO) (Trifexis(®), Elanco Animal Health) in the treatment and prevention of naturally acquired flea infestations and intestinal nematode infections in European dogs. Treatments using Trifexis(®) and each control veterinary product (CVP) were administered once on Day 0 in both field studies. In the flea field trial, 11 veterinary clinics in France participated in the study. On Day 0, whole body flea comb counts were conducted on all dogs being evaluated for enrolment. Dogs with ≥7 fleas on Day 0 were enrolled, treated once on Day 0 with spinosad/MO or the CVP (Stronghold(®); selamectin) and then underwent post-treatment flea counts on Days 14 and 30. There were 150 spinosad/MO treated dogs and 71 CVP treated dogs included in the flea effectiveness population. Effectiveness against fleas (% reduction in geometric means; GM) was 98.97% and 97.37% for the spinosad/MO treated dogs, and 97.43% and 93.96% for the CVP dogs on Days 14 and 30, respectively, compared to the pre-treatment baseline flea counts. Of the spinosad/MO dogs, 89.3% and 80.0% had no live fleas on Days 14 and 30, compared to 77.5% and 70.4% of the CVP dogs, respectively. In the nematode field trial, data from 10 veterinary clinics in France and 19 in Ireland were pooled. Faecal samples from dogs at each clinic were analysed. A positive result at screening (parasite eggs from Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis or Ancylostoma caninum) allowed for enrolment. Dogs were randomised to spinosad/MO or the CVP (Milbemax(®); MO/praziquantel). On Day 8, a post-treatment faecal sample was taken and analysed. Of 2333 dogs screened for nematode eggs, 238 dogs were positive with one or more of these nematodes, and 229 were enrolled in the study. Of the 229 dogs, 151 were treated with a single dose of spinosad/MO, and 77 were treated with

  17. Efficacy of afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewable tablets against naturally acquired intestinal nematodes in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, Steffen; Dorr, Paul; Bowman, Dwight D; Crafford, Dionne; Kusi, Ilir; Postoli, Rezart; Yoon, Stephen; Chester, S Theodore; Dollhofer, Doris; Visser, Martin; Larsen, Diane L

    2016-02-15

    The efficacy of oral afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime combination chewable tablets (NexGard Spectra, Merial) against naturally acquired intestinal nematode infections in dogs was evaluated in six negative control, blinded studies including a total of 114 dogs. Dogs were selected based on a pre-treatment fecal examination indicating patent infections with hookworms (two studies), Toxocara or Toxascaris ascarids (one study each) or Trichuris whipworms (two studies). In each study, dogs were assigned to blocks of two animals each, based on decreasing pre-treatment body weight and were randomly allocated to one of two groups consisting of eight, nine or 10 dogs: untreated (control) or treated with the combination chewable tablet formulation. Chewable tablets were combined to provide doses of actives as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime, i.e., 2.5 mg/kg body weight and 0.5 mg/kg body weight, respectively, once on Day 0. For parasite recovery and count, dogs were euthanized humanely and necropsied seven or eight days after treatment. A single treatment with afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewable tablets provided 94.8% and 90.9% efficacy against adult Ancylostoma braziliense and A. caninum, respectively, 97.8% and 99.4% efficacy against adult Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina, respectively, and ≥98.3% efficacy against adult Trichuris vulpis. Compared to untreated controls, nematode counts of the treated dogs were significantly reduced (F-test; p<0.002). In addition, analysis of the pooled data across studies revealed that treatment with afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewable tablets reduced adult Uncinaria stenocephala burdens by 74.9% (p=0.002). All dogs tolerated the treatment well based on clinical observations post-treatment and daily clinical observations. No adverse experiences or other clinical problems related to the treatment were observed throughout the studies. The results of this series of controlled

  18. SOIL-TRANSMITTED HELMINTHS IN CHILDREN WITH CLINICA L SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

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    Rudramuneswara Swamy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The study was conducted to know the prevalence of s oil-transmitted helminths (STH in children aged 1-14 years attending outpati ents and inpatients from both urban and rural background. Out of the 550 stool samples exami ned, 450 were from the study group and 100 from the control group. All the 450 children of the study group presented one or more of the classical symptoms like abdominal pain, low grade fever, diarrhoea, dysentery, constipation and pica. Hundred children from the control group did not have any classical symptoms. Thirty five per cent from the study group and 21 per cent fro m the control group were found positive for one or more of the helminthic infection. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris tr ichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale & Necator americanus (hookworm, Hymenolepis nana and Enterobius vermicularis were 27%, 15%, 0.4%, 2% and 0.22%, respectively in the study g roup and 15%, 10%, 4%, 2%, and 2%, respectively in the control group. Strongyloides ster coralis was not found either in the study or control groups. Helminthic infections were more comm on in 7-9 years of age group, urban children with low socio-economic strata, and with m ale preponderance. Majority of children who harboured STH were suffering from abdominal pain and low grade fever. Total 450 clinical samples (control group examined b y direct wet mount, saturated salt floatation, and formalin-ether sedimentation; and o nly 391 samples examined by Kato-Katz semiquantitative techniques. Twenty six per cent posi tive by direct wet mount, 35% by both saturated salt floatation and formalin-ether sedime ntation whereas 38% of the samples were found positive by Kato-Katz semiquantitative techniq ue. In conclusion, concentration techniques like saturated salt floatation and forma lin-ether sedimentation are the best diagnostic tools to get authentic and reliable resu lts and to rule out fallacious inference caused by relying only on direct wet mount

  19. Differences in transcription between free-living and CO2-activated third-stage larvae of Haemonchus contortus

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    Zhong Weiwei

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The disease caused by Haemonchus contortus, a blood-feeding nematode of small ruminants, is of major economic importance worldwide. The infective third-stage larva (L3 of this gastric nematode is enclosed in a cuticle (sheath and, once ingested with herbage by the host, undergoes an exsheathment process that marks the transition from the free-living (L3 to the parasitic (xL3 stage. This study explored changes in gene transcription associated with this transition and predicted, based on comparative analysis, functional roles for key transcripts in the metabolic pathways linked to larval development. Results Totals of 101,305 (L3 and 105,553 (xL3 expressed sequence tags (ESTs were determined using 454 sequencing technology, and then assembled and annotated; the most abundant transcripts encoded transthyretin-like, calcium-binding EF-hand, NAD(P-binding and nucleotide-binding proteins as well as homologues of Ancylostoma-secreted proteins (ASPs. Using an in silico-subtractive analysis, 560 and 685 sequences were shown to be uniquely represented in the L3 and xL3 stages, respectively; the transcripts encoded ribosomal proteins, collagens and elongation factors (in L3, and mainly peptidases and other enzymes of amino acid catabolism (in xL3. Caenorhabditis elegans orthologues of transcripts that were uniquely transcribed in each L3 and xL3 were predicted to interact with a total of 535 other genes, all of which were involved in embryonic development. Conclusion The present study indicated that some key transcriptional alterations taking place during the transition from the L3 to the xL3 stage of H. contortus involve genes predicted to be linked to the development of neuronal tissue (L3 and xL3, formation of the cuticle (L3 and digestion of host haemoglobin (xL3. Future efforts using next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic technologies should provide the efficiency and depth of coverage required for the determination of the

  20. The Study on the Ferrokinetics and Acquired Immunity in Repeated Hookworm Infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mun Ho; Lee, Pyl Ung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1967-09-15

    In order to confirm whether acquired immunity or resistance can be developed by the repeated hookworm infections, the 150 mature actively moving filariform ancylostoma duodenale larvae obtained from the severe hookworm anemia patients were orally given to 8 healthy volunteers in three divided doses, 50 in each, at 5 day interval. Also the hematological changes as well as several ferrokinetics using {sup 59}Fe were done and were compared with 10 controls. The clinical symptoms and signs were checked every day for the first 3 weeks and then twice weekly until the end of the experiment. The appearance of the ova in the stool was examined by the formalin ether method and the ova was counted by the Stoll's method. The following laboratory tests were done:1) Red blood cell count, venous blood hematocrit (micromethod), hemoglobin count (cyanomethemoglobin method) were checked every 5 to 7 day interval. 2) Plasma iron concentration (Barkan's modified method) was determined every 2 to 3 week interval. 3) Radioisotope studies:a) Ferrokinetics: Huff et al and Bothwell's method were applied. Erythropoietic Index (% of normal)= ['Subject's turnover/100 ml whole bloodX100'] over ['Average normal turnover/100 ml whole blood'] b) Quantitative measurement of the gastrointestinal absorption of iron:Radioiron ({sup 59}Fe) balance method was applied. c) Determination of the plasma erythropoietin activity: Fried's method was applied. Following were the results: 1) The serum iron level was lower. The red cell volume was decreased, but with relative increase of plasma volume. 2) The plasma iron disappearance time was accelerated and the plasma iron turnover rate was decreased. The red cell iron turnover rate was markedly increased, while all of the red cell iron concentration, circulating red cell iron, plasma iron pool were decreased. The daily iron pool turnover and red cell renewal rate were increased. 3) The erythropoietic index

  1. Canine faecal contamination and parasitic risk in the city of Naples (southern Italy

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    Veneziano Vincenzo

    2006-09-01

    positivity to parasitic elements and the number of canine faeces. Eggs of Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma caninum and Trichuris vulpis were found, as well as oocysts of Isospora canis. Conclusion In conclusion, the results of the present study, conducted using GIS both for planning and sampling and for evaluation and presentation of findings, showed the presence of canine faecal contamination in the city of Naples, and the presence of canine parasitic elements, some of which are potential agents of zoonosis.

  2. Disintegrins from Hematophagous Sources

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    Ivo M. B. Francischetti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Bloodsucking arthropods are a rich source of salivary molecules (sialogenins which inhibit platelet aggregation, neutrophil function and angiogenesis. Here we review the literature on salivary disintegrins and their targets. Disintegrins were first discovered in snake venoms, and were instrumental in our understanding of integrin function and also for the development of anti-thrombotic drugs. In hematophagous animals, most disintegrins described so far have been discovered in the salivary gland of ticks and leeches. A limited number have also been found in hookworms and horseflies, and none identified in mosquitoes or sand flies. The vast majority of salivary disintegrins reported display a RGD motif and were described as platelet aggregation inhibitors, and few others as negative modulator of neutrophil or endothelial cell functions. This notably low number of reported disintegrins is certainly an underestimation of the actual complexity of this family of proteins in hematophagous secretions. Therefore an algorithm was created in order to identify the tripeptide motifs RGD, KGD, VGD, MLD, KTS, RTS, WGD, or RED (flanked by cysteines in sialogenins deposited in GenBank database. The search included sequences from various blood-sucking animals such as ticks (e.g., Ixodes sp., Argas sp., Rhipicephalus sp., Amblyomma sp., tabanids (e.g., Tabanus sp., bugs (e.g., Triatoma sp., Rhodnius prolixus, mosquitoes (e.g., Anopheles sp., Aedes sp., Culex sp., sand flies (e.g., Lutzomyia sp., Phlebotomus sp., leeches (e.g., Macrobdella sp., Placobdella sp. and worms (e.g., Ancylostoma sp.. This approach allowed the identification of a remarkably high number of novel putative sialogenins with tripeptide motifs typical of disintegrins (>450 sequences whose biological activity remains to be verified. This database is accessible

  3. Heavy metals and parasitic geohelminths toxicity among geophagous pregnant women: a case study of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odongo, A O; Moturi, W N; Mbuthia, E K

    2016-02-01

    Geophagia is defined as deliberate consumption of earths' materials, e.g. soil, clay and soft stones. The practice is widespread among pregnant women, and there are conflicting views as to whether it is beneficial to health or not. Geophagic materials may be a source of micronutrients though the materials may bind the micronutrients thus reducing or hindering their bioavailability in the body. Geophagia is closely associated with geohelminthic infections among pregnant women and heavy metal poisoning, which constitute significant public health problem in many developing countries such as Kenya. In our research, the geophagic materials consumed by the pregnant women were studied. A total of 38 geophagic materials in the possession by different pregnant women were analysed. The collected samples were subjected to standard digestion procedures and analysed for zinc, lead and iron by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results indicated that the geophagic materials contained elevated levels of Fe at mean concentration value of 80.10 ppm, Pb at 3.28 ppm and Zn 1.81 ppm for a 1.00 g sample. An average of 20 g of the geophagic materials was being consumed per day. Based on the average consumption, the pregnant women were exposed to 65.52 ppm Pb per day, 36.2 ppm Zn per day and 1602 ppm Fe per day. Lead exceeded the WHO-lead exposure limits of 25 ppm/day for pregnant women. The materials were also subjected to microscopic examination for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia Spp., Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. In conclusion, the women were exposed to heavy metals-iron, zinc and lead, but there was no observable eggs, larvae or adult species of the geohelminths. The key recommendation was that there is need to integrate public health education on geophagia, lead screening and testing with antenatal support care systems. This will enhance maternal and child health, thus reducing infant and maternal morbidity and mortality rates. PMID:25750054

  4. Surveillance results of soil-transmitted nematode disease in Lingbi County from 2011 to 2013%2011~2013年安徽灵璧县土源性线虫病监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马超; 金伟; 尚军; 刘云章

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and severity of soil-transmitted nematode infec⁃tions in Lingbi County as well as endemic patterns and influencing factors for supplying scientific strategies with prevention and management of this infection. Methods Modified Kato-Katz thick smear technique was used to determine Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms from the stool samples(one stool specimen-three slides) collected from 1 000 local villagers of Lingbi County in yearly manner. Other parasite species, if detected, were registered as well. Another 15 soil samples were collected for microscopic examina⁃tion on the presence of tapeworms. Results A total of 3 000 persons were subjected to stool detection from 2011 to 2013. The average infection rate in the 3 years was 13.3%, 7.0%and 6.8%respectively. The infectiosi⁃ty was mild in general, and the infection was primarily involved in ancylostomiasis. The major species found in the soil was Ancylostoma duodenale. Conclusion Lingbi County falls into class 2 endemic area, and the infec⁃tiosity for infected people is generally mild.%目的:了解灵璧县土源性寄生虫病流行现状和感染程度,探索流行规律及影响因素,科学制订防治策略和防治措施。方法每年采用改良加藤厚涂片法(一送三检)对1000名居民的蛔虫、鞭虫和钩虫感染情况进行调查,调查中若发现其它寄生虫感染也一并记录。每年采用镜检方法对15份土壤样本中的钩蚴污染情况进行调查。结果从2011到2013年共调查3000人,3年的感染率分别为13.3%、7.0%和6.8%。感染者主要集中在轻度感染中,且以钩虫感染为主。土壤钩蚴污染以十二指肠钩蚴为主。结论灵璧县属Ⅱ类流行区,感染度以轻度为主。

  5. Avaliação da contaminação experimental de areias de praias por enteroparasitas: pesquisa de ovos de Helmintos

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    Joaquim Pereira da Silva

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se avaliar métodos e soluções tradicionalmente utilizados na evidenciação de ovos de helmintos parásitos, de fezes ou do solo, em amostras de areia de praia experimentalmente contaminadas com ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Toxocara canis e Ancylostoma sp. Das soluções classicamente utilizadas, a de Dicromato de Sódio (d= 1,350 foi a que apresentou melhores resultados (índice de recuperação = 50% para ovos de Ascaris, em 24 horas de observação. As duas soluções propostas: Carbonato de Sódio (d= 1,040 e Detergente aniônico sintético - Sulfonato de Sódio (d= 1,040, apresentaram índices de recuperação surpreendentes, superiores a 80% para os ovos de Ascaris, em 24 horas de observação. Conclui-se que o detergente de uso doméstico, pelo seu baixo custo e facilidade de aquisição, pode ser usado na avaliação de rotina da contaminação de areias de praias pelos ovos de enteroparasitos, importantes indicadores de contaminação fecal, necessários a um adequado monitoramento sanitário do meio.An attempt was made to assess methods and solutions traditionally used for evidencing the presence of helminth's eggs in faeces or soil from beach sand samples experimentally infected with eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Toxocara canis and Ancylostomidae. Among classically used solutions. Sodium Dicromate (d= 1.350 was the one with better results (recovery rate =50% for Ascaris eggs in a 24 hours observation. The two suggested solutions - Sodium Carbonate (d= 1.040 and synthetic anionic detergent - Sodium Sulphonate (d- 1.040 - showed surprising recovery rates, higher than 80% for Ascaris eggs in a 24 hours observation. We concluded that, because of their low cost and great availability, domestic detergents can be used for the routine evaluations of beachs contamination with enteroparasites eggs, which are important indicators of faecal contamination and necessary for an adequate sanitary

  6. Epidemiological surveys of, and research on, soil-transmitted helminths in Southeast Asia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Julia C; Turner, Hugo C; Tun, Aung; Anderson, Roy M

    2016-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections of humans fall within the World Health Organization's (WHO) grouping termed the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). It is estimated that they affect approximately 1.4 billion people worldwide. A significant proportion of these infections are in the population of Southeast Asia. This review analyses published data on STH prevalence and intensity in Southeast Asia over the time period of 1900 to the present to describe age related patterns in these epidemiological measures. This is with a focus on the four major parasite species affecting humans; namely Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms; Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Data were also collected on the diagnostic methods used in the published surveys and how the studies were designed to facilitate comparative analyses of recorded patterns and changes therein over time. PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Global Atlas of Helminth Infections search engines were used to identify studies on STH in Southeast Asia with the search based on the major key words, and variants on, "soil-transmitted helminth" "Ascaris" "Trichuris" "hookworm" and the country name. A total of 280 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria from 11 Southeast Asian countries; Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste and Vietnam. It was concluded that the epidemiological patterns of STH infection by age and species mix in Southeast Asia are similar to those reported in other parts of the world. In the published studies there were a large number of different diagnostic methods used with differing sensitivities and specificities, which makes comparison of the results both within and between countries difficult. There is a clear requirement to standardise the methods of both STH diagnosis in faecal material and how the

  7. Impact of helminth diagnostic test performance on estimation of risk factors and outcomes in HIV-positive adults.

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    Michael B Arndt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traditional methods using microscopy for the detection of helminth infections have limited sensitivity. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays enhance detection of helminths, particularly low burden infections. However, differences in test performance may modify the ability to detect associations between helminth infection, risk factors, and sequelae. We compared these associations using microscopy and PCR. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was nested within a randomized clinical trial conducted at 3 sites in Kenya. We performed microscopy and real-time multiplex PCR for the stool detection and quantification of Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Schistosoma species. We utilized regression to evaluate associations between potential risk factors or outcomes and infection as detected by either method. RESULTS: Of 153 HIV-positive adults surveyed, 55(36.0% and 20(13.1% were positive for one or more helminth species by PCR and microscopy, respectively (p<0.001. PCR-detected infections were associated with farming (Prevalence Ratio 1.57, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.40, communal water source (PR 3.80, 95% CI: 1.01, 14.27, and no primary education (PR 1.54, 95% CI: 1.14, 2.33, whereas microscopy-detected infections were not associated with any risk factors under investigation. Microscopy-detected infections were associated with significantly lower hematocrit and hemoglobin (means of -3.56% and -0.77 g/dl and a 48% higher risk of anemia (PR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.88 compared to uninfected. Such associations were absent for PCR-detected infections unless infection intensity was considered, Infections diagnosed with either method were associated with increased risk of eosinophilia (PCR PR 2.42, 95% CI: 1.02, 5.76; microscopy PR 2.92, 95% CI: 1.29, 6.60. CONCLUSION: Newer diagnostic methods, including PCR, improve the detection of helminth infections. This heightened sensitivity may improve the

  8. Segurança alimentar de hortaliças orgânicas: aspectos sanitários e nutricionais Organic vegetables safety: sanitary and nutritional aspects

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    Kettelin Aparecida Arbos

    2010-05-01

    organic foods is expressive worldwide due to the population awareness about the health risks resulting from the presence of chemical residues in food. Several studies suggest that some practices of organic farming, such as the use of animal manure and rules prohibiting the use of conventional pesticides, can increase the microbiological and parasitic risks. Hence, these foods would not be suitable for human consumption. In this context, the present research aimed at determining the sanitary quality of organic vegetables through the evaluation of microbiological contamination by total and fecal and coliforms, Salmonella sp., and parasitological contamination. Moreover, samples of organic lettuce, carrots, and tomatoes from the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, Paraná, were submitted to physicochemical evaluation to assess their nutritional quality. Thermotolerant coliforms, or fecal coliforms, were detected in 40% of the lettuce and in 25% of the carrot samples. It was observed that 25% of the carrot and 20% of lettuce samples presented Salmonella sp., whereas the tomato samples did not present thermotolerant coliforms or Salmonella sp. The major parasites identified in the lettuce samples were acarus, Entamoeba sp., eggs of Ancylostoma sp., and insects. Entamoeba sp., eggs of Ancylostoma sp. and Toxocara sp. were identified in the organic carrot samples, while the tomato samples did not present any parasitological contamination. The data suggest that the organic lettuce and carrot samples might have been contaminated somehow by the soil, water, domestic animals, or non-suitable fertilizers.

  9. Prevalence of intestinal helminths in cats in Quindío, Colombia Prevalencia de helmintos intestinales en gatos domésticos del departamento del Quindío, Colombia

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    Diana Marcela Echeverry

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduction. Diseases caused by helminths are widely distributed in the world and many of them are considered zoonoses in which pets play a major role in transmission to humans.
    Objective. To determine the prevalence of intestinal helminths in cats in Quindío.
    Materials and methods. 121 cats were studied in Quindío; data as sex, age and body condition were recorded. Fecal samples were collected and processed using the modified Ritchie and modified Kato-Katz techniques to determine the presence of intestinal helminths.
    Results. Of the 121 cats, 42.14%, (95%CI: 33.35-50.94 and 45.45% (95%CI: 36.58-54.32 were parasitized with at least one adult helminth species as evidenced by the presence of eggs in their fecal samples, using the Ritchie and Kato-Katz techniques, respectively. Toxocara cati was the most prevalent parasite (Ritchie: 37.2%, Kato-Katz: 43%, followed by Ancylostoma spp. (Ritchie: 7.43%, Kato-Katz: 5.78% and Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Ritchie:0.82%. 65 cats (53.71% were females and 56 (46.28% males; the prevalence of infection was similar in both sexes. The cats older than 4 years had the highest prevalence (81.8% followed by those aged 1 to 4 years (48.8% and by those under 1 year (28.6%. The majority of cats, 77.68%, were found to be in good body condition and this group had the lowest frequency of intestinal helminthes with both techniques.
    Conclusion. The prevalence of intestinal helminths in domestic cats in the department of Quindío was 43.8%; it is necessary to establish surveillance and prevention programs in the human and feline populations.

     

    Introducción. Las enfermedades producidas por helmintos están ampliamente distribuidas en el mundo y muchas de ellas se consideran zoonosis. Los animales de compañía cumplen un papel trascendental dentro de la transmisión a los humanos.
    Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia de helmintos intestinales en gatos del departamento del Quind

  10. 湖南省汝城县土源性线虫病感染现状调查%Survey on Current Status of Geohelminthes Disease Infection in Rucheng County, Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹月娥; 朱金林; 朱晓英; 朱敏燕; 游晓敏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To know the epidemic status and trends of geohelminthe disease and assess the effectiveness of its prevention in Rucheng County, Hunan Province, and to provide the reference for the development of the future strategies of geohelminthes control.Methods Five administrative villages were randomly selected from five towns in Rucheng County, Hunan Province.More than 200 residents in each administrative village were selected.Kato - Katz thick smear technique was used for quantitative determination of helminth eggs in faeces and the degree of infection (egg per gram, EPG) was calculated.The tube- filter paper culture method was used to separate oncosphere.Results Totally 1,000 residents were checked in five surveyed sites.Four kinds of geohelminthes were found.The total infection rate was 10.2%, of which 5.6% in roundworm, 3.5% in hookworm, 0.7% in trichuris, and 0.4% in enterobius.No statistically significant difference was found in the infection rates of roundworm and hookworm among the 5 towns (x2 = 4.29, P >0.05; and x2 = 4.74, P >0.05).The infection rates of male and female showed no statistically significant difference (x2 = 2.97, P > 0.05).There were statistically significant differences in the infection rate of hookworm between male and female (x2 = 10.19, P<0.01).There were statistically significant differences in the infection rate of hookworm among all age groups (x2 =49.5, P<0.01).Ancylostoma duodenale accounted for 29%.Necator americanus accounted for 71%.Conclusions Compared with the first survey results 20 years ago, the infection rate declines significantly.Universal prevention and treatment knowledge of parasitic diseases, feces harmless treatment and deworming drugs for the focus groups still need to continuously strengthen in the rural areas in order to consolidate the results of prevention and treatment of parasitic diseases.%目的 了解掌握汝城县土源性线虫病流行现状和趋势,评估其防治效果,为

  11. Thrombolytic effect of rAcAP5 and its mechanism%rAcAP5的溶栓作用及作用机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁双; 刘晓岩; 朱元军; 王银叶

    2012-01-01

    犬钩虫抗凝肽(Ancylostoma caninum anticoagulant peptide,AcAP5)是一种已报道的FXa抑制剂,它对防止血栓溶解的TAFIa具有很强的抑制作用,本文进一步研究rAcAP5的纤溶活性和溶栓活性.采用发色产物法测定rAcAP5对TAFIa的抑制作用,用比浊法测定rAcAP5对尿激酶(UK)诱导的纤维蛋白溶解时间的影响,通过血栓称重法进行体外溶栓实验和体内动静脉旁路溶栓实验.采用常规方法测定正常大鼠优球蛋白溶解时间(ELT),血浆纤维蛋白原含量和纤维蛋白降解产物(FDP)含量.rAcAP5浓度依赖地抑制TAFIa活性,其IC50为63.7 nmol/L,为一个强的TAFIa抑制剂.rAcAP5 (5-40 nmol/L)能够显著地加速尿激酶诱导纤维蛋白的溶解,缩短纤溶时间.rAcAP5能够提高尿激酶诱导的血栓减重(P<0.05),单独使用rAcAP5也能显著增加体外实验的血栓减重(P<0.05).在大鼠体内的动静脉旁路模型中,单次静脉给予rAcAP5 (50-200 μg/kg)能够剂量依赖地增加血栓减重(P<0.01).rAcAP5在有效剂量对正常大鼠的ELT、血浆纤维蛋白原含量和FDP含量均无明显影响.研究结果提示:rAcAP5是一个强效溶栓多肽,它可能通过抑制TAFIa的活性而在血栓表面具有溶栓活性,而不影响循环血液中的纤溶活性和纤维蛋白原含量.%Ancylostoma caninum anticoagulant peptide 5 (AcAP5) has been reported as an FXa inhibitor.We found that this peptide showed potent inhibitory activity on activated thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFIa),which protects the fibrin clot against lysis.This study investigated the effects of recombinant AcAP5 (rAcAP5) on fibrinolytic activity in vitro and on thrombolytic activity in vitro and in vivo.In addition,euglobulin lysis time (ELT),fibrinogen content and fibrin degradation product (FDP) in normal rat plasma were all determined to evaluate the influence of rAcAP5 on fibrinolytic activity in circulation blood.TAFIa activity was detected by colorimetry

  12. 简单异尖线虫D-天冬氨酸蛋白酶基因的克隆和表达%Cloning and Expression of D-like Aspartic Protease of Anisakis simplex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪芳; 徐世三; 王逸难; 余长茂; 罗大民

    2012-01-01

    目的 克隆简单异尖线虫Ⅲ期幼虫(L3)的D-天冬氨酸蛋白酶基因(AsAP)全长,研究其表达蛋白的特性.方法 根据GenBank中简单异尖线虫D-天冬氨酸蛋白酶基因表达序列标签的部分信息,设计特异引物并用cDNA末端快速扩增技术得到AsAP全长序列,分析推导的蛋白序列特征,并预测其三级结构.用RT-PCR扩增简单异尖线虫L3的AsAP 基因编码序列,产物用EcoRⅠ和Sal Ⅰ双酶切,连入表达载体pET32a(+),转化大肠埃希菌(E.coli) BL21 (DE3),以异丙基-β-D-硫代半乳糖苷(IPTG)诱导表达,表达产物经十二烷基硫酸钠-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)检测.结果 简单异尖线虫L3的AsAP基因全长1753 bp,编码453个氨基酸,与锡兰钩虫(Ancylostoma ceylanicum)的D-天冬氨酸蛋白酶相似性达65%.该蛋白具有两个保守的催化域,1个活性中心翼环,S2和S3亚位点各1个;具有由20个氨基酸组成的N端信号肽,构成疏水性强的跨膜域.不同浓度的IPTG (0.2~~1.6 mmol/L)诱导对AsAP表达的影响较小,1.0 mmol/LIPTG诱导2h后表达量达到最高水平.结论 克隆并表达了简单异尖线虫的D-天冬氨酸蛋白酶.%Objective To clone and express the full length of D-like aspartic protease gene (AsAP) of the third stage larvae of Anisakis simplex. Methods According to the partial information of D-like aspartic protease encoding gene of A. simplex from GenBank, specific primers were designed to amplify 3'end and 5' end of AsAP gene using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), and the full length of the D-like aspartic protease gene was obtained. Using total RNA of the third-stage larvae of A. simplex, coding sequence of the AsAP gene was amplified by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The PCR product was digested by EcoR I and Sal I , and cloned into pET32 vector. The recombinant plasmid was checked by double enzyme digestion and sequencing, and the positive recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL

  13. Water, sanitation, hygiene, and soil-transmitted helminth infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C Strunz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preventive chemotherapy represents a powerful but short-term control strategy for soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Since humans are often re-infected rapidly, long-term solutions require improvements in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively summarize the relationship between WASH access or practices and soil-transmitted helminth (STH infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the associations of improved WASH on infection with STH (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm [Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus], and Strongyloides stercoralis. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and LILACS were searched from inception to October 28, 2013 with no language restrictions. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they provided an estimate for the effect of WASH access or practices on STH infection. We assessed the quality of published studies with the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE approach. A total of 94 studies met our eligibility criteria; five were randomized controlled trials, whilst most others were cross-sectional studies. We used random-effects meta-analyses and analyzed only adjusted estimates to help account for heterogeneity and potential confounding respectively. Use of treated water was associated with lower odds of STH infection (odds ratio [OR] 0.46, 95% CI 0.36-0.60. Piped water access was associated with lower odds of A. lumbricoides (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.39-0.41 and T. trichiura infection (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.45-0.72, but not any STH infection (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.28-3.11. Access to sanitation was associated with decreased likelihood of infection with any STH (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.57-0.76, T. trichiura (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.50-0.74, and A. lumbricoides (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.44-0.88, but not with hookworm infection (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.61-1.06. Wearing shoes was associated with reduced odds

  14. Prevalence and risk factors of Giardia duodenalis in dogs from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mircean, Viorica; Györke, Adriana; Cozma, Vasile

    2012-03-23

    in communities were identified as risk factors for infection by multivariate logistic regression analysis. 71.2% (37/52) Giardia cysts positive dogs presented co-infections with other intestinal parasites: Toxocara canis (14/52; 26.9%), Isospora ohioensis (12/52; 23.1%), Ancylostoma caninum (9/52; 17.3%), Uncinaria stenocephala (7/52; 13.5%), Trichocephalus vulpis (6/52; 11.5%), Hammondia heydorni/Neospora caninum (5/52; 9.6%), Sarcocystis spp. (5/52; 9.6%), Isospora canis (4/52; 7.7%), Capillaria aerophila (3/52; 5.8%), Strongyloides stercoralis (2/52; 93.8%), Dipylidium caninum (1/52; 1.9%) and Toxascaris leonina (1/52; 1.9%). PMID:21899952

  15. Analysis of the rDNA-sequences from internal transcribed space-3 through RFLP%3种线虫rDNA-ITS2-RFLP分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任芳; 杨玉荣; 韦华

    2006-01-01

    目的爪哇根结线虫(Meloidogyne javanica)、鼠蛲虫(Enterobius sp.)和犬钩虫(Ancylostoma caninum)是来自不同种属的3种线虫,利用rDNA-ITS2-RFLP方法分析3种不同线虫种间多态性,为将来进一步发展以rDNA-ITS-RFLP分析为基础的土源性线虫的分子诊断方法建立基础.方法应用种间具有较为保守性的遗传区域-内转录间隔区,包括部分的5.8S序列、ITS2和28S的序列,以爪哇根结线虫、鼠蛲虫、犬钩虫3种不同种类线虫的基因组DNA为模板,设计特定引物用PCR扩增rDNA-ITS2+片段,用限制性内切酶HindⅢ、EcoRⅠ、EcoRⅤ、PstⅠ、KpnⅠ和SalⅠ酶切PCR扩增产物进行RFLP分析.结果PCR扩增爪哇根结线虫、鼠蛲虫、犬钩虫得到的ITS2+片段大小分别为1 000bp、1 800bp、1 800bp,用6种限制性内切酶酶切PCR扩增产物,共产生12条酶切片段.用限制性内切酶HindⅢ/EcoRⅠ,PstⅠ/EcoRⅠ,HindⅢ/PstⅠ双酶切爪哇根结线虫、鼠蛲虫和犬钩虫的rDNA-ITS2+的PCR扩增产物,除爪哇根结线虫外,鼠蛲虫和犬钩虫均可得到2条以上的RFLP片段.结论爪哇根结线虫、鼠蛲虫、犬钩虫rDNA-ITS-RFLP分析显示这3种不同线虫rDNA-ITS2+存在着种间多样性,其中爪哇根结线虫为植物寄生性线虫,而鼠蛲虫和犬钩虫均为动物寄生性线虫,说明rDNA-ITS2+-RFLP方法可用来作为判断线虫种间多样性以及诊断和区分不同线虫的有用依据.

  16. Zoonotic enteric parasites transmitted from dogs in Egypt with special concern to Toxocara canis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysa A. I. Awadallah

    2015-08-01

    7.62, p˃0.05 did not seem to have a significant association among the examined dogs. Enteric parasitic infection was reported in 31/150 human stools (20.67%. Students were the most affected groups (37.14%, followed by nomadic people (24%, house wives (20%, house guarders and military workers (12%, each, and employees (10%. The identified parasites were Cryptosporidium spp. (9.33%, Ascaris lumbercoides (3.33%, Heterophyes spp. and Ancylostoma spp. (2.66%, each and Paragonimus spp. and Hymenolepis nana (1.33%, each. Toxocara IgG antibodies were detected in 36/150 (24% serum samples investigated. Toxocara IgG antibodies were more prevalent in males (26.66% than females (20%. Seroprevalence was highest (17/35, 48.57% in 7-15 years old (COR=6.93, 95% CI=1.75-27.43, p=0.006. Seroprevalence values for T. canis antibodies were higher in those; raising dogs (29.85%, eating raw vegetables (25.21% and not washing hands before meals (25.45%. T. canis antibodies were detected in 25% of those contacted with soil compared to 30% of those did not. Students were mostly affected (34.29%, followed by nomadic people (32%, house guarders (28%, housewives (20%, military workers (13%, and employees (10%. Conclusion: Detection of enteric parasites in dogs and humans in Egypt substantiates the role posed by dogs in transmitting zoonotic parasites to humans and knock an alarm for common sources of infection for humans and dogs. Common sources may be infected fish or contaminated vegetables that are consumed by dogs or humans or even infected rodents that may contaminate their feed. This pilot study necessitate the need for similar studies and tracing such infection in fish, vegetables, rodent that may be responsible for infecting humans and dogs in order to understand the epidemiology of zoonotic parasitic infection transmitted from dogs to humans.

  17. Fitoterapia Mbyá-Guaraní en el control de las parasitosis intestinales. Un estudio exploratorio con Chenopodium ambrosioides L. var. anthelminticum en cinco comunidades de Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Navone

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En las comunidades Mbyá-Guaraní, el conocimiento local de las especies vegetales que habitan el “monte” se pone de manifi esto en el desarrollo de distintas actividades tales como su empleo medicinal en las parasitosis y dolencias asociadas. El objetivo de esta contribución fue evaluar la eficacia deChenopodium ambrosioidesL. var.anthelminticum(Ka´aré en el control de las enteroparasitosis. El estudio fue realizado durante septiembre de 1998 y abril de 1999 en las comunidades de Marangatú (MA, Ñamandú (ÑA, El Pocito (PO, Tabay (TB y Takuapí (TA del Departamento Libertador General San Martín, Misiones, Argentina. La muestra incluyó 148 personas que fueron agrupadas por sexo e intervalos etáreos. El tratamiento fitoterapéutico consistió en la administración de tintura de Ka´aré (maceración en alcohol etílico al 70%. El análisis coproparasitológico se realizó mediante examen directo y la técnica de enriquecimiento por flotación (Füllerbon previo y posterior al tratamiento con el Ka´aré. Los resultados indicaron altos porcentajes de individuos parasitados previo al tratamiento (PRET que fluctuaron entre 73.5% y 91.7%. Entre los protozoosEntamoeba colifue la especie más prevalente con porcentajes entre 18.4% y 37.5%.Hymenolepis nanaentre los cestodes presentó prevalencias entre 4.2% y 20.8%. Entre los nemátodosAncylostoma duodenale/Necator americanus(Ancylostomideos fue la más frecuente y su prevalencia fluctuó entre 55.1% y 83.3%.Trichuris trichiurasólo fue observado en ÑA y con una prevalencia muy baja (3.8%. El porcentaje de monoparasitismo fue mayor en ÑA (56.5%, el de biparasitismo en MA y TA (44.4%, mientras que el de poliparasitismo en TB (36.8%. En la evaluación postratamiento (POST la prevalencia total de parasitosis descendió respecto del pretratamiento (79.7% vs 68.9% (X2 Yates = 4.57; p E. coli(30.8%-0.0% y Ancylostomídeos (52.0%-11.5%. Así, en ÑA los Ancylostomídeos mostraron diferencias

  18. Um estudo sôbre a eosinofilia nas helmintoses

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    Ruy Gomes de Moraes

    1968-08-01

    Full Text Available 1 - Foram examinadas as fezes de 2.666 indivíduos, operários e funcionários de duas Emprésas industriais, situadas, uma na cidade do Rio de Janeiro e outra no Estado do Rio (Brasil; 2 - Dos 2.666 indivíduos, 1941 (72.80% estavam parasitados por um ou mais helmintos e 725 (27,20% tinham seus exames de fezes negativos; 3 - De cada um dos 2.666 indivíduos foi feito um hemograma completo, tendo sido aproveitada a taxa de eosinófilos que, em associação com os exames de fezes, constituiu o objeto principal dêste trabalho. 4 - Na Tabela A observa-se o número de vêzes em que cada um dos vermes foi observado e seus respectivos percentuais. Embora não seja um trabalho de epidemiologia, verifica-se que 46,81% são infestados pelo Trichuris trichiura; 23,85% pelo Strongyloides stercoralis; 22,46% pelo Necator americanus e/ou Ancylostoma duodenale; 20,51% pelo Ascaris lumbricóides; 1,65% pelo Schistosoma mansoni; 0.67% pelo Enterobius vermicularis; 0,26% por Taenia solium ou T. saginata e 0,11% por Hymenolepis nana; 5 - Os exames de fezes foram feitos pelos métodos de Faust (ou de Ritchie, de Willis, de Baermann e de sedimentação; 6 - A eosinofilia anotada foi a relativa ou em seu percentual, sendo considerada hipereosinofilia uma taxa de eosinófilos igual ou superior a 5% (Eo > 5%; 7 - Foram abordados de modo conciso os fatores que provocam oscilações na eosinofilia normal tais como a idade, a raça, as horas do nictêmero, os fatores físicos, o sexo, os fatores químicos e outros; 8 - Tratou-se de modo mais extenso das diferenças entre as hipereosinofilias parasitárias e não parasitárias, tendo sido focalizada a dinâmica da eosinofilia traduzida na curva de Lavier. 9 - A distribuição dos 2.666 casos foi feita pelos diferentes graus de eosinofilia, tendo sido levantados gráficos e traçadas curvas sôbre a distribuição de cada helminto e de suas associações. 10 - Por ser necessário à explanação do assunto, foi criado o