WorldWideScience

Sample records for ancillary network nutrient

  1. Mixed integer non-linear programming and Artificial Neural Network based approach to ancillary services dispatch in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canizes, Bruno; Soares, João; Faria, Pedro; Vale, Zita

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Ancillary services market management. • Ancillary services requirements forecast based on Artificial Neural Network. • Ancillary services clearing mechanisms without complex bids and with complex bids. - Abstract: Ancillary services represent a good business opportunity that must be considered by market players. This paper presents a new methodology for ancillary services market dispatch. The method considers the bids submitted to the market and includes a market clearing mechanism based on deterministic optimization. An Artificial Neural Network is used for day-ahead prediction of Regulation Down, regulation-up, Spin Reserve and Non-Spin Reserve requirements. Two test cases based on California Independent System Operator data concerning dispatch of Regulation Down, Regulation Up, Spin Reserve and Non-Spin Reserve services are included in this paper to illustrate the application of the proposed method: (1) dispatch considering simple bids; (2) dispatch considering complex bids

  2. Nutrient spiraling in streams and river networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign, Scott H.; Doyle, Martin W.

    2006-12-01

    Over the past 3 decades, nutrient spiraling has become a unifying paradigm for stream biogeochemical research. This paper presents (1) a quantitative synthesis of the nutrient spiraling literature and (2) application of these data to elucidate trends in nutrient spiraling within stream networks. Results are based on 404 individual experiments on ammonium (NH4), nitrate (NO3), and phosphate (PO4) from 52 published studies. Sixty-nine percent of the experiments were performed in first- and second-order streams, and 31% were performed in third- to fifth-order streams. Uptake lengths, Sw, of NH4 (median = 86 m) and PO4 (median = 96 m) were significantly different (α = 0.05) than NO3 (median = 236 m). Areal uptake rates of NH4 (median = 28 μg m-2 min-1) were significantly different than NO3 and PO4 (median = 15 and 14 μg m-2 min-1, respectively). There were significant differences among NH4, NO3, and PO4 uptake velocity (median = 5, 1, and 2 mm min-1, respectively). Correlation analysis results were equivocal on the effect of transient storage on nutrient spiraling. Application of these data to a stream network model showed that recycling (defined here as stream length ÷ Sw) of NH4 and NO3 generally increased with stream order, while PO4 recycling remained constant along a first- to fifth-order stream gradient. Within this hypothetical stream network, cumulative NH4 uptake decreased slightly with stream order, while cumulative NO3 and PO4 uptake increased with stream order. These data suggest the importance of larger rivers to nutrient spiraling and the need to consider how stream networks affect nutrient flux between terrestrial and marine ecosystems.

  3. Optimal Sizing and Allocation of Residential Photovoltaic Panels in a Distribution Network for Ancillary Services Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kordheili, Reza Ahmadi; Pourmousavi, Ali; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2014-01-01

    requirements, such as voltage and current limits. This paper proposes an optimization method for determining the number of photovoltaic (PV) panels together with their arrangement in the grid in order to maximize ancillary service, without violating grid operation limits. The proposed optimization method...

  4. Ancillary service provision from distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study undertaken to investigate the potential for establishing ancillary service markets at the distribution level in the UK. Existing arrangements for ancillary service markets globally, the design of these markets, regulatory and legislative changes that may be required, different forms of distributed generation (DG), and prospects of increasing the connection to the distributed network are examined along with commercial frameworks and technical procedures, infrastructure requirements, and the effects on different market participants. The scope for new ancillary services at the distribution level, ancillary services from DG, the prospects for DG, commercial and technical aspects, and impact assessments are reviewed.

  5. Ancillary service provision from distributed generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study undertaken to investigate the potential for establishing ancillary service markets at the distribution level in the UK. Existing arrangements for ancillary service markets globally, the design of these markets, regulatory and legislative changes that may be required, different forms of distributed generation (DG), and prospects of increasing the connection to the distributed network are examined along with commercial frameworks and technical procedures, infrastructure requirements, and the effects on different market participants. The scope for new ancillary services at the distribution level, ancillary services from DG, the prospects for DG, commercial and technical aspects, and impact assessments are reviewed

  6. Scaling Dissolved Nutrient Removal in River Networks: A Comparative Modeling Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Sheng; Reisinger, Alexander J.; Tank, Jennifer L.; Baker, Michelle A.; Hall, Robert O.; Rosi, Emma J.; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2017-11-01

    Along the river network, water, sediment, and nutrients are transported, cycled, and altered by coupled hydrological and biogeochemical processes. Our current understanding of the rates and processes controlling the cycling and removal of dissolved inorganic nutrients in river networks is limited due to a lack of empirical measurements in large, (nonwadeable), rivers. The goal of this paper was to develop a coupled hydrological and biogeochemical process model to simulate nutrient uptake at the network scale during summer base flow conditions. The model was parameterized with literature values from headwater streams, and empirical measurements made in 15 rivers with varying hydrological, biological, and topographic characteristics, to simulate nutrient uptake at the network scale. We applied the coupled model to 15 catchments describing patterns in uptake for three different solutes to determine the role of rivers in network-scale nutrient cycling. Model simulation results, constrained by empirical data, suggested that rivers contributed proportionally more to nutrient removal than headwater streams given the fraction of their length represented in a network. In addition, variability of nutrient removal patterns among catchments was varied among solutes, and as expected, was influenced by nutrient concentration and discharge. Net ammonium uptake was not significantly correlated with any environmental descriptor. In contrast, net daily nitrate removal was linked to suspended chlorophyll a (an indicator of primary producers) and land use characteristics. Finally, suspended sediment characteristics and agricultural land use were correlated with net daily removal of soluble reactive phosphorus, likely reflecting abiotic sorption dynamics. Rivers are understudied relative to streams, and our model suggests that rivers can contribute more to network-scale nutrient removal than would be expected based upon their representative fraction of network channel length.

  7. Emerging tools for continuous nutrient monitoring networks: Sensors advancing science and water resources protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Brian; Stauffer, Beth A; Young, Dwane A; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Bricker, Suzanne B.; Walbridge, Mark R; Clyde, Gerard A; Shaw, Denice M

    2016-01-01

    Sensors and enabling technologies are becoming increasingly important tools for water quality monitoring and associated water resource management decisions. In particular, nutrient sensors are of interest because of the well-known adverse effects of nutrient enrichment on coastal hypoxia, harmful algal blooms, and impacts to human health. Accurate and timely information on nutrient concentrations and loads is integral to strategies designed to minimize risk to humans and manage the underlying drivers of water quality impairment. Using nitrate sensors as an example, we highlight the types of applications in freshwater and coastal environments that are likely to benefit from continuous, real-time nutrient data. The concurrent emergence of new tools to integrate, manage and share large data sets is critical to the successful use of nutrient sensors and has made it possible for the field of continuous nutrient monitoring to rapidly move forward. We highlight several near-term opportunities for Federal agencies, as well as the broader scientific and management community, that will help accelerate sensor development, build and leverage sites within a national network, and develop open data standards and data management protocols that are key to realizing the benefits of a large-scale, integrated monitoring network. Investing in these opportunities will provide new information to guide management and policies designed to protect and restore our nation’s water resources.

  8. Using a Backpropagation Artificial Neural Network to Predict Nutrient Removal in Tidal Flow Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient removal in tidal flow constructed wetlands (TF-CW is a complex series of nonlinear multi-parameter interactions. We simulated three tidal flow systems and a continuous vertical flow system filled with synthetic wastewater and compared the influent and effluent concentrations to examine (1 nutrient removal in artificial TF-CWs, and (2 the ability of a backpropagation (BP artificial neural network to predict nutrient removal. The nutrient removal rates were higher under tidal flow when the idle/reaction time was two, and reached 90 ± 3%, 99 ± 1%, and 58 ± 13% for total nitrogen (TN, ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N, and total phosphorus (TP, respectively. The main influences on nutrient removal for each scenario were identified by redundancy analysis and were input into the model to train and verify the pollutant effluent concentrations. Comparison of the actual and model-predicted effluent concentrations showed that the model predictions were good. The predicted and actual values were correlated and the margin of error was small. The BP neural network fitted best to TP, with an R2 of 0.90. The R2 values of TN, NH4+-N, and nitrate nitrogen (NO3−-N were 0.67, 0.73, and 0.69, respectively.

  9. Reconstruction and analysis of nutrient-induced phosphorylation networks in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyou eDuan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Elucidating the dynamics of molecular processes in living organisms in response to external perturbations is a central goal in modern systems biology. We investigated the dynamics of protein phosphorylation events in Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to changing nutrient conditions. Phosphopeptide expression levels were detected at five consecutive time points over a time interval of 30 minutes after nutrient resupply following prior starvation. The three tested inorganic, ionic nutrients NH4+, NO3-, PO43- elicited similar phosphosignaling responses that were distinguishable from those invoked by the sugars mannitol, sucrose. When embedded in the protein-protein interaction network of Arabidopsis thaliana, phosphoproteins were found to exhibit a higher degree compared to average proteins. Based on the time-series data, we reconstructed a network of regulatory interactions mediated by phosphorylation. The performance of different network inference methods was evaluated by the observed likelihood of physical interactions within and across different subcellular compartments and based on gene ontology semantic similarity. The dynamic phosphorylation network was then reconstructed using a Pearson correlation method with added directionality based on partial variance differences. The topology of the inferred integrated network corresponds to an information dissemination architecture, in which the phosphorylation signal is passed on to an increasing number of phosphoproteins stratified into an initiation, processing, and effector layer. Specific phosphorylation peptide motifs associated with the distinct layers were identified indicating the action of layer-specific kinases. Despite the limited temporal resolution, combined with information on subcellular location, the available time-series data proved useful for reconstructing the dynamics of the molecular signaling cascade in response to nutrient stress conditions in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana.

  10. A Lindenmayer system-based approach for the design of nutrient delivery networks in tissue constructs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasar, Ozlem; Starly, Binil; Lan, S-F

    2009-01-01

    Large thick tissue constructs have reported limited success primarily due to the inability of cells to survive deep within the scaffold. Without access to adequate nutrients, cells placed deep within the tissue construct will die out, leading to non-uniform tissue regeneration. Currently, there is a necessity to design nutrient conduit networks within the tissue construct to enable cells to survive in the matrix. However, the design of complex networks within a tissue construct is challenging. In this paper, we present the Lindenmayer system, an elegant fractal-based language algorithm framework, to generate conduit networks in two- and three-dimensional architecture with several degrees of complexity. The conduit network maintains a parent-child relationship between each branch of the network. Several L-system parameters have been studied-branching angle, branch length, ratio of parent to child branch diameter, etc-to simulate several architectures under a given L-system notation. We have also presented a layered manufacturing-based UV-photopolymerization process using the Texas Instruments DLP(TM) system to fabricate the branched structures. This preliminary work showcases the applicability of L-system-based construct designs to drive scaffold fabrication systems.

  11. Modeling nutrient retention at the watershed scale: Does small stream research apply to the whole river network?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Rosana; Marcé, Rafael; Sabater, Sergi

    2013-06-01

    are conveyed from terrestrial and upstream sources through drainage networks. Streams and rivers contribute to regulate the material exported downstream by means of transformation, storage, and removal of nutrients. It has been recently suggested that the efficiency of process rates relative to available nutrient concentration in streams eventually declines, following an efficiency loss (EL) dynamics. However, most of these predictions are based at the reach scale in pristine streams, failing to describe the role of entire river networks. Models provide the means to study nutrient cycling from the stream network perspective via upscaling to the watershed the key mechanisms occurring at the reach scale. We applied a hybrid process-based and statistical model (SPARROW, Spatially Referenced Regression on Watershed Attributes) as a heuristic approach to describe in-stream nutrient processes in a highly impaired, high stream order watershed (the Llobregat River Basin, NE Spain). The in-stream decay specifications of the model were modified to include a partial saturation effect in uptake efficiency (expressed as a power law) and better capture biological nutrient retention in river systems under high anthropogenic stress. The stream decay coefficients were statistically significant in both nitrate and phosphate models, indicating the potential role of in-stream processing in limiting nutrient export. However, the EL concept did not reliably describe the patterns of nutrient uptake efficiency for the concentration gradient and streamflow values found in the Llobregat River basin, posing in doubt its complete applicability to explain nutrient retention processes in stream networks comprising highly impaired rivers.

  12. Ancillary Services from Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meeting the EU objectives of sustainable energy supply in the near future involves a dramatic increase of the electricity demand covered by variable renewable sources, among which wind power holds an important role. This important role comes together with ever increasing requirements of wind powe...... plants ability of delivering ancillary services to the power system. The presentation attempts at giving an overview of the present (and future) research on the ability of large (offshore) wind farms to provide power system services....

  13. Modelling the Transfer and Retention of Nutrients in the Drainage Network of the Danube River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, J.; Billen, G.; Hannon, E.; Fonbonne, S.; Videnina, Y.; Soulie, M.

    2002-03-01

    The Danube catchment basin (817 000 km 2, 76×10 6 inhabitants) is the major freshwater contributor to the Black Sea (6300 m 3 s -1, 80% of the annual river discharge into the north-western Black Sea). The aim of the modelling approach developed for the Danube River, is to establish how land use and management of the whole watershed are linked to nutrient (N, P, Si) delivery and retention by the river. The approach uses an adaptation of the RIVERSTRAHLER model, which is based on a schematic representation of the drainage network deduced from geomorphological analysis by stream orders. The whole catchment was divided into 10 sub-basins and one branch, to provide a description satisfying both the need to take into account the heterogeneity of the system and the availability of constraints and validation data. On the basis of this description, a hydrological model was developed, which adequately simulated the seasonal variations of the discharge measured at the outlet of the basin. The model itself resulted from the coupling of the hydrological model with a biogeochemical model (RIVE), which takes into account the main ecological processes. It established a link between microscopic processes, their controlling factors and their macroscopic manifestations in terms of nutrient cycling and ecological functioning at the scale of the whole drainage network. The model was validated for the period from 1988 to 1991 on the basis of available observations of the major water-quality variables involved in the eutrophication processes (inorganic nutrients, phytoplankton biomass, dissolved oxygen, etc.). A reasonable agreement was found between the simulations of the model and the observations. Nutrient fluxes to the Black Sea, calculated for our reference period, are in the same range as those obtained via other approaches. Si/P and N/P ratios suggest silicon, rather than phosphorus, limitation for diatoms and phosphorus, rather than nitrogen, limitation for overall phytoplankton

  14. Discovery of nitrate-CPK-NLP signalling in central nutrient-growth networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kun-Hsiang; Niu, Yajie; Konishi, Mineko; Wu, Yue; Du, Hao; Sun Chung, Hoo; Li, Lei; Boudsocq, Marie; McCormack, Matthew; Maekawa, Shugo; Ishida, Tetsuya; Zhang, Chao; Shokat, Kevan; Yanagisawa, Shuichi; Sheen, Jen

    2017-05-18

    Nutrient signalling integrates and coordinates gene expression, metabolism and growth. However, its primary molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood in plants and animals. Here we report unique Ca 2+ signalling triggered by nitrate with live imaging of an ultrasensitive biosensor in Arabidopsis leaves and roots. A nitrate-sensitized and targeted functional genomic screen identifies subgroup III Ca 2+ -sensor protein kinases (CPKs) as master regulators that orchestrate primary nitrate responses. A chemical switch with the engineered mutant CPK10(M141G) circumvents embryo lethality and enables conditional analyses of cpk10 cpk30 cpk32 triple mutants to define comprehensive nitrate-associated regulatory and developmental programs. Nitrate-coupled CPK signalling phosphorylates conserved NIN-LIKE PROTEIN (NLP) transcription factors to specify the reprogramming of gene sets for downstream transcription factors, transporters, nitrogen assimilation, carbon/nitrogen metabolism, redox, signalling, hormones and proliferation. Conditional cpk10 cpk30 cpk32 and nlp7 mutants similarly impair nitrate-stimulated system-wide shoot growth and root establishment. The nutrient-coupled Ca 2+ signalling network integrates transcriptome and cellular metabolism with shoot-root coordination and developmental plasticity in shaping organ biomass and architecture.

  15. Ancillary Services Provided from DER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.B.

    2005-12-21

    Distributed energy resources (DER) are quickly making their way to industry primarily as backup generation. They are effective at starting and then producing full-load power within a few seconds. The distribution system is aging and transmission system development has not kept up with the growth in load and generation. The nation's transmission system is stressed with heavy power flows over long distances, and many areas are experiencing problems in providing the power quality needed to satisfy customers. Thus, a new market for DER is beginning to emerge. DER can alleviate the burden on the distribution system by providing ancillary services while providing a cost adjustment for the DER owner. This report describes 10 types of ancillary services that distributed generation (DG) can provide to the distribution system. Of these 10 services the feasibility, control strategy, effectiveness, and cost benefits are all analyzed as in the context of a future utility-power market. In this market, services will be provided at a local level that will benefit the customer, the distribution utility, and the transmission company.

  16. Designing a high-frequency nutrient and biogeochemical monitoring network for the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Downing, Bryan D.; Kraus, Tamara E.C.; Pellerin, Brian A.

    2017-07-11

    Executive SummaryThis report is the third in a series of three reports that provide information about how high-frequency (HF) nutrient monitoring may be used to assess nutrient inputs and dynamics in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California (Delta). The purpose of this report is to provide the background, principles, and considerations for designing an HF nutrient-monitoring network for the Delta to address high-priority, nutrient-management questions. The report starts with discussion of the high-priority management questions to be addressed, continues through discussion of the questions and considerations that place demands and constraints on network design, discusses the principles applicable to network design, and concludes with the presentation of three example nutrient-monitoring network designs for the Delta. For three example network designs, we assess how they would address high-priority questions that have been identified by the Delta Regional Monitoring Program (Delta Regional Monitoring Program Technical Advisory Committee, 2015).This report, along with the other two reports of this series (Kraus and others, 2017; Downing and others, 2017), was drafted in cooperation with the Delta Regional Monitoring Program to help scientists, managers, and planners understand how HF data improve our understanding of nutrient sources and sinks, drivers, and effects in the Delta. The first report in the series (Kraus and others, 2017) provides an introduction to the reasons for and fundamental concepts behind using HF monitoring measurements, including a brief summary of nutrient status and trends in the Delta and an extensive literature review showing how and where other research and monitoring programs have used HF monitoring to improve our understanding of nutrient cycling. The report covers the various technologies available for HF nutrient monitoring and presents the different ways HF monitoring instrumentation may be used for both fixed station and spatial

  17. Fungal nutrient allocation in common mycorrhizal networks is regulated by the carbon source strength of individual host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellbaum, Carl R; Mensah, Jerry A; Cloos, Adam J; Strahan, Gary E; Pfeffer, Philip E; Kiers, E Toby; Bücking, Heike

    2014-07-01

    Common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs) of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the soil simultaneously provide multiple host plants with nutrients, but the mechanisms by which the nutrient transport to individual host plants within one CMN is controlled are unknown. Using radioactive and stable isotopes, we followed the transport of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in the CMNs of two fungal species to plants that differed in their carbon (C) source strength, and correlated the transport to the expression of mycorrhiza-inducible plant P (MtPt4) and ammonium (1723.m00046) transporters in mycorrhizal roots. AM fungi discriminated between host plants that shared a CMN and preferentially allocated nutrients to high-quality (nonshaded) hosts. However, the fungus also supplied low-quality (shaded) hosts with nutrients and maintained a high colonization rate in these plants. Fungal P transport was correlated to the expression of MtPt4. The expression of the putative ammonium transporter 1723.m00046 was dependent on the fungal nutrient supply and was induced when the CMN had access to N. Biological market theory has emerged as a tool with which the strategic investment of competing partners in trading networks can be studied. Our work demonstrates how fungal partners are able to retain bargaining power, despite being obligately dependent on their hosts. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Exogam with its ancillary detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theisen, Ch.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the meeting was to discuss the status of experiments using Exogam and its ancillary detectors. Presentations include details of experiments already run and those in preparation. This document gathers most of the slides presented at the meeting. The results of 7 experiments are described. There are 9 contributions as it follows: 1) presentation of the Vamos spectrometer p.1-15, 2) the Clara (detector) and Prisma (spectrometer) setup: status and perspectives p.16-33, 3) experiment E344aS: shape coexistence near the N=Z line and collective properties of Kr isotopes investigated by low-energy Coulomb excitation p.34-56, 4) experiment E389: study of effective charges at Sm 100 via the nuclear lifetime measurements in Pd 96 and Cd 98 p.57-68, 5) experiment E375: spectroscopy of trans-fermium nuclei p.69-91, 6) experiment E408S: He 8 on Pb 208 and Bi 209 p.92-102, 7) experiment E462: very neutron rich calcium isotopes at N=32, structure of magic Ca 54 studied by gamma-spectroscopy with deep inelastic reactions p.103-115, 8) experiment E451: searching for T=D pairing and a new coupling scheme in Pd 92 and Ru 88 p.116-141, and 9) experiment E404aS: identification of gamma rays in nuclei around the drip-line nucleus Sm 130 , probing the maximally deformed light rare earth region

  19. SMEX03 Ancillary Soil Characteristics Data, Alabama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SMEX03 Ancillary Soil Characteristics data set contains data for the regional study areas of Alabama, Georgia, and Oklahoma, USA as part of the 2003 Soil...

  20. Pressure ulcer risk in ancillary services patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, Monica S

    2010-01-01

    Although pressure ulcer prevention has received considerable attention in the literature since the 1960s, little has been published about the risk of pressure injury to patients undergoing procedures in diagnostic and interventional ancillary units such as radiology, renal dialysis, cardiac, and vascular procedure laboratories. In the only research study found in this population, the incidence of pressure injury in patients undergoing lengthy radiology procedures was 53.8%. Therefore, I reviewed the research literature in order to identify which specific factors are most likely to place persons undergoing ancillary procedures at risk for pressure injury. Sufficient evidence was found to implicate high interface pressures on ancillary support surfaces, shear incurred from patient movement and positioning, advanced age, severe neurologic impairment, anesthesia and sedation, fever, sepsis, and hypotension as risk factors for pressure injury while receiving services from interventional ancillary units.

  1. Exogam with its ancillary detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theisen, Ch. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique, de Physique des Particules de Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee, 91- Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2004-07-01

    The goal of the meeting was to discuss the status of experiments using Exogam and its ancillary detectors. Presentations include details of experiments already run and those in preparation. This document gathers most of the slides presented at the meeting. The results of 7 experiments are described. There are 9 contributions as it follows: 1) presentation of the Vamos spectrometer p.1-15, 2) the Clara (detector) and Prisma (spectrometer) setup: status and perspectives p.16-33, 3) experiment E344aS: shape coexistence near the N=Z line and collective properties of Kr isotopes investigated by low-energy Coulomb excitation p.34-56, 4) experiment E389: study of effective charges at Sm{sup 100} via the nuclear lifetime measurements in Pd{sup 96} and Cd{sup 98} p.57-68, 5) experiment E375: spectroscopy of trans-fermium nuclei p.69-91, 6) experiment E408S: He{sup 8} on Pb{sup 208} and Bi{sup 209} p.92-102, 7) experiment E462: very neutron rich calcium isotopes at N=32, structure of magic Ca{sup 54} studied by gamma-spectroscopy with deep inelastic reactions p.103-115, 8) experiment E451: searching for T=D pairing and a new coupling scheme in Pd{sup 92} and Ru{sup 88} p.116-141, and 9) experiment E404aS: identification of gamma rays in nuclei around the drip-line nucleus Sm{sup 130}, probing the maximally deformed light rare earth region.

  2. AX Tank Farm ancillary equipment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-01-01

    This report examines the feasibility of remediating ancillary equipment associated with the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. Ancillary equipment includes surface structures and equipment, process waste piping, ventilation components, wells, and pits, boxes, sumps, and tanks used to make waste transfers to/from the AX tanks and adjoining tank farms. Two remedial alternatives are considered: (1) excavation and removal of all ancillary equipment items, and (2) in-situ stabilization by grout filling, the 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a strawman in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tanks. This is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms

  3. Assessment of the environmental significance of nutrients and heavy metal pollution in the river network of Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dević, Gordana; Sakan, Sanja; Đorđević, Dragana

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the data for ten water quality variables collected during 2009 at 75 monitoring sites along the river network of Serbia are considered. The results are alarming because 48% of the studied sites were contaminated by Ni, Mn, Pb, As, and nutrients, which are key factors impairing the water quality of the rivers in Serbia. Special attention should be paid to Zn and Cu, listed in the priority toxic pollutants of US EPA for aquatic life protection. The employed Q-model cluster analysis grouped the data into three major pollution zones (low, moderate, and high). Most sites classified as "low pollution zones" (LP) were in the main rivers, whereas those classified as "moderate and high pollution zones" (MP and HP, respectively) were in the large and small tributaries/hydro-system. Principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA) showed that the dissolved metals and nutrients in the Serbian rivers varied depending on the river, the heterogeneity of the anthropogenic activities in the basins (influenced primarily by industrial wastewater, agricultural activities, and urban runoff pollution), and natural environmental variability, such as geological characteristics. In LP dominated non-point source pollution, such as agricultural and urban runoff, whereas mixed source pollution dominated in the MP and HP zones. These results provide information to be used for developing better pollution control strategies for the river network of Serbia.

  4. Power system studies of new ancillary services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit

    The objective of this report is to illustrate and analyse, by means of simulation test cases, the impact of wind power advanced ancillary services, like inertial response (IR), power oscillation damping (POD) and synchronising power (SP) on the power system. Generic models for wind turbine, wind...... power plant and power system are used in the investigation....

  5. MODIS/Aqua 0.5 x 0.5 degree Aeronet cutouts of MODIS L1B Radiances, Geolocation, Cloud Mask, and ancillary data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYDARNSS data set consists of MODIS Atmosphere and Ancillary Products subsets that are generated over a number of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites. These...

  6. MODIS/Terra 0.5 x 0.5 degree FluxNet cutouts of MODIS L1B Radiances, Geolocation, Cloud Mask, and ancillary data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODFNSS data set consists of MODIS Atmosphere and Ancillary Products subsets that are generated over a number of FLUXNET sites. FLUXNET is a network of...

  7. MODIS/Aqua 0.5 x 0.5 degree FluxNet cutouts of MODIS L1B Radiances, Geolocation, Cloud Mask, and ancillary data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYDFNSS data set consists of MODIS Atmosphere and Ancillary Products subsets that are generated over a number of FLUXNET sites. FLUXNET is a network of...

  8. Analyzing scientists' donations to measure their values for the Nutrient Network (NutNet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Swallow

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a real money, economic experiment in which a broad group of ecological scientists were challenged to consider their own values within an economic framework, by considering whether to contribute financially (i.e., to donate to support a global research initiative designed to investigate the implications of global change for grassland ecosystems. We use this experiment to illustrate the basic approach of economics as might apply to choices about and individual values for ecosystem services, particularly using an application to the potential to enhance scientific knowledge regarding grassland responses to the global distribution of nutrients. While scientists' choices and values were not significantly influenced by economic incentives embedded in the donation solicitation, donations were significantly associated with ecologists' specializations and career stages.

  9. Nutrient Stress Detection in Corn, Using Neural Networks and AVIRIS Hyperspectral Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Lee; Davis, Bruce

    2001-01-01

    The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Variable Rate (VRAT) Nitrogen Application site in Shelton, Nebraska, represents a well-documented, corn-growing quarter section. The USDA VRAT site is used to systematically study nutrient stress in corn by varying sub-plot application of fertilizer. The field has four replicates of five blocks that vary by nitrogen treatment from 0-kg/ha to 200-kg/ha in 50-kg/ha increments. The treatment blocks are set out in a randomized, complete block design. Typically, the VRAT is planted in a ridge till, monoculture corn and is watered by a central pivot irrigation system on a three-day period. Since water stress can increase spectral reflectance from corn leaves, it is important that the N-application plots be adequately watered so that only nutrient-related stress will predominate. A figure shows imagery of the USDA VRAT site with the fertilizer amounts for each block shown. Low-altitude Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) hyperspectral imagery was acquired over the Shelton, Nebraska, VRAT site on July 22, 1999. The overflight produced 3-meter pixels with 224 spectral bands. Ground personnel supported the mission with measurements at the time of the overflight. The image data was pre-processed at JPL before being sent out to an investigator. The data arrived radiometrically corrected, allowing ready application of an atmospheric correction procedure. The Atmosphere Removal Program (ATREM) was used to perform an atmospheric correction. The AVIRIS imagery after ATREM correction was output as relative reflectance. This relative reflectance file was scaled by an empirical line procedure to provide reflectances that matched closely those measured in the field.

  10. Nutrients interaction investigation to improve Monascus purpureus FTC5391 growth rate using Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad, R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Two vital factors, certain environmental conditions and nutrients as a source of energy are entailed for successful growth and reproduction of microorganisms. Manipulation of nutritional requirement is the simplest and most effectual strategy to stimulate and enhance the activity of microorganisms. Methodology and Results: In this study, response surface methodology (RSM and artificial neural network (ANN were employed to optimize the carbon and nitrogen sources in order to improve growth rate of Monascus purpureus FTC5391,a new local isolate. The best models for optimization of growth rate were a multilayer full feed-forward incremental back propagation network, and a modified response surface model using backward elimination. The optimum condition for cell mass production was: sucrose 2.5%, yeast extract 0.045%, casamino acid 0.275%, sodium nitrate 0.48%, potato starch 0.045%, dextrose 1%, potassium nitrate 0.57%. The experimental cell mass production using this optimal condition was 21 mg/plate/12days, which was 2.2-fold higher than the standard condition (sucrose 5%, yeast extract 0.15%, casamino acid 0.25%, sodium nitrate 0.3%, potato starch 0.2%, dextrose 1%, potassium nitrate 0.3%. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The results of RSM and ANN showed that all carbon and nitrogen sources tested had significant effect on growth rate (P-value < 0.05. In addition the use of RSM and ANN alongside each other provided a proper growth prediction model.

  11. Ancillary services provided by PV power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio PIERNO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources are widely utilized in distributed generation systems, and, recently, they are also considered for providing ancillary services. The paper is focused on PV plants, a survey of the most interesting papers published in the literature in the last decade is reported and the main characteristics of the technical proposals, with their advantages and limits, are evidenced. The results are schematically shown in a table that immediately gives the opportunity to be aware of what was already done, representing a reference tool.

  12. Retromer- and WASH-dependent sorting of nutrient transporters requires a multivalent interaction network with ANKRD50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvainickas, Arunas; Orgaz, Ana Jimenez; Nägele, Heike; Diedrich, Britta; Heesom, Kate J; Dengjel, Jörn; Cullen, Peter J; Steinberg, Florian

    2017-01-15

    Retromer and the associated actin-polymerizing WASH complex are essential for the endocytic recycling of a wide range of integral membrane proteins. A hereditary Parkinson's-disease-causing point mutation (D620N) in the retromer subunit VPS35 perturbs retromer's association with the WASH complex and also with the uncharacterized protein ankyrin-repeat-domain-containing protein 50 (ANKRD50). Here, we firmly establish ANKRD50 as a new and essential component of the SNX27-retromer-WASH super complex. Depletion of ANKRD50 in HeLa or U2OS cells phenocopied the loss of endosome-to-cell-surface recycling of multiple transmembrane proteins seen upon suppression of SNX27, retromer or WASH-complex components. Mass-spectrometry-based quantification of the cell surface proteome of ANKRD50-depleted cells identified amino acid transporters of the SLC1A family, among them SLC1A4, as additional cargo molecules that depend on ANKRD50 and retromer for their endocytic recycling. Mechanistically, we show that ANKRD50 simultaneously engages multiple parts of the SNX27-retromer-WASH complex machinery in a direct and co-operative interaction network that is needed to efficiently recycle the nutrient transporters GLUT1 (also known as SLC2A1) and SLC1A4, and potentially many other surface proteins. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Industrial Demand Management Providing Ancillary Services to the Distribution Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahnama, Samira; Green, Torben; Lyhne, Casper

    2017-01-01

    A prominent feature of the future smart grid is the active participation of the consumer side in ancillary service provision. Grid operators procure ancillary services, including regulating power, voltage control, frequency control, and so on, to ensure safe, reliable, and high-quality electricity...

  14. 39 CFR 122.1 - Ancillary special services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ancillary special services. 122.1 Section 122.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT SPECIAL SERVICES PRODUCTS § 122.1 Ancillary special services. (a) For the market-dominant...

  15. Integration of Flexible Consumers in the Ancillary Service Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Westenholz, Mikkel; Hansen, Lars Henrik

    2014-01-01

    services. In this work we present a simple method based on the existing ancillary service markets that resolves these issues via increased information and communication technology. The method allows an aggregator to continuously utilize the markets for slower ancillary service to ensure that its portfolio...

  16. 16 CFR 1.62 - Ancillary court orders pending review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ancillary court orders pending review. 1.62 Section 1.62 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Injunctive and Condemnation Proceedings § 1.62 Ancillary court orders pending review...

  17. Illustration of Modern Wind Turbine Ancillary Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis D. Margaris

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing levels of wind power penetration in modern power systems has set intensively high standards with respect to wind turbine technology during the last years. Security issues have become rather critical and operation of wind farms as conventional power plants is becoming a necessity as wind turbines replace conventional units on the production side. This article includes a review of the basic control issues regarding the capability of the Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG wind turbine configuration to fulfill the basic technical requirements set by the system operators and contribute to power system security. An overview of ancillary services provided by wind turbine technology nowadays is provided, i.e., fault ride-through capability, reactive power supply and frequency-active power control.

  18. Identification of a nutrient-sensing transcriptional network in monocytes by using inbred rat models on a cafeteria diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Micaelo, Neus; González-Abuín, Noemi; Terra, Ximena; Ardévol, Ana; Pinent, Montserrat; Petretto, Enrico; Behmoaras, Jacques; Blay, Mayte

    2016-10-01

    Obesity has reached pandemic levels worldwide. The current models of diet-induced obesity in rodents use predominantly high-fat based diets that do not take into account the consumption of variety of highly palatable, energy-dense foods that are prevalent in Western society. We and others have shown that the cafeteria (CAF) diet is a robust and reproducible model of human metabolic syndrome with tissue inflammation in the rat. We have previously shown that inbred rat strains such as Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and Lewis (LEW) show different susceptibilities to CAF diets with distinct metabolic and morphometric profiles. Here, we show a difference in plasma MCP-1 levels and investigate the effect of the CAF diet on peripheral blood monocyte transcriptome, as powerful stress-sensing immune cells, in WKY and LEW rats. We found that 75.5% of the differentially expressed transcripts under the CAF diet were upregulated in WKY rats and were functionally related to the activation of the immune response. Using a gene co-expression network constructed from the genes differentially expressed between CAF diet-fed LEW and WKY rats, we identified acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (Acss2) as a hub gene for a nutrient-sensing cluster of transcripts in monocytes. The Acss2 genomic region is significantly enriched for previously established metabolism quantitative trait loci in the rat. Notably, monocyte expression levels of Acss2 significantly correlated with plasma glucose, triglyceride, leptin and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels as well as morphometric measurements such as body weight and the total fat following feeding with the CAF diet in the rat. These results show the importance of the genetic background in nutritional genomics and identify inbred rat strains as potential models for CAF-diet-induced obesity. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Identification of a nutrient-sensing transcriptional network in monocytes by using inbred rat models on a cafeteria diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Martínez-Micaelo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has reached pandemic levels worldwide. The current models of diet-induced obesity in rodents use predominantly high-fat based diets that do not take into account the consumption of variety of highly palatable, energy-dense foods that are prevalent in Western society. We and others have shown that the cafeteria (CAF diet is a robust and reproducible model of human metabolic syndrome with tissue inflammation in the rat. We have previously shown that inbred rat strains such as Wistar Kyoto (WKY and Lewis (LEW show different susceptibilities to CAF diets with distinct metabolic and morphometric profiles. Here, we show a difference in plasma MCP-1 levels and investigate the effect of the CAF diet on peripheral blood monocyte transcriptome, as powerful stress-sensing immune cells, in WKY and LEW rats. We found that 75.5% of the differentially expressed transcripts under the CAF diet were upregulated in WKY rats and were functionally related to the activation of the immune response. Using a gene co-expression network constructed from the genes differentially expressed between CAF diet-fed LEW and WKY rats, we identified acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (Acss2 as a hub gene for a nutrient-sensing cluster of transcripts in monocytes. The Acss2 genomic region is significantly enriched for previously established metabolism quantitative trait loci in the rat. Notably, monocyte expression levels of Acss2 significantly correlated with plasma glucose, triglyceride, leptin and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA levels as well as morphometric measurements such as body weight and the total fat following feeding with the CAF diet in the rat. These results show the importance of the genetic background in nutritional genomics and identify inbred rat strains as potential models for CAF-diet-induced obesity.

  20. Comparative analysis of food webs based on flow networks: effects of nutrient supply on structure and function of coastal plankton communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Yngvar; Reinertsen, Helge; Vadstein, Olav; Andersen, Tom; Gismervik, Ingrid; Duarte, Carlos; Agusti, Susana; Stibor, Herwig; Sommer, Ulrich; Lignell, Risto; Tamminen, Timo; Lancelot, Christiane; Rousseau, Veronique; Hoell, Espen; Sanderud, Knut Arvid

    2001-12-01

    The objective of COMWEB was to develop efficient analytical, numerical and experimental methods for assessing and predicting the effects of nutrient (N, P, Si) supply on the stability and persistence of pelagic food web structure and function in coastal waters. The experimental comparative work included a geographic gradient covering Baltic, Mediterranean, and NE Atlantic waters and a NE Atlantic gradient in state of eutrophication. COMWEB has been an experimental approach to coastal eutrophication, studying effects of enhanced nutrient supply on components and flows of the entire lower pelagic food web. Flow network representations of pelagic food webs has been a framework of data reduction and flows were established by sophisticated inverse modelling. Fundamental information on physiological properties of functional key species in the pelagic food web was used to constrain flow estimations. A main conclusion derived from the flow networks was that very little energy and materials were transferred from the microbial food web to the main food chain. The lower food web could therefore be described as two parallel food chains with relatively limited interaction between heterotrophic groups. Short-term effects of nutrient perturbations were examined in mesocosms along the geographic gradient. The response was comparable in all systems, with a stronger effect on the activity and biomass of autotrophic groups than those of heterotrophic ones. Mediterranean waters showed much lower autotrophic biomass response than Baltic and NE Atlantic waters, which responded almost equally. The response of primary production was, however, more comparable. High phytoplankton lysis rate explained this low accumulation of biomass in Mediterranean waters. The study of Atlantic coastal waters of different eutrophic states revealed that the ecological response was higher in the closed nutrient perturbed mesocosms than in open systems exposed for >4 summer months (summer/autumn season). The

  1. Redefining Requirements of Ancillary Services for Technology Agnostic Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondy, Daniel Esteban Morales; MacDonald, Jason; Kara, Emre Can

    2018-01-01

    New sources for ancillary services are needed, yet the requirements for service provision in most countries are explicitly formulated for traditional generators. This leads to waste of the potential for new technologies to deliver ancillary services. In order to harness this potential, we propose...... to parameterize the requirements of ancillary services so that reserves can be built by combining the advantageous properties of different technologies. The proposal is exemplified through a laboratory test where it shown that the system needs can be covered through cheaper and smaller reserves....

  2. Predicting In vitro Culture Medium Macro-Nutrients Composition for Pear Rootstocks Using Regression Analysis and Neural Network Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, S; Yadollahi, A; Ahmadi, H; Arab, M M; Eftekhari, M

    2016-01-01

    Two modeling techniques [artificial neural network-genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) and stepwise regression analysis] were used to predict the effect of medium macro-nutrients on in vitro performance of pear rootstocks (OHF and Pyrodwarf). The ANN-GA described associations between investigating eight macronutrients (NO[Formula: see text], NH[Formula: see text], Ca(2+), K(+), Mg(2+), PO[Formula: see text], SO[Formula: see text], and Cl(-)) and explant growth parameters [proliferation rate (PR), shoot length (SL), shoot tip necrosis (STN), chlorosis (Chl), and vitrification (Vitri)]. ANN-GA revealed a substantially higher accuracy of prediction than for regression models. According to the ANN-GA results, among the input variables concentrations (mM), NH[Formula: see text] (301.7), and NO[Formula: see text], NH[Formula: see text] (64), SO[Formula: see text] (54.1), K(+) (40.4), and NO[Formula: see text] (35.1) in OHF and Ca(2+) (23.7), NH[Formula: see text] (10.7), NO[Formula: see text] (9.1), NH[Formula: see text] (317.6), and NH[Formula: see text] (79.6) in Pyrodwarf had the highest values of VSR in data set, respectively, for PR, SL, STN, Chl, and Vitri. The ANN-GA showed that media containing (mM) 62.5 NO[Formula: see text], 5.7 NH[Formula: see text], 2.7 Ca(2+), 31.5 K(+), 3.3 Mg(2+), 2.6 PO[Formula: see text], 5.6 SO[Formula: see text], and 3.5 Cl(-) could lead to optimal PR for OHF and optimal PR for Pyrodwarf may be obtained with media containing 25.6 NO[Formula: see text], 13.1 NH[Formula: see text], 5.5 Ca(2+), 35.7 K(+), 1.5 Mg(2+), 2.1 PO[Formula: see text], 3.6 SO[Formula: see text], and 3 Cl(-).

  3. Ancillary Care: From Theory to Practice in International Clinical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Zion, Deborah; Lwin, Khin Maung; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Nosten, Francois; Loff, Bebe

    2013-01-01

    How international research might contribute to justice in global health has not been substantively addressed by bioethics. This article describes how the provision of ancillary care can link international clinical research to the reduction of global health disparities. It identifies the ancillary care obligations supported by a theory of global justice, showing that Jennifer Ruger’s health capability paradigm requires the delivery of ancillary care to trial participants for a limited subset of conditions that cause severe morbidity and mortality. Empirical research on the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit’s (SMRU) vivax malaria treatment trial was then undertaken to demonstrate whether and how these obligations might be upheld in a resource-poor setting. Our findings show that fulfilment of the ancillary care obligations is feasible where there is commitment from chief investigators and funders and is strongly facilitated by SMRU’s dual role as a research unit and medical non-governmental organization. PMID:23864908

  4. Options for pricing ancillary services in a deregulated power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, Hatim Yahya

    2001-07-01

    GENCOs in restructured systems are compensated for selling energy in the market. In a restructured market, a mechanism is required to entice participants in the market to provide ancillary services and to ensure adequate compensation that would guarantee its economic viability. The ISO controls the dispatch of generation, manages the reliability of the transmission grid, provides open access to the transmission, buys and provides ancillary services as required, coordinates day-ahead, hour-ahead schedules and performs real time balancing of load and generation, settles real time imbalances and ancillary services sales and purchases. The ISO, also, administers congestion management protocols for the transmission grid. Since the ISO does not own any generating units it must ensure that there is enough reserves for maintaining reliability according to FERC regulations, and sufficient unloaded generating capacity for balancing services in a real-time market. The ISO could meet these requirements by creating a competitive market for ancillary services, which are metered and remain unbundled to provide an accurate compensation for each supplier and cost to each consumer, In this study, we give an overview for restructuring and ancillary services in a restructured power marketplace. Also, we discuss the effect of GENCOs' actions in the competitive energy and ancillary service markets. In addition, we propose an auction market design for hedging ancillary service costs in California market. Furthermore, we show how to include the n-1 and voltage contingencies in security constrained unit commitment. Finally, we present two approaches for GENCOs' unit commitment in a restructured power market; one is based on game theory and the other is based on market price forecasting. In each of the two GENCOs' unit commitment approaches, we discuss the GENCOs' optimal bidding strategies in energy and ancillary service markets to maximize the GENCOs' profit.

  5. Survey of U.S. Ancillary Services Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhi [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Conzelmann, Guenter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In addition to providing energy to end-consumers, power system operators are also responsible for ensuring system reliability. To this end, power markets maintain an array of ancillary services to ensure it is always possible to balance the supply and demand for energy in real-time. A subset of these ancillary services are commonly procured through market-based mechanisms: namely, Regulation, Spinning, and Non-spinning Reserves.

  6. Nutrient cycling for biomass: Interactive proteomic/transcriptomic networks for global carbon management processes within poplar-mycorrhizal interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cseke, Leland [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States)

    2016-08-30

    This project addresses the need to develop system-scale models at the symbiotic interface between ectomycorrhizal fungi (Laccaria bicolor) and tree species (Populus tremuloides) in response to environmental nutrient availability / biochemistry. Using our now well-established laboratory Laccaria x poplar system, we address the hypothesis that essential regulatory and metabolic mechanisms can be inferred from genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic-level changes that occur in response to environmental nutrient availability. The project addresses this hypothesis by applying state-of-the-art protein-level analytic approaches to fill the gap in our understanding of how mycorrhizal regulatory and metabolic processes at the transcript-level translate to nutrient uptake, carbon management and ultimate net primary productivity of plants. In most cases, these techniques were not previously optimized for poplar trees or Laccaria. Thus, one of the major contributions of this project has been to provide avenues for new research in these species by overcoming the pitfalls that had previously prevented the use of techniques such as ChIP-Seq and SWATH-proteomics. Since it is the proteins that sense and interact with the environment, participate in signal cascades, activate and regulate gene expression, perform the activities of metabolism and ultimately sequester carbon and generate biomass, an understanding of protein activities during symbiosis-linked nutrient uptake is critical to any systems-level approach that links metabolic processes to the environment. This project uses a team of experts at The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to address the above hypothesis using a multiple "omics" approach that combines gene and protein expression as well as protein modifications, and biochemical analyses (performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)) in poplar trees under mycorrhizal and

  7. Ancillary effects of selected acid deposition control policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, R.J.; Lyke, A.J.; Nesse, R.J.

    1986-08-01

    NAPAP is examining a number of potential ways to reduce the precursors (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) to acid deposition. However, the policies to reduce acid deposition will have other physical, biological and economic effects unrelated to acid deposition. For example, control policies that reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may also increase visibility. The effects of an acid deposition policy that are unrelated to acid deposition are referred to as ''ancillary'' effects. This reserch identifies and characterizes the principle physical and economic ancillary effects associated with acid deposition control and mitigation policies. In this study the ancillary benefits associated with four specific acid deposition policy options were investigated. The four policy options investigated are: (1) flue gas desulfurization, (2) coal blending or switching, (3) reductions in automobile emissions of NO/sub x/, and (4) lake liming. Potential ancillary benefits of each option were identified and characterized. Particular attention was paid to the literature on economic valuation of potential ancillary effects.

  8. Reconstruction of the yeast protein-protein interaction network involved in nutrient sensing and global metabolic regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandy, Subir Kumar; Jouhten, Paula; Nielsen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several protein-protein interaction studies have been performed for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using different high-throughput experimental techniques. All these results are collected in the BioGRID database and the SGD database provide detailed annotation of the different......-sensing and metabolic regulatory signal transduction pathways (STP) operating in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The reconstructed STP network includes a full protein-protein interaction network including the key nodes Snf1, Tor1, Hog1 and Pka1. The network includes a total of 623 structural open reading frames (ORFs...

  9. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffner, Grayson; Goldman, Charles; Kintner-Meyer, Michael

    2007-05-01

    In this study, we examine the arrangements for and experiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in five electricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordic market, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objective in undertaking this review of international experience was to identify specific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads to effectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hope that this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S. and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments are needed to ensure that customer loads can meaningfully participate in all wholesale electricity markets.

  10. Optimization of EC Values of Nutrient Solution for Tomato Fruits Quality in Hydroponics System Using Artificial Neural Network and Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Suhardiyanto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Total soluble solids (TSS and fruit fresh weight are two indicators to show the quality of tomato fruits. To gain high values of TSS and fruit fresh weight, it is important to consider the concentration of nutrient solution, which is commonly represented by Electrical Conductivity (EC value. Generally, the increasing of EC value not only increases the number of TSS, but also decreases fruit fresh weight. Therefore, it is important to optimize the EC value for both indicators of quality of tomato fruits. The objective of this research is to optimize the EC value of nutrient solution on each generative stage using Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Genetic Algorithms (GA. ANN was used to identify the relationship between different EC value treatments with TSS value and fruit fresh weight. GA was applied to determine the optimal EC value in generative growth, which is divided into three stages. Results showed that the optimal EC values in the flowering stage, the fruiting stage and the harvesting stage were 1.4 mS/cm, 10.2 mS/cm and 9.7 mS/cm, respectively. Using these values, a tomato fruit could be estimated with TSS value of 7.9% and fruit fresh weight of 51.34 g.

  11. EV and HP Providing Ancillary Services in the Nordic Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei

    This report covers the analysis of the electric vehicle (EV) and heat pump (HP) providing ancillary services to the power system of the Nordic region including Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The analysis is to investigate the feasibility of EVs and HPs to serve as demand as frequency reserve...

  12. Impact of advanced wind power ancillary services on power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit

    The objective of this report is to illustrate and analyse, by means of simulation test cases, the impact of wind power advanced ancillary services, like inertial response (IR), power oscillation damping (POD) and synchronising power (SP) on the power system. Generic models for wind turbine, wind...... power plant and power system are used in the investigation....

  13. Long-term pavement performance ancillary information management system (AIMS) reference guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    This document provides information on the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program ancillary information. : Ancillary information includes data, images, reference materials, resource documents, and other information that : support and extend the...

  14. Review of Standby and Ancillary Services in the Context of Behind-the-Meter Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, Pieter J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holm, Alison [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-25

    The New Mexico Public Regulatory Commission (NMPRC) requested information on the following topics: Overview of ancillary and standby services. Examples of how ancillary and standby services are defined, used, and analyzed in other jurisdictions. Considerations regarding how ancillary and standby services may be economically valued. Background information on how ancillary and standby services differ from fixed costs to serve owners of behind-the-meter solar photovoltaic (BTM PV) systems.

  15. Urology Group Compensation and Ancillary Service Models in an Era of Value-based Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Neal D; Jacoby, Dana

    2016-01-01

    Changes involving the health care economic landscape have affected physicians' workflow, productivity, compensation structures, and culture. Ongoing Federal legislation regarding regulatory documentation and imminent payment-changing methodologies have encouraged physician consolidation into larger practices, creating affiliations with hospitals, multidisciplinary medical specialties, and integrated delivery networks. As subspecialization and evolution of care models have accelerated, independent medical groups have broadened ancillary service lines by investing in enterprises that compete with hospital-based (academic and nonacademic) entities, as well as non-physician- owned multispecialty enterprises, for both outpatient and inpatient services. The looming and dramatic shift from volume- to value-based health care compensation will assuredly affect urology group compensation arrangements and productivity formulae. For groups that can implement change rapidly, efficiently, and harmoniously, there will be opportunities to achieve the Triple Aim goals of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, while maintaining a successful medical-financial practice. In summary, implementing new payment algorithms alongside comprehensive care coordination will assist urology groups in addressing the health economic cost and quality challenges that have been historically encountered with fee-for-service systems. Urology group leadership and stakeholders will need to adjust internal processes, methods of care coordination, cultural dependency, and organizational structures in order to create better systems of care and management. In response, ancillary services and patient throughput will need to evolve in order to adequately align quality measurement and reporting systems across provider footprints and patient populations.

  16. Remote sensing of nutrient deficiency in Lactuca sativa using neural networks for terrestrial and advanced life support applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Edie Seldon

    2000-12-01

    A remote sensing study using reflectance and fluorescence spectra of hydroponically grown Lactuca sativa (lettuce) canopies was conducted. An optical receiver was designed and constructed to interface with a commercial fiber optic spectrometer for data acquisition. Optical parameters were varied to determine effects of field of view and distance to target on vegetation stress assessment over the test plant growth cycle. Feedforward backpropagation neural networks (NN) were implemented to predict the presence of canopy stress. Effects of spatial and spectral resolutions on stress predictions of the neural network were also examined. Visual inspection and fresh mass values failed to differentiate among controls, plants cultivated with 25% of the recommended concentration of phosphorous (P), and those cultivated with 25% nitrogen (N) based on fresh mass and visual inspection. The NN's were trained on input vectors created using reflectance and test day, fluorescence and test day, and reflectance, fluorescence, and test day. Four networks were created representing four levels of spectral resolution: 100-nm NN, 10-nm NN, 1-nm NN, and 0.1-nm NN. The 10-nm resolution was found to be sufficient for classifying extreme nitrogen deficiency in freestanding hydroponic lettuce. As a result of leaf angle and canopy structure broadband scattering intensity in the 700-nm to 1000-nm range was found to be the most useful portion of the spectrum in this study. More subtle effects of "greenness" and fluorescence emission were believed to be obscured by canopy structure and leaf orientation. As field of view was not as found to be as significant as originally believed, systems implementing higher repetitions over more uniformly oriented, i.e. smaller, flatter, target areas would provide for more discernible neural network input vectors. It is believed that this technique holds considerable promise for early detection of extreme nitrogen deficiency. Further research is recommended using

  17. Exogam with Vamos, Tiara and other ancillary detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewitowicz, M.; Olivier, L.; Savajols, H.; Catford, W.; Raine, B.; Oliveira, F. de; Perru, O.; Podolyak, Z.; Redon, N.; Bouchez, E.; Simenel, C.; Stanoiu, M.; Lemmon, R.; Rubio, B.; Obertelli, A.; Cederwall, B.; Chapman, R.; Korten, W.; Rubio Barroso, B.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this workshop was to discuss the status of experiments at GANIL facility using Exogam with Vamos, Tiara and other ancillary detectors. This document gathers most of the slides that were presented at the workshop, it concerns 8 presentations: 1) the status of Spiral and Spiral-II, 2) the status of Tiara (Tiara array is used for the study of nuclear transfer reactions with radioactive beams in inverse kinematics), 3) data acquisition for the ancillary detectors, 4) the identification of gamma-ray in nuclei around Sm 130 : probing the maximally deformed light rare earth region, 5) the Coulomb excitation of radioactive krypton beams (Kr 76 , Kr 74 ), 6) the influence of weakly bound neutrons on fusion around the Coulomb barrier, 7) single particle transfer on doubly-magic Ni 56 , and 8) the study of N=16 for neutron rich nuclei with Ne 26 (d,p)Ne 27 transfer reaction

  18. Advanced Pumped Storage Hydropower and Ancillary Services Provision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard; Gevorgian, Vahan; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Luo, Yusheng; Hovsapian, Rob; Koritarov, Vladimir

    2017-07-12

    This paper presents a high-level overview of the capability of advanced pumped storage hydropower to provide ancillary services including frequency regulation and oscillation damping. Type 3 and Type 4 generators are discussed. The examples given are for a small power system that uses a diesel generator as the main generator and a very large system that uses a gas turbine as the main generator.

  19. Screening and Flagging of Solar Irradiation and Ancillary Meteorological Data

    OpenAIRE

    Geuder, Norbert; Wolfertstetter, Fabian; Wilbert, Stefan; Schüler, David; Affolter, Roman; Kraas, Birk; Lüpfert, Eckhard; Espinar, Bella

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Solar irradiance and ancillary meteorological data is frequently measured by automatic weather stations for use within solar resource assessment for solar power plants. High accuracy measurement data are required for comparison and adjustment of satellite data and derivation of the expectable long-term mean value of the solar resource. Thus, utmost diligence must be taken during the measurement process and data evaluation to achieve data quality required for project fi...

  20. 77 FR 25105 - Reporting of Ancillary Airline Passenger Revenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ...This document announces a public meeting on a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) issued on July 15, 2011. The NPRM proposed changes regarding reporting of airline ancillary passenger revenues, computation of mishandled baggage rates, and collection of separate statistics for mishandled wheelchairs and scooters used by passengers with disabilities. During the public meeting, DOT staff will provide a summary of the proposals in the NPRM and seek input on costs and benefits associated with the implementation of the proposals.

  1. New alternatives for reference evapotranspiration estimation in West Africa using limited weather data and ancillary data supply strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeras, Gorka; Bekoe, Emmanuel; Ampofo, Joseph; Logah, Frederick; Diop, Mbaye; Cisse, Madiama; Shiri, Jalal

    2018-05-01

    Accurate estimation of reference evapotranspiration ( ET 0 ) is essential for the computation of crop water requirements, irrigation scheduling, and water resources management. In this context, having a battery of alternative local calibrated ET 0 estimation methods is of great interest for any irrigation advisory service. The development of irrigation advisory services will be a major breakthrough for West African agriculture. In the case of many West African countries, the high number of meteorological inputs required by the Penman-Monteith equation has been indicated as constraining. The present paper investigates for the first time in Ghana, the estimation ability of artificial intelligence-based models (Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Gene Expression Programing (GEPs)), and ancillary/external approaches for modeling reference evapotranspiration ( ET 0 ) using limited weather data. According to the results of this study, GEPs have emerged as a very interesting alternative for ET 0 estimation at all the locations of Ghana which have been evaluated in this study under different scenarios of meteorological data availability. The adoption of ancillary/external approaches has been also successful, moreover in the southern locations. The interesting results obtained in this study using GEPs and some ancillary approaches could be a reference for future studies about ET 0 estimation in West Africa.

  2. Optimal generator bidding strategies for power and ancillary services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinec, Allen G.

    As the electric power industry transitions to a deregulated market, power transactions are made upon price rather than cost. Generator companies are interested in maximizing their profits rather than overall system efficiency. A method to equitably compensate generation providers for real power, and ancillary services such as reactive power and spinning reserve, will ensure a competitive market with an adequate number of suppliers. Optimizing the generation product mix during bidding is necessary to maximize a generator company's profits. The objective of this research work is to determine and formulate appropriate optimal bidding strategies for a generation company in both the energy and ancillary services markets. These strategies should incorporate the capability curves of their generators as constraints to define the optimal product mix and price offered in the day-ahead and real time spot markets. In order to achieve such a goal, a two-player model was composed to simulate market auctions for power generation. A dynamic game methodology was developed to identify Nash Equilibria and Mixed-Strategy Nash Equilibria solutions as optimal generation bidding strategies for two-player non-cooperative variable-sum matrix games with incomplete information. These games integrated the generation product mix of real power, reactive power, and spinning reserve with the generators's capability curves as constraints. The research includes simulations of market auctions, where strategies were tested for generators with different unit constraints, costs, types of competitors, strategies, and demand levels. Studies on the capability of large hydrogen cooled synchronous generators were utilized to derive useful equations that define the exact shape of the capability curve from the intersections of the arcs defined by the centers and radial vectors of the rotor, stator, and steady-state stability limits. The available reactive reserve and spinning reserve were calculated given a

  3. Ancillary Services for the European Grid with High Shares of Wind and Solar Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hulle, Frans; Holttinen, Hannele; Kiviluoma, Juha

    2012-01-01

    services that are especially relevant for wind and solar power. These are mainly related to frequency, voltage control and restoration of the system. In addition, based on existing experience and wind integration studies, the paper analyses impacts that high amounts of wind/solar will have on different......With significantly increasing share of variable renewable power generation like wind and solar PV, the need in the power system for ancillary services supporting the network frequency, voltage, etc. changes. Turning this issue around, market opportunities will emerge for wind and solar PV...... technology to deliver such grid services. In the European power system, adequate market mechanisms need to be developed to ensure that there will be an efficient trading of these services. For that purpose a range of (economic) characteristics of wind (and solar) power as providers of grid services need...

  4. Estimates of Water-Column Nutrient Concentrations and Carbonate System Parameters in the Global Ocean: A Novel Approach Based on Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaëlle Sauzède

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A neural network-based method (CANYON: CArbonate system and Nutrients concentration from hYdrological properties and Oxygen using a Neural-network was developed to estimate water-column (i.e., from surface to 8,000 m depth biogeochemically relevant variables in the Global Ocean. These are the concentrations of three nutrients [nitrate (NO3−, phosphate (PO43−, and silicate (Si(OH4] and four carbonate system parameters [total alkalinity (AT, dissolved inorganic carbon (CT, pH (pHT, and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2], which are estimated from concurrent in situ measurements of temperature, salinity, hydrostatic pressure, and oxygen (O2 together with sampling latitude, longitude, and date. Seven neural-networks were developed using the GLODAPv2 database, which is largely representative of the diversity of open-ocean conditions, hence making CANYON potentially applicable to most oceanic environments. For each variable, CANYON was trained using 80 % randomly chosen data from the whole database (after eight 10° × 10° zones removed providing an “independent data-set” for additional validation, the remaining 20 % data were used for the neural-network test of validation. Overall, CANYON retrieved the variables with high accuracies (RMSE: 1.04 μmol kg−1 (NO3−, 0.074 μmol kg−1 (PO43−, 3.2 μmol kg−1 (Si(OH4, 0.020 (pHT, 9 μmol kg−1 (AT, 11 μmol kg−1 (CT and 7.6 % (pCO2 (30 μatm at 400 μatm. This was confirmed for the eight independent zones not included in the training process. CANYON was also applied to the Hawaiian Time Series site to produce a 22 years long simulated time series for the above seven variables. Comparison of modeled and measured data was also very satisfactory (RMSE in the order of magnitude of RMSE from validation test. CANYON is thus a promising method to derive distributions of key biogeochemical variables. It could be used for a variety of global and regional applications ranging from data quality control

  5. Simulation of an arbitrary quantum channel with minimal ancillary resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chao; Noh, Kyungjoo; Albert, Victor V.; Devoret, Michel H.; Schoelkopf, Robert J.; Girvin, Steven M.; Jiang, Liang

    2016-05-01

    We discuss an explicit and efficient construction of quantum circuits that can simulate an arbitrary given quantum channel acting on a d-level quantum system, with the minimal quantum ancillary resource--a qubit and its QND readout. The elementary operations required are unitary evolutions and single qubit projective measurement. We further show that this technique opens up exciting new possibilities in the field of quantum control, quantum simulation, quantum error correction, and quantum state discrimination. Our proposal can be implemented on platforms such as a superconducting transmon qubit inside a microwave cavity.

  6. Transactive Control and Coordination of Distributed Assets for Ancillary Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subbarao, Krishnappa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fuller, Jason C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kalsi, Karanjit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Somani, Abhishek [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pratt, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chassin, David P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-18

    The need to diversify energy supplies, the need to mitigate energy-related environmental impact, and the entry of electric vehicles in large numbers present challenges and opportunities to power system professionals. Wind and solar power provide many benefits, and to reap the benefits the resulting increased variability—forecasted as well as unforecasted—should be addressed. A majority of states and the District of Columbia, representing over half of the total load, have passed renewable portfolio standards. California’s plans call for 33% renewable energy by 2020. For grid balancing and for meeting reliability standards, ancillary services are needed. The needs for these services are poised to increase significantly. Demand resources are receiving increasing attention as one means of providing the ancillary services. Control and coordination of a large number (~millions) of distributed smart grid assets requires innovative approaches. One such approach is transactive control and coordination (TC2)—a distributed, hierarchical, agent-based incentive and control system. The TC2 paradigm is to create a market-like control system in which participation is voluntary and the participant sets the price for participation. For transactions that are frequent, automation of bids and responses is necessary. Such an approach has been developed and demonstrated at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The devices, typically thermostatically controlled heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads, send their bids—the quantity of energy they need and, based on the consumer preferences encoded in a simple user interface, the price they are willing to pay. The typical bid period is 5 minutes. By aggregating all the bids, a demand curve is generated by the aggregating entity, and matched with a supply curve or supply constraint. The aggregator transmits the clearing price to the devices. The winning devices proceed to consume the energy they bid for and won

  7. LANDMET Ancillary Soil Moisture data L3 V1 (LANDMET_ANC_SM) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This ancillary climatology soil porosity and wetlands coverage information were derived from the daily GEWEX fusion of satellite active and passive microwave...

  8. Ancillary services and optimal household energy management with photovoltaic production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clastres, C.; Ha Pham, T.T.; Wurtz, F.; Bacha, S.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a project designed to increase the monetary value of photovoltaic (PV) solar production for residential applications. To contribute to developing new functionalities for this type of PV system and an efficient control system for optimising its operation, this article explains how the proposed system could contract to provide ancillary services, particularly the supply of active power services. This provision of service by a PV-based system for domestic applications, not currently available, has prompted a market design proposal related to the distribution system. The mathematical model for calculating the system's optimal operation (sources, load and exchanges of power with the grid) results in a linear mix integer optimisation problem in which the objective is to maximise the profits achieved by taking part in the electricity market. Our approach is illustrated in a case study. PV producers could gain by taking part in the markets for balancing power or ancillary services despite the negative impact on profit of several types of uncertainty, notably the intermittent nature of the PV source.

  9. Exogam with Vamos, Tiara and other ancillary detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewitowicz, M.; Olivier, L.; Savajols, H.; Catford, W.; Raine, B.; Oliveira, F. de; Perru, O.; Podolyak, Z.; Redon, N.; Bouchez, E.; Simenel, C.; Stanoiu, M.; Lemmon, R.; Rubio, B.; Obertelli, A.; Cederwall, B.; Chapman, R.; Korten, W.; Rubio Barroso, B

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this workshop was to discuss the status of experiments at GANIL facility using Exogam with Vamos, Tiara and other ancillary detectors. This document gathers most of the slides that were presented at the workshop, it concerns 8 presentations: 1) the status of Spiral and Spiral-II, 2) the status of Tiara (Tiara array is used for the study of nuclear transfer reactions with radioactive beams in inverse kinematics), 3) data acquisition for the ancillary detectors, 4) the identification of gamma-ray in nuclei around Sm{sup 130}: probing the maximally deformed light rare earth region, 5) the Coulomb excitation of radioactive krypton beams (Kr{sup 76}, Kr{sup 74}), 6) the influence of weakly bound neutrons on fusion around the Coulomb barrier, 7) single particle transfer on doubly-magic Ni{sup 56}, and 8) the study of N=16 for neutron rich nuclei with Ne{sup 26}(d,p)Ne{sup 27} transfer reaction.

  10. Public attitudes toward ancillary information revealed by pharmacogenetic testing under limited information conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Susanne B; O'Daniel, Julianne M; Tindall, Genevieve M; Lipkus, Isaac R; Agans, Robert

    2011-08-01

    Pharmacogenetic testing can inform drug dosing and selection by aiding in estimating a patient's genetic risk of adverse response and/or failure to respond. Some pharmacogenetic tests may generate ancillary clinical information unrelated to the drug treatment question for which testing is done-an informational "side effect." We aimed to assess public interest and concerns about pharmacogenetic tests and ancillary information. We conducted a random-digit-dial phone survey of a sample of the US public. We achieved an overall response rate of 42% (n = 1139). When the potential for ancillary information was presented, 85% (±2.82%) of respondents expressed interest in pharmacogenetic testing, compared with 82% (±3.02%) before discussion of ancillary information. Most respondents (89% ± 2.27%) indicated that physicians should inform patients that a pharmacogenetic test may reveal ancillary risk information before testing is ordered. Respondents' interest in actually learning of the ancillary risk finding significantly differed based on disease severity, availability of an intervention, and test validity, even after adjusting for age, gender, education, and race. Under the limited information conditions presented in the survey, the potential of ancillary information does not negatively impact public interest in pharmacogenetic testing. Interest in learning ancillary information is well aligned with the public's desire to be informed about potential benefits and risks before testing, promoting patient autonomy.

  11. 40 CFR 267.197 - What are the requirements for ancillary equipment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements for ancillary equipment? 267.197 Section 267.197 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED PERMIT Tank Systems § 267.197 What are the requirements for ancillary...

  12. Rejuvenation of the neck with liposuction and ancillary techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, William G; Hanke, C William

    2011-01-01

    An aesthetically pleasing neck is an important component of physical appearance and a frequently targeted area for a variety of rejuvenative procedures. In appropriately selected patients, liposuction of the neck using tumescent local anesthesia can effectively render a more youthful appearance to the anterior and lateral neck by removing superficial adipose tissue and redraping the skin. This article will review all aspects of neck liposuction, including neck and lower face anatomy, proper patient selection and evaluation, necessary equipment, as well as all peri-procedural management. An in-depth discussion of administration of tumescent local anesthesia and proper liposuction technique is also included. Lastly, a number of ancillary techniques to further enhance the appearance of the neck including laser lipolysis, fractional ablative CO(2) resurfacing, and treatment of platysmal banding will be briefly discussed. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Nutrient and pesticide contamination bias estimated from field blanks collected at surface-water sites in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Quality Networks, 2002–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalie, Laura; Martin, Jeffrey D.

    2017-08-14

    Potential contamination bias was estimated for 8 nutrient analytes and 40 pesticides in stream water collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at 147 stream sites from across the United States, and representing a variety of hydrologic conditions and site types, for water years 2002–12. This study updates previous U.S. Geological Survey evaluations of potential contamination bias for nutrients and pesticides. Contamination is potentially introduced to water samples by exposure to airborne gases and particulates, from inadequate cleaning of sampling or analytic equipment, and from inadvertent sources during sample collection, field processing, shipment, and laboratory analysis. Potential contamination bias, based on frequency and magnitude of detections in field blanks, is used to determine whether or under what conditions environmental data might need to be qualified for the interpretation of results in the context of comparisons with background levels, drinking-water standards, aquatic-life criteria or benchmarks, or human-health benchmarks. Environmental samples for which contamination bias as determined in this report applies are those from historical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality networks or programs that were collected during the same time frame and according to the same protocols and that were analyzed in the same laboratory as field blanks described in this report.Results from field blanks for ammonia, nitrite, nitrite plus nitrate, orthophosphate, and total phosphorus were partitioned by analytical method; results from the most commonly used analytical method for total phosphorus were further partitioned by date. Depending on the analytical method, 3.8, 9.2, or 26.9 percent of environmental samples, the last of these percentages pertaining to all results from 2007 through 2012, were potentially affected by ammonia contamination. Nitrite contamination potentially affected up to 2.6 percent of environmental samples collected between 2002 and 2006 and

  14. 77 FR 40413 - Third-Party Provision of Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial Reporting for New Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial Reporting for New Electric Storage Technologies AGENCY: Federal... Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial Reporting for New Electric Storage Technologies, 135 FERC ] 61... Commission 18 CFR Parts 35, 37, and 101 Third-Party Provision of Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial...

  15. Regional land cover characterization using Landsat thematic mapper data and ancillary data sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelmann, James E.; Sohl, Terry L.; Campbell, P.V.; Shaw, D.M.; ,

    1998-01-01

    As part of the activities of the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Interagency Consortium, an intermediate-scale land cover data set is being generated for the conterminous United States. This effort is being conducted on a region-by-region basis using U.S. Standard Federal Regions. To date, land cover data sets have been generated for Federal Regions 3 (Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware) and 2 (New York and New Jersey). Classification work is currently under way in Federal Region 4 (the southeastern United States), and land cover mapping activities have been started in Federal Regions 5 (the Great Lakes region) and 1 (New England). It is anticipated that a land cover data set for the conterminous United States will be completed by the end of 1999. A standard land cover classification legend is used, which is analogous to and compatible with other classification schemes. The primary MRLC regional classification scheme contains 23 land cover classes.The primary source of data for the project is the Landsat thematic mapper (TM) sensor. For each region, TM scenes representing both leaf-on and leaf-off conditions are acquired, preprocessed, and georeferenced to MRLC specifications. Mosaicked data are clustered using unsupervised classification, and individual clusters are labeled using aerial photographs. Individual clusters that represent more than one land cover unit are split using spatial modeling with multiple ancillary spatial data layers (most notably, digital elevation model, population, land use and land cover, and wetlands information). This approach yields regional land cover information suitable for a wide array of applications, including landscape metric analyses, land management, land cover change studies, and nutrient and pesticide runoff modeling.

  16. Exploiting ancillary services from distributed generation - perspectives for the Danish power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyeng, Preben; Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Østergaard, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    The share of the electric power production originating from distributed energy resources has rapidly increased during the recent past. However when it comes to ancillary services necessary to ensure the stability and appropriate operation of the power system, the distributed energy resources take...... a very passive role. This paper outlines suggestions on how to activate the potential of ancillary services from distributed energy resources, thereby exploiting their ability to contribute to power system operation. Furthermore, methods for integrating the ancillary service delivery into a deregulated...... power system are proposed and evaluated....

  17. Impact of Production from Photovoltaic Power Plants on Increase of Ancillary Services in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Smocek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy resources represent a noticeable part of the overall energetic concept development. New integration of renewable energy resources into power grids has a significant impact on the reliability and quality of power supply. The major problem of the photovoltaic and wind power plants is their dependency on weather conditions, since it has a direct effect on their immediate output produced that shows stochastic behaviour. These stochastic outputs result in very adverse impacts on the power grid. Further development of these resources could lead to exceeding of the control and absorption abilities of the power grid. The power grid must be set in balance with respect to the production and consumption of electric power at any time. The operation of photovoltaic power plants impair keeping this balance. That has an adverse impact on the very operation and maintenance of network parameters within the extent required. This survey deals with analysis focused on operation of the photovoltaic power plants with respect to the increase of reserve power in ancillary services in the Czech Republic.

  18. Commercial Building Loads Providing Ancillary Services in PJM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, Jason; Kiliccote, Sila; Boch, Jim; Chen, Jonathan; Nawy, Robert

    2014-06-27

    The adoption of low carbon energy technologies such as variable renewable energy and electric vehicles, coupled with the efficacy of energy efficiency to reduce traditional base load has increased the uncertainty inherent in the net load shape. Handling this variability with slower, traditional resources leads to inefficient system dispatch, and in some cases may compromise reliability. Grid operators are looking to future energy technologies, such as automated demand response (DR), to provide capacity-based reliability services as the need for these services increase. While DR resources are expected to have the flexibility characteristics operators are looking for, demonstrations are necessary to build confidence in their capabilities. Additionally, building owners are uncertain of the monetary value and operational burden of providing these services. To address this, the present study demonstrates the ability of demand response resources providing two ancillary services in the PJM territory, synchronous reserve and regulation, using an OpenADR 2.0b signaling architecture. The loads under control include HVAC and lighting at a big box retail store and variable frequency fan loads. The study examines performance characteristics of the resource: the speed of response, communications latencies in the architecture, and accuracy of response. It also examines the frequency and duration of events and the value in the marketplace which can be used to examine if the opportunity is sufficient to entice building owners to participate.

  19. Survey of U.S. Ancillary Services Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhi; Levin, Todd; Conzelmann, Guenter

    2016-06-01

    In addition to providing energy to end-consumers, power system operators are also responsible for ensuring system reliability. To this end, power markets maintain an array of ancillary services to ensure that it is always possible to balance the supply and demand for energy in real-time. A subset of these ancillary services are commonly procured through market-based mechanisms: namely, Regulation, Spinning, and Non-spinning Reserves. Regulation Reserves are maintained to respond to supply/demand imbalances over short time frames, typically on the order of several seconds to one minute. Resources that provide Regulation Reserves adjust their generation or load levels in response to automatic generation control (AGC) signals provided by the system operator. Contingency reserves are maintained to provide additional generation capacity in the event that load increases substantially or supply side resources reduce their output or are taken offline. The reserves are typically segmented into two categories, 1) Spinning or Synchronized Reserves that are provided by generation units that are actively generating and have the ability to increase or decrease their output, 2) Non-spinning or Non-synchronized Reserves that are provided by generation resources that are not actively generating, but are able to start up and provide generation within a specified timeframe. Contingency reserves typically have response times on the order of ten to 30 minutes and can also be provided by demand-side resources that are capable of reducing their load. There are seven distinct power markets in the United States, each operated by a Regional Transmission Operator (RTO) or Independent System Operator (ISO) that operates the transmission system in its territory, operates markets for energy and ancillary services, and maintains system reliability. Each power market offers its own set of ancillary services, and precise definitions, requirements, and market mechanisms differ between markets

  20. Finisher hog production in the Southeastern United States: Ancillary measurements derived from the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robarge, W. P.; Lee, S.; Walker, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of emissions of gases and fine particulate matter from swine animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the southeastern US have typically been confined to relatively short periods (days to several weeks) and have generally focused on waste lagoons. Access to swine animal housing units and other ancillary information has been limited. The National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) provided a unique opportunity to characterize emissions from swine housing units for an extended period of time (~ 2 years), and allowed access to ancillary measurements regarding nutrient flows (feed amounts and composition), manure dynamics, animal inventories, water usage and farm management. Presented here is a summary of the observations made for a NAEMS finisher site (NC3B) selected as being representative of swine production in the southeastern US. Finisher hogs are raised in rotations (~ 140 days) with a target market weight of 123 kg/hog. Among the population during a rotation (700-800 hogs/barn) the actual growth rate varies with a series of “grade-outs” of market-weight hogs starting ~ 110 days from initial load-in. Derivation of the standing live-weight in the barns during a rotation therefore requires use of a growth model and summation over several different “populations” of hogs within a single barn. Up to 5 different feed formulations are fed during a rotation with %N content ranging from (3.4 to 2.2% N; total feed consumed 181,000 kg/barn). Across 4 complete rotations, N consumed was ~50 g N per hog/day. Of this amount, we estimate ~ 60% is excreted as fecal matter and urine. The TAN (NH3 + NH4+) content of the shallow pits is consistently higher (1880 ±390 mg TAN/L) than that found in the anaerobic lagoon (800 ±70 mg TAN/L), except immediately after recharge following pit-pull (pH of the two liquids was similar). The presence of a recalcitrant layer of sludge in the shallow pits (liquid height = 20 cm; sludge depth = 5-10 cm; TAN = 2500 mg N/L; total

  1. EX1504L4 Dive03 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  2. EX1504L3 Dive07 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L3: CAPSTONE Leg III:...

  3. EX1605L3 Dive04 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  4. EX1606 Dive03 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1606: CAPSTONE Wake Island...

  5. EX1504L4 Dive02 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  6. EX1606 Dive01 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1606: CAPSTONE Wake Island...

  7. EX1606 Dive09 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1606: CAPSTONE Wake Island...

  8. EX1605L3 Dive01 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  9. EX1606 Dive14 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1606: CAPSTONE Wake Island...

  10. EX1504L3 Dive05 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L3: CAPSTONE Leg III:...

  11. EX1605L3 Dive20 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  12. EX1504L2 Dive14 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  13. EX1606 Dive10 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1606: CAPSTONE Wake Island...

  14. EX1504L4 Dive12 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  15. EX1504L3 Dive03 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L3: CAPSTONE Leg III:...

  16. EX1605L3 Dive15 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  17. EX1605L3 Dive09 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  18. EX1605L3 Dive03 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  19. EX1605L3 Dive13 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  20. EX1504L2 Dive05 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  1. EX1605L3 Dive02 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  2. EX1606 Dive07 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1606: CAPSTONE Wake Island...

  3. EX1504L4 Dive06 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  4. EX1504L2 Dive18 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  5. EX1606 Dive11 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1606: CAPSTONE Wake Island...

  6. EX1605L3 Dive08 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  7. EX1504L2 Dive16 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  8. EX1605L3 Dive10 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  9. EX1605L3 Dive16 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  10. EX1606 Dive08 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1606: CAPSTONE Wake Island...

  11. EX1605L3 Dive22 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  12. EX1605L3 Dive17 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  13. EX1606 Dive13 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1606: CAPSTONE Wake Island...

  14. EX1504L4 Dive10 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  15. EX1605L3 Dive06 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  16. EX1605L3 Dive12 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  17. EX1504L3 Dive06 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L3: CAPSTONE Leg III:...

  18. EX1606 Dive12 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1606: CAPSTONE Wake Island...

  19. EX1605L3 Dive05 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  20. EX1605L3 Dive21 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  1. EX1606 Dive04 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1606: CAPSTONE Wake Island...

  2. EX1605L3 Dive19 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  3. EX1605L3 Dive14 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  4. EX1504L2 Dive12 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  5. EX1605L3 Dive11 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  6. EX1605L3 Dive07 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  7. EX1504L2 Dive06 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  8. EX1606 Dive06 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1606: CAPSTONE Wake Island...

  9. EX1606 Dive02 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1606: CAPSTONE Wake Island...

  10. EX1606 Dive05 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1606: CAPSTONE Wake Island...

  11. Trace Metal and Ancillary Data in Puget Sound, 1980 - 1986 (NODC Accession 9100153)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In first of three data reports on the trace metal and ancillary data in Puget Sound and its watershed (Paulson et al., 1991a), all water column, sediment, and...

  12. EX1504L2 Dive04 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  13. EX1504L2 Dive01 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  14. NACP Site: Tower Meteorology, Flux Observations with Uncertainty, and Ancillary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains meteorological, carbon cycle flux, phenology, and ancillary data measured at 47 eddy covariance flux tower sites across North...

  15. EX1504L3 Dive04 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L3: CAPSTONE Leg III:...

  16. EX1504L2 Dive17 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  17. EX1504L2 Dive02 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  18. EX1504L3 Dive02 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L3: CAPSTONE Leg III:...

  19. EX1504L4 Dive04 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  20. EX1504L2 Dive08 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  1. EX1504L2 Dive10 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  2. EX1504L2 Dive13 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  3. NACP Site: Tower Meteorology, Flux Observations with Uncertainty, and Ancillary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains meteorological, carbon cycle flux, phenology, and ancillary data measured at 47 eddy covariance flux tower sites across North America. The...

  4. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-2: Ancillary Files (NODC Accession 0044982)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains the data descriptions for the OSTM/Jason-2 Ancillary data files, which is served through the NOAA/NESDIS Comprehensive Large Array-data...

  5. EX1504L4 Dive01 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  6. EX1504L4 Dive05 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  7. EX1504L2 Dive11 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  8. EX1504L4 Dive09 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  9. EX1504L4 Dive11 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  10. EX1504L2 Dive09 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  11. EX1504L4 Dive13 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  12. EX1504L4 Dive08 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  13. EX1504L2 Dive07 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  14. EX1504L4 Dive07 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  15. EX1504L2 Dive15 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  16. Performance Requirements Modeling andAssessment for Active Power Ancillary Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondy, Daniel Esteban Morales; Thavlov, Anders; Tougaard, Janus Bundsgaard Mosbæk

    2017-01-01

    system operation, a reliable service delivery is required, yet it may not be appropriate to apply conventional performance requirements to new technologies and methods. The service performance requirements and assessment methods therefore need to be generalized and standardized in order to include future...... ancillary service sources. This paper develops a modeling method for ancillary services performance requirements, including performance and verification indices. The use of the modeling method and the indices is exemplified in two case studies....

  17. Ancillary benefits of climate policy in a small open economy: The case of Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krook Riekkola, Anna; Ahlgren, Erik O.; Soederholm, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    It is increasingly recognised that GHG reduction policies can have important ancillary benefits in the form of positive local and regional environmental impacts. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the domestic ancillary pollution benefits of climate policy in Sweden, and investigate how these are affected by different climate policy designs. The latter differ primarily in terms of how the country chooses to meet a specific target and where the necessary emission reductions take place. The analysis relies on simulations within the energy system optimisation model TIMES-Sweden, and focuses on four non-GHG pollutants: Nitrogen Oxides (NO X ), Non Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOC), inhalable particles (PM 2.5 ), and Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ). The simulations permit detailed assessments of the respective technology and fuel choices that underlie any net changes in the estimated ancillary effects. The results indicate that the ancillary benefits constitute a far from insignificant share of total system costs, and this share appears to be highest in the scenarios that entail the largest emission reductions domestically. This result reflects the fact that carbon dioxide emission reductions abroad also implies a lost opportunity of achieving substantial domestic welfare gain from the reductions of regional and local environmental pollutants. - Highlights: → We estimate the domestic ancillary pollution benefits of climate policy in Sweden. → These constitute a sizeable share of total system costs. → The ancillary benefits are highest in the policy scenarios that entail the largest emission reductions domestically.

  18. Functional neuroimaging of conversion disorder: The role of ancillary activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Burke, MD

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Sensory conversion symptoms are associated with a pattern of abnormal cerebral activation comprising neural networks implicated in emotional processing and sensory integration. Further study of the roles and potential interplay of these networks may provide a basis for an underlying psychobiological mechanism of conversion disorder.

  19. Nutrient cycling strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.

    1995-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews pathways by which plants can influence the nutrient cycle, and thereby the nutrient supply of themselves and of their competitors. Higher or lower internal nutrient use efficiency positively feeds back into the nutrient cycle, and helps to increase or decrease soil

  20. Amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (slc6a19) and ancillary protein: impact on function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margheritis, Eleonora; Imperiali, Francesca Guia; Cinquetti, Raffaella; Vollero, Alessandra; Terova, Genciana; Rimoldi, Simona; Girardello, Rossana; Bossi, Elena

    2016-08-01

    Amino acids play an important role in the metabolism of all organisms. Their epithelial re-absorption is due to specific transport proteins, such as B(0)AT1, a Na(+)-coupled neutral amino acid symporter belonging to the solute carrier 6 family. Here, a recently cloned fish orthologue, from the intestine of Salmo salar, was electrophysiologically characterized with the two-electrode voltage clamp technique, in Xenopus laevis oocytes heterologously expressing the transporter. Substrate specificity, apparent affinities and the ionic dependence of the transport mechanism were determined in the presence of specific collectrin. Results demonstrated that like the human, but differently from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) orthologue, salmon B(0)AT1 needs to be associated with partner proteins to be correctly expressed at the oocyte plasma membrane. Cloning of sea bass collectrin and comparison of membrane expression and functionality of the B(0)AT1 orthologue transporters allowed a deeper investigation on the role of their interactions. The parameters acquired by electrophysiological and immunolocalization experiments in the mammalian and fish transporters contributed to highlight the dynamic of relations and impacts on transport function of the ancillary proteins. The comparative characterization of the physiological parameters of amino acid transporters with auxiliary proteins can help the comprehension of the regulatory mechanism of essential nutrient absorption.

  1. More than a score: a qualitative study of ancillary benefits of performance measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Adam A; White, Katie M; Partin, Melissa R; Halek, Krysten; Hysong, Sylvia J; Zarling, Edwin; Kirsh, Susan R; Bloomfield, Hanna E

    2014-08-01

    Prior research has examined clinical effects of performance measurement systems. To the extent that non-clinical effects have been researched, the focus has been on negative unintended consequences. Yet, these same systems may also have ancillary benefits for patients and providers--that is, benefits that extend beyond improvements on clinical measures. The purpose of this study is to identify and describe potential ancillary benefits of performance measures as perceived by primary care staff and facility leaders in a large US healthcare system. In-person individual semistructured interviews were conducted with 59 primary care staff and facility leaders at four Veterans Health Administration facilities. Transcribed interviews were coded and organised into thematic categories. Interviewed staff observed that local performance measurement implementation practices can result in increased patient knowledge and motivation. These effects on patients can lead to improved performance scores and additional ancillary benefits. Performance measurement implementation can also directly result in ancillary benefits for the patients and providers. Patients may experience greater satisfaction with care and psychosocial benefits associated with increased provider-patient communication. Ancillary benefits of performance measurement for providers include increased pride in individual or organisational performance and greater confidence that one's practice is grounded in evidence-based medicine. A comprehensive understanding of the effects of performance measurement systems needs to incorporate ancillary benefits as well as effects on clinical performance scores and negative unintended consequences. Although clinical performance has been the focus of most evaluations of performance measurement to date, both patient care and provider satisfaction may improve more rapidly if all three categories of effects are considered when designing and evaluating performance measurement systems

  2. Soluble organic nutrient fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Qualls; Bruce L. Haines; Wayne Swank

    2014-01-01

    Our objectives in this study were (i) compare fluxes of the dissolved organic nutrients dissolved organic carbon (DOC), DON, and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in a clearcut area and an adjacent mature reference area. (ii) determine whether concentrations of dissolved organic nutrients or inorganic nutrients were greater in clearcut areas than in reference areas,...

  3. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of InternationalExperience-- Technical Appendix: Market Descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grayson Heffner, Charles Goldman, Kintner-Meyer, M; Kirby, Brendan

    2007-05-01

    In this study, we examine the arrangements for andexperiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in fiveelectricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordicmarket, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objectivein undertaking this review of international experience was to identifyspecific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads toeffectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hopethat this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S.and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments areneeded to ensure that customer loads can meaningfully participate in allwholesale electricity markets.

  4. Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Rauno Lindholm, Daniel; Boisen Devantier, Lykke; Nyborg, Karoline Lykke; Høgsbro, Andreas; Fries, de; Skovlund, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine what influencing factor that has had an impact on the presumed increasement of the use of networking among academics on the labour market and how it is expressed. On the basis of the influence from globalization on the labour market it can be concluded that the globalization has transformed the labour market into a market based on the organization of networks. In this new organization there is a greater emphasis on employees having social qualificati...

  5. 78 FR 46177 - Third-Party Provision of Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial Reporting for New Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ...-Party Provision of Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial Reporting for New Electric Storage... Financial Reporting for New Electric Storage Technologies, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, FERC Stats. & Regs... Commission 18 CFR Parts 35 and 101 Third-Party Provision of Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial...

  6. 29 CFR 2550.408b-6 - Statutory exemption for ancillary services by a bank or similar financial institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....408b-6 Statutory exemption for ancillary services by a bank or similar financial institution. (a) In... service is consistent with sound banking and financial practice, as determined by Federal or State... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Statutory exemption for ancillary services by a bank or...

  7. Analysis of the Impact of Wind Power Participating in Both Energy and Ancillary Services Markets – The Danish Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Morais, Hugo; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    strategies that wind farms employ on ene rgy and ancillary service market. A lready proposed Proportional Wind Reserve Strategy (PWRS) and a Continuo us Wind Reserve Strategy (CWRS) are used to determine the amount of available power for ancillary services. A case study based on real and recent dat...

  8. Handoff algorithm for mobile satellite systems with ancillary terrestrial component

    KAUST Repository

    Sadek, Mirette

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a locally optimal handoff algorithm for integrated satellite/ground communication systems. We derive the handoff decision function and present the results in the form of tradeoff curves between the number of handoffs and the number of link degradation events in a given distance covered by the mobile user. This is a practical receiver-controlled handoff algorithm that optimizes the handoff process from a user perspective based on the received signal strength rather than from a network perspective. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. 17 CFR 240.3b-15 - Definition of ancillary portfolio management securities activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of ancillary portfolio management securities activities. 240.3b-15 Section 240.3b-15 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Rules and Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Definitions § 240.3b-15 Definition of...

  10. Regulatory issues associated with closure of the Hanford AX Tank Farm ancillary equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Liquid mixed, high-level radioactive waste has been stored in underground single-shell tanks at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. After retrieval of the waste from the single-shell tanks, the DOE will proceed with closure of the tank farm. The 241-AX Tank Farm includes four one-million gallon single-shell tanks in addition to sluice lines, transfer lines, ventilation headers, risers, pits, cribs, catch tanks, buildings, well and associated buried piping. This equipment is classified as ancillary equipment. This document addresses the requirements for regulatory close of the ancillary equipment in the Hanford Site 241-AX Tank Farm. The options identified for physical closure of the ancillary equipment include disposal in place, disposal in place after treatment, excavation and disposal on site in an empty single-shell tank, and excavation and disposal outside the AX Tank Farm. The document addresses the background of the Hanford Site and ancillary equipment in the AX Tank Farm, regulations for decontamination and decommissioning of radioactively contaminated equipment, requirements for the cleanup and disposal of radioactive wastes, cleanup and disposal requirements governing hazardous and mixed waste, and regulatory requirements and issues associated with each of the four physical closure options. This investigation was conducted by the Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, during Fiscal Year 1998 for the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project

  11. 30 CFR 250.207 - What ancillary activities may I conduct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surveys; or (c) Studies that model potential oil and hazardous substance spills, drilling muds and... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What ancillary activities may I conduct? 250.207 Section 250.207 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE...

  12. Technical Feasibility of Ancillary Services provided by ReGen Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit; Han, Xue; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    This report is the first deliverable in WP1 in the project “Ancillary services from renewable power plants” (RePlan). RePlan is funded as PSO project 2015 no. 12347 by the Danish PSO-programme ForskEL, which is administered by Energinet.DK. RePlan is carried out in collaboration between DTU Wind ...

  13. Ethics of Ancillary Care in Clinical Trials in Low Income Countries: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These limits should be negotiated to ensure that the research remains feasible and economically viable. (Afr J Reprod Health 2014; 18[3]: 135-142). Keywords: Ancillary care; ethics, HIV prevention, undue inducement. La conduite éthique des chercheurs dans le domaine de la prévention du VIH est soumise au contrôle.

  14. Ancillary obligations as an additional obligation of a limited liability company's member

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanski Vladimir Ž.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancillary obligation can be defined as an obligation of a limited liability company's member undertaken through the instrument of incorporation, which can take the form of monetary or non-monetary obligation (usually it is an obligation of a non-monetary character, which has a certain financial value and can be the object of a legally valid obligation. Ancillary obligations, as a contribution to activities of the company, are not regulated in the Law on Companies. The legal nature of this obligation is different from the obligation to make a contribution in money or in kind to a company's assets, to make additional pay-ins or from the landing of funds to the company. Ancillary obligation is an optional and additional obligation of a limited liability company's member and the obligation itself and its contents is defined in the instrument of incorporation. When a limited liability company's member undertakes an ancillary obligation this creates a distinctive relationship between the member and the company, concerning their respective obligations and the legal status of the company, as well as certain consequences derived from those obligations.

  15. Ancillary services: technical specifications, system needs and costs. Deliverable D 2.2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holttinen, Hannele; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Gubina, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    In this report, different ancillary services are described and a table listing main services is presented. While Chapter 2 is describing the services from (renewable) generators point of view, Chapter 3 is considering future system needs for services with increased wind and solar penetration...

  16. Functional neuroimaging of conversion disorder: the role of ancillary activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Matthew J; Ghaffar, Omar; Staines, W Richard; Downar, Jonathan; Feinstein, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Previous functional neuroimaging studies investigating the neuroanatomy of conversion disorder have yielded inconsistent results that may be attributed to small sample sizes and disparate methodologies. The objective of this study was to better define the functional neuroanatomical correlates of conversion disorder. Ten subjects meeting clinical criteria for unilateral sensory conversion disorder underwent fMRI during which a vibrotactile stimulus was applied to anesthetic and sensate areas. A block design was used with 4 s of stimulation followed by 26 s of rest, the pattern repeated 10 times. Event-related group averages of the BOLD response were compared between conditions. All subjects were right-handed females, with a mean age of 41. Group analyses revealed 10 areas that had significantly greater activation (p conversion symptoms are associated with a pattern of abnormal cerebral activation comprising neural networks implicated in emotional processing and sensory integration. Further study of the roles and potential interplay of these networks may provide a basis for an underlying psychobiological mechanism of conversion disorder.

  17. Nutrient enrichment increases mortality of mangroves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Lovelock

    Full Text Available Nutrient enrichment of the coastal zone places intense pressure on marine communities. Previous studies have shown that growth of intertidal mangrove forests is accelerated with enhanced nutrient availability. However, nutrient enrichment favours growth of shoots relative to roots, thus enhancing growth rates but increasing vulnerability to environmental stresses that adversely affect plant water relations. Two such stresses are high salinity and low humidity, both of which require greater investment in roots to meet the demands for water by the shoots. Here we present data from a global network of sites that documents enhanced mortality of mangroves with experimental nutrient enrichment at sites where high sediment salinity was coincident with low rainfall and low humidity. Thus the benefits of increased mangrove growth in response to coastal eutrophication is offset by the costs of decreased resilience due to mortality during drought, with mortality increasing with soil water salinity along climatic gradients.

  18. Artificial neural network-based exploration of gene-nutrient interactions in folate and xenobiotic metabolic pathways that modulate susceptibility to breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Ramaiah, M Janaki; Pavithrakumari, Manickam; Jayapriya, Jaganathan; Hussain, Tajamul; Alrokayan, Salman A; Gottumukkala, Suryanarayana Raju; Digumarti, Raghunadharao; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2016-04-15

    In the current study, an artificial neural network (ANN)-based breast cancer prediction model was developed from the data of folate and xenobiotic pathway genetic polymorphisms along with the nutritional and demographic variables to investigate how micronutrients modulate susceptibility to breast cancer. The developed ANN model explained 94.2% variability in breast cancer prediction. Fixed effect models of folate (400 μg/day) and B12 (6 μg/day) showed 33.3% and 11.3% risk reduction, respectively. Multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis showed the following interactions in responders to folate: RFC1 G80A × MTHFR C677T (primary), COMT H108L × CYP1A1 m2 (secondary), MTR A2756G (tertiary). The interactions among responders to B12 were RFC1G80A × cSHMT C1420T and CYP1A1 m2 × CYP1A1 m4. ANN simulations revealed that increased folate might restore ER and PR expression and reduce the promoter CpG island methylation of extra cellular superoxide dismutase and BRCA1. Dietary intake of folate appears to confer protection against breast cancer through its modulating effects on ER and PR expression and methylation of EC-SOD and BRCA1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ancillary services in Smart Grids to support distribution networks in the integration of renewable energy resources

    OpenAIRE

    Lamberti, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    2014 - 2015 In recent years, progresses have been made in developing cleaner and more efficient technologies to produce, transmit and distribute energy. Pledges made in the recent summit in Paris (21°conference of the parties - COP21, Paris 2015) and Marrakech (COP22, Marrakech 2016) on climate changes promise to give new impetus to the move towards a lower-carbon and more efficient energy system. Nowadays, mandatory energy efficiency plans are expanding worldwide to cover over a quarter o...

  20. A fully automatic tool to perform accurate flood mapping by merging remote sensing imagery and ancillary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addabbo, Annarita; Refice, Alberto; Lovergine, Francesco; Pasquariello, Guido

    2016-04-01

    Flooding is one of the most frequent and expansive natural hazard. High-resolution flood mapping is an essential step in the monitoring and prevention of inundation hazard, both to gain insight into the processes involved in the generation of flooding events, and from the practical point of view of the precise assessment of inundated areas. Remote sensing data are recognized to be useful in this respect, thanks to the high resolution and regular revisit schedules of state-of-the-art satellites, moreover offering a synoptic overview of the extent of flooding. In particular, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data present several favorable characteristics for flood mapping, such as their relative insensitivity to the meteorological conditions during acquisitions, as well as the possibility of acquiring independently of solar illumination, thanks to the active nature of the radar sensors [1]. However, flood scenarios are typical examples of complex situations in which different factors have to be considered to provide accurate and robust interpretation of the situation on the ground: the presence of many land cover types, each one with a particular signature in presence of flood, requires modelling the behavior of different objects in the scene in order to associate them to flood or no flood conditions [2]. Generally, the fusion of multi-temporal, multi-sensor, multi-resolution and/or multi-platform Earth observation image data, together with other ancillary information, seems to have a key role in the pursuit of a consistent interpretation of complex scenes. In the case of flooding, distance from the river, terrain elevation, hydrologic information or some combination thereof can add useful information to remote sensing data. Suitable methods, able to manage and merge different kind of data, are so particularly needed. In this work, a fully automatic tool, based on Bayesian Networks (BNs) [3] and able to perform data fusion, is presented. It supplies flood maps

  1. Projected prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinas, B.R.; Barba, L.R.; Ngo, J.; Gurinovic, M.; Novakovic, R.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Veer, van 't P.; Matthys, C.; Serra Majem, L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to analyze the prevalence of nutrient intake inadequacy in Europe, applying the Nordic Nutritional Recommendations in the context of the EURRECA Network of Excellence. Methods: Nutrient data was obtained from the European Nutrition and Health Report II.

  2. Nutrient Exchange through Hyphae in Intercropping Systems Affects Yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thun, Tim Von

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi (AMF) play a large role in the current understanding of the soil ecosystem. They increase nutrient and water uptake, improve soil structure, and form complex hyphal networks that transfer nutrients between plants within an ecosystem. Factors such as species present, the physiological balance between the plants in the…

  3. Diagnosing oceanic nutrient deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C. Mark

    2016-11-01

    The supply of a range of nutrient elements to surface waters is an important driver of oceanic production and the subsequent linked cycling of the nutrients and carbon. Relative deficiencies of different nutrients with respect to biological requirements, within both surface and internal water masses, can be both a key indicator and driver of the potential for these nutrients to become limiting for the production of new organic material in the upper ocean. The availability of high-quality, full-depth and global-scale datasets on the concentrations of a wide range of both macro- and micro-nutrients produced through the international GEOTRACES programme provides the potential for estimation of multi-element deficiencies at unprecedented scales. Resultant coherent large-scale patterns in diagnosed deficiency can be linked to the interacting physical-chemical-biological processes which drive upper ocean nutrient biogeochemistry. Calculations of ranked deficiencies across multiple elements further highlight important remaining uncertainties in the stoichiometric plasticity of nutrient ratios within oceanic microbial systems and caveats with regards to linkages to upper ocean nutrient limitation. This article is part of the themed issue 'Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry'.

  4. DAFNE: A Matlab toolbox for Bayesian multi-source remote sensing and ancillary data fusion, with application to flood mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addabbo, Annarita; Refice, Alberto; Lovergine, Francesco P.; Pasquariello, Guido

    2018-03-01

    High-resolution, remotely sensed images of the Earth surface have been proven to be of help in producing detailed flood maps, thanks to their synoptic overview of the flooded area and frequent revisits. However, flood scenarios can be complex situations, requiring the integration of different data in order to provide accurate and robust flood information. Several processing approaches have been recently proposed to efficiently combine and integrate heterogeneous information sources. In this paper, we introduce DAFNE, a Matlab®-based, open source toolbox, conceived to produce flood maps from remotely sensed and other ancillary information, through a data fusion approach. DAFNE is based on Bayesian Networks, and is composed of several independent modules, each one performing a different task. Multi-temporal and multi-sensor data can be easily handled, with the possibility of following the evolution of an event through multi-temporal output flood maps. Each DAFNE module can be easily modified or upgraded to meet different user needs. The DAFNE suite is presented together with an example of its application.

  5. Application of a Weighted Regression Model for Reporting Nutrient and Sediment Concentrations, Fluxes, and Trends in Concentration and Flux for the Chesapeake Bay Nontidal Water-Quality Monitoring Network, Results Through Water Year 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanat, Jeffrey G.; Moyer, Douglas L.; Blomquist, Joel D.; Hyer, Kenneth E.; Langland, Michael J.

    2016-01-13

    In the Chesapeake Bay watershed, estimated fluxes of nutrients and sediment from the bay’s nontidal tributaries into the estuary are the foundation of decision making to meet reductions prescribed by the Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) and are often the basis for refining scientific understanding of the watershed-scale processes that influence the delivery of these constituents to the bay. Two regression-based flux and trend estimation models, ESTIMATOR and Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS), were compared using data from 80 watersheds in the Chesapeake Bay Nontidal Water-Quality Monitoring Network (CBNTN). The watersheds range in size from 62 to 70,189 square kilometers and record lengths range from 6 to 28 years. ESTIMATOR is a constant-parameter model that estimates trends only in concentration; WRTDS uses variable parameters estimated with weighted regression, and estimates trends in both concentration and flux. WRTDS had greater explanatory power than ESTIMATOR, with the greatest degree of improvement evident for records longer than 25 years (30 stations; improvement in median model R2= 0.06 for total nitrogen, 0.08 for total phosphorus, and 0.05 for sediment) and the least degree of improvement for records of less than 10 years, for which the two models performed nearly equally. Flux bias statistics were comparable or lower (more favorable) for WRTDS for any record length; for 30 stations with records longer than 25 years, the greatest degree of improvement was evident for sediment (decrease of 0.17 in median statistic) and total phosphorus (decrease of 0.05). The overall between-station pattern in concentration trend direction and magnitude for all constituents was roughly similar for both models. A detailed case study revealed that trends in concentration estimated by WRTDS can operationally be viewed as a less-constrained equivalent to trends in concentration estimated by ESTIMATOR. Estimates of annual mean flow

  6. Essential Nutrients, Feed Classification and Nutrient Content of Feeds

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, John Burton, 1960-; Seay, William W.; Baker, Scott M., 1968-

    2005-01-01

    The cow-calf herd's primary source of nutrition is forages, but forages are variable in nutrient content. By knowing the nutrient content of their base forages, producers can then identify the deficient nutrients that need to be supplemented.

  7. Influence of Wind Plant Ancillary Frequency Control on System Small Signal Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Since large-scale wind farms are increasingly connected to modern power grids, the transmission system operators put more requirements as part of the grid codes on the integration of wind farms. System frequency control which is normally provided by conventional synchronous generators becomes...... a common requirement to wind farms. This ancillary frequency control provided by wind farms could have some influence on the system small signal stability. This paper implements an ancillary frequency control strategy on a directdrive- full-convertor-based wind farm and studies its influence on the damping...... ratio values of the dominant oscillation modes within the connected power system. All the calculations and simulations are conducted in DIgSILENT PowerFactory 14.0....

  8. Influence of Wind Plant Ancillary Voltage Control on System Small Signal Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    As a common tendency, large-scale wind farms are increasingly connected to the transmission system of modern power grids. This introduces some new challenges to the connected power systems, and the transmission system operators (TSOs) have to put some new requirements as part of the grid codes...... on the integration of wind farms. One common requirement to wind farms is the function of system voltage control which can be implemented in the grid-side convertor controller of a variable speed wind turbine. This ancillary voltage control provided by wind farms could have some influence on the system small signal...... stability. This paper implements an ancillary voltage control strategy on a direct-drive-full-convertor-based wind farm and studies its influence on the damping ratio values of the dominant oscillation mode within the connected power system. All the calculations and simulations are conducted in DIg...

  9. Market and policy barriers for demand response providing ancillary services in U.S. markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); MacDonald, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This study provides an examination of various market and policy barriers to demand response providing ancillary services in both ISO/RTO and non-ISO/RTO regions, especially at the program provider level. It is useful to classify barriers in order to create a holistic understanding and identify parties that could be responsible for their removal. This study develops a typology of barriers focusing on smaller customers that must rely on a program provider (i.e., electric investor owned utility or IOU, ARC) to create an aggregated DR resource in order to bring ancillary services to the balancing authority. The barriers were identified through examinations of regulatory structures, market environments, and product offerings; and discussions with industry stakeholders and regulators. In order to help illustrate the differences in barriers among various wholesale market designs and their constituent retail environments, four regions were chosen to use as case studies: Colorado, Texas, Wisconsin, and New Jersey.

  10. VOLTTRON-Based System for Providing Ancillary Services with Residential Building Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xin

    2016-07-01

    Ancillary services entail controlled modulation of building equipment to maintain a stable balance of generation and load in the power system. Ancillary services include frequency regulation and contingency reserves, whose acting time ranges from several seconds to several minutes. Many pilot studies have been implemented to use industrial loads to provide ancillary services, and some have explored services from commercial building loads or electric vehicle charging loads. Residential loads, such as space conditioning and water heating, represent a largely untapped resource for providing ancillary services. The residential building sector accounts for a significant fraction of the total electricity use in the United States. Many loads in residential buildings are flexible and could potentially be curtailed or shifted at the request of the grid. However, there are many barriers that prevent residential loads being widely used for ancillary services. One of the major technical barriers is the lack of communication capabilities between end-use devices and the grid. End-use devices need to be able to receive the automatic generation control (AGC) signal from the grid operator and supply certain types of telemetry to verify response. With the advance of consumer electronics, communication-enabled, or 'connected,' residential equipment has emerged to overcome the communication barrier. However, these end-use devices have introduced a new interoperability challenge due to the existence of numerous standards and communication protocols among different end devices. In this paper, we present a VOLTTRON-based system that overcomes these technical challenges and provides ancillary services with residential loads. VOLTTRON is an open-source control and sensing platform for building energy management, facilitating interoperability solutions for end devices. We have developed drivers to communicate and control different types of end devices through standard

  11. Grid-Scale Energy Storage Demonstration of Ancillary Services Using the UltraBattery Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seasholtz, Jeff [East Penn Mfg. Co., Inc., Lyons, PA (United States)

    2015-08-20

    The collaboration described in this document is being done as part of a cooperative research agreement under the Department of Energy’s Smart Grid Demonstration Program. This document represents the Final Technical Performance Report, from July 2012 through April 2015, for the East Penn Manufacturing Smart Grid Program demonstration project. This Smart Grid Demonstration project demonstrates Distributed Energy Storage for Grid Support, in particular the economic and technical viability of a grid-scale, advanced energy storage system using UltraBattery ® technology for frequency regulation ancillary services and demand management services. This project entailed the construction of a dedicated facility on the East Penn campus in Lyon Station, PA that is being used as a working demonstration to provide regulation ancillary services to PJM and demand management services to Metropolitan Edison (Met-Ed).

  12. Ancillary Frequency Control of Direct Drive Full-Scale Converter Based Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Fang, Jiakun

    2013-01-01

    emulation, primary frequency control and secondary frequency control, are proposed in order to improve the frequency stability of power systems. The modified IEEE 39-bus test system with a large-scale wind power penetration is chosen as the studied power system. Simulation results show that the proposed......This paper presents a simulation model of a wind power plant based on a MW-level variable speed wind turbine with a full-scale back-to-back power converter developed in the simulation tool of DIgSILENT Power Factory. Three different kinds of ancillary frequency control strategies, namely inertia...... control strategies are effective means for providing ancillary frequency control of variable speed wind turbines with full-scale back-to-back power converters....

  13. The State of Cell Blocks and Ancillary Testing: Past, Present, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqi, Anjali

    2016-12-01

    Cell blocks are an integral part of cytology, but their utility is recognized probably more now than ever before, largely owing to the significant role they play in ancillary testing, particularly molecular diagnostics. Modifications to improve the cell block method initially introduced more than a century ago have been made over the years. Though their value is acknowledged and they are widely used across laboratories, cell block preparations are not standardized and results of ancillary testing performed on them are inconsistent. This article reviews the state of cell blocks-summarizes the more common, currently available and used methods and their corresponding advantages and shortcomings, outlines the role of alternative techniques (eg, smears), and proposes methods to optimize results.

  14. The TIGRESS Integrated Plunger ancillary systems for electromagnetic transition rate studies at TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, P.; Henderson, R.; Andreoiu, C.; Ashley, R.; Austin, R.A.E.; Ball, G.C.; Bender, P.C.; Bey, A.; Cheeseman, A.; Chester, A.; Cross, D.S.; Drake, T.E.; Garnsworthy, A.B.; Hackman, G.; Holland, R.; Ketelhut, S.; Kowalski, P.; Krücken, R.; Laffoley, A.T.; Leach, K.G.

    2014-01-01

    The TIGRESS Integrated Plunger device is a new experimental tool for nuclear structure investigations via gamma-ray spectroscopy with post-accelerated beams from the ISAC-II facility at TRIUMF. Several ancillary detection systems integral to the device's capabilities for charged-particle tagging and light-ion identification following a variety of nuclear reaction mechanisms have been constructed and characterized. In particular, a silicon PIN diode wall, an annular silicon segmented detector, and a CsI(Tl) scintillator wall have together enabled particle-gamma correlations for reaction channel selectivity and precision kinematic reconstruction in recent measurements. We highlight the construction, characteristics, and implementation of the device's ancillary detectors as they enable a rich set of electromagnetic transition rate measurements via Doppler-shift lifetime techniques and low-energy Coulomb excitation

  15. Vertical Keiretsu and International Market Entry: The Case of the Japanese Automobile Ancillary Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kunal Banerji; Rakesh B Sambharya

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated whether small Japanese automobile ancillary firms followed the major Japanese automakers in setting up production facilities in the United States. Based on Dunning's eclectic theory of foreign direct investment and resource dependence theory, hypotheses were generated to explain the determinants of foreign investment of Japanese suppliers. It was hypothesized that mutual dependencies between the major Japanese automobile firms and their suppliers, firm-specific ownersh...

  16. Application of microgrids in providing ancillary services to the utility grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majzoobi, Alireza; Khodaei, Amin

    2017-01-01

    A microgrid optimal scheduling model is developed in this paper to demonstrate microgrid's capability in offering ancillary services to the utility grid. The application of localized ancillary services is of significant importance to grid operators as the growing proliferation of distributed renewable energy resources, mainly solar generation, is causing major technical challenges in supply-load balance. The proposed microgrid optimal scheduling model coordinates the microgrid net load with the aggregated consumers/prosumers net load in its connected distribution feeder to capture both inter-hour and intra-hour net load variations. In particular, net load variations for three various time resolutions are considered, including hourly ramping, 10-min based load following, and 1-min based frequency regulation. Numerical simulations on a test distribution feeder with one microgrid and several consumers/prosumers indicate the effectiveness of the proposed model and the viability of the microgrid application in supporting grid operation. - Highlights: • Microgrid optimal scheduling for providing ancillary services to the utility grid. • Local management and mitigation of distribution net load variations. • Offering various support services: ramping, load following, frequency regulation. • Proven effectiveness and accuracy in capturing net load variations.

  17. Ancillary services analysis of an offshore wind farm cluster-technical integration steps of a simulation tool

    OpenAIRE

    Hennig, Tobias; Löwer, Lothar; Faiella, Luis Mariano; Stock, Sebastian; Jansen, Malte; Hofmann, Lutz; Rohrig, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    In this publication, the authors present methodology and example results for the analysis of ancillary services of an offshore wind farm cluster and its electrical power system. Thereby the operation tool Wind Cluster Management System (WCMS) is used as simulation tool to evaluate certain planning scenarios. Emphasis is made on two topics: 1) the integration of high voltage direct current (HVDC) technology to the WCMS, 2) the ancillary service analysis. As examples, voltage source converter b...

  18. CO{sub 2} mitigation costs and ancillary benefits in the Nordic countries, the UK and Ireland: A survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kverndokk, Snorre; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2000-07-01

    This paper provides a survey of top-down modelling studies on mitigation costs and ancillary benefits in the Nordic countries, the UK and Ireland. Special emphasis is put on results concerning revenue recycling, double dividend, distributional effects and ancillary benefits. According to the papers surveyed, modest emissions restrictions as those given by the Kyoto Protocol, can be met without substantial costs for the countries studied. (Author)

  19. Is a diagnosis of ancillary restless legs syndrome reproducible over time? Experience with the Wayne Hening telephone diagnostic interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitterling, Thomas; Frauscher, Birgit; Ehrmann, Laura; Gschliesser, Viola; Brandauer, Elisabeth; Högl, Birgit

    2013-06-01

    The Hening telephone diagnostic interview (HTDI) is a validated structured diagnostic instrument for restless legs syndrome (RLS). A diagnosis of ancillary RLS is defined as RLS with non bothering or only sporadic occurrence of RLS symptoms. The aim of our study was to test the reproducibility of a previously received diagnosis of ancillary RLS with the HTDI in a telephone follow-up examination. Patients with a diagnosis of ancillary RLS underwent a telephone follow-up after an interval of 6 or more months from their entry into the RLS database. The interview included the HTDI, the International RLS Study Group severity rating scale (IRLS) and questions on current RLS medication. Sixty patients with ancillary RLS were eligible for this study, 50 participated. Thirty-six patients were assigned to definite RLS, 11 to probable RLS, one to possible RLS, and two patients were rated as not RLS. Median IRLS score of those with RLS was 10 (0-30). This is the first study to report results of the German version of the HTDI. We demonstrate a high reproducibility of a diagnosis of ancillary RLS over time and that the HTDI is an excellent diagnostic tool for RLS even in ancillary cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Nutrient Content Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 8, 2014 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: wcie-nutrition, . In this section Food What Can I Eat Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Cutting Back on Sodium Nutrient Content Claims Snacks Taking ...

  1. Autonomous power networks based power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokic, A.; Van den Bosch, P.P.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presented the concept of autonomous networks to cope with this increased complexity in power systems while enhancing market-based operation. The operation of future power systems will be more challenging and demanding than present systems because of increased uncertainties, less inertia in the system, replacement of centralized coordinating activities by decentralized parties and the reliance on dynamic markets for both power balancing and system reliability. An autonomous network includes the aggregation of networked producers and consumers in a relatively small area with respect to the overall system. The operation of an autonomous network is coordinated and controlled with one central unit acting as an interface between internal producers/consumers and the rest of the power system. In this study, the power balance problem and system reliability through provision of ancillary services was formulated as an optimization problem for the overall autonomous networks based power system. This paper described the simulation of an optimal autonomous network dispatching in day ahead markets, based on predicted spot prices for real power, and two ancillary services. It was concluded that large changes occur in a power systems structure and operation, most of them adding to the uncertainty and complexity of the system. The introduced concept of an autonomous power network-based power system was shown to be a realistic and consistent approach to formulate and operate a market-based dispatch of both power and ancillary services. 9 refs., 4 figs

  2. Nutrient mitigation in a temporary river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoraki, Ourania; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P; Cooper, David; Kassotaki, Elissavet

    2014-04-01

    We estimate the nutrient budget in a temporary Mediterranean river basin. We use field monitoring and modelling tools to estimate nutrient sources and transfer in both high and low flow conditions. Inverse modelling by the help of PHREEQC model validated the hypothesis of a losing stream during the dry period. Soil and Water Assessment Tool model captured the water quality of the basin. The 'total daily maximum load' approach is used to estimate the nutrient flux status by flow class, indicating that almost 60% of the river network fails to meet nitrogen criteria and 50% phosphate criteria. We recommend that existing well-documented remediation measures such as reforestation of the riparian area or composting of food process biosolids should be implemented to achieve load reduction in close conjunction with social needs.

  3. Nutrient synchrony in preruminant calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den J.J.G.C.

    2006-01-01

    In animal nutrition, the nutrient composition of the daily feed supply is composed to match the nutrient requirements for the desired performance. The time of nutrient availability within a day is usually considered not to affect the fate of nutrients. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate effects

  4. Integrated Urban Nutrient Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhapi, I.; Veenstra, S.; Siebel, M. A.; Gijzen, H. J.

    Most cities, especially from the developing countries, are facing serious problems with the management of nutrients, necessitating an urgent review of current waste management systems. Whilst highly efficient technologies are available, the inclusion of these in a well-thought out and systematic approach is necessary to contain the nutrient influxes and outfluxes from towns. Five intervention measures are proposed in this paper. The first is to manage the use and generation of nutrients by drastically minimising water consumption and employing other cleaner production approaches. The second deals with the optimal reuse of nutrients and water at the smallest possible level, like at the household and on-plot level. The second option is to covert the waste into something useful for reuse, and, where not possible, to something which is envi- ronmentally neutral. This involves treatment, but applying technologies that makes the best use of side products via reuse. Where the first three options will have failed, two least preferred options could be used. Waste can be dispersed or diluted to enhance self-purification capacities of downstream water bodies. The last option is to store the wastewater for some parts of the year when there is water shortage to allow for polishing during the standing period. The success of urban nutrient planning requires an integrated approach, proving specific solutions to specific situations. This, in turn, requires appropriate institutional responses.

  5. Impact of prenatal care provider on the use of ancillary health services during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent declines in the provision of prenatal care by family physicians and the integration of midwives into the Canadian health care system have led to a shift in the pattern of prenatal care provision; however it is unknown if this also impacts use of other health services during pregnancy. This study aimed to assess the impact of the type of prenatal care provider on the self-reported use of ancillary services during pregnancy. Methods Data for this study was obtained from the All Our Babies study, a community-based prospective cohort study of women’s experiences during pregnancy and the post-partum period. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were used to assess the association between type of prenatal care provider and use of ancillary health services in pregnancy. Results During pregnancy, 85.8% of women reported accessing ancillary health services. Compared to women who received prenatal care from a family physician, women who saw a midwife were less likely to call a nurse telephone advice line (OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.18-0.50) and visit the emergency department (OR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.24-0.89), but were more likely receive chiropractic care (OR = 4.07, 95% CI: 2.49-6.67). Women who received their prenatal care from an obstetrician were more likely to visit a walk-in clinic (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.11-2.05) than those who were cared for by a family physician. Conclusions Prenatal care is a complex entity and referral pathways between care providers and services are not always clear. This can lead to the provision of fragmented care and create opportunities for errors and loss of information. All types of care providers have a role in addressing the full range of health needs that pregnant women experience. PMID:23497179

  6. Molecular Structure Laboratory. Fourier Transform Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (FTNMR) Spectrometer and Ancillary Instrumentation at SUNY Geneseo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, David K [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Geneseo, NY (United States)

    2015-12-31

    An Agilent 400-MR nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer and ancillary equipment were purchased, which are being used for molecular structure elucidation.  The instrumentation is housed in a pre-existing facility designed specifically for its use. This instrument package is being used to expand the research and educational efforts of the faculty and students at SUNY-Geneseo and is made available to neighboring educational institutions and business concerns.  Funds were also used for training of College personnel, maintenance of the instrumentation, and installation of the equipment.

  7. Enhancing the Role of Electric Vehicles in the Power Grid: Field Validation of Multiple Ancillary Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knezovic, Katarina; Martinenas, Sergejus; Andersen, Peter Bach

    2016-01-01

    With increased penetration of distributed energy resources and electric vehicles (EVs), different EV integration strategies can be used for mitigating various adverse effects, and supporting the grid. However, the research regarding EV smart charging has mostly remained on simulations, whereas...... essentially means it is applicable to any EV complying with IEC 61851 and SAE J1772 standards. The field test validation is conducted in a real Danish distribution grid with a Nissan Leaf providing three ancillary services through unidirectional AC charging, namely congestion management, local voltage support...

  8. Identification of Conflicts between Transmission and Distribution System Operators when Acquiring Ancillary Services from Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zecchino, Antonio; Knezovic, Katarina; Marinelli, Mattia

    2017-01-01

    products according to requests coming from both distribution and transmission system operators. The goal of this paper is to provide an identification procedure that is able to detect, identify and catalogue possible conflicts among the involved stakeholders that take place when requesting and/or acquiring...... ancillary services from flexible units. The investigation is carried out considering a 3-area power system which allows to take into account local constraints as well as system-wide needs. As outcome, this paper identifies the conflicts from both a theoretical and a practical point of view, by means...

  9. The subtropical nutrient spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, William J.; Doney, Scott C.

    2003-12-01

    We present an extended series of observations and more comprehensive analysis of a tracer-based measure of new production in the Sargasso Sea near Bermuda using the 3He flux gauge technique. The estimated annually averaged nitrate flux of 0.84 ± 0.26 mol m-2 yr-1 constitutes only that nitrate physically transported to the euphotic zone, not nitrogen from biological sources (e.g., nitrogen fixation or zooplankton migration). We show that the flux estimate is quantitatively consistent with other observations, including decade timescale evolution of the 3H + 3He inventory in the main thermocline and export production estimates. However, we argue that the flux cannot be supplied in the long term by local diapycnal or isopycnal processes. These considerations lead us to propose a three-dimensional pathway whereby nutrients remineralized within the main thermocline are returned to the seasonally accessible layers within the subtropical gyre. We describe this mechanism, which we call "the nutrient spiral," as a sequence of steps where (1) nutrient-rich thermocline waters are entrained into the Gulf Stream, (2) enhanced diapycnal mixing moves nutrients upward onto lighter densities, (3) detrainment and enhanced isopycnal mixing injects these waters into the seasonally accessible layer of the gyre recirculation region, and (4) the nutrients become available to biota via eddy heaving and wintertime convection. The spiral is closed when nutrients are utilized, exported, and then remineralized within the thermocline. We present evidence regarding the characteristics of the spiral and discuss some implications of its operation within the biogeochemical cycle of the subtropical ocean.

  10. Market and Policy Barriers for Demand Response Providing Ancillary Services in U.S. Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); MacDonald, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we attempt to provide a comprehensive examination of various market and policy barriers to demand response providing ancillary services in both ISO/RTO and non-ISO/RTO regions, especially at the program provider level. It is useful to classify barriers in order to create a holistic understanding and identify parties that could be responsible for their removal. This study develops a typology of barriers focusing on smaller customers that must rely on a program provider (i.e., electric investor owned utility or IOU, ARC) to create an aggregated DR resource in order to bring ancillary services to the balancing authority.ii The barriers were identified through examinations of regulatory structures, market environments, and product offerings; and discussions with industry stakeholders and regulators. In order to help illustrate the differences in barriers among various wholesale market designs and their constituent retail environments, four regions were chosen to use as case studies: Colorado, Texas, Wisconsin, and New Jersey. We highlight the experience in each area as it relates to the identified barriers.

  11. Access to Emissions Distributions and Related Ancillary Data through the ECCAD database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darras, Sabine; Granier, Claire; Liousse, Catherine; De Graaf, Erica; Enriquez, Edgar; Boulanger, Damien; Brissebrat, Guillaume

    2017-04-01

    The ECCAD database (Emissions of atmospheric Compounds and Compilation of Ancillary Data) provides a user-friendly access to global and regional surface emissions for a large set of chemical compounds and ancillary data (land use, active fires, burned areas, population,etc). The emissions inventories are time series gridded data at spatial resolution from 1x1 to 0.1x0.1 degrees. ECCAD is the emissions database of the GEIA (Global Emissions InitiAtive) project and a sub-project of the French Atmospheric Data Center AERIS (http://www.aeris-data.fr). ECCAD has currently more than 2200 users originating from more than 80 countries. The project benefits from this large international community of users to expand the number of emission datasets made available. ECCAD provides detailed metadata for each of the datasets and various tools for data visualization, for computing global and regional totals and for interactive spatial and temporal analysis. The data can be downloaded as interoperable NetCDF CF-compliant files, i.e. the data are compatible with many other client interfaces. The presentation will provide information on the datasets available within ECCAD, as well as examples of the analysis work that can be done online through the website: http://eccad.aeris-data.fr.

  12. Safe introduction of ancillary trocars in gynecological surgery: the "yellow island" anatomical landmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni; Gasbarro, Nicola; Lagana, Antonio Simone; Sapia, Fabrizio; Rapisarda, A M C; Valenti, Gaetano; Trovato, Maria Antonietta; Rossetti, Diego; Chiofalo, Benito; Barrasso, Giuseppina; Tinelli, Andrea; Corrado, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This technical note aims to suggest a safe introduction of ancillary trocars in gynaecological surgery, in order to prevent inferior epigastric artery damage. We performed a narrative overview, synthesizing the findings of literature retrieved from searches of computerized databases. Among the different techniques, the identification of the "yellow island" as anatomical landmark seems to be a useful aid to avoid complication. This particular landmark is identified taking the lateral third of a line between the anterior superior iliac spine and the umbilicus as reference points, by a subperitoneal accumulation of adipose tissue located in that area. "Yellow island" could be considered a safe place for trocars introduction because epigastric artery never runs there, even in patients with particular anatomical variants. This technique is particularly useful in obese patients, in which "yellow island" appears to be more evident respect to lean ones. Furthermore, the use of "open" trocars insertion may reduce the possibility of epigastric artery lesions respect to "Verres needle technique". The identification of the "yellow island" anatomical landmark could be considered an useful aid for the safe introduction of ancillary trocars in gynaecological surgery. Gynaecology, Laparoscopic surgery, Trocars placement.

  13. BLINK REFLEX IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS: AN ANCILLARY TEST FOR DETECTING BRAIN STEM LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M ETEMEDYFAR

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Electrodiagnostic tests are one of the ancillary procedures that are used for diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS. This study investigates the frequency of abnormal blink reflex in patients with MS. Methods. In this cross sectional diagnostic study, 100 patients (26 male and 74 female with definite MS were selected based on clinical and MRI findings. they were referred to Al- zahra hospital (affiliated to iUMSHS during year 2000. Blink reflex (BR waves including R1, R2, R2 were recorded inpatients through the stimulation of supraorbital nerve. Results. The frequency of abnormal BR in MS patients with brain stem involvement was 77.9 percent and in those without brain stem involvement was 36.6 percent (P < 0.001. There was a significant relationship between the duration of MS and the abnormality in BR. Discussion. The frequency of abnormal blink reflex in MS is significantly associated with site of involvement in the brain. The majority of MS patients with brain stem involvement have abnormal BR. It is proposed that in patients with symptoms and signs of MS if there was no accessibility for MRI or if the results of MRI were equivocal, blink reflex test should be performed in addition to other ancillary tests.

  14. Open Automated Demand Response Communications in Demand Response for Wholesale Ancillary Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan; Hernandez, John; Chiu, Albert; Sezgen, Osman; Goodin, John

    2009-11-06

    The Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) is conducting a pilot program to investigate the technical feasibility of bidding certain demand response (DR) resources into the California Independent System Operator's (CAISO) day-ahead market for ancillary services nonspinning reserve. Three facilities, a retail store, a local government office building, and a bakery, are recruited into the pilot program. For each facility, hourly demand, and load curtailment potential are forecasted two days ahead and submitted to the CAISO the day before the operation as an available resource. These DR resources are optimized against all other generation resources in the CAISO ancillary service. Each facility is equipped with four-second real time telemetry equipment to ensure resource accountability and visibility to CAISO operators. When CAISO requests DR resources, PG&E's OpenADR (Open Automated DR) communications infrastructure is utilized to deliver DR signals to the facilities energy management and control systems (EMCS). The pre-programmed DR strategies are triggered without a human in the loop. This paper describes the automated system architecture and the flow of information to trigger and monitor the performance of the DR events. We outline the DR strategies at each of the participating facilities. At one site a real time electric measurement feedback loop is implemented to assure the delivery of CAISO dispatched demand reductions. Finally, we present results from each of the facilities and discuss findings.

  15. Megafauna moves nutrients uphill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael

    2016-01-11

    Large animals have a disproportionate capacity to transport nutrients along gradients and against water flow directions, making them more available to ecosystems and ultimately saving them from disappearing in sea floor sediments. Megafauna extinctions have reduced this capacity dramatically, while humans and their livestock aren’t stepping in to restore this important ecosystem service.

  16. Nutrient Dynamics of the Delta: Effects on Primary Producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford N. Dahm

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available doi: https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss4art4Increasing clarity of Delta waters, the emergence of harmful algal blooms, the proliferation of aquatic water weeds, and the altered food web of the Delta have brought nutrient dynamics to the forefront. This paper focuses on the sources of nutrients, the transformation and uptake of nutrients, and the links of nutrients to primary producers. The largest loads of nutrients to the Delta come from the Sacramento River with the San Joaquin River seasonally important, especially in the summer. Nutrient concentrations reflect riverine inputs in winter and internal biological processes during periods of lower flow with internal nitrogen losses within the Delta estimated at approximately 30% annually. Light regime, grazing pressure, and nutrient availability influence rates of primary production at different times and locations within the Delta. The roles of the chemical form of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in growth rates of primary producers in the Delta and the structure of the open-water algal community are currently topics of much interest and considerable debate. Harmful algal blooms have been noted since the late 1990s, and the extent of invasive aquatic macrophytes (both submerged and free-floating forms has increased especially during years of drought. Elevated nutrient loads must be considered in terms of their ability to support this excess biomass. Modern sensor technology and networks are now deployed that make high-frequency measurements of nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate. Data from such instruments allow a much more detailed assessment of the spatial and temporal dynamics of nutrients. Four fruitful directions for future research include utilizing continuous sensor data to estimate rates of primary production and ecosystem respiration, linking hydrodynamic models of the Delta with the transport and fate of dissolved nutrients, studying nutrient dynamics in various habitat types, and

  17. An assessment of market and policy barriers for demand response providing ancillary services in U.S. electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappers, Peter; MacDonald, Jason; Goldman, Charles; Ma, Ookie

    2013-01-01

    An impact of increased variable renewable generation is the need for balancing authorities to procure more ancillary services. While demand response resources are technically capable of providing these services, current experience across the U.S. illustrates they are relatively minor players in most regions. Accessing demand response resources for ancillary services may require a number of changes to policies and common practices at multiple levels. Regional reliability councils must first define ancillary services such that demand response resources may provide them. Once the opportunity exists, balancing authorities define and promulgate rules that set the infrastructure investments and performance attributes of a resource wishing to provide such services. These rules also dictate expected revenue streams which reveal the cost effectiveness of these resources. The regulatory compact between utility and state regulators, along with other statutes and decisions by state policymakers, may impact the interest of demand response program providers to pursue these resources as ancillary service providers. This paper identifies within these broad categories specific market and policy barriers to demand response providing ancillary services in different wholesale and retail environments, with emphasis on smaller customers who must be aggregated through a program provider to meet minimum size requirements for wholesale transactions. - Highlights: • We identify barriers keeping demand response from providing ancillary services. • Institutional, financial and program provider business model barriers exist. • Product definitions and rules do not always accommodate demand response well. • Expected revenues are uncertain and may not exceed required investments costs. • Regulatory compact and state statutes limit opportunities for program providers

  18. Staff working in ancillary departments at a tertiary care hospital in Bengaluru, Karnataka, India: How healthy are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanya, Bhavya; Nisha, Catherin; Ramesh, Naveen; Joseph, Bobby

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ancillary health services are those supplemental services other than room, board, and medical/nursing services provided to hospital patients in the course of care. Ancillary department staff forms an integral part in the smooth functioning of a hospital. There is a need to focus on the health of these individuals to ensure their well-being and in turn, productivity at the workplace. Objective: To study the morbidity profile of the staff working at ancillary departments of a tertiary care hospital in Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: We conducted our study in a 1,200-bedded tertiary care hospital in Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. Annual medical checkup (AMC) for all the staff working at the ancillary departments has been started in recent years and is provided free of cost and during working hours. A total of 150 employees from ancillary departments underwent AMC in the year 2013. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Spearman's correlation and Chi-square test were used. Results: Of the 150 employees, the majority was male (72%); the mean age was 38 ± 11 years. The most common morbidities were diabetes mellitus (11%), hypertension (10.6%), musculoskeletal disorders (9.3%), surgical problems (8.6%, hemorrhoids, varicose veins), and dental caries (6.6%). On stool microscopy, 12% of the dietary workers showed ova/cyst. There was a significant positive correlation between age and the number of chronic morbidities (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Lifestyle disorders such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension were the major morbidities among the staff in the ancillary departments of the hospital. We ensured regular follow-up, adherence to medication, and lifestyle modifications in terms of diet and exercise. PMID:27390479

  19. Ground State and Excited State Tuning in Ferric Dipyrrin Complexes Promoted by Ancillary Ligand Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinlein, Claudia; Zheng, Shao-Liang; Betley, Theodore A.

    2017-04-24

    Three ferric dipyrromethene complexes featuring different ancillary ligands were synthesized by one electron oxidation of ferrous precursors. Four-coordinate iron complexes of the type (ArL)FeX2 [ArL = 1,9-(2,4,6-Ph3C6H2)2-5-mesityldipyrromethene] with X = Cl or tBuO were prepared and found to be high-spin (S = 5/2), as determined by superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, electron paramagnetic resonance, and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The ancillary ligand substitution was found to affect both ground state and excited properties of the ferric complexes examined. While each ferric complex displays reversible reduction and oxidation events, each alkoxide for chloride substitution results in a nearly 600 mV cathodic shift of the FeIII/II couple. The oxidation event remains largely unaffected by the ancillary ligand substitution and is likely dipyrrin-centered. While the alkoxide substituted ferric species largely retain the color of their ferrous precursors, characteristic of dipyrrin-based ligand-to-ligand charge transfer (LLCT), the dichloride ferric complex loses the prominent dipyrrin chromophore, taking on a deep green color. Time-dependent density functional theory analyses indicate the weaker-field chloride ligands allow substantial configuration mixing of ligand-to-metal charge transfer into the LLCT bands, giving rise to the color changes observed. Furthermore, the higher degree of covalency between the alkoxide ferric centers is manifest in the observed reactivity. Delocalization of spin density onto the tert-butoxide ligand in (ArL)FeCl(OtBu) is evidenced by hydrogen atom abstraction to yield (ArL)FeCl and HOtBu in the presence of substrates containing weak C–H bonds, whereas the chloride (ArL)FeCl2 analogue does not react under these conditions.

  20. Utilization of Ancillary Data Sets for Conceptual SMAP Mission Algorithm Development and Product Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, P.; Podest, E.

    2011-01-01

    The planned Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being developed by NASA in response to the National Research Council's Decadal Survey, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond [1]. Scheduled to launch late in 2014, the proposed SMAP mission would provide high resolution and frequent revisit global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state, utilizing enhanced Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) mitigation approaches to collect new measurements of the hydrological condition of the Earth's surface. The SMAP instrument design incorporates an L-band radar (3 km) and an L band radiometer (40 km) sharing a single 6-meter rotating mesh antenna to provide measurements of soil moisture and landscape freeze/thaw state [2]. These observations would (1) improve our understanding of linkages between the Earth's water, energy, and carbon cycles, (2) benefit many application areas including numerical weather and climate prediction, flood and drought monitoring, agricultural productivity, human health, and national security, (3) help to address priority questions on climate change, and (4) potentially provide continuity with brightness temperature and soil moisture measurements from ESA's SMOS (Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity) and NASA's Aquarius missions. In the planned SMAP mission prelaunch time frame, baseline algorithms are being developed for generating (1) soil moisture products both from radiometer measurements on a 36 km grid and from combined radar/radiometer measurements on a 9 km grid, and (2) freeze/thaw products from radar measurements on a 3 km grid. These retrieval algorithms need a variety of global ancillary data, both static and dynamic, to run the retrieval models, constrain the retrievals, and provide flags for indicating retrieval quality. The choice of which ancillary dataset to use for a particular SMAP product would be based on a number of factors

  1. Late gestational nutrient restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Nørgaard, Peder

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 50% nutrient restriction during the last 6 weeks of gestation on twin-pregnant ewes' plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acid, ß-hydroxybutyrate, insulin, IGF-1 and leptin concentrations and the effects on lamb birth weight and ewes' lactation performance. Plasma...... metabolite and hormone concentrations in restricted ewes suggest that maternal tissues were being mobilised. Despite the ewes' adaptations their lambs weighed significantly less at birth. Furthermore, colostrum and milk yields were markedly reduced up until the latest measurement at 3 weeks post partum...... despite adlibitum access to feed. Reduced milk yields coincided with reduced plasma IGF-1 concentration pre partum in nutrient restricted ewes indicating, that mammary gland development may have been compromised. The present data suggest that leptin is not involved in the regulation of early lactation...

  2. Nutrients in the nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Niphong, Rachel; Ferguson, Richard B.; Palm, Cheryl; Osmond, Deanna L.; Baron, Jill S.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer has enabled modern agriculture to greatly improve human nutrition during the twentieth century, but it has also created unintended human health and environmental pollution challenges for the twenty-first century. Averaged globally, about half of the fertilizer-N applied to farms is removed with the crops, while the other half remains in the soil or is lost from farmers’ fields, resulting in water and air pollution. As human population continues to grow and food security improves in the developing world, the dual development goals of producing more nutritious food with low pollution will require both technological and socio-economic innovations in agriculture. Two case studies presented here, one in sub-Saharan Africa and the other in Midwestern United States, demonstrate how management of nutrients, water, and energy is inextricably linked in both small-scale and large-scale food production, and that science-based solutions to improve the efficiency of nutrient use can optimize food production while minimizing pollution. To achieve the needed large increases in nutrient use efficiency, however, technological developments must be accompanied by policies that recognize the complex economic and social factors affecting farmer decision-making and national policy priorities. Farmers need access to affordable nutrient supplies and support information, and the costs of improving efficiencies and avoiding pollution may need to be shared by society through innovative policies. Success will require interdisciplinary partnerships across public and private sectors, including farmers, private sector crop advisors, commodity supply chains, government agencies, university research and extension, and consumers.

  3. Bone nutrients for vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangels, Ann Reed

    2014-07-01

    The process of bone mineralization and resorption is complex and is affected by numerous factors, including dietary constituents. Although some dietary factors involved in bone health, such as calcium and vitamin D, are typically associated with dairy products, plant-based sources of these nutrients also supply other key nutrients involved in bone maintenance. Some research suggests that vegetarian diets, especially vegan diets, are associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD), but this does not appear to be clinically significant. Vegan diets are not associated with an increased fracture risk if calcium intake is adequate. Dietary factors in plant-based diets that support the development and maintenance of bone mass include calcium, vitamin D, protein, potassium, and soy isoflavones. Other factors present in plant-based diets such as oxalic acid and phytic acid can potentially interfere with absorption and retention of calcium and thereby have a negative effect on BMD. Impaired vitamin B-12 status also negatively affects BMD. The role of protein in calcium balance is multifaceted. Overall, calcium and protein intakes in accord with Dietary Reference Intakes are recommended for vegetarians, including vegans. Fortified foods are often helpful in meeting recommendations for calcium and vitamin D. Plant-based diets can provide adequate amounts of key nutrients for bone health. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Trends in nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathwaite, A.L.; Johnes, P.J.; Peters, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    The roles of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) as key nutrients determining the trophic status of water bodies are examined, and evidence reviewed for trends in concentrations of N and P species which occur in freshwaters, primarily in northern temperate environments. Data are reported for water bodies undergoing eutrophication and acidification, especially water bodies receiving increased nitrogen inputs through the atmospheric deposition of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Nutrient loading on groundwaters and surface freshwaters is assessed with respect to causes and rates of (change, relative rates of change for N and P, and implications of change for the future management of lakes, rivers and groundwaters. In particular, the nature and emphasis of studies for N species and P fractions in lakes versus rivers and groundwaters are contrasted. This review paper primarily focuses on results from North America and Europe, particularly for the UK where a wide range of data sets exists. Few nutrient loading data have been published on water bodies in less developed countries; however, some of the available data are presented to provide a global perspective. In general, N and P concentrations have increased dramatically (>20 times background concentrations) in many areas and causes vary considerably, ranging from urbanization to changes in agricultural practices.

  5. Ancillary testing, diagnostic/classification criteria and severity grading in Behçet disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Annabelle A; Stanford, Miles; Tabbara, Khalid

    2012-12-01

    Since there is no pathognomonic clinical sign or laboratory test to distinguish Behçet disease from other uveitic entities, the diagnosis must be made based on characteristic ocular and systemic findings in the absence of evidence of other disease that can explain the findings. Ancillary tests, including ocular and brain imaging studies, are used to assess the severity of intraocular inflammation and systemic manifestations of Behçet disease, to identify latent infections and other medical conditions that might worsen with systemic treatment, and to monitor for adverse effects of drugs used. There are two diagnostic or classification criteria in general use by the uveitis community, one from Japan and one from an international group; both rely on a minimum number and/or combination of clinical findings to identify Behçet disease. Finally, several grading schemes have been proposed to assess severity of ocular disease and response to treatment.

  6. Critical Joints in Large Composite Primary Aircraft Structures. Volume 3: Ancillary Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunin, Bruce L.; Sagui, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop the technology for critical structural joints for composite wing structure that meets all the design requirements of a 1990 commercial transport aircraft. The results of a comprehensive ancillary test program are summarized, consisting of single-bolt composite joint specimens tested in a variety of configurations. These tests were conducted to characterize the strength and load deflection properties that are required for multirow joint analysis. The composite material was Toray 300 fiber and Ciba-Geigy 914 resin, in the form of 0.005 and 0.01 inch thick unidirectional tape. Tests were conducted in single and double shear for loaded and unloaded hole configurations under both tensile and compressive loading. Two different layup patterns were examined. All tests were conducted at room temperature. In addition, the results of NASA Standard Toughness Test (NASA RP 1092) are reported, which were conducted for several material systems.

  7. Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the 100-N Area Ancillary Facilities and Integration Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.

    1997-09-01

    This document presents the results of an engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) that was conducted to evaluate alternatives for addressing final disposition of contaminated buildings and structures in the 100-N Area of the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State and is owned by the U.S. Government and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). In November 1989, the 100 Area of the Hanford Site (as well as the 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980. The 100 Area NPL includes the 100-N Area, which is in various stages of the remediation process. It has been determined by RL that hazardous substances in the 100-N Area ancillary facilities may present a potential threat to human health or the environment, and that a non-time critical removal action at these facilities is warranted. To help determine the most appropriate action, RL, in cooperation with the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the EPA, has prepared this EE/CA. The scope of the evaluation includes the inactive contaminated ancillary facilities in the 100-N Area, the facilities residing in the buffer zone, and the Hanford Generating Plant (HGP) and the solid waste management units (SWMUs) inside HGP support facilities. The 105-N Reactor and 109-N Heat Exchange facilities are excluded from this EE/CA evaluation

  8. Development of modified rational buyer auction for procurement of ancillary services utilizing participation matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamalzadeh, R.; Ardehali, M.M.; Rashidinejad, M.

    2008-01-01

    The rational buyer auction is based on a simultaneous auction that is the redesigned auction mechanism for ancillary services by the California independent system operator (CAISO). The incentive for the rational buyer auction is CAISO's intent to adopt a common sense rule of substituting higher-quality lower-cost services for lower-quality higher-cost services, when it results in reduced total procurement cost. For the purposes of designing a desirable auction where the minimum cost for the objective function as well as prevention of price reversal are achieved, either the payment cost in marginal pricing auction must be lowered or price reversal in rational buyer auction must be avoided. The objectives of this study are (a) to develop a newly proposed 'modified rational buyer' auction that does not allow price reversal and (b) to propose and validate a solution procedure that is based on participation matrix and discrete programming. The validation of the proposed solution procedure is accomplished through examination of two case studies available in the literature. Based on the first case study data, it is shown that the newly developed modified rational buyer auction avoids price reversal occurrence, while the total payment of ISO is increased by 5.8%, as compared with rational buyer auction. Also in comparison with marginal pricing auction, the ISO payment is lowered by 38.8%, when the newly developed modified rational buyer auction is utilized. For future work, it is recommended that the application of the modified rational buyer auction to joint dispatch of energy and ancillary services is investigated. (author)

  9. 76 FR 36400 - Third-Party Provision of Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial Reporting for New Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ...-000 and AD10-13-000] Third-Party Provision of Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial Reporting... Commission's accounting and financial reporting requirements currently do not contain specific accounting \\12... financial reporting requirements \\41\\ for public utilities \\42\\ are designed to provide information about a...

  10. 47 CFR 25.252 - Special requirements for ancillary terrestrial components operating in the 2000-2020 MHz/2180...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... components operating in the 2000-2020 MHz/2180-2200 MHz bands. 25.252 Section 25.252 Telecommunication... Standards § 25.252 Special requirements for ancillary terrestrial components operating in the 2000-2020 MHz... equivalent. (c) For ATC operations in the 2000-2020 MHz band, the power of any emission outside the licensee...

  11. 75 FR 66110 - Guidelines for Use of Stored Specimens and Access to Ancillary Data and Proposed Cost Schedule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... scientific papers with notable findings. Procedures for Proposals: All investigators (including NIH and NICHD... Proposal: Proposals can be submitted on an ongoing basis. Scientific Review Dates: Technical Panels for... ancillary data will be evaluated by an ad hoc Technical Panel for scientific merit. The BRADSC will...

  12. 41 CFR 102-72.67 - What work is covered under an ancillary repair and alteration delegation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What work is covered under an ancillary repair and alteration delegation? 102-72.67 Section 102-72.67 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 72-DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY...

  13. WERF Nutrient Challenge investigates limits of nutrient removal technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neethling, J B; Clark, D; Pramanik, A; Stensel, H D; Sandino, J; Tsuchihashi, R

    2010-01-01

    The WERF Nutrient Challenge is a multi-year collaborative research initiative established in 2007 to develop and provide current information about wastewater treatment nutrients (specifically nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater), their characteristics, and bioavailability in aquatic environments to help regulators make informed decisions. The Nutrient Challenge will also provide data on nutrient removal so that treatment facilities can select sustainable, cost-effective methods and technologies to meet permit limits. To meet these goals, the Nutrient Challenge has teamed with a wide array of utilities, agencies, consultants, universities and other researchers and practitioners to collaborate on projects that advance these goals. The Nutrient Challenge is focusing on a different approach to collaborating and leveraging resources (financial and intellectual) on research projects by targeting existing projects and research that correspond with its goals and funding those aspects that the Nutrient Challenge identified as a priority. Because the Nutrient Challenge is focused on collaboration, outreach is an absolutely necessary component of its effectiveness. Through workshops, webinars, a web portal and online compendium, published papers, and conference lectures, the Nutrient Challenge is both presenting important new information, and soliciting new partnerships.

  14. Cooperation through Competition?Dynamics and Microeconomics of a Minimal Nutrient Trade System in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Schott, Stephan; Valdebenito, Braulio; Bustos, Daniel; Gomez-Porras, Judith L.; Sharma, Tripti; Dreyer, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    In arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, fungi and plants exchange nutrients (sugars and phosphate, for instance) for reciprocal benefit. Until now it is not clear how this nutrient exchange system works. Here, we used computational cell biology to simulate the dynamics of a network of proton pumps and proton-coupled transporters that are upregulated during AM formation. We show that this minimal network is sufficient to describe accurately and realistically the nutrient trade system. By app...

  15. Nutrient profiling for regulatory purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Mike

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, I first provide definitions of nutrient profiling and of a nutrient profile model. I set out the purposes of nutrient profiling: both general and specific. I give two examples of nutrient profile models that have been developed for regulatory purposes by the Food Standards Agency (FSA) in the UK and the WHO for its European Region - the UK FSA/Ofcom and the WHO-Euro models - and compare the way the models are constructed and function, how they have been developed, the extent to which they have been tested and validated and their use in regulation. Finally I draw some conclusions about the future use of nutrient profiling for regulatory purposes. I argue that its full potential has yet to be realised and give some reasons why. I pose some urgent research questions with respect to nutrient profiling.

  16. Preliminary Results of Ancillary Safety Analyses Supporting TREAT LEU Conversion Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunett, A. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fei, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Strons, P. S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Papadias, D. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hoffman, E. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kontogeorgakos, D. C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Connaway, H. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wright, A. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT), located at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is a test facility designed to evaluate the performance of reactor fuels and materials under transient accident conditions. The facility, an air-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor designed to utilize fuel containing high-enriched uranium (HEU), has been in non-operational standby status since 1994. Currently, in support of the missions of the Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Material Management and Minimization (M3) Reactor Conversion Program, a new core design is being developed for TREAT that will utilize low-enriched uranium (LEU). The primary objective of this conversion effort is to design an LEU core that is capable of meeting the performance characteristics of the existing HEU core. Minimal, if any, changes are anticipated for the supporting systems (e.g. reactor trip system, filtration/cooling system, etc.); therefore, the LEU core must also be able to function with the existing supporting systems, and must also satisfy acceptable safety limits. In support of the LEU conversion effort, a range of ancillary safety analyses are required to evaluate the LEU core operation relative to that of the existing facility. These analyses cover neutronics, shielding, and thermal hydraulic topics that have been identified as having the potential to have reduced safety margins due to conversion to LEU fuel, or are required to support the required safety analyses documentation. The majority of these ancillary tasks have been identified in [1] and [2]. The purpose of this report is to document the ancillary safety analyses that have been performed at Argonne National Laboratory during the early stages of the LEU design effort, and to describe ongoing and anticipated analyses. For all analyses presented in this report, methodologies are utilized that are consistent with, or improved from, those used in analyses for the HEU Final Safety Analysis

  17. Approaches to Enable Demand Response by Industrial Loads for Ancillary Services Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao

    Demand response has gained significant attention in recent years as it demonstrates potentials to enhance the power system's operational flexibility in a cost-effective way. Industrial loads such as aluminum smelters, steel manufacturers, and cement plants demonstrate advantages in supporting power system operation through demand response programs, because of their intensive power consumption, already existing advanced monitoring and control infrastructure, and the strong economic incentive due to the high energy costs. In this thesis, we study approaches to efficiently integrate each of these types of manufacturing processes as demand response resources. The aluminum smelting process is able to change its power consumption both accurately and quickly by controlling the pots' DC voltage, without affecting the production quality. Hence, an aluminum smelter has both the motivation and the ability to participate in demand response. First, we focus on determining the optimal regulation capacity that such a manufacturing plant should provide. Next, we focus on determining its optimal bidding strategy in the day-ahead energy and ancillary services markets. Electric arc furnaces (EAFs) in steel manufacturing consume a large amount of electric energy. However, a steel plant can take advantage of time-based electricity prices by optimally arranging energy-consuming activities to avoid peak hours. We first propose scheduling methods that incorporate the EAFs' flexibilities to reduce the electricity cost. We then propose methods to make the computations more tractable. Finally, we extend the scheduling formulations to enable the provision of spinning reserve. Cement plants are able to quickly adjust their power consumption rate by switching on/off the crushers. However, switching on/off the loading units only achieves discrete power changes, which restricts the load from offering valuable ancillary services such as regulation and load following, as continuous power changes

  18. Using remote sensing and ancillary data to extend airborne electromagnetic resistivity surveys for regional permafrost interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastick, N.; Wylie, B. K.; Minsley, B. J.; Jorgenson, T. T.; Ji, L.; Walvoord, M. A.; Smith, B. D.; Abraham, J. D.; Rose, J.

    2011-12-01

    Permafrost has a significant impact on high latitude ecosystems and is spatially heterogeneous. However, only generalized maps of permafrost extent are available. Due to its impacts on subsurface hydrology, lake water levels, vegetation communities, and surface soil deformations, understanding the spatial extents and depth of permafrost are critical. Electrical resistivity increases dramatically as a soil freezes and can be used as a proxy for permafrost presence particularly if the underlying soils and geologic characteristics are understood. An airborne electromagnetic survey (AEM) was conducted over a portion of the Yukon Flats ecoregion in central Alaska with measurements taken in both reconnaissance lines and contiguous block area coverage. The AEM was flown in June 2010 and subsurface resistivity models were derived by inverting the AEM data. Landsat TM at-sensor reflectance, thermal, and spectral index data from late August to early September 2008, Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and derivatives, and other ancillary data were used in a regression tree model to predict near surface electrical resistivity at the 0-1m and the 0-2.6m depth intervals. AEM locations from homogenous landsat 90 m by 90 m windows were randomly separated into a training set for model development (n = 8,848) and an impendent test data set (n = 988) for model accuracy assessment. Model development and independent test accuracies for 0-1 m electric resistivity had training and test R2 values of 0.90 and 0.87, respectively, and for the 0-2.6m electric resistivity training and test R2 values were also 0.90 and 0.87, respectively, which indicated accurate prediction models. Important variables for stratifying the various piecewise regressions were elevation and averaged 2000-2008 ecosystem performance anomalies. Important independent variables used in the multiple regression equations were the Normalized Difference Infrared Index (NDII), NDII7 (NDII using band 7), soil moisture mapped from

  19. Nutrients and neurodevelopment: lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Horacio F; Visentin, Silvana

    2016-10-01

    Nutrients, lipids in particular, make up the central nervous system structure and play major functional roles: they stimulate development, migration, and nerve cell differentiation. They are part of gray matter, white matter, nerve nuclei, and synaptogenesis. Breast milk contains lipids which are crucial for infant brain development. The lipid profile of breast milk was used as a guideline for the development of breast milk substitutes. However, to date, no substitute has matched it. Complementary feeding should include docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, other polyunsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, and complex lipids found in milk fat. The lipid composition of breast milk depends on maternal intake and nutritional status during pregnancy and breast-feeding. It has a great impact on development. Our goal is to review scientific literature regarding the role of lipids on infant brain development and the importance of breast milk lipid composition, maternal diet, and complementary feeding. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  20. Nutrient and Anti nutrient Composition of Jams Prepared from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was aimed at determining the nutrient and anti nutrient composition of jams prepared from Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extract Materials and methods: Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx, otherwise known as Red Roselle usually processed into a refreshing drink “Zobo” in Nigeria was extracted with distilled water ...

  1. The SPICE concept - An approach to providing geometric and other ancillary information needed for interpretation of data returned from space science instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, Charles H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The Navigation Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF), acting under the direction of NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications, and with substantial participation of the planetary science community, is designing and implementing an ancillary data system - called SPICE - to assist scientists in planning and interpreting scientific observations taken from spaceborne instruments. The principal objective of the implemented SPICE system is that it will hold the essential geometric and related ancillary information needed to recover the full value of science instrument data, and that it will facilitate correlations of individual instrument datasets with data obtained from other instruments on the same or other spacecraft.

  2. Long Term Large Scale river nutrient changes across the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Victoria; Naden, Pam; Tipping, Ed; Davies, Helen; Davies, Jessica; Dragosits, Ulli; Muhammed, Shibu; Quinton, John; Stuart, Marianne; Whitmore, Andy; Wu, Lianhai

    2017-04-01

    denitrification, decomposition and chlorophyll growth are undertaken, and the effects of groundwater storage and processes in lakes connected to the river network can be included. Following assessment against observations of terrestrial and nutrient fluxes in rivers across the UK, the LTLS-IM has been run nationally for 200 years (1800 to 2010), and the work presented here provides, for the first time, national, regional or catchment estimates of the origins and trends in riverine nutrients in the period following the industrial revolution. Ongoing work is now exploring the effects of future climate, waste water treatment and land-management scenarios on water quality, and the effects of nutrient enrichment on the development of eutrophication in rivers.

  3. Disaggregating census data for population mapping using random forests with remotely-sensed and ancillary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Forrest R; Gaughan, Andrea E; Linard, Catherine; Tatem, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    High resolution, contemporary data on human population distributions are vital for measuring impacts of population growth, monitoring human-environment interactions and for planning and policy development. Many methods are used to disaggregate census data and predict population densities for finer scale, gridded population data sets. We present a new semi-automated dasymetric modeling approach that incorporates detailed census and ancillary data in a flexible, "Random Forest" estimation technique. We outline the combination of widely available, remotely-sensed and geospatial data that contribute to the modeled dasymetric weights and then use the Random Forest model to generate a gridded prediction of population density at ~100 m spatial resolution. This prediction layer is then used as the weighting surface to perform dasymetric redistribution of the census counts at a country level. As a case study we compare the new algorithm and its products for three countries (Vietnam, Cambodia, and Kenya) with other common gridded population data production methodologies. We discuss the advantages of the new method and increases over the accuracy and flexibility of those previous approaches. Finally, we outline how this algorithm will be extended to provide freely-available gridded population data sets for Africa, Asia and Latin America.

  4. Workshop on environmental assessment. [Regulation of applications of nuclear energy and related ancillary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, E.C. (comp.)

    1982-07-01

    Objectives of the workshop were: to review and evaluate the state-of-the-art of environmental impact assessments as applied to the regulation of applications of nuclear energy and related ancillary systems; to identify areas where existing technology allows establishing acceptable methods or standard practices that will meet the requirements of the NRC regulations, standards and guides for both normal operations and off-standard conditions including accident considerations; to illuminate topics where existing models or analytical methods are deficient because of unverified assumptions, a paucity of empirical data, conflicting results reported in the literature or a need for observation of operation systems; to compile, analyze and synthesize a prioritized set of research needs to advance the state-of-the-art to the level which will meet all of the requirements of the Commission's regulations, standards and guides; and to develop bases for maintaining the core of regulatory guidance at the optimum level balancing technical capabilities with practical considerations of cost and value to the regulatory process. The discussion held in small group sessions on aquatic, atmospheric, and terrestrial pathways are presented. The following research needs were identified as common to all three groups: validation of models; characterization of source terms; development of screening techniques; basis for de minimis levels of contamination; and updating of objectives for environmental monitoring programs.

  5. Cardiovascular Fat, Menopause, and Sex Hormones in Women: The SWAN Cardiovascular Fat Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoudary, Samar R; Shields, Kelly J; Janssen, Imke; Hanley, Carrie; Budoff, Matthew J; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Powell, Lynda H; Matthews, Karen A

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular risk increases in women after menopause. Mounting evidence demonstrates a role of cardiovascular fat (CF) in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease, but no research has examined CF in relation to sex hormones or menopausal status in women. The objective was to determine the relationship between CF depots, menopausal status, and endogenous sex hormones. Cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs were used. The setting included the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Heart and Cardiovascular Fat Ancillary Study. A total of 456 women (mean age, 50.75 y); 62% premenopausal/early perimenopausal, and 38% late peri-/postmenopausal. Menopausal status, endogenous sex hormones measured simultaneously with CF volumes, and circulating estradiol available 4.80 years (median) before CF measures. Volumes of CF (epicardial adipose tissue [EAT], paracardial adipose tissue [PAT], total heart adipose tissue [TAT = EAT + PAT], and aortic perivascular adipose tissue [PVAT]). In final models, late peri-/postmenopausal women had 9.88% more EAT, 20.72% more PAT, and 11.69% more TAT volumes than pre-/early perimenopausal women (P menopausal status. In final models, lower estradiol concentrations were associated with greater volumes of PAT and TAT (P hormones are associated with CF. Perhaps CF plays a role in the higher risk of coronary heart disease reported in women after menopause.

  6. Planck intermediate results XXIII. Galactic plane emission components derived from Planck with ancillary data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2015-01-01

    and to clarify the relationship between the various components. The region of the Galactic plane covered is l = 300 ! 0 ! 60where star-formation is highest and the emission is strong enough to make meaningful component separation. The latitude widths in this longituderange lie between 1 and 2, which correspond......Planck data when combined with ancillary data provide a unique opportunity to separate the diuse emission components of the inner Galaxy.The purpose of the paper is to elucidate the morphology of the various emission components in the strong star-formation region lying inside thesolar radius...... along the Galactic plane using the wide frequency coverage of Planck(28.4–857 GHz) in combination with low-frequency radio data at 0.408–2.3 GHz plus WMAP data at 23–94 GHz, along with far-infrared (FIR) datafrom COBE-DIRBE and IRAS. The free-free component is determined from radio recombination line...

  7. Current perspectives on the use of ancillary materials for the manufacture of cellular therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Jennifer; Csontos, Lynn; Clarke, Dominic; Bonyhadi, Mark; Zylberberg, Claudia; McNiece, Ian; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Bell, Rosemarie; Deans, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Continued growth in the cell therapy industry and commercialization of cell therapies that successfully advance through clinical trials has led to increased awareness around the need for specialized and complex materials utilized in their manufacture. Ancillary materials (AMs) are components or reagents used during the manufacture of cell therapy products but are not intended to be part of the final products. Commonly, there are limitations in the availability of clinical-grade reagents used as AMs. Furthermore, AMs may affect the efficacy of the cell product and subsequent safety of the cell therapy for the patient. As such, AMs must be carefully selected and appropriately qualified during the cell therapy development process. However, the ongoing evolution of cell therapy research, limited number of clinical trials and registered cell therapy products results in the current absence of specific regulations governing the composition, compliance, and qualification of AMs often leads to confusion by suppliers and users in this field. Here we provide an overview and interpretation of the existing global framework surrounding AM use and investigate some common misunderstandings within the industry, with the aim of facilitating the appropriate selection and qualification of AMs. The key message we wish to emphasize is that in order to most effectively mitigate risk around cell therapy development and patient safety, users must work with their suppliers and regulators to qualify each AM to assess source, purity, identity, safety, and suitability in a given application. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Disaggregating census data for population mapping using random forests with remotely-sensed and ancillary data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forrest R Stevens

    Full Text Available High resolution, contemporary data on human population distributions are vital for measuring impacts of population growth, monitoring human-environment interactions and for planning and policy development. Many methods are used to disaggregate census data and predict population densities for finer scale, gridded population data sets. We present a new semi-automated dasymetric modeling approach that incorporates detailed census and ancillary data in a flexible, "Random Forest" estimation technique. We outline the combination of widely available, remotely-sensed and geospatial data that contribute to the modeled dasymetric weights and then use the Random Forest model to generate a gridded prediction of population density at ~100 m spatial resolution. This prediction layer is then used as the weighting surface to perform dasymetric redistribution of the census counts at a country level. As a case study we compare the new algorithm and its products for three countries (Vietnam, Cambodia, and Kenya with other common gridded population data production methodologies. We discuss the advantages of the new method and increases over the accuracy and flexibility of those previous approaches. Finally, we outline how this algorithm will be extended to provide freely-available gridded population data sets for Africa, Asia and Latin America.

  9. An Experimental Study of Energy Consumption in Buildings Providing Ancillary Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yashen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Afshari, Sina [University of Michigan; Wolfe, John [University of Michigan; Nazir, Md Salman [University of Michigan; Hiskens, Ian A. [University of Michigan; Johnson, Jeremiah X. [University of Michigan; Mathieu, Johanna L. [University of Michigan; Barnes, Arthur K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Geller, Drew A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-10-03

    Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in commercial buildings can provide ancillary services (AS) to the power grid, but by providing AS their energy consumption may increase. This inefficiency is evaluated using round-trip efficiency (RTE), which is defined as the ratio between the decrease and the increase in the HVAC system's energy consumption compared to the baseline consumption as a result of providing AS. This paper evaluates the RTE of a 30,000 m2 commercial building providing AS. We propose two methods to estimate the HVAC system's settling time after an AS event based on temperature and the air flow measurements from the building. Experimental data gathered over a 4-month period are used to calculate the RTE for AS signals of various waveforms, magnitudes, durations, and polarities. The results indicate that the settling time estimation algorithm based on the air flow measurements obtains more accurate results compared to the temperature-based algorithm. Further, we study the impact of the AS signal shape parameters on the RTE and discuss the practical implications of our findings.

  10. Thermal ice loads on dams and ancillary structures: A brief review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, R.

    1989-01-01

    A major consideration in the design of low to medium head dams in cold regions is the thrust exerted by thermal expansion of a solid ice sheet. Such loads are also of concern in the design of gates, intakes and other ancillary structures. Such loads can be greater than 300-400 kilo Newtons per meter, and are of greatest concern when ice is unshielded by snow from temperature fluctuations. Details are presented of calculation of thermal ice loads, and field measurements of thermal ice forces. Past structural failures, field and laboratory investigations, and analyses, all confirm that thermal ice loads on wide structures such as dams, and isolated structures such as bridge piers and water intakes, can be much more significant than is suggested by the loads currently specified in various North American design guidelines for hydraulic structures. While some guidelines for thermal ice loads are excessively conservative, particularly for protected situations such as gates set between piers, in other more common situations they are dangerously low. Three useful approaches that would yield information for improving thermal ice load specification are: hindcast upper bounds on thermal ice loads by assessing the ice regime and load bearing capacity of existing structures; field measurement of thermal ice loads and stresses using modern instrumentation; and measurement and analysis of the formation and movement of lake and reservoir ice covers. 23 refs., 4 figs

  11. Analysis of the Effects of a Flexible Ramping Ancillary Service Product on Power System Operations: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krad, Ibrahim; Ibanez, Eduardo; Ela, Erik

    2015-10-19

    The recent increased interest in utilizing variable generation (VG) resources such as wind and solar in power systems has motivated investigations into new operating procedures. Although these resources provide desirable value to a system (e.g., no fuel costs or emissions), interconnecting them provides unique challenges. Their variable, non-controllable nature in particular requires significant attention, because it directly results in increased power system variability and uncertainty. One way to handle this is via new operating reserve schemes. Operating reserves provide upward and downward generation and ramping capacity to counteract uncertainty and variability prior to their realization. For instance, uncertainty and variability in real-time dispatch can be accounted for in the hour-ahead unit commitment. New operating reserve methodologies that specifically account for the increased variability and uncertainty caused by VG are currently being investigated and developed by academia and industry. This paper examines one method inspired by the new operating reserve product being proposed by the California Independent System Operator. The method is based on examining the potential ramping requirements at any given time and enforcing those requirements via a reserve demand curve in the market-clearing optimization as an additional ancillary service product.

  12. Mid-term fire danger index based on satellite imagery and ancillary geographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidou, A.; Dragozi, E.; Tompoulidou, M.; Stepanidou, L.; Grigoriadis, D.; Katagis, T.; Stavrakoudis, D.; Gitas, I.

    2017-09-01

    Fire danger forecast constitutes one of the most important components of integrated fire management since it provides crucial information for efficient pre-fire planning, alertness and timely response to a possible fire event. The aim of this work is to develop an index that has the capability of predicting accurately fire danger on a mid-term basis. The methodology that is currently under development is based on an innovative approach that employs dry fuel spatial connectivity as well as biophysical and topological variables for the reliable prediction of fire danger. More specifically, the estimation of the dry fuel connectivity is based on a previously proposed automated procedure implemented in R software that uses Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) time series data. Dry fuel connectivity estimates are then combined with other ancillary data such as fuel type and proximity to roads in order to result in the generation of the proposed mid-term fire danger index. The innovation of the proposed index—which will be evaluated by comparison to historical fire data—lies in the fact that its calculation is almost solely affected by the availability of satellite data. Finally, it should be noted that the index is developed within the framework of the National Observatory of Forest Fires (NOFFi) project.

  13. Proposal for a change of contractor to operate the hostels, apartments and ancillary premises

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to inform the Finance Committee of the final outcome of the negotiations with the firm to which the contract was adjudicated for the operation of the hostels, apartments and ancillary premises run by the CERN Housing Service and to request approval for the contract placed with the second lowest bidder. In September 2000, the Finance Committee agreed to the negotiation of a contract with VIENNA INTERNATIONAL HOTEL MANAGEMENT (AT) - SEREG (CH) (cf. CERN/FC/4311). For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is now invited to approve a contract with the consortium ISS MULTISERVICE (CH) - ISS GEBAEUDESERVICE (DE), the second lowest bidder, for an initial period of five years, from 1 January 2001, for a total amount of 7 206 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision until 31 December 2001. The contract includes an option for two one-year extensions beyond the initial five-year period. The consortium has indicated the following distribution by country of the cont...

  14. Cost-Causation-Based Tariffs for Wind Ancillary Service Impacts: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Wan, Y.

    2006-06-01

    Conference paper discussing the integration cost of wind. Although specific tariffs for wind generation for ancillary services are uncommon, we anticipate that balancing authorities (control areas) and other entities will move toward such tariffs. Tariffs for regulation and imbalance services should be cost-based, recognize the relevant time scales that correspond with utility operational cycles, and properly allocate those costs to those entities that cause the balancing authority to incur the costs. In this paper, we present methods for separating wind's impact into regulation and load following (imbalance) time scales. We show that approximating these impacts with simpler methods can significantly distort cost causation and even cause confusion between the relevant time scales. We present results from NREL's wind data collection program to illustrate the dangers of linearly scaling wind resource data from small wind plants to approximate the wind resource data from large wind plants. Finally, we provide a framework for developing regulation and imbalance tariffs, we outline methods to begin examining contingency reserve requirements for wind plants, we provide guidance on the important characteristics to consider, and we provide hypothetical cases that the tariff can be tested against to determine whether the results are desired.

  15. Removal Action Workplan for the 105-DR and 105-F Building Interim Safe Storage Projects and Ancillary Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodovsky, T. J.

    1999-01-01

    This document is the removal action workplan (RAW) for the 105-DR and 105-F Reactor Buildings and ancillary facilities. These buildings and facilities are located in the 100-D/DR and 100-F Areas of the Hanford Site in Benton County, Washington, which is owned and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 100 Areas (including 100-D/DR and 100-F Areas) of the Hanford Site were placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Priorities List under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation,and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). DOE has determined that hazardous substances in the 105-DR and 105-F Reactor Buildings and four ancillary facilities present a potential threat to human health or the environment DOE has also determined that a non-time critical removal action is warranted at these facilities

  16. International Society of Gynecological Pathologists (ISGyP) Endometrial Cancer Project: Guidelines From the Special Techniques and Ancillary Studies Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kathleen R; Cooper, Kumarasen; Croce, Sabrina; Djordevic, Bojana; Herrington, Simon; Howitt, Brooke; Hui, Pei; Ip, Philip; Koebel, Martin; Lax, Sigurd; Quade, Bradley J; Shaw, Patricia; Vidal, August; Yemelyanova, Anna; Clarke, Blaise; Hedrick Ellenson, Lora; Longacre, Teri A; Shih, Ie-Ming; McCluggage, W Glenn; Malpica, Anais; Oliva, Esther; Parkash, Vinita; Matias-Guiu, Xavier

    2018-04-11

    The aim of this article is to propose guidelines and recommendations in problematic areas in pathologic reporting of endometrial carcinoma (EC) regarding special techniques and ancillary studies. An organizing committee designed a comprehensive survey with different questions related to pathologic features, diagnosis, and prognosis of EC that was sent to all members of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists. The special techniques/ancillary studies group received 4 different questions to be addressed. Five members of the group reviewed the literature and came up with recommendations and an accompanying text which were discussed and agreed upon by all members of the group. Twelve different recommendations are made. They address the value of immunohistochemistry, ploidy, and molecular analysis for assessing prognosis in EC, the value of steroid hormone receptor analysis to predict response to hormone therapy, and parameters regarding applying immunohistochemistry and molecular tests for assessing mismatch deficiency in EC.

  17. Short-Term Output Variations in Wind Farms--Implications for Ancillary Services in the United States: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadogan, J. [U.S. Department of Energy (US); Milligan, M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (US); Wan, Y. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (US); Kirby, B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (US)

    2001-09-21

    With the advent of competition in the electric power marketplace, this paper reviews changes that affect wind and other renewable energy technologies, and discusses the role of federal and state policies in the recent wind installations in the United States. In particular, it reviews the implications of ancillary service requirements on a wind farm and presents initial operating results of monitoring one Midwest wind farm. Under federal energy policy, each generator must purchase, or otherwise provide for, ancillary services, such as dispatch, regulation, operation reserve, voltage regulation, and scheduling required to move power to load. As a renewable technology that depends on the forces of nature, short-term output variations are inherently greater for a wind farm than for a gas-fired combined cycle or a supercritical coal-fired unit.

  18. Nutrient management in substrate systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    Speaking about nutrient solutions in soilless cultivation, different solutions can be discerned. Originally, in soilless culture only one nutrient solution was taken into account, being the solution in the containers in which the plants were grown. Such solutions were intensively moved by air

  19. The Nutrient Density of Snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Hess BA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Americans receive almost a quarter of their daily energy from snacks, snacking remains a poorly defined and understood eating occasion. However, there is little dietary guidance about choosing snacks. Families, clinicians, and researchers need a comprehensive approach to assessing their nutritional value. Objective: To quantify and compare the nutrient density of commonly consumed snacks by their overall nutrient profiles using the Nutrient-Rich Foods (NRF Index 10.3. Methods: NRF Index scores were calculated for the top 3 selling products (based on 2014 market research data in different snack categories. These NRF scores were averaged to provide an overall nutrient-density score for each category. Results: Based on NRF scores, yogurt (55.3, milk (52.5, and fruit (30.1 emerged as the most nutrient-dense snacks. Ice cream (−4.4, pies and cakes (−11.1, and carbonated soft drinks (−17.2 emerged as the most nutrient-poor snacks. Conclusions: The NRF Index is a useful tool for assessing the overall nutritional value of snacks based on nutrients to limit and nutrients to encourage.

  20. Engineering Task Plan for the Integrity Assessment Examination of Double Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRT) Catch Tanks and Ancillary facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECKER, D.L.

    2000-05-23

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) presents the integrity assessment examination of three DCRTs, seven catch tanks, and two ancillary facilities located in the 200 East and West Areas of the Hanford Site. The integrity assessment examinations, as described in this ETP, will provide the necessary information to enable the independently qualified registered professional engineer (IQRPE) to assess the condition and integrity of these facilities. The plan is consistent with the Double-Shell Tank Waste Transfer Facilities Integrity Assessment Plan.

  1. Engineering Task Plan for the Integrity Assessment Examination of Double-Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRT), Catch Tanks and Ancillary facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BECKER, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) presents the integrity assessment examination of three DCRTs, seven catch tanks, and two ancillary facilities located in the 200 East and West Areas of the Hanford Site. The integrity assessment examinations, as described in this ETP, will provide the necessary information to enable the independently qualified registered professional engineer (IQRPE) to assess the condition and integrity of these facilities. The plan is consistent with the Double-Shell Tank Waste Transfer Facilities Integrity Assessment Plan

  2. Map of risks for the implementation of radio-frequency identification: application of ancillaries in the University Hospital Jean Verdier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, E; Schlatter, J

    2010-01-01

    Ancillaries are surgical instruments, such as orthopedical instruments set for reconstruction of knee (a mounting arm...) used to implant or extract prosthesis. Their management involves the departments of sterilization and surgery as well as the suppliers. Such a long circuit exposes the instruments to potential risk hazards like a lack of traceability as the suspicion of Creutzfeldt-Jakob. In order to reduce the risk of errors we will propose the implementation of radio-frequency identification (RFID) to trace the ancillaries during each step of the supply chain. The objective of our study is to analyze and to map the risks associated with RFID implementation. A preliminary analysis of risks (APR) is conducted to map out the hazards for the implementation of RFID. The APR identifies 162 scenarios with a maximum risk connected to environment and technology. To reduce the risks identified, 22 courses of action are proposed, such as audits, training, and internal controls. For each action, a procedure has been designed and evaluated. This preliminary analysis of risks allows targeting the potential dangers for the RFID implementation applied to ancillaries and reduces them significantly.

  3. Breaking through the hydrogen cost barrier by using electrolysis loads to access ancillary services and demand response programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.; McGillivray, R.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation described the use of hydrogen electrolysis as a load resource for handling grid instability resulting from the increased penetration of intermittent renewable power. In particular, it focused on Hydrogenics, the leading global supplier of industrial scale electrolysis equipment and fuel cells. The presentation included an overview of the current incentive and market value of ancillary services provided by the company and demand responses in a number of grids around the world. There is a link between the amount of ancillary services required by the grid and the penetration level of renewable energy power such as wind and solar. The ability of hydrogen generation from electrolysis to satisfy all the requirements of ancillary services markets was also demonstrated. The economic analysis of hydrogen generation was discussed with particular reference to the cost of hydrogen fully loading all capital, energy and operating costs. The resulting reduction in the cost of hydrogen was compared to the existing markets for hydrogen, including use of hydrogen as a fuel for municipal bus fleets relative to the existing cost of fossil fuel fleets. Current industrial hydrogen merchant and bulk market prices were also compared

  4. LANDMET Ancillary Monthly Mean Thermal Effective Infrared and Microwave Emissivity Data L3 V1 (LANDMET_ANC_TEIME) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is an ancillary product, climatology monthly mean and standard deviation, containing a number of emissivity data. They are broadband thermal IR emissivity from...

  5. Approaches and uncertainties in nutrient budgets; Implications for nutrient management and environmental policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Kros, J.; Vries, de W.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrient budgets of agroecosystems are constructed either (i) to increase the understanding of nutrient cycling, (ii) as performance indicator and awareness raiser in nutrient management and environmental policy, or (iii) as regulating policy instrument to enforce a certain nutrient management

  6. Improving recombinant Rubisco biogenesis, plant photosynthesis and growth by coexpressing its ancillary RAF1 chaperone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Spencer M; Birch, Rosemary; Kelso, Celine; Beck, Jennifer L; Kapralov, Maxim V

    2015-03-17

    Enabling improvements to crop yield and resource use by enhancing the catalysis of the photosynthetic CO2-fixing enzyme Rubisco has been a longstanding challenge. Efforts toward realization of this goal have been greatly assisted by advances in understanding the complexities of Rubisco's biogenesis in plastids and the development of tailored chloroplast transformation tools. Here we generate transplastomic tobacco genotypes expressing Arabidopsis Rubisco large subunits (AtL), both on their own (producing tob(AtL) plants) and with a cognate Rubisco accumulation factor 1 (AtRAF1) chaperone (producing tob(AtL-R1) plants) that has undergone parallel functional coevolution with AtL. We show AtRAF1 assembles as a dimer and is produced in tob(AtL-R1) and Arabidopsis leaves at 10-15 nmol AtRAF1 monomers per square meter. Consistent with a postchaperonin large (L)-subunit assembly role, the AtRAF1 facilitated two to threefold improvements in the amount and biogenesis rate of hybrid L8(A)S8(t) Rubisco [comprising AtL and tobacco small (S) subunits] in tob(AtL-R1) leaves compared with tob(AtL), despite >threefold lower steady-state Rubisco mRNA levels in tob(AtL-R1). Accompanying twofold increases in photosynthetic CO2-assimilation rate and plant growth were measured for tob(AtL-R1) lines. These findings highlight the importance of ancillary protein complementarity during Rubisco biogenesis in plastids, the possible constraints this has imposed on Rubisco adaptive evolution, and the likely need for such interaction specificity to be considered when optimizing recombinant Rubisco bioengineering in plants.

  7. The validation of corrosion inhibitors for ancillary cooling systems at Sizewell B PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, S.J.; Garnsey, R.; Lawson, W.F.

    1994-01-01

    Sizewell B has several low temperature ancillary cooling circuits for removing low grade heat. One of the principal circuits is the Component Cooling Water System (CCWS) primarily constructed from carbon steel pipework but also containing stainless steel, titanium, copper and cupronickel components. Linked to the CCWS is another carbon steel system namely the Reserve Ultimate Heat Sink (RUHS) a system unique to Sizewell B providing an independent heat removal capability for the CCWS as a safety back-up. Both systems utilize demineralized water with the addition of an inhibitor to prevent corrosion. The vendor recommended inhibitor namely potassium chromate is highly toxic to marine life and initial discussions with the regulatory authorities indicated that it would be extremely difficult to obtain a discharge consent to cover leakage or potential system purges and dumps associated with maintenance operations. Thus an alternative was sought. Sodium nitrite (anhydrous NaN0 2 )/borax (Na 2 B 4 0 7 1OH 2 0) inhibitor solutions have been used for many years in the power industry for preservation of carbon steel plant and several proprietary formulations are based on this mixture. There has been extensive test work in the UK on this inhibitor for secondary side boiler storage on gas reactors and therefore it was considered a prime candidate for use at Sizewell B. Starting in 1985 a programme of work sponsored by Nuclear Electric plc has been completed by NNC Ltd to compare nitrite/borax with other suitable inhibitors and validate its use for Sizewell B. (authors). 5 figs., 1 tab

  8. Investigating the Impact of Climate Change on Hydroelectric Generation and Ancillary Services in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, K.; Tarroja, B.; AghaKouchak, A.; Chiang, F.; Samuelsen, S.

    2017-12-01

    Spatial and temporal shifts in hydrological regimes predicted under climate change conditions have implications for the management of reservoirs and hydropower contributions to generation and ancillary services. California relies on large hydropower plants to provide flexible electricity generation, which will be increasingly important for supporting renewable resources. This study examines the impact of climate change on large hydropower generation in California. Four climate models for Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5 are utilized to evaluate the impact of the climate change conditions on (1) the magnitude and profile of hydropower generation and (2) the ability of hydropower to provide spinning reserve. Under both RCP scenarios, impacts are regionally dependent, with precipitation projected to increase in northern California and decrease in southern California for the ten-year period investigated (2046-2055). The overall result is a net increase in inflow into large hydropower units as a majority of the hydropower plants studied are located in the northern part of the state. Increased inflow is primarily driven by increased runoff during the winter and does not necessarily result in increased generation, as extreme events yield greater overall spillage, up to 45% of total inflow. Increased winter hydropower generation paired with increased reservoir constraints in summer result in an 11 to 18% decrease in spinning reserve potential across the year. Under high inflow conditions there is a decreased flexibility for choosing generation versus spinning reserve as water needs to be released, regardless. During summer, hydropower units providing spinning reserve experienced decreased inflow and lower reservoir levels compared to the historical baseline, resulting in decreased spinning reserve bidding potential. Decreased bidding, especially during summer periods at peak electricity demand, can result in greater demand for other dispatchable

  9. Camera traps and mark-resight models: The value of ancillary data for evaluating assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Arielle W.; Simons, Theodore R.; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Stoskopf, Michael K.; Stocking, Jessica J.; O'Connell, Allan F.

    2015-01-01

    Unbiased estimators of abundance and density are fundamental to the study of animal ecology and critical for making sound management decisions. Capture–recapture models are generally considered the most robust approach for estimating these parameters but rely on a number of assumptions that are often violated but rarely validated. Mark-resight models, a form of capture–recapture, are well suited for use with noninvasive sampling methods and allow for a number of assumptions to be relaxed. We used ancillary data from continuous video and radio telemetry to evaluate the assumptions of mark-resight models for abundance estimation on a barrier island raccoon (Procyon lotor) population using camera traps. Our island study site was geographically closed, allowing us to estimate real survival and in situ recruitment in addition to population size. We found several sources of bias due to heterogeneity of capture probabilities in our study, including camera placement, animal movement, island physiography, and animal behavior. Almost all sources of heterogeneity could be accounted for using the sophisticated mark-resight models developed by McClintock et al. (2009b) and this model generated estimates similar to a spatially explicit mark-resight model previously developed for this population during our study. Spatially explicit capture–recapture models have become an important tool in ecology and confer a number of advantages; however, non-spatial models that account for inherent individual heterogeneity may perform nearly as well, especially where immigration and emigration are limited. Non-spatial models are computationally less demanding, do not make implicit assumptions related to the isotropy of home ranges, and can provide insights with respect to the biological traits of the local population.

  10. Decomposition, nutrient release patterns and nutrient fluxes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were conducted on leaf litter fall, decomposition, nutrient release patterns and nutrient fluxes of Akyaakrom (AS) and Dopiri (DS) secondary forest leaf litter in Dwinyama watershed. Leaf litter production were 9.1 and 6.8 t ha-1 y-1 in AS and 8.9 and 6.5 t ha-1 y-1 in DS in the 1st (September 1998-August 1999) and ...

  11. Nutrient and Coliform Loading (NCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of available fecal coliform bacteria, fecal streptococci bacteria, and nutrient loading data. Loading for contaminants other than fecal coliform...

  12. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2000-11-01

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  13. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2000-11-01

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  14. Impact of Market Behavior, Fleet Composition, and Ancillary Services on Revenue Sufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gallo, Giulia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clark, Kara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Revenue insufficiency, or the missing money problem, occurs when the revenues that generators earn from the market are not sufficient to cover both fixed and variable costs to remain in the market and/or justify investments in new capacity, which may be needed for reliability. The near-zero marginal cost of variable renewable generators further exacerbates these revenue challenges. Estimating the extent of the missing money problem in current electricity markets is an important, nontrivial task that requires representing both how the power system operates and how market participants behave. This paper explores the missing money problem using a production cost model that represented a simplified version of the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) energy-only market for the years 2012-2014. We evaluate how various market structures -- including market behavior, ancillary services, and changing fleet compositions -- affect net revenues in this ERCOT-like system. In most production cost modeling exercises, resources are assumed to offer their marginal capabilities at marginal costs. Although this assumption is reasonable for feasibility studies and long-term planning, it does not adequately consider the market behaviors that impact revenue sufficiency. In this work, we simulate a limited set of market participant strategic bidding behaviors by means of different sets of markups; these markups are applied to the true production costs of all gas generators, which are the most prominent generators in ERCOT. Results show that markups can help generators increase their net revenues overall, although net revenues may increase or decrease depending on the technology and the year under study. Results also confirm that conventional, variable-cost-based production cost simulations do not capture prices accurately, and this particular feature calls for proxies for strategic behaviors (e.g., markups) and more accurate representations of how electricity markets work. The

  15. Valuation of the ancillary services of a power grid in competitive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennebel, M.

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this research is to establish whether it is possible to define a relevant economical signal for the providing of reactive power. After having recalled the definition of reactive power and its role in voltage holding on the electrical network, the author reviews previous works dealing with the use of frequency adjustment, and more particularly highlights advantages and drawbacks of a valorization method developed by Xu, Kundur and da Silva. Then, he presents the optimized equivalent reactive capacitors method which is assessed on a two-node network, and then a 118 node test network. This method is then tested on a part of the French electrical system corresponding to the 'Grand Ouest' region. The last parts of this research are dealing with the valorization of production capacities in nominal operating regime, with the taking into account of different modifications of the network topology in static regime for the valorization of production capacities

  16. From a bundled energy-capacity pricing model to an energy-capacity-ancillary services pricing model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raineri, Ricardo; Arce, Raul; Rios, Sebastian; Salamanca, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the Chilean power generation pricing mechanism, with capacity and energy payments, to one where ancillary services (AS), as frequency regulation and voltage control, are explicitly recognized. Adequacy and security attributes of the electric system and the public good characteristics of AS are set within the payment structure to distribute the financing of AS among those who benefit from their provision. The contribution to finance the provision of AS is determined assessing the value assigned to the system security by each agent, following what's an efficient pricing mechanism in the presence of public goods

  17. Strategies for carbon dioxide emissions reductions: Residential natural gas efficiency, economic, and ancillary health impacts in Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, Matthias; Blohm, Andrew; Mauer, Joanna; Gabriel, Steven A.; Kesana, Vijay G.; Chen Yihsu; Hobbs, Benjamin F.; Irani, Daraius

    2010-01-01

    As part of its commitments to the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), the State of Maryland, USA, auctions emission permits to electric utilities, creating revenue that can be used to benefit consumers and the environment. This paper explores the CO 2 emissions reductions that may be possible by allocating some of that revenue to foster efficiency improvements in the residential sector's use of natural gas. Since these improvements will require changes to the capital stock of houses and end use equipment, efficiency improvements may be accompanied by economic and ancillary health impacts, both of which are quantified in this paper.

  18. Phosphorescent Pt(ii) complexes bearing a monoanionic C^N^N luminophore and tunable ancillary ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebenbrock, Marian; Stegemann, Linda; Kösters, Jutta; Doltsinis, Nikos L; Müller, Jens; Strassert, Cristian A

    2017-03-07

    A versatile design strategy is presented towards new monoanionic pincer luminophores, showing that cyclometallating C^N^N ligands can yield phosphorescent Pt(ii) complexes even if a neutral 1,2,3-triazole ring is inserted by click chemistry. The overall charge, intermolecular interactions and excited state properties can be manipulated and controlled by varying the nature of the ancillary ligand, and its effect on the structural and the triplet state characteristics can be thoroughly investigated and correlated by means of theory and spectroscopy.

  19. Nutrient acquisition strategies of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Wilhelm; Thompson, Craig B

    2017-06-07

    Mammalian cells are surrounded by diverse nutrients, such as glucose, amino acids, various macromolecules and micronutrients, which they can import through transmembrane transporters and endolysosomal pathways. By using different nutrient sources, cells gain metabolic flexibility to survive periods of starvation. Quiescent cells take up sufficient nutrients to sustain homeostasis. However, proliferating cells depend on growth-factor-induced increases in nutrient uptake to support biomass formation. Here, we review cellular nutrient acquisition strategies and their regulation by growth factors and cell-intrinsic nutrient sensors. We also discuss how oncogenes and tumour suppressors promote nutrient uptake and thereby support the survival and growth of cancer cells.

  20. TOR Signaling and Nutrient Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrenel, Thomas; Caldana, Camila; Hanson, Johannes; Robaglia, Christophe; Vincentz, Michel; Veit, Bruce; Meyer, Christian

    2016-04-29

    All living organisms rely on nutrients to sustain cell metabolism and energy production, which in turn need to be adjusted based on available resources. The evolutionarily conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase is a central regulatory hub that connects environmental information about the quantity and quality of nutrients to developmental and metabolic processes in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. TOR is activated by both nitrogen and carbon metabolites and promotes energy-consuming processes such as cell division, mRNA translation, and anabolism in times of abundance while repressing nutrient remobilization through autophagy. In animals and yeasts, TOR acts antagonistically to the starvation-induced AMP-activated kinase (AMPK)/sucrose nonfermenting 1 (Snf1) kinase, called Snf1-related kinase 1 (SnRK1) in plants. This review summarizes the immense knowledge on the relationship between TOR signaling and nutrients in nonphotosynthetic organisms and presents recent findings in plants that illuminate the crucial role of this pathway in conveying nutrient-derived signals and regulating many aspects of metabolism and growth.

  1. Nutrient canal of the fibula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo-Hyuk; Ehara, Shigeru; Tamakawa, Yoshiharu [Departments of Radiology, Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, Morioka (Japan); Horiguchi, Masahura [Department of Anatomy I, Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, Morioka (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the radiological features of the nutrient canal in the fibula.Design and patients. One hundred and seventy-nine dried fibulae were studied regarding the type, number, location, and direction of the nutrient canal. They were classified into a usual type (type I: a radiolucent line confined to the cortex) and an atypical type (type II: a radiolucent line extending beyond the cortex).Results. Among the total of 230 nutrient canals seen on radiography, 197 (86%) were type I and 33 (14%) were type II. On CT scans, the ossified rim of the canal extended into the medullary cavity in type II canals. The most common site was the posteromedial aspect in both type I and type II canals. Type II canals were significantly more common in fibulae with two or three nutrient canals. The frequency of the upward direction was more common in type II canals.Conclusion. Nutrient canals with extension of the ossified rim into the medullary canal are the cause of linear lucency that may simulate a fracture. Their features are slightly different from those of usual canals. (orig.)

  2. Nutrient supply of plants in aquaponic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Andras Bittsanszky; Nikolett Uzinger; Gábor Gyulai; Alex Mathis; Ranka Junge; Morris Villarroel; Benzion Kotzen; Tamas Komives

    2016-01-01

    In this preliminary article we present data on plant nutrient concentrations in aquaponic systems, and compare them to nutrient concentrations in “standard” hydroponic solutions. Our data shows that the nutrient concentrations supplied by the fish in aquaponic system are significantly lower for most nutrients, compared to hydroponic systems. Nevertheless, plants do thrive in solutions that have lower nutrient levels than “standard” hydroponic solutions. This is especially true for green leafy...

  3. Soil nutrient availability and reproductive effort drive patterns in nutrient resorption in Pentachlethra macroloba

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. L. Tully; Tana Wood; A. M. Schwantes; D. Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    The removal of nutrients from senescing tissues, nutrient resorption, is a key strategy for conserving nutrients in plants. However, our understanding of what drives patterns of nutrient resorption in tropical trees is limited. We examined the effects of nutrient sources (stand-level and tree-level soil fertility) and sinks (reproductive effort) on nitrogen (N) and...

  4. Photocatalytic Conversion of CO2 to CO using Rhenium Bipyridine Platforms Containing Ancillary Phenyl or BODIPY Moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Gabriel A.; Pistner, Allen J.; Yap, Glenn P.A.; Lutterman, Daniel A.; Rosenthal, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Harnessing of solar energy to drive the reduction of carbon dioxide to fuels requires the development of efficient catalysts that absorb sunlight. In this work, we detail the synthesis, electrochemistry and photophysical properties of a set of homologous fac-ReI(CO)3 complexes containing either an ancillary phenyl (8) or BODIPY (12) substituent. These studies demonstrate that both the electronic properties of the rhenium center and BODIPY chromophore are maintained for these complexes. Photolysis studies demonstrate that both assemblies 8 and 12 are competent catalysts for the photochemical reduction of CO2 to CO in DMF using triethanolamine (TEOA) as a sacrificial reductant. Both compounds 8 and 12 display TOFs for photocatalytic CO production upon irradiation with light (λex ≥ 400 nm) of ~5 hr−1 with TON values of approximately 20. Although structural and photophysical measurements demonstrate that electronic coupling between the BODIPY and fac-ReI(CO)3 units is limited for complex 12, this work clearly shows that the photoactive BODIPY moiety is tolerated during catalysis and does not interfere with the observed photochemistry. When taken together, these results provide a clear roadmap for the development of advanced rhenium bipyridine complexes bearing ancillary BODIPY groups for the efficient photocatalytic reduction of CO2 using visible light. PMID:24015374

  5. Effects of beta-adrenergic blockers with different ancillary properties on lipid peroxidation in hyperthyroid rat cardiac muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asayama, K; Dobashi, K; Hayashibe, H; Kato, K

    1989-10-01

    To determine whether beta-blockade protects rat heart against thyroxine (T4)-induced accelelation of lipid peroxidation, in vivo effects of 3 beta-blockers with different ancillary properties on the mitochondrial oxidative enzyme, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxide were investigated. The rats were rendered hyperthyroid by adding T4 to their drinking water for 3 weeks and were treated simultaneously with either carteolol (a blocker with partial agonist activity; 30 mg/kg/day), atenolol (50 mg/kg/day) or arotinolol (a blocker with weak alpha-blocking action; 50 mg/kg/day). The T4-induced tachycardia was alleviated completely by either atenolol or arotinolol, but only partially by carteolol. Cytochrome c oxidase activity in the heart muscle was increased by T4 with a parallel increase in manganese (mitochondrial) superoxide dismutase. Atenolol, but neither carteolol nor arotinolol, suppressed this increase. Similarly, the T4-induced acceleration of lipid peroxidation was suppressed by atenolol alone. Glutathione peroxidase was markedly decreased, and both copper zinc (cytosolic) superoxide dismutase and catalase were also decreased or tended to be decreased by T4. The levels of these 3 enzymes were only minimally affected by the beta-blocker treatments. These results suggest that beta-blockade suppresses mitochondrial hypermetabolism and protects heart muscle against oxidative stress in hyperthyroidism, and that the ancillary properties of beta-blockers such as partial agonist activity and alpha-blocking action negate the protection.

  6. Fine needle biopsy with cytology in paediatrics: the importance of a multidisciplinary approach and the role of ancillary techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroca, H; Bom-Sucesso, M

    2014-02-01

    Fine needle biopsy (FNB) with cytology has long been regarded as an excellent technique as the first choice for diagnosing adult tumours. Being an inexpensive minimally invasive technique with high accuracy and diagnostic immediacy through rapid on-site evaluation, it is also ideal for implementation in the paediatric setting, particularly in developing countries. Furthermore, it allows complementary and advanced procedures such as flow cytometry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), among others, which enhances the diagnostic capacity of this technique and gives it a key role in risk stratification and therapeutic decision-making for several tumours. The advantages of FNB are optimized in the setting of a multidisciplinary team where cytologist, clinician and radiologist play leading roles. Paediatric tumours are rare and most ancillary techniques are cost-effective but complex to be implemented in small centres with limited experience in paediatric pathology. Therefore reference centres are essential, in order to establish teams with extensive experience and expertise. Hence, any child with a suspected malignancy should be directly referred to a paediatric oncology unit. Focusing on a practical approach to the assessment of paediatric lymphadenopathies and non-central nervous system solid tumours we review the effectiveness of FNB as applied concurrently with ancillary techniques in a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic decisions of paediatric tumours and tumour-like lesions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. On combining multi-normalization and ancillary measures for the optimal score level fusion of fingerprint and voice biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed Anzar, Sharafudeen Thaha; Sathidevi, Puthumangalathu Savithri

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we have considered the utility of multi-normalization and ancillary measures, for the optimal score level fusion of fingerprint and voice biometrics. An efficient matching score preprocessing technique based on multi-normalization is employed for improving the performance of the multimodal system, under various noise conditions. Ancillary measures derived from the feature space and the score space are used in addition to the matching score vectors, for weighing the modalities, based on their relative degradation. Reliability (dispersion) and the separability (inter-/intra-class distance and d-prime statistics) measures under various noise conditions are estimated from the individual modalities, during the training/validation stage. The `best integration weights' are then computed by algebraically combining these measures using the weighted sum rule. The computed integration weights are then optimized against the recognition accuracy using techniques such as grid search, genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization. The experimental results show that, the proposed biometric solution leads to considerable improvement in the recognition performance even under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions and reduces the false acceptance rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR), making the system useful for security as well as forensic applications.

  8. Nutrient-enhancement of Matooke banana for improved nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 173 PLHIVregistered with Rakai Health Science Project were chosen and interviewed using structured questionnaires to determine the current contribution of banana to the household food security. Nutrient intake data were collected using Gibson s 24-hour recall method and food frequency questionnaires.

  9. Effect of Processing Methods on the Nutrients and Anti Nutrients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    appropriate methods for retaining its nutrients and reducing to a moderate level, its antinutrients compositions. The leaves were subjected to different processing methods such as boiling for 3mins at 100oC, blanching at 62oC for 5mins, squeeze-washing with 250ml of clean water for 3 rounds each lasting 3mins, a combine ...

  10. Secure provision of reactive power ancillary services in competitive electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Samahy, Ismael

    decoupled and assumed to be fixed during the reactive power dispatch procedures; however, the effect of reactive power on real power is considered in the model by calculating the required reduction in real power output of a generator due to an increase in its reactive power supply. In this case, real power generation is allowed to be rescheduled, within given limits, from the already dispatched levels obtained from the energy market clearing process. The proposed dispatch model achieves the main objective of an ISO in a competitive electricity market, which is to provide the required reactive power support from generators at least cost while ensuring a secure operation of the power system. The proposed reactive power procurement and dispatch models capture both the technical and economic aspects of power system operation in competitive electricity markets; however, from an optimization point of view, these models represent non-convex mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) problems due to the presence of binary variables associated with the different regions of reactive power operation in a synchronous generator. Such MINLP optimization problems are difficult to solve, especially for an actual power system. A novel Generator Reactive Power Classification (GRPC) algorithm is proposed in this thesis to address this issue, with the advantage of iteratively solving the optimization models as a series of non-linear programming (NLP) sub-problems. The proposed reactive power procurement and dispatch models are implemented and tested on the CIGRE 32-bus system, with several case studies that represent different practical operating scenarios. The developed models are also compared with other approaches for reactive power provision, and the results demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed model. The results clearly reveal the main features of the proposed models for optimal provision of reactive power ancillary service, in order to suit the requirements of

  11. Scoping Study: Networked Microgrids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinklei, Eddy; Parker, Gordon; Weaver, Wayne; Robinett, Rush; Babe Gauchia, Lucia; Ten, Chee-Wooi; Bower, Ward; Glover, Steven F.; Bukowski, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This report presents a scoping study for networked microgrids which are defined as "Interoperable groups of multiple Advanced Microgrids that become an integral part of the electricity grid while providing enhanced resiliency through self-healing, aggregated ancillary services, and real-time communication." They result in optimal electrical system configurations and controls whether grid-connected or in islanded modes and enable high penetrations of distributed and renewable energy resources. The vision for the purpose of this document is: "Networked microgrids seamlessly integrate with the electricity grid or other Electric Power Sources (EPS) providing cost effective, high quality, reliable, resilient, self-healing power delivery systems." Scoping Study: Networked Microgrids September 4, 2014 Eddy Trinklein, Michigan Technological University Gordon Parker, Michigan Technological University Wayne Weaver, Michigan Technological University Rush Robinett, Michigan Technological University Lucia Gauchia Babe, Michigan Technological University Chee-Wooi Ten, Michigan Technological University Ward Bower, Ward Bower Innovations LLC Steve Glover, Sandia National Laboratories Steve Bukowski, Sandia National Laboratories Prepared by Michigan Technological University Houghton, Michigan 49931 Michigan Technological University

  12. Recycling nutrients in algae biorefinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Alba, Laura; Vos, M.P.; Torri, C.; Fabbri, D.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Algal fuel cells: Repeated nutrient recycling is demonstrated by reusing the aqueous phase obtained from the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae. This is achieved, for the first time, by performing a complete set of four continuous growth–HTL cycles. Results show similar growth rates in

  13. Nutrients for the aging eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmussen HM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Helen M Rasmussen,1 Elizabeth J Johnson2 1Educational Studies, Lesley University, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Carotenoid and Health Laboratory, Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The incidence of age-related eye diseases is expected to rise with the aging of the population. Oxidation and inflammation are implicated in the etiology of these diseases. There is evidence that dietary antioxidants and anti-inflammatories may provide benefit in decreasing the risk of age-related eye disease. Nutrients of interest are vitamins C and E, β-carotene, zinc, lutein, zeaxanthin, and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. While a recent survey finds that among the baby boomers (45–65 years old, vision is the most important of the five senses, well over half of those surveyed were not aware of the important nutrients that play a key role in eye health. This is evident from a national survey that finds that intake of these key nutrients from dietary sources is below the recommendations or guidelines. Therefore, it is important to educate this population and to create an awareness of the nutrients and foods of particular interest in the prevention of age-related eye disease. Keywords: nutrition, aging, eye health

  14. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  15. Ubiquitination In Plant Nutrient Utilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary eYates

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin is well established as a major modifier of signaling in eukaryotes. However the extent to which plants rely on ubiquitin for regulating nutrient uptake is still in its infancy. The main characteristic of ubiquitination is the conjugation of ubiquitin onto lysine residues of acceptor proteins. In most cases the targeted protein is rapidly degraded by the 26S proteasome, the major proteolysis machinery in eukaryotic cells. The Ubiquitin-Proteasome System is responsible for removing most abnormal peptides and short-lived cellular regulators, which, in turn, control many processes. This allows cells to respond rapidly to intracellular signals and changing environmental conditions. This perspective will discuss how plants utilize ubiquitin conjugation for sensing environmental nutrient levels. We will highlight recent advances in understanding how ubiquitin aids nutrient homeostasis by affecting the trafficking of membrane bound transporters. Given the overrepresentation of genes encoding ubiquitin-metabolizing enzymes in plants, intracellular signaling events regulated by ubiquitin that lead to transcriptional responses due to nutrient starvation is an under explored area ripe for new discoveries.

  16. Nutrient Management in Pine Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan E. Tiarks

    1999-01-01

    Coastal plain soils are naturally low in fertility and many pine stands will give an economic response to fertilization, especially phosphorus. Maintaining the nutrients that are on the site by limiting displacement of logging slash during and after the harvest can be important in maintaining the productivity of the site and reducing the amount of fertilizer required...

  17. Understanding Stoichiometric Controls in Nutrient Processing Along the River Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garayburu-Caruso, V. A.; Gonzalez-Pinzon, R.; Van Horn, D. J.; Covino, T. P.

    2016-12-01

    Eutrophication is the second most common cause of water impairment across the U.S. Nutrient retention in streams is controlled by physical and biochemical processes, including biomass availability and stoichiometric limitations. Decoupling the interactions between hydrology, nutrient supply and biogeochemical processes remains challenging for the scientific community due to lack of mechanistic understanding. Consequently, more knowledge regarding optimal controls for nutrient retention is needed to implement better management and restoration practices. We conducted column experiments to investigate how stoichiometric limitations influence nutrient spiraling in shallow sediment-water interactions along representative sites of the Jemez River-Rio Grande continuum (which spans eight stream orders), in New Mexico, USA. In each stream order we incubated six columns packed with different sediments (i.e., Silica Cone Density Sand ASTM D 1556 (0.075-2.00 mm), gravel (>2mm) and native sediments) from each site for three months. We performed two laboratory tracer experiments using columns of each substrate under identical flow conditions. In the first experiment we added a short-term pulse of reactive and conservative tracers (i.e. NaNO3 and NaBr). In the second experiment we added a short-term pulse of NaBr and nutrients following Redfield's ratio (106C:16N:1P). We estimated uptake kinetics using the Tracer Additions for Spiraling Curve Characterization (TASCC) method and evaluated how ideal stoichiometric conditions controlled efficient nutrient retention along fluvial networks. Our results suggest that biological uptake of nitrate is limited by nitrogen in headwater streams and by phosphorus and carbon in larger stream orders.

  18. Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium (NAIC) Administrative Matters and Ancillary Functions. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    institutions to add new faculty members, post -doctoral students and US graduate students specializing in AI. Some progress has been made and, in addition...graduate and post -doctoral (where applicable) students in their AI research programs, including an increase in the number of US students. Sane of...Suns BBN Butterfly Parallel Processor RPI: 2 Sun Workstations 3 PC-AT’s Network controller Imagen laser printer Image digitizer - - e.. Unix upgrade of

  19. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the 105-DR and 105-F Reactor facilities and ancillary facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenenberg, E.T.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the results of an engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) that was conducted to evaluate alternatives to address final disposition of the 105-DR and 105-F Reactor Buildings (subsequently referred to as facilities), including the fuel storage basins (FSB) and below-grade portions of the reactors, excluding the reactor blocks. The reactor blocks will remain in a safe storage mode for up to 75 years as identified in the Record the Decision (ROD) (58 FR 48509) for the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), Decommissioning of Eight Surplus Production Reactors at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington (DOE 1992a). This EE/CA also addresses final disposition of four ancillary facilities: 116-D and 116-DR Exhaust Air Stacks, 117-DR Exhaust Filter Building, and 119-DR Exhaust Air Sample Building. The 105-DR and 105-F facilities are located in the 100-D and 100-F Areas of the Hanford Site. In November 1989, the 100 Area of the Hanford Site was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). The 100 Area NPL includes the 100-D Area (which includes the 100-DR site) and the 100-F Area, which are in various stages of the remediation process. It has been determined by DOE that hazardous substances in the 105-DR, 105-F, and the four ancillary facilities may present a potential threat to human health or the environment, and that a non-time critical removal action at these facilities is warranted. To help determine the most appropriate action, DOE, in cooperation with the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the EPA, has prepared this EE/CA. The scope of the evaluation includes the 105-DR and 105-F facilities and the four ancillary facilities. The 116-DR and 117-DR facilities are located within the boundaries of the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) unit, which is

  20. SU-F-I-72: Evaluation of the Ancillary Lead Shielding for Optimizing Radiation Protection in the Interventional Radiology Department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkopi, E; Lightfoot, C [Dalhousie University, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Ctr, Halifax, NS (Canada); LeBlanc, E [Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Ctr, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The rising complexity of interventional fluoroscopic procedures has resulted in an increase of occupational radiation exposures in the interventional radiology (IR) department. This study assessed the impact of ancillary shielding on optimizing radiation protection for the IR staff. Methods: Scattered radiation measurements were performed in two IR suites equipped with Axiom Artis systems (Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) installed in 2006 and 2010. Both rooms had suspended ceiling-mounted lead-acrylic shields of 75×60 cm (Mavig, Munich, Germany) with lead equivalency of 0.5 mm, and under-table drapes of 70×116 cm and 65×70 cm in the newer and the older room respectively. The larger skirt can be wrapped around the table’s corner and in addition the newer suite had two upper shields of 25×55 cm and 25×35 cm. The patient was simulated by 30 cm of acrylic, air kerma rate (AKR) was measured with the 180cc ionization chamber (AccuPro Radcal Corporation, Monrovia, CA, USA) at different positions. The ancillary shields, x-ray tube, image detector, and table height were adjusted by the IR radiologist to simulate various clinical setups. The same exposure parameters were used for all acquisitions. AKR measurements were made at different positions relative to the operator. Results: The AKR measurements demonstrated 91–99% x-ray attenuation by the drapes in both suites. The smaller size of the under-table skirt and absence of the side-drapes in the older room resulted in a 20–50 fold increase of scattered radiation to the operator. The mobile suspended lead-acrylic shield reduced AKR by 90–94% measured at 150–170 cm height. The recommendations were made to replace the smaller under-table skirt and to use the ceiling-mounted shields for all IR procedures. Conclusion: The ancillary shielding may significantly affect radiation exposure to the IR staff. The use of suspended ceiling-mounted shields is especially important for reduction of

  1. Nutrient management for rice production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Chandra, D.; Nanda, P.; Singh, S.S.; Singh, S.R.; Ghorai, A.K.

    2002-06-01

    The nutrient removed by the crops far exceeds the amounts replenished through fertilizer, causing a much greater strain on the native soil reserves. The situation is further aggravated in countries like India, where sub-optimal fertilizer used by the farmers is a common phenomenon rather than an exception. The total consumption of nutrients of all crops in India, even though reached 15 million tons in 1997, remains much below the estimated nutrient removal of 25 million tons (Swarup and Goneshamurthy, 1998). The gap between nutrient removal supplied through fertilizer has widened further in 2000 to 34 million tons of plant nutrients from the soil against an estimated fertilizer availability of 18 million tons (Singh and Dwivedi, 1996). Nitrogen is the nutrient which limits the most the rice production worldwide. In Asia, where more than 90 percent of the world's rice is produced, about 60 percent of the N fertilizer consumed is used on rice (Stangel and De Dutta, 1985). Conjunctive use of organic material along with fertilizer has been proved an efficient source of nitrogen. Organic residue recycling is becoming an increasingly important aspect of environmentally sound sustainable agriculture. Returning residues like green manure to the soil is necessary for maintaining soil organic matter, which is important for favourable soil structure, soil water retention and soil microbial flora and fauna activities. Use of organic manures in conjunction or as an alternative to chemical fertilizer is receiving attention. Green manure, addition to some extent, helps not only in enhancing the yield but also in improving the physical and chemical nature of soils. The excessive application of chemical fertilizers made it imperative that a part of inorganic fertilizer may be substituted with the recycling of organic wastes. Organic manure has been recorded to enhance the efficiency and reduce the requirement of chemical fertilizers. Partial nitrogen substitution through organic

  2. Nutrient and energy recovery from urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntke, P.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: urine, urine treatment, nutrient recovery, microbial fuel cells, energy production from urine, membrane capacitive deionization. In conventional wastewater treatment plants large amounts of energy are required for the removal and recovery of nutrients (i.e. nitrogen and phosphorus).

  3. Nutrient supply of plants in aquaponic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Bittsanszky

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this preliminary article we present data on plant nutrient concentrations in aquaponics systems, and we compare them to nutrient concentrations in “standard” hydroponic solutions. Our data shows that the nutrient concentrations supplied by the fish in the aquaponics system are significantly lower for most nutrients compared to hydroponic systems. Nevertheless, plants do thrive in solutions that have lower nutrient levels compared to “standard” hydroponic solutions. This is especially true for green leafy vegetables that rarely need additional nutritional supplementation. It is concluded that in the highly complex system of aquaponics, special care has to be taken, via continuous monitoring of the chemical composition of the circulating water, to provide adequate concentrations and ratios of nutrients, and especially for the potentially toxic component, ammonium. If certain plants require nutrient supplementation, we consider that one based on organic substances would be most beneficial. However, protocols for the application of such nutrient amendments still need to be developed.

  4. Methodology and forecast products for the optimal offering of ancillary services from wind in a market environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Pinson, Pierre

    of wind power for example in the planning of ancillary power services, where the level of available wind power with a high degree of certainty is important to know. The presented extreme value models are applied to negative forecast residuals from state-of-the-art wind power forecast software...... of extreme weather induced phenomena, for example extreme water levels in a river, wind levels or at sea for design of dykes (de Haan and de Ronde, 1998). In insurance and finance the extreme value modelling is widespread (Embrechts et al., 1997). Extreme value statistics for energy and power applications...... is also widely used, for example for planning in wind power operation (Horvat et al., 2013) and peak wind prediction (Cook, 1982) and (Friederichs and Thorarinsdottir, 2012). Several books provide comprehensive introductions to extreme value theory, for example Coles (2001) and Beirlant et al. (2006...

  5. Climate policy and ancillary benefits. A survey and integration into the modelling of international negotiations on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittel, Karen; Ruebbelke, Dirk T.G.

    2008-01-01

    Currently informal and formal international negotiations on climate change take place in an intensive way since the Kyoto Protocol expires already in 2012. A post-Kyoto regulation to combat global warming is not yet stipulated. Due to rapidly increasing greenhouse-gas emission levels, industrialized countries urge major polluters from the developing world like China and India to participate in a future agreement. Whether these developing countries will do so, depends on the prevailing incentives to participate in international climate protection efforts. This paper identifies ancillary benefits of climate policy to provide important incentives to attend a new international protocol and to positively affect the likelihood of accomplishing a post-Kyoto agreement which includes commitments of developing countries. (author)

  6. Risk-constrained dynamic self-scheduling of a pumped-storage plant in the energy and ancillary service markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazempour, S. Jalal; Moghaddam, M. Parsa; Haghifam, M.R.; Yousefi, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    This work addresses a new framework for self-scheduling of an individual price-taker pumped-storage plant in a day-ahead (DA) market. The goal is achieving the best trade-off between the expected profit and the risks when the plant participates in DA energy, spinning reserve and regulation markets. In this paper, a set of uncertainties including price forecasting errors and also the uncertainty of power delivery requests in the ancillary service markets are contemplated. Considering these uncertainties, a new approach is proposed which is called dynamic self-scheduling (DSS). This risk-constrained dynamic self-scheduling problem is therefore formulated and solved as a mixed integer programming (MIP) problem. Numerical results for a case study are discussed. (author)

  7. Nutrient intake from food in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Susan L; Stewart, Patricia A; Schmidt, Brianne; Cain, Usa; Lemcke, Nicole; Foley, Jennifer T; Peck, Robin; Clemons, Traci; Reynolds, Ann; Johnson, Cynthia; Handen, Benjamin; James, S Jill; Courtney, Patty Manning; Molloy, Cynthia; Ng, Philip K

    2012-11-01

    The impact of abnormal feeding behaviors reported for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) on their nutritional status is unknown. We compared nutrient intake from food consumed by children with and without ASD and examined nutrient deficiency and excess. Prospective 3-day food records and BMI for children (2-11 years) with ASD participating in the Autism Treatment Network (Arkansas, Cincinnati, Colorado, Pittsburgh, and Rochester) were compared with both the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data and a matched subset based on age, gender, family income, and race/ethnicity (N = 252 analyzed food records). Children with ASD and matched controls consumed similar amounts of nutrients from food. Only children with ASD aged 4 to 8 years consumed significantly less energy, vitamins A and C, and the mineral Zn; and those 9 to 11 years consumed less phosphorous. A greater percentage of children with ASD met recommendations for vitamins K and E. Few children in either group met the recommended intakes for fiber, choline, calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K, and potassium. Specific age groups consumed excessive amounts of sodium, folate, manganese, zinc, vitamin A (retinol), selenium, and copper. No differences were observed in nutritional sufficiency of children given restricted diets. Children aged 2 to 5 years with ASD had more overweight and obesity, and children 5 to 11 years had more underweight. Children with ASD, like other children in America, consume less than the recommended amounts of certain nutrients from food. Primary care for all children should include nutritional surveillance and attention to BMI.

  8. Nutrient Sensing: Another Chemosensitivity of the Olfactory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A-Karyn Julliard

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Olfaction is a major sensory modality involved in real time perception of the chemical composition of the external environment. Olfaction favors anticipation and rapid adaptation of behavioral responses necessary for animal survival. Furthermore, recent studies have demonstrated that there is a direct action of metabolic peptides on the olfactory network. Orexigenic peptides such as ghrelin and orexin increase olfactory sensitivity, which in turn, is decreased by anorexigenic hormones such as insulin and leptin. In addition to peptides, nutrients can play a key role on neuronal activity. Very little is known about nutrient sensing in olfactory areas. Nutrients, such as carbohydrates, amino acids, and lipids, could play a key role in modulating olfactory sensitivity to adjust feeding behavior according to metabolic need. Here we summarize recent findings on nutrient-sensing neurons in olfactory areas and delineate the limits of our knowledge on this topic. The present review opens new lines of investigations on the relationship between olfaction and food intake, which could contribute to determining the etiology of metabolic disorders.

  9. Fisheries management under nutrient influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammarlund, Cecilia; Nielsen, Max; Waldo, Staffan

    2018-01-01

    A fisheries management model that identifies the economic optimal management of fisheries under the influence of nutrients is presented. The model starts from the idea that growth in fish biomass increases with increasing availability of nutrients owing to higher food availability up to a peak......, after which growth falls due to eutrophication. The model is applied to Swedish and Danish cod fisheries in the Western Baltic Sea and identifies the welfare contribution of the fisheries, measured as the sum of resource rent and producer surplus. In 2010, the welfare contribution was −28......% of the landing value. Maximizing the model with respect to effort alone and additionally over nitrogen concentration increases the contribution to 11% of the landing value in 2010. The analysis shows that the welfare effect of reducing fishing effort through management reforms is large, but that the effect...

  10. Automated nutrient analyses in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitledge, T.E.; Malloy, S.C.; Patton, C.J.; Wirick, C.D.

    1981-02-01

    This manual was assembled for use as a guide for analyzing the nutrient content of seawater samples collected in the marine coastal zone of the Northeast United States and the Bering Sea. Some modifications (changes in dilution or sample pump tube sizes) may be necessary to achieve optimum measurements in very pronounced oligotrophic, eutrophic or brackish areas. Information is presented under the following section headings: theory and mechanics of automated analysis; continuous flow system description; operation of autoanalyzer system; cookbook of current nutrient methods; automated analyzer and data analysis software; computer interfacing and hardware modifications; and trouble shooting. The three appendixes are entitled: references and additional reading; manifold components and chemicals; and software listings. (JGB)

  11. Different effort constructs and effort-reward imbalance: effects on employee well-being in ancillary health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vegchel, N; de Jonge, J; Meijer, T; Hamers, J P

    2001-04-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) and employee well-being, using three different concepts of efforts (i.e. psychological demands, physical demands and emotional demands). The ERI model had been used as a theoretical framework, indicating that work stress is related to high efforts (i.e. job demands) and low occupational rewards (e.g. money, esteem and security/career opportunities). The ERI model also predicts that, in overcommitted workers, effects of ERI on employee well-being are stronger compared with their less committed counterparts. A cross-sectional survey among 167 ancillary health care workers of two nursing homes was conducted. Multiple univariate logistic regression analyses were used to test the relationship between ERI and employee well-being. Results of the logistic regression analyses showed that employees with both high (psychological, physical and emotional) efforts and low rewards had higher risks of psychosomatic health complaints, physical health symptoms and job dissatisfaction (odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 5.09 to 18.55). Moreover, employees who reported both high efforts and high rewards had elevated risks of physical symptoms and exhaustion (ORs ranged from 6.17 to 9.39). No support was found for the hypothesis on the moderating effect of overcommitment. Results show some support for the ERI model; ancillary health care workers with high effort/low reward imbalance had elevated risks of poor employee well-being. In addition, results show that the combination of high efforts and high rewards is important for employee well-being. Finally, some practical implications are discussed to combat work stress in health care work.

  12. Development of an Asset Value Map for Disaster Risk Assessment in China by Spatial Disaggregation Using Ancillary Remote Sensing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jidong; Li, Ying; Li, Ning; Shi, Peijun

    2018-01-01

    The extent of economic losses due to a natural hazard and disaster depends largely on the spatial distribution of asset values in relation to the hazard intensity distribution within the affected area. Given that statistical data on asset value are collected by administrative units in China, generating spatially explicit asset exposure maps remains a key challenge for rapid postdisaster economic loss assessment. The goal of this study is to introduce a top-down (or downscaling) approach to disaggregate administrative-unit level asset value to grid-cell level. To do so, finding the highly correlated "surrogate" indicators is the key. A combination of three data sets-nighttime light grid, LandScan population grid, and road density grid, is used as ancillary asset density distribution information for spatializing the asset value. As a result, a high spatial resolution asset value map of China for 2015 is generated. The spatial data set contains aggregated economic value at risk at 30 arc-second spatial resolution. Accuracy of the spatial disaggregation reflects redistribution errors introduced by the disaggregation process as well as errors from the original ancillary data sets. The overall accuracy of the results proves to be promising. The example of using the developed disaggregated asset value map in exposure assessment of watersheds demonstrates that the data set offers immense analytical flexibility for overlay analysis according to the hazard extent. This product will help current efforts to analyze spatial characteristics of exposure and to uncover the contributions of both physical and social drivers of natural hazard and disaster across space and time. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. The role of liquid-based cytology and ancillary techniques in pleural and pericardic effusions: an institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Esther Diana; Bizzarro, Tommaso; Schmitt, Fernando; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar

    2015-04-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of serous membrane effusions may fulfil a challenging role in the diagnostic analysis of both primary and metastatic disease. From this perspective, liquid-based cytology (LBC) represents a feasible and reliable method for empowering the performance of ancillary techniques (ie, immunocytochemistry and molecular testing) with high diagnostic accuracy. In total, 3171 LBC pleural and pericardic effusions were appraised between January 2000 and December 2013. They were classified as negative for malignancy (NM), suspicious for malignancy (SM), or positive for malignancy (PM). The cytologic diagnoses included 2721 NM effusions (2505 pleural and 216 pericardic), 104 SM effusions (93 pleural and 11 pericardic), and 346 PM effusions (321 pleural and 25 pericardic). The malignant pleural series included 76 unknown malignancies (36 SM and 40 PM effusions), 174 metastatic lesions (85 SM and 89 PM effusions), 14 lymphomas (3 SM and 11 PM effusions), 16 mesotheliomas (5 SM and 11 SM effusions), and 3 myelomas (all SM effusions). The malignant pericardic category included 20 unknown malignancies (5 SM and 15 PM effusions), 15 metastatic lesions (1 SM and 14 PM effusions), and 1 lymphoma (1 PM effusion). There were 411 conclusive immunocytochemical analyses and 47 molecular analyses, and the authors documented 88% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 98% diagnostic accuracy, 98% negative predictive value, and 100% positive predictive value for FNAC. FNAC represents a primary diagnostic tool for effusions and a reliable approach with which to determine the correct follow-up. Furthermore, LBC is useful for ancillary techniques, such as immunocytochemistry and molecular analysis, with feasible diagnostic and predictive utility. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  14. The Role of Liquid Based Cytology and Ancillary Techniques in the Peritoneal Washing Analysis: Our Institutional Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Esther; Bizzarro, Tommaso; Martini, Maurizio; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Schmitt, Fernando; Fagotti, Anna; Scambia, Giovanni; Zannoni, Gian Franco

    2017-01-01

    Background The cytological analysis of peritoneal effusions serves as a diagnostic and prognostic aid for either primary or metastatic diseases. Among the different cytological preparations, liquid based cytology (LBC) represents a feasible and reliable method ensuring also the application of ancillary techniques (i.e immunocytochemistry-ICC and molecular testing). Methods We recorded 10348 LBC peritoneal effusions between January 2000 and December 2014. They were classified as non-diagnostic (ND), negative for malignancy-NM, atypical-suspicious for malignancy-SM and positive for malignancy-PM. Results The cytological diagnosis included 218 ND, 9.035 NM, 213 SM and 882 PM. A total of 8048 (7228 NM, 115SM, 705 PM) cases with histological follow-up were included. Our NM included 21 malignant and 7207 benign histological diagnoses. Our 820 SMs+PMs were diagnosed as 107 unknown malignancies (30SM and 77PM), 691 metastatic lesions (81SM and 610PM), 9 lymphomas (2SM and 7PM), 9 mesotheliomas (1SM and 8SM), 4 sarcomas (1SM and 3PM). Primary gynecological cancers contributed with 64% of the cases. We documented 97.4% sensitivity, 99.9% specificity, 98% diagnostic accuracy, 99.7% negative predictive value (NPV) and 99.7% positive predictive value (PPV). Furthermore, the morphological diagnoses were supported by either 173 conclusive ICC results or 50 molecular analyses. Specifically the molecular testing was performed for the EGFR and KRAS mutational analysis based on the previous or contemporary diagnoses of Non Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) and colon carcinomas. We identified 10 EGFR in NSCCL and 7 KRAS mutations on LBC stored material. Conclusions Peritoneal cytology is an adjunctive tool in the surgical management of tumors mostly gynecological cancers. LBC maximizes the application of ancillary techniques such as ICC and molecular analysis with feasible diagnostic and predictive yields also in controversial cases. PMID:28099523

  15. Novel phosphorescent cationic iridium(iii) complexes with o-carboranylation on the ancillary N^N ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Yin, Yongheng; Yan, Hong; Lu, Changsheng; Zhao, Qiang

    2017-08-14

    A novel series of heteroleptic iridium complexes with 2-phenyl-pyridine as a main ligand and carborane-functionalized 2,2'-bipyridine as an ancillary ligand were synthesized, and characterized as [Ir(ppy) 2 (By)]PF 6 (where ppy is 2-phenyl-pyridine, By is 5-(2-R-Cb)-2,2'-bipyridine, R = H (2a), CH 3 (2b), Ph (2c), iPr (2d) and iBu (2e), or By is 4-(2-R-Cb)-2,2'-bipyridine while R = H (3a), CH 3 (3b), Ph (3c), iPr (3d) and iBu (3e), Cb = o-carboran-1-yl). The R groups and the substitution sites of carborane on the pyridine ring have caused differences in the emission properties of these complexes. In addition, the quantum efficiency of [Ir(ppy) 2 (By)]PF 6 complexes has been tuned as well through the introduction of various 2-R-substituted o-carboranes into the ancillary ligand 2,2'-bipyridine, no matter in the solid state (from 0.12 to 0.25) or in solution (from 0.04 to 0.25). The emission color was tuned from yellow to red by the o-carboranyl unit because of its inductive effect. Density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations have been applied to investigate excited-state electronic structures of the newly synthesized complexes, which are consistent with the observed red-shift emissions.

  16. Ancillary Resistor Leads to Sparse Glitches: an Extra Approach to Avert Hacker Using Syndicate Browser Design

    OpenAIRE

    Pendlimarri, Devaki; Petlu, Paul Bharath Bhushan

    2012-01-01

    After the invention of internet most of the people all over the world have become a fan of it because of its vast exploitation for information exchange, e-mail, e-commerce etc. for their easy leading of life. On the other side, may be equally or less/more, many people are also using it for the purpose of hacking the information which is being communicated. Because, the data/information that is being communicated through the internet is via an unsecured networks. This gives breaches to the hac...

  17. Modeling global nutrient export from watersheds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, C.; Bouwman, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/090428048; Seitzinger, S.

    2012-01-01

    We describe how global models can be used to analyze past and future trends in nutrient export from watersheds and how such models can be used to analyze causes and effects of coastal eutrophication. Future nutrient inputs to coastal waters may be higher than today, and nutrient ratios may depart

  18. Benchmarking nutrient use efficiency of dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, W.; Groen, E.A.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Hennart, S.; Stilmant, D.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The nutrient use efficiency (NUE) of a system, generally computed as the amount of nutrients in valuable outputs over the amount of nutrients in all inputs, is commonly used to benchmark the environmental performance of dairy farms. Benchmarking the NUE of farms, however, may lead to biased

  19. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

  20. Spectral Quantitation Of Hydroponic Nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.; Kahle, Scott J.; Wilson, Monica A.; Boehlen, Michelle

    1996-01-01

    Instrument continuously monitors hydroponic solution by use of absorption and emission spectrometry to determine concentrations of principal nutrients, including nitrate, iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, and others. Does not depend on extraction and processing of samples, use of such surrograte parameters as pH or electrical conductivity for control, or addition of analytical reagents to solution. Solution not chemically altered by analysis and can be returned to hydroponic process stream after analysis.

  1. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feike Auke Dijkstra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizosphere priming itself can also affect nutrient supply to plants. These interactive effects may be of particular relevance in understanding the sustained increase in plant growth and nutrient supply in response to a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration. We examined how these interactions were affected by elevated CO2 in two similar semiarid grassland field studies. We found that an increase in rhizosphere priming enhanced the release of nitrogen (N through decomposition of a larger fraction of SOM in one study, but not in the other. We postulate that rhizosphere priming may enhance N supply to plants in systems that are N limited, but that rhizosphere priming may not occur in systems that are phosphorus (P limited. Under P limitation, rhizodeposition may be used for mobilisation of P, rather than for decomposition of SOM. Therefore, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, rhizosphere priming may play a larger role in affecting C sequestration in N poor than in P poor soils.

  2. Improvements in the in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy provided by an ancillary detector coupled to a Ge γ-spectrometer: the DIAMANT-EUROGAM II example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurer, J. N.; Aiche, M.; Aleonard, M. M.; Barreau, G.; Bourgine, F.; Boivin, D.; Cabaussel, D.; Chemin, J. F.; Doan, T. P.; Goudour, J. P.; Harston, M.; Brondi, A.; La Rana, G.; Moro, R.; Vardaci, E.; Curien, D.

    1997-02-01

    For the first time the 4π γ-ray spectrometer EUROGAM II has been coupled to a 4π light charged particle detector array, DIAMANT, during a test experiment on the reaction 32S + 58Ni at 120 MeV beam energy. A very large improvement in the peak-to-background ratio of the γ-spectra has been found when EUROGAM II is triggered by DIAMANT to select an exit channel. A simple algebra has been developed which provides theoretical estimates in good agreement with these experimental results. It is demonstrated that, depending on both the γ-spectrometer and ancillary detector performances, much better peak-to-background can be obtained by such a coupling. For the same peak-to-background ratio, the use of an ancillary detector allows for a lower γ-ray coincidence level and therefore improves the statistics. Ways to select the most appropriate ancillary detector are given. The ability of the ancillary detector to provide a total Doppler shift correction is crucial for the improvement of the peak-to-background ratio.

  3. Prediction of spatial soil property information from ancillary sensor data using ordinary linear regression: Model derivations, residual assumptions and model validation tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geospatial measurements of ancillary sensor data, such as bulk soil electrical conductivity or remotely sensed imagery data, are commonly used to characterize spatial variation in soil or crop properties. Geostatistical techniques like kriging with external drift or regression kriging are often use...

  4. NUTRIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Hedrick, VE; Passaro, EM; Davy, BM; You, W; Zoellner, JM

    2017-01-01

    Few data assessing non-nutritive sweetener (NNS) intake are available, especially within rural, health-disparate populations, where obesity and related co-morbidities are prevalent. The objective of this study is to characterize NNS intake for this population and examine the variance in demographics, cardio-metabolic outcomes, and dietary intake between NNS consumers and non-consumers. A cross-sectional sample (n = 301) of Virginian adults from a randomized controlled trial (data collected fr...

  5. Sensitivity analysis of a pulse nutrient addition technique for estimating nutrient uptake in large streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence Lin; J.R. Webster

    2012-01-01

    The constant nutrient addition technique has been used extensively to measure nutrient uptake in streams. However, this technique is impractical for large streams, and the pulse nutrient addition (PNA) has been suggested as an alternative. We developed a computer model to simulate Monod kinetics nutrient uptake in large rivers and used this model to evaluate the...

  6. Modeling farm nutrient flows in the North China Plain to reduce nutrient losses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Zhanqing; Bai, Zhaohai; Wei, Sha; Ma, Wenqi; Wang, Mengru; Kroeze, Carolien; Ma, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Years of poor nutrient management practices in the agriculture industry in the North China Plain have led to large losses of nutrients to the environment, causing severe ecological consequences. Analyzing farm nutrient flows is urgently needed in order to reduce nutrient losses. A farm-level

  7. Controls of event-based nutrient transport within nested headwater agricultural watersheds of the western Lake Erie basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mark R.; Livingston, Stanley J.; Penn, Chad J.; Smith, Douglas R.; King, Kevin W.; Huang, Chi-hua

    2018-04-01

    Understanding the processes controlling nutrient delivery in headwater agricultural watersheds is essential for predicting and mitigating eutrophication and harmful algal blooms in receiving surface waters. The objective of this study was to elucidate nutrient transport pathways and examine key components driving nutrient delivery processes during storm events in four nested agricultural watersheds (298-19,341 ha) in the western Lake Erie basin with poorly drained soils and an extensive artificial drainage network typical of the Midwestern U.S. Concentration-discharge hysteresis patterns of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), and particulate phosphorus (PP) occurring during 47 storm events over a 6 year period (2004-2009) were evaluated. An assessment of the factors producing nutrient hysteresis was completed following a factor analysis on a suite of measured environmental variables representing the fluvial and wider watershed conditions prior to, and during the monitored storm events. Results showed the artificial drainage network (i.e., surface tile inlets and subsurface tile drains) in these watersheds was the primary flow pathway for nutrient delivery to streams, but nutrient behavior and export during storm events was regulated by the flow paths to and the intensity of the drainage network, the availability of nutrients, and the relative contributions of upland and in-stream nutrient sources. Potential sources and flow pathways for transport varied among NO3-N, PP, and DRP with results underscoring the challenge of mitigating nutrient loss in these watersheds. Conservation practices addressing both nutrient management and hydrologic connectivity will likely be required to decrease nutrient loss in artificially drained landscapes.

  8. Nutrient Management in Recirculating Hydroponic Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugbee, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing need to recirculate and reuse nutrient solutions in order to reduce environmental and economic costs. However, one of the weakest points in hydroponics is the lack of information on managing the nutrient solution. Many growers and research scientists dump out nutrient solutions and refill at weekly intervals. Other authors have recommended measuring the concentrations of individual nutrients in solution as a key to nutrient control and maintenance. Dumping and replacing solution is unnecessary. Monitoring ions in solution is not always necessary; in fact the rapid depletion of some nutrients often causes people to add toxic amounts of nutrients to the solution. Monitoring ions in solution is interesting, but it is not the key to effective maintenance.

  9. Nutrient management strategies on Dutch dairy farms: an empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ondersteijn, C.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Key Words: MINAS; nitrogen surplus; phosphate surplus; nutrient efficiency; nutrient productivity; financial consequences; strategic management; perceived environmental uncertainty; nutrient management planning; dairy farming; The Netherlands.

    Agricultural nutrients are a

  10. Insects, infestations and nutrient fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalzik, B.

    2012-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are characterized by a high temporal and spatial variability in the vertical transfer of energy and matter within the canopy and the soil compartment. The mechanisms and controlling factors behind canopy processes and system-internal transfer dynamics are imperfectly understood at the moment. Seasonal flux diversities and inhomogeneities in throughfall composition have been reported from coniferous and deciduous forests, and in most cases leaf leaching has been considered as principle driver for differences in the amount and quality of nutrients and organic compounds (Tukey and Morgan 1963). Since herbivorous insects and the processes they initiate received less attention in past times, ecologists now emphasize the need for linking biological processes occurring in different ecosystem strata to explain rates and variability of nutrient cycling (Bardgett et al. 1998, Wardle et al. 2004). Consequently, herbivore insects in the canopies of forests are increasingly identified to play an important role for the (re)cycling and availability of nutrients, or, more generally, for the functioning of ecosystems not only in outbreak situations but also at endemic (non-outbreak) density levels (Stadler et al. 2001, Hunter et al. 2003). Before, little attention was paid to insect herbivores when quantifying element and energy fluxes through ecosystems, although the numerous and different functions insects fulfill in ecosystems (e.g. as pollinators, herbivores or detritivores) were unanimously recognized (Schowalter 2000). Amongst the reasons for this restraint was the argument that the total biomass of insects tends to be relatively low compared to the biomass of trees or the pool of soil organic matter (Ohmart et al. 1983). A second argument which was put forward to justify the inferior role of insects in nutrient cycling were the supposed low defoliation losses between 5-10% of the annual leaf biomass, or net primary production, due to insect herbivory under

  11. Nutrientes minerales en alimentos industrializados

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández F., Eloisa; Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Quispe, Clara; Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Alencastre M., Ana; Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.

    2014-01-01

    Hasta el momento los alimentos industrializados que se consumen en nuestro medio aún no han sido estudiados por su contenido de nutrientes minerales. Se presenta los contenidos de fósforo, calcio, hierro, sodio, potasio, cobre y magnesio en 33 alimentos de procedencia nacional e importados. El 70% de estos alimentos son preferentemente consumidos por niños. Se ha empleado métodos oficiales de A.O.A.C.: para fósforo el método colorimétrico, los otros minerales mediante Absorción Atómica, Espec...

  12. Digital data used to relate nutrient inputs to water quality in the Chesapeake Bay watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakebill, John W.; Preston, Stephen D.

    1999-01-01

    Digital data sets were compiled by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) and used as input for a collection of Spatially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes for the Chesapeake Bay region. These regressions relate streamwater loads to nutrient sources and the factors that affect the transport of these nutrients throughout the watershed. A digital segmented network based on watershed boundaries serves as the primary foundation for spatially referencing total nitrogen and total phosphorus source and land-surface characteristic data sets within a Geographic Information System. Digital data sets of atmospheric wet deposition of nitrate, point-source discharge locations, land cover, and agricultural sources such as fertilizer and manure were created and compiled from numerous sources and represent nitrogen and phosphorus inputs. Some land-surface characteristics representing factors that affect the transport of nutrients include land use, land cover, average annual precipitation and temperature, slope, and soil permeability. Nutrient input and land-surface characteristic data sets merged with the segmented watershed network provide the spatial detail by watershed segment required by the models. Nutrient stream loads were estimated for total nitrogen, total phosphorus, nitrate/nitrite, amonium, phosphate, and total suspended soilds at as many as 109 sites within the Chesapeake Bay watershed. The total nitrogen and total phosphorus load estimates are the dependent variables for the regressions and were used for model calibration. Other nutrient-load estimates may be used for calibration in future applications of the models.

  13. Incorporating hydrologic variability into nutrient spiraling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Martin W.

    2005-09-01

    Nutrient spiraling describes the path of a nutrient molecule within a stream ecosystem, combining the biochemical cycling processes with the downstream driving force of stream discharge. To date, nutrient spiraling approaches have been hampered by their inability to deal with fluctuating flows, as most studies have characterized nutrient retention within only a small range of discharges near base flow. Here hydrologic variability is incorporated into nutrient spiraling theory by drawing on the fluvial geomorphic concept of effective discharge. The effective discharge for nutrient retention is proposed to be that discharge which, over long periods of time, is responsible for the greatest portion of nutrient retention. A developed analytical model predicts that the effective discharge for nutrient retention will equal the modal discharge for small streams or those with little discharge variability. As modal discharge increases or discharge variability increases, the effective discharge becomes increasingly less than the modal discharge. In addition to the effective discharge, a new metric is proposed, the functionally equivalent discharge, which is the single discharge that will reproduce the magnitude of nutrient retention generated by the full hydrologic frequency distribution when all discharge takes place at that rate. The functionally equivalent discharge was found to be the same as the modal discharge at low hydrologic variability, but increasingly different from the modal discharge at large hydrologic variability. The functionally equivalent discharge provides a simple quantitative means of incorporating hydrologic variability into long-term nutrient budgets.

  14. The influence of different cyclometalated ligand substituents and ancillary ligand on the phosphorescent properties of iridium(III) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qing; Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xin; Wang, Li, E-mail: chemwangl@henu.edu.cn; Zhang, Jinglai, E-mail: zhangjinglai@henu.edu.cn

    2016-07-01

    Four iridium(III) complexes, (dfpmpy){sub 2}Ir(pic), (1), (dfpmpy){sub 2}Ir(EO{sub 2}-pic) (2), (dfpmpy){sub 2}Ir(pic-N-O) (3), and (dfpmpy){sub 2}Ir(EO{sub 2}-pic-N-O) (4) (dfpmpy = 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-4-methylpyridine, pic = picolinic acid, EO{sub 2}-pic = 4-(2-ethoxyethoxy) picolinic acid, pic-N-O = picolinic acid N-oxide, and EO{sub 2}-pic-N-O = 4-(2-ethoxyethoxy) picolinic acid N-oxide) are investigated by means of the density functional theory/time-dependent density functional theory (DFT/TD-DFT) to explore the influence of the ancillary ligand on the electronic structures, phosphorescent properties, and organic light-emitting diode (OLED) performance. Employing pic-N-O and EO{sub 2}-pic-N-O as the ancillary ligands would decrease the vertical energy and result in the red-shifted wavelength. Then, other four iridium(III) complexes (2a-2d) (See Scheme 1) are designed by introduction of the phenyl and −CHO substituents on the pyridine ring and phenyl ring of complex 2, respectively. As compared with complex 2, theoretical results show that newly designed complexes 2a-2c might be potential candidates for blue-emitting phosphors with better/comparable quantum yield and Δλ. Moreover, the performance of complexes 2a and 2c, i.e., introducing phenyl on the para-position of pyridine ring and phenyl ring in dfpmpy ligand, are better than that of 2b. - Highlights: • The structure-property relationship of Ir(III) complexes are investigated. • The effect of different substituents/positions on properties is explored. • Do the emissions follow the Kasha or non-Kasha scenario? • Newly possible blue-emitting Ir(III) complexes are theoretically designed.

  15. Trends in OSHA Compliance Monitoring Data 1979-2011: Statistical Modeling of Ancillary Information across 77 Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarazin, Philippe; Burstyn, Igor; Kincl, Laurel; Lavoué, Jérôme

    2016-05-01

    The Integrated Management Information System (IMIS) is the largest multi-industry source of exposure measurements available in North America. However, many have suspected that the criteria through which worksites are selected for inspection are related to exposure levels. We investigated associations between exposure levels and ancillary variables in IMIS in order to understand the predictors of high exposure within an enforcement context. We analyzed the association between nine variables (reason for inspection, establishment size, total amount of penalty, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) plan, OSHA region, union status, inspection scope, year, and industry) and exposure levels in IMIS using multimodel inference for 77 agents. For each agent, we used two different types of models: (i) logistic models were used for the odds ratio (OR) of exposure being above the threshold limit value (TLV) and (ii) linear models were used for exposure concentrations restricted to detected results to estimate percent increase in exposure level, i.e. relative index of exposure (RIE). Meta-analytic methods were used to combine results for each variable across agents. A total of 511,047 exposure measurements were modeled for logistic models and 299,791 for linear models. Higher exposures were measured during follow-up inspections than planned inspections [meta-OR = 1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.44-1.81; meta-RIE = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.03-1.09]. Lower exposures were observed for measurements collected under state OSHA plans compared to measurements collected under federal OSHA (meta-OR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.73-0.92; meta-RIE = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.81-0.91). A 'high' total historical amount of penalty relative to none was associated with higher exposures (meta-OR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.40-1.71; meta-RIE = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.13-1.23). The relationships observed between exposure levels and ancillary variables across a vast majority of agents suggest that certain elements of OSHA

  16. Continental-scale effects of nutrient pollution on stream ecosystem functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Guy; Gessner, Mark O; Giller, Paul S; Gulis, Vladislav; Hladyz, Sally; Lecerf, Antoine; Malmqvist, Björn; McKie, Brendan G; Tiegs, Scott D; Cariss, Helen; Dobson, Mike; Elosegi, Arturo; Ferreira, Verónica; Graça, Manuel A S; Fleituch, Tadeusz; Lacoursière, Jean O; Nistorescu, Marius; Pozo, Jesús; Risnoveanu, Geta; Schindler, Markus; Vadineanu, Angheluta; Vought, Lena B-M; Chauvet, Eric

    2012-06-15

    Excessive nutrient loading is a major threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide that leads to profound changes in aquatic biodiversity and biogeochemical processes. Systematic quantitative assessment of functional ecosystem measures for river networks is, however, lacking, especially at continental scales. Here, we narrow this gap by means of a pan-European field experiment on a fundamental ecosystem process--leaf-litter breakdown--in 100 streams across a greater than 1000-fold nutrient gradient. Dramatically slowed breakdown at both extremes of the gradient indicated strong nutrient limitation in unaffected systems, potential for strong stimulation in moderately altered systems, and inhibition in highly polluted streams. This large-scale response pattern emphasizes the need to complement established structural approaches (such as water chemistry, hydrogeomorphology, and biological diversity metrics) with functional measures (such as litter-breakdown rate, whole-system metabolism, and nutrient spiraling) for assessing ecosystem health.

  17. Nutrient Control of Yeast Gametogenesis Is Mediated by TORC1, PKA and Energy Availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilla Weidberg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cell fate choices are tightly controlled by the interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic signals, and gene regulatory networks. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the decision to enter into gametogenesis or sporulation is dictated by mating type and nutrient availability. These signals regulate the expression of the master regulator of gametogenesis, IME1. Here we describe how nutrients control IME1 expression. We find that protein kinase A (PKA and target of rapamycin complex I (TORC1 signalling mediate nutrient regulation of IME1 expression. Inhibiting both pathways is sufficient to induce IME1 expression and complete sporulation in nutrient-rich conditions. Our ability to induce sporulation under nutrient rich conditions allowed us to show that respiration and fermentation are interchangeable energy sources for IME1 transcription. Furthermore, we find that TORC1 can both promote and inhibit gametogenesis. Down-regulation of TORC1 is required to activate IME1. However, complete inactivation of TORC1 inhibits IME1 induction, indicating that an intermediate level of TORC1 signalling is required for entry into sporulation. Finally, we show that the transcriptional repressor Tup1 binds and represses the IME1 promoter when nutrients are ample, but is released from the IME1 promoter when both PKA and TORC1 are inhibited. Collectively our data demonstrate that nutrient control of entry into sporulation is mediated by a combination of energy availability, TORC1 and PKA activities that converge on the IME1 promoter.

  18. Nutrients in ground water and surface water of the United States; an analysis of data through 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, D.K.; Hamilton, P.A.; Helsel, D.R.; Hitt, K.J.; Ruddy, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    Historical data on nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus species) concentrations in ground-and surface-water samples were compiled from 20 study units of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program and 5 supplemental study areas. The resultant national retrospective data sets contained analyses of about 12,000 Found-water and more than 22,000 surface-water samples. These data were interpreted on regional and national scales by relating the distributions of nutrient concentrations to ancillary data, such as land use, soil characteristics, and hydrogeology, provided by local study-unit personnel. The information provided in this report on environmental factors that affect nutrient concentrations in ground and surface water can be used to identify areas of the Nation where the vulnerability to nutrient contamination is greatest. Nitrate was the nutrient of greatest concern in the historical ground-water data. It is the only nutrient that is regulated by a national drinking-water standard. Nitrate concentrations were significantly different in ground water affected by various land uses. Concentrations in about 16 percent of the samples collected in agricultural areas exceeded the drinking-water standard. However, the standard was exceeded in only about 1 percent of samples collected from public-supply wells. A variety of ancillary factors had significant relations to nitrate concentrations in ground water beneath agricultural areas. Concentrations generally were highest within 100 feet of the land surface. They were also higher in areas where soil and geologic characteristics promoted rapid movement of water to the aquifer. Elevated concentrations commonly occurred in areas underlain by permeable materials, such as carbonate bedrock or unconsolidated sand and gravel, and where soils are generally well drained. In areas where water movement is impeded, denitrification might lead to low concentrations of nitrate in the ground water. Low concentrations were also

  19. Managing urban nutrient biogeochemistry for sustainable urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Gibson, Valerie; Cui, Shenghui; Yu, Chang-Ping; Chen, Shaohua; Ye, Zhilong; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2014-09-01

    Urban ecosystems are unique in the sense that human activities are the major drivers of biogeochemical processes. Along with the demographic movement into cities, nutrients flow towards the urban zone (nutrient urbanization), causing the degradation of environmental quality and ecosystem health. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of nutrient cycling within the urban ecosystem compared to natural ecosystems. The dynamic process of nutrient urbanization is then explored taking Xiamen city, China, as an example to examine the influence of rapid urbanization on food sourced nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism. Subsequently, the concept of a nutrient footprint and calculation method is introduced from a lifecycle perspective. Finally, we propose three system approaches to mend the broken biogeochemical cycling. Our study will contribute to a holistic solution which achieves synergies between environmental quality and food security, by integrating technologies for nutrient recovery and waste reduction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Methane productivity and nutrient recovery from manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, H.B.

    2003-07-01

    The efficient recovery of energy and improvements in the handling of nutrients from manure have attracted increased research focus during recent decades. Anaerobic digestion is a key process in any strategy for the recovery of energy, while slurry separation is an important component in an improved nutrient-handling strategy. This thesis is divided into two parts: the first deals mainly with nutrient recovery strategies and the second examines biological degradation processes, including controlled anaerobic digestion. (au)

  1. Scaling laws in phytoplankton nutrient uptake affinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemann, Christian; Fiksen, Øyvind; Andersen, Ken Haste

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient uptake affinity affects the competitive ability of microbial organisms at low nutrient concentrations. From the theory of diffusion limitation it follows that uptake affinity scales linearly with the cell radius. This is in conflict with some observations suggesting that uptake affinity...... scales to a quantity that is closer to the square of the radius, i.e. to cell surface area. We show that this apparent conflict can be resolved by nutrient uptake theory. Pure diffusion limitation assumes that the cell is a perfect sink which means that it is able to absorb all encountered nutrients...

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of Perceived Ethnic Discrimination in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Morales, Leticia; Roesch, Scott C; Gallo, Linda C; Emory, Kristen T; Molina, Kristine M; Gonzalez, Patricia; Penedo, Frank J; Navas-Nacher, Elena L; Teng, Yanping; Deng, Yu; Isasi, Carmen R; Schneiderman, Neil; Brondolo, Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Empirical studies examining perceived ethnic discrimination in Latinos of diverse background groups are limited. This study examined prevalence and correlates of discrimination in a diverse sample of U.S. Latinos (N=5,291) from the multi-site Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) and HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study. The sample permitted an examination of differences across seven groups (Central American, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South American, and Other/Multiple Background). Most participants (79.5%) reported lifetime discrimination exposure and prevalence rates ranged from 64.9% to 98% across groups. Structural Equation Models (SEM) indicated that after adjusting for sociodemographic covariates most group differences in reports of discrimination were eliminated. However, Cubans reported the lowest levels of discrimination, overall among all groups. Furthermore, regional effects were more important than group effects. Participants from Chicago reported the highest levels of discrimination in comparison to other regions. Group differences among Latinos appear to be primarily a function of sociodemographic differences in education, income, and acculturation. In addition, differences in exposure to discrimination may be tied to variables associated with both immigration patterns and integration to U.S. culture. Results highlight the importance of considering historical context and the intersection of discrimination and immigration when evaluating the mental health of Latinos.

  3. Assistance in chemistry and chemical processes related to primary, secondary and ancillary systems of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chocron, Mauricio A.; Becquart, Elena T.; Iglesias, Alberto M.; La Gamma, Ana M.; Villegas, Marina

    2003-01-01

    Argentina is currently running two nuclear power plants: Atucha I (CNA I) and Embalse (CNE) operated by Nucleoelectrica Argentina (NASA) whereas the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), among other activities, is responsible for research and development in the nuclear field, operates research reactors and carries out projects related to them. In particular, the Reactor Chemistry Section personnel (currently part of the Chemistry Dept.) has been working on the field of reactor water chemistry for more than 25 years, on research and support to the NPPs chemistry department. Though the most relevant tasks have been connected to primary and secondary circuits chemistry, ancillary systems show along the time unexpected problems or feasible improvements originated in the undergoing operating time as well as in phenomena not foreseen by the constructors. In the present paper are presented the tasks performed in relation to the following systems of Embalse NPP: 1) Heavy water upgrade column preliminary water treatment; 2) Liquid waste system preliminary water treatment; and 3) Primary heat transport system coolant crud composition. (author)

  4. Psychosocial Factors in the Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Cardiometabolic Risk: the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurley, Jessica L; Penedo, Frank; Roesch, Scott C; Isasi, Carmen R; Carnethon, Mercedes; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Schneiderman, Neil; Gonzalez, Patricia; Chirinos, Diana A; Camacho, Alvaro; Teng, Yanping; Gallo, Linda C

    2017-08-01

    U.S. Hispanics/Latinos display a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), a group of co-occurring cardiometabolic risk factors (abdominal obesity, impaired fasting glucose, dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure) associated with higher cardiovascular disease and mortality risk. Low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with higher risk for MetSyn in Hispanics/Latinos, and psychosocial factors may play a role in this relationship. This cross-sectional study examined psychosocial factors in the association of SES and MetSyn components in 4,996 Hispanic/Latino adults from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Sociocultural Ancillary Study. MetSyn components were measured at the baseline examination. Participants completed interviews to determine psychosocial risks (e.g., depression) and resources (e.g., social support) within 9 months of baseline (psychosocial indicators, and three factors for MetSyn [blood pressure, lipids, metabolic factors]. SEMs showed that lower SES was related to MetSyn factors indirectly through higher psychosocial risk/lower resources (Y-Bχ 2 (df = 420) = 4412.90, p risk (glucose/waist circumference) via psychosocial risk/resource variables (Mackinnon's 95% asymmetric CI = -0.13 to -0.02). SES is related to metabolic variables indirectly through psychosocial factors in U.S. Hispanics/Latinos of diverse ancestries.

  5. 30+ New & Known SB2s in the SDSS-III/APOGEE M Dwarf Ancillary Science Project Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Jacob; Covey, Kevin; Bender, Chad; De Lee, Nathan Michael; Chojnowski, Drew; Troup, Nicholas; Badenes, Carles; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Terrien, Ryan

    2018-01-01

    Close stellar binaries can drive dynamical interactions that affect the structure and evolution of planetary systems. Binary surveys indicate that the multiplicity fraction and typical orbital separation decrease with primary mass, but correlations with higher order architectural parameters such as the system's mass ratio are less well constrained. We seek to identify and characterize double-lined spectroscopic binaries (SB2s) among the 1350 M dwarf ancillary science targets with APOGEE spectra in the SDSS-III Data Release 13. We quantitatively measure the degree of asymmetry in the APOGEE pipeline cross-correlation functions (CCFs), and use those metrics to identify a sample of 44 high-likelihood candidate SB2s. Extracting radial velocities (RVs) for both binary components from the CCF, we then measure mass ratios for 31 SB2s; we also use Bayesian techniques to fit orbits for 4 systems with 8 or more distinct APOGEE observations. The (incomplete) mass ratio distribution of this sample rises quickly towards unity. Two-sided Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) tests find probabilities of 13.8% and 14.2% that the M dwarf mass ratio distribution is consistent with those measured by Pourbaix et al. (2004) and Fernandez et al. (2017), respectively. The samples analyzed by Pourbaix et al. and Fernandez et al. are dominated by higher-mass solar type stars; this suggests that the mass ratio distribution of close binaries is not strongly dependent on primary mass.

  6. Engineering evaluation cost analysis for the 100-B/C area ancillary facilities at the 108-F Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    In 1995, the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) conducted a removal site evaluation of selected facilities in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site in accordance with CERCLA and 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 300.410. The scope of the evaluation included the aboveground portions of the 108-F Biology Laboratory in the 100-F Area and all inactive ancillary buildings and structures in the 100-B/C Area, excluding the reactor building and the river outfall. Based on the evaluation, RL determined that hazardous substances in the 108-F Biology Laboratory and five of the 100-B/C Area facilities may present a potential threat to human health or the environment, and that a non-time critical removal action at these facilities is warranted. This determination was documented in an engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) approval memorandum. The EE/CA approval memorandum is the basis on which to proceed with the performance of an EE/CA to determine the appropriate removal action. This report presents the results of the EE/CA for removal alternatives for final disposition of these six facilities. The EE/CA was conducted pursuant to the requirements of CERCLA and 40 CFR 300.415 and is intended to aid RL and the EPA in selecting a preferred removal action

  7. Chronic stress, inflammation, and glucose regulation in U.S. Hispanics from the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurley, Jessica L; Mills, Paul J; Roesch, Scott C; Carnethon, Mercedes; Giacinto, Rebeca E; Isasi, Carmen R; Teng, Yanping; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Llabre, Maria M; Penedo, Frank J; Schneiderman, Neil; Gallo, Linda C

    2015-08-01

    Diabetes prevalence is rising rapidly, and diabetes disproportionately affects Hispanics and other underserved groups. Chronic stress may contribute to diabetes risk, but few studies have examined this relationship in U.S. Hispanics. We examined associations of chronic stress with fasting glucose, glucose tolerance, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in Hispanics without diabetes, and also assessed indirect effects of stress through inflammation (CRP). Participants were 3,923 men and women, aged 18-74, without diabetes, from the four U.S. field centers (Bronx, NY; Chicago, IL; Miami, FL; San Diego, CA) of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Sociocultural Ancillary study. Participants completed a measure of chronic life stress and a physical exam with oral glucose tolerance test. In a multivariate regression analysis with adjustment for demographic and health covariates, higher chronic stress was related to higher fasting glucose (standardized regression coefficient: β = .09, p stress through inflammation. Findings suggest that higher chronic stress is associated with poorer glucose regulation in Hispanics, prior to the onset of a clinical diabetes diagnosis. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  8. Hostility and quality of life among Hispanics/Latinos in the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncrieft, Ashley E.; Llabre, Maria M.; Gallo, Linda C.; Cai, Jianwen; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Gonzalez, Patricia; Ostrovsky, Natania W.; Schneiderman, Neil; Penedo, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine if hostility is associated with physical and mental health-related quality of life (QoL) in U.S. Hispanics/Latinos after accounting for depression and anxiety. Methods Analyses included 5,313 adults (62% women, 18–75 years) who completed the ancillary sociocultural assessment of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Participants completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, Spielberger Trait Anxiety Scale, Spielberger Trait Anger Scale, Cook-Medley Hostility cynicism subscale, and Short Form Health Survey. In a structural regression model, associations of hostility with mental and physical QoL were examined. Results In a model adjusting for age, sex, disease burden, income, education and years in the U.S., hostility was related to worse mental QoL, and was marginally associated with worse physical QoL. However, when adjusting for the influence of depression and anxiety, greater hostility was associated with better mental QoL, and was not associated with physical QoL. Conclusions Results indicate observed associations between hostility and QoL are confounded by symptoms of anxiety and depression, and suggest hostility is independently associated with better mental QoL in this population. Findings also highlight the importance of differentiating shared and unique associations of specific emotions with health outcomes. PMID:27456582

  9. Proposal for the award of an industrial services contract for operation of the hostels, apartments and ancillary premises

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This document concerns the award of an Industrial Services contract for operation of the hostels, apartments and ancillary premises run by the CERN Housing Service. Following a market survey carried out among 32 firms in ten Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2404/AS/Rev.) was sent on 5 April 2000 to one firm and three consortia in four Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received tenders from the firm and the three consortia. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium VIENNA INTERNATIONAL HOTEL MANAGEMENT (AT) - SEREG (CH), the lowest bidder, for an initial period of five years, to enter into force on 1 January 2001, for a total amount of 6 871 850 Swiss francs, not subject to revision until 31 December 2001. The contract will include an option for two one-year extensions beyond the initial five-year period. The consortium has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: CH-60%, AT-...

  10. Effect of exercise training on clot strength in patients with peripheral artery disease and intermittent claudication: An ancillary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauer, Karin; Exaire, J Emilio; Stoner, Julie A; Saucedo, Jorge F; Montgomery, Polly S; Gardner, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    Patients with peripheral artery disease have walking impairment, greater thrombotic risk, and are often treated with exercise training. We sought to determine the effect of a 3-month-long exercise program on clot strength among patients with peripheral artery disease and intermittent claudication. Twenty-three symptomatic peripheral artery disease patients were randomly assigned to a walking exercise program or to an attention control group who performed light resistance exercise. We investigated the effect of exercise training on clot strength and time to clot formation was assessed by thromboelastography. After 3 months of exercise, clot strength (maximal amplitude) and time to clot formation (R) did not change significantly from baseline, even after improvements in claudication onset time (p < 0.01) and peak walking time (p < 0.05). Furthermore, changes in clot formation parameters were not significantly different between groups. Among the 10 individuals demonstrating a reduction in clot strength (reduced maximal amplitude), one was a smoker (10%) compared to 9 of 13 non-responders (69%) whose maximal amplitude was unchanged or increased (p = 0.0097). In this ancillary study, a 12-week walking program improved ambulatory function in peripheral artery disease patients with claudication, but does not modify clot strength or time to clot formation. Larger studies are needed to confirm these hypothesis generating findings and to determine whether a different amount or type of exercise may induce a change in clotting in this patient population.

  11. Effect of exercise training on clot strength in patients with peripheral artery disease and intermittent claudication: An ancillary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Mauer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Patients with peripheral artery disease have walking impairment, greater thrombotic risk, and are often treated with exercise training. We sought to determine the effect of a 3-month-long exercise program on clot strength among patients with peripheral artery disease and intermittent claudication. Methods: Twenty-three symptomatic peripheral artery disease patients were randomly assigned to a walking exercise program or to an attention control group who performed light resistance exercise. We investigated the effect of exercise training on clot strength and time to clot formation was assessed by thromboelastography. Results: After 3 months of exercise, clot strength (maximal amplitude and time to clot formation (R did not change significantly from baseline, even after improvements in claudication onset time (p < 0.01 and peak walking time (p < 0.05. Furthermore, changes in clot formation parameters were not significantly different between groups. Among the 10 individuals demonstrating a reduction in clot strength (reduced maximal amplitude, one was a smoker (10% compared to 9 of 13 non-responders (69% whose maximal amplitude was unchanged or increased (p = 0.0097. Conclusion: In this ancillary study, a 12-week walking program improved ambulatory function in peripheral artery disease patients with claudication, but does not modify clot strength or time to clot formation. Larger studies are needed to confirm these hypothesis generating findings and to determine whether a different amount or type of exercise may induce a change in clotting in this patient population.

  12. Intestinal Fork Head Regulates Nutrient Absorption and Promotes Longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekin Bolukbasi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Reduced activity of nutrient-sensing signaling networks can extend organismal lifespan, yet the underlying biology remains unclear. We show that the anti-aging effects of rapamycin and reduced intestinal insulin/insulin growth factor (IGF signaling (IIS require the Drosophila FoxA transcription factor homolog Fork Head (FKH. Intestinal FKH induction extends lifespan, highlighting a role for the gut. FKH binds to and is phosphorylated by AKT and Target of Rapamycin. Gut-specific FKH upregulation improves gut barrier function in aged flies. Additionally, it increases the expression of nutrient transporters, as does lowered IIS. Evolutionary conservation of this effect of lowered IIS is suggested by the upregulation of related nutrient transporters in insulin receptor substrate 1 knockout mouse intestine. Our study highlights a critical role played by FKH in the gut in mediating anti-aging effects of reduced IIS. Malnutrition caused by poor intestinal absorption is a major problem in the elderly, and a better understanding of the mechanisms involved will have important therapeutic implications for human aging.

  13. Modelling Aṣṭādhyāyī: An Approach Based on the Methodology of Ancillary Disciplines (Vedāṅga)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anand

    This article proposes a general model based on the common methodological approach of the ancillary disciplines (Vedāṅga) associated with the Vedas taking examples from Śikṣā, Chandas, Vyākaraṇa and Prātiśā khya texts. It develops and elaborates this model further to represent the contents and processes of Aṣṭādhyāyī. Certain key features are added to my earlier modelling of Pāṇinian system of Sanskrit grammar. This includes broader coverage of the Pāṇinian meta-language, mechanism for automatic application of rules and positioning the grammatical system within the procedural complexes of ancillary disciplines.

  14. NUTRIENT UPTAKE: A Microcomputer Program to Predict Nutrient Absorption from Soil by Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Kenneth; Barber, S. A.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of a computer program designed to solve the mathematical model associated with soil nutrient uptake by plant roots and to predict the nutrient uptake. Describes a user-friendly personal computer version of this program. (TW)

  15. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Sloep, P. B., & Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning [Redes de Aprendizaje, Aprendizaje en Red]. Comunicar, XIX(37), 55-63. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3916/C37-2011-02-05

  16. Synthesis and characterization of blue phosphorescent cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes containing 2-(imidazol-2-yl)pyridine as ancillary ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Maoliang, E-mail: maoliangxu@yahoo.com.c [Xi' an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Xi' an 710065 (China); Zhou Rui [Xi' an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Xi' an 710065 (China); Che Guangbo [Department of Chemistry, Jilin Normal University, Siping 136000 (China); Wang Geyang; Wang Zijun; Xiao Qi [Xi' an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Xi' an 710065 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Four new blue phosphorescent iridium complexes containing 2-(fluoro substituted phenyl)pyridine as the cyclometalated ligands and 2-(imidazol-2-yl)pyridine as an ancillary ligand have been synthesized and characterized. The complexes have the general structure (CcircumflexN){sub 2}Ir(pym), where CcircumflexN are cyclometalating ligands (e.g., 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine (24f{sub 2}ppyH), 2-(3,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine (34f{sub 2}ppyH), 2-(3,5-difluorophenyl)pyridine (35f{sub 2}ppyH), and 2-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)pyridine (345f{sub 3}ppyH)), pym is 2-(imidazol-2-yl)pyridine (pymH). The absorption, emission, and cyclic voltammetry of the complexes were systematically investigated. The (46f{sub 2}ppy){sub 2}Ir(pym) has been characterized using X-ray crystallography and the electronic ground state calculated using B3LYP density functional theory. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) consists of a mixture of pym ligand (83.7%) and Ir orbitals (12.1%), while the lowest occupied molecular orbital (LUMO) is mostly on f{sub 2}ppy ligands (93.4%). By replacing the ancillary ligand pic with pym can finely tune emission of the iridium complexes, showing blue luminescence at a wavelength of 467-491 nm at room temperature in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. - Research highlights: {yields} Four new blue phosphorescent iridium complexes containing 2-(fluoro substituted phenyl)pyridine as the cyclometalated ligands and 2-(imidazol-2-yl)pyridine as an ancillary ligand have been synthesized and characterized. {yields} The absorption, emission, and cyclic voltammetry of the complexes were systematically investigated. {yields} By changing the ancillary ligand can finely tune the emission of the iridium complexes, which is a way to design and synthesize new phosphorescent iridium materials.

  17. Nutrient Models Developments Using Runoff-Nutrient Relationships in an Agricultural Prairie Basin, Manitoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, T. H.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Wheater, H. S.; Elliott, J. A.; Baulch, H. M.; Lindenschmidt, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient export to streams and lakes from agricultural activities can result in significant deterioration of water quality and aquatic ecosystem health. In Western Canada, particular concerns arise for prairie agricultural systems, which are dominated by the effects of a cold climate. Insufficient attention has been given to understand the links between cold region watershed responses and nutrient concentration and a robust watershed-scale modeling framework is needed to simulate nutrient concentration and loads. Long-term, field observations of nutrient concentration-runoff relationships were used to develop nutrient concentration models for the Tobacco Creek Model Watershed (TCMW) which drains into the Red River basin. Field observations include streamflow concentrations of N and P at multiple scales from two headwater basins. Distinct nutrient concentration-runoff models for snowmelt, rain on snow (ROS) and rainfall runoff processes were developed from observed runoff-nutrient concentration relationships. Snowmelt runoff had a moderately positive correlation with particulate nutrient concentrations but no correlation with that of dissolved nutrients. ROS runoff had a weak relationship with both particulate and dissolved nutrient concentrations. Rainfall runoff had the strongest positive correlation with particulate nutrient concentrations but no association with that of dissolved nutrients. The modeling approach also identified a clear hysteretic behavior in the relationship between runoff and particulate nutrient concentration during the 2013 snowmelt runoff event at the basin outlet gauge. The models provide insight into the hydrological controls on nutrient export from cold regions watersheds and the strong effects of inter-annual climatic variability. Snowmelt runoff is a reliable exporter of large nutrient loads while nutrient export by rainfall runoff exceeded snowmelt runoff during hydrologically wet summers such as 2002, 2005, 2011 and 2013.

  18. Microbial enzyme activity, nutrient uptake and nutrient limitation in forested streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian H. Hill; Frank H. McCormick; Bret C. Harvey; Sherri L. Johnson; Melvin L. Warren; Colleen M. Elonen

    2010-01-01

    The flow of organic matter and nutrients from catchments into the streams draining them and the biogeochemical transformations of organic matter and nutrients along flow paths are fundamental processes instreams (Hynes,1975; Fisher, Sponseller & Heffernan, 2004). Microbial biofilms are often the primary interface for organic matter and nutrient uptake and...

  19. A comparative assessment of nutrients and anti-nutrients contents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is limited information on nutrients composition of Nigerian foods. As a result, nutrients intake from Nigerian foods is in most cases estimated using foreign food composition tables. This research determined and compared proximate composition, minerals and anti-nutrients in pre- boiled fried New and old White Yam ...

  20. Content of some anti-nutrients and nutrients in some new plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight edible plant foods have been analyzed in order to detect differences in nutritional quality, considering the balance between nutrients and anti-nutrient compounds present in each. The most important nutrients studied in this paper were: water, starch, free sugars, such as glucose, fructose and sucrose.

  1. Nutrient management of blueberry – Assessing plant nutrient needs and designing good fertilizer programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this article and presentation, we will address recommended soil nutrient levels for making pre-planting decisions, starting rates of key nutrients to apply, how to assess plant nutrient status to modify fertilizer programs, timing and source of fertilizer to apply, and fertigation. Key questions ...

  2. A coastal surface seawater analyzer for nitrogenous nutrient mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masserini, Robert T.; Fanning, Kent A.; Hendrix, Steven A.; Kleiman, Brittany M.

    2017-11-01

    Satellite-data-based modeling of chlorophyll indicates that ocean waters in the mesosphere category are responsible for the majority of oceanic net primary productivity. Coastal waters, which frequently have surface chlorophyll values in the mesosphere range and have strong horizontal chlorophyll gradients and large temporal variations. Thus programs of detailed coastal nutrient surveys are essential to the study of the dynamics of oceanic net primary productivity, along with land use impacts on estuarine and coastal ecosystems. The degree of variability in these regions necessitates flexible instrumentation capable of near real-time analysis to detect and monitor analytes of interest. This work describes the development of a portable coastal surface seawater analyzer for nutrient mapping that can simultaneously elucidate with high resolution the distribution of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium - the three principal nitrogenous inorganic nutrients in coastal systems. The approach focuses on the use of pulsed xenon flash lamps to construct an analyzer which can be adapted to any automated chemistry with fluorescence detection. The system has two heaters, on-the-fly standardization, on-board data logging, an independent 24 volt direct current power supply, internal local operating network, a 12 channel peristaltic pump, four rotary injection/selection valves, and an intuitive graphical user interface. Using the methodology of Masserini and Fanning (2000) the detection limits for ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate plus nitrite were 11, 10, and 22 nM, respectively. A field test of the analyzer in Gulf of Mexico coastal waters demonstrated its ability to monitor and delineate the complexity of inorganic nitrogen nutrient enrichments within a coastal system.

  3. Proposal for the award of a contract for the civil engineering work for the construction of the helium compressor buildings and the extension of the rectifier buildings and ancillary structures at LEP access points 4 and 8

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the civil engineering work for the construction of the helium compressor buildings and the extension of the rectifier buildings and ancillary structures at LEP access points 4 and 8

  4. LITTERFALL AND NUTRIENT RETURNS IN ISOLATED STANDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    area has implications in returning nutrient elements to the soils of the rainforest ecosystem. Keywords: Litterfall, Nutrient returns, Seasonal variation, Southern Nigeria, Terminalia catappa, Tropical rainforest. Introduction. In the tropical rainforests, plants and soils are in equilibrium involving an almost closed cycling.

  5. Water Quality Protection from Nutrient Pollution: Case ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water bodies and coastal areas around the world are threatened by increases in upstream sediment and nutrient loads, which influence drinking water sources, aquatic species, and other ecologic functions and services of streams, lakes, and coastal water bodies. For example, increased nutrient fluxes from the Mississippi River Basin have been linked to increased occurrences of seasonal hypoxia in northern Gulf of Mexico. Lake Erie is another example where in the summer of 2014 nutrients, nutrients, particularly phosphorus, washed from fertilized farms, cattle feedlots, and leaky septic systems; caused a severe algae bloom, much of it poisonous; and resulted in the loss of drinking water for a half-million residents. Our current management strategies for point and non-point source nutrient loadings need to be improved to protect and meet the expected increased future demands of water for consumption, recreation, and ecological integrity. This presentation introduces management practices being implemented and their effectiveness in reducing nutrient loss from agricultural fields, a case analysis of nutrient pollution of the Grand Lake St. Marys and possible remedies, and ongoing work on watershed modeling to improve our understanding on nutrient loss and water quality. Presented at the 3rd International Conference on Water Resource and Environment.

  6. Trichoderma -mediated enhancement of nutrient uptake and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trichoderma harzianum is a naturally occurring filamentous fungus which solubilizes mineral nutrients and inorganic fertilizers, increasing availability and uptake of nutrients to the plant. Rhizoctonia solani is a major problem for seedlings, causing damping-off and in mature plants causing foot and root rot in the tomato crop, ...

  7. Impacts of nutrient reduction on coastal communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philippart, C.J.M.; Beukema, J.J.; Cadée, G.C.; Dekker, R.; Goedhart, P.W.; van Iperen, J.M.; Leopold, M.F.; Herman, P.M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Eutrophication due to high anthropogenic nutrient loading has greatly impacted ecological processes in marine coastal waters and, therefore, much effort has been put into reducing nitrogen and phosphorus discharges into European and North-American waters. Nutrient enrichment usually resulted in

  8. SSMILes: Measuring the Nutrient Tolerance of Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedgepeth, David J.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity integrating mathematics and science intended to introduce students to the use of metric measurement of mass as a way to increase the meaningfulness of observations about variables in life sciences. Involves measuring the nutrient tolerance of algae. Contains a reproducible algae nutrient graph. (Author/MKR)

  9. Nutrient Dynamics and Litter Decomposition in Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient contents and rate of litter decomposition were investigated in Leucaena leucocephala plantation in the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Litter bag technique was used to study the pattern and rate of litter decomposition and nutrient release of Leucaena leucocephala. Fifty grams of oven-dried ...

  10. Nutrient Content of Lettuce and its Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce is a popular leafy vegetable and plays an important role in American diet and nutrition. Crisphead lettuce has much lower nutrient content than leaf and romaine types. As the synthesis or absorption of many nutrients is light dependent, the lower nutritional value of crisphead lettuce is due...

  11. Nutrient contributions by benthal sludge deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Devendra S; Shrihari, S

    2009-10-01

    Settled solids from effluents discharged into a river system, undergoing decomposition at the river bottom, form an appreciable internal nutrient source for the biological activities in the river system. During the stabilization of benthal deposits, a variety of nutrients are released into the overlying waters. The exchange between sediment and overlying waters is a major component of the nitrogen and phosphorous cycles in the natural waters. The releases of such nutrients is a surface phenomenon, regulated by the conditions of benthal sludge layers, flow rate of overlying waters, etc. The rate of ammonia nitrogen release manifested an optimum low value when benthal sludge depth was 0.2 m, but was not influenced by the flow rate of overlying water and h/d ratios. The rate of phosphate release from benthal sludge was independent of depth of benthal sludge, flow rate and h/d ratios. The nutrients in the benthal sludge layers were increasing with time, and were concentrated at a layer 10 cm below the top surface. The nutrients release (percent of nutrient remaining in top benthal sludge layers) decreased with time and became almost constant after about 40 days. The nutrients release under continuously accumulating conditions of benthal sludge and the effects of frequency of addition have been discussed in this paper. The nutrients release was less when the frequency of addition was less.

  12. Vascularization and Angiogenesis in Tissue Engineering: Beyond Creating Static Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouwkema, Jeroen; Khademhosseini, A.

    2016-01-01

    Engineered tissues need a vascular network to supply cells with nutrients and oxygen after implantation. A network that can connect to the vasculature of the patient after implantation can be included during in vitro culture. For optimal integration, this network needs to be highly organized,

  13. A network of networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iedema, Rick; Verma, Raj; Wutzke, Sonia; Lyons, Nigel; McCaughan, Brian

    2017-04-10

    Purpose To further our insight into the role of networks in health system reform, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how one agency, the NSW Agency for Clinical Innovation (ACI), and the multiple networks and enabling resources that it encompasses, govern, manage and extend the potential of networks for healthcare practice improvement. Design/methodology/approach This is a case study investigation which took place over ten months through the first author's participation in network activities and discussions with the agency's staff about their main objectives, challenges and achievements, and with selected services around the state of New South Wales to understand the agency's implementation and large system transformation activities. Findings The paper demonstrates that ACI accommodates multiple networks whose oversight structures, self-organisation and systems change approaches combined in dynamic ways, effectively yield a diversity of network governances. Further, ACI bears out a paradox of "centralised decentralisation", co-locating agents of innovation with networks of implementation and evaluation expertise. This arrangement strengthens and legitimates the role of the strategic hybrid - the healthcare professional in pursuit of change and improvement, and enhances their influence and impact on the wider system. Research limitations/implications While focussing the case study on one agency only, this study is unique as it highlights inter-network connections. Contributing to the literature on network governance, this paper identifies ACI as a "network of networks" through which resources, expectations and stakeholder dynamics are dynamically and flexibly mediated and enhanced. Practical implications The co-location of and dynamic interaction among clinical networks may create synergies among networks, nurture "strategic hybrids", and enhance the impact of network activities on health system reform. Social implications Network governance requires more

  14. Engineering crop nutrient efficiency for sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liyu; Liao, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Increasing crop yields can provide food, animal feed, bioenergy feedstocks and biomaterials to meet increasing global demand; however, the methods used to increase yield can negatively affect sustainability. For example, application of excess fertilizer can generate and maintain high yields but also increases input costs and contributes to environmental damage through eutrophication, soil acidification and air pollution. Improving crop nutrient efficiency can improve agricultural sustainability by increasing yield while decreasing input costs and harmful environmental effects. Here, we review the mechanisms of nutrient efficiency (primarily for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and iron) and breeding strategies for improving this trait, along with the role of regulation of gene expression in enhancing crop nutrient efficiency to increase yields. We focus on the importance of root system architecture to improve nutrient acquisition efficiency, as well as the contributions of mineral translocation, remobilization and metabolic efficiency to nutrient utilization efficiency. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Decadal and seasonal trends of nutrient concentration and export from highly managed coastal catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yongshan; Wan, Lei; Li, Yuncong; Doering, Peter

    2017-05-15

    Understanding anthropogenic and hydro-climatic influences on nutrient concentrations and export from highly managed catchments often necessitates trend detection using long-term monitoring data. This study analyzed the temporal trend (1979-2014) of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations and export from four adjacent coastal basins in south Florida where land and water resources are highly managed through an intricate canal network. The method of integrated seasonal-trend decomposition using LOESS (LOcally weighted regrESSion) was employed for trend detection. The results indicated that long-term trends in TN and TP concentrations (increasing/decreasing) varied with basins and nutrient species, reflecting the influence of basin specific land and water management practices. These long-term trends were intervened by short-term highs driven by high rainfall and discharges and lows associated with regional droughts. Seasonal variations in TP were more apparent than for TN. Nutrient export exhibited a chemostatic behavior for TN from all the basins, largely due to the biogenic nature of organic N associated with the ubiquity of organic materials in the managed canal network. Varying degrees of chemodynamic export was present for TP, reflecting complex biogeochemical responses to the legacy of long-term fertilization, low soil P holding capacity, and intensive stormwater management. The anthropogenic and hydro-climatic influences on nutrient concentration and export behavior had great implications in nutrient loading abatement strategies for aquatic ecosystem restoration of the downstream receiving waterbody. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. The nuclear receptor DAF-12 regulates nutrient metabolism and reproductive growth in nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate nutrient response is essential for growth and reproduction. Under favorable nutrient conditions, the C. elegans nuclear receptor DAF-12 is activated by dafachronic acids, hormones that commit larvae to reproductive growth. Here, we report that in addition to its well-studied role in controlling developmental gene expression, the DAF-12 endocrine system governs expression of a gene network that stimulates the aerobic catabolism of fatty acids. Thus, activation of the DAF-12 transcriptome coordinately mobilizes energy stores to permit reproductive growth. DAF-12 regulation of this metabolic gene network is conserved in the human parasite, Strongyloides stercoralis, and inhibition of specific steps in this network blocks reproductive growth in both of the nematodes. Our study provides a molecular understanding for metabolic adaptation of nematodes to their environment, and suggests a new therapeutic strategy for treating parasitic diseases.

  17. Routine use of ancillary investigations in staging diffuse large B-cell lymphoma improves the International Prognostic Index (IPI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaulikar, Dipti; Shadbolt, Bruce; Dahlstrom, Jane E; McDonald, Anne

    2009-11-22

    The International Prognostic Index (IPI) is used to determine prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). One of the determinants of IPI is the stage of disease with bone marrow involvement being classified as stage IV. For the IPI, involvement on bone marrow is traditionally defined on the basis of histology with ancillary investigations used only in difficult cases to aid histological diagnosis. This study aimed to determine the effect of the routine use of flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and molecular studies in bone marrow staging upon the IPI. Bone marrow trephines of 156 histologically proven DLBCL cases at initial diagnosis were assessed on routine histology, and immunohistochemistry using two T-cell markers (CD45RO and CD3), two B-cell markers (CD20 and CD79a) and kappa and lambda light chains. Raw flow cytometry data on all samples were reanalysed and reinterpreted blindly. DNA extracted from archived paraffin-embedded trephine biopsy samples was used for immunoglobulin heavy chain and light chain gene rearrangement analysis. Using immunophenotyping (flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry), 30 (19.2%) cases were upstaged to stage IV. A further 8 (5.1%) cases were upstaged using molecular studies. A change in IPI was noted in 18 cases (11.5%) on immunophenotyping alone, and 22 (14.1%) cases on immunophenotyping and molecular testing. Comparison of two revised IPI models, 1) using immunophenotyping alone, and 2) using immunophenotyping with molecular studies, was performed with baseline IPI using a Cox regression model. It showed that the revised IPI model using immunophenotyping provides the best differentiation between the IPI categories. Improved bone marrow staging using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry improves the predictive value of the IPI in patients with DLBCL and should be performed routinely in all cases.

  18. Stochastic scheduling of aggregators of plug-in electric vehicles for participation in energy and ancillary service markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alipour, Manijeh; Mohammadi-Ivatloo, Behnam; Moradi-Dalvand, Mohammad; Zare, Kazem

    2017-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles are expected to play a major role in the transportation system as the environmental problems and energy crisis are being more and more urgent recently. Implementing a large number of vehicles with proper control could bring an opportunity of large storage and flexibility for power systems. The plug-in electric vehicle aggregator is responsible for providing power and controlling the charging pattern of the plug-in electric vehicles under its contracted area. This paper deals with the problem of optimal scheduling problem of plug-in electric vehicle aggregators in electricity market considering the uncertainties of market prices, availability of vehicles and status of being called by the ISO in the reserve market. The impact of the market price and reserve market uncertainties on the electric vehicle scheduling problem is characterized through a stochastic programming framework. The objective of the aggregator is to maximize its profit by charging the plug-in electric vehicles on the low price time intervals as well as participating in ancillary service markets. The operational constraints of plug-in electric vehicles and constraints of vehicle to grid are modeled in the proposed framework. An illustrative example is provided to confirm the performance of the proposed model. - Highlights: • Optimal scheduling of vehicle aggregators in electricity market has been addressed. • The operational constraints of plug-in vehicle to grid are considered. • The uncertainties of calling status in reserve market and market prices are modeled. • Vehicles' driving patterns and availability uncertainty are modeled. • The effect of risk measure weight in the vehicle to grid model has been studied.

  19. Stress and sleep: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Alcántara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hispanics/Latinos face specific sociocultural stressors associated with their marginalized status in the United States. While stress is known to cause poor sleep, the differential effects of the specific stressors faced by Hispanics/Latinos have not been evaluated. Using cross-sectional data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study, we conducted weighted generalized linear models to evaluate the associations of acculturation stress, ethnic discrimination, and chronic moderate/severe stress with self-reported sleep outcomes (insomnia symptoms, daytime sleepiness, sleep duration in individual and aggregate models adjusted for site, socio-demographics, behavioral, and medical conditions. Participants included 5313 Hispanic/Latino adults; 43.5% ≥ age 45, 54.8% female, and 22.0% US-born. Chronic moderate/severe stress, ethnic discrimination, and acculturation stress were each positively associated with sleep. In the adjusted aggregate model, only chronic moderate/severe stress was associated with insomnia symptoms (exp(b = 1.07 for each additional stressor, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.09. Both acculturation stress (exp(b = 1.05 for each additional SD, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.10 and ethnic discrimination (exp(b = 1.05 for each additional SD, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.08 were associated with daytime sleepiness. Each SD increase in ethnic discrimination related to a 16% and 13% increased prevalence of short ( 9 h (RRR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.27, respectively. These associations were consistent across sex. Acculturation stress and ethnic discrimination are associated with poor sleep in Hispanics/Latinos. Future research should explore whether behavioral sleep interventions minimize the impact of sociocultural stressors on sleep.

  20. Land Cover Classification in an Ecuadorian Mountain Geosystem Using a Random Forest Classifier, Spectral Vegetation Indices, and Ancillary Geographic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna E. Ayala-Izurieta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We presented a methodology to accurately classify mountainous regions in the tropics. These landscapes are complex in terms of their geology, ecosystems, climate and land use. Obtaining accurate maps to assess land cover change is essential. The objectives of this study were to (1 map vegetation using the Random Forest Classifier (RFC, spectral vegetation index (SVI, and ancillar geographic data (2 identify important variables that help differentiate vegetation cover, and (3 assess the accuracy of the vegetation cover classification in hard-to-reach Ecuadorian mountain region. We used Landsat 7 ETM+ satellite images of the entire scene, a RFC algorithm, and stratified random sampling. The altitude and the two band enhanced vegetation index (EVI2 provide more information on vegetation cover than the traditional and often use normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI in other settings. We classified the vegetation cover of mountainous areas within the 1016 km2 area of study, at 30 m spatial resolution, using RFC that yielded a land cover map with an overall accuracy of 95%. The user´s accuracy and the half-width of the confidence interval for 95% of the basic map units, forest (FOR, páramo (PAR, crop (CRO and pasture (PAS were 95.85% ± 2.86%, 97.64% ± 1.24%, 91.53% ± 3.35% and 82.82% ± 7.74%, respectively. The overall disagreement was 4.47%, which results from adding 0.43% of quantity disagreement and 4.04% of allocation disagreement. The methodological framework presented in this paper and the combined use of SVIs, ancillary geographic data, and the RFC allowed the accurate mapping of hard-to-reach mountain landscapes as well as uncovering the underlying factors that help differentiate vegetation cover in the Ecuadorian mountain geosystem.

  1. Controllable Grid Interface for Testing Ancillary Service Controls and Fault Performance of Utility-Scale Wind Power Generation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, Vahan; Koralewicz, Przemyslaw; Wallen, Robb; Muljadi, Eduard

    2017-02-01

    The rapid expansion of wind power has led many transmission system operators to demand modern wind power plants to comply with strict interconnection requirements. Such requirements involve various aspects of wind power plant operation, including fault ride-through and power quality performance as well as the provision of ancillary services to enhance grid reliability. During recent years, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) of the U.S. Department of Energy has developed a new, groundbreaking testing apparatus and methodology to test and demonstrate many existing and future advanced controls for wind generation (and other renewable generation technologies) on the multimegawatt scale and medium-voltage levels. This paper describes the capabilities and control features of NREL's 7-MVA power electronic grid simulator (also called a controllable grid interface, or CGI) that enables testing many active and reactive power control features of modern wind turbine generators -- including inertial response, primary and secondary frequency responses, and voltage regulation -- under a controlled, medium-voltage grid environment. In particular, this paper focuses on the specifics of testing the balanced and unbalanced fault ride-through characteristics of wind turbine generators under simulated strong and weak medium-voltage grid conditions. In addition, this paper provides insights on the power hardware-in-the-loop feature implemented in the CGI to emulate (in real time) the conditions that might exist in various types of electric power systems under normal operations and/or contingency scenarios. Using actual test examples and simulation results, this paper describes the value of CGI as an ultimate modeling validation tool for all types of 'grid-friendly' controls by wind generation.

  2. Nutrient-sensing hypothalamic TXNIP links nutrient excess to energy imbalance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouet, Clémence; Schwartz, Gary J

    2011-04-20

    Nutrient excess in obesity and diabetes is emerging as a common putative cause for multiple deleterious effects across diverse cell types, responsible for a variety of metabolic dysfunctions. The hypothalamus is acknowledged as an important regulator of whole-body energy homeostasis, through both detection of nutrient availability and coordination of effectors that determine nutrient intake and utilization, thus preventing cellular and whole-body nutrient excess. However, the mechanisms underlying hypothalamic nutrient detection and its impact on peripheral nutrient utilization remain poorly understood. Recent data suggest a role for thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) as a molecular nutrient sensor important in the regulation of energy metabolism, but the role of hypothalamic TXNIP in the regulation of energy balance has not been evaluated. Here we show in mice that TXNIP is expressed in nutrient-sensing neurons of the mediobasal hypothalamus, responds to hormonal and nutrient signals, and regulates adipose tissue metabolism, fuel partitioning, and glucose homeostasis. Hypothalamic expression of TXNIP is induced by acute nutrient excess and in mouse models of obesity and diabetes, and downregulation of mediobasal hypothalamic TXNIP expression prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Thus, mediobasal hypothalamic TXNIP plays a critical role in nutrient sensing and the regulation of fuel utilization.

  3. A nutrient dependant switch explains mutually exclusive existence of meiosis and mitosis initiation in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannige, C T; Kulasiri, D; Samarasinghe, S

    2014-01-21

    Nutrients from living environment are vital for the survival and growth of any organism. Budding yeast diploid cells decide to grow by mitosis type cell division or decide to create unique, stress resistant spores by meiosis type cell division depending on the available nutrient conditions. To gain a molecular systems level understanding of the nutrient dependant switching between meiosis and mitosis initiation in diploid cells of budding yeast, we develop a theoretical model based on ordinary differential equations (ODEs) including the mitosis initiator and its relations to budding yeast meiosis initiation network. Our model accurately and qualitatively predicts the experimentally revealed temporal variations of related proteins under different nutrient conditions as well as the diverse mutant studies related to meiosis and mitosis initiation. Using this model, we show how the meiosis and mitosis initiators form an all-or-none type bistable switch in response to available nutrient level (mainly nitrogen). The transitions to and from meiosis or mitosis initiation states occur via saddle node bifurcation. This bidirectional switch helps the optimal usage of available nutrients and explains the mutually exclusive existence of meiosis and mitosis pathways. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors affecting nutrient trends in major rivers of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Lori A.; Langland, M.J.; Yochum, S.E.; Edwards, R.E.; Blomquist, J.D.; Phillips, S.W.; Shenk, G.W.; Preston, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    watershed. The loads of nutrients, however, were not reduced significantly at most of the monitoring stations. This is due primarily to higher streamflow in the latter years of the monitoring period, which led to higher loading in those years.Results of this study indicate a need for more detailed information on BMP effectiveness under a full range of hydrologic conditions and in different areas of the watershed; an internally consistent fertilizer data set; greater consideration of the effects of watershed processes on nutrient transport; a refinement of current modeling efforts; and an expansion of the non-tidal monitoring network in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed.

  5. A proposed international watershed research network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterkamp, W.R.; Gray, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    An “International Watershed Research Network” is to be an initial project of the Sino-U. S. Centers for Soil and Water Conservation and Environmental Protection. The Network will provide a fundamental database for research personnel of the Centers, as well as of the global research community, and is viewed as an important resource for their successful operation. Efforts are under way to (a) identify and select candidate watersheds, (b) develop standards and protocols for data collection and dissemination, and (c) specify other data sources on erosion, sediment transport, hydrology, and ancillary information of probable interest and use to participants of the Centers. The initial focus of the Network will be on water-deficient areas. Candidate watersheds for the Network are yet to be determined although likely selections include the Ansai Research Station, northern China, and the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, Arizona, USA. The Network is to be patterned after the Vigil Network, an open-ended group of global sites and small drainage basins for which Internet-accessible geomorphic, hydrologic, and biological data are periodically collected or updated. Some types of data, using similar instruments and observation methods, will be collected at all watersheds selected for the Network. Other data from the watersheds that may reflect individual watershed characteristics and research objectives will be collected as well.

  6. Generalized Nutrient Taxes Can Increase Consumer Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishai, David

    2015-11-01

    Certain nutrients can stimulate appetite making them fattening in a way that is not fully conveyed by the calorie content on the label. For rational eaters, this information gap could be corrected by more labeling. As an alternative, this paper proposes a set of positive and negative taxes on the fattening and slimming nutrients in food rather than on the food itself. There are conditions under which this tax plus subsidy system could increase welfare by stopping unwanted weight gain while leaving the final retail price of food unchanged. A nutrient tax system could improve welfare if fattening nutrients, net of their effect on weight, are inferior goods and the fiscal cost of administering the tax is sufficiently low. More data on the price elasticity of demand for nutrients as well as data on how specific nutrients affect satiety and how total calorie intake would be necessary before one could be sure a nutrient tax would work in practice. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Linking nutrient enrichment, sediment erodibility and biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, B.; Mahon, R.; Sojka, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Sediment movement in coastal lagoons affects nutrient flux and primary producer growth. Previous research has shown that sediment erodibility is affected by biofilm concentration and that growth of benthic organisms, which produce biofilm, is affected by nutrient enrichment. However, researchers have not examined possible links between nutrient addition and sediment erodibility. We manipulated nutrient levels in the water column of 16 microcosms filled with homogenized sediment from a shallow coastal lagoon and artificial seawater to determine the effects on biofilm growth, measured through chlorophyll a and colloidal carbohydrate concentrations. Erosion tests using a Gust microcosm were conducted to determine the relationship between sediment erodibility and biofilm concentration. Results show that carbohydrate levels decreased with increasing nutrient enrichment and were unrelated to chlorophyll concentrations and erodibility. The nutrient levels did not predictably affect the chlorophyll levels, with lower chlorophyll concentrations in the control and medium enrichment treatments than the low and high enrichment treatments. Controls on biofilm growth are still unclear and the assumed relationship between carbohydrates and erodibility may be invalid. Understanding how biofilms respond to nutrient enrichment and subsequent effects on sediment erodibility is essential for protecting and restoring shallow coastal systems.

  8. Agroforestry suitability analysis based upon nutrient availability mapping: a GIS based suitability mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoz Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry has drawn the attention of researchers due to its capacity to reduce the poverty and land degradation, improve food security and mitigate the climate change. However, the progress in promoting agroforestry is held back due to the lack of reliable data sets and appropriate tools to accurately map and to have an adequate decision making system for agroforestry modules. Agroforestry suitability being one special form of land suitability is very pertinent to study in the current times when there is tremendous pressure on the land as it is a limited commodity. The study aims for applying the geo-spatial tools towards visualizing various soil and environmental data to reveal the trends and interrelationships and to achieve a nutrient availability and agroforestry suitability map. Using weight matrix and ranks, individual maps were developed in ArcGIS 10.1 platform to generate nutrient availability map, which was later used to develop agroforestry suitability map. Watersheds were delineated using DEM in some part of the study area and were evaluated for prioritizing it and agroforestry suitability of the watersheds were also done as per the schematic flowchart. Agroforestry suitability regions were delineated based upon the weight and ranks by integrated mapping. The total open area was identified 42.4% out of which 21.6% area was found to have high suitability towards agroforestry. Within the watersheds, 22 village points were generated for creating buffers, which were further evaluated showing its proximity to high suitable agroforestry sites thus generating tremendous opportunity to the villagers to carry out agroforestry projects locally. This research shows the capability of remote sensing in studying agroforestry practices and in estimating the prominent factors for its optimal productivity. The ongoing agroforestry projects can be potentially diverted in the areas of high suitability as an extension. The use of ancillary data in GIS

  9. Nutrients, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and macrobenthos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudstam, Lars G.; Holeck, Kristen T.; Watkins, James M.; Hotaling, Christopher; Lantry, Jana R.; Bowen, Kelly L.; Munawar, Mohi; Weidel, Brian C.; Barbiero, Richard; Luckey, Frederick J.; Dove, Alice; Johnson, Timothy B.; Biesinger, Zy

    2017-01-01

    Lower trophic levels support the prey fish on which most sport fish depend. Therefore, understanding the production potential of lower trophic levels is integral to the management of Lake Ontario’s fishery resources. Lower trophic-level productivity differs among offshore and nearshore waters. In the offshore, there is concern about the ability of the lake to support Alewife (Table 1) production due to a perceived decline in productivity of phytoplankton and zooplankton whereas, in the nearshore, there is a concern about excessive attached algal production (e.g., Cladophora) associated with higher nutrient concentrations—the oligotrophication of the offshore and the eutrophication of the nearshore (Mills et al. 2003; Holeck et al. 2008; Dove 2009; Koops et al. 2015; Stewart et al. 2016). Even though the collapse of the Alewife population in Lake Huron in 2003 (and the associated decline in the Chinook Salmon fishery) may have been precipitated by a cold winter (Dunlop and Riley 2013), Alewife had not returned to high abundances in Lake Huron as of 2014 (Roseman et al. 2015). Failure of the Alewife population to recover from collapse has been attributed to declines in lower trophic-level production (Barbiero et al. 2011; Bunnell et al. 2014; but see He et al. 2015). In Lake Michigan, concerns of a similar Alewife collapse led to a decrease in the number of Chinook Salmon stocked. If lower trophic-level production declines in Lake Ontario, a similar management action could be considered. On the other hand, in Lake Erie, which supplies most of the water in Lake Ontario, eutrophication is increasing and so are harmful algal blooms. Thus, there is also a concern that nutrient levels and algal blooms could increase in Lake Ontario, especially in the nearshore. Solutions to the two processes of concern—eutrophication in the nearshore and oligotrophication in the offshore—may be mutually exclusive. In either circumstance, fisheries management needs information on

  10. Nutrient profiling of foods: creating a nutrient-rich food index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Fulgoni, Victor

    2008-01-01

    Nutrient profiling of foods, described as the science of ranking foods based on their nutrient content, is fast becoming the basis for regulating nutrition labels, health claims, and marketing and advertising to children. A number of nutrient profile models have now been developed by research scientists, regulatory agencies, and by the food industry. Whereas some of these models have focused on nutrients to limit, others have emphasized nutrients known to be beneficial to health, or some combination of both. Although nutrient profile models are often tailored to specific goals, the development process ought to follow the same science-driven rules. These include the selection of index nutrients and reference amounts, the development of an appropriate algorithm for calculating nutrient density, and the validation of the chosen nutrient profile model against healthy diets. It is extremely important that nutrient profiles be validated rather than merely compared to prevailing public opinion. Regulatory agencies should act only when they are satisfied that the scientific process has been followed, that the algorithms are transparent, and that the profile model has been validated with respect to objective measures of a healthy diet.

  11. Predator control of ecosystem nutrient dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Oswald J; Hawlena, Dror; Trussell, Geoffrey C

    2010-10-01

    Predators are predominantly valued for their ability to control prey, as indicators of high levels of biodiversity and as tourism attractions. This view, however, is incomplete because it does not acknowledge that predators may play a significant role in the delivery of critical life-support services such as ecosystem nutrient cycling. New research is beginning to show that predator effects on nutrient cycling are ubiquitous. These effects emerge from direct nutrient excretion, egestion or translocation within and across ecosystem boundaries after prey consumption, and from indirect effects mediated by predator interactions with prey. Depending on their behavioural ecology, predators can create heterogeneous or homogeneous nutrient distributions across natural landscapes. Because predator species are disproportionately vulnerable to elimination from ecosystems, we stand to lose much more from their disappearance than their simple charismatic attractiveness. 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  12. MANGROVE-DERIVED NUTRIENTS AND CORAL REEFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the consequences of the declining global cover of mangroves due to anthropogenic disturbance necessitates consideration of how mangrove-derived nutrients contribute to threatened coral reef systems. We sampled potential sources of organic matter and a suite of sessi...

  13. Effect of infection on nutrient requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimshaw, N S

    1977-09-01

    Nearly all expert groups on nutrient requirements have suggested that the nutritional effects of infection need to be taken into account, but specific instructions on how to do this have not been formulated. There is great uncertainty as to how individual requirements are affected or how disease prevalence might alter nutrient requirements for large populations. The traditional principles for establishing dietary allowances must be reevaluated in the presence of acute or chronic infections because of anorexia, withdrawal of solid food, fever, adverse effects of treatment, impaired intestinal absorption, and increased nutrient losses via urine, skin, feces, or through internal sequestration. The effects of an infection on protein and energy needs constitute major problems as do the changes in iron metabolism and those of other essential nutrients. Despite these complexities the increased needs for protein, calories, and iron can be estimated for purposes of nutrition education, dietary evaluation, or nutritional rehabilitation.

  14. Nutrients in some estuaries of Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.; Venugopal, P.; Remani, K.N.; Zacharias, D.; Unnithan, R.V.

    Some environmental parameters and nutrients like inorganic phosphate, nitrate, nitrite and ammonia from four estuaries namely Kallai, Beypore, Korapuzha and Mahe along north Kerala Coast were studied for an year (1980-81). In all these estuaries...

  15. Mineral nutrient status, some quality and morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mineral nutrient status, some quality and morphological characteristics changes in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars under salt stress. VD Taffouo, TL Meguekam, MLP Ngueleumeni, IJ Pinta, A Amougou ...

  16. Autonomous nutrient detection for water quality monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Damien; Cleary, John; Cogan, Deirdre; Diamond, Dermot

    2012-01-01

    The ever increasing demand for real time environmental monitoring is currently being driven by strong legislative and societal drivers. Low cost autonomous environmental monitoring systems are required to meet this demand as current monitoring solutions are insufficient. This poster presents an autonomous nutrient analyser platform for water quality monitoring. Results from a field trial of the nutrient analyser are reported along with current work to expand the range of water quality targ...

  17. Nutrient budgets for large Chinese estuaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Liu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese rivers deliver about 5–10% of global freshwater input and 15–20% of the global continental sediment to the world ocean. We report the riverine fluxes and concentrations of major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon in the rivers of the contiguous landmass of China and Korea in the northeast Asia. The rivers are generally enriched with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN and depleted in dissolved inorganic phosphate (PO43− with very high DIN: PO43− concentration ratios. DIN, phosphorus, and silicon levels and loads in rivers are mainly affected by agriculture activities and urbanization, anthropogenic activities and adsorption on particulates, and rock types, climate and physical denudation intensity, respectively. Nutrient transports by rivers in the summer are 3–4 times higher than those in the winter with the exception of NH4+. The flux of NH4+ is rather constant throughout the year due to the anthropogenic sources such as the sewer discharge. As nutrient composition has changed in the rivers, ecosystems in estuaries and coastal sea have also changed in recent decades. Among the changes, a shift of limiting nutrients from phosphorus to nitrogen for phytoplankton production with urbanization is noticeable and in some areas silicon becomes the limiting nutrient for diatom productivity. A simple steady-state mass-balance box model was employed to assess nutrient budgets in the estuaries. The major Chinese estuaries export <15% of nitrogen, <6% of phosphorus required for phytoplankton production and ~4% of silicon required for diatom growth in the Chinese Seas (Bohai, Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea. This suggests that land-derived nutrients are largely confined to the immediate estuaries, and ecosystem in the coastal sea beyond the estuaries is mainly supported by other nutrient sources such as regeneration, open ocean and

  18. Nutrients that limit growth in the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Laura A; Mohr, Wiebke; Ahmerkamp, Soeren; Kuypers, Marcel M M

    2017-06-05

    Phytoplankton form the basis of the marine food web and are responsible for approximately half of global carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation (∼ 50 Pg of carbon per year). Thus, these microscopic, photosynthetic organisms are vital in controlling the atmospheric CO2 concentration and Earth's climate. Phytoplankton are dependent on sunlight and their CO2-fixation activity is therefore restricted to the upper, sunlit surface ocean (that is, the euphotic zone). CO2 usually does not limit phytoplankton growth due to its high concentration in seawater. However, the vast majority of oceanic surface waters are depleted in inorganic nitrogen, phosphorus, iron and/or silica; nutrients that limit primary production in the ocean (Figure 1). Phytoplankton growth is mainly supported by either the recycling of nutrients or by reintroduction of nutrients from deeper waters by mixing. A small percentage of primary production, though, is fueled by 'external' or 'new' nutrients and it is these nutrients that determine the amount of carbon that can be sequestered long term in the deep ocean. For most nutrients such as phosphorus, iron, and silica, the external supply is limited to atmospheric deposition and/or coastal and riverine inputs, whereas their main sink is the sedimentation of particulate matter. Nitrogen, however, has an additional, biological source, the fixation of N2 gas, as well as biological sinks via the processes of denitrification and anammox. Despite the comparatively small contributions to the overall turnover of nutrients in the ocean, it is these biological processes that determine the ocean's capacity to sequester CO2 from the atmosphere on time scales of ocean circulation (∼ 1000 years). This primer will highlight shifts in the traditional paradigms of nutrient limitation in the ocean, with a focus on the uniqueness of the nitrogen cycling and its biological sources and sinks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nutrient shielding in clusters of cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentovich, Maxim O.; Koschwanez, John H.; Nelson, David R.

    2013-06-01

    Cellular nutrient consumption is influenced by both the nutrient uptake kinetics of an individual cell and the cells' spatial arrangement. Large cell clusters or colonies have inhibited growth at the cluster's center due to the shielding of nutrients by the cells closer to the surface. We develop an effective medium theory that predicts a thickness ℓ of the outer shell of cells in the cluster that receives enough nutrient to grow. The cells are treated as partially absorbing identical spherical nutrient sinks, and we identify a dimensionless parameter ν that characterizes the absorption strength of each cell. The parameter ν can vary over many orders of magnitude among different cell types, ranging from bacteria and yeast to human tissue. The thickness ℓ decreases with increasing ν, increasing cell volume fraction ϕ, and decreasing ambient nutrient concentration ψ∞. The theoretical results are compared with numerical simulations and experiments. In the latter studies, colonies of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are grown on glucose media and imaged under a confocal microscope. We measure the growth inside the colonies via a fluorescent protein reporter and compare the experimental and theoretical results for the thickness ℓ.

  20. Nutrient Shielding in Clusters of Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentovich, Maxim O.; Koschwanez, John H.; Nelson, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular nutrient consumption is influenced by both the nutrient uptake kinetics of an individual cell and the cells’ spatial arrangement. Large cell clusters or colonies have inhibited growth at the cluster's center due to the shielding of nutrients by the cells closer to the surface. We develop an effective medium theory that predicts a thickness ℓ of the outer shell of cells in the cluster that receives enough nutrient to grow. The cells are treated as partially absorbing identical spherical nutrient sinks, and we identify a dimensionless parameter ν that characterizes the absorption strength of each cell. The parameter ν can vary over many orders of magnitude between different cell types, ranging from bacteria and yeast to human tissue. The thickness ℓ decreases with increasing ν, increasing cell volume fraction ϕ, and decreasing ambient nutrient concentration ψ∞. The theoretical results are compared with numerical simulations and experiments. In the latter studies, colonies of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are grown on glucose media and imaged under a confocal microscope. We measure the growth inside the colonies via a fluorescent protein reporter and compare the experimental and theoretical results for the thickness ℓ. PMID:23848711

  1. Nutrient limitation and stoichiometry of carnivorous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, A M

    2006-11-01

    The cost-benefit model for the evolution of carnivorous plants posits a trade-off between photosynthetic costs associated with carnivorous structures and photosynthetic benefits accrued through additional nutrient acquisition. The model predicts that carnivory is expected to evolve if its marginal benefits exceed its marginal costs. Further, the model predicts that when nutrients are scarce but neither light nor water is limiting, carnivorous plants should have an energetic advantage in competition with non-carnivorous plants. Since the publication of the cost-benefit model over 20 years ago, marginal photosynthetic costs of carnivory have been demonstrated but marginal photosynthetic benefits have not. A review of published data and results of ongoing research show that nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium often (co-)limit growth of carnivorous plants and that photosynthetic nutrient use efficiency is 20 - 50 % of that of non-carnivorous plants. Assessments of stoichiometric relationships among limiting nutrients, scaling of leaf mass with photosynthesis and nutrient content, and photosynthetic nutrient use efficiency all suggest that carnivorous plants are at an energetic disadvantage relative to non-carnivorous plants in similar habitats. Overall, current data support some of the predictions of the cost-benefit model, fail to support others, and still others remain untested and merit future research. Rather than being an optimal solution to an adaptive problem, botanical carnivory may represent a set of limited responses constrained by both phylogenetic history and environmental stress.

  2. Influence of ancillary ligands on preferential geometry and biomimetic catalytic activity in manganese(III)-catecholate systems: A combined experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Narayan Ch; Brandão, Paula; Bauzá, Antonio; Frontera, Antonio; Panja, Anangamohan

    2017-11-01

    The present report describes the synthesis and structural characterizations of six new manganese(III) complexes with redox-active tetrachlorocatecholate ligand in the presence of different ancillary ligands (pyridines and imidazole). X-ray crystal structure analysis reveals that the geometry of manganese(III) centres in 1 and 2 is essentially square pyramidal, while it is discrete octahedron in compounds 3-6. These preferential structural diversities in these systems have been critically analysed by theoretical calculations. Remarkably, the characterization of both π⋯π stacking interactions and MnMn bonds in the supramolecular dimeric aggregates in the solid state in 1 and 2 by means of the Bader's theory of "atoms in molecules" (AIM) is quite interesting as that nicely corroborates the experimental fact. All the complexes are active toward the phenoxazinone synthase like activity and the detailed kinetic analysis was performed to get better insight into their catalytic efficiency. Electrochemical property of these complexes as well as different donor property of the ancillary ligands clearly establish that the ease of reduction of the metal centre i.e., the catalytic ability is favoured when the metal centre is bonded to the electron deficient pyridyl systems. EPR spectroscopy and theoretical study are further helpful to get insight into origin of the catalytic activity in these compounds. The present report overall highlights that tuning of the geometry and catalytic activity of manganese(III) complexes with tetrachlorocatecholate ligand can be attained by the introduction of different substitutions in ancillary pyridine ligands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Smart microgrid hierarchical frequency control ancillary service provision based on virtual inertia concept: An integrated demand response and droop controlled distributed generation framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaei, Navid; Kalantar, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Detailed formulation of the microgrid static and dynamic securities based on droop control and virtual inertia concepts. • Constructing a novel objective function using frequency excursion and rate of change of frequency profiles. • Ensuring the microgrid security subject to the microgrid economic and environmental policies. • Coordinated management of demand response and droop controlled distributed generation resources. • Precise scheduling of day-ahead hierarchical frequency control ancillary services using a scenario based stochastic programming. - Abstract: Low inertia stack, high penetration levels of renewable energy source and great ratio of power deviations in a small power delivery system put microgrid frequency at risk of instability. On the basis of the close coupling between the microgrid frequency and system security requirements, procurement of adequate ancillary services from cost-effective and environmental friendly resources is a great challenge requests an efficient energy management system. Motivated by this need, this paper presents a novel energy management system that is aimed to coordinately manage the demand response and distributed generation resources. The proposed approach is carried out by constructing a hierarchical frequency control structure in which the frequency dependent control functions of the microgrid components are modeled comprehensively. On the basis of the derived modeling, both the static and dynamic frequency securities of an islanded microgrid are provided in primary and secondary control levels. Besides, to cope with the low inertia stack of islanded microgrids, novel virtual inertia concept is devised based on the precise modeling of droop controlled distributed generation resources. The proposed approach is applied to typical test microgrid. Energy and hierarchical reserve resource are scheduled precisely using a scenario-based stochastic programming methodology. Moreover, analyzing the

  4. The Use of Ancillary Stains in the Diagnosis of Barrett Esophagus and Barrett Esophagus-associated Dysplasia: Recommendations From the Rodger C. Haggitt Gastrointestinal Pathology Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Amitabh; Appelman, Henry; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D; Davison, Jon M; Hart, John; Krasinskas, Alyssa M

    2017-05-01

    Barrett esophagus (BE) is a known risk factor for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Pathologists play a critical role in confirming the diagnosis of BE and BE-associated dysplasia. As these diagnoses are not always straightforward on routine hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides, numerous ancillary stains have been used in an attempt to help pathologists confirm the diagnosis. On the basis of an in-depth review of the literature, the Rodger C. Haggitt Gastrointestinal Pathology Society provides recommendations regarding the use of ancillary stains in the diagnosis of BE and BE-associated dysplasia. Because goblet cells are almost always identifiable on routine hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections, there is insufficient evidence to justify reflexive use of Alcian blue (at pH 2.5) and/or periodic-acid Schiff stains on all esophageal biopsies to diagnose BE. In addition, the use of mucin glycoprotein immunostains and markers of intestinal phenotype (CDX2, Das-1, villin, Hep Par 1, and SOX9) are not indicated to aid in the diagnosis of BE at this time. A diagnosis of dysplasia in BE remains a morphologic diagnosis, and hence, ancillary stains are not recommended for diagnosing dysplasia. Although p53 is a promising marker for identifying high-risk BE patients, it is not recommended for routine use at present; additional studies are needed to address questions regarding case selection, interpretation, integration with morphologic diagnosis, and impact on clinical outcome. We hope that this review and our recommendations will provide helpful information to pathologists, gastroenterologists, and others involved in the evaluation of patients with BE and BE-associated dysplasia.

  5. Phosphorescent cationic iridium(iii) complexes bearing a nonconjugated six-membered chelating ancillary ligand: a strategy for tuning the emission towards the blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierlinger, Claus; Cordes, David B; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Jacquemin, Denis; Guerchais, Véronique; Zysman-Colman, Eli

    2018-03-15

    This study concerns an assessment of the impact of the interruption of the electronic crosstalk between the pyridine rings in the ancillary ligand on the photoluminescence properties of the corresponding iridium(iii) complexes. Two new cationic Ir(iii) complexes, [Ir(dFmesppy) 2 (pmdp)]PF 6 , 1, and [Ir(mesppy) 2 (pmdp)]PF 6 , 2, [where dFmesppy is 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-4-mesitylpyridinato, mesppy is 4-mesityl-2-phenylpyridinato and pmdp is 2,2'-(phenylmethine)dipyridine, L1] possessing sterically congested cyclometalating ligands combined with the nonconjugated diimine ancillary N^N ligand are reported and their solution-state and thin film photophysical properties analyzed by both experimental and theoretical methods. The crystal structure of 1 confirms the formation of a six-membered chelate ring by the N^N ligand and illustrates the pseudo-axial configuration of the phenyl substituents. Upon photoexcitation in acetonitrile, both complexes exhibit a ligand-centered emission profile in the blue-green region of the visible spectrum. A significant blue-shift is observed in solution at room temperature compared to the analogous reference Ir(iii) complexes (R1 and R2) bearing 4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine (dtBubpy) as the N^N ligand. The computational investigation demonstrates that the HOMO is mainly centered on the metal and on both cyclometalating aryl rings of the C^N ligands, whereas the LUMO is principally localized on the pyridyl rings of the C^N ligands. The photoluminescence quantum yield is reduced compared to the reference complexes, a probable consequence of the greater flexibility of the ancillary ligand.

  6. Nutrient additions to mitigate for loss of Pacific salmon: consequences for stream biofilm and nutrient dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcarelli, Amy M.; Baxter, Colden V.; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Mitigation activities designed to supplement nutrient and organic matter inputs to streams experiencing decline or loss of Pacific salmon typically presuppose that an important pathway by which salmon nutrients are moved to fish (anadromous and/or resident) is via nutrient incorporation by biofilms and subsequent bottom-up stimulation of biofilm production, which is nutrient-limited in many ecosystems where salmon returns have declined. Our objective was to quantify the magnitude of nutrient incorporation and biofilm dynamics that underpin this indirect pathway in response to experimental additions of salmon carcasses and pelletized fish meal (a.k.a., salmon carcass analogs) to 500-m reaches of central Idaho streams over three years. Biofilm standing crops increased 2–8-fold and incorporated marine-derived nutrients (measured using 15N and 13C) in the month following treatment, but these responses did not persist year-to-year. Biofilms were nitrogen (N) limited before treatments, and remained N limited in analog, but not carcass-treated reaches. Despite these biofilm responses, in the month following treatment total N load was equal to 33–47% of the N added to the treated reaches, and N spiraling measurements suggested that as much as 20%, but more likely 2–3% of added N was taken up by microbes. Design of biologically and cost-effective strategies for nutrient addition will require understanding the rates at which stream microbes take up nutrients and the downstream distance traveled by exported nutrients.

  7. Intravital imaging reveals new ancillary mechanisms co-opted by cancer cells to drive tumor progression [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Vennin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Intravital imaging is providing new insights into the dynamics of tumor progression in native tissues and has started to reveal the layers of complexity found in cancer. Recent advances in intravital imaging have allowed us to look deeper into cancer behavior and to dissect the interactions between tumor cells and the ancillary host niche that promote cancer development. In this review, we provide an insight into the latest advances in cancer biology achieved by intravital imaging, focusing on recently discovered mechanisms by which tumor cells manipulate normal tissue to facilitate disease progression.

  8. Intron retention in mRNA encoding ancillary subunit of insect voltage-gated sodium channel modulates channel expression, gating regulation and drug sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline M Bourdin

    Full Text Available Insect voltage-gated sodium (Nav channels are formed by a well-known pore-forming α-subunit encoded by para-like gene and ancillary subunits related to TipE from the mutation "temperature-induced-paralysis locus E." The role of these ancillary subunits in the modulation of biophysical and pharmacological properties of Na(+ currents are not enough documented. The unique neuronal ancillary subunit TipE-homologous protein 1 of Drosophila melanogaster (DmTEH1 strongly enhances the expression of insect Nav channels when heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Here we report the cloning and functional expression of two neuronal DmTEH1-homologs of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana, PaTEH1A and PaTEH1B, encoded by a single bicistronic gene. In PaTEH1B, the second exon encoding the last 11-amino-acid residues of PaTEH1A is shifted to 3'UTR by the retention of a 96-bp intron-containing coding-message, thus generating a new C-terminal end. We investigated the gating and pharmacological properties of the Drosophila Nav channel variant (DmNav1-1 co-expressed with DmTEH1, PaTEH1A, PaTEH1B or a truncated mutant PaTEH1Δ(270-280 in Xenopus oocytes. PaTEH1B caused a 2.2-fold current density decrease, concomitant with an equivalent α-subunit incorporation decrease in the plasma membrane, compared to PaTEH1A and PaTEH1Δ(270-280. PaTEH1B positively shifted the voltage-dependences of activation and slow inactivation of DmNav1-1 channels to more positive potentials compared to PaTEH1A, suggesting that the C-terminal end of both proteins may influence the function of the voltage-sensor and the pore of Nav channel. Interestingly, our findings showed that the sensitivity of DmNav1-1 channels to lidocaine and to the pyrazoline-type insecticide metabolite DCJW depends on associated TEH1-like subunits. In conclusion, our work demonstrates for the first time that density, gating and pharmacological properties of Nav channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes can be

  9. Peer-to-Peer Consultations: Ancillary Services Peer Exchange with India: Experience from South Africa, Europe & the United States (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-01

    In support of national and subnational decision makers, the 21st Century Power Partnership regularly works with country partners to organize peer-to-peer consultations on critical issues. In March 2014, 21CPP collaborated with the Regulatory Assistance Project - India to host two peer-to-peer exchanges among experts from India, South Africa, Europe, and the United States to discuss the provision of ancillary services, particularly in the context of added variability and uncertainty from renewable energy. This factsheet provides a high level summary of the peer-to-peer consultation.

  10. Cooperation through Competition—Dynamics and Microeconomics of a Minimal Nutrient Trade System in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Stephan; Valdebenito, Braulio; Bustos, Daniel; Gomez-Porras, Judith L.; Sharma, Tripti; Dreyer, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    In arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, fungi and plants exchange nutrients (sugars and phosphate, for instance) for reciprocal benefit. Until now it is not clear how this nutrient exchange system works. Here, we used computational cell biology to simulate the dynamics of a network of proton pumps and proton-coupled transporters that are upregulated during AM formation. We show that this minimal network is sufficient to describe accurately and realistically the nutrient trade system. By applying basic principles of microeconomics, we link the biophysics of transmembrane nutrient transport with the ecology of organismic interactions and straightforwardly explain macroscopic scenarios of the relations between plant and AM fungus. This computational cell biology study allows drawing far reaching hypotheses about the mechanism and the regulation of nutrient exchange and proposes that the “cooperation” between plant and fungus can be in fact the result of a competition between both for the same resources in the tiny periarbuscular space. The minimal model presented here may serve as benchmark to evaluate in future the performance of more complex models of AM nutrient exchange. As a first step toward this goal, we included SWEET sugar transporters in the model and show that their co-occurrence with proton-coupled sugar transporters results in a futile carbon cycle at the plant plasma membrane proposing that two different pathways for the same substrate should not be active at the same time. PMID:27446142

  11. Cooperation through Competition-Dynamics and Microeconomics of a Minimal Nutrient Trade System in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Stephan; Valdebenito, Braulio; Bustos, Daniel; Gomez-Porras, Judith L; Sharma, Tripti; Dreyer, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    In arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, fungi and plants exchange nutrients (sugars and phosphate, for instance) for reciprocal benefit. Until now it is not clear how this nutrient exchange system works. Here, we used computational cell biology to simulate the dynamics of a network of proton pumps and proton-coupled transporters that are upregulated during AM formation. We show that this minimal network is sufficient to describe accurately and realistically the nutrient trade system. By applying basic principles of microeconomics, we link the biophysics of transmembrane nutrient transport with the ecology of organismic interactions and straightforwardly explain macroscopic scenarios of the relations between plant and AM fungus. This computational cell biology study allows drawing far reaching hypotheses about the mechanism and the regulation of nutrient exchange and proposes that the "cooperation" between plant and fungus can be in fact the result of a competition between both for the same resources in the tiny periarbuscular space. The minimal model presented here may serve as benchmark to evaluate in future the performance of more complex models of AM nutrient exchange. As a first step toward this goal, we included SWEET sugar transporters in the model and show that their co-occurrence with proton-coupled sugar transporters results in a futile carbon cycle at the plant plasma membrane proposing that two different pathways for the same substrate should not be active at the same time.

  12. Nutrient density: addressing the challenge of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-10-30

    Obesity rates are increasing worldwide. Potential reasons include excessive consumption of sugary beverages and energy-dense foods instead of more nutrient-rich options. On a per kJ basis, energy-dense grains, added sugars and fats cost less, whereas lean meats, seafood, leafy greens and whole fruit generally cost more. Given that consumer food choices are often driven by price, the observed social inequities in diet quality and health can be explained, in part, by nutrition economics. Achieving a nutrient-rich diet at an affordable cost has become progressively more difficult within the constraints of global food supply. However, given the necessary metrics and educational tools, it may be possible to eat better for less. New metrics of nutrient density help consumers identify foods, processed and unprocessed, that are nutrient-rich, affordable and appealing. Affordability metrics, created by adding food prices to food composition data, permit calculations of both kJ and nutrients per penny, allowing for new studies on the economic drivers of food choice. Merging dietary intake data with local or national food prices permits the estimation of individual-level diet costs. New metrics of nutrient balance can help identify those food patterns that provide optimal nutritional value. Behavioural factors, including cooking at home, have been associated with nutrition resilience, defined as healthier diets at lower cost. Studies of the energy and nutrient costs of the global food supply and diverse food patterns will permit a better understanding of the socioeconomic determinants of health. Dietary advice ought to be accompanied by economic feasibility studies.

  13. Declarative Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Loo, Boon Thau

    2012-01-01

    Declarative Networking is a programming methodology that enables developers to concisely specify network protocols and services, which are directly compiled to a dataflow framework that executes the specifications. Declarative networking proposes the use of a declarative query language for specifying and implementing network protocols, and employs a dataflow framework at runtime for communication and maintenance of network state. The primary goal of declarative networking is to greatly simplify the process of specifying, implementing, deploying and evolving a network design. In addition, decla

  14. Variation in wood nutrients along a tropical soil fertility gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineman, Katherine D; Turner, Benjamin L; Dalling, James W

    2016-07-01

    Wood contains the majority of the nutrients in tropical trees, yet controls over wood nutrient concentrations and their function are poorly understood. We measured wood nutrient concentrations in 106 tree species in 10 forest plots spanning a regional fertility gradient in Panama. For a subset of species, we quantified foliar nutrients and wood density to test whether wood nutrients scale with foliar nutrients at the species level, or wood nutrient storage increases with wood density as predicted by the wood economics spectrum. Wood nutrient concentrations varied enormously among species from fourfold in nitrogen (N) to > 30-fold in calcium (Ca), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P). Community-weighted mean wood nutrient concentrations correlated positively with soil Ca, K, Mg and P concentrations. Wood nutrients scaled positively with leaf nutrients, supporting the hypothesis that nutrient allocation is conserved across plant organs. Wood P was most sensitive to variation in soil nutrient availability, and significant radial declines in wood P indicated that tropical trees retranslocate P as sapwood transitions to heartwood. Wood P decreased with increasing wood density, suggesting that low wood P and dense wood are traits associated with tree species persistence on low fertility soils. Substantial variation among species and communities in wood nutrient concentrations suggests that allocation of nutrients to wood, especially P, influences species distributions and nutrient dynamics in tropical forests. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Above-ground biomass and nutrient accumulation in the tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This means that the impact of logging in the Ebom rainforest remains low. However, additional research is needed on nutrient input in the forest from outside as well as on the impact of logging on nutrient leaching in order to get a complete picture of the nutrient cycles. Key-words: phytomass, nutrient pools, logging, ...

  16. Nutrient enrichment during shrimp cultivation alters bacterioplankton assemblies and destroys community stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen; Zheng, Cheng; Zheng, Zhongming; Wei, Yiming; Lu, Kaihong; Zhu, Jinyong

    2018-07-30

    Intensive shrimp farming is generally accompanied by nutrient enrichment and gradual eutrophication, which impose major threats to shrimp culture ecosystems. However, little is known about how the bacterioplankton community in a rearing environment responds to increased eutrophication during shrimp culture processes. In this study, we used the MiSeq sequencing technique to explore the impacts of nutrient enrichment on the assembly and stability of the bacterioplankton community. Our results showed that magnitudes of the changes in the bacterioplankton community compositions (BCCs) and diversity were closely associated with eutrophication level. Moreover, a phylogenetic-based mean nearest taxon distance (MNTD) analysis revealed that increased eutrophication significantly (P bacterioplankton ecological processes from deterministic to stochastic. A structural equation model showed that eutrophication indicators affected the BCCs either directly by controlling resources or indirectly by modifying other environmental variables of the shrimp ponds in complex pathways. Furthermore, association network comparisons revealed that nutrient enrichment increased the complexity of interspecies interactions and the proportion of cooperative interactions and decreased the proportion of generalists, which suggest that nutrient enrichment destroyed the community stability. These findings suggest that minimizing nutrient pollution, especially at the end of cultivation, could be an important management tool for establishing a microbially mature water system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in the nutrient and anti-nutrient content of micro-fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, micro-fungi fermentation did not cause a significant change (P > 0.05) in mineral content (except Mg and K) of the fermented cassava flour. Therefore, unfermented cassava flour produced from low-cyanide cassava tubers had high nutrient composition and low anti-nutrient content, and more susceptible to ...

  18. Differences in egg nutrient availability, development, and nutrient metabolism of broiler and layer embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangsuay, A.; Molenaar, R.; Meijerhof, R.; Anker, van den I.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2015-01-01

    Selection for production traits of broilers and layers leads to physiological differences, which may already be present during incubation. This study aimed to investigate the influence of strain (broiler vs layer) on egg nutrient availability, embryonic development and nutrient metabolism. A total

  19. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals, Number 10: Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals. Third Revised Edition, 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Board on Agricultural and Renewable Resources.

    This report deals with the nutrient requirements of seven species of animals used extensively for biomedical research in the United States. Following an introductory chapter of general information on nutrition, chapters are presented on the nutrient requirements of the laboratory rat, mouse, gerbil, guinea pig, hamster, vole, and fishes. Each…

  20. Leaf absorption of mineral nutrients in carnivorous plants stimulates root nutrient uptake

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamec, Lubomír

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 155, - (2002), s. 89-100 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6005905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : terrestrial carnivorous plant s * utilization of prey * mineral nutrient re-utilization * leaf nutrient supply Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.945, year: 2002

  1. Nutrient Limitation in Central Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan

    2016-12-24

    As coastal plants that can survive in salt water, mangroves play an essential role in large marine ecosystems (LMEs). The Red Sea, where the growth of mangroves is stunted, is one of the least studied LMEs in the world. Mangroves along the Central Red Sea have characteristic heights of ~2 m, suggesting nutrient limitation. We assessed the nutrient status of mangrove stands in the Central Red Sea and conducted a fertilization experiment (N, P and Fe and various combinations thereof) on 4-week-old seedlings of Avicennia marina to identify limiting nutrients and stoichiometric effects. We measured height, number of leaves, number of nodes and root development at different time periods as well as the leaf content of C, N, P, Fe, and Chl a in the experimental seedlings. Height, number of nodes and number of leaves differed significantly among treatments. Iron treatment resulted in significantly taller plants compared with other nutrients, demonstrating that iron is the primary limiting nutrient in the tested mangrove population and confirming Liebig\\'s law of the minimum: iron addition alone yielded results comparable to those using complete fertilizer. This result is consistent with the biogenic nature of the sediments in the Red Sea, which are dominated by carbonates, and the lack of riverine sources of iron.

  2. Fishing down nutrients on coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgeier, Jacob E.; Valdivia, Abel; Cox, Courtney; Layman, Craig A.

    2016-08-01

    Fishing is widely considered a leading cause of biodiversity loss in marine environments, but the potential effect on ecosystem processes, such as nutrient fluxes, is less explored. Here, we test how fishing on Caribbean coral reefs influences biodiversity and ecosystem functions provided by the fish community, that is, fish-mediated nutrient capacity. Specifically, we modelled five processes of nutrient storage (in biomass) and supply (via excretion) of nutrients, as well as a measure of their multifunctionality, onto 143 species of coral reef fishes across 110 coral reef fish communities. These communities span a gradient from extreme fishing pressure to protected areas with little to no fishing. We find that in fished sites fish-mediated nutrient capacity is reduced almost 50%, despite no substantial changes in the number of species. Instead, changes in community size and trophic structure were the primary cause of shifts in ecosystem function. These findings suggest that a broader perspective that incorporates predictable impacts of fishing pressure on ecosystem function is imperative for effective coral reef conservation and management.

  3. Nutrients affecting brain composition and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    This review examines the changes in brain composition and in various brain functions, including behavior, that can follow the ingestion of particular foods or nutrients. It details those that are best understood: the increases in serotonin, catecholamine, or acetylcholine synthesis that can occur subsequent to food-induced increases in brain levels of tryptophan, tyrosine, or choline; it also discusses the various processes that must intervene between the mouth and the synapse, so to speak, in order for a nutrient to affect neurotransmission, and it speculates as to additional brain chemicals that may ultimately be found to be affected by changes in the availability of their nutrient precursors. Because the brain chemicals best known to be nutrient dependent overlap with those thought to underlie the actions of most of the drugs used to treat psychiatric diseases, knowledge of this dependence may help the psychiatrist to understand some of the pathologic processes occurring in his/her patients, particularly those with appetitive symptoms. At the very least, such knowledge should provide the psychiatrist with objective criteria for judging when to take seriously assertions that particular foods or nutrients do indeed affect behavior (e.g., in hyperactive children). If the food can be shown to alter neurotransmitter release, it may be behaviorally-active; however, if it lacks a discernible neurochemical effect, the likelihood that it really alters behavior is small.

  4. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Sharon I; Hoerr, Sharon L; Mendoza, Jason A; Tsuei Goh, Eugenia

    2008-11-01

    Exposure of children to kids meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, ie, "kids meals." The nutrient quality of kids meals was assessed primarily by using criteria from the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). Analysis compared the nutrient values of meals offered by major fast food companies with restaurants in Houston, TX, with complete publicly available data. Data described every combination of meals offered in the target market. For each meal combination, the following were analyzed: total energy, percentage of energy from fat, total fat, saturated fat, sodium, total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, added sugars, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, iron, energy density (food only), and the number of NSLP nutrient criteria met. Three percent of kids meals met all NSLP criteria. Those that met all criteria offered a side of fruit plus milk. Most were deli-sandwich-based meals. Meals that met the criteria had about one-third the fat, one-sixth the added sugars, twice the iron, and 3 times the amount of vitamin A and calcium as did kids meals that did not meet the criteria (P Kids meals that met the NSLP criteria are uncommon and are lower in energy density. These meals may contribute to the nutritional status of children.

  5. Vehicle Ancillary Load Reduction Project Close-Out Report: An Overview of the Task and a Compilation of the Research Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, J.; Farrington, R.

    2008-01-01

    The amount of fuel used for climate control in U.S. vehicles reduces the fuel economy of more than 200 million light-duty conventional vehicles and thus affects U.S. energy security. Researchers at the DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory estimated that the United States consumes about 7 billion gallons of fuel per year for air-conditioning (A/C) light-duty vehicles. Using a variety of tools, NREL researchers developed innovative techniques and technologies to reduce the amount of fuel needed for these vehicles' ancillary loads. For example, they found that the A/C cooling capacity of 5.7 kW in a Cadillac STS could be reduced by 30% while maintaining a cooldown performance of 30 minutes. A simulation showed that reducing the A/C load by 30% decreased A/C fuel consumption by 26%. Other simulations supported the great potential for improving fuel economy by using new technologies and techniques developed to reduce ancillary loads.

  6. Mesenteric vascular occlusion: Comparison of ancillary CT findings between arterial and venous occlusions and independent CT findings suggesting life-threatening events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Yon Cheong; Wu, Cheng Hsien; Wang, Li Jen; Chen, Huan Wu; Lin, Being Chuan; Huang, Chen Chih [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan (China)

    2013-01-15

    To compare the ancillary CT findings between superior mesenteric artery thromboembolism (SMAT) and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis (SMVT), and to determine the independent CT findings of life-threatening mesenteric occlusion. Our study was approved by the institution review board. We included 43 patients (21 SMAT and 22 SMVT between 1999 and 2008) of their median age of 60.0 years, and retrospectively analyzed their CT scans. Medical records were reviewed for demographics, management, surgical pathology diagnosis, and outcome. We compared CT findings between SMAT and SMVT groups. Multivariate analysis was conducted to determine the independent CT findings of life-threatening mesenteric occlusion. Of 43 patients, 24 had life-threatening mesenteric occlusion. Death related to mesenteric occlusion was 32.6%. A thick bowel wall (p < 0.001), mesenteric edema (p < 0.001), and ascites (p = 0.009) were more frequently associated with SMVT, whereas diminished bowel enhancement (p = 0.003) and paralytic ileus (p = 0.039) were more frequent in SMAT. Diminished bowel enhancement (OR = 20; p = 0.007) and paralytic ileus (OR = 16; p = 0.033) were independent findings suggesting life-threatening mesenteric occlusion. The ancillary CT findings occur with different frequencies in SMAT and SMVT. However, the independent findings indicating life-threatening mesenteric occlusion are diminished bowel wall enhancement and paralytic ileus.

  7. Mesenteric vascular occlusion: Comparison of ancillary CT findings between arterial and venous occlusions and independent CT findings suggesting life-threatening events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Yon Cheong; Wu, Cheng Hsien; Wang, Li Jen; Chen, Huan Wu; Lin, Being Chuan; Huang, Chen Chih

    2013-01-01

    To compare the ancillary CT findings between superior mesenteric artery thromboembolism (SMAT) and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis (SMVT), and to determine the independent CT findings of life-threatening mesenteric occlusion. Our study was approved by the institution review board. We included 43 patients (21 SMAT and 22 SMVT between 1999 and 2008) of their median age of 60.0 years, and retrospectively analyzed their CT scans. Medical records were reviewed for demographics, management, surgical pathology diagnosis, and outcome. We compared CT findings between SMAT and SMVT groups. Multivariate analysis was conducted to determine the independent CT findings of life-threatening mesenteric occlusion. Of 43 patients, 24 had life-threatening mesenteric occlusion. Death related to mesenteric occlusion was 32.6%. A thick bowel wall (p < 0.001), mesenteric edema (p < 0.001), and ascites (p = 0.009) were more frequently associated with SMVT, whereas diminished bowel enhancement (p = 0.003) and paralytic ileus (p = 0.039) were more frequent in SMAT. Diminished bowel enhancement (OR = 20; p = 0.007) and paralytic ileus (OR = 16; p = 0.033) were independent findings suggesting life-threatening mesenteric occlusion. The ancillary CT findings occur with different frequencies in SMAT and SMVT. However, the independent findings indicating life-threatening mesenteric occlusion are diminished bowel wall enhancement and paralytic ileus.

  8. USA Nutrient managment forecasting via the "Fertilizer Forecaster": linking surface runnof, nutrient application and ecohydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drohan, Patrick; Buda, Anthony; Kleinman, Peter; Miller, Douglas; Lin, Henry; Beegle, Douglas; Knight, Paul

    2017-04-01

    USA and state nutrient management planning offers strategic guidance that strives to educate farmers and those involved in nutrient management to make wise management decisions. A goal of such programs is to manage hotspots of water quality degradation that threaten human and ecosystem health, water and food security. The guidance provided by nutrient management plans does not provide the day-to-day support necessary to make operational decisions, particularly when and where to apply nutrients over the short term. These short-term decisions on when and where to apply nutrients often make the difference between whether the nutrients impact water quality or are efficiently utilized by crops. Infiltrating rainfall events occurring shortly after broadcast nutrient applications are beneficial, given they will wash soluble nutrients into the soil where they are used by crops. Rainfall events that generate runoff shortly after nutrients are broadcast may wash off applied nutrients, and produce substantial nutrient losses from that site. We are developing a model and data based support tool for nutrient management, the Fertilizer Forecaster, which identifies the relative probability of runoff or infiltrating events in Pennsylvania (PA) landscapes in order to improve water quality. This tool will support field specific decisions by farmers and land managers on when and where to apply fertilizers and manures over 24, 48 and 72 hour periods. Our objectives are to: (1) monitor agricultural hillslopes in watersheds representing four of the five Physiographic Provinces of the Chesapeake Bay basin; (2) validate a high resolution mapping model that identifies soils prone to runoff; (3) develop an empirically based approach to relate state-of-the-art weather forecast variables to site-specific rainfall infiltration or runoff occurrence; (4) test the empirical forecasting model against alternative approaches to forecasting runoff occurrence; and (5) recruit farmers from the four

  9. Nutrient (N, P, Si) transfers in the subtropical Red River system (China and Vietnam): Modelling and budget of nutrient sources and sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thi Phuong Quynh; Gilles, Billen; Garnier, Josette; Sylvain, Théry; Denis, Ruelland; Anh, Nghiem Xuan; Minh, Chau Van

    2010-02-01

    The Red River system, which has a population density that varies from 80 to over 1000 inhabitants km -2 in the different sectors of its watershed, is a typical example of a subtropical system experiencing high human pressure. A monthly survey of nutrient concentration was conducted at the outlet of the three main tributaries (Da, Thao and Lo) and at Hanoi on the main branch of the Red River in the upper part of the delta. Samples from headwater streams or irrigation channels draining homogeneous land use classes also were analysed. A GIS database describing the characteristics of the watershed in terms of morphology, climate, land use and population has been established. This served as the basis for implementing the Seneque/Riverstrahler model, which allowed calculation of nutrient transfers and transformations along the whole drainage network of the Red River system. The model was validated using the measured nutrient concentrations obtained during the survey and was used to establish an overall description and a comprehensive budget of nutrient transfer, retention and delivery for the three main sub-basins and the upper part of the delta upstream from Hanoi.

  10. Continental-Scale Effects of Nutrient Pollution on Stream Ecosystem Functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Woodward , Guy; Gessner , Mark O.; Giller , Paul S.; Gulis , Vladislav; Hladyz , Sally; Lecerf , Antoine; Malmqvist , Björn; McKie , Brendan G.; Tiegs , Scott D.; Cariss , Helen; Dobson , Mike; Elosegi , Arturo; Ferreira , Veronica; Graça , Manuel A. S.; Fleituch , Tadeusz

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Excessive nutrient loading is a major threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide that leads to profound changes in aquatic biodiversity and biogeochemical processes. Systematic quantitative assessment of functional ecosystem measures for river networks is, however, lacking, especially at continental scales. Here, we narrow this gap by means of a pan-European field experiment on a fundamental ecosystem process--leaf-litter breakdown--in 100 streams across a greater than 100...

  11. Aeolian Nutrient Fluxes Following Wildfire in Sagebrush Steppe: Implications for Soil Carbon Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    Geographic Science Center and USA-National Phenology Network, 1955 E 6th St, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA ****current address: Faculty of Agriculture, Food...mean±SE of non-transformed data). All sta- tistical analyses were performed using SPSS statistical soft- ware ( SPSS Inc., v 16.0, 2007). 3 Results...nutrient data and Jeremy Greth assisted in soil analyses. Edited by: M. Bahn www.biogeosciences.net/8/3649/2011/ Biogeosciences, 8, 3649–3659, 2011 3658 N

  12. Nutrient responses to ecosystem disturbances from annual to multi-millennial timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Buma

    2014-01-01

    The Novus Network annual meeting was held at H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest in Oregon, USA, from 22 May to 24 May 2013. The topic was: ‘Nutrient responses to ecosystem disturbances from annual to multi-millennial timescales’. The 2013 workshop brought together 28 researchers from 21 institutions spread across three continents. The participants – 17 faculty members,...

  13. Nutrient balances in the forest energy cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Bengt

    2006-02-01

    In Sweden, recycling of stabilised wood-ashes to forests is considered to compensate for nutrient removals from whole-tree harvesting (i.e. use of harvest residues - slash - for energy purposes). This study has analysed nutrient fluxes through the complete forest energy cycle and estimated mass balances of nutrients in harvested biomass with those in ashes, to investigate the realism in large-scale nutrient compensation with wood-ash. Expected nutrient fluxes from forests through energy plants were calculated based on nutrient and biomass data of forest stands in the Nordic countries, and from data on nutrient fluxes through CFB-plants. The expected stoichiometric composition of wood-ashes was compared with the composition of CFB-fly ashes from various Swedish energy plants. Nutrient contents for different tree fractions were calculated to express the average nutrient concentrations in slash and stems with bark, respectively. A nutrient budget synthesis of the effects of whole-tree harvesting on base cation turnover in the following stand was presented for two experimental sites. Major conclusions from the study are: In the CFB-scenario, where the bottom ash is deposited and only the fly ash can be applied to forests, the fly ash from the slash do not meet the demands for nutrient compensation for slash harvesting. Stem material (50% wood, 50% bark) must be added at equivalent amounts, as the slash to produce the amounts of fly ash needed for compensation of slash harvesting. In the scenario where more stem material was added (75% of total fuel load), the amounts of fly ashes produced hardly compensated for nutrient removals with both stem and slash harvesting. The level of nutrient compensation was lowest for potassium. The stoichiometric nutrient composition of CFB-fly ashes from Swedish energy plants is not similar with the nutrient composition of tree biomass. The higher Ca/P ratio in ashes is only partly explained by the mixture of fuels (e.g. increasing bark

  14. Dietary Restriction and Nutrient Balance in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary regimens that favour reduced calorie intake delay aging and age-associated diseases. New evidences revealed that nutritional balance of dietary components without food restriction increases lifespan. Particular nutrients as several nitrogen sources, proteins, amino acid, and ammonium are implicated in life and healthspan regulation in different model organisms from yeast to mammals. Aging and dietary restriction interact through partially overlapping mechanisms in the activation of the conserved nutrient-signalling pathways, mainly the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IIS and the Target Of Rapamycin (TOR. The specific nutrients of dietary regimens, their balance, and how they interact with different genes and pathways are currently being uncovered. Taking into account that dietary regimes can largely influence overall human health and changes in risk factors such as cholesterol level and blood pressure, these new findings are of great importance to fully comprehend the interplay between diet and humans health.

  15. Plant nutrient transporter regulation in arbuscular mycorrhizas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burleigh, Stephen; Bechmann, I.E.

    2002-01-01

    of nutrition. Their down-regulation in mycorrhizal roots, therefore, would be predicted as a result of symbiotic function. A variety of studies on Pi- Zn- and ammonium- or nitrate-transporter genes from two plant species indirectly support this model. For example, one study showed that the expression......This review discusses the role arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi play in the regulation of plant nutrient transporter genes. Many plant nutrient transporter genes appear to be transcriptionally regulated by a feed-back mechanism that reduces their expression when the plant reaches an optimal level...... of the high-affinity Pi-transporter MtPT2 within mycorrhizal roots of Medicago truncatula was inversely correlated with the concentration of P within the shoots, which suggested that P supply from the fungus influenced this gene's expression. However, there is some evidence that these plant nutrient...

  16. Synergism between inositol polyphosphates and TOR kinase signaling in nutrient sensing, growth control, and lipid metabolism in Chlamydomonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The networks that govern carbon metabolism and control intracellular carbon partitioning in photosynthetic cells are poorly understood. Target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase is a conserved growth regulator that integrates nutrient signals and modulates cell growth in eukaryotes, though the TOR signaling ...

  17. Molecular network topology and reliability for multipurpose diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, MA; Moongfangklang, N; Innate, K; Mitatha, S; Ali, J; Yupapin, PP

    2011-01-01

    This investigation proposes the use of molecular network topology for drug delivery and diagnosis network design. Three modules of molecular network topologies, such as bus, star, and ring networks, are designed and manipulated based on a micro- and nanoring resonator system. The transportation of the trapping molecules by light in the network is described and the theoretical background is reviewed. The quality of the network is analyzed and calculated in terms of signal transmission (ie, signal to noise ratio and crosstalk effects). Results obtained show that a bus network has advantages over star and ring networks, where the use of mesh networks is possible. In application, a thin film network can be fabricated in the form of a waveguide and embedded in artificial bone, which can be connected to the required drug targets. The particular drug/nutrient can be transported to the required targets via the particular network used. PMID:22072875

  18. Molecular network topology and reliability for multipurpose diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moongfangklang, N; Jalil, M A; Innate, K; Mitatha, S; Ali, J; Yupapin, P P

    2011-01-01

    This investigation proposes the use of molecular network topology for drug delivery and diagnosis network design. Three modules of molecular network topologies, such as bus, star, and ring networks, are designed and manipulated based on a micro- and nanoring resonator system. The transportation of the trapping molecules by light in the network is described and the theoretical background is reviewed. The quality of the network is analyzed and calculated in terms of signal transmission (ie, signal to noise ratio and crosstalk effects). Results obtained show that a bus network has advantages over star and ring networks, where the use of mesh networks is possible. In application, a thin film network can be fabricated in the form of a waveguide and embedded in artificial bone, which can be connected to the required drug targets. The particular drug/nutrient can be transported to the required targets via the particular network used.

  19. Network analysis applications in hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Katie

    2017-04-01

    Applied network theory has seen pronounced expansion in recent years, in fields such as epidemiology, computer science, and sociology. Concurrent development of analytical methods and frameworks has increased possibilities and tools available to researchers seeking to apply network theory to a variety of problems. While water and nutrient fluxes through stream systems clearly demonstrate a directional network structure, the hydrological applications of network theory remain under­explored. This presentation covers a review of network applications in hydrology, followed by an overview of promising network analytical tools that potentially offer new insights into conceptual modeling of hydrologic systems, identifying behavioral transition zones in stream networks and thresholds of dynamical system response. Network applications were tested along an urbanization gradient in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Peachtree Creek and Proctor Creek. Peachtree Creek contains a nest of five long­term USGS streamflow and water quality gages, allowing network application of long­term flow statistics. The watershed spans a range of suburban and heavily urbanized conditions. Summary flow statistics and water quality metrics were analyzed using a suite of network analysis techniques, to test the conceptual modeling and predictive potential of the methodologies. Storm events and low flow dynamics during Summer 2016 were analyzed using multiple network approaches, with an emphasis on tomogravity methods. Results indicate that network theory approaches offer novel perspectives for understanding long­ term and event­based hydrological data. Key future directions for network applications include 1) optimizing data collection, 2) identifying "hotspots" of contaminant and overland flow influx to stream systems, 3) defining process domains, and 4) analyzing dynamic connectivity of various system components, including groundwater­surface water interactions.

  20. Nutrient use and uptake in Pinus taeda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaugh, Timothy J; Allen, H Lee; Fox, Thomas R

    2008-07-01

    We quantified nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) content, use (nutrient amount for one growth year), retranslocation (nutrients recycled before foliage senescence), uptake (use minus retranslocation), volume production per unit of uptake and fertilizer-uptake efficiency (percent applied taken up) in a 2 x 2 (nutrient and water) factorial experiment replicated four times in an 8-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stand growing on a nutrient-poor sandy soil in Scotland County, North Carolina, USA. Over 14 years, we applied 1140, 168, 393, 168 and 146 kg ha(-1) of elemental N, P, K, Ca and Mg fertilizer, respectively, and an average of 710 mm year(-1) of irrigation. All plots received complete vegetation control. Fertilization about doubled tissue N, P, K and Mg contents at age 21, whereas irrigation resulted in smaller increases in nutrient contents. Maximum annual uptake was 101, 9.3, 44, 37 and 13 kg ha(-1) year(-1) and volume production per unit of nutrient uptake was 0.35, 3.5, 0.66, 1.1 and 3.1 m(3) kg(-1), for N, P, K, Ca and Mg, respectively. Irrigated plots had greater volume production per unit of N, P, K and Mg uptake than control plots, likely because irrigation allowed photosynthesis to continue during dry periods. Fertilized plus irrigated plots had less volume production per unit of these elements than the fertilized plots either because nutrient uptake exceeded the requirement for optimum growth or because available water (rainfall plus irrigation) was insufficient for the leaf area achieved with fertilization. At age 19, fertilizer-uptake efficiencies for N, P, K, Ca and Mg were 53, 24, 62, 57 and 39%, respectively, and increased with irrigation to 68, 36, 78, 116 and 55%, respectively. The scale of fertilizer uptake was likely a result of low native site nutrient availability, study longevity, measurement of all tissue components on site, a comprehensive assessment of coarse roots, and the 3-m rooting

  1. Network cohesion

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcanti, Tiago Vanderlei; Giannitsarou, Chrysi; Johnson, CR

    2017-01-01

    We define a measure of network cohesion and show how it arises naturally in a broad class of dynamic models of endogenous perpetual growth with network externalities. Via a standard growth model, we show why network cohesion is crucial for conditional convergence and explain that as cohesion increases, convergence is faster. We prove properties of network cohesion and define a network aggregator that preserves network cohesion.

  2. Characterization of nutrient deficiency in Hancornia speciosa Gomes seedlings by omitting micronutrients from the nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layara Alexandre Bessa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Mangaba tree is a fruit tree belonging to the Apocynaceae family and is native to Brazil. The production of seedlings of this species is limited by a lack of technical and nutritional expertise. To address this deficiency, this study aimed to characterize the visual symptoms of micronutrient deficiency and to assess growth and leaf nutrient accumulation in H. speciosa seedlings supplied with nutrient solutions that lack individual micronutrients. H. speciosa plants were grown in nutrient solution in a greenhouse according to a randomized block design, with four replicates. The treatments consisted of a group receiving complete nutrient solution and groups treated with a nutrient solution lacking one of the following micronutrients: boron (B, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, and molybdenum (Mo. The visual symptoms of nutrient deficiency were generally easy to characterize. Dry matter production was affected by the omission of micronutrients, and the treatment lacking Fe most limited the stem length, stem diameter, root length, and number of leaves in H. speciosa seedlings as well as the dry weight of leaves, the total dry weight, and the relative growth in H. speciosa plants. The micronutrient contents of H. speciosa leaves from plants receiving the complete nutrient solution treatment were, in decreasing order, Fe>Mn>Cu>Zn>B.

  3. The EPIC nutrient database project (ENDB): a first attempt to standardize nutrient databases across the 10 European countries participating in the EPIC study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, N.; Deharveng, G.; Unwin, I.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This paper describes the ad hoc methodological concepts and procedures developed to improve the comparability of Nutrient databases ( NDBs) across the 10 European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ( EPIC). This was required...... because there is currently no European reference NDB available. Design: A large network involving national compilers, nutritionists and experts on food chemistry and computer science was set up for the 'EPIC Nutrient DataBase' ( ENDB) project. A total of 550-1500 foods derived from about 37 000...... standardized EPIC 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRS) were matched as closely as possible to foods available in the 10 national NDBs. The resulting national data sets ( NDS) were then successively documented, standardized and evaluated according to common guidelines and using a DataBase Management System...

  4. Nutrient sequestration in Aquitaine lakes (SW France) limits nutrient flux to the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buquet, Damien; Anschutz, Pierre; Charbonnier, Céline; Rapin, Anne; Sinays, Rémy; Canredon, Axel; Bujan, Stéphane; Poirier, Dominique

    2017-12-01

    Oligotrophic coastal zones are disappearing from increased nutrient loading. The quantity of nutrients reaching the coast is determined not only by their original source (e.g. fertilizers used in agriculture, waste water discharges) and the land use, but also by the pathways through which nutrients are cycled from the source to the river mouth. In particular, lakes sequester nutrients and, hence, reduce downstream transfer of nutrients to coastal environments. Here, we quantify the impact of Aquitaine great lakes on the fluxes of dissolved macro-nutrients (N, P, Si) to the Bay of Biscay. For that, we have measured nutrient concentrations and fluxes in 2014 upstream and downstream lakes of Lacanau and Carcans-Hourtin, which belongs to the catchment of the Arcachon Bay, which is the largest coastal lagoon of the Bay of Biscay French coast. Data were compared to values obtained from the Leyre river, the main freshwater and nutrient source for the lagoon. Results show that processes in lakes greatly limit nutrient flux to the lagoon compared to fluxes from Leyre river, although the watershed is similar in terms of land cover. In lakes, phosphorus and silicon are trapped for long term in the sediment, silicon as amorphous biogenic silica and phosphorus as organic P and P associated with Fe-oxides. Nitrogen that enters lakes mostly as nitrate is used for primary production. N is mineralized in the sediment; a fraction diffuses as ammonium. N2 production through benthic denitrification extracts only 10% of dissolved inorganic nitrogen from the aquatic system. The main part is sequestered in organic-rich sediment that accumulates below 5 m depth in both lakes.

  5. Fast detection of nutrient limitation in macroalgae and seagrass with nutrient-induced fluorescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost den Haan

    Full Text Available Rapid determination of which nutrients limit the primary production of macroalgae and seagrasses is vital for understanding the impacts of eutrophication on marine and freshwater ecosystems. However, current methods to assess nutrient limitation are often cumbersome and time consuming. For phytoplankton, a rapid method has been described based on short-term changes in chlorophyll fluorescence upon nutrient addition, also known as Nutrient-Induced Fluorescence Transients (NIFTs. Thus far, though, the NIFT technique was not well suited for macroalgae and seagrasses.We developed a new experimental setup so that the NIFT technique can be used to assess nutrient limitation of benthic macroalgae and seagrasses. We first tested the applicability of the technique on sea lettuce (Ulva lactuca cultured in the laboratory on nutrient-enriched medium without either nitrogen or phosphorus. Addition of the limiting nutrient resulted in a characteristic change in the fluorescence signal, whereas addition of non-limiting nutrients did not yield a response. Next, we applied the NIFT technique to field samples of the encrusting fan-leaf alga Lobophora variegata, one of the key algal species often involved in the degradation of coral reef ecosystems. The results pointed at co-limitation of L. variegata by phosphorus and nitrogen, although it responded more strongly to phosphate than to nitrate and ammonium addition. For turtle grass (Thalassia testudinum we found the opposite result, with a stronger NIFT response to nitrate and ammonium than to phosphate.Our extension of the NIFT technique offers an easy and fast method (30-60 min per sample to determine nutrient limitation of macroalgae and seagrasses. We successfully applied this technique to macroalgae on coral reef ecosystems and to seagrass in a tropical inner bay, and foresee wider application to other aquatic plants, and to other marine and freshwater ecosystems.

  6. Network cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology.

  7. Performance, Nutrient Utilization and Intestinal Environment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance, nutrient utilization and intestinal environment of weaned rabbits fed diets supplemented with organic acids (acetic acid, citric acid and formic acid) were investigated with 24 (6-week old) rabbits in a completely randomized design. The control diet was not supplemented while others were supplemented ...

  8. Decomposition and Nutrient Release Patterns of Pueraria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report on a study to determine the decomposition and nutrient release patterns of Pueraria phaseoloides and Flemingia macrophylla leaf residues under two rainfall regimes in southern Cameroon. Fresh leaf material of the two legume species were put in litter bags and placed on the soil surface for 120 days at ...

  9. Chemical and nutrient characterization of Solanum pseudocapsicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    of pharmaceutical and biodegradable industrial raw material is discussed. Key words: Solanum pseudocapsicum, berries, chemical composition, alkaloids nutrients. .... preservative and in the production of fabrics and plastics. Majority of the compounds identified in these berries are reported to have pharmacological and ...

  10. 21 CFR 107.100 - Nutrient specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrient specifications. 107.100 Section 107.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Vitamin K Micrograms 4 Thiamine (vitamin B1) do 40 Riboflavin (vitamin B2) do 60 Vitamin B6 do 35 Vitamin...

  11. Riverine influence determines nearshore heterogeneity of nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) Bight, a narrow shelf area on the south-east coast of South Africa, bordering the Agulhas Current. Three suggested nutrient sources to the bight are the Thukela River in the central region of the bight, upwelling in the northern part and a semi-permanent eddy (Durban Eddy) in the southern part.

  12. NUTRIENTS AND EPIGENETICS IN BOVINE CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a chapter for a book titled “Livestock Epigenetics” edited by Dr. Hasan Khatib and published by Wiley-Blackwell. This chapter is focused on the research development in our laboratory in the area of interaction of nutrients and genomic phonotype in bovine cells. Briefly, the Research on nutri...

  13. Dietary nutrients, additives, and fish health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disease outbreaks have become a major threat to the sustainability of the aquaculture industry, with antibiotics and chemicals historically used to treat animals ineffective or not allowed to be used today. In this book Dietary Nutrients, Additives, and Fish Health, the relationships between dietar...

  14. Uncertainty Propagation in an Ecosystem Nutrient Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New aspects and advancements in classical uncertainty propagation methods were used to develop a nutrient budget with associated error for a northern Gulf of Mexico coastal embayment. Uncertainty was calculated for budget terms by propagating the standard error and degrees of fr...

  15. Complementary Feeding Practices And Nutrient Intake From ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and 12-18 months of age, the daily nutrient intakes were 88%, 121% and 94% for energy; 33%, 52% and 59% for iron and 30%, 33% and 38% for calcium, respectively. Fortification of complementary foods is necessary to meet infants' needs for iron and calcium. Keywords: Complementary feeding, infants, iron, Zambia.

  16. Nutrients requirements in biological industrial wastewater treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewaters from olive mills and pulp and paper mill industries in Jordan have been characterized and treated using laboratory scale anaerobic and aerobic sequencing batch reactors, respectively. Nutrient requirements for these two industrial wastewaters were found to be less than what is usually reported in the literature ...

  17. Decomposition and nutrient release patterns of Pueraria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decomposition and nutrient release patterns of Pueraria phaseoloides, Flemingia macrophylla and Chromolaena odorata leaf residues in tropical land use ... The slowest releases, irrespective of type of leaf residue, were in Ca and Mg. The study concluded that among the planted fallows, Pueraria phaseoloides had the ...

  18. Nutrient composition and contribution of plantain ( Musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some plantain (Musa paradisiacea) products, which serve as dietary staple in Nigeria were studied for their nutrient composition and contribution to dietary diversification of consumers. Unripe plantain was purchased from Oje market in Ibadan, Nigeria. Proximate, mineral and vitamin composition of raw, sundried, ...

  19. Assessing Soil Nutrient Additions through Different Composting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    is potentially better growth medium amendment when compared with traditional compost types. The use of vermi-compost is, therefore, very helpful in terms of providing beneficial soil nutrients as compared to other compost types. In contrast to the other chemical and biological properties, the highest pH was recorded in the.

  20. Apparent nutrient digestibility and performance of Heterobranchus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of nutrients is a useful tool for fish diet formulation, which gives the right estimation of growth, thereby reducing waste products. The ADCs of crude protein, energy and dry matter of processed earthworm, Libyodrilus violaceus meal by Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings ...

  1. Biological Nutrient Removal in Compact Biofilm Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassin, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The removal of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus from both domestic and industrial wastewaters is imperative since they potentially harm the environment. One of the main consequences of excessive availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in aquatic ecosystems (freshwater, marine and estuarine)

  2. Performance, carcass characteristic and apparent nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth responses, carcass evaluation and nutrient utilization were estimated. Data obtained were subjected to 2x3 factorial arrangement within the completely randomized design (CRD). Feed: Gain was influenced by the level of the palm kernel by-products during 1-28days of study. The weight gained during the 56 days ...

  3. Breast milk nutrient content and infancy growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prentice, Philippa; Ong, Ken K.; Schoemaker, Marieke H.; Tol, van Eric A.F.; Vervoort, Jacques; Hughes, Ieuan A.; Acerini, Carlo L.; Dunger, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Benefits of human breast milk (HM) in avoiding rapid infancy weight gain and later obesity could relate to its nutrient content. We tested the hypothesis that differential HM total calorie content (TCC) or macronutrient contents may be associated with infancy growth. Methods: HM hindmilk

  4. Roots, plant production and nutrient use efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigen, de P.; Noordwijk, van M.

    1987-01-01

    The role of roots in obtaining high crop production levels as well as a high nutrient use efficiency is discussed. Mathematical models of diffusion and massflow of solutes towards roots are developed for a constant daily uptake requirement. Analytical solutions are given for simple and more

  5. Nutrient Film Technique (NFT Hydroponic Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmy Helmy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant cultivation using hydroponic is very popular today. Nutrient Film Technique (NFT hydroponic system is commonly used by people. It can be applied indoor or outdoor. Plants in this systemneed nutrient solution to grow well. pH, TDS and temperature of the nutrient solution must be check to ensure plant gets sufficient nutrients. This research aims todevelop monitoring system of NFT hydroponic. Farmer will be able to monitor pH, TDS and temperature online. It will ease farmer to decide which plant is suitable to be cultivated and time to boost growth.Delay of the system will be measured to know system performance. Result shows that pH is directly proportional with TDS. Temperature value has no correlation with pH and TDS. System has highest delay during daylight and afternoon but it will decline in the night and morning. Average of delay in the morning is 11 s, 28.5 s in daylight, 32 s in the afternoon and 17.5 s in the night.

  6. Fate of Nutrients in Human Dominated Ecosystems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Jakkur lake, wastewater, sewage treatment, nutrient flux, mass balance. Abstract. Jakkur Lake in the city of Bengaluru covers an approximatearea of 55 hectares and primarily receives inflows from theJakkur sewage treatment plant (STP) and an open storm drain.Jakkur STP discharges an average of 10 million ...

  7. Performance characteristics and nutrient digestibility of Finisher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the performance characteristics, nutrient digestibility and blood chemistry of Finishing (84-112d) turkeys fed diets containing 100 g/kg MSP supplemented with varying combinations of enzyme and yeast. A total of 100 day-old, British United Turkeys (BUT) turkeys were reared for ...

  8. Nutrient limitation in tropical savannas across multiple scales and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Adam F A

    2016-02-01

    Nutrients have been hypothesized to influence the distribution of the savanna biome through two possible mechanisms. Low nutrient availability may restrict growth rates of trees, thereby allowing for intermittent fires to maintain low tree cover; alternatively, nutrient deficiency may even place an absolute constraint on the ability of forests to form, independent of fire. However, we have little understanding of the scales at which nutrient limitation operates, what nutrients are limiting, and the mechanisms that influence how nutrient limitation regulates savanna-forest transitions. Here, I review literature, synthesize existing data, and present a simple calculation of nutrient demand to evaluate how nutrient limitation may regulate the distribution of the savanna biome. The literature primarily supports the hypothesis that nutrients may interact dynamically with fire to restrict the transition of savanna into forest. A compilation of indirect metrics of nutrient limitation suggest that nitrogen and phosphorus are both in short supply and may limit plants. Nutrient demand calculations provided a number of insights. First, trees required high rates of nitrogen and phosphorus supply relative to empirically determined inputs. Second, nutrient demand increased as landscapes approached the transition point between savanna and forest. Third, the potential for fire-driven nutrient losses remained high throughout transitions, which may exaggerate limitation and could be a key feedback stabilizing the savanna biome. Fourth, nutrient limitation varied between functional groups, with fast-growing forest species having substantially greater nutrient demand and a higher susceptibility to fire-driven nutrient losses. Finally, African savanna trees required substantially larger amounts of nutrients supplied at greater rates, although this varied across plant functional groups. In summary, the ability of nutrients to control transitions emerges at individual and landscape

  9. The network researchers' network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, Stephan C.; Jiang, Zhizhong; Naudé, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987). In thi...

  10. Nutrient Status of Adults with Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    GORDON, CATHERINE M.; ANDERSON, ELLEN J.; HERLYN, KAREN; HUBBARD, JANE L.; PIZZO, ANGELA; GELBARD, RONDI; LAPEY, ALLEN; MERKEL, PETER A.

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition is thought to influence disease status in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This cross-sectional study sought to evaluate nutrient intake and anthropometric data from 64 adult outpatients with cystic fibrosis. Nutrient intake from food and supplements was compared with the Dietary Reference Intakes for 16 nutrients and outcomes influenced by nutritional status. Attention was given to vitamin D and calcium given potential skeletal implications due to cystic fibrosis. Measurements included weight, height, body composition, pulmonary function, and serum metabolic parameters. Participants were interviewed about dietary intake, supplement use, pulmonary function, sunlight exposure, and pain. The participants’ mean body mass index (±standard deviation) was 21.8±4.9 and pulmonary function tests were normal. Seventy-eight percent used pancreatic enzyme replacement for malabsorption. Vitamin D deficiency [25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD)<37.5 nmol/L] was common: 25 (39%) were deficient despite adequate vitamin D intake. Lipid profiles were normal in the majority, even though total and saturated fat consumption represented 33.0% and 16.8% of energy intake, respectively. Reported protein intake represented 16.9% of total energy intake (range 10%–25%). For several nutrients, including vitamin D and calcium, intake from food and supplements in many participants exceeded recommended Tolerable Upper Intake Levels. Among adults with cystic fibrosis, vitamin D deficiency was common despite reported adequate intake, and lipid profiles were normal despite a relatively high fat intake. Mean protein consumption was adequate, but the range of intake was concerning, as both inadequate or excessive intake may have deleterious skeletal effects. These findings call into question the applicability of established nutrient thresholds for patients with cystic fibrosis. PMID:18060897

  11. Quantitative taste evaluation of total enteral nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Junji; Miyanaga, Yohko; Ishizaka, Toshihiko; Asaka, Kiyokazu; Nakai, Yuka; Tsuji, Eriko; Uchida, Takahiro

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the taste of the various total enteral nutrients marketed in Japan using human gustatory sensation tests and an artificial taste sensor. In the human gustatory sensation test, four basic taste intensities (sweetness, saltiness, sourness, and bitterness), as well as 15 kinds of palatability scales, were evaluated according to the semantic differential (SD) method. Among 15 palatability items, the item; difficult to drink/easy to drink, was adopted as an overall palatability since it shows the highest factor loading by factor analysis. The overall palatability was found to be highly positively correlated with sweetness and sourness, but negatively correlated with bitterness and saltiness. Addition of a flavour to the amino acid-based enteral nutrient AminolebanEN significantly improved its palatability. This effect is presumably due to sour components of the flavour, such as citric acid, which reduce the bitterness intensity of branched-chain amino acids in the product. The sweetness and sourness intensities predicted by the taste sensor showed a high correlation with the results obtained in the human gustatory sensation tests. The taste sensor was able to predict the overall palatability of the total enteral nutrients with high accuracy. The products could be classified into three groups (peptide-based, amino-acid-based, and protein-based) by principal component analysis using sensor output of 8 channels. The products could be also classified into four groups; peptide-based, amino-acid-based, and protein-based and flavor addition group by principal component analysis using sensor output of channels 1, 3, 4 and 7, which are specific to basic tastes. The taste sensor could therefore be useful in predicting the taste or palatability of total enteral nutrients, and could contribute to attempts to improve compliance for such products and for enteral nutrients.

  12. Nutrient and nonnutrient renal blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.S.; Passmore, J.C.; Hartupee, D.A.; Baker, C.H.

    1990-01-01

    The role of prostaglandins in the distribution of total renal blood flow (TRBF) between nutrient and nonnutrient compartments was investigated in anesthetized mongrel dogs. Renal blood flow distribution was assessed by the xenon 133 freeze-dissection technique and by rubidium 86 extraction after ibuprofen treatment. Ibuprofen (13 mg/kg) significantly decreased TRBF by 16.3% +/- 1.2% (mean +/- SEM electromagnetic flow probe; p less than 0.005), but did not alter blood flows to the outer cortex (3.7 vs 4.3 ml/min per gram), the inner cortex (2.6 vs 2.7 ml/min per gram), and the other medulla (1.5 vs 1.5 ml/min per gram), which suggests a decrease in nonnutrient flow. In a separate group of animals the effect of reduced blood flow on the nutrient and nonnutrient components was determined by mechanically reducing renal arterial blood flow by 48%. Unlike the ibuprofen group, nutrient blood flows were proportionally reduced with the mechanical decrease in TRBF in the outer cortex (1.9 ml/min per gram, p less than 0.05), the inner cortex (1.4 ml/min per gram, p less than 0.05), and the outer medulla (0.8 ml/min per gram, p less than 0.01). These results indicate no shift between nutrient and nonnutrient compartments. Nutrient and nonnutrient renal blood flows of the left kidney were also determined by 86Rb extraction. After ibuprofen treatment, nonextracted 86Rb decreased to 12.1% from the control value of 15.6% (p less than 0.05). Mechanical reduction of TRBF did not significantly decrease the proportion of unextracted 86Rb (18.7%)

  13. Beaver-mediated lateral hydrologic connectivity, fluvial carbon and nutrient flux, and aquatic ecosystem metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Pam; Covino, Tim; Wohl, Ellen

    2017-06-01

    River networks that drain mountain landscapes alternate between narrow and wide valley segments. Within the wide segments, beaver activity can facilitate the development and maintenance of complex, multithread planform. Because the narrow segments have limited ability to retain water, carbon, and nutrients, the wide, multithread segments are likely important locations of retention. We evaluated hydrologic dynamics, nutrient flux, and aquatic ecosystem metabolism along two adjacent segments of a river network in the Rocky Mountains, Colorado: (1) a wide, multithread segment with beaver activity; and, (2) an adjacent (directly upstream) narrow, single-thread segment without beaver activity. We used a mass balance approach to determine the water, carbon, and nutrient source-sink behavior of each river segment across a range of flows. While the single-thread segment was consistently a source of water, carbon, and nitrogen, the beaver impacted multithread segment exhibited variable source-sink dynamics as a function of flow. Specifically, the multithread segment was a sink for water, carbon, and nutrients during high flows, and subsequently became a source as flows decreased. Shifts in river-floodplain hydrologic connectivity across flows related to higher and more variable aquatic ecosystem metabolism rates along the multithread relative to the single-thread segment. Our data suggest that beaver activity in wide valleys can create a physically complex hydrologic environment that can enhance hydrologic and biogeochemical buffering, and promote high rates of aquatic ecosystem metabolism. Given the widespread removal of beaver, determining the cumulative effects of these changes is a critical next step in restoring function in altered river networks.

  14. Biological wastewater treatment. II Nutrient elimination; Tratamiento biologico de aguas residuales. II Eliminacion de nutrientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaiz, C.; Isac, L.; Lebrato, J. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Most biological wastewater processes are designed for carbonaceous compounds removal. In some cases, nutrient removal is required. In this work, biodiversity and microbial interactions of nitrogen and phosphorus removal are described. (Author) 12 refs.

  15. CHRISGAS Project. WP13: Ancillary and Novel Processes. Final Report: Separation of Hydrogen with Membranes Combined with Water Gas Shift Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Hervas, J. M.; Marono, M.; Barreiro, M. M.

    2011-05-13

    Oxygen pressurized gasification of biomass out stands as a very promising approach to obtain energy or hydrogen from renewable sources. The technical feasibility of this technology has been investigated under the scope of the VI FP CHRISGAS project, which started in September 2004 and had a duration of five and a half years. The Division of Combustion and Gasification of CIEMAT participated in this project in Work Package 13: Ancillary and novel processes, studying innovative gas separation and gas upgrading systems. Such systems include novel or available high temperature water gas shift catalysts and commercially available membranes not yet tried in this type of atmosphere. This report describes the activities carried out during the project regarding the performance of high temperature water gas shift catalysts for upgrading of synthesis gas obtained from biomass gasification, the separation of H2 with selective membranes and the combination of both processes in one by means of a catalytic membrane reactor. (Author) 20 refs.

  16. CHRISGAS Project. WP13: Ancillary and Novel Processes. Final Report: Separation of Hydrogen with Membranes Combined with Water Gas Shift Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Hervas, J. M.; Marono, M.; Barreiro, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen pressurized gasification of biomass out stands as a very promising approach to obtain energy or hydrogen from renewable sources. The technical feasibility of this technology has been investigated under the scope of the VI FP CHRISGAS project, which started in September 2004 and had a duration of five and a half years. The Division of Combustion and Gasification of CIEMAT participated in this project in Work Package 13: Ancillary and novel processes, studying innovative gas separation and gas upgrading systems. Such systems include novel or available high temperature water gas shift catalysts and commercially available membranes not yet tried in this type of atmosphere. This report describes the activities carried out during the project regarding the performance of high temperature water gas shift catalysts for upgrading of synthesis gas obtained from biomass gasification, the separation of H2 with selective membranes and the combination of both processes in one by means of a catalytic membrane reactor. (Author) 20 refs.

  17. An introduction to high-frequency nutrient and biogeochemical monitoring for the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Tamara E.C.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Downing, Bryan D.

    2017-07-11

    Executive SummaryThis report is the first in a series of three reports that provide information about high-frequency (HF) nutrient and biogeochemical monitoring in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta of northern California (Delta). This first report provides an introduction to the reasons for and fundamental concepts behind collecting HF measurements, and describes the benefits associated with a real-time, continuous, HF, multi-parameter water quality monitoring station network that is co-located with flow stations. It then provides examples of how HF nutrient measurements have improved our understating of nutrient sources and cycling in aquatic systems worldwide, followed by specific examples from the Delta. These examples describe the ways in which HF instrumentation may be used for both fixed-station and spatial assessments. The overall intent of this document is to describe how HF measurements currently (2017) are being used in the Delta to examine the relationship between nutrient concentrations, nutrient cycling, and aquatic habitat conditions.The second report in the series (Downing and others, 2017) summarizes information about HF nutrient and associated biogeochemical monitoring in the northern Delta. The report synthesizes data available from the nutrient and water quality monitoring network currently operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in this ecologically important region of the Delta. In the report, we present and discuss the available data at various timescales—first, at the monthly, seasonal, and inter-annual timescales; and, second, for comparison, at the tidal and event (for example, storms, reservoir releases, phytoplankton blooms) timescales. As expected, we determined that there is substantial variability in nitrate concentrations at short timescales within hours, but also significant variability at longer timescales such as months or years. This multi-scale, high variability affects calculation of fluxes and loads, indicating that HF

  18. Cell block samples from endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration provide sufficient material for ancillary testing in lung cancer-a quaternary referral centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Emily; Moffat, David; Parkinson, Ian; Robinson, Peter; Jersmann, Hubertus; Dougherty, Brendan; Birader, Mohammed I; Francis, Kate; Nguyen, Phan

    2016-09-01

    Rapid on site examination (ROSE) is encouraged at endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needles aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) to improve diagnostic yield. Due to new therapeutic options in lung cancer, it is not sufficient to merely distinguish between non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) distinction is now standard practice, as well as additional molecular testing where clinically indicated. We investigated the diagnostic yield of on-site smears vs . cell block and the provision of cellular material for ancillary testing at our centre. A retrospective audit of all EBUS-TBNA procedures performed until July 2012 was undertaken. Diagnostic yield on smears versus cell block was recorded. Cell blocks were reviewed by an experienced pathologist to determine diagnostic accuracy and whether IHC and molecular testing were possible. In total, 234 procedures were recorded with 101 (43.2%) malignant cases, 107 (45.7%) benign cases and an initial 26/234 (11.1%) insufficient for diagnosis of which 11/234 (4.7%) were false negatives for malignancy after further follow up. The average number of passes was 4.5. For malignancies, smear diagnosis was possible in 95% (96/101) of cases and cell block diagnosis in 93.5% (87/93) of cases. There was sufficient material for IHC in 97.7% (85/87) of malignant cases. In 79.3% (69/87) of NSCLCs molecular testing for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation analysis was theoretically possible on samples obtained. Cell blocks are not inferior to smears for diagnostic accuracy and provide sufficient samples for histology. However, ROSE assists the physician on how best to manage samples for ancillary testing.

  19. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization for MDM2 Amplification as a Routine Ancillary Diagnostic Tool for Suspected Well-Differentiated and Dedifferentiated Liposarcomas: Experience at a Tertiary Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khin Thway

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The assessment of MDM2 gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH has become a routine ancillary tool for diagnosing atypical lipomatous tumor (ALT/well-differentiated liposarcoma and dedifferentiated liposarcoma (WDL/DDL in specialist sarcoma units. We describe our experience of its utility at our tertiary institute. Methods. All routine histology samples in which MDM2 amplification was assessed with FISH over a 2-year period were included, and FISH results were correlated with clinical and histologic findings. Results. 365 samples from 347 patients had FISH for MDM2 gene amplification. 170 were positive (i.e., showed MDM2 gene amplification, 192 were negative, and 3 were technically unsatisfactory. There were 122 histologically benign cases showing a histology:FISH concordance rate of 92.6%, 142 WDL/DDL (concordance 96.5%, and 34 cases histologically equivocal for WDL (concordance 50%. Of 64 spindle cell/pleomorphic neoplasms (in which DDL was a differential diagnosis, 21.9% showed MDM2 amplification. Of the cases with discrepant histology and FISH, all but 3 had diagnoses amended following FISH results. For discrepancies of benign histology but positive FISH, lesions were on average larger, more frequently in “classical” (intra-abdominal or inguinal sites for WDL/DDL and more frequently core biopsies. Discrepancies of malignant histology but negative FISH were smaller, less frequently in “classical” sites but again more frequently core biopsies. Conclusions. FISH has a high correlation rate with histology for cases with firm histologic diagnoses of lipoma or WDL/DDL. It is a useful ancillary diagnostic tool in histologically equivocal cases, particularly in WDL lacking significant histologic atypia or DDL without corresponding WDL component, especially in larger tumors, those from intra-abdominal or inguinal sites or core biopsies. There is a significant group of well-differentiated adipocytic neoplasms

  20. Theoretical Insight into the Spectral Characteristics of Fe(II-Based Complexes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells—Part I: Polypyridyl Ancillary Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Lu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of light-absorbent dyes with cheaper, safer, and more sustainable materials is one of the key issues for the future development of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. We report herein a theoretical investigation on a series of polypyridyl Fe(II-based complexes of FeL2(SCN2, [FeL3]2+, [FeL′(SCN3]-, [FeL′2]2+, and FeL′′(SCN2 (L = 2,2′-bipyridyl-4,4′-dicarboxylic acid, L′ = 2,2′,2″-terpyridyl-4,4′,4″-tricarboxylic acid, L″ = 4,4‴-dimethyl-2,2′ : 6′,2″ :6″,2‴-quaterpyridyl-4′,4″-biscarboxylic acid by density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT. Molecular geometries, electronic structures, and optical absorption spectra are predicted in both the gas phase and methyl cyanide (MeCN solution. Our results show that polypyridyl Fe(II-based complexes display multitransition characters of Fe → polypyridine metal-to-ligand charge transfer and ligand-to-ligand charge transfer in the range of 350–800 nm. Structural optimizations by choosing different polypyridyl ancillary ligands lead to alterations of the molecular orbital energies, oscillator strength, and spectral response range. Compared with Ru(II sensitizers, Fe(II-based complexes show similar characteristics and improving trend of optical absorption spectra along with the introduction of different polypyridyl ancillary ligands.

  1. Theoretical study on the influence of ancillary ligand on the energy and optical properties of heteroleptic phosphorescent Ir(III) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Baozhu [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Zhang Min [Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Changchun 130022 (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Zhang Hongxing, E-mail: zhanghx@mail.jlu.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Sun Jiazhong [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)

    2011-06-15

    The geometries, energies, and electronic properties of a series of phosphorescent Ir(III) complexes including FIrpic, FIrmpic, FIrpca, and FIrprza have been characterized within density functional theory DFT calculations, which can reproduce and rationalize experimental results. The properties of excited states of the Ir(III) complexes were characterized by the configuration interaction with single-excitation (CIS) method. The ground- and excited-state geometries were optimized at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ and CIS/LANL2DZ levels, respectively. The absorption and phosphorescence wavelengths were computed based on the optimized ground- and excited-state geometries, respectively, by the time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) methods. All the energies have been calculated by B3LYP method. The predictions revealed that the nature of the ancillary ligands can influence the distributions of frontier molecular orbitals and their energies, resulting in impact on the transition character and change in the emission color. In addition, the charge of transport quality has been estimated approximately by the predicted reorganization energy ({lambda}). Our result also indicates that the substituent groups and different auxiliary ligand not only change the character of transition but also affect the rate and balance of charge transfer. - Highlights: {yields} The geometries, energies, and electronic properties of a series of phosphorescent Ir(III) complexes including FIrpic, FIrmpic, FIrpca, and FIrprza have been characterized with DFT calculations. {yields} The predictions revealed that the nature of the ancillary ligands can influence the distributions of frontier molecular orbitals and their energies, resulting in impact on the transition character and change in the emission color. {yields} Our result also indicates that the substitute groups and different auxiliary ligand not only change the character of transition but also affect the rate and balance of charge transfer.

  2. Telecommunication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Iannone, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Many argue that telecommunications network infrastructure is the most impressive and important technology ever developed. Analyzing the telecom market's constantly evolving trends, research directions, infrastructure, and vital needs, Telecommunication Networks responds with revolutionized engineering strategies to optimize network construction. Omnipresent in society, telecom networks integrate a wide range of technologies. These include quantum field theory for the study of optical amplifiers, software architectures for network control, abstract algebra required to design error correction co

  3. Three-Phase Unbalanced Load Flow Tool for Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirok, Erhan; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj; Sera, Dezso

    2012-01-01

    This work develops a three-phase unbalanced load flow tool tailored for radial distribution networks based on Matlab®. The tool can be used to assess steady-state voltage variations, thermal limits of grid components and power losses in radial MV-LV networks with photovoltaic (PV) generators where...... most of the systems are single phase. New ancillary service such as static reactive power support by PV inverters can be also merged together with the load flow solution tool and thus, the impact of the various reactive power control strategies on the steady-state grid operation can be simply...... investigated. Performance of the load flow solution tool in the sense of resulting bus voltage magnitudes is compared and validated with IEEE 13-bus test feeder....

  4. Leaf trait response to nutrients and herbivore exclusion across a globally replicated grassland experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firn, Jennifer

    2017-04-01

    Leaf trait response to nutrients and herbivore exclusion across a globally replicated grassland experiment Jennifer Firn1, James McGree2, Eric Lind3, Elizabeth Borer3, Eric Seabloom3, Lauren Sullivan3, Kimberly Lapierre4 and the Nutrient Network 1Queensland University of Technology (QUT), School of Earth, Environmental and Biological Sciences, Science and Engineering Faculty, Brisbane, QLD, 4001 Australia 2Queensland University of Technology (QUT), School of Mathematical Sciences, Science and Engineering Faculty, Brisbane, QLD, 4001 Australia 3Universtiy of Minnesota, Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, 1479 Gortner Avenue, 140 Gortner Laboratory, St. Paul, MN 55108 USA 4Department of integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA Functional trait research has developed with the aim of finding general patterns in how the function of plant assemblages changes with respect to different land-uses. Most studies have compared sites within and across regions with variations in land-use history, but not necessarily with standardized treatments in an experimental framework. The trends that have emerged from this research is that characteristics of leaf traits such as specific leaf area (SLA) correlate with carbon acquisition strategies known to influence ecosystem functioning. SLA has been found to represent a plant's investment in growing light-capturing area per dry mass content. Species with a relatively high SLA tend to have a higher rate of return on the resources invested into making tissue (cheaper leaves in terms of energy and resources needed to produce them) when compared to species with a lower SLA (more expensive leaves to produce). Few studies have examined quantitatively measured traits in an experimental framework. The Nutrient Network experiment, globally distributed experiment, presents a unique opportunity to examine the response of functional traits across grassland ecosystems characterised by a diverse range of

  5. Longitudinal associations of nutritional factors with glycated hemoglobin in youth with type 1 diabetes: the SEARCH Nutrition Ancillary Study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandell, Jamie L; Jaacks, Lindsay M; Couch, Sarah C; Lawrence, Jean M; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Improved glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1c) delays the progression of microvascular and macrovascular complications in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We previously showed that higher baseline intakes of n–3 (ω-3) fatty acids and leucine are associated with preserved β cell function 2 y later in youth with T1D. Objective: In the current study, we extend this work to explore the longitudinal associations of nutritional factors with Hb A1c in youth with T1D. Design: We included 908 T1D youth with baseline and follow-up Hb A1c measurements. Nutritional factors assessed at baseline were as follows: breastfeeding status and timing of complimentary food introduction; intakes of leucine, carbohydrates, protein, fat, and fiber estimated from a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ); and plasma biomarkers for vitamins D and E, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid. We fit linear regression models adjusted for baseline Hb A1c, sociodemographic variables, diabetes-related variables, time between baseline and follow-up visits, saturated fat, physical activity, and for FFQ-derived nutrients, total calories. The vitamin D model was further adjusted for season and body mass index z score. Results: The mean ± SD age and diabetes duration at baseline was 10.8 ± 3.9 y and 10.1 ± 5.8 mo, respectively. A total of 9.3% of participants had poor Hb A1c (value ≥9.5%) at baseline, which increased to 18.3% during follow-up (P nutritional factors may be associated with Hb A1c during early stages of disease progression in youth recently diagnosed with T1D. In addition to the overall role of major macronutrients such as carbohydrates and protein, leucine and n–3 fatty acid intakes, such as of EPA, may be important for long-term glycemic control. PMID:25948670

  6. Nutrient accumulation in planted red and jack pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David H. Alban

    1988-01-01

    Compares nutrient accumulation in adjacent plantations of red and jack pine in the upper Great Lakes. Describes equations developed to predict biomass and nutrient accumulation based on stand basal area and height.

  7. Effects of nutrient enrichment on mangrove leaf litter decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuskamp, Joost A; Hefting, Mariet M; Dingemans, Bas J J; Verhoeven, Jos T A; Feller, Ilka C

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment of mangroves, a common phenomenon along densely populated coastlines, may negatively affect mangrove ecosystems by modifying internal carbon and nutrient cycling. The decomposition of litter exerts a strong influence on these processes and is potentially modified by

  8. Parasite and nutrient enrichment effects on Daphnia interspecific competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decaestecker, Ellen; Verreydt, Dino; De Meester, Luc; Declerck, Steven A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Increased productivity due to nutrient enrichment is hypothesized to affect density-dependent processes, such as transmission success of horizontally transmitting parasites. Changes in nutrient availability can also modify the stoichiometry and condition of individual hosts, which may affect their

  9. The New Zealand Food Composition Database: A useful tool for assessing New Zealanders' nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumaran, Subathira; Huffman, Lee; Sivakumaran, Sivalingam

    2018-01-01

    A country-specific food composition databases is useful for assessing nutrient intake reliably in national nutrition surveys, research studies and clinical practice. The New Zealand Food Composition Database (NZFCDB) programme seeks to maintain relevant and up-to-date food records that reflect the composition of foods commonly consumed in New Zealand following Food Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations/International Network of Food Data Systems (FAO/INFOODS) guidelines. Food composition data (FCD) of up to 87 core components for approximately 600 foods have been added to NZFCDB since 2010. These foods include those identified as providing key nutrients in a 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. Nutrient data obtained by analysis of composite samples or are calculated from analytical data. Currently >2500 foods in 22 food groups are freely available in various NZFCDB output products on the website: www.foodcomposition.co.nz. NZFCDB is the main source of FCD for estimating nutrient intake in New Zealand nutrition surveys. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Phenomenological model for predicting the catabolic potential of an arbitrary nutrient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel M D Seaver

    Full Text Available The ability of microbial species to consume compounds found in the environment to generate commercially-valuable products has long been exploited by humanity. The untapped, staggering diversity of microbial organisms offers a wealth of potential resources for tackling medical, environmental, and energy challenges. Understanding microbial metabolism will be crucial to many of these potential applications. Thermodynamically-feasible metabolic reconstructions can be used, under some conditions, to predict the growth rate of certain microbes using constraint-based methods. While these reconstructions are powerful, they are still cumbersome to build and, because of the complexity of metabolic networks, it is hard for researchers to gain from these reconstructions an understanding of why a certain nutrient yields a given growth rate for a given microbe. Here, we present a simple model of biomass production that accurately reproduces the predictions of thermodynamically-feasible metabolic reconstructions. Our model makes use of only: i a nutrient's structure and function, ii the presence of a small number of enzymes in the organism, and iii the carbon flow in pathways that catabolize nutrients. When applied to test organisms, our model allows us to predict whether a nutrient can be a carbon source with an accuracy of about 90% with respect to in silico experiments. In addition, our model provides excellent predictions of whether a medium will produce more or less growth than another (p<10(-6 and good predictions of the actual value of the in silico biomass production.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING IN AGRICULTURE: NUTRIENT ACCOUNTING AND OTHER ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    URFI, P.; BACSI, ZS.; SÁRDI, K.; POLGÁR, P.J.; SOMOGYI, T.

    2002-01-01

    While traditional accounting focuses on accounting for capital assets, costs, yields valued and sold in the market, environmental accounting intends to do the same with non-marketed capital assets, costs and yields, that is, externalities. The farm level nutrient balances are based on an input-output comparison, in which the nutrients entering the farm within inputs are compared to nutrients leaving the farm within the sold products. The method considers the amounts of nutrients entering the ...

  12. Hand-waving and interpretive dance: an introductory course on tensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, Jacob C.; Chubb, Christopher T.

    2017-06-01

    The curse of dimensionality associated with the Hilbert space of spin systems provides a significant obstruction to the study of condensed matter systems. Tensor networks have proven an important tool in attempting to overcome this difficulty in both the numerical and analytic regimes. These notes form the basis for a seven lecture course, introducing the basics of a range of common tensor networks and algorithms. In particular, we cover: introductory tensor network notation, applications to quantum information, basic properties of matrix product states, a classification of quantum phases using tensor networks, algorithms for finding matrix product states, basic properties of projected entangled pair states, and multiscale entanglement renormalisation ansatz states. The lectures are intended to be generally accessible, although the relevance of many of the examples may be lost on students without a background in many-body physics/quantum information. For each lecture, several problems are given, with worked solutions in an ancillary file.

  13. An Optimized Reactive Power Control of Distributed Solar Inverters in Low Voltage Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirok, Erhan; Sera, Dezso; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the reactive power ancillary services of solar inverters which are connected to low voltage (LV) distribution networks by giving attention to the grid voltage support service and grid losses. Two typical reference LV distribution network models as suburban and farm...... are introduced from the literature in order to evaluate contribution of two static droop strategies cosφ(P) and Q(U) on the grid voltage. Photovoltaic (PV) hosting capacities of the suburban and farm networks are estimated and the most predominant limitations of connecting more solar inverters are emphasized...... for each network type. Regarding the overloading of MV/LV distribution transformers, overloading of lines and the grid overvoltage limitations, new local grid voltage support methods (cosφ(P,U) and Q(U,P)) are also proposed. Resulting maximum allowable penetration levels with different reactive power...

  14. Interconnected networks

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides an introduction to and overview of the emerging field of interconnected networks which include multi layer or multiplex networks, as well as networks of networks. Such networks present structural and dynamical features quite different from those observed in isolated networks. The presence of links between different networks or layers of a network typically alters the way such interconnected networks behave – understanding the role of interconnecting links is therefore a crucial step towards a more accurate description of real-world systems. While examples of such dissimilar properties are becoming more abundant – for example regarding diffusion, robustness and competition – the root of such differences remains to be elucidated. Each chapter in this topical collection is self-contained and can be read on its own, thus making it also suitable as reference for experienced researchers wishing to focus on a particular topic.

  15. Nutrients, Foods, and Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingyang; Garrett, Wendy S.; Chan, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Diet has an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. In the past few decades, findings from extensive epidemiologic and experimental investigation have linked consumption of several foods and nutrients to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Calcium, fiber, milk, and whole grain have been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer, and red meat and processed meat with an increased risk. There is substantial evidence for the potential chemopreventive effects of vitamin D, folate, fruits and vegetables. Nutrients and foods may also interact, as a dietary pattern, to influence colorectal cancer risk. Diet likely influences colorectal carcinogenesis through several interacting mechanisms. These include the direct effects on immune responsiveness and inflammation, and the indirect effects of over-nutrition and obesity—risk factors for colorectal cancer. Emerging evidence also implicates the gut microbiota as an important effector in the relationship between diet and cancer. Dietary modification therefore has the promise of reducing colorectal cancer incidence. PMID:25575572

  16. Tree root systems and nutrient mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Jim; Rob, Harrison; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    Roots mobilize nutrients via deep penetration and rhizosphere processes inducing weathering of primary minerals. These contribute to C transfer to soils and to tree nutrition. Assessments of these characteristics and processes of root systems are important for understanding long-term supplies...... some of the world’s most productive intensively managed forests, including Brazil and the Southeast and Pacifi c Northwest regions of the United States, have shown that root systems are often several meters in depth, and often extend deeper than soil is sampled. Large amounts of carbon are also...... sometimes stored at depth. Other recent studies on potential release of nutrients due to chemical weathering indicate the importance of root access to deep soil layers. Release profi les clearly indicate depletion in the top layers and a much higher potential in B and C horizons. Review of evaluations...

  17. Nutrient and immune sensing are obligate pathways in metabolism, immunity, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Abishek; Brown, Lindsay; Whitehead, Jonathan P; Prins, Johannes B; Fairlie, David P

    2015-09-01

    The growth and survival of multicellular organisms depend upon their abilities to acquire and metabolize nutrients, efficiently store and harness energy, and sense and fight infection. Systems for sensing and using nutrients have consequently coevolved alongside systems for sensing and responding to danger signals, including pathogens, and share many of the same cell signaling proteins and networks. Diets rich in carbohydrates and fats can overload these systems, leading to obesity, metabolic dysfunction, impaired immunity, and cardiovascular disease. Excessive nutrient intake promotes adiposity, typically altering adipocyte function and immune cell distribution, both of which trigger metabolic dysfunction. Here, we discuss novel mechanistic links between metabolism and immunity that underlie metabolic dysfunction in obesity. We aim to stimulate debate about how the endocrine and immune systems are connected through autocrine, paracrine, and neuroendocrine signaling in sophisticated networks that are only now beginning to be resolved. Understanding the expression and action of signaling proteins, together with modulating their receptors or pattern recognition using agonists or antagonists, will enable rational intervention in immunometabolism that may lead to novel treatments for obesity and metabolic dysfunction. © FASEB.

  18. Nutrient deficiencies of agricultural crops in Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.; Bourke, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea the population is growing faster than the area under cultivation. As a result, land use is being intensified and soil nutrient depletion may occur, resulting in nutrient deficiencies of agricultural crops. This paper reviews nutrient deficiencies in the agricultural crops of

  19. Nutrient Intake among Pregnant Teenage Girls Attending Ante-Natal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A standardised interviewer administered Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to asses the dietary intake. Nutrient calculator was used to determine the nutrient intake of the study participant. Results: The intakes of all selected nutrients were significantly lower than the RDA. Protein intake was significantly associated ...

  20. Nutrient Use Efficiency in Plants: Concepts and Approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawkesford, M.J.; Kopriva, S.; De Kok, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient Use Efficiency in Plants: Concepts and Approaches is the ninth volume in the Plant Ecophysiology series. It presents a broad overview of topics related to improvement of nutrient use efficiency of crops. Nutrient use efficiency (NUE) is a measure of how well plants use the available mineral