WorldWideScience

Sample records for ancillary benefit modeling

  1. A Conceptual Framework of Ancillary Benefit Modeling in Context of Climate Change in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joh, Seung Hun; Nam, Yun Mi [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    A climate change requires a prudent and general policy since its effect is expected to be very extensive on ecosystem, agricultural production, bio diversity, human health, damage on buildings due to the temperature and sea level increase. Korea is facing to establish and implement a greenhouse gas reduction policy for UNFCCC, established to prevent a climate change. In this study, it recommended to establish a concept for measuring a incidental benefit by reducing greenhouse gas and suggested a framework for establishing a model development suitable to Korea. 43 refs., 7 figs., 33 tabs.

  2. Climate policy and ancillary benefits. A survey and integration into the modelling of international negotiations on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittel, Karen; Ruebbelke, Dirk T.G.

    2008-01-01

    Currently informal and formal international negotiations on climate change take place in an intensive way since the Kyoto Protocol expires already in 2012. A post-Kyoto regulation to combat global warming is not yet stipulated. Due to rapidly increasing greenhouse-gas emission levels, industrialized countries urge major polluters from the developing world like China and India to participate in a future agreement. Whether these developing countries will do so, depends on the prevailing incentives to participate in international climate protection efforts. This paper identifies ancillary benefits of climate policy to provide important incentives to attend a new international protocol and to positively affect the likelihood of accomplishing a post-Kyoto agreement which includes commitments of developing countries. (author)

  3. Ancillary benefits of climate policy in a small open economy: The case of Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krook Riekkola, Anna; Ahlgren, Erik O.; Soederholm, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    It is increasingly recognised that GHG reduction policies can have important ancillary benefits in the form of positive local and regional environmental impacts. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the domestic ancillary pollution benefits of climate policy in Sweden, and investigate how these are affected by different climate policy designs. The latter differ primarily in terms of how the country chooses to meet a specific target and where the necessary emission reductions take place. The analysis relies on simulations within the energy system optimisation model TIMES-Sweden, and focuses on four non-GHG pollutants: Nitrogen Oxides (NO X ), Non Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOC), inhalable particles (PM 2.5 ), and Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ). The simulations permit detailed assessments of the respective technology and fuel choices that underlie any net changes in the estimated ancillary effects. The results indicate that the ancillary benefits constitute a far from insignificant share of total system costs, and this share appears to be highest in the scenarios that entail the largest emission reductions domestically. This result reflects the fact that carbon dioxide emission reductions abroad also implies a lost opportunity of achieving substantial domestic welfare gain from the reductions of regional and local environmental pollutants. - Highlights: → We estimate the domestic ancillary pollution benefits of climate policy in Sweden. → These constitute a sizeable share of total system costs. → The ancillary benefits are highest in the policy scenarios that entail the largest emission reductions domestically.

  4. Ancillary health effects of climate mitigation scenarios as drivers of policy uptake: a review of air quality, transportation and diet co-benefits modeling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kelly M.; Hess, Jeremy J.; Balbus, John M.; Buonocore, Jonathan J.; Cleveland, David A.; Grabow, Maggie L.; Neff, Roni; Saari, Rebecca K.; Tessum, Christopher W.; Wilkinson, Paul; Woodward, Alistair; Ebi, Kristie L.

    2017-11-01

    Background: Significant mitigation efforts beyond the Nationally Determined Commitments (NDCs) coming out of the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement are required to avoid warming of 2 °C above pre-industrial temperatures. Health co-benefits represent selected near term, positive consequences of climate policies that can offset mitigation costs in the short term before the beneficial impacts of those policies on the magnitude of climate change are evident. The diversity of approaches to modeling mitigation options and their health effects inhibits meta-analyses and syntheses of results useful in policy-making. Methods/Design: We evaluated the range of methods and choices in modeling health co-benefits of climate mitigation to identify opportunities for increased consistency and collaboration that could better inform policy-making. We reviewed studies quantifying the health co-benefits of climate change mitigation related to air quality, transportation, and diet published since the 2009 Lancet Commission ‘Managing the health effects of climate change’ through January 2017. We documented approaches, methods, scenarios, health-related exposures, and health outcomes. Results/Synthesis: Forty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Air quality, transportation, and diet scenarios ranged from specific policy proposals to hypothetical scenarios, and from global recommendations to stakeholder-informed local guidance. Geographic and temporal scope as well as validity of scenarios determined policy relevance. More recent studies tended to use more sophisticated methods to address complexity in the relevant policy system. Discussion: Most studies indicated significant, nearer term, local ancillary health benefits providing impetus for policy uptake and net cost savings. However, studies were more suited to describing the interaction of climate policy and health and the magnitude of potential outcomes than to providing specific accurate estimates of health co-benefits. Modeling

  5. CO{sub 2} mitigation costs and ancillary benefits in the Nordic countries, the UK and Ireland: A survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kverndokk, Snorre; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2000-07-01

    This paper provides a survey of top-down modelling studies on mitigation costs and ancillary benefits in the Nordic countries, the UK and Ireland. Special emphasis is put on results concerning revenue recycling, double dividend, distributional effects and ancillary benefits. According to the papers surveyed, modest emissions restrictions as those given by the Kyoto Protocol, can be met without substantial costs for the countries studied. (Author)

  6. More than a score: a qualitative study of ancillary benefits of performance measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Adam A; White, Katie M; Partin, Melissa R; Halek, Krysten; Hysong, Sylvia J; Zarling, Edwin; Kirsh, Susan R; Bloomfield, Hanna E

    2014-08-01

    Prior research has examined clinical effects of performance measurement systems. To the extent that non-clinical effects have been researched, the focus has been on negative unintended consequences. Yet, these same systems may also have ancillary benefits for patients and providers--that is, benefits that extend beyond improvements on clinical measures. The purpose of this study is to identify and describe potential ancillary benefits of performance measures as perceived by primary care staff and facility leaders in a large US healthcare system. In-person individual semistructured interviews were conducted with 59 primary care staff and facility leaders at four Veterans Health Administration facilities. Transcribed interviews were coded and organised into thematic categories. Interviewed staff observed that local performance measurement implementation practices can result in increased patient knowledge and motivation. These effects on patients can lead to improved performance scores and additional ancillary benefits. Performance measurement implementation can also directly result in ancillary benefits for the patients and providers. Patients may experience greater satisfaction with care and psychosocial benefits associated with increased provider-patient communication. Ancillary benefits of performance measurement for providers include increased pride in individual or organisational performance and greater confidence that one's practice is grounded in evidence-based medicine. A comprehensive understanding of the effects of performance measurement systems needs to incorporate ancillary benefits as well as effects on clinical performance scores and negative unintended consequences. Although clinical performance has been the focus of most evaluations of performance measurement to date, both patient care and provider satisfaction may improve more rapidly if all three categories of effects are considered when designing and evaluating performance measurement systems

  7. Performance Requirements Modeling andAssessment for Active Power Ancillary Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondy, Daniel Esteban Morales; Thavlov, Anders; Tougaard, Janus Bundsgaard Mosbæk

    2017-01-01

    system operation, a reliable service delivery is required, yet it may not be appropriate to apply conventional performance requirements to new technologies and methods. The service performance requirements and assessment methods therefore need to be generalized and standardized in order to include future...... ancillary service sources. This paper develops a modeling method for ancillary services performance requirements, including performance and verification indices. The use of the modeling method and the indices is exemplified in two case studies....

  8. Ancillary Benefits of Climate Policies for the Mitigation of Atmospheric Mercury Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaj P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an analysis of the impact of global climate policies on mercury emissions using the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS model in the time horizon up to 2050. The time evolution of mercury emissions is based on projections of energy consumption provided by the Prospective Outlook for the Long term Energy System (POLES model for a scenario without any global greenhouse gas mitigation efforts, and for a 2°C climate policy scenario, which assumes internationally coordinated action to mitigate climate change. Outcomes of the analysis are reported globally and for key world regions: EU-27, China, India and the US. The assessment takes into account current air pollution control legislation in each country. Scenario calculations for mercury emissions indicate significant scope for co-benefits made possible through climate policies. Atmospheric releases of mercury from anthropogenic sources under the global climate mitigation regime are reduced in 2050 by 45% when compared to the case without climate measures. Around one third of co-benefits for mercury emissions estimated world-wide in this study by 2050 are allocated to China. An annual Hg-abatement of about 800 tons is estimated for the coal combustion in power sector if the current air pollution legislation and climate policies are adopted in parallel.

  9. Urology Group Compensation and Ancillary Service Models in an Era of Value-based Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Neal D; Jacoby, Dana

    2016-01-01

    Changes involving the health care economic landscape have affected physicians' workflow, productivity, compensation structures, and culture. Ongoing Federal legislation regarding regulatory documentation and imminent payment-changing methodologies have encouraged physician consolidation into larger practices, creating affiliations with hospitals, multidisciplinary medical specialties, and integrated delivery networks. As subspecialization and evolution of care models have accelerated, independent medical groups have broadened ancillary service lines by investing in enterprises that compete with hospital-based (academic and nonacademic) entities, as well as non-physician- owned multispecialty enterprises, for both outpatient and inpatient services. The looming and dramatic shift from volume- to value-based health care compensation will assuredly affect urology group compensation arrangements and productivity formulae. For groups that can implement change rapidly, efficiently, and harmoniously, there will be opportunities to achieve the Triple Aim goals of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, while maintaining a successful medical-financial practice. In summary, implementing new payment algorithms alongside comprehensive care coordination will assist urology groups in addressing the health economic cost and quality challenges that have been historically encountered with fee-for-service systems. Urology group leadership and stakeholders will need to adjust internal processes, methods of care coordination, cultural dependency, and organizational structures in order to create better systems of care and management. In response, ancillary services and patient throughput will need to evolve in order to adequately align quality measurement and reporting systems across provider footprints and patient populations.

  10. From a bundled energy-capacity pricing model to an energy-capacity-ancillary services pricing model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raineri, Ricardo; Arce, Raul; Rios, Sebastian; Salamanca, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the Chilean power generation pricing mechanism, with capacity and energy payments, to one where ancillary services (AS), as frequency regulation and voltage control, are explicitly recognized. Adequacy and security attributes of the electric system and the public good characteristics of AS are set within the payment structure to distribute the financing of AS among those who benefit from their provision. The contribution to finance the provision of AS is determined assessing the value assigned to the system security by each agent, following what's an efficient pricing mechanism in the presence of public goods

  11. Camera traps and mark-resight models: The value of ancillary data for evaluating assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Arielle W.; Simons, Theodore R.; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Stoskopf, Michael K.; Stocking, Jessica J.; O'Connell, Allan F.

    2015-01-01

    Unbiased estimators of abundance and density are fundamental to the study of animal ecology and critical for making sound management decisions. Capture–recapture models are generally considered the most robust approach for estimating these parameters but rely on a number of assumptions that are often violated but rarely validated. Mark-resight models, a form of capture–recapture, are well suited for use with noninvasive sampling methods and allow for a number of assumptions to be relaxed. We used ancillary data from continuous video and radio telemetry to evaluate the assumptions of mark-resight models for abundance estimation on a barrier island raccoon (Procyon lotor) population using camera traps. Our island study site was geographically closed, allowing us to estimate real survival and in situ recruitment in addition to population size. We found several sources of bias due to heterogeneity of capture probabilities in our study, including camera placement, animal movement, island physiography, and animal behavior. Almost all sources of heterogeneity could be accounted for using the sophisticated mark-resight models developed by McClintock et al. (2009b) and this model generated estimates similar to a spatially explicit mark-resight model previously developed for this population during our study. Spatially explicit capture–recapture models have become an important tool in ecology and confer a number of advantages; however, non-spatial models that account for inherent individual heterogeneity may perform nearly as well, especially where immigration and emigration are limited. Non-spatial models are computationally less demanding, do not make implicit assumptions related to the isotropy of home ranges, and can provide insights with respect to the biological traits of the local population.

  12. Business Process Modeling: Perceived Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indulska, Marta; Green, Peter; Recker, Jan; Rosemann, Michael

    The process-centered design of organizations and information systems is globally seen as an appropriate response to the increased economic pressure on organizations. At the methodological core of process-centered management is process modeling. However, business process modeling in large initiatives can be a time-consuming and costly exercise, making it potentially difficult to convince executive management of its benefits. To date, and despite substantial interest and research in the area of process modeling, the understanding of the actual benefits of process modeling in academia and practice is limited. To address this gap, this paper explores the perception of benefits derived from process modeling initiatives, as reported through a global Delphi study. The study incorporates the views of three groups of stakeholders - academics, practitioners and vendors. Our findings lead to the first identification and ranking of 19 unique benefits associated with process modeling. The study in particular found that process modeling benefits vary significantly between practitioners and academics. We argue that the variations may point to a disconnect between research projects and practical demands.

  13. Trends in OSHA Compliance Monitoring Data 1979-2011: Statistical Modeling of Ancillary Information across 77 Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarazin, Philippe; Burstyn, Igor; Kincl, Laurel; Lavoué, Jérôme

    2016-05-01

    The Integrated Management Information System (IMIS) is the largest multi-industry source of exposure measurements available in North America. However, many have suspected that the criteria through which worksites are selected for inspection are related to exposure levels. We investigated associations between exposure levels and ancillary variables in IMIS in order to understand the predictors of high exposure within an enforcement context. We analyzed the association between nine variables (reason for inspection, establishment size, total amount of penalty, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) plan, OSHA region, union status, inspection scope, year, and industry) and exposure levels in IMIS using multimodel inference for 77 agents. For each agent, we used two different types of models: (i) logistic models were used for the odds ratio (OR) of exposure being above the threshold limit value (TLV) and (ii) linear models were used for exposure concentrations restricted to detected results to estimate percent increase in exposure level, i.e. relative index of exposure (RIE). Meta-analytic methods were used to combine results for each variable across agents. A total of 511,047 exposure measurements were modeled for logistic models and 299,791 for linear models. Higher exposures were measured during follow-up inspections than planned inspections [meta-OR = 1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.44-1.81; meta-RIE = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.03-1.09]. Lower exposures were observed for measurements collected under state OSHA plans compared to measurements collected under federal OSHA (meta-OR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.73-0.92; meta-RIE = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.81-0.91). A 'high' total historical amount of penalty relative to none was associated with higher exposures (meta-OR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.40-1.71; meta-RIE = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.13-1.23). The relationships observed between exposure levels and ancillary variables across a vast majority of agents suggest that certain elements of OSHA

  14. Modelling Aṣṭādhyāyī: An Approach Based on the Methodology of Ancillary Disciplines (Vedāṅga)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anand

    This article proposes a general model based on the common methodological approach of the ancillary disciplines (Vedāṅga) associated with the Vedas taking examples from Śikṣā, Chandas, Vyākaraṇa and Prātiśā khya texts. It develops and elaborates this model further to represent the contents and processes of Aṣṭādhyāyī. Certain key features are added to my earlier modelling of Pāṇinian system of Sanskrit grammar. This includes broader coverage of the Pāṇinian meta-language, mechanism for automatic application of rules and positioning the grammatical system within the procedural complexes of ancillary disciplines.

  15. Ancillary Services Provided from DER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.B.

    2005-12-21

    Distributed energy resources (DER) are quickly making their way to industry primarily as backup generation. They are effective at starting and then producing full-load power within a few seconds. The distribution system is aging and transmission system development has not kept up with the growth in load and generation. The nation's transmission system is stressed with heavy power flows over long distances, and many areas are experiencing problems in providing the power quality needed to satisfy customers. Thus, a new market for DER is beginning to emerge. DER can alleviate the burden on the distribution system by providing ancillary services while providing a cost adjustment for the DER owner. This report describes 10 types of ancillary services that distributed generation (DG) can provide to the distribution system. Of these 10 services the feasibility, control strategy, effectiveness, and cost benefits are all analyzed as in the context of a future utility-power market. In this market, services will be provided at a local level that will benefit the customer, the distribution utility, and the transmission company.

  16. Modeling Irrigation Benefits on Beef Ranches

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, David L.; Johnson, Roger G.; Schluntz, Larry J.; Ali, Mir B.

    1988-01-01

    A major irrigation benefit for beef ranchers is herd size stability. A sequential multiyear linear programming model was developed to trace the effect of drought with and without irrigation on a South Dakota ranch over 31 years. Irrigation benefits were higher with the dynamic model than with traditional static analysis.

  17. Power system studies of new ancillary services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit

    The objective of this report is to illustrate and analyse, by means of simulation test cases, the impact of wind power advanced ancillary services, like inertial response (IR), power oscillation damping (POD) and synchronising power (SP) on the power system. Generic models for wind turbine, wind...... power plant and power system are used in the investigation....

  18. Prediction of spatial soil property information from ancillary sensor data using ordinary linear regression: Model derivations, residual assumptions and model validation tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geospatial measurements of ancillary sensor data, such as bulk soil electrical conductivity or remotely sensed imagery data, are commonly used to characterize spatial variation in soil or crop properties. Geostatistical techniques like kriging with external drift or regression kriging are often use...

  19. Benefit Estimation Model for Tourist Spaceflights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehlich, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    It is believed that the only potential means for significant reduction of the recurrent launch cost, which results in a stimulation of human space colonization, is to make the launcher reusable, to increase its reliability, and to make it suitable for new markets such as mass space tourism. But such space projects, that have long range aspects are very difficult to finance, because even politicians would like to see a reasonable benefit during their term in office, because they want to be able to explain this investment to the taxpayer. This forces planners to use benefit models instead of intuitive judgement to convince sceptical decision-makers to support new investments in space. Benefit models provide insights into complex relationships and force a better definition of goals. A new approach is introduced in the paper that allows to estimate the benefits to be expected from a new space venture. The main objective why humans should explore space is determined in this study to ``improve the quality of life''. This main objective is broken down in sub objectives, which can be analysed with respect to different interest groups. Such interest groups are the operator of a space transportation system, the passenger, and the government. For example, the operator is strongly interested in profit, while the passenger is mainly interested in amusement, while the government is primarily interested in self-esteem and prestige. This leads to different individual satisfactory levels, which are usable for the optimisation process of reusable launch vehicles.

  20. Model-Based Estimation of Forest Canopy Height in Red and Austrian Pine Stands Using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and Ancillary Data: a Proof-of-Concept Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown Jr., C G; Sarabandi, K; Pierce, L E

    2007-04-06

    In this paper, accurate tree stand height retrieval is demonstrated using C-band Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) height and ancillary data. The tree height retrieval algorithm is based on modeling uniform tree stands with a single layer of randomly oriented vegetation particles. For such scattering media, the scattering phase center height, as measured by SRTM, is a function of tree height, incidence angle, and the extinction coefficient of the medium. The extinction coefficient for uniform tree stands is calculated as a function of tree height and density using allometric equations and a fractal tree model. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated using SRTM and TOPSAR data for 15 red pine and Austrian pine stands (TOPSAR is an airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar). The algorithm yields root-mean-square (rms) errors of 2.5-3.6 m, which is a substantial improvement over the 6.8-8.3-m rms errors from the raw SRTM minus National Elevation Dataset Heights.

  1. Life-Cycle Cost Modeling to Determine Whether Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) Integration and Ancillary Service Revenue Can Generate a Viable Case for Plug-In Electric Drive Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Bidirectional Charger My analysis compares the LCCs of two base case internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles with those of a non–plug-in hybrid electric ...MODELING TO DETERMINE WHETHER VEHICLE -TO-GRID (V2G) INTEGRATION AND ANCILLARY SERVICE REVENUE CAN GENERATE A VIABLE CASE FOR PLUG-IN ELECTRIC DRIVE...VIABLE CASE FOR PLUG-IN ELECTRIC DRIVE VEHICLES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Joseph Monahan 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES

  2. Ancillary effects of selected acid deposition control policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, R.J.; Lyke, A.J.; Nesse, R.J.

    1986-08-01

    NAPAP is examining a number of potential ways to reduce the precursors (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) to acid deposition. However, the policies to reduce acid deposition will have other physical, biological and economic effects unrelated to acid deposition. For example, control policies that reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may also increase visibility. The effects of an acid deposition policy that are unrelated to acid deposition are referred to as ''ancillary'' effects. This reserch identifies and characterizes the principle physical and economic ancillary effects associated with acid deposition control and mitigation policies. In this study the ancillary benefits associated with four specific acid deposition policy options were investigated. The four policy options investigated are: (1) flue gas desulfurization, (2) coal blending or switching, (3) reductions in automobile emissions of NO/sub x/, and (4) lake liming. Potential ancillary benefits of each option were identified and characterized. Particular attention was paid to the literature on economic valuation of potential ancillary effects.

  3. Ancillary Services from Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meeting the EU objectives of sustainable energy supply in the near future involves a dramatic increase of the electricity demand covered by variable renewable sources, among which wind power holds an important role. This important role comes together with ever increasing requirements of wind powe...... plants ability of delivering ancillary services to the power system. The presentation attempts at giving an overview of the present (and future) research on the ability of large (offshore) wind farms to provide power system services....

  4. Public attitudes toward ancillary information revealed by pharmacogenetic testing under limited information conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Susanne B; O'Daniel, Julianne M; Tindall, Genevieve M; Lipkus, Isaac R; Agans, Robert

    2011-08-01

    Pharmacogenetic testing can inform drug dosing and selection by aiding in estimating a patient's genetic risk of adverse response and/or failure to respond. Some pharmacogenetic tests may generate ancillary clinical information unrelated to the drug treatment question for which testing is done-an informational "side effect." We aimed to assess public interest and concerns about pharmacogenetic tests and ancillary information. We conducted a random-digit-dial phone survey of a sample of the US public. We achieved an overall response rate of 42% (n = 1139). When the potential for ancillary information was presented, 85% (±2.82%) of respondents expressed interest in pharmacogenetic testing, compared with 82% (±3.02%) before discussion of ancillary information. Most respondents (89% ± 2.27%) indicated that physicians should inform patients that a pharmacogenetic test may reveal ancillary risk information before testing is ordered. Respondents' interest in actually learning of the ancillary risk finding significantly differed based on disease severity, availability of an intervention, and test validity, even after adjusting for age, gender, education, and race. Under the limited information conditions presented in the survey, the potential of ancillary information does not negatively impact public interest in pharmacogenetic testing. Interest in learning ancillary information is well aligned with the public's desire to be informed about potential benefits and risks before testing, promoting patient autonomy.

  5. Ancillary service provision from distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study undertaken to investigate the potential for establishing ancillary service markets at the distribution level in the UK. Existing arrangements for ancillary service markets globally, the design of these markets, regulatory and legislative changes that may be required, different forms of distributed generation (DG), and prospects of increasing the connection to the distributed network are examined along with commercial frameworks and technical procedures, infrastructure requirements, and the effects on different market participants. The scope for new ancillary services at the distribution level, ancillary services from DG, the prospects for DG, commercial and technical aspects, and impact assessments are reviewed.

  6. Ancillary service provision from distributed generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study undertaken to investigate the potential for establishing ancillary service markets at the distribution level in the UK. Existing arrangements for ancillary service markets globally, the design of these markets, regulatory and legislative changes that may be required, different forms of distributed generation (DG), and prospects of increasing the connection to the distributed network are examined along with commercial frameworks and technical procedures, infrastructure requirements, and the effects on different market participants. The scope for new ancillary services at the distribution level, ancillary services from DG, the prospects for DG, commercial and technical aspects, and impact assessments are reviewed

  7. 77 FR 25105 - Reporting of Ancillary Airline Passenger Revenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ...This document announces a public meeting on a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) issued on July 15, 2011. The NPRM proposed changes regarding reporting of airline ancillary passenger revenues, computation of mishandled baggage rates, and collection of separate statistics for mishandled wheelchairs and scooters used by passengers with disabilities. During the public meeting, DOT staff will provide a summary of the proposals in the NPRM and seek input on costs and benefits associated with the implementation of the proposals.

  8. Impact of advanced wind power ancillary services on power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit

    The objective of this report is to illustrate and analyse, by means of simulation test cases, the impact of wind power advanced ancillary services, like inertial response (IR), power oscillation damping (POD) and synchronising power (SP) on the power system. Generic models for wind turbine, wind...... power plant and power system are used in the investigation....

  9. Can Household Benefit from Stochastic Programming Models?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kourosh Marjani; Madsen, Claus A.; Poulsen, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    The Danish mortgage market is large and sophisticated. However, most Danish mortgage banks advise private home-owners based on simple, if sensible, rules of thumb. In recent years a number of papers (from Nielsen and Poulsen in J Econ Dyn Control 28:1267–1289, 2004 over Rasmussen and Zenios in J...... Risk 10:1–18, 2007 to Pedersen et al. in Ann Oper Res, 2013) have suggested a model-based, stochastic programming approach to mortgage choice. This paper gives an empirical comparison of performance over the period 2000–2010 of the rules of thumb to the model-based strategies. While the rules of thumb...

  10. Hydro turbine rehab benefits from modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, D.R.; Veatch, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    The turbine aging process, while seemingly imperceptible, inevitably results in reduced turbine efficiency and capacity. The primary causes of these reductions are runner hydraulic profile changes during weld repairs, surface finish deterioration from cavitation, and runner seal clearance increases due to wear. Many aging turbines require more frequent repairs due to runner cavitation, and wicket gate mechanism, shaft seal, and guide bearing wear. In many instances turbine component repair can be performed in-place. On older units, runner seals, wicket gate bearings, and wicket gate end seals can be repaired only when the turbine is disassembled. Since the significant cost to disassemble and overhaul units must be offset by future maintenance savings and generation increases, turbine rehabilitation is often postponed as owners consider other alternatives. Rehabilitation is a general term used to describe a wide range of turbine reconditioning and design alternatives. Turbine rehabilitation can include a major overhaul of components, runner replacement, and component modifications. Deteriorated runners can be replaced with either a new identical runner or a new modern design having increased efficiency and capacity. The comparative turbine performance of an original, existing, and a modern runner design are shown in this paper. Component overhauls can extend turbine life and restore original efficiency and capacity to existing units. However, the overhaul of existing components cannot increase plant capacity and generation above the as-new values. As a result, owners of aging plants are considering the benefits of replacing existing turbines with modern, more efficient, higher capacity turbines, or expanding the sites. Where expansion is not feasible, hydroelectric power plant owners are finding that turbine rehabilitation is the most cost-effective method to increase plant value and life

  11. Modeling PPP Economic Benefits for Lunar ISRU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, B.

    2017-10-01

    A new tool is needed for selecting the PPP strategy that could maximize the rate of lunar commercialization by attracting private capital into the development of critical infrastructure and robust capability. A PPP model under development for NASA-ESO will be described.

  12. A framework for quantifying net benefits of alternative prognostic models

    OpenAIRE

    Rapsomaniki, E.; White, I.R.; Wood, A.M.; Thompson, S.G.; Ford, I.

    2012-01-01

    New prognostic models are traditionally evaluated using measures of discrimination and risk reclassification, but these do not take full account of the clinical and health economic context. We propose a framework for comparing prognostic models by quantifying the public health impact (net benefit) of the treatment decisions they support, assuming a set of predetermined clinical treatment guidelines. The change in net benefit is more clinically interpretable than changes in traditional measure...

  13. Exogam with its ancillary detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theisen, Ch.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the meeting was to discuss the status of experiments using Exogam and its ancillary detectors. Presentations include details of experiments already run and those in preparation. This document gathers most of the slides presented at the meeting. The results of 7 experiments are described. There are 9 contributions as it follows: 1) presentation of the Vamos spectrometer p.1-15, 2) the Clara (detector) and Prisma (spectrometer) setup: status and perspectives p.16-33, 3) experiment E344aS: shape coexistence near the N=Z line and collective properties of Kr isotopes investigated by low-energy Coulomb excitation p.34-56, 4) experiment E389: study of effective charges at Sm 100 via the nuclear lifetime measurements in Pd 96 and Cd 98 p.57-68, 5) experiment E375: spectroscopy of trans-fermium nuclei p.69-91, 6) experiment E408S: He 8 on Pb 208 and Bi 209 p.92-102, 7) experiment E462: very neutron rich calcium isotopes at N=32, structure of magic Ca 54 studied by gamma-spectroscopy with deep inelastic reactions p.103-115, 8) experiment E451: searching for T=D pairing and a new coupling scheme in Pd 92 and Ru 88 p.116-141, and 9) experiment E404aS: identification of gamma rays in nuclei around the drip-line nucleus Sm 130 , probing the maximally deformed light rare earth region

  14. SMEX03 Ancillary Soil Characteristics Data, Alabama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SMEX03 Ancillary Soil Characteristics data set contains data for the regional study areas of Alabama, Georgia, and Oklahoma, USA as part of the 2003 Soil...

  15. Pressure ulcer risk in ancillary services patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, Monica S

    2010-01-01

    Although pressure ulcer prevention has received considerable attention in the literature since the 1960s, little has been published about the risk of pressure injury to patients undergoing procedures in diagnostic and interventional ancillary units such as radiology, renal dialysis, cardiac, and vascular procedure laboratories. In the only research study found in this population, the incidence of pressure injury in patients undergoing lengthy radiology procedures was 53.8%. Therefore, I reviewed the research literature in order to identify which specific factors are most likely to place persons undergoing ancillary procedures at risk for pressure injury. Sufficient evidence was found to implicate high interface pressures on ancillary support surfaces, shear incurred from patient movement and positioning, advanced age, severe neurologic impairment, anesthesia and sedation, fever, sepsis, and hypotension as risk factors for pressure injury while receiving services from interventional ancillary units.

  16. Health benefit modelling and optimization of vehicular pollution control strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawane, Nayan V.; Patil, Rashmi S.; Sethi, Virendra

    2012-12-01

    This study asserts that the evaluation of pollution reduction strategies should be approached on the basis of health benefits. The framework presented could be used for decision making on the basis of cost effectiveness when the strategies are applied concurrently. Several vehicular pollution control strategies have been proposed in literature for effective management of urban air pollution. The effectiveness of these strategies has been mostly studied as a one at a time approach on the basis of change in pollution concentration. The adequacy and practicality of such an approach is studied in the present work. Also, the assessment of respective benefits of these strategies has been carried out when they are implemented simultaneously. An integrated model has been developed which can be used as a tool for optimal prioritization of various pollution management strategies. The model estimates health benefits associated with specific control strategies. ISC-AERMOD View has been used to provide the cause-effect relation between control options and change in ambient air quality. BenMAP, developed by U.S. EPA, has been applied for estimation of health and economic benefits associated with various management strategies. Valuation of health benefits has been done for impact indicators of premature mortality, hospital admissions and respiratory syndrome. An optimization model has been developed to maximize overall social benefits with determination of optimized percentage implementations for multiple strategies. The model has been applied for sub-urban region of Mumbai city for vehicular sector. Several control scenarios have been considered like revised emission standards, electric, CNG, LPG and hybrid vehicles. Reduction in concentration and resultant health benefits for the pollutants CO, NOx and particulate matter are estimated for different control scenarios. Finally, an optimization model has been applied to determine optimized percentage implementation of specific

  17. Exogam with its ancillary detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theisen, Ch. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique, de Physique des Particules de Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee, 91- Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2004-07-01

    The goal of the meeting was to discuss the status of experiments using Exogam and its ancillary detectors. Presentations include details of experiments already run and those in preparation. This document gathers most of the slides presented at the meeting. The results of 7 experiments are described. There are 9 contributions as it follows: 1) presentation of the Vamos spectrometer p.1-15, 2) the Clara (detector) and Prisma (spectrometer) setup: status and perspectives p.16-33, 3) experiment E344aS: shape coexistence near the N=Z line and collective properties of Kr isotopes investigated by low-energy Coulomb excitation p.34-56, 4) experiment E389: study of effective charges at Sm{sup 100} via the nuclear lifetime measurements in Pd{sup 96} and Cd{sup 98} p.57-68, 5) experiment E375: spectroscopy of trans-fermium nuclei p.69-91, 6) experiment E408S: He{sup 8} on Pb{sup 208} and Bi{sup 209} p.92-102, 7) experiment E462: very neutron rich calcium isotopes at N=32, structure of magic Ca{sup 54} studied by gamma-spectroscopy with deep inelastic reactions p.103-115, 8) experiment E451: searching for T=D pairing and a new coupling scheme in Pd{sup 92} and Ru{sup 88} p.116-141, and 9) experiment E404aS: identification of gamma rays in nuclei around the drip-line nucleus Sm{sup 130}, probing the maximally deformed light rare earth region.

  18. A framework for quantifying net benefits of alternative prognostic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapsomaniki, E.; White, I.R.; Wood, A.M.; Thompson, S.G.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Kromhout, D.

    2012-01-01

    New prognostic models are traditionally evaluated using measures of discrimination and risk reclassification, but these do not take full account of the clinical and health economic context. We propose a framework for comparing prognostic models by quantifying the public health impact (net benefit)

  19. A framework for quantifying net benefits of alternative prognostic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapsomaniki, Eleni; White, Ian R; Wood, Angela M

    2012-01-01

    New prognostic models are traditionally evaluated using measures of discrimination and risk reclassification, but these do not take full account of the clinical and health economic context. We propose a framework for comparing prognostic models by quantifying the public health impact (net benefit......) of the treatment decisions they support, assuming a set of predetermined clinical treatment guidelines. The change in net benefit is more clinically interpretable than changes in traditional measures and can be used in full health economic evaluations of prognostic models used for screening and allocating risk...... risk factors instead of a model with just age, gender and region. We explore methodological issues associated with the multistudy design and show that cost-effectiveness comparisons based on the proposed methodology are robust against a range of modelling assumptions, including adjusting for competing...

  20. AX Tank Farm ancillary equipment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-01-01

    This report examines the feasibility of remediating ancillary equipment associated with the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. Ancillary equipment includes surface structures and equipment, process waste piping, ventilation components, wells, and pits, boxes, sumps, and tanks used to make waste transfers to/from the AX tanks and adjoining tank farms. Two remedial alternatives are considered: (1) excavation and removal of all ancillary equipment items, and (2) in-situ stabilization by grout filling, the 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a strawman in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tanks. This is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms

  1. A framework for quantifying net benefits of alternative prognostic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapsomaniki, Eleni; White, Ian R; Wood, Angela M; Thompson, Simon G

    2012-01-30

    New prognostic models are traditionally evaluated using measures of discrimination and risk reclassification, but these do not take full account of the clinical and health economic context. We propose a framework for comparing prognostic models by quantifying the public health impact (net benefit) of the treatment decisions they support, assuming a set of predetermined clinical treatment guidelines. The change in net benefit is more clinically interpretable than changes in traditional measures and can be used in full health economic evaluations of prognostic models used for screening and allocating risk reduction interventions. We extend previous work in this area by quantifying net benefits in life years, thus linking prognostic performance to health economic measures; by taking full account of the occurrence of events over time; and by considering estimation and cross-validation in a multiple-study setting. The method is illustrated in the context of cardiovascular disease risk prediction using an individual participant data meta-analysis. We estimate the number of cardiovascular-disease-free life years gained when statin treatment is allocated based on a risk prediction model with five established risk factors instead of a model with just age, gender and region. We explore methodological issues associated with the multistudy design and show that cost-effectiveness comparisons based on the proposed methodology are robust against a range of modelling assumptions, including adjusting for competing risks. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Plants status monitor: Modelling techniques and inherent benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breeding, R.J.; Lainoff, S.M.; Rees, D.C.; Prather, W.A.; Fickiessen, K.O.E.

    1987-01-01

    The Plant Status Monitor (PSM) is designed to provide plant personnel with information on the operational status of the plant and compliance with the plant technical specifications. The PSM software evaluates system models using a 'distributed processing' technique in which detailed models of individual systems are processed rather than by evaluating a single, plant-level model. In addition, development of the system models for PSM provides inherent benefits to the plant by forcing detailed reviews of the technical specifications, system design and operating procedures, and plant documentation. (orig.)

  3. The invaluable benefits of modeling and simulation in our lives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorencez, C., E-mail: carlos.lorencez@opg.com [Ontario Power Generation, Nuclear Safety Div., Pickering, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    'Full text:' In general terms, we associate the words 'modeling and simulation' with semi-ideal mathematical models reproducing complex Engineering problems. However, the use of modeling and simulation is much more extensive than that: it is applied on a daily basis in almost every front of Science, from sociology and biology to climate change, medicine, robotics, war strategies, etc. It is also being applied by our frontal lobe when we make decisions. The results of these exercises on modeling and simulation have had invaluable benefits on our well being, and we are just at the beginning. (author)

  4. The invaluable benefits of modeling and simulation in our lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorencez, C.

    2015-01-01

    'Full text:' In general terms, we associate the words 'modeling and simulation' with semi-ideal mathematical models reproducing complex Engineering problems. However, the use of modeling and simulation is much more extensive than that: it is applied on a daily basis in almost every front of Science, from sociology and biology to climate change, medicine, robotics, war strategies, etc. It is also being applied by our frontal lobe when we make decisions. The results of these exercises on modeling and simulation have had invaluable benefits on our well being, and we are just at the beginning. (author)

  5. Measuring the value of nonwage employee benefits: building a model of the relation between benefit satisfaction and value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathington, Bart L; Jones, Allan P

    2006-11-01

    Researchers have commonly assumed benefits that employees view as more valuable have a greater influence on their attitudes and behaviors. Researchers have used 2 common methods to measure benefit value: attaching a monetary value to benefits and using self-reports of benefit importance. The present authors propose that the 2 approaches are conceptually distinct and have different implications. They use a social exchange perspective to justify this distinction and integrate both approaches and benefit satisfaction into a more comprehensive model of benefit perception. Results suggest that both measures have practical applications depending on the nature of the exchange relationship between the organization and employees. However, this relationship depends on the specific benefit and on employee satisfaction with that benefit. Some benefits lend themselves to a monetary estimate, whereas others lend themselves more to a nonmonetary valuation.

  6. Transactive Control and Coordination of Distributed Assets for Ancillary Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subbarao, Krishnappa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fuller, Jason C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kalsi, Karanjit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Somani, Abhishek [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pratt, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chassin, David P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-18

    The need to diversify energy supplies, the need to mitigate energy-related environmental impact, and the entry of electric vehicles in large numbers present challenges and opportunities to power system professionals. Wind and solar power provide many benefits, and to reap the benefits the resulting increased variability—forecasted as well as unforecasted—should be addressed. A majority of states and the District of Columbia, representing over half of the total load, have passed renewable portfolio standards. California’s plans call for 33% renewable energy by 2020. For grid balancing and for meeting reliability standards, ancillary services are needed. The needs for these services are poised to increase significantly. Demand resources are receiving increasing attention as one means of providing the ancillary services. Control and coordination of a large number (~millions) of distributed smart grid assets requires innovative approaches. One such approach is transactive control and coordination (TC2)—a distributed, hierarchical, agent-based incentive and control system. The TC2 paradigm is to create a market-like control system in which participation is voluntary and the participant sets the price for participation. For transactions that are frequent, automation of bids and responses is necessary. Such an approach has been developed and demonstrated at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The devices, typically thermostatically controlled heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads, send their bids—the quantity of energy they need and, based on the consumer preferences encoded in a simple user interface, the price they are willing to pay. The typical bid period is 5 minutes. By aggregating all the bids, a demand curve is generated by the aggregating entity, and matched with a supply curve or supply constraint. The aggregator transmits the clearing price to the devices. The winning devices proceed to consume the energy they bid for and won

  7. Do recommender systems benefit users? a modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Chi Ho

    2016-04-01

    Recommender systems are present in many web applications to guide purchase choices. They increase sales and benefit sellers, but whether they benefit customers by providing relevant products remains less explored. While in many cases the recommended products are relevant to users, in other cases customers may be tempted to purchase the products only because they are recommended. Here we introduce a model to examine the benefit of recommender systems for users, and find that recommendations from the system can be equivalent to random draws if one always follows the recommendations and seldom purchases according to his or her own preference. Nevertheless, with sufficient information about user preferences, recommendations become accurate and an abrupt transition to this accurate regime is observed for some of the studied algorithms. On the other hand, we find that high estimated accuracy indicated by common accuracy metrics is not necessarily equivalent to high real accuracy in matching users with products. This disagreement between estimated and real accuracy serves as an alarm for operators and researchers who evaluate recommender systems merely with accuracy metrics. We tested our model with a real dataset and observed similar behaviors. Finally, a recommendation approach with improved accuracy is suggested. These results imply that recommender systems can benefit users, but the more frequently a user purchases the recommended products, the less relevant the recommended products are in matching user taste.

  8. Mental models of the benefits and risks of novel foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemann, Kit; Scholderer, Joachim

    various reasons behind this, chiefly a disagreement between technical experts and consumers over the nature of the hazards on which risk assessments should focus, an absence of considerations of societal benefit in regulatory frameworks, and perceptions of insufficient openness about uncertainties in risk...... responsibilities in food safety risk assessment and environmental risk assessment. In Study 2, mental models were elicited in in-depth interviews with altogether 25 Danish consumers with wide variations in sociodemographic characteristics and education. As expected, the mental models elicited from the expert...... participants were very focused on the types of hazards for which risk assessments can reasonably be conducted under current regulatory frameworks. Consumers tended to see only few well-defined risks and benefits in the three novel food examples. Interestingly, consumers were often much more concerned about...

  9. Investment in Electricity Transmission and Ancillary Environmental Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Burtraw, Dallas; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Bloyd, Cary

    2002-01-01

    Planning of the electricity transmission system generally focuses on the pros and cons of providing generation close to the source of the power demand versus remote generation linked via the transmission system. Recent electricity supply problems in the western United States have renewed interest in the role of transmission in assuring the reliability of electricity supply. Recently, the Western Governors’ Association led the development of a planning exercise that examined the tradeoffs over...

  10. Optimal generator bidding strategies for power and ancillary services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinec, Allen G.

    As the electric power industry transitions to a deregulated market, power transactions are made upon price rather than cost. Generator companies are interested in maximizing their profits rather than overall system efficiency. A method to equitably compensate generation providers for real power, and ancillary services such as reactive power and spinning reserve, will ensure a competitive market with an adequate number of suppliers. Optimizing the generation product mix during bidding is necessary to maximize a generator company's profits. The objective of this research work is to determine and formulate appropriate optimal bidding strategies for a generation company in both the energy and ancillary services markets. These strategies should incorporate the capability curves of their generators as constraints to define the optimal product mix and price offered in the day-ahead and real time spot markets. In order to achieve such a goal, a two-player model was composed to simulate market auctions for power generation. A dynamic game methodology was developed to identify Nash Equilibria and Mixed-Strategy Nash Equilibria solutions as optimal generation bidding strategies for two-player non-cooperative variable-sum matrix games with incomplete information. These games integrated the generation product mix of real power, reactive power, and spinning reserve with the generators's capability curves as constraints. The research includes simulations of market auctions, where strategies were tested for generators with different unit constraints, costs, types of competitors, strategies, and demand levels. Studies on the capability of large hydrogen cooled synchronous generators were utilized to derive useful equations that define the exact shape of the capability curve from the intersections of the arcs defined by the centers and radial vectors of the rotor, stator, and steady-state stability limits. The available reactive reserve and spinning reserve were calculated given a

  11. The Benefit of Ambiguity in Understanding Goals in Requirements Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paay, Jeni; Pedell, Sonja; Sterling, Leon

    2011-01-01

    of their research is to create technologies that support more flexible and meaningful social interactions, by combining best practice in software engineering with ethnographic techniques to model complex social interactions from their socially oriented life for the purposes of building rich socio...... ambiguity in the process of elicitation and analysis through the use of empirically informed quality goals attached to functional goals. The authors demonstrate the benefit of articulating a quality goal without turning it into a functional goal. Their study shows that quality goals kept at a high level...... of abstraction, ambiguous and open for conversations through the modelling process add richness to goal models, and communicate quality attributes of the interaction being modelled to the design phase, where this ambiguity is regarded as a resource for design....

  12. Performance of STICS model to predict rainfed corn evapotranspiration and biomass evaluated for 6 years between 1995 and 2006 using daily aggregated eddy covariance fluxes and ancillary measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattey, Elizabeth; Jégo, Guillaume; Bourgeois, Gaétan

    2010-05-01

    Verifying the performance of process-based crop growth models to predict evapotranspiration and crop biomass is a key component of the adaptation of agricultural crop production to climate variations. STICS, developed by INRA, was part of the models selected by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada to be implemented for environmental assessment studies on climate variations, because of its built-in ability to assimilate biophysical descriptors such as LAI derived from satellite imagery and its open architecture. The model prediction of shoot biomass was calibrated using destructive biomass measurements over one season, by adjusting six cultivar parameters and three generic plant parameters to define two grain corn cultivars adapted to the 1000-km long Mixedwood Plains ecozone. Its performance was then evaluated using a database of 40 years-sites of corn destructive biomass and yield. In this study we evaluate the temporal response of STICS evapotranspiration and biomass accumulation predictions against estimates using daily aggregated eddy covariance fluxes. The flux tower was located in an experimental farm south of Ottawa and measurements carried out over corn fields in 1995, 1996, 1998, 2000, 2002 and 2006. Daytime and nighttime fluxes were QC/QA and gap-filled separately. Soil respiration was partitioned to calculate the corn net daily CO2 uptake, which was converted into dry biomass. Out of the six growing seasons, three (1995, 1998, 2002) had water stress periods during corn grain filling. Year 2000 was cool and wet, while 1996 had heat and rainfall distributed evenly over the season and 2006 had a wet spring. STICS can predict evapotranspiration using either crop coefficients, when wind speed and air moisture are not available, or resistance. The first approach provided higher prediction for all the years than the resistance approach and the flux measurements. The dynamic of evapotranspiration prediction of STICS was very good for the growing seasons without

  13. Climate change benefits and energy supply benefits as determinants of acceptance of nuclear power stations: Investigating an explanatory model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visschers, Vivianne H.M.; Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Several countries are currently discussing whether they will rebuild their nuclear power stations in order to continue this type of energy production in the future. The public, with its own opinion about nuclear power stations, has an influential voice in this discussion. As a result, policy makers and nuclear scientists are interested in the public's perception of nuclear power and in what determines this perception. We therefore examined an explanatory model of the public's acceptance of nuclear power based on a telephone survey among a representative sample in Switzerland. The model included such factors as risk perception, benefit perception, affective feelings, and social trust. Moreover, we distinguished between two types of benefit perception: benefit for the climate and a secure energy supply. The model fitted very well to our data and explained acceptance very well. Acceptance was mainly influenced by perceived benefits for a secure energy supply and, to a lesser extent, both by perceived benefits for the climate and by risk perception. Affective feelings about nuclear power appeared to be a central factor in the model. Implications for communication about nuclear power stations and for further research are discussed. - Highlights: → Explanatory model of determinants of nuclear power acceptance was studied in the representative survey. → Perceived benefits for a secure energy supply had the largest influence on acceptance. → Perceived benefits for the climate seemed less influential on acceptance. → Affect had a central role in the explanatory model. → Implications for communication about nuclear power plants are discussed.

  14. How to Decide on Modeling Details: Risk and Benefit Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özilgen, Mustafa

    Mathematical models based on thermodynamic, kinetic, heat, and mass transfer analysis are central to this chapter. Microbial growth, death, enzyme inactivation models, and the modeling of material properties, including those pertinent to conduction and convection heating, mass transfer, such as diffusion and convective mass transfer, and thermodynamic properties, such as specific heat, enthalpy, and Gibbs free energy of formation and specific chemical exergy are also needed in this task. The origins, simplifying assumptions, and uses of model equations are discussed in this chapter, together with their benefits. The simplified forms of these models are sometimes referred to as "laws," such as "the first law of thermodynamics" or "Fick's second law." Starting to modeling a study with such "laws" without considering the conditions under which they are valid runs the risk of ending up with erronous conclusions. On the other hand, models started with fundamental concepts and simplified with appropriate considerations may offer explanations for the phenomena which may not be obtained just with measurements or unprocessed experimental data. The discussion presented here is strengthened with case studies and references to the literature.

  15. Utilization of Ancillary Data Sets for Conceptual SMAP Mission Algorithm Development and Product Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, P.; Podest, E.

    2011-01-01

    The planned Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being developed by NASA in response to the National Research Council's Decadal Survey, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond [1]. Scheduled to launch late in 2014, the proposed SMAP mission would provide high resolution and frequent revisit global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state, utilizing enhanced Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) mitigation approaches to collect new measurements of the hydrological condition of the Earth's surface. The SMAP instrument design incorporates an L-band radar (3 km) and an L band radiometer (40 km) sharing a single 6-meter rotating mesh antenna to provide measurements of soil moisture and landscape freeze/thaw state [2]. These observations would (1) improve our understanding of linkages between the Earth's water, energy, and carbon cycles, (2) benefit many application areas including numerical weather and climate prediction, flood and drought monitoring, agricultural productivity, human health, and national security, (3) help to address priority questions on climate change, and (4) potentially provide continuity with brightness temperature and soil moisture measurements from ESA's SMOS (Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity) and NASA's Aquarius missions. In the planned SMAP mission prelaunch time frame, baseline algorithms are being developed for generating (1) soil moisture products both from radiometer measurements on a 36 km grid and from combined radar/radiometer measurements on a 9 km grid, and (2) freeze/thaw products from radar measurements on a 3 km grid. These retrieval algorithms need a variety of global ancillary data, both static and dynamic, to run the retrieval models, constrain the retrievals, and provide flags for indicating retrieval quality. The choice of which ancillary dataset to use for a particular SMAP product would be based on a number of factors

  16. Headwater Benefits Energy Gains (HWBEG) model description and users manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R D; Turhollow, Jr, A F; Cohn, S M; Das, S; Rizy, C G; Tulley, Jr, J H; Kraemer, R D

    1984-02-01

    The Headwater Benefits Energy Gains (HWBEG) Model was developed for computing energy gains in complex regulated river basins. The model requires daily data on streamflows, storage changes at reservoirs, and power generation at hydroelectric plants. Mathematical relationships are derived from these data to explain the operation of storage reservoirs and the rating of hydropower plants. The HWBEG model assembles streamflows that would have been theoretically available for energy production under varying conditions of upstream reservoir operation. The model first eliminates all upstream storage changes to simulate an unregulated natural flow condition. The storage changes of upstream reservoirs are then added back to the unregulated natural flow in a sequence corresponding to the time the reservoirs began affecting streamflows. As each reservoir is added back to the river system, the hydropower generation attributable to that particular flow is calculated using the reservoir operating rules and the hydropower plant rating curves. Energy gains are determined by subtracting generation with from generation without the chronologically sequenced and combinatorial effects of the upstream storage reservoirs. The energy gains attributable to each storage reservoir are totalled yearly and become the basis for apportioning the cost of operating the upstream federal reservoir or headwater improvement. This report describes the operation of the model including the assembly of the requisite data bases and the use of the computer code.

  17. Ancillary services and optimal household energy management with photovoltaic production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clastres, C.; Ha Pham, T.T.; Wurtz, F.; Bacha, S.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a project designed to increase the monetary value of photovoltaic (PV) solar production for residential applications. To contribute to developing new functionalities for this type of PV system and an efficient control system for optimising its operation, this article explains how the proposed system could contract to provide ancillary services, particularly the supply of active power services. This provision of service by a PV-based system for domestic applications, not currently available, has prompted a market design proposal related to the distribution system. The mathematical model for calculating the system's optimal operation (sources, load and exchanges of power with the grid) results in a linear mix integer optimisation problem in which the objective is to maximise the profits achieved by taking part in the electricity market. Our approach is illustrated in a case study. PV producers could gain by taking part in the markets for balancing power or ancillary services despite the negative impact on profit of several types of uncertainty, notably the intermittent nature of the PV source.

  18. Ancillary services provided by PV power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio PIERNO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources are widely utilized in distributed generation systems, and, recently, they are also considered for providing ancillary services. The paper is focused on PV plants, a survey of the most interesting papers published in the literature in the last decade is reported and the main characteristics of the technical proposals, with their advantages and limits, are evidenced. The results are schematically shown in a table that immediately gives the opportunity to be aware of what was already done, representing a reference tool.

  19. 30 CFR 250.207 - What ancillary activities may I conduct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surveys; or (c) Studies that model potential oil and hazardous substance spills, drilling muds and... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What ancillary activities may I conduct? 250.207 Section 250.207 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE...

  20. Industrial Demand Management Providing Ancillary Services to the Distribution Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahnama, Samira; Green, Torben; Lyhne, Casper

    2017-01-01

    A prominent feature of the future smart grid is the active participation of the consumer side in ancillary service provision. Grid operators procure ancillary services, including regulating power, voltage control, frequency control, and so on, to ensure safe, reliable, and high-quality electricity...

  1. 39 CFR 122.1 - Ancillary special services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ancillary special services. 122.1 Section 122.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT SPECIAL SERVICES PRODUCTS § 122.1 Ancillary special services. (a) For the market-dominant...

  2. Integration of Flexible Consumers in the Ancillary Service Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Westenholz, Mikkel; Hansen, Lars Henrik

    2014-01-01

    services. In this work we present a simple method based on the existing ancillary service markets that resolves these issues via increased information and communication technology. The method allows an aggregator to continuously utilize the markets for slower ancillary service to ensure that its portfolio...

  3. 16 CFR 1.62 - Ancillary court orders pending review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ancillary court orders pending review. 1.62 Section 1.62 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Injunctive and Condemnation Proceedings § 1.62 Ancillary court orders pending review...

  4. Response Surface Model (RSM)-based Benefit Per Ton Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tables below are updated versions of the tables appearing in The influence of location, source, and emission type in estimates of the human health benefits of reducing a ton of air pollution (Fann, Fulcher and Hubbell 2009).

  5. Modelling environmental benefits of silvoarable agroforestry in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palma, J.H.N.; Graves, A.R.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Burgess, P.J.; Filippi, de R.; Keesman, K.J.; Keulen, van H.; Liagre, F.; Mayus, M.; Moreno, G.; Reisner, Y.; Herzog, F.

    2006-01-01

    Increased adoption of silvoarable agroforestry (SAF) systems in Europe, by integrating trees and arable crops on the same land, could offer environmental benefits compared with conventional agricultural systems. Soil erosion, nitrogen leaching, carbon sequestration and landscape biodiversity were

  6. Modeling environmental benefits of silvoarable agroforestry in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palma, J.H.N.; Graves, A.R.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Burgess, P.J.; Filippi, de R.; Keesman, K.J.; Keulen, van H.; Liagre, F.; Mayus, M.; Moreno, G.; Reisner, Y.; Herzog, F.

    2007-01-01

    Increased adoption of silvoarable agroforestry (SAF) systems in Europe, by integrating trees and arable crops on the same land, could offer a range of environmental benefits compared with conventional agricultural systems. Soil erosion, nitrogen leaching, carbon sequestration and landscape

  7. Illustration of Modern Wind Turbine Ancillary Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis D. Margaris

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing levels of wind power penetration in modern power systems has set intensively high standards with respect to wind turbine technology during the last years. Security issues have become rather critical and operation of wind farms as conventional power plants is becoming a necessity as wind turbines replace conventional units on the production side. This article includes a review of the basic control issues regarding the capability of the Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG wind turbine configuration to fulfill the basic technical requirements set by the system operators and contribute to power system security. An overview of ancillary services provided by wind turbine technology nowadays is provided, i.e., fault ride-through capability, reactive power supply and frequency-active power control.

  8. A Diffusion Model Incorporating Product Benefits, Price, Income and Information

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Horsky

    1990-01-01

    We start by assuming that a major benefit of many new durable products such as dishwashers and microwave ovens is time savings. Others, such as VCRs, also enhance the value of our leisure time. Using a household production framework we demonstrate that a utility maximizing individual will have a reservation price for the product which is a function of the product benefits and his wage rate. By assuming that the wage rate has an extreme value distribution across the population, we are able to ...

  9. What Determines Prediction Errors In Benefits Transfer Models?

    OpenAIRE

    Colombo, Sergio; Hanley, Nick

    2007-01-01

    The aim of BT techniques is to provide decision makers with a monetary valuation of environmental goods and service in a cost-effective and timely manner, since original valuation studies are both expensive and time-consuming. Demands for environmental valuation estimates are rising in the policy community in both Europe and the US. In the UK, widespread use of benefits transfer has already occurred within policy making and regulatory bodies, for instance in the setting of water quality targe...

  10. Redefining Requirements of Ancillary Services for Technology Agnostic Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondy, Daniel Esteban Morales; MacDonald, Jason; Kara, Emre Can

    2018-01-01

    New sources for ancillary services are needed, yet the requirements for service provision in most countries are explicitly formulated for traditional generators. This leads to waste of the potential for new technologies to deliver ancillary services. In order to harness this potential, we propose...... to parameterize the requirements of ancillary services so that reserves can be built by combining the advantageous properties of different technologies. The proposal is exemplified through a laboratory test where it shown that the system needs can be covered through cheaper and smaller reserves....

  11. BENEFITS AT IMS-QES MODEL IN SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Rajković

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Appearance of a number of management systems with various and sometimes divergent demands, demands for revise of optimal strategy on implementation of these standards in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs and the attempt on their integration into integrated management system are suggested even more. Firstly question on choice and reasons for implementation of standards is raised. Management and employees expect benefits on the implementation and they pass and minimize the implementation barriers. Basic concept on integrated management system (IMS into SMEs and analyse on reasons and advantages at IMS implementation are presented in this paper.

  12. Applying the chronic care model to an employee benefits program: a qualitative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Gillian L; Wilson, Mark; Barrett, Barbara; Honeycutt, Sally; Hermstad, April K; Kegler, Michelle C

    2013-12-01

    To assess how employee benefits programs may strengthen and/or complement elements of the chronic care model (CCM), a framework used by health systems to improve chronic illness care. A qualitative inquiry consisting of semi-structured interviews with employee benefit administrators and partners from a self-insured, self-administered employee health benefits program was conducted at a large family-owned business in southwest Georgia. Results indicate that the employer adapted and used many health system-related elements of the CCM in the design of their benefit program. Data also suggest that the employee benefits program contributed to self-management skills and to informing and activating patients to interact with the health system. Findings suggest that employee benefits programs can use aspects of the CCM in their own benefit design, and can structure their benefits to contribute to patient-related elements from the CCM.

  13. Ancillary Care: From Theory to Practice in International Clinical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Zion, Deborah; Lwin, Khin Maung; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Nosten, Francois; Loff, Bebe

    2013-01-01

    How international research might contribute to justice in global health has not been substantively addressed by bioethics. This article describes how the provision of ancillary care can link international clinical research to the reduction of global health disparities. It identifies the ancillary care obligations supported by a theory of global justice, showing that Jennifer Ruger’s health capability paradigm requires the delivery of ancillary care to trial participants for a limited subset of conditions that cause severe morbidity and mortality. Empirical research on the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit’s (SMRU) vivax malaria treatment trial was then undertaken to demonstrate whether and how these obligations might be upheld in a resource-poor setting. Our findings show that fulfilment of the ancillary care obligations is feasible where there is commitment from chief investigators and funders and is strongly facilitated by SMRU’s dual role as a research unit and medical non-governmental organization. PMID:23864908

  14. Options for pricing ancillary services in a deregulated power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, Hatim Yahya

    2001-07-01

    GENCOs in restructured systems are compensated for selling energy in the market. In a restructured market, a mechanism is required to entice participants in the market to provide ancillary services and to ensure adequate compensation that would guarantee its economic viability. The ISO controls the dispatch of generation, manages the reliability of the transmission grid, provides open access to the transmission, buys and provides ancillary services as required, coordinates day-ahead, hour-ahead schedules and performs real time balancing of load and generation, settles real time imbalances and ancillary services sales and purchases. The ISO, also, administers congestion management protocols for the transmission grid. Since the ISO does not own any generating units it must ensure that there is enough reserves for maintaining reliability according to FERC regulations, and sufficient unloaded generating capacity for balancing services in a real-time market. The ISO could meet these requirements by creating a competitive market for ancillary services, which are metered and remain unbundled to provide an accurate compensation for each supplier and cost to each consumer, In this study, we give an overview for restructuring and ancillary services in a restructured power marketplace. Also, we discuss the effect of GENCOs' actions in the competitive energy and ancillary service markets. In addition, we propose an auction market design for hedging ancillary service costs in California market. Furthermore, we show how to include the n-1 and voltage contingencies in security constrained unit commitment. Finally, we present two approaches for GENCOs' unit commitment in a restructured power market; one is based on game theory and the other is based on market price forecasting. In each of the two GENCOs' unit commitment approaches, we discuss the GENCOs' optimal bidding strategies in energy and ancillary service markets to maximize the GENCOs' profit.

  15. Survey of U.S. Ancillary Services Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhi [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Conzelmann, Guenter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In addition to providing energy to end-consumers, power system operators are also responsible for ensuring system reliability. To this end, power markets maintain an array of ancillary services to ensure it is always possible to balance the supply and demand for energy in real-time. A subset of these ancillary services are commonly procured through market-based mechanisms: namely, Regulation, Spinning, and Non-spinning Reserves.

  16. Modeling Electric Vehicle Benefits Connected to Smart Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Mendes, Goncalo; Kloess, Maximillian; Cardoso, Goncalo; M& #233; gel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2011-07-01

    Connecting electric storage technologies to smartgrids will have substantial implications in building energy systems. Local storage will enable demand response. Mobile storage devices in electric vehicles (EVs) are in direct competition with conventional stationary sources at the building. EVs will change the financial as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g. PV, or fuel cells). In order to examine the impact of EVs on building energy costs and CO2 emissions in 2020, a distributed-energy-resources adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program with minimization of annual building energy costs or CO2 emissions. The mixed-integer linear program is applied to a set of 139 different commercial buildings in California and example results as well as the aggregated economic and environmental benefits are reported. The research shows that considering second life of EV batteries might be very beneficial for commercial buildings.

  17. Modeling Electric Vehicle Benefits Connected to Smart Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Mendes, Goncalo; Kloess, Maximillian; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2011-01-01

    Connecting electric storage technologies to smartgrids will have substantial implications in building energy systems. Local storage will enable demand response. Mobile storage devices in electric vehicles (EVs) are in direct competition with conventional stationary sources at the building. EVs will change the financial as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g. PV, or fuel cells). In order to examine the impact of EVs on building energy costs and CO2 emissions in 2020, a distributed-energy-resources adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program with minimization of annual building energy costs or CO2 emissions. The mixed-integer linear program is applied to a set of 139 different commercial buildings in California and example results as well as the aggregated economic and environmental benefits are reported. The research shows that considering second life of EV batteries might be very beneficial for commercial buildings.

  18. Maximizing Benefits through Simultaneous Compliance with Multiple Process Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    www.abridge-tech.com Example Reference Models CMMI-DEV CMMI-SVC CMMI-ACQ ISO 15504 ISO 9000 AS 9100 ISO 20000 Si Si ITIL x gma Malcolm Baldrige Slide #: 4...and safety Slide #: 6 rbechtold@abridge-tech.comAbridge Technology Abridge Technology www.abridge-tech.com Example Reference Models ITIL

  19. Benefits of fundamental modelling : the case of physiological disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konopacki, P.; Tijskens, L.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    A model was developed assuming that the occurrence and the development of physiological disorders are effects of a balance between processes of disorder formation and scavenging of initiating compounds. Based on this (simplified) mechanism and applying the fundamental rules of chemical kinetics, the

  20. Application of microgrids in providing ancillary services to the utility grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majzoobi, Alireza; Khodaei, Amin

    2017-01-01

    A microgrid optimal scheduling model is developed in this paper to demonstrate microgrid's capability in offering ancillary services to the utility grid. The application of localized ancillary services is of significant importance to grid operators as the growing proliferation of distributed renewable energy resources, mainly solar generation, is causing major technical challenges in supply-load balance. The proposed microgrid optimal scheduling model coordinates the microgrid net load with the aggregated consumers/prosumers net load in its connected distribution feeder to capture both inter-hour and intra-hour net load variations. In particular, net load variations for three various time resolutions are considered, including hourly ramping, 10-min based load following, and 1-min based frequency regulation. Numerical simulations on a test distribution feeder with one microgrid and several consumers/prosumers indicate the effectiveness of the proposed model and the viability of the microgrid application in supporting grid operation. - Highlights: • Microgrid optimal scheduling for providing ancillary services to the utility grid. • Local management and mitigation of distribution net load variations. • Offering various support services: ramping, load following, frequency regulation. • Proven effectiveness and accuracy in capturing net load variations.

  1. Ancillary Frequency Control of Direct Drive Full-Scale Converter Based Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Fang, Jiakun

    2013-01-01

    emulation, primary frequency control and secondary frequency control, are proposed in order to improve the frequency stability of power systems. The modified IEEE 39-bus test system with a large-scale wind power penetration is chosen as the studied power system. Simulation results show that the proposed......This paper presents a simulation model of a wind power plant based on a MW-level variable speed wind turbine with a full-scale back-to-back power converter developed in the simulation tool of DIgSILENT Power Factory. Three different kinds of ancillary frequency control strategies, namely inertia...... control strategies are effective means for providing ancillary frequency control of variable speed wind turbines with full-scale back-to-back power converters....

  2. Planetary wave prediction: Benefits of tropical data and global models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, R. C. J.

    1985-01-01

    Skillful numerical predictions of midlatitude atmospheric planetary waves generally require both tropical data for the initial conditions and a global domain for the forecast model. The lack of either adequate tropical observations or a global domain typically leads to a significant degradation of forecast skill in middle latitudes within the first one to three days of the forecast period. These effects were first discovered by numerical experimentation. They were subsequently explained theoretically, and their importance for practical forecasting was confirmed in a series of prediction experiments using FGGE data.

  3. The ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) -for societal benefit -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hato, M.; Tsu, H.; Tachikawa, T.; Abrams, M.; Bailey, B.

    2009-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) was developed jointly by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) of Japan and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under the agreement of contribution to GEOSS and a public release was started on June 29th. ASTER GDEM can be downloaded to users from the Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC) of Japan and NASA’s Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) free of charge. The ASTER instrument was built by METI and launched onboard NASA’s Terra spacecraft in December 1999. It has an along-track stereoscopic capability using its near infrared spectral band (NIR) and its nadir-viewing and backward-viewing telescopes to acquire stereo image data with a base-to-height ratio of 0.6. The ASTER GDEM was produced by applying newly-developed automated algorithm to more than 1.2 million NIR data Produced DEMs of all scene data was stacked after cloud masking and finally partitioned into 1° x 1°unit (called ‘tile’) data for convenience of distribution and handling by users. Before start of public distribution, ERSDAC and USGS/NASA together with many volunteers did validation and characterization by using a preliminary product of the ASTER GDEM. As a result of validation, METI and NASA evaluated that Version 1 of the ASTER GDEM has enough quality to be used as “experimental” or “research grade” data and consequently decided to release it. The ASTER GDEM covering almost all land area of from 83N to 83S on the earth represents as an important contribution to the global earth observation community. We will show our effort of development of ASTER GDEM and its accuracy and character.

  4. An assessment of market and policy barriers for demand response providing ancillary services in U.S. electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappers, Peter; MacDonald, Jason; Goldman, Charles; Ma, Ookie

    2013-01-01

    An impact of increased variable renewable generation is the need for balancing authorities to procure more ancillary services. While demand response resources are technically capable of providing these services, current experience across the U.S. illustrates they are relatively minor players in most regions. Accessing demand response resources for ancillary services may require a number of changes to policies and common practices at multiple levels. Regional reliability councils must first define ancillary services such that demand response resources may provide them. Once the opportunity exists, balancing authorities define and promulgate rules that set the infrastructure investments and performance attributes of a resource wishing to provide such services. These rules also dictate expected revenue streams which reveal the cost effectiveness of these resources. The regulatory compact between utility and state regulators, along with other statutes and decisions by state policymakers, may impact the interest of demand response program providers to pursue these resources as ancillary service providers. This paper identifies within these broad categories specific market and policy barriers to demand response providing ancillary services in different wholesale and retail environments, with emphasis on smaller customers who must be aggregated through a program provider to meet minimum size requirements for wholesale transactions. - Highlights: • We identify barriers keeping demand response from providing ancillary services. • Institutional, financial and program provider business model barriers exist. • Product definitions and rules do not always accommodate demand response well. • Expected revenues are uncertain and may not exceed required investments costs. • Regulatory compact and state statutes limit opportunities for program providers

  5. How does early detection by screening affect disease progression?: Modeling estimated benefits in prostate cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Wever (Elisabeth); G. Draisma (Gerrit); E.A.M. Heijnsdijk (Eveline); H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Simulation models are essential tools for estimating benefits of cancer screening programs. Such models include a screening-effect model that represents how early detection by screening followed by treatment affects disease-specific survival. Two commonly used

  6. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffner, Grayson; Goldman, Charles; Kintner-Meyer, Michael

    2007-05-01

    In this study, we examine the arrangements for and experiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in five electricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordic market, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objective in undertaking this review of international experience was to identify specific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads to effectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hope that this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S. and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments are needed to ensure that customer loads can meaningfully participate in all wholesale electricity markets.

  7. 77 FR 41985 - Use of Influenza Disease Models To Quantitatively Evaluate the Benefits and Risks of Vaccines: A...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ...] Use of Influenza Disease Models To Quantitatively Evaluate the Benefits and Risks of Vaccines: A... Influenza Disease Models to Quantitatively Evaluate the Benefits and Risks of Vaccines: A Technical Workshop... model to quantitatively estimate the benefits and risks of a hypothetical influenza vaccine, and to seek...

  8. Integrating socio-economical dimensions in the ICRP cost-benefit model (a theoretical approach)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, Jacques.

    1981-09-01

    This report aims at analysing, from a methodological point of view, the main problems associated with the integration of socio-economical dimensions in the cost-benefit model recommended by the ICRP in its publication no. 26. After recalling the basic principles of cost-benefit analysis, the elements to be retained in the objective function characterizing the analysis, and the question of the social benefit definitions are discussed. The theory of social surplus with an illustration taken from the radiological protection field is presented [fr

  9. The Benefits and Limitations of Hydraulic Modeling for Ordinary High Water Mark Delineation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    simulates the water surface elevation and width for a given discharge. This modeling can be helpful in OHWM delineations but can be misleading if the model...OHWM delineation. DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising , publication, or promotional purposes. Ci- tation of...Despite its benefits, hydraulic modeling can be misleading if performed or applied improperly; and agencies reviewing the models as part of a juris

  10. EV and HP Providing Ancillary Services in the Nordic Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei

    This report covers the analysis of the electric vehicle (EV) and heat pump (HP) providing ancillary services to the power system of the Nordic region including Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The analysis is to investigate the feasibility of EVs and HPs to serve as demand as frequency reserve...

  11. How does early detection by screening affect disease progression? Modeling estimated benefits in prostate cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wever, Elisabeth M; Draisma, Gerrit; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A M; de Koning, Harry J

    2011-01-01

    Simulation models are essential tools for estimating benefits of cancer screening programs. Such models include a screening-effect model that represents how early detection by screening followed by treatment affects disease-specific survival. Two commonly used screening-effect models are the stage-shift model, where mortality benefits are explained by the shift to more favorable stages, and the cure model, where early detection enhances the chances of cure from disease. This article describes commonly used screening-effect models and analyses their predicted mortality benefit in a model for prostate cancer screening. The MISCAN simulation model was used to predict the reduction of prostate cancer mortality in the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) Rotterdam. The screening-effect models were included in the model. For each model the predictions of prostate cancer mortality reduction were calculated. The study compared 4 screening-effect models, which are versions of the stage-shift model or the cure model. The stage-shift models predicted, after a follow-up of 9 years, reductions in prostate cancer mortality varying from 38% to 63% for ERSPC-Rotterdam compared with a 27% reduction observed in the ERSPC. The cure models predicted reductions in prostate cancer mortality varying from 21% to 27%. The differences in predicted mortality reductions show the importance of validating models to observed trial mortality data. The stage-shift models considerably overestimated the mortality reduction. Therefore, the stage-shift models should be used with care, especially when modeling the effect of screening for cancers with long lead times, such as prostate cancer.

  12. State of the Art of Cost and Benefit Models for Digital Curation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Davidson, Joy; Wang, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an evaluation carried out by the EU 4C project to assess how well current digital curation cost and benefit models meet a range of stakeholders’ needs. This work aims to elicit a means of modelling that enables comparing financial information across organisation...

  13. Long-term pavement performance ancillary information management system (AIMS) reference guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    This document provides information on the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program ancillary information. : Ancillary information includes data, images, reference materials, resource documents, and other information that : support and extend the...

  14. Review of Standby and Ancillary Services in the Context of Behind-the-Meter Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, Pieter J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holm, Alison [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-25

    The New Mexico Public Regulatory Commission (NMPRC) requested information on the following topics: Overview of ancillary and standby services. Examples of how ancillary and standby services are defined, used, and analyzed in other jurisdictions. Considerations regarding how ancillary and standby services may be economically valued. Background information on how ancillary and standby services differ from fixed costs to serve owners of behind-the-meter solar photovoltaic (BTM PV) systems.

  15. A novel insight into the cost–benefit model for the evolution of botanical carnivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovič, Andrej; Saganová, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    Background The cost–benefit model for the evolution of botanical carnivory provides a conceptual framework for interpreting a wide range of comparative and experimental studies on carnivorous plants. This model assumes that the modified leaves called traps represent a significant cost for the plant, and this cost is outweighed by the benefits from increased nutrient uptake from prey, in terms of enhancing the rate of photosynthesis per unit leaf mass or area (AN) in the microsites inhabited by carnivorous plants. Scope This review summarizes results from the classical interpretation of the cost–benefit model for evolution of botanical carnivory and highlights the costs and benefits of active trapping mechanisms, including water pumping, electrical signalling and accumulation of jasmonates. Novel alternative sequestration strategies (utilization of leaf litter and faeces) in carnivorous plants are also discussed in the context of the cost–benefit model. Conclusions Traps of carnivorous plants have lower AN than leaves, and the leaves have higher AN after feeding. Prey digestion, water pumping and electrical signalling represent a significant carbon cost (as an increased rate of respiration, RD) for carnivorous plants. On the other hand, jasmonate accumulation during the digestive period and reprogramming of gene expression from growth and photosynthesis to prey digestion optimizes enzyme production in comparison with constitutive secretion. This inducibility may have evolved as a cost-saving strategy beneficial for carnivorous plants. The similarities between plant defence mechanisms and botanical carnivory are highlighted. PMID:25948113

  16. Secure provision of reactive power ancillary services in competitive electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Samahy, Ismael

    The research work presented in this thesis discusses various complex issues associated with reactive power management and pricing in the context of new operating paradigms in deregulated power systems, proposing appropriate policy solutions. An integrated two-level framework for reactive power management is set forth, which is both suitable for a competitive market and ensures a secure and reliable operation of the associated power system. The framework is generic in nature and can be adopted for any electricity market structure. The proposed hierarchical reactive power market structure comprises two stages: procurement of reactive power resources on a seasonal basis, and real-time reactive power dispatch. The main objective of the proposed framework is to provide appropriate reactive power support from service providers at least cost, while ensuring a secure operation of the power system. The proposed procurement procedure is based on a two-step optimization model. First, the marginal benefits of reactive power supply from each provider, with respect to system security, are obtained by solving a loadability-maximization problem subject to transmission security constraints imposed by voltage and thermal limits. Second, the selected set of generators is determined by solving an optimal power flow (OPF)-based auction. This auction maximizes a societal advantage function comprising generators' offers and their corresponding marginal benefits with respect to system security, and considering all transmission system constraints. The proposed procedure yields the selected set of generators and zonal price components, which would form the basis for seasonal contracts between the system operator and the selected reactive power service providers. The main objective of the proposed reactive power dispatch model is to minimize the total payment burden on the Independent System Operator (ISO), which is associated with reactive power dispatch. The real power generation is

  17. Access to Emissions Distributions and Related Ancillary Data through the ECCAD database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darras, Sabine; Granier, Claire; Liousse, Catherine; De Graaf, Erica; Enriquez, Edgar; Boulanger, Damien; Brissebrat, Guillaume

    2017-04-01

    The ECCAD database (Emissions of atmospheric Compounds and Compilation of Ancillary Data) provides a user-friendly access to global and regional surface emissions for a large set of chemical compounds and ancillary data (land use, active fires, burned areas, population,etc). The emissions inventories are time series gridded data at spatial resolution from 1x1 to 0.1x0.1 degrees. ECCAD is the emissions database of the GEIA (Global Emissions InitiAtive) project and a sub-project of the French Atmospheric Data Center AERIS (http://www.aeris-data.fr). ECCAD has currently more than 2200 users originating from more than 80 countries. The project benefits from this large international community of users to expand the number of emission datasets made available. ECCAD provides detailed metadata for each of the datasets and various tools for data visualization, for computing global and regional totals and for interactive spatial and temporal analysis. The data can be downloaded as interoperable NetCDF CF-compliant files, i.e. the data are compatible with many other client interfaces. The presentation will provide information on the datasets available within ECCAD, as well as examples of the analysis work that can be done online through the website: http://eccad.aeris-data.fr.

  18. Value-based benefit design: using a predictive modeling approach to improve compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, John J

    2008-07-01

    Increased medication compliance rates have been demonstrated to result in improved clinical outcomes and reduced overall medical expenditures. As such, managed care stakeholders should take the total value approach to benefit design and consider total medical costs beyond the cost of pharmacotherapy alone. To describe the value-based benefit design employed by Pitney Bowes (specifically, the predictive modeling approach), to improve medication compliance, and to report the results of this intervention. Despite significant skepticism surrounding value-based benefit design, there is growing evidence that these plans can be used in conjunction with careful pharmacy management. In fact, value-based design provides a different lever on pharmacy management and allows for the appropriate drug to be channeled to the appropriate person. Studies demonstrating the adverse impact of high coinsurance levels further augment the argument for value-based benefit design. Value-based benefit design was employed at Pitney Bowes, a $6.1-billion global provider of integrated mailstream solutions, with noticeable success. Patients were either placed in a disease management program or in a secondary program promoting preventive care. The company selectively cut copays to achieve that end, and this total value approach translated into significant savings. To develop a successful value-based benefit design, stakeholders cannot simply cut costs or cut copays. Action must be taken as part of a concerted program, coupled with disease management or similar interventions. "Value based" means that positive outcomes are the ultimate goal, and barriers to those positive outcomes must be addressed.

  19. Supercapacitor to Provide Ancillary Services: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Luo, Yusheng [Idaho National Laboratory; Mohanpurkar, M. [Idaho National Laboratory; Hovsapian, R. [Idaho National Laboratory; Koritarov, V. [Argonne National Laboratory

    2017-10-09

    Supercapacitor technology has reached a level of maturity as a viable energy storage option available to support a modern electric power system grid; however, its application is still limited because of its energy capacity and the cost of the commercial product. In this paper, we demonstrate transient models of supercapacitor energy storage plants operating in coordination with run-of-the-river (ROR), doubly-fed induction generator hydropower plants (HPP) using a system control concept and architecture developed. A detailed transient model of a supercapacitor energy storage device is coupled with the grid via a three-phase inverter/rectifier and bidirectional DC-DC converter. In addition, we use a version of a 14-bus IEEE test case that includes the models of the supercapacitor energy storage device, ROR HPPs, and synchronous condensers that use the rotating synchronous generators of retired coal-powered plants. The purpose of the synchronous condensers is to enhance the system stability by providing voltage and reactive power control, provide power system oscillations damping, and maintain system inertia at secure levels. The control layer provides coordinated, decentralized operation of distributed ROR HPPs and energy storage as aggregate support to power system operations.

  20. A stochastic multicriteria model for evidence-based decision making in drug benefit-risk analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervonen, Tommi; van Valkenhoef, Gert; Buskens, Erik; Hillege, Hans L.; Postmus, Douwe

    2011-01-01

    Drug benefit-risk (BR) analysis is based on firm clinical evidence regarding various safety and efficacy outcomes. In this paper, we propose a new and more formal approach for constructing a supporting multicriteria model that fully takes into account the evidence on efficacy and adverse drug

  1. A state-of-the-art multi-criteria model for drug benefit-risk analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervonen, T.; Hillege, H.L.; Buskens, E.; Postmus, D.

    2010-01-01

    Drug benefit-risk analysis is based on firm clinical evidence related to various safety and efficacy outcomes, such as tolerability, treatment response, and adverse events. In this paper, we propose a new approach for constructing a supporting multi-criteria model that fully takes into account this

  2. Networking K-12 Schools: Architecture Models and Evaluation of Costs and Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Russell Isaac

    This thesis examines the cost and benefits of communication networks in K-12 schools using cost analysis of five technology models with increasing levels of connectivity. Data indicate that the cost of the network hardware is only a small fraction of the overall networking costs. PC purchases, initial training, and retrofitting are the largest…

  3. Using an Ocean of Data, Researchers Model Real-Life Benefits of Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using the results of screening trials, the NCI Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network is trying to estimate the true benefit of cancer screening in the general population and identify the optimal way to implement screening within the health care system.

  4. Exogam with Vamos, Tiara and other ancillary detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewitowicz, M.; Olivier, L.; Savajols, H.; Catford, W.; Raine, B.; Oliveira, F. de; Perru, O.; Podolyak, Z.; Redon, N.; Bouchez, E.; Simenel, C.; Stanoiu, M.; Lemmon, R.; Rubio, B.; Obertelli, A.; Cederwall, B.; Chapman, R.; Korten, W.; Rubio Barroso, B.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this workshop was to discuss the status of experiments at GANIL facility using Exogam with Vamos, Tiara and other ancillary detectors. This document gathers most of the slides that were presented at the workshop, it concerns 8 presentations: 1) the status of Spiral and Spiral-II, 2) the status of Tiara (Tiara array is used for the study of nuclear transfer reactions with radioactive beams in inverse kinematics), 3) data acquisition for the ancillary detectors, 4) the identification of gamma-ray in nuclei around Sm 130 : probing the maximally deformed light rare earth region, 5) the Coulomb excitation of radioactive krypton beams (Kr 76 , Kr 74 ), 6) the influence of weakly bound neutrons on fusion around the Coulomb barrier, 7) single particle transfer on doubly-magic Ni 56 , and 8) the study of N=16 for neutron rich nuclei with Ne 26 (d,p)Ne 27 transfer reaction

  5. Advanced Pumped Storage Hydropower and Ancillary Services Provision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard; Gevorgian, Vahan; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Luo, Yusheng; Hovsapian, Rob; Koritarov, Vladimir

    2017-07-12

    This paper presents a high-level overview of the capability of advanced pumped storage hydropower to provide ancillary services including frequency regulation and oscillation damping. Type 3 and Type 4 generators are discussed. The examples given are for a small power system that uses a diesel generator as the main generator and a very large system that uses a gas turbine as the main generator.

  6. Screening and Flagging of Solar Irradiation and Ancillary Meteorological Data

    OpenAIRE

    Geuder, Norbert; Wolfertstetter, Fabian; Wilbert, Stefan; Schüler, David; Affolter, Roman; Kraas, Birk; Lüpfert, Eckhard; Espinar, Bella

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Solar irradiance and ancillary meteorological data is frequently measured by automatic weather stations for use within solar resource assessment for solar power plants. High accuracy measurement data are required for comparison and adjustment of satellite data and derivation of the expectable long-term mean value of the solar resource. Thus, utmost diligence must be taken during the measurement process and data evaluation to achieve data quality required for project fi...

  7. A novel insight into the cost-benefit model for the evolution of botanical carnivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovič, Andrej; Saganová, Michaela

    2015-06-01

    The cost-benefit model for the evolution of botanical carnivory provides a conceptual framework for interpreting a wide range of comparative and experimental studies on carnivorous plants. This model assumes that the modified leaves called traps represent a significant cost for the plant, and this cost is outweighed by the benefits from increased nutrient uptake from prey, in terms of enhancing the rate of photosynthesis per unit leaf mass or area (AN) in the microsites inhabited by carnivorous plants. This review summarizes results from the classical interpretation of the cost-benefit model for evolution of botanical carnivory and highlights the costs and benefits of active trapping mechanisms, including water pumping, electrical signalling and accumulation of jasmonates. Novel alternative sequestration strategies (utilization of leaf litter and faeces) in carnivorous plants are also discussed in the context of the cost-benefit model. Traps of carnivorous plants have lower AN than leaves, and the leaves have higher AN after feeding. Prey digestion, water pumping and electrical signalling represent a significant carbon cost (as an increased rate of respiration, RD) for carnivorous plants. On the other hand, jasmonate accumulation during the digestive period and reprogramming of gene expression from growth and photosynthesis to prey digestion optimizes enzyme production in comparison with constitutive secretion. This inducibility may have evolved as a cost-saving strategy beneficial for carnivorous plants. The similarities between plant defence mechanisms and botanical carnivory are highlighted. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Does Head Start differentially benefit children with risks targeted by the program's service model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth B; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J

    Data from the Head Start Impact Study ( N = 3540) were used to test for differential benefits of Head Start after one program year and after kindergarten on pre-academic and behavior outcomes for children at risk in the domains targeted by the program's comprehensive services. Although random assignment to Head Start produced positive treatment main effects on children's pre-academic skills and behavior problems, residualized growth models showed that random assignment to Head Start did not differentially benefit the pre-academic skills of children with risk factors targeted by the Head Start service model. The models showed detrimental impacts of Head Start for maternal-reported behavior problems of high-risk children, but slightly more positive impacts for teacher-reported behavior. Policy implications for Head Start are discussed.

  9. Modeling the costs and benefits of temporary recommendations for poliovirus exporting countries to vaccinate international travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2017-07-05

    Recognizing that infectious agents readily cross international borders, the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee issues Temporary Recommendations (TRs) that include vaccination of travelers from countries affected by public health emergencies, including serotype 1 wild polioviruses (WPV1s). This analysis estimates the costs and benefits of TRs implemented by countries with reported WPV1 during 2014-2016 while accounting for numerous uncertainties. We estimate the TR costs based on programmatic data and prior economic analyses and TR benefits by simulating potential WPV1 outbreaks in the absence of the TRs using the rate and extent of WPV1 importation outbreaks per reported WPV1 case during 2004-2013 and the number of reported WPV1 cases that occurred in countries with active TRs. The benefits of TRs outweigh the costs in 77% of model iterations, resulting in expected incremental net economic benefits of $210 million. Inclusion of indirect costs increases the costs by 13%, the expected savings from prevented outbreaks by 4%, and the expected incremental net benefits by 3%. Despite the considerable costs of implementing TRs, this study provides health and economic justification for these investments in the context of managing a disease in advanced stages of its global eradication. Copyright © 2017 The Auhors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. A model for evaluating the environmental benefits of elementary school facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Changyoon; Hong, Taehoon; Jeong, Kwangbok; Leigh, Seung-Bok

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a model that is capable of evaluating the environmental benefits of a new elementary school facility was developed. The model is composed of three steps: (i) retrieval of elementary school facilities having similar characteristics as the new elementary school facility using case-based reasoning; (ii) creation of energy consumption and material data for the benchmark elementary school facility using the retrieved similar elementary school facilities; and (iii) evaluation of the environmental benefits of the new elementary school facility by assessing and comparing the environmental impact of the new and created benchmark elementary school facility using life cycle assessment. The developed model can present the environmental benefits of a new elementary school facility in terms of monetary values using Environmental Priority Strategy 2000, a damage-oriented life cycle impact assessment method. The developed model can be used for the following: (i) as criteria for a green-building rating system; (ii) as criteria for setting the support plan and size, such as the government's incentives for promoting green-building projects; and (iii) as criteria for determining the feasibility of green building projects in key business sectors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing the Benefits of Global Climate Stabilization Within an Integrated Modeling Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, R. H.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, higher temperatures, altered precipitation patterns, and other climate change impacts have already begun to affect US agriculture and forestry, with impacts expected to become more substantial in the future. There have been a number of studies of climate change impacts on agriculture or forestry. However, relatively few studies explore climate change impacts on both agriculture and forests simultaneously, including the interactions between alternative land uses and implications for market outcomes. Additionally, there is a lack of detailed analyses of the effects of stabilization scenarios relative to unabated emissions scenarios. Such analyses are important for developing estimates of the benefits of those stabilization scenarios, which can play a vital role in assessing tradeoffs associated with allocating resources across alternative mitigation and adaptation activities. We provide an analysis of the potential benefits of global climate change mitigation for US agriculture and forestry through 2100, accounting for landowner decisions regarding land use, crop mix, and management practices. The analytic approach involves a combination of climate models, a crop process model (EPIC), a dynamic vegetation model used for forests (MC1), and an economic model of the US forestry and agricultural sector (FASOM-GHG). We find substantial impacts on productivity, commodity markets, and consumer and producer welfare for the stabilization scenario relative to unabated climate change, though the magnitude and direction of impacts vary across regions and commodities. Although there is variability in welfare impacts across climate simulations, we find positive net benefits from stabilization in all cases, with cumulative impacts ranging from 32.7 billion to 54.5 billion over the period 2015-2100. Our estimates contribute to the literature on potential benefits of GHG mitigation and can help inform policy decisions weighing alternative

  12. Health Benefits of Dietary Tree Peony Seed Oil in a High Fat Diet Hamster Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Zheng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:Tree peony (Paeonia ostii seed oil is rich in different unsaturated fatty acids, including monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, n-3,and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA.Overall, health benefits of this edible plant oil have not been widely explored. In this study, we experimentally investigated benefits of dietary tree peony seed oil(PSO in dyslipidemia-associated metabolic diseases using a high fat diet hamster model.Methods:High fat diets(HFDcontaining 15 % coconut oil(COor PSOwere initially developed based on the rodent chowdiet. Fatty acid profiles of diets and red blood cells (RBC from animals fed these diets for 8 weeks were analyzed and compared. Effects of these oil supplements on triglycerides and cholesterol levels were characterized. Benefits on fatty liver progress were also investigated in this animal model. Results:HFDfortified with 15% PSOwas abundant in different unsaturated fatty acids, containing 40% α-linolenic acid, 27% linoleic acid,and 23% oleic acid respectively. Compared to the control group with 15% CO, animals with 15% PSOdisplayed dramatic alteration of in vivofatty acid profile in RBC, featuring a significant increase in n-3 but no change in n-6PUFA, thereby resulting in a decreased ratio of n-6 to n-3 PUFA. PSO intervention also remarkably reduced triglyceride levels in both blood and adipose tissues, but did not affect circulating cholesterol. Moreover, benefits on liver health were observed in the PSO group, evidenced with reduced hepatic steatosis and improved hepatic histology.Conclusion:Altogether, the data demonstrated multifaceted benefits of dietary PSO in reducing important risk factors of dyslipidemia-associated cardiovascular and liver diseases.

  13. Strategies for carbon dioxide emissions reductions: Residential natural gas efficiency, economic, and ancillary health impacts in Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, Matthias; Blohm, Andrew; Mauer, Joanna; Gabriel, Steven A.; Kesana, Vijay G.; Chen Yihsu; Hobbs, Benjamin F.; Irani, Daraius

    2010-01-01

    As part of its commitments to the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), the State of Maryland, USA, auctions emission permits to electric utilities, creating revenue that can be used to benefit consumers and the environment. This paper explores the CO 2 emissions reductions that may be possible by allocating some of that revenue to foster efficiency improvements in the residential sector's use of natural gas. Since these improvements will require changes to the capital stock of houses and end use equipment, efficiency improvements may be accompanied by economic and ancillary health impacts, both of which are quantified in this paper.

  14. Simulation of an arbitrary quantum channel with minimal ancillary resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chao; Noh, Kyungjoo; Albert, Victor V.; Devoret, Michel H.; Schoelkopf, Robert J.; Girvin, Steven M.; Jiang, Liang

    2016-05-01

    We discuss an explicit and efficient construction of quantum circuits that can simulate an arbitrary given quantum channel acting on a d-level quantum system, with the minimal quantum ancillary resource--a qubit and its QND readout. The elementary operations required are unitary evolutions and single qubit projective measurement. We further show that this technique opens up exciting new possibilities in the field of quantum control, quantum simulation, quantum error correction, and quantum state discrimination. Our proposal can be implemented on platforms such as a superconducting transmon qubit inside a microwave cavity.

  15. Survival benefits of antiretroviral therapy in Brazil: a model-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Paula M; Girouard, Michael P; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Veloso, Valdilea G; Losina, Elena; Struchiner, Claudio J; MacLean, Rachel L; Parker, Robert A; Paltiel, A David; Walensky, Rochelle P

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil, universal provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been guaranteed free of charge to eligible HIV-positive patients since December 1996. We sought to quantify the survival benefits of ART attributable to this programme. We used a previously published microsimulation model of HIV disease and treatment (CEPAC-International) and data from Brazil to estimate life expectancy increase for HIV-positive patients initiating ART in Brazil. We divided the period of 1997 to 2014 into six eras reflecting increased drug regimen efficacy, regimen availability and era-specific mean CD4 count at ART initiation. Patients were simulated first without ART and then with ART. The 2014-censored and lifetime survival benefits attributable to ART in each era were calculated as the product of the number of patients initiating ART in a given era and the increase in life expectancy attributable to ART in that era. In total, we estimated that 598,741 individuals initiated ART. Projected life expectancy increased from 2.7, 3.3, 4.1, 4.9, 5.5 and 7.1 years without ART to 11.0, 17.5, 20.7, 23.0, 25.3, and 27.0 years with ART in Eras 1 through 6, respectively. Of the total projected lifetime survival benefit of 9.3 million life-years, 16% (or 1.5 million life-years) has been realized as of December 2014. Provision of ART through a national programme has led to dramatic survival benefits in Brazil, the majority of which are still to be realized. Improvements in initial and subsequent ART regimens and higher CD4 counts at ART initiation have contributed to these increasing benefits.

  16. New alternatives for reference evapotranspiration estimation in West Africa using limited weather data and ancillary data supply strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeras, Gorka; Bekoe, Emmanuel; Ampofo, Joseph; Logah, Frederick; Diop, Mbaye; Cisse, Madiama; Shiri, Jalal

    2018-05-01

    Accurate estimation of reference evapotranspiration ( ET 0 ) is essential for the computation of crop water requirements, irrigation scheduling, and water resources management. In this context, having a battery of alternative local calibrated ET 0 estimation methods is of great interest for any irrigation advisory service. The development of irrigation advisory services will be a major breakthrough for West African agriculture. In the case of many West African countries, the high number of meteorological inputs required by the Penman-Monteith equation has been indicated as constraining. The present paper investigates for the first time in Ghana, the estimation ability of artificial intelligence-based models (Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Gene Expression Programing (GEPs)), and ancillary/external approaches for modeling reference evapotranspiration ( ET 0 ) using limited weather data. According to the results of this study, GEPs have emerged as a very interesting alternative for ET 0 estimation at all the locations of Ghana which have been evaluated in this study under different scenarios of meteorological data availability. The adoption of ancillary/external approaches has been also successful, moreover in the southern locations. The interesting results obtained in this study using GEPs and some ancillary approaches could be a reference for future studies about ET 0 estimation in West Africa.

  17. LANDMET Ancillary Soil Moisture data L3 V1 (LANDMET_ANC_SM) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This ancillary climatology soil porosity and wetlands coverage information were derived from the daily GEWEX fusion of satellite active and passive microwave...

  18. Exogam with Vamos, Tiara and other ancillary detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewitowicz, M.; Olivier, L.; Savajols, H.; Catford, W.; Raine, B.; Oliveira, F. de; Perru, O.; Podolyak, Z.; Redon, N.; Bouchez, E.; Simenel, C.; Stanoiu, M.; Lemmon, R.; Rubio, B.; Obertelli, A.; Cederwall, B.; Chapman, R.; Korten, W.; Rubio Barroso, B

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this workshop was to discuss the status of experiments at GANIL facility using Exogam with Vamos, Tiara and other ancillary detectors. This document gathers most of the slides that were presented at the workshop, it concerns 8 presentations: 1) the status of Spiral and Spiral-II, 2) the status of Tiara (Tiara array is used for the study of nuclear transfer reactions with radioactive beams in inverse kinematics), 3) data acquisition for the ancillary detectors, 4) the identification of gamma-ray in nuclei around Sm{sup 130}: probing the maximally deformed light rare earth region, 5) the Coulomb excitation of radioactive krypton beams (Kr{sup 76}, Kr{sup 74}), 6) the influence of weakly bound neutrons on fusion around the Coulomb barrier, 7) single particle transfer on doubly-magic Ni{sup 56}, and 8) the study of N=16 for neutron rich nuclei with Ne{sup 26}(d,p)Ne{sup 27} transfer reaction.

  19. An analysis of the benefits of ethnography design methods for product modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butlewski, M.; Misztal, A.; Belu, N.

    2016-08-01

    application of ethnography design methodology in product design and to analyse the benefits of its use. The analysis is based on effects of its application with the support of product design from various industries, along with a discussion of the method's limitations. Among benefits of ethnography design, the greatest proved to be providing knowledge of nonspecific user behaviour previously unknown to designers, which when rendered by models allowed to develop innovative solutions.

  20. Medical mitigation model: quantifying the benefits of the public health response to a chemical terrorism attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Kevin; Winkel, David; VonNiederhausern, Michael; Hawkins, Brian; Cox, Jessica; Gooding, Rachel; Whitmire, Mark

    2013-06-01

    The Chemical Terrorism Risk Assessment (CTRA) and Chemical Infrastructure Risk Assessment (CIRA) are programs that estimate the risk of chemical terrorism attacks to help inform and improve the US defense posture against such events. One aspect of these programs is the development and advancement of a Medical Mitigation Model-a mathematical model that simulates the medical response to a chemical terrorism attack and estimates the resulting number of saved or benefited victims. At the foundation of the CTRA/CIRA Medical Mitigation Model is the concept of stock-and-flow modeling; "stocks" are states that individuals progress through during the event, while "flows" permit and govern movement from one stock to another. Using this approach, the model is able to simulate and track individual victims as they progress from exposure to an end state. Some of the considerations in the model include chemical used, type of attack, route and severity of exposure, response-related delays, detailed treatment regimens with efficacy defined as a function of time, medical system capacity, the influx of worried well individuals, and medical countermeasure availability. As will be demonstrated, the output of the CTRA/CIRA Medical Mitigation Model makes it possible to assess the effectiveness of the existing public health response system and develop and examine potential improvement strategies. Such a modeling and analysis capability can be used to inform first-responder actions/training, guide policy decisions, justify resource allocation, and direct knowledge-gap studies.

  1. An Excel Spreadsheet Model for States and Districts to Assess the Cost-Benefit of School Nursing Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li Yan; O'Brien, Mary Jane; Maughan, Erin D

    2016-11-01

    This paper describes a user-friendly, Excel spreadsheet model and two data collection instruments constructed by the authors to help states and districts perform cost-benefit analyses of school nursing services delivered by full-time school nurses. Prior to applying the model, states or districts need to collect data using two forms: "Daily Nurse Data Collection Form" and the "Teacher Survey." The former is used to record daily nursing activities, including number of student health encounters, number of medications administered, number of student early dismissals, and number of medical procedures performed. The latter is used to obtain estimates for the time teachers spend addressing student health issues. Once inputs are entered in the model, outputs are automatically calculated, including program costs, total benefits, net benefits, and benefit-cost ratio. The spreadsheet model, data collection tools, and instructions are available at the NASN website ( http://www.nasn.org/The/CostBenefitAnalysis ).

  2. A stochastic multicriteria model for evidence-based decision making in drug benefit-risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervonen, Tommi; van Valkenhoef, Gert; Buskens, Erik; Hillege, Hans L; Postmus, Douwe

    2011-05-30

    Drug benefit-risk (BR) analysis is based on firm clinical evidence regarding various safety and efficacy outcomes. In this paper, we propose a new and more formal approach for constructing a supporting multi-criteria model that fully takes into account the evidence on efficacy and adverse drug reactions. Our approach is based on the stochastic multi-criteria acceptability analysis methodology, which allows us to compute the typical value judgments that support a decision, to quantify decision uncertainty, and to compute a comprehensive BR profile. We construct a multi-criteria model for the therapeutic group of second-generation antidepressants. We assess fluoxetine and venlafaxine together with placebo according to incidence of treatment response and three common adverse drug reactions by using data from a published study. Our model shows that there are clear trade-offs among the treatment alternatives. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Modeling the risks and benefits of depression treatment for children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeteman, Djøra I; Miller, Matthew; Kim, Jane J

    2012-01-01

    To quantify the trade-offs of alternative strategies in treating pediatric major depressive disorder with respect to the clinical benefit and risk of fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior over a 5-year time horizon. We developed a disease simulation model integrating epidemiological and clinical data from the literature to simulate the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and a combination of both on a US pediatric population with major depressive disorder. In a cohort of 1,000,000 simulated individuals (ages 10-24 years), the use of SSRIs was associated with the highest number of suicide-related events, while CBT was associated with the lowest number. Over a 5-year period, the strategy with the highest number of symptom-free weeks depended on assumptions made regarding treatment efficacy beyond the available clinical data. Considering the risk-benefit profile over a 5-year period, CBT offers a safer profile than combination treatment or SSRIs alone with respect to suicide deaths and attempts. Any additional benefits of SSRIs, either alone or in combination with CBT, must be weighed against the expected increase in suicides. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Orion Flight Test 1 Architecture: Observed Benefits of a Model Based Engineering Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Kimberly A.; Sindiy, Oleg V.; McVittie, Thomas I.

    2012-01-01

    This paper details how a NASA-led team is using a model-based systems engineering approach to capture, analyze and communicate the end-to-end information system architecture supporting the first unmanned orbital flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Exploration Vehicle. Along with a brief overview of the approach and its products, the paper focuses on the observed program-level benefits, challenges, and lessons learned; all of which may be applied to improve system engineering tasks for characteristically similarly challenges

  5. Model developments for quantitative estimates of the benefits of the signals on nuclear power plant availability and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Poong Hyun

    1993-01-01

    A novel framework for quantitative estimates of the benefits of signals on nuclear power plant availability and economics has been developed in this work. The models developed in this work quantify how the perfect signals affect the human operator's success in restoring the power plant to the desired state when it enters undesirable transients. Also, the models quantify the economic benefits of these perfect signals. The models have been applied to the condensate feedwater system of the nuclear power plant for demonstration. (Author)

  6. Predictive Eco-Cruise Control (ECC) system : model development, modeling and potential benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The research develops a reference model of a predictive eco-cruise control (ECC) system that intelligently modulates vehicle speed within a pre-set speed range to minimize vehicle fuel consumption levels using roadway topographic information. The stu...

  7. A sheep model for fracture treatment in osteoporosis: benefits of the model versus animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egermann, M; Goldhahn, J; Holz, R; Schneider, E; Lill, C A

    2008-10-01

    Animal models are necessary to evaluate new options for the treatment of fractures in osteoporotic bone. They permit both the biological response of a living system and the influence of the pathological processes to be taken into account. A sheep model for osteoporosis was established by combining oestrogen deficiency, calcium and vitamin D-deficient diet with steroid medication. Bone mineral density (BMD) was reduced by >30% after 12 weeks of combined treatment. Osteoporosis similar to the human situation with corresponding changes in the micro-architecture and mechanical properties of bone was observed. This publication focuses on the impressive results obtained with the model and contrasts them with considerations of animal welfare. Considerable side-effects associated with steroid medication became manifest. Animals in the treatment groups showed signs of infection of various degrees due to the immunosuppressive effect of the medication. The infections were mostly caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Antibody testing revealed a 100% prevalence of infection in this breed of sheep. A modification of the steroid treatment, i.e. less-frequent injections, reduced the incidence of side-effects. This sheep model shows a significant and reproducible reduction in cancellous BMD of >30%, including relevant changes in biomechanical properties and increased fracture risk. However, the severity of the side-effects cannot be overlooked. The model must be improved if it is to be used in the future. Options to reduce the side-effects are discussed.

  8. Exosome-Mediated Benefits of Cell Therapy in Mouse and Human Models of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Aminzadeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Genetic deficiency of dystrophin leads to disability and premature death in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, affecting the heart as well as skeletal muscle. Here, we report that clinical-stage cardiac progenitor cells, known as cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs, improve cardiac and skeletal myopathy in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Injection of CDCs into the hearts of mdx mice augments cardiac function, ambulatory capacity, and survival. Exosomes secreted by human CDCs reproduce the benefits of CDCs in mdx mice and in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived Duchenne cardiomyocytes. Surprisingly, CDCs and their exosomes also transiently restored partial expression of full-length dystrophin in mdx mice. The findings further motivate the testing of CDCs in Duchenne patients, while identifying exosomes as next-generation therapeutic candidates. : In this article, Marbán and colleagues show that exosomes mediate benefits of cell therapy in mouse and human models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Keywords: muscular dystrophy, exosomes, dystrophin, cardiosphere-derived cells, microRNA, cardiomyopathy

  9. An updated PREDICT breast cancer prognostication and treatment benefit prediction model with independent validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candido Dos Reis, Francisco J; Wishart, Gordon C; Dicks, Ed M; Greenberg, David; Rashbass, Jem; Schmidt, Marjanka K; van den Broek, Alexandra J; Ellis, Ian O; Green, Andrew; Rakha, Emad; Maishman, Tom; Eccles, Diana M; Pharoah, Paul D P

    2017-05-22

    PREDICT is a breast cancer prognostic and treatment benefit model implemented online. The overall fit of the model has been good in multiple independent case series, but PREDICT has been shown to underestimate breast cancer specific mortality in women diagnosed under the age of 40. Another limitation is the use of discrete categories for tumour size and node status resulting in 'step' changes in risk estimates on moving between categories. We have refitted the PREDICT prognostic model using the original cohort of cases from East Anglia with updated survival time in order to take into account age at diagnosis and to smooth out the survival function for tumour size and node status. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to fit separate models for ER negative and ER positive disease. Continuous variables were fitted using fractional polynomials and a smoothed baseline hazard was obtained by regressing the baseline cumulative hazard for each patients against time using fractional polynomials. The fit of the prognostic models were then tested in three independent data sets that had also been used to validate the original version of PREDICT. In the model fitting data, after adjusting for other prognostic variables, there is an increase in risk of breast cancer specific mortality in younger and older patients with ER positive disease, with a substantial increase in risk for women diagnosed before the age of 35. In ER negative disease the risk increases slightly with age. The association between breast cancer specific mortality and both tumour size and number of positive nodes was non-linear with a more marked increase in risk with increasing size and increasing number of nodes in ER positive disease. The overall calibration and discrimination of the new version of PREDICT (v2) was good and comparable to that of the previous version in both model development and validation data sets. However, the calibration of v2 improved over v1 in patients diagnosed under the age

  10. Cost-benefit analysis model: A tool for area-wide fruit fly management. Procedures manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enkerlin, W.; Mumford, J.; Leach, A.

    2007-03-01

    The Generic Fruit Fly Cost-Benefit Analysis Model assists in economic decision making associated with area-wide fruit fly control options. The FRUIT FLY COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS PROGRAM (available on 1 CD-ROM from the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture) is an Excel 2000 Windows based program, for which all standard Windows and Excel conventions apply. The Model is user friendly and thus largely self-explanatory. Nevertheless, it includes a procedures manual that has been prepared to guide the user, and thus should be used together with the software. Please note that the table presenting the pest management options in the Introductory Page of the model is controlled by spin buttons and click boxes. These controls are linked to macros that hide non relevant tables and boxes. N.B. it is important that the medium level of security is selected from the Tools menu of Excel, to do this go to Tools|Macros|Security| and select Medium. When the file is opened a form will appear containing three buttons, click on the middle button, 'Enable Macros', so that the macros may be used. Ideally the model should be used as a support tool by working groups aiming at assessing the economic returns of different fruit fly control options (suppression, eradication, containment and prevention). The working group should include professionals in agriculture with experience in area-wide implementation of integrated pest management programmes, an economist or at least someone with basic knowledge in economics, and if relevant, an entomologist with some background in the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT)

  11. 40 CFR 267.197 - What are the requirements for ancillary equipment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements for ancillary equipment? 267.197 Section 267.197 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED PERMIT Tank Systems § 267.197 What are the requirements for ancillary...

  12. Rejuvenation of the neck with liposuction and ancillary techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, William G; Hanke, C William

    2011-01-01

    An aesthetically pleasing neck is an important component of physical appearance and a frequently targeted area for a variety of rejuvenative procedures. In appropriately selected patients, liposuction of the neck using tumescent local anesthesia can effectively render a more youthful appearance to the anterior and lateral neck by removing superficial adipose tissue and redraping the skin. This article will review all aspects of neck liposuction, including neck and lower face anatomy, proper patient selection and evaluation, necessary equipment, as well as all peri-procedural management. An in-depth discussion of administration of tumescent local anesthesia and proper liposuction technique is also included. Lastly, a number of ancillary techniques to further enhance the appearance of the neck including laser lipolysis, fractional ablative CO(2) resurfacing, and treatment of platysmal banding will be briefly discussed. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Modeling the costs and benefits associated with the evolution of endothermy using a robotic python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashears, J Alex; Hoffman, Ty C M; DeNardo, Dale F

    2017-07-01

    Endothermy provides considerable benefits to an organism but requires large energy investment. To understand potential driving forces that would lead to the evolution of endothermy, it is important to understand the energy costs and potential benefits of intermediate steps between ectothermy and homeothermic endothermy as well as the influences of environmental conditions on energetic costs. However, efforts to examine intermediate conditions are greatly limited by the predominant natural dichotomy between ectothermy and endothermy. Facultative endothermy by brooding pythons provides a fortunate study system where endothermy is beneficial but not essential. As one cannot control the extent of energy investment in heat production by a female python, we created an artificial snake with controllable heating capability. This enabled us to determine the energetic costs of maintaining a clutch at a preferred temperature, and to determine the relative thermal benefit of limited energy-producing capability (i.e. 50% of the required energy to maintain the preferred developmental temperature). We manipulated the pseudoserpent's clutch size (5, 10, 15 eggs), diel ambient temperature cycle (2, 4, 6°C) and insulation (with and without) at each of these power levels: unlimited power, half required power and no power. We found no significant effect of clutch size on either power requirements or developmental temperature. Energy requirements increased with the amplitude of the diel cycle and decreased with the addition of insulation, while the quality of the thermal environment decreased with the amplitude of the diel cycle. Interestingly, the quality of the thermal environment also decreased with the addition of insulation. We discuss these results within the context of the reproductive model of the evolution of endothermy. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Employment of Lithuanian Statistical Data Into Tax-Benefit Micro-Simulation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viginta Ivaškaitė-Tamošiūnė

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aim to assess the “best fit” of the existing Lithuanian micro-datasets for constructing a national micro-simulation model. Specifically, we compare and evaluate the potential of two (state level representative micro-data surveys in terms of their potential to simulate Lithuanian (direct taxes, social contributions and social benefits. Both selected datasets contain rich information on the socio-economic and demographical conditions of the country: the Household Budget Survey (HBS for the years 2004 and 2005 and the European Community Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC in Lithuania for the year 2005. The selected databases offer the most comprehensive range of income and other socio-demographic attributes, needed for simulation of tax and contributions’ payers/amounts and benefits’ recipients/amounts. The evaluation of the dataset capacity to simulate these measures is done by a comparative statistical analysis. Among the comparative categories are definitions (of households, incomes, survey collection modes, level of aggregation of various variables, demographic and incomes variables and corresponding numbers (amounts.The comparative analysis of the HBS and EU-SILC datasets shows, that despite embedded differences and shortages regarding simulation capacities of both surveys, these datasets contain valuable and sufficient information for the purpose of simulation of Lithuanian tax-benefit policies.In general a conclusion could be drawn, that HBS offers higher possibilities of simulating the Lithuanian tax-benefit system. This dataset contains more detailed national income categories (i.e. recipients of maternity/paternity insurance, diverse pensions, etc.— information on which is not available in the EU-SILC. The latter dataset does not contain national policy system specific components, but offer information on income aggregates, such all old-age pensions, social exclusion benefits, etc. Additionally

  15. Quantifying Co-benefits of Renewable Energy through Integrated Electricity and Air Quality Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, D.

    2016-12-01

    This work focuses on the coordination of electricity sector changes with air quality and health improvement strategies through the integration of electricity and air quality models. Two energy models are used to calculate emission perturbations associated with changes in generation technology (20% generation from solar photovoltaics) and demand (future electricity use under a warmer climate). Impacts from increased solar PV penetration are simulated with the electricity model GridView, in collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Generation results are used to scale power plant emissions from an inventory developed by the Lake Michigan Air Directors Consortium (LADCO). Perturbed emissions and are used to calculate secondary particulate matter with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. We find that electricity NOx and SO2 emissions decrease at a rate similar to the total fraction of electricity supplied by solar. Across the Eastern U.S. region, average PM2.5 is reduced 5% over the summer, with highest reduction in regions and on days of greater PM2.5. A similar approach evaluates the air quality impacts of elevated electricity demand under a warmer climate. Meteorology is selected from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) and input to a building energy model, eQUEST, to assess electricity demand as a function of ambient temperature. The associated generation and emissions are calculated on a plant-by-plant basis by the MyPower power sector model. These emissions are referenced to the 2011 National Emissions Inventory to be modeled in CMAQ for the Eastern U.S. and extended to health impact evaluation with the Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program (BenMAP). All results focus on the air quality and health consequences of energy system changes, considering grid-level changes to meet climate and air quality goals.

  16. Wet weather water quality modelling of a Portuguese urban catchment: difficulties and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, L M; Matos, R S

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of water quality deterministic modelling together with an integrated approach to assess the impact of urban stormwater discharges into ephemeral watercourses, based on the study of a Portuguese catchment. The description of the main aspects, difficulties and benefits found during data collection and model calibration and verification is presented, and the associated uncertainties and errors discussed. Experimental results showed a strong short- and long-term impact of sewer discharges on rivers, and confirmed deposition, resuspension and transport of pollutants as important processes for the water quality. However, the resuspension of riverbed sediment pollutants during storms was probably more significant than the direct impact of the urban discharges. The HydroWorks model was used since it allows for the calculation of pollutant build-up on catchment surfaces and in gully pots, their wash-off, and the deposition and erosion of sediments in sewers. However, it uses several constants, which could not be independently calibrated, increasing the uncertainty already associated with the data. River flows have quite different magnitude from the sewer system overflows, which, together with the difficulties in evaluating river flow rates, makes the integrated modelling approach rather complex and costly.

  17. Dealing with electronic waste: modeling the costs and environmental benefits of computer monitor disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, Molly; Palmer, Karen; Shih, Jhih-Shyang

    2003-05-01

    The importance of information technology to the world economy has brought about a surge in demand for electronic equipment. With rapid technological change, a growing fraction of the increasing stock of many types of electronics becomes obsolete each year. We model the costs and benefits of policies to manage 'e-waste' by focusing on a large component of the electronic waste stream-computer monitors-and the environmental concerns associated with disposal of the lead embodied in cathode ray tubes (CRTs) used in most monitors. We find that the benefits of avoiding health effects associated with CRT disposal appear far outweighed by the costs for a wide range of policies. For the stock of monitors disposed of in the United States in 1998, we find that policies restricting or banning some popular disposal options would increase disposal costs from about US dollar 1 per monitor to between US dollars 3 and US dollars 20 per monitor. Policies to promote a modest amount of recycling of monitor parts, including lead, can be less expensive. In all cases, however, the costs of the policies exceed the value of the avoided health effects of CRT disposal.

  18. Innovative Models of Dental Care Delivery and Coverage: Patient-Centric Dental Benefits Based on Digital Oral Health Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John; Mills, Shannon; Foley, Mary E

    2018-04-01

    Innovative models of dental care delivery and coverage are emerging across oral health care systems causing changes to treatment and benefit plans. A novel addition to these models is digital risk assessment, which offers a promising new approach that incorporates the use of a cloud-based technology platform to assess an individual patient's risk for oral disease. Risk assessment changes treatment by including risk as a modifier of treatment and as a determinant of preventive services. Benefit plans are being developed to use risk assessment to predetermine preventive benefits for patients identified at elevated risk for oral disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A multi-model assessment of the co-benefits of climate mitigation for global air quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, Shilpa; Klimont, Zbigniew; Leitao, Joana; Riahi, Keywan; van Dingenen, Rita; Aleluia Reis, Lara; Calvin, Katherine; Dentener, Frank; Drouet, Laurent; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Harmsen, Mathijs; Luderer, Gunnar; Heyes, Chris; Strefler, Jessica; Tavoni, Massimo; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2016-01-01

    We present a model comparison study that combines multiple integrated assessment models with a reduced-form global air quality model to assess the potential co-benefits of global climate mitigation policies in relation to the World Health Organization (WHO) goals on air quality and health. We

  20. Zero-truncated panel Poisson mixture models: Estimating the impact on tourism benefits in Fukushima Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narukawa, Masaki; Nohara, Katsuhito

    2018-04-01

    This study proposes an estimation approach to panel count data, truncated at zero, in order to apply a contingent behavior travel cost method to revealed and stated preference data collected via a web-based survey. We develop zero-truncated panel Poisson mixture models by focusing on respondents who visited a site. In addition, we introduce an inverse Gaussian distribution to unobserved individual heterogeneity as an alternative to a popular gamma distribution, making it possible to capture effectively the long tail typically observed in trip data. We apply the proposed method to estimate the impact on tourism benefits in Fukushima Prefecture as a result of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant No. 1 accident. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Model study evaluating environmental benefits uprova-tion cns/atm air traffic control technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.П. Бабак

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available  Previous results of different researches show that in 2015 it follows to expect the additional improvements in fuel consumption and decrease of CO2 emission on 5% by implementation of the CNS/ATM systems. Application of the CNS/ATM systems will benefit in three directions: improvement of carrying airport capacity, accordingly the reduction of number of delays in the loaded airports; shortening of flights’ duration due to the use of more direct routes; and reduction of the vertical echeloning (RVSM.  A parametric model for the detailed research of influencing of height and speed of the aircraft flights on engine emission and fuel consumption was developed, it allows to evaluate an ecological efficiency of the implementation of CNS/ATM technologies.

  2. Benefits and risks of the Sanofi-Pasteur dengue vaccine: Modeling optimal deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Neil M; Rodríguez-Barraquer, Isabel; Dorigatti, Ilaria; Mier-Y-Teran-Romero, Luis; Laydon, Daniel J; Cummings, Derek A T

    2016-09-02

    The first approved dengue vaccine has now been licensed in six countries. We propose that this live attenuated vaccine acts like a silent natural infection in priming or boosting host immunity. A transmission dynamic model incorporating this hypothesis fits recent clinical trial data well and predicts that vaccine effectiveness depends strongly on the age group vaccinated and local transmission intensity. Vaccination in low-transmission settings may increase the incidence of more severe "secondary-like" infection and, thus, the numbers hospitalized for dengue. In moderate transmission settings, we predict positive impacts overall but increased risks of hospitalization with dengue disease for individuals who are vaccinated when seronegative. However, in high-transmission settings, vaccination benefits both the whole population and seronegative recipients. Our analysis can help inform policy-makers evaluating this and other candidate dengue vaccines. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Consequence modeling for nuclear weapons probabilistic cost/benefit analyses of safety retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, T.F.; Peters, L.; Serduke, F.J.D.; Hall, C.; Stephens, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    The consequence models used in former studies of costs and benefits of enhanced safety retrofits are considered for (1) fuel fires; (2) non-nuclear detonations; and, (3) unintended nuclear detonations. Estimates of consequences were made using a representative accident location, i.e., an assumed mixed suburban-rural site. We have explicitly quantified land- use impacts and human-health effects (e.g. , prompt fatalities, prompt injuries, latent cancer fatalities, low- levels of radiation exposure, and clean-up areas). Uncertainty in the wind direction is quantified and used in a Monte Carlo calculation to estimate a range of results for a fuel fire with uncertain respirable amounts of released Pu. We define a nuclear source term and discuss damage levels of concern. Ranges of damages are estimated by quantifying health impacts and property damages. We discuss our dispersal and prompt effects models in some detail. The models used to loft the Pu and fission products and their particle sizes are emphasized.

  4. 77 FR 40413 - Third-Party Provision of Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial Reporting for New Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial Reporting for New Electric Storage Technologies AGENCY: Federal... Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial Reporting for New Electric Storage Technologies, 135 FERC ] 61... Commission 18 CFR Parts 35, 37, and 101 Third-Party Provision of Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial...

  5. Modeling the cost and benefit of proteome regulation in a growing bacterial cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pooja; Pandey, Parth Pratim; Jain, Sanjay

    2018-04-16

    Escherichia coli cells differentially regulate the production of metabolic and ribosomal proteins in order to stay close to an optimal growth rate in different environments, and exhibit the bacterial growth laws as a consequence. We present a simple mathematical model of a growing-dividing cell in which an internal dynamical mechanism regulates the allocation of proteomic resources between different protein sectors. The model allows an endogenous determination of the growth rate of the cell as a function of cellular and environmental parameters, and reproduces the bacterial growth laws. We use the model and its variants to study the balance between the cost and benefit of regulation. A cost is incurred because cellular resources are diverted to produce the regulatory apparatus. We show that there is a window of environments or a 'niche' in which the unregulated cell has a higher fitness than the regulated cell. Outside this niche there is a large space of constant and time varying environments in which regulation is an advantage. A knowledge of the 'niche boundaries' allows one to gain an intuitive understanding of the class of environments in which regulation is an advantage for the organism and which would therefore favour the evolution of regulation. The model allows us to determine the 'niche boundaries' as a function of cellular parameters such as the size of the burden of the regulatory apparatus. This class of models may be useful in elucidating various tradeoffs in cells and in making in-silico predictions relevant for synthetic biology. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  6. [Economic benefits of overlapping induction: investigation using a computer simulation model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, S; Baumgart, A; Denz, C; Schüpfer, G

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential economic benefit of overlapping anaesthesia induction given that all patient diagnosis-related groups (AP DRG) are used as the model for hospital reimbursement. A computer simulation model was used for this purpose. Due to the resource-intensive production process, the operating room (OR) environment is the most expensive part of the supply chain for surgical disciplines. The economical benefit of a parallel production process (additional personnel, adaptation of the process) as compared to a conventional serial layout was assessed. A computer-based simulation method was used with commercially available simulation software. Assumptions for revenues were made by reimbursement based on AP DRG. Based on a system analysis a model for the computer simulation was designed on a step-by-step abstraction process. In the model two operating rooms were used for parallel processing and two operating rooms for a serial production process. Six different types of surgical procedures based on historical case durations were investigated. The contribution margin was calculated based on the increased revenues minus the cost for the additional anaesthesia personnel. Over a period of 5 weeks 41 additional surgical cases were operated under the assumption of duration of surgery of 89+/-4 min (mean+/-SD). The additional contribution margin was CHF 104,588. In the case of longer surgical procedures with 103+/-25 min duration (mean+/-SD), an increase of 36 cases was possible in the same time period and the contribution margin was increased by CHF 384,836. When surgical cases with a mean procedural time of 243+/-55 min were simulated, 15 additional cases were possible. Therefore, the additional contribution margin was CHF 321,278. Although costs increased in this simulation when a serial production process was changed to a parallel system layout due to more personnel, an increase of the contribution margin was possible, especially with

  7. Using remote sensing and ancillary data to extend airborne electromagnetic resistivity surveys for regional permafrost interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastick, N.; Wylie, B. K.; Minsley, B. J.; Jorgenson, T. T.; Ji, L.; Walvoord, M. A.; Smith, B. D.; Abraham, J. D.; Rose, J.

    2011-12-01

    Permafrost has a significant impact on high latitude ecosystems and is spatially heterogeneous. However, only generalized maps of permafrost extent are available. Due to its impacts on subsurface hydrology, lake water levels, vegetation communities, and surface soil deformations, understanding the spatial extents and depth of permafrost are critical. Electrical resistivity increases dramatically as a soil freezes and can be used as a proxy for permafrost presence particularly if the underlying soils and geologic characteristics are understood. An airborne electromagnetic survey (AEM) was conducted over a portion of the Yukon Flats ecoregion in central Alaska with measurements taken in both reconnaissance lines and contiguous block area coverage. The AEM was flown in June 2010 and subsurface resistivity models were derived by inverting the AEM data. Landsat TM at-sensor reflectance, thermal, and spectral index data from late August to early September 2008, Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and derivatives, and other ancillary data were used in a regression tree model to predict near surface electrical resistivity at the 0-1m and the 0-2.6m depth intervals. AEM locations from homogenous landsat 90 m by 90 m windows were randomly separated into a training set for model development (n = 8,848) and an impendent test data set (n = 988) for model accuracy assessment. Model development and independent test accuracies for 0-1 m electric resistivity had training and test R2 values of 0.90 and 0.87, respectively, and for the 0-2.6m electric resistivity training and test R2 values were also 0.90 and 0.87, respectively, which indicated accurate prediction models. Important variables for stratifying the various piecewise regressions were elevation and averaged 2000-2008 ecosystem performance anomalies. Important independent variables used in the multiple regression equations were the Normalized Difference Infrared Index (NDII), NDII7 (NDII using band 7), soil moisture mapped from

  8. Employment of Lithuanian Statistical Data Into Tax-Benefit Micro-Simulation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viginta Ivaškaitė-Tamošiūnė

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aim to assess the “best fit” of the existing Lithuanian micro-datasets for constructing a national micro-simulation model. Specifically, we compare and evaluate the potential of two (state level representative micro-data surveys in terms of their potential to simulate Lithuanian (direct taxes, social contributions and social benefits. Both selected datasets contain rich information on the socio-economic and demographical conditions of the country: the Household Budget Survey (HBS for the years 2004 and 2005 and the European Community Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC in Lithuania for the year 2005. The selected databases offer the most comprehensive range of income and other socio-demographic attributes, needed for simulation of tax and contributions’ payers/amounts and benefits’ recipients/amounts. The evaluation of the dataset capacity to simulate these measures is done by a comparative statistical analysis. Among the comparative categories are definitions (of households, incomes, survey collection modes, level of aggregation of various variables, demographic and incomes variables and corresponding numbers (amounts. The comparative analysis of the HBS and EU-SILC datasets shows, that despite embedded differences and shortages regarding simulation capacities of both surveys, these datasets contain valuable and sufficient information for the purpose of simulation of Lithuanian tax-benefit policies. In general a conclusion could be drawn, that HBS offers higher possibilities of simulating the Lithuanian tax-benefit system. This dataset contains more detailed national income categories (i.e. recipients of maternity/paternity insurance, diverse pensions, etc.— information on which is not available in the EU-SILC. The latter dataset does not contain national policy system specific components, but offer information on income aggregates, such all old-age pensions, social exclusion benefits, etc

  9. Exploiting ancillary services from distributed generation - perspectives for the Danish power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyeng, Preben; Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Østergaard, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    The share of the electric power production originating from distributed energy resources has rapidly increased during the recent past. However when it comes to ancillary services necessary to ensure the stability and appropriate operation of the power system, the distributed energy resources take...... a very passive role. This paper outlines suggestions on how to activate the potential of ancillary services from distributed energy resources, thereby exploiting their ability to contribute to power system operation. Furthermore, methods for integrating the ancillary service delivery into a deregulated...... power system are proposed and evaluated....

  10. Commercial Building Loads Providing Ancillary Services in PJM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, Jason; Kiliccote, Sila; Boch, Jim; Chen, Jonathan; Nawy, Robert

    2014-06-27

    The adoption of low carbon energy technologies such as variable renewable energy and electric vehicles, coupled with the efficacy of energy efficiency to reduce traditional base load has increased the uncertainty inherent in the net load shape. Handling this variability with slower, traditional resources leads to inefficient system dispatch, and in some cases may compromise reliability. Grid operators are looking to future energy technologies, such as automated demand response (DR), to provide capacity-based reliability services as the need for these services increase. While DR resources are expected to have the flexibility characteristics operators are looking for, demonstrations are necessary to build confidence in their capabilities. Additionally, building owners are uncertain of the monetary value and operational burden of providing these services. To address this, the present study demonstrates the ability of demand response resources providing two ancillary services in the PJM territory, synchronous reserve and regulation, using an OpenADR 2.0b signaling architecture. The loads under control include HVAC and lighting at a big box retail store and variable frequency fan loads. The study examines performance characteristics of the resource: the speed of response, communications latencies in the architecture, and accuracy of response. It also examines the frequency and duration of events and the value in the marketplace which can be used to examine if the opportunity is sufficient to entice building owners to participate.

  11. Survey of U.S. Ancillary Services Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhi; Levin, Todd; Conzelmann, Guenter

    2016-06-01

    In addition to providing energy to end-consumers, power system operators are also responsible for ensuring system reliability. To this end, power markets maintain an array of ancillary services to ensure that it is always possible to balance the supply and demand for energy in real-time. A subset of these ancillary services are commonly procured through market-based mechanisms: namely, Regulation, Spinning, and Non-spinning Reserves. Regulation Reserves are maintained to respond to supply/demand imbalances over short time frames, typically on the order of several seconds to one minute. Resources that provide Regulation Reserves adjust their generation or load levels in response to automatic generation control (AGC) signals provided by the system operator. Contingency reserves are maintained to provide additional generation capacity in the event that load increases substantially or supply side resources reduce their output or are taken offline. The reserves are typically segmented into two categories, 1) Spinning or Synchronized Reserves that are provided by generation units that are actively generating and have the ability to increase or decrease their output, 2) Non-spinning or Non-synchronized Reserves that are provided by generation resources that are not actively generating, but are able to start up and provide generation within a specified timeframe. Contingency reserves typically have response times on the order of ten to 30 minutes and can also be provided by demand-side resources that are capable of reducing their load. There are seven distinct power markets in the United States, each operated by a Regional Transmission Operator (RTO) or Independent System Operator (ISO) that operates the transmission system in its territory, operates markets for energy and ancillary services, and maintains system reliability. Each power market offers its own set of ancillary services, and precise definitions, requirements, and market mechanisms differ between markets

  12. The multifactorial role of the 3Rs in shifting the harm-benefit analysis in animal models of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Melanie L; Prescott, Mark J

    2015-07-15

    Ethics on animal use in science in Western society is based on utilitarianism, weighing the harms and benefits to the animals involved against those of the intended human beneficiaries. The 3Rs concept (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) is both a robust framework for minimizing animal use and suffering (addressing the harms to animals) and a means of supporting high quality science and translation (addressing the benefits). The ambiguity of basic research performed early in the research continuum can sometimes make harm-benefit analysis more difficult since anticipated benefit is often an incremental contribution to a field of knowledge. On the other hand, benefit is much more evident in translational research aimed at developing treatments for direct application in humans or animals suffering from disease. Though benefit may be easier to define, it should certainly not be considered automatic. Issues related to model validity seriously compromise experiments and have been implicated as a major impediment in translation, especially in complex disease models where harms to animals can be intensified. Increased investment and activity in the 3Rs is delivering new research models, tools and approaches with reduced reliance on animal use, improved animal welfare, and improved scientific and predictive value. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The multifactorial role of the 3Rs in shifting the harm-benefit analysis in animal models of disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Melanie L.; Prescott, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Ethics on animal use in science in Western society is based on utilitarianism, weighing the harms and benefits to the animals involved against those of the intended human beneficiaries. The 3Rs concept (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) is both a robust framework for minimizing animal use and suffering (addressing the harms to animals) and a means of supporting high quality science and translation (addressing the benefits). The ambiguity of basic research performed early in the research continuum can sometimes make harm-benefit analysis more difficult since anticipated benefit is often an incremental contribution to a field of knowledge. On the other hand, benefit is much more evident in translational research aimed at developing treatments for direct application in humans or animals suffering from disease. Though benefit may be easier to define, it should certainly not be considered automatic. Issues related to model validity seriously compromise experiments and have been implicated as a major impediment in translation, especially in complex disease models where harms to animals can be intensified. Increased investment and activity in the 3Rs is delivering new research models, tools and approaches with reduced reliance on animal use, improved animal welfare, and improved scientific and predictive value. PMID:25823812

  14. Choice modeling: public preferences for enhancing benefits from private forests in the Adirondacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald F. Dennis; Mark J. Twery

    2007-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of private land in meeting society's needs for forest-related benefits, public agencies fund programs that provide aid to private landowners to enhance public benefits derived from these lands. This may include technical help, education, tax incentives, and cost-share programs for various management activities. It is important that...

  15. EX1504L4 Dive03 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  16. EX1504L3 Dive07 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L3: CAPSTONE Leg III:...

  17. EX1605L3 Dive04 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  18. EX1606 Dive03 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1606: CAPSTONE Wake Island...

  19. EX1504L4 Dive02 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  20. EX1606 Dive01 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1606: CAPSTONE Wake Island...

  1. EX1606 Dive09 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1606: CAPSTONE Wake Island...

  2. EX1605L3 Dive01 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  3. EX1606 Dive14 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1606: CAPSTONE Wake Island...

  4. EX1504L3 Dive05 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L3: CAPSTONE Leg III:...

  5. EX1605L3 Dive20 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  6. EX1504L2 Dive14 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  7. EX1606 Dive10 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1606: CAPSTONE Wake Island...

  8. EX1504L4 Dive12 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  9. EX1504L3 Dive03 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L3: CAPSTONE Leg III:...

  10. EX1605L3 Dive15 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  11. EX1605L3 Dive09 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  12. EX1605L3 Dive03 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  13. EX1605L3 Dive13 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  14. EX1504L2 Dive05 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  15. EX1605L3 Dive02 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  16. EX1606 Dive07 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1606: CAPSTONE Wake Island...

  17. EX1504L4 Dive06 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  18. EX1504L2 Dive18 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  19. EX1606 Dive11 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1606: CAPSTONE Wake Island...

  20. EX1605L3 Dive08 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  1. EX1504L2 Dive16 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  2. EX1605L3 Dive10 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  3. EX1605L3 Dive16 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  4. EX1606 Dive08 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1606: CAPSTONE Wake Island...

  5. EX1605L3 Dive22 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  6. EX1605L3 Dive17 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  7. EX1606 Dive13 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1606: CAPSTONE Wake Island...

  8. EX1504L4 Dive10 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  9. EX1605L3 Dive06 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  10. EX1605L3 Dive12 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  11. EX1504L3 Dive06 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L3: CAPSTONE Leg III:...

  12. EX1606 Dive12 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1606: CAPSTONE Wake Island...

  13. EX1605L3 Dive05 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  14. EX1605L3 Dive21 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  15. EX1606 Dive04 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1606: CAPSTONE Wake Island...

  16. EX1605L3 Dive19 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  17. EX1605L3 Dive14 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  18. EX1504L2 Dive12 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  19. EX1605L3 Dive11 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  20. EX1605L3 Dive07 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1605L3: CAPSTONE CNMI &...

  1. EX1504L2 Dive06 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  2. EX1606 Dive06 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1606: CAPSTONE Wake Island...

  3. EX1606 Dive02 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1606: CAPSTONE Wake Island...

  4. EX1606 Dive05 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1606: CAPSTONE Wake Island...

  5. Trace Metal and Ancillary Data in Puget Sound, 1980 - 1986 (NODC Accession 9100153)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In first of three data reports on the trace metal and ancillary data in Puget Sound and its watershed (Paulson et al., 1991a), all water column, sediment, and...

  6. EX1504L2 Dive04 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  7. EX1504L2 Dive01 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  8. NACP Site: Tower Meteorology, Flux Observations with Uncertainty, and Ancillary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains meteorological, carbon cycle flux, phenology, and ancillary data measured at 47 eddy covariance flux tower sites across North...

  9. EX1504L3 Dive04 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L3: CAPSTONE Leg III:...

  10. EX1504L2 Dive17 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  11. EX1504L2 Dive02 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  12. EX1504L3 Dive02 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L3: CAPSTONE Leg III:...

  13. EX1504L4 Dive04 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  14. EX1504L2 Dive08 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  15. EX1504L2 Dive10 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  16. EX1504L2 Dive13 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  17. NACP Site: Tower Meteorology, Flux Observations with Uncertainty, and Ancillary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains meteorological, carbon cycle flux, phenology, and ancillary data measured at 47 eddy covariance flux tower sites across North America. The...

  18. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-2: Ancillary Files (NODC Accession 0044982)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains the data descriptions for the OSTM/Jason-2 Ancillary data files, which is served through the NOAA/NESDIS Comprehensive Large Array-data...

  19. EX1504L4 Dive01 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  20. EX1504L4 Dive05 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  1. EX1504L2 Dive11 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  2. EX1504L4 Dive09 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  3. EX1504L4 Dive11 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  4. EX1504L2 Dive09 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  5. EX1504L4 Dive13 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  6. EX1504L4 Dive08 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  7. EX1504L2 Dive07 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  8. EX1504L4 Dive07 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L4: Campaign to Address...

  9. EX1504L2 Dive15 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  10. Defining immunological impact and therapeutic benefit of mild heating in a murine model of arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Ting Lee

    Full Text Available Traditional treatments, including a variety of thermal therapies have been known since ancient times to provide relief from rheumatoid arthritis (RA symptoms. However, a general absence of information on how heating affects molecular or immunological targets relevant to RA has limited heat treatment (HT to the category of treatments known as "alternative therapies". In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of mild HT in a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA model which has been used in many previous studies to evaluate newer pharmacological approaches for the treatment of RA, and tested whether inflammatory immune activity was altered. We also compared the effect of HT to methotrexate, a well characterized pharmacological treatment for RA. CIA mice were treated with either a single HT for several hours or daily 30 minute HT. Disease progression and macrophage infiltration were evaluated. We found that both HT regimens significantly reduced arthritis disease severity and macrophage infiltration into inflamed joints. Surprisingly, HT was as efficient as methotrexate in controlling disease progression. At the molecular level, HT suppressed TNF-α while increasing production of IL-10. We also observed an induction of HSP70 and a reduction in both NF-κB and HIF-1α in inflamed tissues. Additionally, using activated macrophages in vitro, we found that HT reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, an effect which is correlated to induction of HSF-1 and HSP70 and inhibition of NF-κB and STAT activation. Our findings demonstrate a significant therapeutic benefit of HT in controlling arthritis progression in a clinically relevant mouse model, with an efficacy similar to methotrexate. Mechanistically, HT targets highly relevant anti-inflammatory pathways which strongly support its increased study for use in clinical trials for RA.

  11. The Benefit of Multi-Mission Altimetry Series for the Calibration of Hydraulic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeneghetti, Alessio; Tarpanelli, Angelica; Tourian, Mohammad J.; Brocca, Luca; Moramarco, Tommaso; Castellarin, Attilio; Sneeuw, Nico

    2016-04-01

    The growing availability of satellite altimetric time series during last decades has fostered their use in many hydrological and hydraulic applications. However, the use of remotely sensed water level series still remains hampered by the limited temporal resolution that characterizes each sensor (i.e. revisit time varying from 10 to 35 days), as well as by the accuracy of different instrumentation adopted for monitoring inland water. As a consequence, each sensor is characterized by distinctive potentials and limitations that constrain its use for hydrological applications. In this study we refer to a stretch of about 140 km of the Po River (the longest Italian river) in order to investigate the performance of different altimetry series for the calibration of a quasi-2d model built with detailed topographic information. The usefulness of remotely sensed water surface elevation is tested using data collected by different altimetry missions (i.e., ERS-2, ENVISAT, TOPEX/Poseidon, JASON-2 and SARAL/Altika) by investigating the effect of (i) record length (i.e. number of satellite measurements provided by a given sensor at a specific satellite track) and (ii) data uncertainty (i.e. altimetry measurements errors). Since the relatively poor time resolution of satellites constrains the operational use of altimetric time series, in this study we also investigate the use of multi-mission altimetry series obtained by merging datasets sensed by different sensors over the study area. Benefits of the highest temporal frequency of multi-mission series are tested by calibrating the quasi-2d model referring in turn to original satellite series and multi-mission datasets. Jason-2 and ENVISAT outperform other sensors, ensuring the reliability on the calibration process for shorter time series. The multi-mission dataset appears particularly reliable and suitable for the calibration of hydraulic model. If short time periods are considered, the performance of the multi-mission dataset

  12. The societal benefits of reducing six behavioural risk factors: an economic modelling study from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhac, Dominique A; Magnus, Anne; Sheppard, Lauren; Cumming, Toby B; Pearce, Dora C; Carter, Rob

    2011-06-21

    A large proportion of disease burden is attributed to behavioural risk factors. However, funding for public health programs in Australia remains limited. Government and non-government organisations are interested in the productivity effects on society from reducing chronic diseases. We aimed to estimate the potential health status and economic benefits to society following a feasible reduction in the prevalence of six behavioural risk factors: tobacco smoking; inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption; high risk alcohol consumption; high body mass index; physical inactivity; and intimate partner violence. Simulation models were developed for the 2008 Australian population. A realistic reduction in current risk factor prevalence using best available evidence with expert consensus was determined. Avoidable disease, deaths, Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) and health sector costs were estimated. Productivity gains included workforce (friction cost method), household production and leisure time. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and correction for the joint effects of risk factors on health status were undertaken. Consistent methods and data sources were used. Over the lifetime of the 2008 Australian adult population, total opportunity cost savings of AUD2,334 million (95% Uncertainty Interval AUD1,395 to AUD3,347; 64% in the health sector) were found if feasible reductions in the risk factors were achieved. There would be 95,000 fewer DALYs (a reduction of about 3.6% in total DALYs for Australia); 161,000 less new cases of disease; 6,000 fewer deaths; a reduction of 5 million days in workforce absenteeism; and 529,000 increased days of leisure time. Reductions in common behavioural risk factors may provide substantial benefits to society. For example, the total potential annual cost savings in the health sector represent approximately 2% of total annual health expenditure in Australia. Our findings contribute important new knowledge about productivity effects

  13. The societal benefits of reducing six behavioural risk factors: an economic modelling study from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background A large proportion of disease burden is attributed to behavioural risk factors. However, funding for public health programs in Australia remains limited. Government and non-government organisations are interested in the productivity effects on society from reducing chronic diseases. We aimed to estimate the potential health status and economic benefits to society following a feasible reduction in the prevalence of six behavioural risk factors: tobacco smoking; inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption; high risk alcohol consumption; high body mass index; physical inactivity; and intimate partner violence. Methods Simulation models were developed for the 2008 Australian population. A realistic reduction in current risk factor prevalence using best available evidence with expert consensus was determined. Avoidable disease, deaths, Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) and health sector costs were estimated. Productivity gains included workforce (friction cost method), household production and leisure time. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and correction for the joint effects of risk factors on health status were undertaken. Consistent methods and data sources were used. Results Over the lifetime of the 2008 Australian adult population, total opportunity cost savings of AUD2,334 million (95% Uncertainty Interval AUD1,395 to AUD3,347; 64% in the health sector) were found if feasible reductions in the risk factors were achieved. There would be 95,000 fewer DALYs (a reduction of about 3.6% in total DALYs for Australia); 161,000 less new cases of disease; 6,000 fewer deaths; a reduction of 5 million days in workforce absenteeism; and 529,000 increased days of leisure time. Conclusions Reductions in common behavioural risk factors may provide substantial benefits to society. For example, the total potential annual cost savings in the health sector represent approximately 2% of total annual health expenditure in Australia. Our findings contribute important

  14. The societal benefits of reducing six behavioural risk factors: an economic modelling study from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheppard Lauren

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large proportion of disease burden is attributed to behavioural risk factors. However, funding for public health programs in Australia remains limited. Government and non-government organisations are interested in the productivity effects on society from reducing chronic diseases. We aimed to estimate the potential health status and economic benefits to society following a feasible reduction in the prevalence of six behavioural risk factors: tobacco smoking; inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption; high risk alcohol consumption; high body mass index; physical inactivity; and intimate partner violence. Methods Simulation models were developed for the 2008 Australian population. A realistic reduction in current risk factor prevalence using best available evidence with expert consensus was determined. Avoidable disease, deaths, Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs and health sector costs were estimated. Productivity gains included workforce (friction cost method, household production and leisure time. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and correction for the joint effects of risk factors on health status were undertaken. Consistent methods and data sources were used. Results Over the lifetime of the 2008 Australian adult population, total opportunity cost savings of AUD2,334 million (95% Uncertainty Interval AUD1,395 to AUD3,347; 64% in the health sector were found if feasible reductions in the risk factors were achieved. There would be 95,000 fewer DALYs (a reduction of about 3.6% in total DALYs for Australia; 161,000 less new cases of disease; 6,000 fewer deaths; a reduction of 5 million days in workforce absenteeism; and 529,000 increased days of leisure time. Conclusions Reductions in common behavioural risk factors may provide substantial benefits to society. For example, the total potential annual cost savings in the health sector represent approximately 2% of total annual health expenditure in Australia. Our

  15. The modelled benefits of individualizing radiotherapy patients' dose using cellular radiosensitivity assays with inherent variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, R.I.; Hendry, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    2 , the gain in TCP was reduced to around 6%. Also, the predicted gains in population TCP were higher if tumour and normal tissue radiosensitivity were assumed to be correlated. In this case, and in the absence of assay variability, increases in population TCP of about 50% and 30% were predicted, depending on the assumed relative sensitivities of the individual patients compared with that of the population average. For practical application, the division of the patient population simply into three groups of high, average and low radiosensitivity was also examined. The three groups were treated with different doses and the NTCP for the population was kept below 5%. Although the gain in population TCP was less than that predicted with the full individualization, considerable gains of up to 20% were still predicted. This method of dividing the population was more resilient to assay variability and other factors that may affect complications in patients. The modelling suggests that small improvements in TCP (5-10%) may still be achievable even if the correlation between SF 2 and late complications is lower at around -0.4 to -0.6, as reported in some clinical series.Conclusion: Modelling based on measured distributions of fibroblast radiosensitivity shows that improvements in tumour control rates may be achievable through the individualization of radiotherapy dose prescriptions of cancer patients, when assay variability is less than about 50% of the true variability in radiosensitivity, and with greater benefits if tumour and normal tissue radiosensitivity are correlated. Tripartite stratification of the population proved to be less sensitive to assay uncertainty, and can provide most of the benefits of the full individualization. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  16. Assessing the Cooling Benefits of Tree Shade by an Outdoor Urban Physical Scale Model at Tempe, AZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunshan Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban green infrastructure, especially shade trees, offers benefits to the urban residential environment by mitigating direct incoming solar radiation on building facades, particularly in hot settings. Understanding the impact of different tree locations and arrangements around residential properties has the potential to maximize cooling and can ultimately guide urban planners, designers, and homeowners on how to create the most sustainable urban environment. This research measures the cooling effect of tree shade on building facades through an outdoor urban physical scale model. The physical scale model is a simulated neighborhood consisting of an array of concrete cubes to represent houses with identical artificial trees. We tested and compared 10 different tree densities, locations, and arrangement scenarios in the physical scale model. The experimental results show that a single tree located at the southeast of the building can provide up to 2.3 °C hourly cooling benefits to east facade of the building. A two-tree cluster arrangement provides more cooling benefits (up to 6.6 °C hourly cooling benefits to the central facade when trees are located near the south and southeast sides of the building. The research results confirm the cooling benefits of tree shade and the importance of wisely designing tree locations and arrangements in the built environment.

  17. Disaggregating census data for population mapping using random forests with remotely-sensed and ancillary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Forrest R; Gaughan, Andrea E; Linard, Catherine; Tatem, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    High resolution, contemporary data on human population distributions are vital for measuring impacts of population growth, monitoring human-environment interactions and for planning and policy development. Many methods are used to disaggregate census data and predict population densities for finer scale, gridded population data sets. We present a new semi-automated dasymetric modeling approach that incorporates detailed census and ancillary data in a flexible, "Random Forest" estimation technique. We outline the combination of widely available, remotely-sensed and geospatial data that contribute to the modeled dasymetric weights and then use the Random Forest model to generate a gridded prediction of population density at ~100 m spatial resolution. This prediction layer is then used as the weighting surface to perform dasymetric redistribution of the census counts at a country level. As a case study we compare the new algorithm and its products for three countries (Vietnam, Cambodia, and Kenya) with other common gridded population data production methodologies. We discuss the advantages of the new method and increases over the accuracy and flexibility of those previous approaches. Finally, we outline how this algorithm will be extended to provide freely-available gridded population data sets for Africa, Asia and Latin America.

  18. Disaggregating census data for population mapping using random forests with remotely-sensed and ancillary data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forrest R Stevens

    Full Text Available High resolution, contemporary data on human population distributions are vital for measuring impacts of population growth, monitoring human-environment interactions and for planning and policy development. Many methods are used to disaggregate census data and predict population densities for finer scale, gridded population data sets. We present a new semi-automated dasymetric modeling approach that incorporates detailed census and ancillary data in a flexible, "Random Forest" estimation technique. We outline the combination of widely available, remotely-sensed and geospatial data that contribute to the modeled dasymetric weights and then use the Random Forest model to generate a gridded prediction of population density at ~100 m spatial resolution. This prediction layer is then used as the weighting surface to perform dasymetric redistribution of the census counts at a country level. As a case study we compare the new algorithm and its products for three countries (Vietnam, Cambodia, and Kenya with other common gridded population data production methodologies. We discuss the advantages of the new method and increases over the accuracy and flexibility of those previous approaches. Finally, we outline how this algorithm will be extended to provide freely-available gridded population data sets for Africa, Asia and Latin America.

  19. Model for investigating the benefits of clinical supervision in psychiatric nursing: a survey study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonge, Henrik; Buus, Niels

    2011-01-01

    with the effectiveness of clinical supervision, as measured by the Manchester Clinical Supervision Scale (MCSS). Furthermore, MCSS scores were associated with benefits, such as increased job satisfaction, vitality, rational coping and less stress, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization. Multivariate analyses...

  20. Benefits Estimation Model for Automated Vehicle Operations: Phase 2 Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Automated vehicles have the potential to bring about transformative safety, mobility, energy, and environmental benefits to the surface transportation system. They are also being introduced into a complex transportation system, where second-order imp...

  1. An interdisciplinary model for mapping the Normative diffusion of fair and equitable benefit-sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Parks, Louisa; Morgera, Elisa

    2015-01-01

    Fair and equitable benefit-sharing is emerging in various areas of international environmental law (biodiversity, oceans, climate change, water, food and agriculture), as well as in international processes on human rights and corporate accountability. Benefit-sharing seeks to fairly and equitably allocate economic as well as socio-cultural and environmental advantages arising from the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources, or from their regulation, among different stakeholders...

  2. Organizational Infrastructure in the Collegiate Athletic Training Setting, Part II: Benefits of and Barriers in the Athletics Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Ashley; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Eason, Christianne M

    2017-01-01

     The athletics model, in which athletic training clinical programs are part of the athletics department, is the predominant model in the collegiate athletic training setting. Little is known about athletic trainers' (ATs') perceptions of this model, particularly as it relates to organizational hierarchy.  To explore the perceived benefits of and barriers in the athletics model.  Qualitative study.  National Collegiate Athletic Association Divisions I and III.  Eight full-time ATs (5 men, 3 women; age = 41 ± 13 years, time employed at the current institution = 14 ± 14 years, experience as a certified AT = 18 ± 13 years) working in the collegiate setting using the athletics model.  We conducted semistructured interviews via telephone or in person and used a general inductive approach to analyze the qualitative data. Multiple-analyst triangulation and peer review established trustworthiness.  Two benefits and 3 barriers emerged from the data. Role identity emerged as a benefit that occurred with role clarity, validation, and acceptance of the collegiate AT personality. Role congruence emerged as a benefit of the athletics model that occurred with 2 lower-order themes: relationship building and physician alignment and support. Role strain, staffing concerns, and work-life conflict emerged as barriers in the athletics model. Role strain occurred with 2 primary lower-order themes: role incongruity and role conflict.  The athletics model is the most common infrastructure for employing ATs in collegiate athletics. Participants expressed positive experiences via character identity, support, trust relationships, and longevity. However, common barriers remain. To reduce role strain, misaligning values, and work-life conflict, ATs working in the athletics model are encouraged to evaluate their relationships with coaches and their supervisor and consider team physician alignment. Moreover, measures to increase quality athletic training staff from a care

  3. Workshop on environmental assessment. [Regulation of applications of nuclear energy and related ancillary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, E.C. (comp.)

    1982-07-01

    Objectives of the workshop were: to review and evaluate the state-of-the-art of environmental impact assessments as applied to the regulation of applications of nuclear energy and related ancillary systems; to identify areas where existing technology allows establishing acceptable methods or standard practices that will meet the requirements of the NRC regulations, standards and guides for both normal operations and off-standard conditions including accident considerations; to illuminate topics where existing models or analytical methods are deficient because of unverified assumptions, a paucity of empirical data, conflicting results reported in the literature or a need for observation of operation systems; to compile, analyze and synthesize a prioritized set of research needs to advance the state-of-the-art to the level which will meet all of the requirements of the Commission's regulations, standards and guides; and to develop bases for maintaining the core of regulatory guidance at the optimum level balancing technical capabilities with practical considerations of cost and value to the regulatory process. The discussion held in small group sessions on aquatic, atmospheric, and terrestrial pathways are presented. The following research needs were identified as common to all three groups: validation of models; characterization of source terms; development of screening techniques; basis for de minimis levels of contamination; and updating of objectives for environmental monitoring programs.

  4. Cardiovascular Fat, Menopause, and Sex Hormones in Women: The SWAN Cardiovascular Fat Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoudary, Samar R; Shields, Kelly J; Janssen, Imke; Hanley, Carrie; Budoff, Matthew J; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Powell, Lynda H; Matthews, Karen A

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular risk increases in women after menopause. Mounting evidence demonstrates a role of cardiovascular fat (CF) in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease, but no research has examined CF in relation to sex hormones or menopausal status in women. The objective was to determine the relationship between CF depots, menopausal status, and endogenous sex hormones. Cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs were used. The setting included the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Heart and Cardiovascular Fat Ancillary Study. A total of 456 women (mean age, 50.75 y); 62% premenopausal/early perimenopausal, and 38% late peri-/postmenopausal. Menopausal status, endogenous sex hormones measured simultaneously with CF volumes, and circulating estradiol available 4.80 years (median) before CF measures. Volumes of CF (epicardial adipose tissue [EAT], paracardial adipose tissue [PAT], total heart adipose tissue [TAT = EAT + PAT], and aortic perivascular adipose tissue [PVAT]). In final models, late peri-/postmenopausal women had 9.88% more EAT, 20.72% more PAT, and 11.69% more TAT volumes than pre-/early perimenopausal women (P menopausal status. In final models, lower estradiol concentrations were associated with greater volumes of PAT and TAT (P hormones are associated with CF. Perhaps CF plays a role in the higher risk of coronary heart disease reported in women after menopause.

  5. Randomized Crossover Study of Training Benefits of High Fidelity ECMO Simulation versus Porcine Animal Model An Interim Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-25

    High- Fidelity ECMO Simulation versus Porcine Animal Model - An Interim Report presented at/published to ECMO and the Advanced Therapies for...event. If the sponsor of a conference or meeting is a non-DoD commercial entity or an entity seeking to do business with the government, then your...approval.) Randomized Crossover Study of Training Benefits of High-Fidelity ECMO Simulation versus Porcine Animal Model 6. TITLE OF MATERIAL TO BE

  6. Pathways and impacts of nitrogen in water bodies: establishing a framework for integrated assessment modelling of management benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Kronvang, Brian; Carstensen, Jacob

    Monetization of environmental benefits has become relevant as an element of proportionality tests required for justifications under the EU’s Water Framework Directive article 4 (relating to benefits andcosts of measures). This study extends an impact pathway approach to analysis of aquatic...... the study demonstrates how state-of-the-art environmental modelling can be linked with valuation to provide an adequate cross-media assessment framework relevant to integrated water quality management. The results must be regarded as illustrative and more research is required in several areas to consolidate...

  7. Models for Editorial Decision Making: The Benefits of Semi-Formality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Philip

    1978-01-01

    Examines two common informal models for editorial decision making-- the referendum model and the target group model--and suggests a prioritization model that offers greater precision at the price of a modest increase in formality. (GW)

  8. Pathways and impacts of nitrogen in water bodies: establishing a framework for integrated assessment modelling of management benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Kronvang, Brian; Carstensen, Jacob

    Monetization of environmental benefits has become relevant as an element of proportionality tests required for justifications under the EU’s Water Framework Directive article 4 (relating to benefits andcosts of measures). This study extends an impact pathway approach to analysis of aquatic...... the study demonstrates how state-of-the-art environmental modelling can be linked with valuation to provide an adequate cross-media assessment framework relevant to integrated water quality management. The results must be regarded as illustrative and more research is required in several areas to consolidate...... relationships relating to exposures. The findings nevertheless suggest the significance of health effects for overall monetary benefits related to ecological quality objectives for water....

  9. Does Head Start differentially benefit children with risks targeted by the program’s service model?☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth B.; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J.

    2015-01-01

    Data from the Head Start Impact Study (N = 3540) were used to test for differential benefits of Head Start after one program year and after kindergarten on pre-academic and behavior outcomes for children at risk in the domains targeted by the program’s comprehensive services. Although random assignment to Head Start produced positive treatment main effects on children’s pre-academic skills and behavior problems, residualized growth models showed that random assignment to Head Start did not differentially benefit the pre-academic skills of children with risk factors targeted by the Head Start service model. The models showed detrimental impacts of Head Start for maternal-reported behavior problems of high-risk children, but slightly more positive impacts for teacher-reported behavior. Policy implications for Head Start are discussed. PMID:26379369

  10. Braking Analysis For Collision Avoidance-- Autonomous Braking System Performance Modeling And Benefits Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-24

    THIS REPORT IS AN ANALYSIS OF THE BENEFITS OF A COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM IN REDUCING REAR-END CRASHES. THE COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM CONSIDERED IN THIS STUDY UTILIZES THE SIGNAL FROM A FORWARD LOOKING SENSOR TO ACTIVATE THE TRACTION CONTROL VALVE ...

  11. Removing the age restrictions for rotavirus vaccination: a benefit-risk modeling analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish M Patel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To minimize potential risk of intussusception, the World Health Organization (WHO recommended in 2009 that rotavirus immunization should be initiated by age 15 weeks and completed before 32 weeks. These restrictions could adversely impact vaccination coverage and thereby its health impact, particularly in developing countries where delays in vaccination often occur. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a modeling study to estimate the number of rotavirus deaths prevented and the number of intussusception deaths caused by vaccination when administered on the restricted schedule versus an unrestricted schedule whereby rotavirus vaccine would be administered with DTP vaccine up to age 3 years. Countries were grouped on the basis of child mortality rates, using WHO data. Inputs were estimates of WHO rotavirus mortality by week of age from a recent study, intussusception mortality based on a literature review, predicted vaccination rates by week of age from USAID Demographic and Health Surveys, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS, and WHO-UNICEF 2010 country-specific coverage estimates, and published estimates of vaccine efficacy and vaccine-associated intussusception risk. On the basis of the error estimates and distributions for model inputs, we conducted 2,000 simulations to obtain median estimates of deaths averted and caused as well as the uncertainty ranges, defined as the 5th-95th percentile, to provide an indication of the uncertainty in the estimates. We estimated that in low and low-middle income countries a restricted schedule would prevent 155,800 rotavirus deaths (5th-95th centiles, 83,300-217,700 while causing potentially 253 intussusception deaths (76-689. In contrast, vaccination without age restrictions would prevent 203,000 rotavirus deaths (102,000-281,500 while potentially causing 547 intussusception deaths (237-1,160. Thus, removing the age restrictions would avert an

  12. The Biodiversity Benefits and Opportunity Costs of Plantation Forest Management: A Modelling Case Study of Pinus radiata in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhung Nghiem

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study modelled the potential biodiversity benefits and the opportunity costs of a patch-clear-cutting strategy over a clear-cutting strategy for Pinus radiata in New Zealand. Patch-clear cutting is a special case of clear cutting involving the removal of all the trees from strips or patches within a stand, leaving the remainder uncut or clear cutting a series of strips or patches. A forest-level optimisation model was extended to include uncertainty in timber growth, plant diversity, and cutting costs. Using a species-area relationship and economies of cutting scale, the net present value and optimal rotation age under alternative management strategies were calculated. Results suggested that the optimal rotation ages were similar (24 and 25 years for the two cutting strategies. Patch-clear cutting provided higher biodiversity benefits (i.e., 59 vs. 11 understorey plant species with an opportunity cost of 27 NZD (18 USD per extra plant species or 1250 NZD (820 USD ha−1. However, the true benefits of patch-clear cutting would be even greater if other benefits of stand retention are included. Our research can potentially inform local decision making and inform international systems of payment for environmental services, such as the REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation program, to conserve biodiversity in developing countries with plantation forests.

  13. A model for evaluating the institutional costs and benefits of ICT initiatives in teaching and learning in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nicol

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Significant investments are being made in the application of new information and communications technologies (ICT to teaching and learning in higher education. However, until recently, there has been little progress in devising an integrated costbenefit model that decision-makers can use to appraise ICT investment options from the wider institutional perspective. This paper describes and illustrates a model that has been developed to enable evaluations of the costs and benefits of the use of ICT. The strengths and limitations of the model are highlighted and discussed

  14. Development and Application of a Probabilistic Risk-Benefit Assessment Model for Infant Feeding Integrating Microbiological, Nutritional, and Chemical Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boué, Géraldine; Cummins, Enda; Guillou, Sandrine; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2017-12-01

    A probabilistic and interdisciplinary risk-benefit assessment (RBA) model integrating microbiological, nutritional, and chemical components was developed for infant milk, with the objective of predicting the health impact of different scenarios of consumption. Infant feeding is a particular concern of interest in RBA as breast milk and powder infant formula have both been associated with risks and benefits related to chemicals, bacteria, and nutrients, hence the model considers these three facets. Cronobacter sakazakii, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCB), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were three risk/benefit factors selected as key issues in microbiology, chemistry, and nutrition, respectively. The present model was probabilistic with variability and uncertainty separated using a second-order Monte Carlo simulation process. In this study, advantages and limitations of undertaking probabilistic and interdisciplinary RBA are discussed. In particular, the probabilistic technique was found to be powerful in dealing with missing data and to translate assumptions into quantitative inputs while taking uncertainty into account. In addition, separation of variability and uncertainty strengthened the interpretation of the model outputs by enabling better consideration and distinction of natural heterogeneity from lack of knowledge. Interdisciplinary RBA is necessary to give more structured conclusions and avoid contradictory messages to policymakers and also to consumers, leading to more decisive food recommendations. This assessment provides a conceptual development of the RBA methodology and is a robust basis on which to build upon. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Stochastic Actuarial Modelling of a Defined-Benefit Social Security Pension Scheme: An Analytical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Iyer, Subramaniam

    2017-01-01

    Among the systems in place in different countries for the protection of the population against the long-term contingencies of old-age (or retirement), disability and death (or survivorship), defined-benefit social security pension schemes, i.e. social insurance pension schemes, by far predominate, despite the recent trend towards defined-contribution arrangements in social security reforms. Actuarial valuations of these schemes, unlike other branches of insurance, continue to be carried out a...

  16. The secret to a health benefits self-service model: a more informed consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauregard, T R

    2001-01-01

    Sageo is the first full-service e-business to deliver health, dental, vision and welfare benefits via the Internet. The author describes the health care system's problems that have led to the need for participant-driven, self-service systems; describes Sageo's genesis and inaugural online enrollment; and explains how services like those offered by Sageo allow employers to "match, pace and lead" to a more informed health care consumer.

  17. Gibson’s ecological approach – a model for the benefits of a theory driven psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina Golonka; Andrew D Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Unlike most other sciences, psychology has no true core theory to guide a coherent research programme. It does have James J Gibson’s ecological approach to visual perception, however, which we suggest should serve as an example of the benefits a good theory brings to psychological research. Here we focus on an example of how the ecological approach has served as a guide to discovery, shaping and constraining a recent hypothesis about how humans perform coordinated rhythmic movements (Bingham ...

  18. A multi-model assessment of the co-benefits of climate mitigation for global air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Shilpa; Klimont, Zbigniew; Leitao, Joana; Riahi, Keywan; van Dingenen, Rita; Reis, Lara Aleluia; Calvin, Katherine; Dentener, Frank; Drouet, Laurent; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Harmsen, Mathijs; Luderer, Gunnar; Heyes, Chris; Strefler, Jessica; Tavoni, Massimo; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2016-12-01

    The recent International Panel on Climate change (IPCC) report identifies significant co-benefits from climate policies on near-term ambient air pollution and related human health outcomes [1]. This is increasingly relevant for policy making as the health impacts of air pollution are a major global concern- the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study identifies outdoor air pollution as the sixth major cause of death globally [2]. Integrated assessment models (IAMs) are an effective tool to evaluate future air pollution outcomes across a wide range of assumptions on socio-economic development and policy regimes. The Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) [3] were the first set of long-term global scenarios developed across multiple integrated assessment models that provided detailed estimates of a number of air pollutants until 2100. However these scenarios were primarily designed to cover a defined range of radiative forcing outcomes and thus did not specifically focus on the interactions of long-term climate goals on near-term air pollution impacts. More recently, [4] used the RCP4.5 scenario to evaluate the co-benefits of global GHG reductions on air quality and human health in 2030. [5-7] have further examined the interactions of more diverse pollution control regimes with climate policies. This paper extends the listed studies in a number of ways. Firstly it uses multiple IAMs to look into the co-benefits of a global climate policy for ambient air pollution under harmonized assumptions on near-term air pollution control. Multi-model frameworks have been extensively used in the analysis of climate change mitigation pathways, and the structural uncertainties regarding the underlying mechanisms (see for example [8-10]. This is to our knowledge the first time that a multi-model evaluation has been specifically designed and applied to analyze the co-benefits of climate change policy on ambient air quality, thus enabling a better understanding of at a detailed

  19. Methodology and forecast products for the optimal offering of ancillary services from wind in a market environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Pinson, Pierre

    of wind power for example in the planning of ancillary power services, where the level of available wind power with a high degree of certainty is important to know. The presented extreme value models are applied to negative forecast residuals from state-of-the-art wind power forecast software...... of extreme weather induced phenomena, for example extreme water levels in a river, wind levels or at sea for design of dykes (de Haan and de Ronde, 1998). In insurance and finance the extreme value modelling is widespread (Embrechts et al., 1997). Extreme value statistics for energy and power applications...... is also widely used, for example for planning in wind power operation (Horvat et al., 2013) and peak wind prediction (Cook, 1982) and (Friederichs and Thorarinsdottir, 2012). Several books provide comprehensive introductions to extreme value theory, for example Coles (2001) and Beirlant et al. (2006...

  20. Regional land cover characterization using Landsat thematic mapper data and ancillary data sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelmann, James E.; Sohl, Terry L.; Campbell, P.V.; Shaw, D.M.; ,

    1998-01-01

    As part of the activities of the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Interagency Consortium, an intermediate-scale land cover data set is being generated for the conterminous United States. This effort is being conducted on a region-by-region basis using U.S. Standard Federal Regions. To date, land cover data sets have been generated for Federal Regions 3 (Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware) and 2 (New York and New Jersey). Classification work is currently under way in Federal Region 4 (the southeastern United States), and land cover mapping activities have been started in Federal Regions 5 (the Great Lakes region) and 1 (New England). It is anticipated that a land cover data set for the conterminous United States will be completed by the end of 1999. A standard land cover classification legend is used, which is analogous to and compatible with other classification schemes. The primary MRLC regional classification scheme contains 23 land cover classes.The primary source of data for the project is the Landsat thematic mapper (TM) sensor. For each region, TM scenes representing both leaf-on and leaf-off conditions are acquired, preprocessed, and georeferenced to MRLC specifications. Mosaicked data are clustered using unsupervised classification, and individual clusters are labeled using aerial photographs. Individual clusters that represent more than one land cover unit are split using spatial modeling with multiple ancillary spatial data layers (most notably, digital elevation model, population, land use and land cover, and wetlands information). This approach yields regional land cover information suitable for a wide array of applications, including landscape metric analyses, land management, land cover change studies, and nutrient and pesticide runoff modeling.

  1. The Societal Costs and Benefits of Commuter Bicycling: Simulating the Effects of Specific Policies Using System Dynamics Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Jennie; Witten, Karen; Kearns, Robin; Rees, David; Woodward, Alistair

    2014-01-01

    Background: Shifting to active modes of transport in the trip to work can achieve substantial co-benefits for health, social equity, and climate change mitigation. Previous integrated modeling of transport scenarios has assumed active transport mode share and has been unable to incorporate acknowledged system feedbacks. Objectives: We compared the effects of policies to increase bicycle commuting in a car-dominated city and explored the role of participatory modeling to support transport planning in the face of complexity. Methods: We used system dynamics modeling (SDM) to compare realistic policies, incorporating feedback effects, nonlinear relationships, and time delays between variables. We developed a system dynamics model of commuter bicycling through interviews and workshops with policy, community, and academic stakeholders. We incorporated best available evidence to simulate five policy scenarios over the next 40 years in Auckland, New Zealand. Injury, physical activity, fuel costs, air pollution, and carbon emissions outcomes were simulated. Results: Using the simulation model, we demonstrated the kinds of policies that would likely be needed to change a historical pattern of decline in cycling into a pattern of growth that would meet policy goals. Our model projections suggest that transforming urban roads over the next 40 years, using best practice physical separation on main roads and bicycle-friendly speed reduction on local streets, would yield benefits 10–25 times greater than costs. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first integrated simulation model of future specific bicycling policies. Our projections provide practical evidence that may be used by health and transport policy makers to optimize the benefits of transport bicycling while minimizing negative consequences in a cost-effective manner. The modeling process enhanced understanding by a range of stakeholders of cycling as a complex system. Participatory SDM can be a helpful method

  2. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of InternationalExperience-- Technical Appendix: Market Descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grayson Heffner, Charles Goldman, Kintner-Meyer, M; Kirby, Brendan

    2007-05-01

    In this study, we examine the arrangements for andexperiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in fiveelectricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordicmarket, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objectivein undertaking this review of international experience was to identifyspecific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads toeffectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hopethat this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S.and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments areneeded to ensure that customer loads can meaningfully participate in allwholesale electricity markets.

  3. A cost-benefit model of rural to urban migration in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speare, A

    1971-03-01

    Abstract Migration is a form of human behaviour which has lent itself to careful measurement for a relatively long period of time. In 1885 Ravenstein set forth certain empirical laws concerning the relationship of migration to age and distance which have held up to the present. Since then an abundance of migration data has enabled social scientists to develop more precise models relating the volume or rate of migration to characteristics of the migrants or of the areas of origin and destination. Prominent among these models are the gravity model, the intervening opportunities model, a gravity type model including wage rates and unemployment rates developed by Lowry, and the Cornell mobility model.

  4. Modelling User-Costs in Life Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2008-01-01

    The importance of including user's costs in Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit analysis of structures is discussed in this paper. This is especially for bridges of great importance. Repair or/and failure of a bridge will usually result in user costs greater than the repair or replacement costs of the bridge....... For the society (and the user's) it is therefore of great importance that maintenance or replacement of a bridge is performed in such a way that all costs are minimized - not only the owners cost....

  5. Subjective health complaints, functional ability, fear avoidance beliefs, and days on sickness benefits after work rehabilitation - a mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øyeflaten, Irene; Opsahl, Jon; Eriksen, Hege R; Braathen, Tore Norendal; Lie, Stein Atle; Brage, Søren; Ihlebæk, Camilla M; Breivik, Kyrre

    2016-05-23

    Long-term sick leave and withdrawal from working life is a concern in western countries. In Norway, comprehensive inpatient work rehabilitation may be offered to sick listed individuals at risk of long-term absence from work. Knowledge about prognostic factors for work outcomes after long-term sick leave and work rehabilitation is still limited. The aim of this study was to test a mediation model for various hypothesized biopsychosocial predictors of continued sick leave after inpatient work rehabilitation. One thousand one hundred fifty-five participants on long-term sick leave from eight different work rehabilitation clinics answered comprehensive questionnaires at arrival to the clinic, and were followed with official register data on sickness benefits for 3 years. Structural equation models were conducted, with days on sickness benefits after work rehabilitation as the outcome. Fear avoidance beliefs for work mediated the relation between both musculoskeletal complaints and education on days on sickness benefits after work rehabilitation. The relation between musculoskeletal complaints and fear avoidance beliefs for work was furthermore fully mediated by poor physical function. Previous sick leave had a strong independent effect on continued sick leave after work rehabilitation. Fear avoidance beliefs for work did not mediate the small effect of pseudoneurological complaints on continued sick leave. Poor coping/interaction ability was neither related to continued sick leave nor fear avoidance beliefs for work. The mediation model was partly supported by the data, and provides some possible new insight into how fear avoidance beliefs for work and functional ability may intervene with subjective health complaints and days on sickness benefits after work rehabilitation.

  6. Finisher hog production in the Southeastern United States: Ancillary measurements derived from the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robarge, W. P.; Lee, S.; Walker, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of emissions of gases and fine particulate matter from swine animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the southeastern US have typically been confined to relatively short periods (days to several weeks) and have generally focused on waste lagoons. Access to swine animal housing units and other ancillary information has been limited. The National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) provided a unique opportunity to characterize emissions from swine housing units for an extended period of time (~ 2 years), and allowed access to ancillary measurements regarding nutrient flows (feed amounts and composition), manure dynamics, animal inventories, water usage and farm management. Presented here is a summary of the observations made for a NAEMS finisher site (NC3B) selected as being representative of swine production in the southeastern US. Finisher hogs are raised in rotations (~ 140 days) with a target market weight of 123 kg/hog. Among the population during a rotation (700-800 hogs/barn) the actual growth rate varies with a series of “grade-outs” of market-weight hogs starting ~ 110 days from initial load-in. Derivation of the standing live-weight in the barns during a rotation therefore requires use of a growth model and summation over several different “populations” of hogs within a single barn. Up to 5 different feed formulations are fed during a rotation with %N content ranging from (3.4 to 2.2% N; total feed consumed 181,000 kg/barn). Across 4 complete rotations, N consumed was ~50 g N per hog/day. Of this amount, we estimate ~ 60% is excreted as fecal matter and urine. The TAN (NH3 + NH4+) content of the shallow pits is consistently higher (1880 ±390 mg TAN/L) than that found in the anaerobic lagoon (800 ±70 mg TAN/L), except immediately after recharge following pit-pull (pH of the two liquids was similar). The presence of a recalcitrant layer of sludge in the shallow pits (liquid height = 20 cm; sludge depth = 5-10 cm; TAN = 2500 mg N/L; total

  7. Different effort constructs and effort-reward imbalance: effects on employee well-being in ancillary health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vegchel, N; de Jonge, J; Meijer, T; Hamers, J P

    2001-04-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) and employee well-being, using three different concepts of efforts (i.e. psychological demands, physical demands and emotional demands). The ERI model had been used as a theoretical framework, indicating that work stress is related to high efforts (i.e. job demands) and low occupational rewards (e.g. money, esteem and security/career opportunities). The ERI model also predicts that, in overcommitted workers, effects of ERI on employee well-being are stronger compared with their less committed counterparts. A cross-sectional survey among 167 ancillary health care workers of two nursing homes was conducted. Multiple univariate logistic regression analyses were used to test the relationship between ERI and employee well-being. Results of the logistic regression analyses showed that employees with both high (psychological, physical and emotional) efforts and low rewards had higher risks of psychosomatic health complaints, physical health symptoms and job dissatisfaction (odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 5.09 to 18.55). Moreover, employees who reported both high efforts and high rewards had elevated risks of physical symptoms and exhaustion (ORs ranged from 6.17 to 9.39). No support was found for the hypothesis on the moderating effect of overcommitment. Results show some support for the ERI model; ancillary health care workers with high effort/low reward imbalance had elevated risks of poor employee well-being. In addition, results show that the combination of high efforts and high rewards is important for employee well-being. Finally, some practical implications are discussed to combat work stress in health care work.

  8. Benefits of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy in an Asynchronous Heart Failure Model Induced by Left Bundle Branch Ablation and Rapid Pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingfeng; Nie, Zhenning; Chen, Haiyan; Shu, Xianhong; Yang, Zhaohua; Yao, Ruiming; Su, Yangang; Ge, Junbo

    2017-12-11

    It is now well recognized that heart failure (HF) patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) derive substantial clinical benefits from cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), and LBBB has become one of the important predictors for CRT response. The conventional tachypacing-induced HF model has several major limitations, including absence of stable LBBB and rapid reversal of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction after cessation of pacing. Hence, it is essential to establish an optimal model of chronic HF with isolated LBBB for studying CRT benefits. In the present study, a canine model of asynchronous HF induced by left bundle branch (LBB) ablation and 4 weeks of rapid right ventricular (RV) pacing is established. The RV and right atrial (RA) pacing electrodes via the jugular vein approach, together with an epicardial LV pacing electrode, were implanted for CRT performance. Presented here are the detailed protocols of radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation, pacing leads implantation, and rapid pacing strategy. Intracardiac and surface electrograms during operation were also provided for a better understanding of LBB ablation. Two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging and aortic velocity time integral (aVTI) were acquired to validate the chronic stable HF model with LV asynchrony and CRT benefits. By coordinating ventricular activation and contraction, CRT uniformed the LV mechanical work and restored LV pump function, which was followed by reversal of LV dilation. Moreover, the histopathological study revealed a significant restoration of cardiomyocyte diameter and collagen volume fraction (CVF) after CRT performance, indicating a histologic and cellular reverse remodeling elicited by CRT. In this report, we described a feasible and valid method to develop a chronic asynchronous HF model, which was suitable for studying structural and biologic reverse remodeling following CRT.

  9. The Effect of Private Benefits of Control on Minority Shareholders: A Theoretical Model and Empirical Evidence from State Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of private benefits of control on minority shareholders. Design/methodology/approach: A theoretical model is established. The empirical analysis includes hand-collected data from a wide range of data sources. OLS and 2SLS regression analysis are applied with Huber-White standard errors. Findings: The theoretical model shows that, while private benefits are generally harmful to minority shareholders, the overall effect depends on the size of large shareholder ownership. The empirical evidence from government ownership is consistent with theoretical analysis. Research limitations/implications: The empirical evidence is based on a small number of hand-collected data sets of government ownership. Further studies can be expanded to other types of ownership, such as family ownership and financial institutional ownership. Originality/value: This study is the first to theoretically analyse and empirically test the effect of private benefits. In general, this study significantly contributes to the understanding of the effect of large shareholder and corporate governance.

  10. Environmental cost benefit analysis for a coal-fired power plant. An application of dispersion modelling coupled with GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguz, M.; Balta, T.

    1998-01-01

    In this study, local air quality impacts of a proposed conventional coal-fired power at Icel region has been investigated using numerical dispersion modeling studies coupled with a GIS application. Within the impact area of the facility, Industrial Source Complex Short Term (ISCST2) dispersion model has been used to estimate ground level concentrations of air pollutants originating from the power plant. For the same impact area, GIS applications have been utilized to determine the agricultural yield distribution. For this purpose, relevant satellite images were digitized, classified and statistically analyzed. Based on the predicted ground level pollutant concentrations and sensitivity of the agricultural crops to those, agricultural yield loss was estimated for the impact area. The results have been quantified and validated in monetary terms for the purpose of performing an environmental cost benefit analysis. Comparison of the conventional cost benefit analysis with the environmental cost benefit analysis showed the significance of the external cost of the proposed facility, resulting from the environmental damages. 6 refs

  11. 78 FR 46177 - Third-Party Provision of Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial Reporting for New Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ...-Party Provision of Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial Reporting for New Electric Storage... Financial Reporting for New Electric Storage Technologies, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, FERC Stats. & Regs... Commission 18 CFR Parts 35 and 101 Third-Party Provision of Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial...

  12. 29 CFR 2550.408b-6 - Statutory exemption for ancillary services by a bank or similar financial institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....408b-6 Statutory exemption for ancillary services by a bank or similar financial institution. (a) In... service is consistent with sound banking and financial practice, as determined by Federal or State... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Statutory exemption for ancillary services by a bank or...

  13. Analysis of the Impact of Wind Power Participating in Both Energy and Ancillary Services Markets – The Danish Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Morais, Hugo; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    strategies that wind farms employ on ene rgy and ancillary service market. A lready proposed Proportional Wind Reserve Strategy (PWRS) and a Continuo us Wind Reserve Strategy (CWRS) are used to determine the amount of available power for ancillary services. A case study based on real and recent dat...

  14. Assessing the benefit of 3D a priori models for earthquake location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmann, F. J.; Manzanares, A.; Peters, K.; Kahle, R. L.; Lange, D.; Saul, J.; Nooshiri, N.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquake location in 1D Earth models is a routine procedure. Particularly in environments such as subduction zones where the network geometry is biased and lateral velocity variations are large, the use of a 1D model can lead to strongly biased solutions. This is well-known and it is therefore usually preferred to use three-dimensional models, e.g. from local earthquake tomography. Efficient codes for earthquake location in 3D models are available for routine use, for example NonLinLoc. However, tomographic studies are time-consuming to carry out, and a sufficient number of data might not always be available. However, in many cases, information about the three-dimensional velocity structure is available in the form of refraction surveys or other constraints such as gravity or receiver functions based models. Failing that, global or regional scale crustal models could be employed. However, it is not obvious that models derived using different types of data lead to better location results than an optimised 1D velocity model. On the other hand, correct interpretation of seismicity patterns often requires comparison and exaxt positioning in pre-existing velocity models. In this presentation we draw on examples from the Chilean and Sumatran margins as well as a mid-ocean ridge environments, using both data and synthetic examples to investigate under what conditions the use of a priori 3D models is expected to result in improved location results and modifies interpretation. Furthermore, we introduce MATLAB tools that facilitate the creation of three-dimensional models suitable for earthquake location from refraction profiles, CRUST1 and SLAB1.0 and other model types.

  15. How good is the Prevent model for estimating the health benefits of prevention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Prevent is a public health model for estimating the effect on mortality of changes in exposure to risk factors. When the model is tested by simulating a development that has already taken place, the results may differ considerably from the actual situation. The purpose of this study is to test...... the Prevent model by applying it to a synthetic cohort in which the development is unaffected by concealed factors....

  16. Screening Men at Increased Risk for Prostate Cancer Diagnosis: Model Estimates of Benefits and Harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Roman; Cheng, Heather H; Lange, Paul H; Nelson, Peter S; Etzioni, Ruth

    2017-02-01

    Guidelines for PSA screening in subgroups with increased risk of prostate cancer diagnosis due to race or genotype are underdeveloped. Our goal was to investigate types of increased prostate cancer risk and implications for targeted screening. We investigated computer simulation of subgroups with average and hypothetical increased risk(s) of onset of latent disease, progression, and/or cancer-specific death. For each subgroup, we predicted lifetime probabilities of overdiagnosis and life saved under more and less intensive PSA screening strategies. An application estimated risks of onset among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers in the Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and controls (IMPACT) study using maximum likelihood. Our simulations implied PSA screening can save more lives among subgroups with increased risk than with average risk, but more intensive screening did not always improve harm-benefit trade-offs. IMPACT data were consistent with increased risks of onset among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers [HR = 1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.63-1.59 and HR = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.14-2.78, respectively]. Our analysis suggests screening BRCA2 mutation carriers earlier and more frequently than the average-risk population, but a lower PSA threshold for biopsy is unlikely to improve outcomes. Effective screening in men with increased prostate cancer risk depends on the manner in which the risk is increased. More intensive screening is not always optimal. Guidelines for screening men at increased prostate cancer risk should consider the mechanism inducing the increased risk. Although the benefit of screening may be greater in men with increased risks, more intensive screening is not always appropriate. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(2); 222-7. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. An integrated modeling approach for estimating the water quality benefits of conservation practices at the river basin scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhi, C; Kannan, N; White, M; Di Luzio, M; Arnold, J G; Wang, X; Williams, J R

    2014-01-01

    The USDA initiated the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) to quantify the environmental benefits of conservation practices at regional and national scales. For this assessment, a sampling and modeling approach is used. This paper provides a technical overview of the modeling approach used in CEAP cropland assessment to estimate the off-site water quality benefits of conservation practices using the Ohio River Basin (ORB) as an example. The modeling approach uses a farm-scale model, Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX), and a watershed scale model (the Soil and Water Assessment Tool [SWAT]) and databases in the Hydrologic Unit Modeling for the United States system. Databases of land use, soils, land use management, topography, weather, point sources, and atmospheric depositions were developed to derive model inputs. APEX simulates the cultivated cropland, Conserve Reserve Program land, and the practices implemented on them, whereas SWAT simulates the noncultivated land (e.g., pasture, range, urban, and forest) and point sources. Simulation results from APEX are input into SWAT. SWAT routes all sources, including APEX's, to the basin outlet through each eight-digit watershed. Each basin is calibrated for stream flow, sediment, and nutrient loads at multiple gaging sites and turned in for simulating the effects of conservation practice scenarios on water quality. Results indicate that sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus loads delivered to the Mississippi River from ORB could be reduced by 16, 15, and 23%, respectively, due to current conservation practices. Modeling tools are useful to provide science-based information for assessing existing conservation programs, developing future programs, and developing insights on load reductions necessary for hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  18. How good is the Prevent model for estimating the health benefits of prevention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Prevent is a public health model for estimating the effect on mortality of changes in exposure to risk factors. When the model is tested by simulating a development that has already taken place, the results may differ considerably from the actual situation. The purpose of this study is to test...

  19. Comparison of statistical and theoretical habitat models for conservation planning: the benefit of ensemble prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Todd Jones-Farrand; Todd M. Fearer; Wayne E. Thogmartin; Frank R. Thompson; Mark D. Nelson; John M. Tirpak

    2011-01-01

    Selection of a modeling approach is an important step in the conservation planning process, but little guidance is available. We compared two statistical and three theoretical habitat modeling approaches representing those currently being used for avian conservation planning at landscape and regional scales: hierarchical spatial count (HSC), classification and...

  20. Mixed integer non-linear programming and Artificial Neural Network based approach to ancillary services dispatch in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canizes, Bruno; Soares, João; Faria, Pedro; Vale, Zita

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Ancillary services market management. • Ancillary services requirements forecast based on Artificial Neural Network. • Ancillary services clearing mechanisms without complex bids and with complex bids. - Abstract: Ancillary services represent a good business opportunity that must be considered by market players. This paper presents a new methodology for ancillary services market dispatch. The method considers the bids submitted to the market and includes a market clearing mechanism based on deterministic optimization. An Artificial Neural Network is used for day-ahead prediction of Regulation Down, regulation-up, Spin Reserve and Non-Spin Reserve requirements. Two test cases based on California Independent System Operator data concerning dispatch of Regulation Down, Regulation Up, Spin Reserve and Non-Spin Reserve services are included in this paper to illustrate the application of the proposed method: (1) dispatch considering simple bids; (2) dispatch considering complex bids

  1. Modelling the benefits of flood emergency management measures in reducing damages: a case study on Sondrio, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Molinari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The European "Floods Directive" 2007/60/EU has produced an important shift from a traditional approach to flood risk management centred only on hazard analysis and forecast to a newer one which encompasses other aspects relevant to decision-making and which reflect recent research advances in both hydraulic engineering and social studies on disaster risk. This paper accordingly proposes a way of modelling the benefits of flood emergency management interventions calculating the possible damages by taking into account exposure, vulnerability, and expected damage reduction. The results of this model can be used to inform decisions and choices for the implementation of flood emergency management measures. A central role is played by expected damages, which are the direct and indirect consequence of the occurrence of floods in exposed and vulnerable urban systems. How damages should be defined and measured is a key question that this paper tries to address. The Floods Directive suggests that mitigation measures taken to reduce flood impact need to be evaluated also by means of a cost–benefit analysis. The paper presents a methodology for assessing the effectiveness of early warning for flash floods, considering its potential impact in reducing direct physical damage, and it assesses the general benefit in regard to other types of damages and losses compared with the emergency management costs. The methodology is applied to the case study area of the city of Sondrio in the northern Alpine region of Italy. A critical discussion follows the application. Its purpose is to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of available models for quantifying direct physical damage and of the general model proposed, given the current state of the art in damage and loss assessment.

  2. Benefits and Limitations of Entry-Level 3-Dimensional Printing of Maxillofacial Skeletal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legocki, Alex T; Duffy-Peter, Andrew; Scott, Andrew R

    2017-04-01

    A protocol for creating exceptionally low-cost 3-dimensional (3-D) maxillofacial skeletal models does not require proficiency with computer software or intensive labor. Small and less affluent centers can produce models with little loss in accuracy and clinical utility. To highlight the feasibility and methods of introducing in-house, entry-level additive manufacturing (3-D printing) technology to otolaryngologic craniofacial reconstruction and to describe its clinical applications and limitations, including a comparison with available vendor models. This case series of 6 models (3 pairs) compared cost, side-by-side anatomical model fidelity, and clinical versatility using entry-level, in-house 3-D pediatric mandible model production vs high-end, third-party vendor modeling, including a review of the literature. Comparisons were made at an urban pediatric otolaryngology practice among patients who had previously undergone pediatric craniofacial reconstruction with use of a commercially produced medical model for surgical planning. Each vendor model had been produced using computed tomographic imaging data. With the use of this same data source, in-house models were printed in polylactic acid using a commercially available printer. Data were collected from November 1 to December 30, 2015. Models created from these 2 methods of production were assessed for fidelity of surface anatomy, resilience to manipulation and plate bending, cost of production, speed of production, sterilizability, virtual surgical planning options, and alveolar nerve canal and tooth root visibility in mandibles. For the quantitative comparisons between in-house models (1 neonatal, 1 pediatric, and 1 adult model) and their commercial counterparts, the mean value of 7 independent measurements was analyzed from each of 3 model pairs. Caliper measurements from models produced through entry-level, in-house manufacturing were comparable to those taken from commercially produced counterparts

  3. 17 CFR 240.3b-15 - Definition of ancillary portfolio management securities activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of ancillary portfolio management securities activities. 240.3b-15 Section 240.3b-15 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Rules and Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Definitions § 240.3b-15 Definition of...

  4. Regulatory issues associated with closure of the Hanford AX Tank Farm ancillary equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Liquid mixed, high-level radioactive waste has been stored in underground single-shell tanks at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. After retrieval of the waste from the single-shell tanks, the DOE will proceed with closure of the tank farm. The 241-AX Tank Farm includes four one-million gallon single-shell tanks in addition to sluice lines, transfer lines, ventilation headers, risers, pits, cribs, catch tanks, buildings, well and associated buried piping. This equipment is classified as ancillary equipment. This document addresses the requirements for regulatory close of the ancillary equipment in the Hanford Site 241-AX Tank Farm. The options identified for physical closure of the ancillary equipment include disposal in place, disposal in place after treatment, excavation and disposal on site in an empty single-shell tank, and excavation and disposal outside the AX Tank Farm. The document addresses the background of the Hanford Site and ancillary equipment in the AX Tank Farm, regulations for decontamination and decommissioning of radioactively contaminated equipment, requirements for the cleanup and disposal of radioactive wastes, cleanup and disposal requirements governing hazardous and mixed waste, and regulatory requirements and issues associated with each of the four physical closure options. This investigation was conducted by the Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, during Fiscal Year 1998 for the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project

  5. Technical Feasibility of Ancillary Services provided by ReGen Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit; Han, Xue; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    This report is the first deliverable in WP1 in the project “Ancillary services from renewable power plants” (RePlan). RePlan is funded as PSO project 2015 no. 12347 by the Danish PSO-programme ForskEL, which is administered by Energinet.DK. RePlan is carried out in collaboration between DTU Wind ...

  6. Optimal Sizing and Allocation of Residential Photovoltaic Panels in a Distribution Network for Ancillary Services Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kordheili, Reza Ahmadi; Pourmousavi, Ali; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2014-01-01

    requirements, such as voltage and current limits. This paper proposes an optimization method for determining the number of photovoltaic (PV) panels together with their arrangement in the grid in order to maximize ancillary service, without violating grid operation limits. The proposed optimization method...

  7. Ethics of Ancillary Care in Clinical Trials in Low Income Countries: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These limits should be negotiated to ensure that the research remains feasible and economically viable. (Afr J Reprod Health 2014; 18[3]: 135-142). Keywords: Ancillary care; ethics, HIV prevention, undue inducement. La conduite éthique des chercheurs dans le domaine de la prévention du VIH est soumise au contrôle.

  8. Ancillary obligations as an additional obligation of a limited liability company's member

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanski Vladimir Ž.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancillary obligation can be defined as an obligation of a limited liability company's member undertaken through the instrument of incorporation, which can take the form of monetary or non-monetary obligation (usually it is an obligation of a non-monetary character, which has a certain financial value and can be the object of a legally valid obligation. Ancillary obligations, as a contribution to activities of the company, are not regulated in the Law on Companies. The legal nature of this obligation is different from the obligation to make a contribution in money or in kind to a company's assets, to make additional pay-ins or from the landing of funds to the company. Ancillary obligation is an optional and additional obligation of a limited liability company's member and the obligation itself and its contents is defined in the instrument of incorporation. When a limited liability company's member undertakes an ancillary obligation this creates a distinctive relationship between the member and the company, concerning their respective obligations and the legal status of the company, as well as certain consequences derived from those obligations.

  9. Ancillary services: technical specifications, system needs and costs. Deliverable D 2.2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holttinen, Hannele; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Gubina, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    In this report, different ancillary services are described and a table listing main services is presented. While Chapter 2 is describing the services from (renewable) generators point of view, Chapter 3 is considering future system needs for services with increased wind and solar penetration...

  10. The Applicability and Benefits of a Community Mental Health Outreach Model for Campus Ombudsman Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, A. Clare Buie; Hurst, James C.

    1980-01-01

    The application of a community mental health outreach model defines an expanded campus ombudsman role, designed to increase effectiveness and efficiency in meeting the diverse needs of the university community. (Author)

  11. Investigating the Impact of Climate Change on Hydroelectric Generation and Ancillary Services in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, K.; Tarroja, B.; AghaKouchak, A.; Chiang, F.; Samuelsen, S.

    2017-12-01

    Spatial and temporal shifts in hydrological regimes predicted under climate change conditions have implications for the management of reservoirs and hydropower contributions to generation and ancillary services. California relies on large hydropower plants to provide flexible electricity generation, which will be increasingly important for supporting renewable resources. This study examines the impact of climate change on large hydropower generation in California. Four climate models for Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5 are utilized to evaluate the impact of the climate change conditions on (1) the magnitude and profile of hydropower generation and (2) the ability of hydropower to provide spinning reserve. Under both RCP scenarios, impacts are regionally dependent, with precipitation projected to increase in northern California and decrease in southern California for the ten-year period investigated (2046-2055). The overall result is a net increase in inflow into large hydropower units as a majority of the hydropower plants studied are located in the northern part of the state. Increased inflow is primarily driven by increased runoff during the winter and does not necessarily result in increased generation, as extreme events yield greater overall spillage, up to 45% of total inflow. Increased winter hydropower generation paired with increased reservoir constraints in summer result in an 11 to 18% decrease in spinning reserve potential across the year. Under high inflow conditions there is a decreased flexibility for choosing generation versus spinning reserve as water needs to be released, regardless. During summer, hydropower units providing spinning reserve experienced decreased inflow and lower reservoir levels compared to the historical baseline, resulting in decreased spinning reserve bidding potential. Decreased bidding, especially during summer periods at peak electricity demand, can result in greater demand for other dispatchable

  12. Cardiometabolic benefits of exercise training in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome and menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Iris Callado; de Oliveira Brito, Janaina; Candido, Geórgia Orsi; da Silva Dias, Danielle; Jorge, Luciana; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; De Angelis, Kátia

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cardiometabolic effects of exercise training in ovariectomized hypertensive rats both submitted and not submitted to fructose overload. Spontaneously hypertensive ovariectomized rats were divided into sedentary and trained (THO) groups submitted to normal chow and sedentary and trained groups submitted to fructose overload (100 g/L in drinking water for 19 wk). Exercise training was performed on a treadmill (8 wk). Arterial pressure (AP) was directly recorded. Cardiovascular autonomic control was evaluated through pharmacological blockade (atropine and propranolol) and in the time and frequency domains by spectral analysis. The THO group presented reduced AP (approximately 16 mm Hg) and enhanced cardiac vagal tonus (approximately 49%) and baroreflex sensitivity (approximately 43%) compared with the sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized group. Exercise training attenuated metabolic impairment, resting tachycardia, cardiac and vascular sympathetic increases, and baroreflex sensitivity decrease induced by fructose overload in hypertensive rats. However, the trained hypertensive ovariectomized group submitted to fructose overload presented higher AP (approximately 32 mm Hg), associated with baroreflex sensitivity (approximately 69%) and parasympathetic dysfunctions compared with the THO group. These data suggest that the metabolic disorders in hypertensive rats after ovarian hormone deprivation could blunt and/or attenuate some exercise training benefits.

  13. A multi-model assessment of the co-benefits of climate mitigation for global air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shilpa; Klimont, Zbigniew; Leitao, Joana; Riahi, Keywan; van Dingenen, Rita; Aleluia Reis, Lara; Calvin, Katherine; Dentener, Frank; Drouet, Laurent; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Harmsen, Mathijs; Luderer, Gunnar; Heyes, Chris; Strefler, Jessica; Tavoni, Massimo; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2016-12-01

    We present a model comparison study that combines multiple integrated assessment models with a reduced-form global air quality model to assess the potential co-benefits of global climate mitigation policies in relation to the World Health Organization (WHO) goals on air quality and health. We include in our assessment, a range of alternative assumptions on the implementation of current and planned pollution control policies. The resulting air pollution emission ranges significantly extend those in the Representative Concentration Pathways. Climate mitigation policies complement current efforts on air pollution control through technology and fuel transformations in the energy system. A combination of stringent policies on air pollution control and climate change mitigation results in 40% of the global population exposed to PM levels below the WHO air quality guideline; with the largest improvements estimated for India, China, and Middle East. Our results stress the importance of integrated multisector policy approaches to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.

  14. Modeling of GE Appliances: Cost Benefit Study of Smart Appliances in Wholesale Energy, Frequency Regulation, and Spinning Reserve Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-12-31

    This report is the second in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE’s DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report described the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The third report will explore the technical capability of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation. In this report, a series of analytical methods were presented to estimate the potential cost benefit of smart appliances while utilizing demand response. Previous work estimated the potential technical benefit (i.e., peak reduction) of smart appliances, while this report focuses on the monetary value of that participation. The effects on wholesale energy cost and possible additional revenue available by participating in frequency regulation and spinning reserve markets were explored.

  15. Choosing where to work at work - towards a theoretical model of benefits and risks of activity-based flexible offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlers, Christina; Hertel, Guido

    2017-04-01

    Although there is a trend in today's organisations to implement activity-based flexible offices (A-FOs), only a few studies examine consequences of this new office type. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms why A-FOs might lead to different consequences as compared to cellular and open-plan offices are still unclear. This paper introduces a theoretical framework explaining benefits and risks of A-FOs based on theories from work and organisational psychology. After deriving working conditions specific for A-FOs (territoriality, autonomy, privacy, proximity and visibility), differences in working conditions between A-FOs and alternative office types are proposed. Further, we suggest how these differences in working conditions might affect work-related consequences such as well-being, satisfaction, motivation and performance on the individual, the team and the organisational level. Finally, we consider task-related (e.g. task variety), person-related (e.g. personality) and organisational (e.g. leadership) moderators. Based on this model, future research directions as well as practical implications are discussed. Practitioner Summary: Activity-based flexible offices (A-FOs) are popular in today's organisations. This article presents a theoretical model explaining why and when working in an A-FO evokes benefits and risks for individuals, teams and organisations. According to the model, A-FOs are beneficial when management encourages employees to use the environment appropriately and supports teams.

  16. Estimating Benefits of Past, Current, and Future Reductions in Smoking Rates Using a Comprehensive Model With Competing Causes of Death

    OpenAIRE

    van Meijgaard, Jeroen; Fielding, Jonathan E.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Despite years of declining smoking prevalence, tobacco use is still the leading preventable contributor to illness and death in the United States, and the effect of past tobacco-use control efforts has not fully translated into improvements in health outcomes. The objective of this study was to use a life course model with multiple competing causes of death to elucidate the ongoing benefits of tobacco-use control efforts on US death rates. Methods We used a continuous-time life c...

  17. The Combined Use of Correlative and Mechanistic Species Distribution Models Benefits Low Conservation Status Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaud Rougier

    Full Text Available Species can respond to climate change by tracking appropriate environmental conditions in space, resulting in a range shift. Species Distribution Models (SDMs can help forecast such range shift responses. For few species, both correlative and mechanistic SDMs were built, but allis shad (Alosa alosa, an endangered anadromous fish species, is one of them. The main purpose of this study was to provide a framework for joint analyses of correlative and mechanistic SDMs projections in order to strengthen conservation measures for species of conservation concern. Guidelines for joint representation and subsequent interpretation of models outputs were defined and applied. The present joint analysis was based on the novel mechanistic model GR3D (Global Repositioning Dynamics of Diadromous fish Distribution which was parameterized on allis shad and then used to predict its future distribution along the European Atlantic coast under different climate change scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. We then used a correlative SDM for this species to forecast its distribution across the same geographic area and under the same climate change scenarios. First, projections from correlative and mechanistic models provided congruent trends in probability of habitat suitability and population dynamics. This agreement was preferentially interpreted as referring to the species vulnerability to climate change. Climate change could not be accordingly listed as a major threat for allis shad. The congruence in predicted range limits between SDMs projections was the next point of interest. The difference, when noticed, required to deepen our understanding of the niche modelled by each approach. In this respect, the relative position of the northern range limit between the two methods strongly suggested here that a key biological process related to intraspecific variability was potentially lacking in the mechanistic SDM. Based on our knowledge, we hypothesized that local

  18. Rapid genetic algorithm optimization of a mouse computational model: Benefits for anthropomorphization of neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Teodora Bot

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available While the mouse presents an invaluable experimental model organism in biology, its usefulness in cardiac arrhythmia research is limited in some aspects due to major electrophysiological differences between murine and human action potentials (APs. As previously described, these species-specific traits can be partly overcome by application of a cell-type transforming clamp (CTC to anthropomorphize the murine cardiac AP. CTC is a hybrid experimental-computational dynamic clamp technique, in which a computationally calculated time-dependent current is inserted into a cell in real time, to compensate for the differences between sarcolemmal currents of that cell (e.g., murine and the desired species (e.g., human. For effective CTC performance, mismatch between the measured cell and a mathematical model used to mimic the measured AP must be minimal. We have developed a genetic algorithm (GA approach that rapidly tunes a mathematical model to reproduce the AP of the murine cardiac myocyte under study. Compared to a prior implementation that used a template-based model selection approach, we show that GA optimization to a cell-specific model results in a much better recapitulation of the desired AP morphology with CTC. This improvement was more pronounced when anthropomorphizing neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes to human-like APs than to guinea pig APs. CTC may be useful for a wide range of applications, from screening effects of pharmaceutical compounds on ion channel activity, to exploring variations in the mouse or human genome. Rapid GA optimization of a cell-specific mathematical model improves CTC performance and may therefore expand the applicability and usage of the CTC technique.

  19. Distributional benefits of tobacco tax and smoke-free workplaces in China: A modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verguet, Stéphane; Tarr, Gillian; Gauvreau, Cindy L; Mishra, Sujata; Jha, Prabhat; Liu, Lingrui; Xiao, Yue; Qiu, Yingpeng; Zhao, Kun

    2017-12-01

    Tobacco taxation and smoke-free workplaces reduce smoking, tobacco-related premature deaths and associated out-of-pocket health care expenditures. We examine the distributional consequences of a price increase in tobacco products through an excise tax hike, and of an implementation of smoke-free workplaces, in China. We use extended cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) to evaluate, across income quintiles of the male population (the large majority of Chinese smokers), the premature deaths averted, the change in tax revenues generated, and the financial risk protection procured (eg, poverty cases averted, defined as the number of individuals no longer facing tobacco-related out-of-pocket expenditures for disease treatment, that would otherwise impoverish them), that would follow a 75% increase in cigarette prices through substantial increments in excise tax fully passed onto consumers, and a nationwide total implementation of workplace smoking bans. A 75% increase in cigarette prices would avert about 24 million premature deaths among the current Chinese male population, with a third among the bottom income quintile, increase additional tax revenues by US$ 46 billion annually, and prevent around 9 million poverty cases, 19% of which among the bottom income quintile. Implementation of smoking bans in workplaces would avert about 12 million premature deaths, with a fifth among the bottom income quintile, decrease tax revenues by US$ 7 billion annually, and prevent around 4 million poverty cases, 12% of which among the bottom income quintile. Increased excise taxes on tobacco products and workplace smoking bans can procure large health and economic benefits to the Chinese population, especially among the poor.

  20. Economic Benefits of Predictive Models for Pest Control in Agricultural Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various forms of crop models or decision making tools for managing crops have existed for many years. The potential advantage of all of these decision making tools is that more informed and economically improved crop management or decision making is accomplished. However, examination of some of thes...

  1. Integrating Content and Language in English Language Teaching in Secondary Education: Models, Benefits, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banegas, Darío Luis

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, there has been a major interest in content-based instruction (CBI) and content and language integrated learning (CLIL). These are similar approaches which integrate content and foreign/second language learning through various methodologies and models as a result of different implementations around the world. In this paper, I…

  2. Work-Life Benefits and Organizational Attachment: Self-Interest Utility and Signaling Theory Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Wendy J.; Harris, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines two competing theoretical explanations for why work-life policies such as dependent care assistance and flexible schedules influence organizational attachment. The self-interest utility model posits that work-life policies influence organizational attachment because employee use of these policies facilitates attachment. The…

  3. Exploring the Benefits of Teacher-Modeling Strategies Integrated into Career and Technical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathers, Thomas J., Sr.

    2013-01-01

    This case study examined how career and technical education classes function using multiple instructional modeling strategies integrated into vocational and technical training environments. Seven New Jersey public school technical teachers received an introductory overview of the investigation and participated by responding to 10 open-end…

  4. Benefits and applications of laser-induced sparks in real scale model measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez-Bolaños, Javier; Delikaris-Manias, Symeon; Pulkki, Ville Topias

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of using a laser-induced spark as a monopole source in scale model measurements were assessed by comparison with an electric spark and a miniature spherical loudspeaker. Room impulse responses of first order directivity sources were synthesized off-line using six spatially dis...

  5. Risk/benefits of fast breeder reactors societal risks and accident modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, F.R.

    1979-01-01

    A special feature of the Fast Breeder Reactor is the possibility of fuel vaporisation, hence accidents may have more severe consequences than thermal reactors. This article discusses the process of accident modelling, the identification and assessment of risk, not yet incurred. 10 refs

  6. Impact of Transport Zone Number in Simulation Models on Cost-Benefit Analysis Results in Transport Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Jacek

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, feasibility studies need to be prepared for all planned transport investments, mainly those co-financed with UE grants. One of the fundamental aspect of feasibility study is the economic justification of an investment, evaluated in an area of so called cost-benefit analysis (CBA). The main goal of CBA calculation is to prove that a transport investment is really important for the society and should be implemented as economically efficient one. It can be said that the number of hours (PH - passengers hours) in trips and travelled kilometres (PK - passengers kilometres) are the most important for CBA results. The differences between PH and PK calculated for particular investment scenarios are the base for benefits calculation. Typically, transport simulation models are the best source for such data. Transport simulation models are one of the most powerful tools for transport network planning. They make it possible to evaluate forecast traffic volume and passenger flows in a public transport system for defined scenarios of transport and area development. There are many different transport models. Their construction is often similar, and they mainly differ in the level of their accuracy. Even models for the same area may differ in this matter. Typically, such differences come from the accuracy of supply side representation: road and public transport network representation. In many cases only main roads and a public transport network are represented, while local and service roads are eliminated as a way of reality simplification. This also enables a faster and more effective calculation process. On the other hand, the description of demand part of these models based on transport zones is often stable. Difficulties with data collection, mainly data on land use, resulted in the lack of changes in the analysed land division into so called transport zones. In this paper the author presents an influence of land division on the results of traffic analyses, and hence

  7. Socioeconomic benefits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    perception on the benefits of shade trees in coffee production systems in southwestern ..... Table 4. Other socioeconomic benefits of coffee shade tree species alluded by the respondents, Southwestern Ethiopia. Mentioned benefits. Responses (%). Yes. No. Firewood ... (fast growth, longevity, possession of thin and small ...

  8. Estimating the fitness cost and benefit of cefixime resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae to inform prescription policy: A modelling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilith K Whittles

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Gonorrhoea is one of the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections in England. Over 41,000 cases were recorded in 2015, more than half of which occurred in men who have sex with men (MSM. As the bacterium has developed resistance to each first-line antibiotic in turn, we need an improved understanding of fitness benefits and costs of antibiotic resistance to inform control policy and planning. Cefixime was recommended as a single-dose treatment for gonorrhoea from 2005 to 2010, during which time resistance increased, and subsequently declined.We developed a stochastic compartmental model representing the natural history and transmission of cefixime-sensitive and cefixime-resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in MSM in England, which was applied to data on diagnoses and prescriptions between 2008 and 2015. We estimated that asymptomatic carriers play a crucial role in overall transmission dynamics, with 37% (95% credible interval CrI 24%-52% of infections remaining asymptomatic and untreated, accounting for 89% (95% CrI 82%-93% of onward transmission. The fitness cost of cefixime resistance in the absence of cefixime usage was estimated to be such that the number of secondary infections caused by resistant strains is only about half as much as for the susceptible strains, which is insufficient to maintain persistence. However, we estimated that treatment of cefixime-resistant strains with cefixime was unsuccessful in 83% (95% CrI 53%-99% of cases, representing a fitness benefit of resistance. This benefit was large enough to counterbalance the fitness cost when 31% (95% CrI 26%-36% of cases were treated with cefixime, and when more than 55% (95% CrI 44%-66% of cases were treated with cefixime, the resistant strain had a net fitness advantage over the susceptible strain. Limitations include sparse data leading to large intervals on key model parameters and necessary assumptions in the modelling of a complex epidemiological process

  9. Calculation of Oyster Benefits with a Bioenergetics Model of the Virginia Oyster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    than 105 m3 of runoff enters the system from the watershed . During the same interval, 8.4 x 106 m3 of water is exchanged with Chesapeake Bay through...the Chesapeake Bay Program Watershed Model (WSM, Shenk and Linker 2013). Since the WSM applica- tion period did not correspond to the study interval...Virginia oysters in Chesapeake Bay (Cerco and Noel 2005). The description and parameterization provided here are specific to Virginia oysters, but the

  10. Influence of rainfall spatial variability on rainfall-runoff modelling: Benefit of a simulation approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, I.; Andrieu, H.; Leblois, E.; Janey, N.; Payrastre, O.

    2015-12-01

    No consensus has yet been reached regarding the influence of rainfall spatial variability on runoff modelling at catchment outlets. To eliminate modelling and measurement errors, in addition to controlling rainfall variability and both the characteristics and hydrological behaviour of catchments, we propose to proceed by simulation. We have developed a simulation chain that combines a stream network model, a rainfall simulator and a distributed hydrological model (with four production functions and a distributed transfer function). Our objective here is to use this simulation chain as a simplified test bed in order to better understand the impact of the spatial variability of rainfall forcing. We applied the chain to contrasted situations involving catchments ranging from a few tens to several hundreds of square km2, thus corresponding to urban and peri-urban catchments for which surface runoff constitutes the dominant process. The results obtained confirm that the proposed simulation approach is helpful to better understand the influence of rainfall spatial variability on the catchment response. We have shown that significant dispersion exists not only between the various simulation scenarios (defined by a rainfall configuration and a catchment configuration), but also within each simulation scenario. These results show that the organisation of rainfall during the study event over the study catchment plays an important role, leading us to examine rainfall variability indexes capable of summarising the influence of rainfall spatial organisation on the catchment response. Thanks to the simulation chain, we have tested the variability indexes of Zoccatelli et al. (2010) and improved them by proposing two other indexes.

  11. The benefit of non contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography for predicting vascular access surgery outcome: a computer model perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkx, Maarten A G; Huberts, Wouter; Bosboom, E Mariëlle H; Bode, Aron S; Bescós, Javier Oliván; Tordoir, Jan H M; Breeuwer, Marcel; van de Vosse, Frans N

    2013-01-01

    Vascular access (VA) surgery, a prerequisite for hemodialysis treatment of end-stage renal-disease (ESRD) patients, is hampered by complication rates, which are frequently related to flow enhancement. To assist in VA surgery planning, a patient-specific computer model for postoperative flow enhancement was developed. The purpose of this study is to assess the benefit of non contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (NCE-MRA) data as patient-specific geometrical input for the model-based prediction of surgery outcome. 25 ESRD patients were included in this study. All patients received a NCE-MRA examination of the upper extremity blood vessels in addition to routine ultrasound (US). Local arterial radii were assessed from NCE-MRA and converted to model input using a linear fit per artery. Venous radii were determined with US. The effect of radius measurement uncertainty on model predictions was accounted for by performing Monte-Carlo simulations. The resulting flow prediction interval of the computer model was compared with the postoperative flow obtained from US. Patients with no overlap between model-based prediction and postoperative measurement were further analyzed to determine whether an increase in geometrical detail improved computer model prediction. Overlap between postoperative flows and model-based predictions was obtained for 71% of patients. Detailed inspection of non-overlapping cases revealed that the geometrical details that could be assessed from NCE-MRA explained most of the differences, and moreover, upon addition of these details in the computer model the flow predictions improved. The results demonstrate clearly that NCE-MRA does provide valuable geometrical information for VA surgery planning. Therefore, it is recommended to use this modality, at least for patients at risk for local or global narrowing of the blood vessels as well as for patients for whom an US-based model prediction would not overlap with surgical choice, as the

  12. The benefit of non contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography for predicting vascular access surgery outcome: a computer model perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten A G Merkx

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Vascular access (VA surgery, a prerequisite for hemodialysis treatment of end-stage renal-disease (ESRD patients, is hampered by complication rates, which are frequently related to flow enhancement. To assist in VA surgery planning, a patient-specific computer model for postoperative flow enhancement was developed. The purpose of this study is to assess the benefit of non contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (NCE-MRA data as patient-specific geometrical input for the model-based prediction of surgery outcome. METHODS: 25 ESRD patients were included in this study. All patients received a NCE-MRA examination of the upper extremity blood vessels in addition to routine ultrasound (US. Local arterial radii were assessed from NCE-MRA and converted to model input using a linear fit per artery. Venous radii were determined with US. The effect of radius measurement uncertainty on model predictions was accounted for by performing Monte-Carlo simulations. The resulting flow prediction interval of the computer model was compared with the postoperative flow obtained from US. Patients with no overlap between model-based prediction and postoperative measurement were further analyzed to determine whether an increase in geometrical detail improved computer model prediction. RESULTS: Overlap between postoperative flows and model-based predictions was obtained for 71% of patients. Detailed inspection of non-overlapping cases revealed that the geometrical details that could be assessed from NCE-MRA explained most of the differences, and moreover, upon addition of these details in the computer model the flow predictions improved. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate clearly that NCE-MRA does provide valuable geometrical information for VA surgery planning. Therefore, it is recommended to use this modality, at least for patients at risk for local or global narrowing of the blood vessels as well as for patients for whom an US-based model

  13. Feasibility and benefits of the ewe as a model for vaginal surgery training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerbage, Yohan; Giraudet, Géraldine; Rubod, Chrystèle; Garabedian, Charles; Rivaux, Géraldine; Cosson, Michel

    2017-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate the ewe as an animal model for teaching and training in vaginal surgery. Twenty-nine postgraduate surgeons attended a training course on vaginal prolapse surgery. After a review of human and sheep anatomy, the participants performed transvaginal meshes, vaginal hysterectomy, SSLF (Richter), and OAS repair in ewes and human cadavers. Participants completed questionnaires on the whole course. Questionnaires showed the significant superiority of ewes over human cadavers for all items evaluated regarding surgical dissections. Only identification of the sacrospinous ligament and the spine were judged to be similar in ewes and human cadavers. Participants noticed that ewe model is appropriate for vaginal prolapse surgery training for resident and for postgraduate surgeons. Two vaginal hysterectomies were also performed. Operating time, surgery, and anatomy were nearly identical to that of humans. The same conclusions were made while performing sacrospinous ligament fixation (Richter) and obstetric anal sphincter injury repair. This series indicates that the ewe is a useful animal model for teaching vaginal surgery.

  14. A data-model integration approach toward improved understanding on wetland functions and hydrological benefits at the catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, I. Y.; Lang, M.; Lee, S.; Huang, C.; Jin, H.; McCarty, G.; Sadeghi, A.

    2017-12-01

    The wetland ecosystem plays crucial roles in improving hydrological function and ecological integrity for the downstream water and the surrounding landscape. However, changing behaviours and functioning of wetland ecosystems are poorly understood and extremely difficult to characterize. Improved understanding on hydrological behaviours of wetlands, considering their interaction with surrounding landscapes and impacts on downstream waters, is an essential first step toward closing the knowledge gap. We present an integrated wetland-catchment modelling study that capitalizes on recently developed inundation maps and other geospatial data. The aim of the data-model integration is to improve spatial prediction of wetland inundation and evaluate cumulative hydrological benefits at the catchment scale. In this paper, we highlight problems arising from data preparation, parameterization, and process representation in simulating wetlands within a distributed catchment model, and report the recent progress on mapping of wetland dynamics (i.e., inundation) using multiple remotely sensed data. We demonstrate the value of spatially explicit inundation information to develop site-specific wetland parameters and to evaluate model prediction at multi-spatial and temporal scales. This spatial data-model integrated framework is tested using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) with improved wetland extension, and applied for an agricultural watershed in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA. This study illustrates necessity of spatially distributed information and a data integrated modelling approach to predict inundation of wetlands and hydrologic function at the local landscape scale, where monitoring and conservation decision making take place.

  15. Impact of Market Behavior, Fleet Composition, and Ancillary Services on Revenue Sufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gallo, Giulia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clark, Kara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Revenue insufficiency, or the missing money problem, occurs when the revenues that generators earn from the market are not sufficient to cover both fixed and variable costs to remain in the market and/or justify investments in new capacity, which may be needed for reliability. The near-zero marginal cost of variable renewable generators further exacerbates these revenue challenges. Estimating the extent of the missing money problem in current electricity markets is an important, nontrivial task that requires representing both how the power system operates and how market participants behave. This paper explores the missing money problem using a production cost model that represented a simplified version of the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) energy-only market for the years 2012-2014. We evaluate how various market structures -- including market behavior, ancillary services, and changing fleet compositions -- affect net revenues in this ERCOT-like system. In most production cost modeling exercises, resources are assumed to offer their marginal capabilities at marginal costs. Although this assumption is reasonable for feasibility studies and long-term planning, it does not adequately consider the market behaviors that impact revenue sufficiency. In this work, we simulate a limited set of market participant strategic bidding behaviors by means of different sets of markups; these markups are applied to the true production costs of all gas generators, which are the most prominent generators in ERCOT. Results show that markups can help generators increase their net revenues overall, although net revenues may increase or decrease depending on the technology and the year under study. Results also confirm that conventional, variable-cost-based production cost simulations do not capture prices accurately, and this particular feature calls for proxies for strategic behaviors (e.g., markups) and more accurate representations of how electricity markets work. The

  16. The benefits of extended plate motion history in mantle circulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Peter; Davies, Huw; Davies, Rhodri; Hochard, Cyril; Stampfli, Gerard

    2010-05-01

    Mantle Circulation Models (MCMs) are mantle convection simulations conditioned with plate motion history. Due to difficulties in reconstructing plate motions beyond ≈ 120 Ma, MCMs often only incorporate the most recent 120 Myr of plate tectonic evolution. We find that such models are strongly influenced by initial conditions. The development of a new series of tectonic reconstructions extending back to the Triassic (230 Ma) and including careful reconstruction of the oceanic parts of the plates (modified from Stampfli and Borel, 2004, Stampfli et al. 2008 and references therein) should prove to be of huge importance to MCMs. In this study we present a comparison between the traditionally used 120 Myr and the latest 230 Myr plate motion histories. We use the three-dimensional spherical mantle convection code TERRA (Bunge et al., 2003) to simulate convection at Earth like vigour. Here we apply the plate motion history as a surface velocity boundary condition to drive the internal convection of an already well-mixed system. The forward models from a chosen starting point to present day yield information on mantle temperature (as well as pressure, velocity and material properties) throughout the volume. One of the ways to validate our results is to compare these with tomographic models. Seismic tomography provides us with a snapshot of Earth's mantle at present day. Assuming that the mantle is driven largely by thermal convection, we can assume that the seismically fast regions are associated with cooler, denser material. The most significant of these can be interpreted as remnants of subducted slabs (Hafkenscheid et al 2006, van der Meer et al. 2010). We convert the temperatures predicted by the MCM to seismic velocities using the latest techniques (e.g. Cobden et al., 2008) and compare the calculated velocities to a range of seismic tomography models (both P and S wave). This way we can examine the validity of the surface velocity boundary condition and identify

  17. The Application of Remotely Sensed Data and Models to Benefit Conservation and Restoration Along the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Thom, Ron; Woodruff, Dana; Judd, Chaeli; Ellis, Jean; Swann, Roberta; Johnson, Hoyt, III

    2010-01-01

    New data, tools, and capabilities for decision making are significant needs in the northern Gulf of Mexico and other coastal areas. The goal of this project is to support NASA s Earth Science Mission Directorate and its Applied Science Program and the Gulf of Mexico Alliance by producing and providing NASA data and products that will benefit decision making by coastal resource managers and other end users in the Gulf region. Data and research products are being developed to assist coastal resource managers adapt and plan for changing conditions by evaluating how climate changes and urban expansion will impact land cover/land use (LCLU), hydrodynamics, water properties, and shallow water habitats; to identify priority areas for conservation and restoration; and to distribute datasets to end-users and facilitating user interaction with models. The proposed host sites for data products are NOAA s National Coastal Data Development Center Regional Ecosystem Data Management, and Mississippi-Alabama Habitat Database. Tools will be available on the Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative website with links to data portals to enable end users to employ models and datasets to develop and evaluate LCLU and climate scenarios of particular interest. These data will benefit the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program in ongoing efforts to protect and restore the Fish River watershed and around Weeks Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. The usefulness of data products and tools will be demonstrated at an end-user workshop.

  18. The Application of Remotely Sensed Data and Models to Benefit Conservation and Restoration Along the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, D. A.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Thom, R.; Woodruff, D.; Judd, C.; Ellis, J. T.; Swann, R.; Johnson, H., III

    2010-12-01

    New data, tools, and capabilities for decision making are significant needs in the northern Gulf of Mexico and other coastal areas. The goal of this project is to support NASA’s Earth Science Mission Directorate and its Applied Science Program and the Gulf of Mexico Alliance by producing and providing NASA data and products that will benefit decision making by coastal resource managers and other end users in the Gulf region. Data and research products are being developed to assist coastal resource managers adapt and plan for changing conditions by evaluating how climate changes and urban expansion will impact land cover/land use (LCLU), hydrodynamics, water properties, and shallow water habitats; to identify priority areas for conservation and restoration; and to distribute datasets to end-users and facilitating user interaction with models. The proposed host sites for data products are NOAA’s National Coastal Data Development Center Regional Ecosystem Data Management, and Mississippi-Alabama Habitat Database. Tools will be available on the Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative website with links to data portals to enable end users to employ models and datasets to develop and evaluate LCLU and climate scenarios of particular interest. These data will benefit the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program in ongoing efforts to protect and restore the Fish River watershed and around Weeks Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. The usefulness of data products and tools will be demonstrated at an end-user workshop.

  19. Developing a conceptual model of possible benefits of condensed tannins for ruminant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, L O; Ramírez-Restrepo, C A; Muir, J P

    2014-07-01

    Enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants have compelled a wide range of research initiatives to identify environmental abatement opportunities. However, although such mitigations can theoretically be attained with feed additives and feeding strategies, the limited empirical evidence on plant extracts used as feed additives does not support extensive or long-term reductions. Nevertheless, their strategic use (i.e. alone or combined in a simultaneous or consecutive use) may provide not only acceptable CH4 abatement levels, but also relevant effects on animal physiology and productivity. Condensed tannins (CT) represent a range of polyphenolic compounds of flavan-3-ol units present in some forage species that can also be added to prepared diets. Methods to determine CT, or their conjugated metabolites, are not simple. Although there are limitations and uncertainties about the methods to be applied, CT are thought to reduce CH4 production (1) indirectly by binding to the dietary fibre and/or reducing the rumen digestion and digestibility of the fibre and (2) directly by inhibiting the growth of rumen methanogens. On the basis of their role in livestock nutrition, CT influence the digestion of protein in the rumen because of their affinity for proteins (e.g. oxidative coupling and H bonding at neutral pH) that causes the CT-protein complex to be insoluble in the rumen; and dissociate in the abomasum at pH 2.5 to 3.0 for proteolysis and absorption in the small intestine. CT may also reduce gastro-intestinal parasite burdens and improve reproductive performance, foetal development, immune system response, hormone serum concentrations, wool production and lactation. The objectives of this paper are to discuss some of the beneficial and detrimental effects of CT on ruminant production systems and to develop a conceptual model to illustrate these metabolic relationships in terms of systemic physiology using earlier investigations with the CT-containing legume Lotus

  20. Do Building Information Modelling Applications Benefit Design Teams in Achieving BREEAM Accreditation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Harding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using building information modelling (BIM within a design team allows for integration of sustainability analysis such as daylighting analysis, water harvesting, and thermal assessment whilst capturing the data which can be used for BREEAM assessment. Therefore, the availability of data compared to traditional methods can be used to design teams, stakeholders, and environmental assessment bodies’ advantage. Since BIM boasts extensive building performance analysis capabilities, design teams should be provided with standard methodologies and guidance into successfully achieving certain BREEAM criteria. This paper highlights gaps in the existing theory to develop a solid understanding for further research in order to achieve BIM integrated BREEAM design team protocol. Further to this and running parallel to the protocol and guidance, an internal conceptual framework existing within BIM software could be instigated from future research. This will require detailed and innovative solutions to link the credits with the software both from an IT and from a software coding perspective; also, there is great merit into analysing design teams’ cultural and behavioural factors towards sustainable design through the BIM model.

  1. Progesterone treatment shows benefit in a pediatric model of moderate to severe bilateral brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastafa I Geddes

    Full Text Available Controlled cortical impact (CCI models in adult and aged Sprague-Dawley (SD rats have been used extensively to study medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC injury and the effects of post-injury progesterone treatment, but the hormone's effects after traumatic brain injury (TBI in juvenile animals have not been determined. In the present proof-of-concept study we investigated whether progesterone had neuroprotective effects in a pediatric model of moderate to severe bilateral brain injury.Twenty-eight-day old (PND 28 male Sprague Dawley rats received sham (n = 24 or CCI (n = 47 injury and were given progesterone (4, 8, or 16 mg/kg per 100 g body weight or vehicle injections on post-injury days (PID 1-7, subjected to behavioral testing from PID 9-27, and analyzed for lesion size at PID 28.The 8 and 16 mg/kg doses of progesterone were observed to be most beneficial in reducing the effect of CCI on lesion size and behavior in PND 28 male SD rats.Our findings suggest that a midline CCI injury to the frontal cortex will reliably produce a moderate TBI comparable to what is seen in the adult male rat and that progesterone can ameliorate the injury-induced deficits.

  2. Benefits and limitations of animal models in partial bladder outlet obstruction for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitta, Takeya; Kanno, Yukiko; Chiba, Hiroki; Higuchi, Madoka; Ouchi, Mifuka; Togo, Mio; Moriya, Kimihiko; Shinohara, Nobuo

    2018-01-01

    The functions of the lower urinary tract have been investigated for more than a century. Lower urinary tract symptoms, such as incomplete bladder emptying, weak urine stream, daytime urinary frequency, urgency, urge incontinence and nocturia after partial bladder outlet obstruction, is a frequent cause of benign prostatic hyperplasia in aging men. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The use of animal models is absolutely imperative for understanding the pathophysiological processes involved in bladder dysfunction. Surgical induction has been used to study lower urinary tract functions of numerous animal species, such as pig, dog, rabbit, guinea pig, rat and mouse, of both sexes. Several morphological and functional modifications under partial bladder outlet obstruction have not only been observed in the bladder, but also in the central nervous system. Understanding the changes of the lower urinary tract functions induced by partial bladder outlet obstruction would also contribute to appropriate drug development for treating these pathophysiological conditions. In the present review, we discuss techniques for creating partial bladder outlet obstruction, the characteristics of several species, as well as issues of each model, and their translational value. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  3. Prevention approaches in a preclinical canine model of Alzheimer’s disease: Benefits and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina R. Davis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aged dogs spontaneously develop many features of human aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD including cognitive decline and neuropathology. In this review, we discuss age-dependent learning tasks, memory tasks, and functional measures that can be used in aged dogs for sensitive treatment outcome measures. Neuropathology that is linked to cognitive decline is described along with examples of treatment studies that show reduced neuropathology in aging dogs (dietary manipulations, behavioral enrichment, immunotherapy, and statins. Studies in canine show that multi-targeted approaches may be more beneficial than single pathway manipulations (e.g. antioxidants combined with behavioral enrichment. Aging canine studies show good predictive validity for human clinical trials outcomes (e.g. immunotherapy and several interventions tested in dogs strongly support a prevention approach (e.g. immunotherapy and statins. Further, dogs are ideally suited for prevention studies as they the age because onset of cognitive decline and neuropathology strongly support longitudinal interventions that can be completed within a 3-5 year period. Disadvantages to using the canine model are that they lengthy, use labor-intensive comprehensive cognitive testing, and involve costly housing (almost as high as that of nonhuman primates. However overall, using the dog as a preclinical model for testing preventive approaches for AD may complement work in rodents and nonhuman primates.

  4. Bone Marrow Transplantation Confers Modest Benefits in Mouse Models of Huntington’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Wanda; Magnusson, Anna; Chou, Austin; Adame, Anthony; Carson, Monica J.; Kohsaka, Shinichi; Masliah, Eliezer; Möller, Thomas; Ransohoff, Richard; Tabrizi, Sarah J.; Björkqvist, Maria; Muchowski, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is caused by an expanded polyglutamine tract in the protein huntingtin (htt). Although HD has historically been viewed as a brain-specific disease, htt is expressed ubiquitously, and recent studies indicate that mutant htt might cause changes to the immune system that could contribute to pathogenesis. Monocytes from HD patients and mouse models are hyperactive in response to stimulation, and increased levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines are found in pre-manifest patients that correlate with pathogenesis. In this study, wild-type (WT) bone marrow cells were transplanted into two lethally irradiated transgenic mouse models of HD that ubiquitously express full-length htt (YAC128 and BACHD mice). Bone marrow transplantation partially attenuated hypokinetic and motor deficits in HD mice. Increased levels of synapses in the cortex were found in HD mice that received bone marrow transplants. Importantly, serum levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-10, CXC chemokine ligand 1, and interferon-γ were significantly higher in HD than WT mice but were normalized in mice that received a bone marrow transplant. These results suggest that immune cell dysfunction might be an important modifier of pathogenesis in HD. PMID:22219276

  5. Smart microgrid hierarchical frequency control ancillary service provision based on virtual inertia concept: An integrated demand response and droop controlled distributed generation framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaei, Navid; Kalantar, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Detailed formulation of the microgrid static and dynamic securities based on droop control and virtual inertia concepts. • Constructing a novel objective function using frequency excursion and rate of change of frequency profiles. • Ensuring the microgrid security subject to the microgrid economic and environmental policies. • Coordinated management of demand response and droop controlled distributed generation resources. • Precise scheduling of day-ahead hierarchical frequency control ancillary services using a scenario based stochastic programming. - Abstract: Low inertia stack, high penetration levels of renewable energy source and great ratio of power deviations in a small power delivery system put microgrid frequency at risk of instability. On the basis of the close coupling between the microgrid frequency and system security requirements, procurement of adequate ancillary services from cost-effective and environmental friendly resources is a great challenge requests an efficient energy management system. Motivated by this need, this paper presents a novel energy management system that is aimed to coordinately manage the demand response and distributed generation resources. The proposed approach is carried out by constructing a hierarchical frequency control structure in which the frequency dependent control functions of the microgrid components are modeled comprehensively. On the basis of the derived modeling, both the static and dynamic frequency securities of an islanded microgrid are provided in primary and secondary control levels. Besides, to cope with the low inertia stack of islanded microgrids, novel virtual inertia concept is devised based on the precise modeling of droop controlled distributed generation resources. The proposed approach is applied to typical test microgrid. Energy and hierarchical reserve resource are scheduled precisely using a scenario-based stochastic programming methodology. Moreover, analyzing the

  6. Integrated ancillary and remote sensing data for land use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Full Name

    MATLAB is a programming language just like C, C++, and python. In this research, a computer program implemented in MATLAB is used to experiment the. Gaussian mixture model algorithm. Using the supervised classification technique, both simulated and empirical satellite remote sensing data are used to train and test ...

  7. Generalisation benefits of output gating in a model of prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriete, Trent; Noelle, David C.

    2011-06-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a central role in flexible cognitive control, including the suppression of habitual responding in favour of situation-appropriate behaviours that can be quite novel. PFC provides a kind of working memory, maintaining the rules, goals, and/or actions that are to control behaviour in the current context. For flexible control, these PFC representations must be sufficiently componential to support systematic generalisation to novel situations. The anatomical structure of PFC can be seen as implementing a componential 'slot-filler' structure, with different components encoded over isolated pools of neurons. Previous PFC models have highlighted the importance of a dynamic gating mechanism to selectively update individual 'slot' contents. In this article, we present simulation results that suggest that systematic generalisation also requires an 'output gating' mechanism that limits the influence of PFC on more posterior brain areas to reflect a small number of representational components at any one time.

  8. Operational benefits and challenges of the use of fingerprint statistical models: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Cedric; Mateos-Garcia, Ismael; Langenburg, Glenn; Kostroski, Jennifer; Skerrett, James E; Koolen, Martin

    2011-10-10

    Research projects aimed at proposing fingerprint statistical models based on the likelihood ratio framework have shown that low quality finger impressions left on crime scenes may have significant evidential value. These impressions are currently either not recovered, considered to be of no value when first analyzed by fingerprint examiners, or lead to inconclusive results when compared to control prints. There are growing concerns within the fingerprint community that recovering and examining these low quality impressions will result in a significant increase of the workload of fingerprint units and ultimately of the number of backlogged cases. This study was designed to measure the number of impressions currently not recovered or not considered for examination, and to assess the usefulness of these impressions in terms of the number of additional detections that would result from their examination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cardiovascular Benefits of Moderate Exercise Training in Marfan Syndrome: Insights From an Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Stachurska, Aleksandra; Siegert, Anna-Maria; Batlle, Monsterrat; Gorbenko Del Blanco, Darya; Meirelles, Thayna; Rubies, Cira; Bonorino, Fabio; Serra-Peinado, Carla; Bijnens, Bart; Baudin, Julio; Sitges, Marta; Mont, Lluís; Guasch, Eduard; Egea, Gustavo

    2017-09-25

    Marfan syndrome (MF) leads to aortic root dilatation and a predisposition to aortic dissection, mitral valve prolapse, and primary and secondary cardiomyopathy. Overall, regular physical exercise is recommended for a healthy lifestyle, but dynamic sports are strongly discouraged in MF patients. Nonetheless, evidence supporting this recommendation is lacking. Therefore, we studied the role of long-term dynamic exercise of moderate intensity on the MF cardiovascular phenotype. In a transgenic mouse model of MF ( Fbn1 C1039G/+ ), 4-month-old wild-type and MF mice were subjected to training on a treadmill for 5 months; sedentary littermates served as controls for each group. Aortic and cardiac remodeling was assessed by echocardiography and histology. The 4-month-old MF mice showed aortic root dilatation, elastic lamina rupture, and tunica media fibrosis, as well as cardiac hypertrophy, left ventricular fibrosis, and intramyocardial vessel remodeling. Over the 5-month experimental period, aortic root dilation rate was significantly greater in the sedentary MF group, compared with the wild-type group (∆mm, 0.27±0.07 versus 0.13±0.02, respectively). Exercise significantly blunted the aortic root dilation rate in MF mice compared with sedentary MF littermates (∆mm, 0.10±0.04 versus 0.27±0.07, respectively). However, these 2 groups were indistinguishable by aortic root stiffness, tunica media fibrosis, and elastic lamina ruptures. In MF mice, exercise also produced cardiac hypertrophy regression without changes in left ventricular fibrosis. Our results in a transgenic mouse model of MF indicate that moderate dynamic exercise mitigates the progression of the MF cardiovascular phenotype. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  10. Bias in iterative reconstruction of low-statistics PET data: benefits of a resolution model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, M D; Asselin, M-C; Julyan, P J; Feldmann, M; Matthews, J C [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, Manchester M20 3LJ (United Kingdom); Talbot, P S [Mental Health and Neurodegeneration Research Group, Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, Manchester M20 3LJ (United Kingdom); Jones, T, E-mail: matthew.walker@manchester.ac.uk [Academic Department of Radiation Oncology, Christie Hospital, University of Manchester, Manchester M20 4BX (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-21

    Iterative image reconstruction methods such as ordered-subset expectation maximization (OSEM) are widely used in PET. Reconstructions via OSEM are however reported to be biased for low-count data. We investigated this and considered the impact for dynamic PET. Patient listmode data were acquired in [{sup 11}C]DASB and [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O scans on the HRRT brain PET scanner. These data were subsampled to create many independent, low-count replicates. The data were reconstructed and the images from low-count data were compared to the high-count originals (from the same reconstruction method). This comparison enabled low-statistics bias to be calculated for the given reconstruction, as a function of the noise-equivalent counts (NEC). Two iterative reconstruction methods were tested, one with and one without an image-based resolution model (RM). Significant bias was observed when reconstructing data of low statistical quality, for both subsampled human and simulated data. For human data, this bias was substantially reduced by including a RM. For [{sup 11}C]DASB the low-statistics bias in the caudate head at 1.7 M NEC (approx. 30 s) was -5.5% and -13% with and without RM, respectively. We predicted biases in the binding potential of -4% and -10%. For quantification of cerebral blood flow for the whole-brain grey- or white-matter, using [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O and the PET autoradiographic method, a low-statistics bias of <2.5% and <4% was predicted for reconstruction with and without the RM. The use of a resolution model reduces low-statistics bias and can hence be beneficial for quantitative dynamic PET.

  11. Quantifying the Socio-Economic Benefits of Reducing Industrial Dietary Trans Fats: Modelling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson-Stuttard, Jonathan; Critchley, Julia; Capewell, Simon; O'Flaherty, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) remains a leading cause of UK mortality, generating a large and unequal burden of disease. Dietary trans fatty acids (TFA) represent a powerful CHD risk factor, yet to be addressed in the UK (approximately 1% daily energy) as successfully as in other nations. Potential outcomes of such measures, including effects upon health inequalities, have not been well quantified. We modelled the potential effects of specific reductions in TFA intake on CHD mortality, CHD related admissions, and effects upon socioeconomic inequalities. We extended the previously validated IMPACTsec model, to estimate the potential effects of reductions (0.5% & 1% reductions in daily energy) in TFA intake in England and Wales, stratified by age, sex and socioeconomic circumstances. We estimated reductions in expected CHD deaths in 2030 attributable to these two specific reductions. Output measures were deaths prevented or postponed, life years gained and hospital admissions. A 1% reduction in TFA intake energy intake would generate approximately 3,900 (95% confidence interval (CI) 3,300-4,500) fewer deaths, 10,000 (8,800-10,300) (7% total) fewer hospital admissions and 37,000 (30,100-44,700) life years gained. This would also reduce health inequalities, preventing five times as many deaths and gaining six times as many life years in the most deprived quintile compared with the most affluent. A more modest reduction (0.5%) would still yield substantial health gains. Reducing intake of industrial TFA could substantially decrease CHD mortality and hospital admissions, and gain tens of thousands of life years. Crucially, this policy could also reduce health inequalities. UK strategies should therefore aim to minimise industrial TFA intake.

  12. The Benefits of Including Clinical Factors in Rectal Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defraene, Gilles; Van den Bergh, Laura; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Haustermans, Karin; Heemsbergen, Wilma; Van den Heuvel, Frank; Lebesque, Joos V.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and logistic models for rectal bleeding and fecal incontinence, the first significant (p = 0.011–0.013) clinical factor was “previous abdominal surgery.” As second significant (p = 0.012–0.016) factor, “cardiac history” was included in all three rectal bleeding fits, whereas including “diabetes” was significant (p = 0.039–0.048) in fecal incontinence modeling but only in the LKB and logistic models. High stool frequency fits only benefitted significantly (p = 0.003–0.006) from the inclusion of the baseline toxicity score. For all models rectal bleeding fits had the highest AUC (0.77) where it was 0.63 and 0.68 for high stool frequency and fecal incontinence, respectively. LKB and logistic model fits resulted in similar values for the volume parameter. The steepness parameter was somewhat higher in the logistic model, also resulting in a slightly lower D 50 . Anal wall DVHs were used for fecal incontinence, whereas anorectal wall dose best described the other two endpoints. Conclusions

  13. Illustrating the benefit of using hourly monitoring data on secondary inorganic aerosol and its precursors for model evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schaap

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Secondary inorganic aerosol, most notably ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate, is an important contributor to ambient particulate mass and provides a means for long range transport of acidifying components. The modelling of the formation and fate of these components is challenging. Especially, the formation of the semi-volatile ammonium nitrate is strongly dependent on ambient conditions and the precursor concentrations. For the first time an hourly artefact free data set from the MARGA instrument is available for the period of a full year (1 August 2007 to 1 August 2008 at Cabauw, the Netherlands. This data set is used to verify the results of the LOTOS-EUROS model. The comparison showed that the model underestimates the SIA levels. Closer inspection revealed that base line values appear well estimated for ammonium and sulphate and that the underestimation predominantly takes place at the peak concentrations. For nitrate the variability towards high concentrations is much better captured, however, a systematic relative underestimation was found. The model is able to reproduce many features of the intra-day variability observed for SIA. Although the model captures the seasonal and average diurnal variation of the SIA components, the modelled variability for the nitrate precursor gas nitric acid is much too large. It was found that the thermodynamic equilibrium module produces a too stable ammonium nitrate in winter and during night time in summer, whereas during the daytime in summer it is too unstable. We recommend to improve the model by verification of the equilibrium module, inclusion of coarse mode nitrate and to address the processes concerning SIA formation combined with a detailed analysis of the data set at hand. The benefit of the hourly data with both particulate and gas phase concentrations is illustrated and a continuation of these measurements may prove to be very useful in future model evaluation and improvement studies. Based

  14. Illustrating the benefit of using hourly monitoring data on secondary inorganic aerosol and its precursors for model evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaap, M. [TNO, Business unit Environment, Health and Safety, P.O. Box 80015, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Otjes, R.P.; Weijers, E.P. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), P.O. Box 1, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-11-08

    Secondary inorganic aerosol, most notably ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate, is an important contributor to ambient particulate mass and provides a means for long range transport of acidifying components. The modelling of the formation and fate of these components is challenging. Especially, the formation of the semi-volatile ammonium nitrate is strongly dependent on ambient conditions and the precursor concentrations. For the first time an hourly artefact free data set from the MARGA instrument is available for the period of a full year (1 August 2007 to 1 August 2008) at Cabauw, the Netherlands. This data set is used to verify the results of the LOTOS-EUROS model. The comparison showed that the model underestimates the SIA levels. Closer inspection revealed that base line values appear well estimated for ammonium and sulphate and that the underestimation predominantly takes place at the peak concentrations. For nitrate the variability towards high concentrations is much better captured, however, a systematic relative underestimation was found. The model is able to reproduce many features of the intra-day variability observed for SIA. Although the model captures the seasonal and average diurnal variation of the SIA components, the modelled variability for the nitrate precursor gas nitric acid is much too large. It was found that the thermodynamic equilibrium module produces a too stable ammonium nitrate in winter and during night time in summer, whereas during the daytime in summer it is too unstable. We recommend to improve the model by verification of the equilibrium module, inclusion of coarse mode nitrate and to address the processes concerning SIA formation combined with a detailed analysis of the data set at hand. The benefit of the hourly data with both particulate and gas phase concentrations is illustrated and a continuation of these measurements may prove to be very useful in future model evaluation and improvement studies. Based on our findings we

  15. Noise Benefits of Rotor Trailing Edge Blowing for a Model Turbofan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Fite, E. Brian; Podboy, Gary G.

    2007-01-01

    An advanced model turbofan was tested in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (9x15 LSWT) to explore far field acoustic effects associated with rotor Trailing-Edge-Blowing (TEB) for a modern, 1.294 stage pressure ratio turbofan model. The TEB rotor (Fan9) was designed to be aerodynamically similar to the previously tested Fan1, and used the same stator and nacelle hardware. Fan9 was designed with trailing edge blowing slots using an external air supply directed through the rotor hub. The TEB flow was heated to approximate the average fan exit temperature at each fan test speed. Rotor root blockage inserts were used to block TEB to all but the outer 40 and 20% span in addition to full-span blowing. A configuration with full-span TEB on alternate rotor blades was also tested. Far field acoustic data were taken at takeoff/approach conditions at 0.10 tunnel Mach. Far-field acoustic results showed that full-span blowing near 2.0% of the total flow could reduce the overall sound power level by about 2 dB. This noise reduction was observed in both the rotor-stator interaction tones and for the spectral broadband noise levels. Blowing only the outer span region was not very effective for lowering noise, and actually increased the far field noise level in some instances. Full-span blowing of alternate blades at 1.0% of the overall flow rate (equivalent to full-span blowing of all blades at 2.0% flow) showed a more modest noise decrease relative to full-span blowing of all blades. Detailed hot film measurements of the TEB rotor wake at 2.0% flow showed that TEB was not every effective for filling in the wake defect at approach fan speed toward the tip region, but did result in overfilling the wake toward the hub. Downstream turbulence measurements supported this finding, and support the observed reduction in spectral broadband noise.

  16. Influence of Wind Plant Ancillary Frequency Control on System Small Signal Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Since large-scale wind farms are increasingly connected to modern power grids, the transmission system operators put more requirements as part of the grid codes on the integration of wind farms. System frequency control which is normally provided by conventional synchronous generators becomes...... a common requirement to wind farms. This ancillary frequency control provided by wind farms could have some influence on the system small signal stability. This paper implements an ancillary frequency control strategy on a directdrive- full-convertor-based wind farm and studies its influence on the damping...... ratio values of the dominant oscillation modes within the connected power system. All the calculations and simulations are conducted in DIgSILENT PowerFactory 14.0....

  17. Influence of Wind Plant Ancillary Voltage Control on System Small Signal Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    As a common tendency, large-scale wind farms are increasingly connected to the transmission system of modern power grids. This introduces some new challenges to the connected power systems, and the transmission system operators (TSOs) have to put some new requirements as part of the grid codes...... on the integration of wind farms. One common requirement to wind farms is the function of system voltage control which can be implemented in the grid-side convertor controller of a variable speed wind turbine. This ancillary voltage control provided by wind farms could have some influence on the system small signal...... stability. This paper implements an ancillary voltage control strategy on a direct-drive-full-convertor-based wind farm and studies its influence on the damping ratio values of the dominant oscillation mode within the connected power system. All the calculations and simulations are conducted in DIg...

  18. Market and policy barriers for demand response providing ancillary services in U.S. markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); MacDonald, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This study provides an examination of various market and policy barriers to demand response providing ancillary services in both ISO/RTO and non-ISO/RTO regions, especially at the program provider level. It is useful to classify barriers in order to create a holistic understanding and identify parties that could be responsible for their removal. This study develops a typology of barriers focusing on smaller customers that must rely on a program provider (i.e., electric investor owned utility or IOU, ARC) to create an aggregated DR resource in order to bring ancillary services to the balancing authority. The barriers were identified through examinations of regulatory structures, market environments, and product offerings; and discussions with industry stakeholders and regulators. In order to help illustrate the differences in barriers among various wholesale market designs and their constituent retail environments, four regions were chosen to use as case studies: Colorado, Texas, Wisconsin, and New Jersey.

  19. VOLTTRON-Based System for Providing Ancillary Services with Residential Building Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xin

    2016-07-01

    Ancillary services entail controlled modulation of building equipment to maintain a stable balance of generation and load in the power system. Ancillary services include frequency regulation and contingency reserves, whose acting time ranges from several seconds to several minutes. Many pilot studies have been implemented to use industrial loads to provide ancillary services, and some have explored services from commercial building loads or electric vehicle charging loads. Residential loads, such as space conditioning and water heating, represent a largely untapped resource for providing ancillary services. The residential building sector accounts for a significant fraction of the total electricity use in the United States. Many loads in residential buildings are flexible and could potentially be curtailed or shifted at the request of the grid. However, there are many barriers that prevent residential loads being widely used for ancillary services. One of the major technical barriers is the lack of communication capabilities between end-use devices and the grid. End-use devices need to be able to receive the automatic generation control (AGC) signal from the grid operator and supply certain types of telemetry to verify response. With the advance of consumer electronics, communication-enabled, or 'connected,' residential equipment has emerged to overcome the communication barrier. However, these end-use devices have introduced a new interoperability challenge due to the existence of numerous standards and communication protocols among different end devices. In this paper, we present a VOLTTRON-based system that overcomes these technical challenges and provides ancillary services with residential loads. VOLTTRON is an open-source control and sensing platform for building energy management, facilitating interoperability solutions for end devices. We have developed drivers to communicate and control different types of end devices through standard

  20. Grid-Scale Energy Storage Demonstration of Ancillary Services Using the UltraBattery Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seasholtz, Jeff [East Penn Mfg. Co., Inc., Lyons, PA (United States)

    2015-08-20

    The collaboration described in this document is being done as part of a cooperative research agreement under the Department of Energy’s Smart Grid Demonstration Program. This document represents the Final Technical Performance Report, from July 2012 through April 2015, for the East Penn Manufacturing Smart Grid Program demonstration project. This Smart Grid Demonstration project demonstrates Distributed Energy Storage for Grid Support, in particular the economic and technical viability of a grid-scale, advanced energy storage system using UltraBattery ® technology for frequency regulation ancillary services and demand management services. This project entailed the construction of a dedicated facility on the East Penn campus in Lyon Station, PA that is being used as a working demonstration to provide regulation ancillary services to PJM and demand management services to Metropolitan Edison (Met-Ed).

  1. The State of Cell Blocks and Ancillary Testing: Past, Present, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqi, Anjali

    2016-12-01

    Cell blocks are an integral part of cytology, but their utility is recognized probably more now than ever before, largely owing to the significant role they play in ancillary testing, particularly molecular diagnostics. Modifications to improve the cell block method initially introduced more than a century ago have been made over the years. Though their value is acknowledged and they are widely used across laboratories, cell block preparations are not standardized and results of ancillary testing performed on them are inconsistent. This article reviews the state of cell blocks-summarizes the more common, currently available and used methods and their corresponding advantages and shortcomings, outlines the role of alternative techniques (eg, smears), and proposes methods to optimize results.

  2. The TIGRESS Integrated Plunger ancillary systems for electromagnetic transition rate studies at TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, P.; Henderson, R.; Andreoiu, C.; Ashley, R.; Austin, R.A.E.; Ball, G.C.; Bender, P.C.; Bey, A.; Cheeseman, A.; Chester, A.; Cross, D.S.; Drake, T.E.; Garnsworthy, A.B.; Hackman, G.; Holland, R.; Ketelhut, S.; Kowalski, P.; Krücken, R.; Laffoley, A.T.; Leach, K.G.

    2014-01-01

    The TIGRESS Integrated Plunger device is a new experimental tool for nuclear structure investigations via gamma-ray spectroscopy with post-accelerated beams from the ISAC-II facility at TRIUMF. Several ancillary detection systems integral to the device's capabilities for charged-particle tagging and light-ion identification following a variety of nuclear reaction mechanisms have been constructed and characterized. In particular, a silicon PIN diode wall, an annular silicon segmented detector, and a CsI(Tl) scintillator wall have together enabled particle-gamma correlations for reaction channel selectivity and precision kinematic reconstruction in recent measurements. We highlight the construction, characteristics, and implementation of the device's ancillary detectors as they enable a rich set of electromagnetic transition rate measurements via Doppler-shift lifetime techniques and low-energy Coulomb excitation

  3. Benefits of statistical molecular design, covariance analysis, and reference models in QSAR: a case study on acetylcholinesterase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, C. David; Hillgren, J. Mikael; Lindgren, Cecilia; Qian, Weixing; Akfur, Christine; Berg, Lotta; Ekström, Fredrik; Linusson, Anna

    2015-03-01

    Scientific disciplines such as medicinal- and environmental chemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology deal with the questions related to the effects small organic compounds exhort on biological targets and the compounds' physicochemical properties responsible for these effects. A common strategy in this endeavor is to establish structure-activity relationships (SARs). The aim of this work was to illustrate benefits of performing a statistical molecular design (SMD) and proper statistical analysis of the molecules' properties before SAR and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis. Our SMD followed by synthesis yielded a set of inhibitors of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) that had very few inherent dependencies between the substructures in the molecules. If such dependencies exist, they cause severe errors in SAR interpretation and predictions by QSAR-models, and leave a set of molecules less suitable for future decision-making. In our study, SAR- and QSAR models could show which molecular sub-structures and physicochemical features that were advantageous for the AChE inhibition. Finally, the QSAR model was used for the prediction of the inhibition of AChE by an external prediction set of molecules. The accuracy of these predictions was asserted by statistical significance tests and by comparisons to simple but relevant reference models.

  4. Low-Cost Carriers, Local Economy and Tourism Development at Four Portuguese Airports. A Model of Cost–Benefit Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The liberalisation of air transport created a new era in the sector. The entry of low-cost carriers triggered dynamism and consequently changed the behaviours of the demand and supply of air transport services. The volume of traffic at Portuguese airports increased from 17 million passengers in 2002 to more than 30 million in 2012, representing cumulative growth of 75%. The commitment to low-cost carriers (LCCs was a determining factor for this growth in that, in 2012, these carriers recorded a market share of 33%. This study aims to analyse the evolution of LCC air traffic in Portugal and its impact on regional economic development. Through a model of cost–benefit analysis, we determine the costs, benefits and net welfare in the developmet of the region driven by the LCC routes of 4 Portuguese airports, Faro, Lisbon, Funchal and Porto, between 2005 and 2012. The methodology proves the existence of a positive net impact driven by LCCs on the local economy, directly through job creation and increased consumption in the tourism sector and indirectly by the increased demand from other sectors.

  5. Estimating the Societal Benefits of THA After Accounting for Work Status and Productivity: A Markov Model Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Lane; Zhang, Qian; Austin, Matthew S; Demiralp, Berna; Fehring, Thomas K; Feng, Chaoling; Mather, Richard C; Nguyen, Jennifer T; Saavoss, Asha; Springer, Bryan D; Yates, Adolph J

    2016-12-01

    rates to assess the robustness of our Markov model results. Compared with nonsurgical treatments, THA increased average annual productivity of patients by USD 9503 (95% CI, USD 1446-USD 17,812). We found that THA increases average lifetime direct costs by USD 30,365, which were offset by USD 63,314 in lifetime savings from increased productivity. With net societal savings of USD 32,948 per patient, total lifetime societal savings were estimated at almost USD 10 billion from more than 300,000 THAs performed in the United States each year. Using a Markov model approach, we show that THA produces societal benefits that can offset the costs of THA. When comparing THA with other nonsurgical treatments, policymakers should consider the long-term benefits associated with increased productivity from surgery. Level III, economic and decision analysis.

  6. Angiotensin IV Receptors Mediate the Cognitive and Cerebrovascular Benefits of Losartan in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royea, Jessika; Zhang, Luqing; Tong, Xin-Kang; Hamel, Edith

    2017-05-31

    been associated with lower incidence and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in cohort studies. However, the manner by which ARBs mediate their beneficial effects is unknown. Here, the angiotensin IV receptor (AT4R) was identified as mediating the cognitive and cerebrovascular rescue of losartan, a commonly prescribed ARB, in a mouse model of AD. The AT4R was further implicated in mediating anti-inflammatory benefits. AT4R-mediated effects were independent from changes in blood pressure, amyloidosis, and oxidative stress. Overall, our results implicate the angiotensin IV/AT4R cascade as a promising candidate for AD intervention. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/375562-12$15.00/0.

  7. Vertical Keiretsu and International Market Entry: The Case of the Japanese Automobile Ancillary Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kunal Banerji; Rakesh B Sambharya

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated whether small Japanese automobile ancillary firms followed the major Japanese automakers in setting up production facilities in the United States. Based on Dunning's eclectic theory of foreign direct investment and resource dependence theory, hypotheses were generated to explain the determinants of foreign investment of Japanese suppliers. It was hypothesized that mutual dependencies between the major Japanese automobile firms and their suppliers, firm-specific ownersh...

  8. Valuing Non-market Benefits of Rehabilitation of Hydrologic Cycle Improvements in the Anyangcheon Watershed: Using Mixed Logit Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, J.; Kong, K.

    2010-12-01

    This research the findings from a discrete-choice experiment designed to estimate the economic benefits associated with the Anyangcheon watershed improvements in Rep. of Korea. The Anyangcheon watershed has suffered from streamflow depletion and poor stream quality, which often negatively affect instream and near-stream ecologic integrity, as well as water supply. Such distortions in the hydrologic cycle mainly result from rapid increase of impermeable area due to urbanization, decreases of baseflow runoff due to groundwater pumping, and reduced precipitation inputs driven by climate forcing. As well, combined sewer overflows and increase of non-point source pollution from urban regions decrease water quality. The appeal of choice experiments (CE) in economic analysis is that it is based on random utility theory (McFadden, 1974; Ben-Akiva and Lerman, 1985). In contrast to contingent valuation method (CVM), which asks people to choose between a base case and a specific alternative, CE asks people to choice between cases that are described by attributes. The attributes of this study were selected from hydrologic vulnerability components that represent flood damage possibility, instreamflow depletion, water quality deterioration, form of the watershed and tax. Their levels were divided into three grades include status quo. Two grades represented the ideal conditions. These scenarios were constructed from a 35 orthogonal main effect design. This design resulted in twenty-seven choice sets. The design had nine different choice scenarios presented to each respondent. The most popular choice models in use are the conditional logit (CNL). This model provides closed-form choice probability calculation. The shortcoming of CNL comes from irrelevant alternatives (IIA). In this paper, the mixed logit (ML) is applied to allow the coefficient’s variation for random taste heterogeneity in the population. The mixed logit model(with normal distributions for the attributes) fit the

  9. Use and perceived benefits and barriers of QSAR models for REACH: findings from a questionnaire to stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mays Claire

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The ORCHESTRA online questionnaire on “benefits and barriers to the use of QSAR methods” addressed the academic, consultant, regulatory and industry communities potentially interested by QSAR methods in the context of REACH. Replies from more than 60 stakeholders produced some insights on the actual application of QSAR methods, and how to improve their use. Respondents state in majority that they have used QSAR methods. All have some future plans to test or use QSAR methods in accordance with their stakeholder role. The stakeholder respondents cited a total of 28 models, methods or software that they have actually applied. The three most frequently cited suites, used moreover by all the stakeholder categories, are the OECD Toolbox, EPISuite and CAESAR; all are free tools. Results suggest that stereotyped assumptions about the barriers to application of QSAR may be incorrect. Economic costs (including potential delays are not found to be a major barrier. And only one respondent “prefers” traditional, well-known and accepted toxicological assessment methods. Information and guidance may be the keys to reinforcing use of QSAR models. Regulators appear most interested in obtaining clear explanation of the basis of the models, to provide a solid basis for decisions. Scientists appear most interested in the exploration of the scientific capabilities of the QSAR approach. Industry shows interest in obtaining reassurance that appropriate uses of QSAR will be accepted by regulators.

  10. Ancillary services analysis of an offshore wind farm cluster-technical integration steps of a simulation tool

    OpenAIRE

    Hennig, Tobias; Löwer, Lothar; Faiella, Luis Mariano; Stock, Sebastian; Jansen, Malte; Hofmann, Lutz; Rohrig, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    In this publication, the authors present methodology and example results for the analysis of ancillary services of an offshore wind farm cluster and its electrical power system. Thereby the operation tool Wind Cluster Management System (WCMS) is used as simulation tool to evaluate certain planning scenarios. Emphasis is made on two topics: 1) the integration of high voltage direct current (HVDC) technology to the WCMS, 2) the ancillary service analysis. As examples, voltage source converter b...

  11. Is a diagnosis of ancillary restless legs syndrome reproducible over time? Experience with the Wayne Hening telephone diagnostic interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitterling, Thomas; Frauscher, Birgit; Ehrmann, Laura; Gschliesser, Viola; Brandauer, Elisabeth; Högl, Birgit

    2013-06-01

    The Hening telephone diagnostic interview (HTDI) is a validated structured diagnostic instrument for restless legs syndrome (RLS). A diagnosis of ancillary RLS is defined as RLS with non bothering or only sporadic occurrence of RLS symptoms. The aim of our study was to test the reproducibility of a previously received diagnosis of ancillary RLS with the HTDI in a telephone follow-up examination. Patients with a diagnosis of ancillary RLS underwent a telephone follow-up after an interval of 6 or more months from their entry into the RLS database. The interview included the HTDI, the International RLS Study Group severity rating scale (IRLS) and questions on current RLS medication. Sixty patients with ancillary RLS were eligible for this study, 50 participated. Thirty-six patients were assigned to definite RLS, 11 to probable RLS, one to possible RLS, and two patients were rated as not RLS. Median IRLS score of those with RLS was 10 (0-30). This is the first study to report results of the German version of the HTDI. We demonstrate a high reproducibility of a diagnosis of ancillary RLS over time and that the HTDI is an excellent diagnostic tool for RLS even in ancillary cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Distributed Smart Grid Asset Control Strategies for Providing Ancillary Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalsi, Karanjit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lian, Jianming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Marinovici, Laurentiu D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moya, Christian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dagle, Jeffery E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-10-30

    implementing real load control programs. The promise of autonomous, Grid Friendly™ response by smart appliances in the form of under-frequency load shedding was demonstrated in the GridWise Olympic Peninsula Demonstration in 2006. Each controller monitored the power grid voltage signal and requested that electrical load be shed by its appliance whenever electric power-grid frequency fell below 59.95 Hz. The controllers and their appliances responded reliably to each shallow under-frequency event, which was an average of one event per day and shed their loads for the durations of these events. Another objective of this project was to perform extensive simulation studies to investigate the impact of a population of Grid Friendly™ Appliances (GFAs) on the bulk power system frequency stability. The GFAs considered in this report are represented as demonstration units with water heaters individually modeled.

  13. Coupled information diffusion--pest dynamics models predict delayed benefits of farmer cooperation in pest management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebaudo, François; Dangles, Olivier

    2011-10-01

    Worldwide, the theory and practice of agricultural extension system have been dominated for almost half a century by Rogers' "diffusion of innovation theory". In particular, the success of integrated pest management (IPM) extension programs depends on the effectiveness of IPM information diffusion from trained farmers to other farmers, an important assumption which underpins funding from development organizations. Here we developed an innovative approach through an agent-based model (ABM) combining social (diffusion theory) and biological (pest population dynamics) models to study the role of cooperation among small-scale farmers to share IPM information for controlling an invasive pest. The model was implemented with field data, including learning processes and control efficiency, from large scale surveys in the Ecuadorian Andes. Our results predict that although cooperation had short-term costs for individual farmers, it paid in the long run as it decreased pest infestation at the community scale. However, the slow learning process placed restrictions on the knowledge that could be generated within farmer communities over time, giving rise to natural lags in IPM diffusion and applications. We further showed that if individuals learn from others about the benefits of early prevention of new pests, then educational effort may have a sustainable long-run impact. Consistent with models of information diffusion theory, our results demonstrate how an integrated approach combining ecological and social systems would help better predict the success of IPM programs. This approach has potential beyond pest management as it could be applied to any resource management program seeking to spread innovations across populations.

  14. Mammographic screening in BRCA1 mutation carriers postponed until age 40: Evaluation of benefits, costs and radiation risks using models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obdeijn, Inge-Marie; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A M; Hunink, M G Myriam; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine M A; de Koning, Harry J

    2016-08-01

    BRCA1 mutation carriers are offered screening with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and mammography. The aim of this study was to weigh benefits and risks of postponing mammographic screening until age 40. With the MISCAN microsimulation model two screening protocols were evaluated: 1) the current Dutch guidelines: annual MRI from age 25-60, annual mammography from age 30-60, and biennial mammography in the nationwide program from age 60-74, and 2) the modified protocol: with annual mammography postponed until age 40. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed. The risks of radiation-induced breast cancer mortality were estimated with absolute and relative exposure-risk models of the 7th Biological Effects of Ionising Radiation Committee. Current screening guidelines prevent 13,139 breast cancer deaths per 100,000 BRCA1 mutation carriers. Postponing mammography until age 40 would increase breast cancer deaths by 23 (0.17%), but would also reduce radiation-induced breast cancer deaths by 15 or 105 using the absolute and relative risk model respectively per 100,000 women screened. The estimated net effect is an increase of eight or a reduction of 82 breast cancer deaths per 100,000 women screened (depending on the risk model used). The incremental cost of mammograms between age 30-39 is €272,900 per life year gained. The modified protocol may be slightly less effective or even better than the current guidelines. The high cost-savings justify a possible small loss of effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Economic Benefits of Improved Information on Worldwide Crop Production: An Optimal Decision Model of Production and Distribution with Application to Wheat, Corn, and Soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J.

    1977-01-01

    An optimal decision model of crop production, trade, and storage was developed for use in estimating the economic consequences of improved forecasts and estimates of worldwide crop production. The model extends earlier distribution benefits models to include production effects as well. Application to improved information systems meeting the goals set in the large area crop inventory experiment (LACIE) indicates annual benefits to the United States of $200 to $250 million for wheat, $50 to $100 million for corn, and $6 to $11 million for soybeans, using conservative assumptions on expected LANDSAT system performance.

  16. Potential and Benefits of Building Information Modeling (BIM During Pre-Construction, Construction and Post Construction Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aw Nien Wei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is the main economic support for all countries around the world in which continually adapting to meet competitive challenges around the global market. Nevertheless, the construction project is becoming much more complex and difficult to manage. This is because the construction project involves a large number of stakeholder, for example, the consultant companies, architects, engineers, building surveyors and quantity surveyors. The technology currently used in the construction industry is the AutoCAD (Automatic computeraided design. AutoCAD is a commercial software application for 2D and 3D computer-aided design (CAD and drafting develop by Autodesk. Generally, all the drawing design from Autocad will be exchanged among the stakeholder in the form of paper. Information exchanged among them mostly involves a lot of documents and drawings. This practice creates errors because of documents and drawings are mostly in a paper-based format that is not properly managed which results in miscommunication among them. Having wrong information in the construction process could hinder the productivity of projects because in a construction project information is one of the important construction materials. Building Information Modeling (BIM is one of the newly software in the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC industries to ensure all parties receive the right information. BIM technology is also an intelligent model of a building constructed digitally in the way of 3D. The software will generate model containing the information needed to support the construction, fabrication, and procurement activities that needed to realize the building. This paper will discuss on potential and benefits of BIM during pre-construction stage, construction stage and during post construction stage

  17. Hostility and quality of life among Hispanics/Latinos in the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncrieft, Ashley E.; Llabre, Maria M.; Gallo, Linda C.; Cai, Jianwen; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Gonzalez, Patricia; Ostrovsky, Natania W.; Schneiderman, Neil; Penedo, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine if hostility is associated with physical and mental health-related quality of life (QoL) in U.S. Hispanics/Latinos after accounting for depression and anxiety. Methods Analyses included 5,313 adults (62% women, 18–75 years) who completed the ancillary sociocultural assessment of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Participants completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, Spielberger Trait Anxiety Scale, Spielberger Trait Anger Scale, Cook-Medley Hostility cynicism subscale, and Short Form Health Survey. In a structural regression model, associations of hostility with mental and physical QoL were examined. Results In a model adjusting for age, sex, disease burden, income, education and years in the U.S., hostility was related to worse mental QoL, and was marginally associated with worse physical QoL. However, when adjusting for the influence of depression and anxiety, greater hostility was associated with better mental QoL, and was not associated with physical QoL. Conclusions Results indicate observed associations between hostility and QoL are confounded by symptoms of anxiety and depression, and suggest hostility is independently associated with better mental QoL in this population. Findings also highlight the importance of differentiating shared and unique associations of specific emotions with health outcomes. PMID:27456582

  18. Optimal Sizing of a Solar-Plus-Storage System For Utility Bill Savings and Resiliency Benefits: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpkins, Travis; Anderson, Kate; Cutler, Dylan; Olis, Dan

    2016-11-01

    Solar-plus-storage systems can achieve significant utility savings in behind-the-meter deployments in buildings, campuses, or industrial sites. Common applications include demand charge reduction, energy arbitrage, time-shifting of excess photovoltaic (PV) production, and selling ancillary services to the utility grid. These systems can also offer some energy resiliency during grid outages. It is often difficult to quantify the amount of resiliency that these systems can provide, however, and this benefit is often undervalued or omitted during the design process. We propose a method for estimating the resiliency that a solar-plus-storage system can provide at a given location. We then present an optimization model that can optimally size the system components to minimize the lifecycle cost of electricity to the site, including the costs incurred during grid outages. The results show that including the value of resiliency during the feasibility stage can result in larger systems and increased resiliency.

  19. The Lancet Countdown on health benefits from the UK Climate Change Act: a modelling study for Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martin L; Lott, Melissa C; Kitwiroon, Nutthida; Dajnak, David; Walton, Heather; Holland, Mike; Pye, Steve; Fecht, Daniela; Toledano, Mireille B; Beevers, Sean D

    2018-05-01

    Climate change poses a dangerous and immediate threat to the health of populations in the UK and worldwide. We aimed to model different scenarios to assess the health co-benefits that result from mitigation actions. In this modelling study, we combined a detailed techno-economic energy systems model (UK TIMES), air pollutant emission inventories, a sophisticated air pollution model (Community Multi-scale Air Quality), and previously published associations between concentrations and health outcomes. We used four scenarios and focused on the air pollution implications from fine particulate matter (PM 2·5 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and ozone. The four scenarios were baseline, which assumed no further climate actions beyond those already achieved and did not meet the UK's Climate Change Act (at least an 80% reduction in carbon dioxide equivalent emissions by 2050 compared with 1990) target; nuclear power, which met the Climate Change Act target with a limited increase in nuclear power; low-greenhouse gas, which met the Climate Change Act target without any policy constraint on nuclear build; and a constant scenario that held 2011 air pollutant concentrations constant until 2050. We predicted the health and economic impacts from air pollution for the scenarios until 2050, and the inequalities in exposure across different socioeconomic groups. NO 2 concentrations declined leading to 4 892 000 life-years saved for the nuclear power scenario and 7 178 000 life-years saved for the low-greenhouse gas scenario from 2011 to 2154. However, the associations that we used might overestimate the effects of NO 2 itself. PM 2·5 concentrations in Great Britain are predicted to decrease between 42% and 44% by 2050 compared with 2011 in the scenarios that met the Climate Change Act targets, especially those from road traffic and off-road machinery. These reductions in PM 2·5 are tempered by a 2035 peak (and subsequent decline) in biomass (wood burning), and by a large

  20. A fully automatic tool to perform accurate flood mapping by merging remote sensing imagery and ancillary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addabbo, Annarita; Refice, Alberto; Lovergine, Francesco; Pasquariello, Guido

    2016-04-01

    Flooding is one of the most frequent and expansive natural hazard. High-resolution flood mapping is an essential step in the monitoring and prevention of inundation hazard, both to gain insight into the processes involved in the generation of flooding events, and from the practical point of view of the precise assessment of inundated areas. Remote sensing data are recognized to be useful in this respect, thanks to the high resolution and regular revisit schedules of state-of-the-art satellites, moreover offering a synoptic overview of the extent of flooding. In particular, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data present several favorable characteristics for flood mapping, such as their relative insensitivity to the meteorological conditions during acquisitions, as well as the possibility of acquiring independently of solar illumination, thanks to the active nature of the radar sensors [1]. However, flood scenarios are typical examples of complex situations in which different factors have to be considered to provide accurate and robust interpretation of the situation on the ground: the presence of many land cover types, each one with a particular signature in presence of flood, requires modelling the behavior of different objects in the scene in order to associate them to flood or no flood conditions [2]. Generally, the fusion of multi-temporal, multi-sensor, multi-resolution and/or multi-platform Earth observation image data, together with other ancillary information, seems to have a key role in the pursuit of a consistent interpretation of complex scenes. In the case of flooding, distance from the river, terrain elevation, hydrologic information or some combination thereof can add useful information to remote sensing data. Suitable methods, able to manage and merge different kind of data, are so particularly needed. In this work, a fully automatic tool, based on Bayesian Networks (BNs) [3] and able to perform data fusion, is presented. It supplies flood maps

  1. Free-roaming dog populations: a cost-benefit model for different management options, applied to Abruzzo, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgåsen, H R; Er, C; Di Nardo, A; Dalla Villa, P

    2013-11-01

    Since 1991, Italian free-roaming dogs have been under government protection and euthanasia is restricted by law. Management measures are regulated at the regional level and include: kennelling, adoptions, conversion of stray dogs into block dogs, and population control of owned dogs. "Block dogs" are free-roaming dogs that have been collected by the veterinary services, microchipped, sterilised, vaccinated, and released under the responsibility of the local municipalities. The present paper describes a cost-benefit model for different management options and applies it to two provinces in Abruzzo, central Italy. The model considers welfare, nuisance and direct costs to the municipality. Welfare is quantified based on the expert opinions of 60 local veterinarians, who were asked to assign a score for each dog category according to the five freedoms: freedom from pain, physical discomfort, disease, fear, and freedom to express normal behaviour. Nuisance was assessed only for comparisons between management options, using the number of free-roaming dogs per inhabitant as a proxy indicator. A community dog population model was constructed to predict the effect of management on the different subpopulations of dogs during a ten-year period. It is a user-friendly deterministic model in Excel, easily adaptable to different communities to assess the impact of their dog management policy on welfare, nuisance and direct monetary cost. We present results for Teramo and Pescara provinces. Today's management system is compared to alternative models, which evaluate the effect of specific interventions. These include either a 10% yearly increase in kennel capacity, an increase in adoptions from kennels, a doubling of the capture of stray dogs, or a stabilisation of the owned dog population. Results indicate that optimal management decisions are complex because welfare, nuisance and monetary costs may imply conflicting interventions. Nevertheless, they clearly indicate that

  2. Impact of prenatal care provider on the use of ancillary health services during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent declines in the provision of prenatal care by family physicians and the integration of midwives into the Canadian health care system have led to a shift in the pattern of prenatal care provision; however it is unknown if this also impacts use of other health services during pregnancy. This study aimed to assess the impact of the type of prenatal care provider on the self-reported use of ancillary services during pregnancy. Methods Data for this study was obtained from the All Our Babies study, a community-based prospective cohort study of women’s experiences during pregnancy and the post-partum period. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were used to assess the association between type of prenatal care provider and use of ancillary health services in pregnancy. Results During pregnancy, 85.8% of women reported accessing ancillary health services. Compared to women who received prenatal care from a family physician, women who saw a midwife were less likely to call a nurse telephone advice line (OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.18-0.50) and visit the emergency department (OR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.24-0.89), but were more likely receive chiropractic care (OR = 4.07, 95% CI: 2.49-6.67). Women who received their prenatal care from an obstetrician were more likely to visit a walk-in clinic (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.11-2.05) than those who were cared for by a family physician. Conclusions Prenatal care is a complex entity and referral pathways between care providers and services are not always clear. This can lead to the provision of fragmented care and create opportunities for errors and loss of information. All types of care providers have a role in addressing the full range of health needs that pregnant women experience. PMID:23497179

  3. [Ecological benefit evaluation of urban forests in Shenyang City based on QuickBird image and CITYgreen model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Fu; He, Xing-Yuan; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Gui-Ling; Li, Ling; Xu, Wen-Duo

    2008-09-01

    Based on the urban forest coverage data interpreted from QuickBird image (2006) and the CITYgreen model, the benefits of Shenyang urban forest types with different canopy closure in carbon fixation and pollutant removal were investigated by means of sampling strategy. The results showed that the total amount of carbon storage, annual carbon sequestration, annual air pollutant removal, and their corresponding values were 0.51 Tg, 6858.20 Mg x a-1), 556.04 Mg x a(-1) 1.26 x 10(8) Yuan, 1.72 x 10(6) Yuan, and 0.22 x 10(8) Yuan, respectively. Among the urban forest types in Shenyang City, ecological and public welfare forest (E) contributed most to the carbon fixation and air pollutant removal. The carbon density decreased in the order of S (subordinated forest) > L (landscape and relaxation forest) > P (production and management forest) > E > R (road forest), annual carbon sequestration was in the order of P > L > E > S > R, and annual air pollutant removal was in the order of P > L > S > E > R. The carbon density of different urban forest types was closely related to their structural complexity. For the forests with high canopy closure, both the annual carbon sequestration and the annual pollutant removal were high; while for those with lower canopy closure, these two characteristics were dependent on the structural complexity of the forests.

  4. Impact of simulating borderline personality disorder on the MMPI-2: a costs-benefits model employing base rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivec, H J; Hilsenroth, M J; Lynn, S J

    1995-04-01

    This investigation extends current work on the impact of role-specific response sets on dissimulated Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) profiles. Specifically, one group of subjects was given specific symptom information and instructed to simulate borderline personality disorder on the MMPI-2. This dissimulation performance was compared to a clinical comparison group of clients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder, a group of subjects instructed to simulate major depression, and a group of subjects who responded honestly to the MMPI-2. In both simulating conditions, subjects produced significantly higher elevations on a majority of clinical and validity scales than the clinical comparison group. A rigorous evaluation of the F scale was conducted to provide a range of predictive values for different F scale cutting scores for detecting malingering. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive power were computed for this range of F scale values. A similar analysis was conducted for the Borderline Personality Disorder Scale (BPDsc) of Morey, Waugh, and Blashfield (1985). These results are integrated with extant research. A costs-benefits model is proposed for employing F scale cutting scores in clinical situations with different base rates of malingering.

  5. Molecular Structure Laboratory. Fourier Transform Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (FTNMR) Spectrometer and Ancillary Instrumentation at SUNY Geneseo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, David K [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Geneseo, NY (United States)

    2015-12-31

    An Agilent 400-MR nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer and ancillary equipment were purchased, which are being used for molecular structure elucidation.  The instrumentation is housed in a pre-existing facility designed specifically for its use. This instrument package is being used to expand the research and educational efforts of the faculty and students at SUNY-Geneseo and is made available to neighboring educational institutions and business concerns.  Funds were also used for training of College personnel, maintenance of the instrumentation, and installation of the equipment.

  6. Enhancing the Role of Electric Vehicles in the Power Grid: Field Validation of Multiple Ancillary Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knezovic, Katarina; Martinenas, Sergejus; Andersen, Peter Bach

    2016-01-01

    With increased penetration of distributed energy resources and electric vehicles (EVs), different EV integration strategies can be used for mitigating various adverse effects, and supporting the grid. However, the research regarding EV smart charging has mostly remained on simulations, whereas...... essentially means it is applicable to any EV complying with IEC 61851 and SAE J1772 standards. The field test validation is conducted in a real Danish distribution grid with a Nissan Leaf providing three ancillary services through unidirectional AC charging, namely congestion management, local voltage support...

  7. Identification of Conflicts between Transmission and Distribution System Operators when Acquiring Ancillary Services from Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zecchino, Antonio; Knezovic, Katarina; Marinelli, Mattia

    2017-01-01

    products according to requests coming from both distribution and transmission system operators. The goal of this paper is to provide an identification procedure that is able to detect, identify and catalogue possible conflicts among the involved stakeholders that take place when requesting and/or acquiring...... ancillary services from flexible units. The investigation is carried out considering a 3-area power system which allows to take into account local constraints as well as system-wide needs. As outcome, this paper identifies the conflicts from both a theoretical and a practical point of view, by means...

  8. Modeling the potential benefits of catch-crop introduction in fodder crop rotations in a Western Europe landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, P; Ruiz, L; Raimbault, T; Vertès, F; Cordier, M O; Gascuel-Odoux, C; Masson, V; Salmon-Monviola, J; Durand, P

    2012-10-15

    Among possible mitigation options to reduce agricultural-borne nitrate fluxes to water bodies, introduction of catch crop before spring crops is acknowledged as a cost-efficient solution at the plot scale, but it was rarely assessed at the catchment level. This study aims to evaluate a set of catch crop implantation scenarios and their consequences in a coastal catchment prone to eutrophication. The objectives are (i) to discuss the potential benefits of catch crop introduction taking into account the limitations due to the physiographic and agricultural context of the area (ii) to propose a multicriteria classification of these scenarios as a basis for discussion with stakeholders. We used the distributed agro-hydrological model TNT2 to simulate 25 scenarios of catch crop management, differing in length of catch crop growing period, place in the crop rotation and residue management. The scenarios were classified considering the variations in main crop yields and either nitrogen fluxes in stream or the global nitrogen mass balance at the catchment level. The simulations showed that in the catchment studied, little improvement can be expected from increasing the catch crop surface. Catch crop cultivation was always beneficial to reduce nitrogen losses, but led to adverse effects on main crop yields in some cases. Among the scenarios involving additional catch crop surface, introducing catch crop between two winter cereals appeared as the most promising. The classification of scenarios depended on the chosen criteria: when considering only the reduction of nitrogen fluxes in streams, exporting catch crop residues was the most efficient while when considering the global nitrogen mass balance, soil incorporation of catch crop residues was the most beneficial. This work highlights the interest, while using integrated models, of assessing simulated scenarios with multicriteria approach to provide stakeholder with a picture as complete as possible of the consequences of

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of Perceived Ethnic Discrimination in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Morales, Leticia; Roesch, Scott C; Gallo, Linda C; Emory, Kristen T; Molina, Kristine M; Gonzalez, Patricia; Penedo, Frank J; Navas-Nacher, Elena L; Teng, Yanping; Deng, Yu; Isasi, Carmen R; Schneiderman, Neil; Brondolo, Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Empirical studies examining perceived ethnic discrimination in Latinos of diverse background groups are limited. This study examined prevalence and correlates of discrimination in a diverse sample of U.S. Latinos (N=5,291) from the multi-site Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) and HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study. The sample permitted an examination of differences across seven groups (Central American, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South American, and Other/Multiple Background). Most participants (79.5%) reported lifetime discrimination exposure and prevalence rates ranged from 64.9% to 98% across groups. Structural Equation Models (SEM) indicated that after adjusting for sociodemographic covariates most group differences in reports of discrimination were eliminated. However, Cubans reported the lowest levels of discrimination, overall among all groups. Furthermore, regional effects were more important than group effects. Participants from Chicago reported the highest levels of discrimination in comparison to other regions. Group differences among Latinos appear to be primarily a function of sociodemographic differences in education, income, and acculturation. In addition, differences in exposure to discrimination may be tied to variables associated with both immigration patterns and integration to U.S. culture. Results highlight the importance of considering historical context and the intersection of discrimination and immigration when evaluating the mental health of Latinos.

  10. Fringe Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgursky, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Uses statistics from the National Center for Education Statistics and the Bureau of Labor Statistics to examine teacher salaries and benefits. Discusses compensation of teachers compared with nonteachers. Asserts that statistics from the American Federation of Teachers and the National Education Association underestimate teacher compensation…

  11. Stochastic scheduling of aggregators of plug-in electric vehicles for participation in energy and ancillary service markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alipour, Manijeh; Mohammadi-Ivatloo, Behnam; Moradi-Dalvand, Mohammad; Zare, Kazem

    2017-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles are expected to play a major role in the transportation system as the environmental problems and energy crisis are being more and more urgent recently. Implementing a large number of vehicles with proper control could bring an opportunity of large storage and flexibility for power systems. The plug-in electric vehicle aggregator is responsible for providing power and controlling the charging pattern of the plug-in electric vehicles under its contracted area. This paper deals with the problem of optimal scheduling problem of plug-in electric vehicle aggregators in electricity market considering the uncertainties of market prices, availability of vehicles and status of being called by the ISO in the reserve market. The impact of the market price and reserve market uncertainties on the electric vehicle scheduling problem is characterized through a stochastic programming framework. The objective of the aggregator is to maximize its profit by charging the plug-in electric vehicles on the low price time intervals as well as participating in ancillary service markets. The operational constraints of plug-in electric vehicles and constraints of vehicle to grid are modeled in the proposed framework. An illustrative example is provided to confirm the performance of the proposed model. - Highlights: • Optimal scheduling of vehicle aggregators in electricity market has been addressed. • The operational constraints of plug-in vehicle to grid are considered. • The uncertainties of calling status in reserve market and market prices are modeled. • Vehicles' driving patterns and availability uncertainty are modeled. • The effect of risk measure weight in the vehicle to grid model has been studied.

  12. Health Co-Benefits from Air Pollution and Mitigation Costs of the Paris Agreement: A Modelling Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markandya, Anil; Sampedro, Jon; Smith, Steven J.; van Dingenen, Rita; Pizarro-Irizar, Cristina; Arto, Iñaki; Gonzalez-Eguino, Mikel

    2018-03-02

    While the co-benefits from addressing both climate change and air pollution related problems have been clearly recognized, there is not much evidence comparing the mitigation costs and economic benefits of air pollution reduction for alternative scenarios to reduce greenhouse gases. This study analyses the extent to which the health co-benefits would compensate the mitigation cost of achieving the targets of Paris Agreement (2ºC and 1·5ºC) under different scenarios where the emissions abatement effort is shared between countries according to three established equity criteria.

  13. Market and Policy Barriers for Demand Response Providing Ancillary Services in U.S. Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); MacDonald, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we attempt to provide a comprehensive examination of various market and policy barriers to demand response providing ancillary services in both ISO/RTO and non-ISO/RTO regions, especially at the program provider level. It is useful to classify barriers in order to create a holistic understanding and identify parties that could be responsible for their removal. This study develops a typology of barriers focusing on smaller customers that must rely on a program provider (i.e., electric investor owned utility or IOU, ARC) to create an aggregated DR resource in order to bring ancillary services to the balancing authority.ii The barriers were identified through examinations of regulatory structures, market environments, and product offerings; and discussions with industry stakeholders and regulators. In order to help illustrate the differences in barriers among various wholesale market designs and their constituent retail environments, four regions were chosen to use as case studies: Colorado, Texas, Wisconsin, and New Jersey. We highlight the experience in each area as it relates to the identified barriers.

  14. Safe introduction of ancillary trocars in gynecological surgery: the "yellow island" anatomical landmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni; Gasbarro, Nicola; Lagana, Antonio Simone; Sapia, Fabrizio; Rapisarda, A M C; Valenti, Gaetano; Trovato, Maria Antonietta; Rossetti, Diego; Chiofalo, Benito; Barrasso, Giuseppina; Tinelli, Andrea; Corrado, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This technical note aims to suggest a safe introduction of ancillary trocars in gynaecological surgery, in order to prevent inferior epigastric artery damage. We performed a narrative overview, synthesizing the findings of literature retrieved from searches of computerized databases. Among the different techniques, the identification of the "yellow island" as anatomical landmark seems to be a useful aid to avoid complication. This particular landmark is identified taking the lateral third of a line between the anterior superior iliac spine and the umbilicus as reference points, by a subperitoneal accumulation of adipose tissue located in that area. "Yellow island" could be considered a safe place for trocars introduction because epigastric artery never runs there, even in patients with particular anatomical variants. This technique is particularly useful in obese patients, in which "yellow island" appears to be more evident respect to lean ones. Furthermore, the use of "open" trocars insertion may reduce the possibility of epigastric artery lesions respect to "Verres needle technique". The identification of the "yellow island" anatomical landmark could be considered an useful aid for the safe introduction of ancillary trocars in gynaecological surgery. Gynaecology, Laparoscopic surgery, Trocars placement.

  15. BLINK REFLEX IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS: AN ANCILLARY TEST FOR DETECTING BRAIN STEM LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M ETEMEDYFAR

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Electrodiagnostic tests are one of the ancillary procedures that are used for diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS. This study investigates the frequency of abnormal blink reflex in patients with MS. Methods. In this cross sectional diagnostic study, 100 patients (26 male and 74 female with definite MS were selected based on clinical and MRI findings. they were referred to Al- zahra hospital (affiliated to iUMSHS during year 2000. Blink reflex (BR waves including R1, R2, R2 were recorded inpatients through the stimulation of supraorbital nerve. Results. The frequency of abnormal BR in MS patients with brain stem involvement was 77.9 percent and in those without brain stem involvement was 36.6 percent (P < 0.001. There was a significant relationship between the duration of MS and the abnormality in BR. Discussion. The frequency of abnormal blink reflex in MS is significantly associated with site of involvement in the brain. The majority of MS patients with brain stem involvement have abnormal BR. It is proposed that in patients with symptoms and signs of MS if there was no accessibility for MRI or if the results of MRI were equivocal, blink reflex test should be performed in addition to other ancillary tests.

  16. Open Automated Demand Response Communications in Demand Response for Wholesale Ancillary Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan; Hernandez, John; Chiu, Albert; Sezgen, Osman; Goodin, John

    2009-11-06

    The Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) is conducting a pilot program to investigate the technical feasibility of bidding certain demand response (DR) resources into the California Independent System Operator's (CAISO) day-ahead market for ancillary services nonspinning reserve. Three facilities, a retail store, a local government office building, and a bakery, are recruited into the pilot program. For each facility, hourly demand, and load curtailment potential are forecasted two days ahead and submitted to the CAISO the day before the operation as an available resource. These DR resources are optimized against all other generation resources in the CAISO ancillary service. Each facility is equipped with four-second real time telemetry equipment to ensure resource accountability and visibility to CAISO operators. When CAISO requests DR resources, PG&E's OpenADR (Open Automated DR) communications infrastructure is utilized to deliver DR signals to the facilities energy management and control systems (EMCS). The pre-programmed DR strategies are triggered without a human in the loop. This paper describes the automated system architecture and the flow of information to trigger and monitor the performance of the DR events. We outline the DR strategies at each of the participating facilities. At one site a real time electric measurement feedback loop is implemented to assure the delivery of CAISO dispatched demand reductions. Finally, we present results from each of the facilities and discuss findings.

  17. Testing cost-benefit models of parental care evolution using lizard populations differing in the expression of maternal care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-San Huang

    Full Text Available Parents are expected to evolve tactics to care for eggs or offspring when providing such care increases fitness above the costs incurred by this behavior. Costs to the parent include the energetic demands of protecting offspring, delaying future fecundity, and increased risk of predation. We used cost-benefit models to test the ecological conditions favoring the evolution of parental care, using lizard populations that differ in whether or not they express maternal care. We found that predators play an important role in the evolution of maternal care because: (1 evolving maternal care is unlikely when care increases predation pressure on the parents; (2 maternal care cannot evolve under low levels of predation pressure on both parents and offspring; and (3 maternal care evolves only when parents are able to successfully defend offspring from predators without increasing predation risk to themselves. Our studies of one of the only known vertebrate species to exhibit interpopulation differences in the expression of maternal care provide clear support for some of the hypothesized circumstances under which maternal care should evolve (e.g., when nests are in exposed locations, parents are able to defend the eggs from predators, and egg incubation periods are brief, but do not support others (e.g., when nest-sites are scarce, life history strategies are "risky", reproductive frequency is low, and environmental conditions are harsh. We conclude that multiple pathways can lead to the evolution of parental care from a non-caring state, even in a single population of a widespread species.

  18. Who benefits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    2016-01-01

    Cross-border welfare rights for citizens of European Union member states are intensely contested, yet there is limited research into voter opposition to such rights, sometimes denoted ‘welfare chauvinism’. We highlight an overlooked aspect in scholarly work: the role of stereotypes about benefici...... recipient identity. These effects are strongest among respondents high in ethnic prejudice and economic conservatism. The findings imply that stereotypes about who benefits from cross-border welfare rights condition public support for those rights....

  19. How African American and Hispanic High School Students in an Urban Charter High School May Benefit from the Early College High School Model of Receiving College Credits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford-Nicholas, Gloria Jean

    2015-01-01

    The preparedness of students to enter college is an ongoing issue of national concern. The purpose of the study was to conduct a mixed method descriptive case study to answer the question: "How African-American and Hispanic High School Students in an Urban Charter High School may benefit from the Early College High School Model of receiving…

  20. Comparative cost-benefit analysis of tele-homecare for community-dwelling elderly in Japan: Non-Government versus Government Supported Funding Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Miki; Abraham, Chon

    2017-08-01

    Tele-homecare is gaining prominence as a viable care alternative, as evidenced by the increase in financial support from international governments to fund initiatives in their respective countries. The primary reason for the funding is to support efforts to reduce lags and increase capacity in access to care as well as to promote preventive measures that can avert costly emergent issues from arising. These efforts are especially important to super-aged and aging societies such as in Japan, many European countries, and the United States (US). However, to date and to our knowledge, a direct comparison of non-government vs. government-supported funding models for tele-homecare is particularly lacking in Japan. The aim of this study is to compare these operational models (i.e., non-government vs. government-supported funding) from a cost-benefit perspective. This simulation study applies to a Japanese hypothetical cohort with implications for other super-aged and aging societies abroad. We performed a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) on two operational models for enabling tele-homecare for elderly community-dwelling cohorts based on a decision tree model, which we created with parameters from published literature. The two models examined are (a) Model 1-non-government-supported funding that includes monthly fixed charges paid by users for a portion of the operating costs, and (b) Model 2-government-supported funding that includes startup and installation costs only (i.e., no operating costs) and no monthly user charges. We performed base case cost-benefit analysis and probabilistic cost-benefit analysis with a Monte Carlo simulation. We calculated net benefit and benefit-to-cost ratios (BCRs) from the societal perspective with a five-year time horizon applying a 3% discount rate for both cost and benefit values. The cost of tele-homecare included (a) the startup system expense, averaged over a five-year depreciation period, and (b) operation expenses (i.e., labor and non

  1. Staff working in ancillary departments at a tertiary care hospital in Bengaluru, Karnataka, India: How healthy are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanya, Bhavya; Nisha, Catherin; Ramesh, Naveen; Joseph, Bobby

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ancillary health services are those supplemental services other than room, board, and medical/nursing services provided to hospital patients in the course of care. Ancillary department staff forms an integral part in the smooth functioning of a hospital. There is a need to focus on the health of these individuals to ensure their well-being and in turn, productivity at the workplace. Objective: To study the morbidity profile of the staff working at ancillary departments of a tertiary care hospital in Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: We conducted our study in a 1,200-bedded tertiary care hospital in Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. Annual medical checkup (AMC) for all the staff working at the ancillary departments has been started in recent years and is provided free of cost and during working hours. A total of 150 employees from ancillary departments underwent AMC in the year 2013. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Spearman's correlation and Chi-square test were used. Results: Of the 150 employees, the majority was male (72%); the mean age was 38 ± 11 years. The most common morbidities were diabetes mellitus (11%), hypertension (10.6%), musculoskeletal disorders (9.3%), surgical problems (8.6%, hemorrhoids, varicose veins), and dental caries (6.6%). On stool microscopy, 12% of the dietary workers showed ova/cyst. There was a significant positive correlation between age and the number of chronic morbidities (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Lifestyle disorders such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension were the major morbidities among the staff in the ancillary departments of the hospital. We ensured regular follow-up, adherence to medication, and lifestyle modifications in terms of diet and exercise. PMID:27390479

  2. Routine use of ancillary investigations in staging diffuse large B-cell lymphoma improves the International Prognostic Index (IPI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaulikar, Dipti; Shadbolt, Bruce; Dahlstrom, Jane E; McDonald, Anne

    2009-11-22

    The International Prognostic Index (IPI) is used to determine prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). One of the determinants of IPI is the stage of disease with bone marrow involvement being classified as stage IV. For the IPI, involvement on bone marrow is traditionally defined on the basis of histology with ancillary investigations used only in difficult cases to aid histological diagnosis. This study aimed to determine the effect of the routine use of flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and molecular studies in bone marrow staging upon the IPI. Bone marrow trephines of 156 histologically proven DLBCL cases at initial diagnosis were assessed on routine histology, and immunohistochemistry using two T-cell markers (CD45RO and CD3), two B-cell markers (CD20 and CD79a) and kappa and lambda light chains. Raw flow cytometry data on all samples were reanalysed and reinterpreted blindly. DNA extracted from archived paraffin-embedded trephine biopsy samples was used for immunoglobulin heavy chain and light chain gene rearrangement analysis. Using immunophenotyping (flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry), 30 (19.2%) cases were upstaged to stage IV. A further 8 (5.1%) cases were upstaged using molecular studies. A change in IPI was noted in 18 cases (11.5%) on immunophenotyping alone, and 22 (14.1%) cases on immunophenotyping and molecular testing. Comparison of two revised IPI models, 1) using immunophenotyping alone, and 2) using immunophenotyping with molecular studies, was performed with baseline IPI using a Cox regression model. It showed that the revised IPI model using immunophenotyping provides the best differentiation between the IPI categories. Improved bone marrow staging using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry improves the predictive value of the IPI in patients with DLBCL and should be performed routinely in all cases.

  3. Stress and sleep: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Alcántara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hispanics/Latinos face specific sociocultural stressors associated with their marginalized status in the United States. While stress is known to cause poor sleep, the differential effects of the specific stressors faced by Hispanics/Latinos have not been evaluated. Using cross-sectional data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study, we conducted weighted generalized linear models to evaluate the associations of acculturation stress, ethnic discrimination, and chronic moderate/severe stress with self-reported sleep outcomes (insomnia symptoms, daytime sleepiness, sleep duration in individual and aggregate models adjusted for site, socio-demographics, behavioral, and medical conditions. Participants included 5313 Hispanic/Latino adults; 43.5% ≥ age 45, 54.8% female, and 22.0% US-born. Chronic moderate/severe stress, ethnic discrimination, and acculturation stress were each positively associated with sleep. In the adjusted aggregate model, only chronic moderate/severe stress was associated with insomnia symptoms (exp(b = 1.07 for each additional stressor, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.09. Both acculturation stress (exp(b = 1.05 for each additional SD, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.10 and ethnic discrimination (exp(b = 1.05 for each additional SD, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.08 were associated with daytime sleepiness. Each SD increase in ethnic discrimination related to a 16% and 13% increased prevalence of short ( 9 h (RRR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.27, respectively. These associations were consistent across sex. Acculturation stress and ethnic discrimination are associated with poor sleep in Hispanics/Latinos. Future research should explore whether behavioral sleep interventions minimize the impact of sociocultural stressors on sleep.

  4. Counterfactual simulations applied to SHRP2 crashes: The effect of driver behavior models on safety benefit estimations of intelligent safety systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärgman, Jonas; Boda, Christian-Nils; Dozza, Marco

    2017-05-01

    As the development and deployment of in-vehicle intelligent safety systems (ISS) for crash avoidance and mitigation have rapidly increased in the last decades, the need to evaluate their prospective safety benefits before introduction has never been higher. Counterfactual simulations using relevant mathematical models (for vehicle dynamics, sensors, the environment, ISS algorithms, and models of driver behavior) have been identified as having high potential. However, although most of these models are relatively mature, models of driver behavior in the critical seconds before a crash are still relatively immature. There are also large conceptual differences between different driver models. The objective of this paper is, firstly, to demonstrate the importance of the choice of driver model when counterfactual simulations are used to evaluate two ISS: Forward collision warning (FCW), and autonomous emergency braking (AEB). Secondly, the paper demonstrates how counterfactual simulations can be used to perform sensitivity analyses on parameter settings, both for driver behavior and ISS algorithms. Finally, the paper evaluates the effect of the choice of glance distribution in the driver behavior model on the safety benefit estimation. The paper uses pre-crash kinematics and driver behavior from 34 rear-end crashes from the SHRP2 naturalistic driving study for the demonstrations. The results for FCW show a large difference in the percent of avoided crashes between conceptually different models of driver behavior, while differences were small for conceptually similar models. As expected, the choice of model of driver behavior did not affect AEB benefit much. Based on our results, researchers and others who aim to evaluate ISS with the driver in the loop through counterfactual simulations should be sure to make deliberate and well-grounded choices of driver models: the choice of model matters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ground State and Excited State Tuning in Ferric Dipyrrin Complexes Promoted by Ancillary Ligand Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinlein, Claudia; Zheng, Shao-Liang; Betley, Theodore A.

    2017-04-24

    Three ferric dipyrromethene complexes featuring different ancillary ligands were synthesized by one electron oxidation of ferrous precursors. Four-coordinate iron complexes of the type (ArL)FeX2 [ArL = 1,9-(2,4,6-Ph3C6H2)2-5-mesityldipyrromethene] with X = Cl or tBuO were prepared and found to be high-spin (S = 5/2), as determined by superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, electron paramagnetic resonance, and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The ancillary ligand substitution was found to affect both ground state and excited properties of the ferric complexes examined. While each ferric complex displays reversible reduction and oxidation events, each alkoxide for chloride substitution results in a nearly 600 mV cathodic shift of the FeIII/II couple. The oxidation event remains largely unaffected by the ancillary ligand substitution and is likely dipyrrin-centered. While the alkoxide substituted ferric species largely retain the color of their ferrous precursors, characteristic of dipyrrin-based ligand-to-ligand charge transfer (LLCT), the dichloride ferric complex loses the prominent dipyrrin chromophore, taking on a deep green color. Time-dependent density functional theory analyses indicate the weaker-field chloride ligands allow substantial configuration mixing of ligand-to-metal charge transfer into the LLCT bands, giving rise to the color changes observed. Furthermore, the higher degree of covalency between the alkoxide ferric centers is manifest in the observed reactivity. Delocalization of spin density onto the tert-butoxide ligand in (ArL)FeCl(OtBu) is evidenced by hydrogen atom abstraction to yield (ArL)FeCl and HOtBu in the presence of substrates containing weak C–H bonds, whereas the chloride (ArL)FeCl2 analogue does not react under these conditions.

  6. An integrated modeling framework for real-time irrigation scheduling: the benefit of spectroscopy and weather forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Anna; Polinova, Maria; Housh, Mashor

    2016-04-01

    ). These studies have only incorporated short-term (weekly) forecasts, missing the potential benefit of the mid-term (seasonal) climate forecasts The latest progress in new data acquisition technologies (mainly in the field of Earth observation by remote sensing and imaging spectroscopy systems) as well as the state-of-the-art achievements in the fields of geographical information systems (GIS), computer science and climate and climate impact modelling enable to develop both integrated modelling and realistic spatial simulations. The present method is the use of field spectroscopy technology to keep constant monitoring of the field. The majority of previously developed decision support systems use satellite remote sensing data that provide very limited capabilities (conventional and basic parameters). The alternative is to use a more progressive technology of hyperspectral airborne or ground-based imagery data that provide an exhaustive description of the field. Nevertheless, this alternative is known to be very costly and complex. As such, we will present a low-cost imaging spectroscopy technology supported by detailed and fine-resolution field spectroscopy as a cost effective option for near field real-time monitoring tool. In order to solve the soil water balance and to predict the water irrigation volume a pedological survey is realized in the evaluation study areas.The remote sensing and field spectroscopy were applied to integrate continuous feedbacks from the field (e.g. soil moisture, organic/inorganic carbon, nitrogen, salinity, fertilizers, sulphur acid, texture; crop water-stress, plant stage, LAI , chlorophyll, biomass, yield prediction applying PROSPECT+SILT ; Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation FAPAR) estimated based on remote sensing information to minimize the errors associated with crop simulation process. A stochastic optimization model will be formulated that take into account both mid-term seasonal probabilistic climate prediction

  7. The Relationship of Business Intelligence Systems to Organizational Performance Benefits: A Structural Equation Modeling of Management Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Betsy H.

    2014-01-01

    Business Intelligence is a major expenditure in many organizations and necessary for competitive advantage. These expenditures do not result in maximum benefits for the organization if the information obtained from the Business Intelligence System (BIS) is not used in the management decision-making process. This quantitative research study used an…

  8. Sense making and benefit finding in couples who have a child with Asperger syndrome: an application of the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samios, Christina; Pakenham, Kenneth I; Sofronoff, Kate

    2012-05-01

    Parents of children with Asperger syndrome face many challenges that may lead them to search for meaning by developing explanations for (sense making) and finding benefits (benefit finding) in having a child with special needs. Although family theorists have proposed that finding meaning occurs interpersonally, there is a dearth of empirical research that has examined finding meaning at the couple level. This study examined sense making and benefit finding in 84 couples who have a child with Asperger syndrome by using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (Kenny et al., 2006) to examine actor effects (i.e. the extent to which an individual's score on the predictor variable impacts his or her own level of adjustment) and partner effects (i.e. the extent to which an individual's score on the predictor variable has an impact on his or her partner's level of adjustment) of sense making and benefit finding on parental adjustment. Results demonstrated that parents' benefit finding related to greater anxiety and parents' sense making related to not only their own adjustment but also their partner's adjustment. Results highlight the importance of adopting an interpersonal perspective on finding meaning and adjustment. Limitations, future research and clinical implications are also discussed.

  9. The Resource Benefits Evaluation Model on Remanufacturing Processes of End-of-Life Construction Machinery under the Uncertainty in Recycling Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-wang Deng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the process of end-of-life construction machinery remanufacturing, the existence of uncertainties in all aspects of the remanufacturing process increase the difficulty and complexity of resource benefits evaluation for them. To quantify the effects of those uncertainty factors, this paper makes a mathematical analysis of the recycling and remanufacturing processes, building a resource benefits evaluation model for the end-of-life construction machinery. The recycling price and the profits of remanufacturers can thereby be obtained with a maximum remanufacturing resource benefit. The study investigates the change regularity of the resource benefits, recycling price, and profits of remanufacturers when the recycling price, quality fluctuation coefficient, demand coefficient, and the reusing ratio of products or parts are varying. In the numerical experiment, we explore the effects of uncertainties on the remanufacturing decisions and the total expected costs. The simulated analysis shows when the quality fluctuation coefficient is approaching to 1, the values of the profits of remanufacturer, the maximal resource benefits and recycling price grade into constants.

  10. Ancillary testing, diagnostic/classification criteria and severity grading in Behçet disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Annabelle A; Stanford, Miles; Tabbara, Khalid

    2012-12-01

    Since there is no pathognomonic clinical sign or laboratory test to distinguish Behçet disease from other uveitic entities, the diagnosis must be made based on characteristic ocular and systemic findings in the absence of evidence of other disease that can explain the findings. Ancillary tests, including ocular and brain imaging studies, are used to assess the severity of intraocular inflammation and systemic manifestations of Behçet disease, to identify latent infections and other medical conditions that might worsen with systemic treatment, and to monitor for adverse effects of drugs used. There are two diagnostic or classification criteria in general use by the uveitis community, one from Japan and one from an international group; both rely on a minimum number and/or combination of clinical findings to identify Behçet disease. Finally, several grading schemes have been proposed to assess severity of ocular disease and response to treatment.

  11. Ancillary Services for the European Grid with High Shares of Wind and Solar Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hulle, Frans; Holttinen, Hannele; Kiviluoma, Juha

    2012-01-01

    services that are especially relevant for wind and solar power. These are mainly related to frequency, voltage control and restoration of the system. In addition, based on existing experience and wind integration studies, the paper analyses impacts that high amounts of wind/solar will have on different......With significantly increasing share of variable renewable power generation like wind and solar PV, the need in the power system for ancillary services supporting the network frequency, voltage, etc. changes. Turning this issue around, market opportunities will emerge for wind and solar PV...... technology to deliver such grid services. In the European power system, adequate market mechanisms need to be developed to ensure that there will be an efficient trading of these services. For that purpose a range of (economic) characteristics of wind (and solar) power as providers of grid services need...

  12. Critical Joints in Large Composite Primary Aircraft Structures. Volume 3: Ancillary Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunin, Bruce L.; Sagui, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop the technology for critical structural joints for composite wing structure that meets all the design requirements of a 1990 commercial transport aircraft. The results of a comprehensive ancillary test program are summarized, consisting of single-bolt composite joint specimens tested in a variety of configurations. These tests were conducted to characterize the strength and load deflection properties that are required for multirow joint analysis. The composite material was Toray 300 fiber and Ciba-Geigy 914 resin, in the form of 0.005 and 0.01 inch thick unidirectional tape. Tests were conducted in single and double shear for loaded and unloaded hole configurations under both tensile and compressive loading. Two different layup patterns were examined. All tests were conducted at room temperature. In addition, the results of NASA Standard Toughness Test (NASA RP 1092) are reported, which were conducted for several material systems.

  13. Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the 100-N Area Ancillary Facilities and Integration Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.

    1997-09-01

    This document presents the results of an engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) that was conducted to evaluate alternatives for addressing final disposition of contaminated buildings and structures in the 100-N Area of the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State and is owned by the U.S. Government and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). In November 1989, the 100 Area of the Hanford Site (as well as the 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980. The 100 Area NPL includes the 100-N Area, which is in various stages of the remediation process. It has been determined by RL that hazardous substances in the 100-N Area ancillary facilities may present a potential threat to human health or the environment, and that a non-time critical removal action at these facilities is warranted. To help determine the most appropriate action, RL, in cooperation with the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the EPA, has prepared this EE/CA. The scope of the evaluation includes the inactive contaminated ancillary facilities in the 100-N Area, the facilities residing in the buffer zone, and the Hanford Generating Plant (HGP) and the solid waste management units (SWMUs) inside HGP support facilities. The 105-N Reactor and 109-N Heat Exchange facilities are excluded from this EE/CA evaluation

  14. Development of modified rational buyer auction for procurement of ancillary services utilizing participation matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamalzadeh, R.; Ardehali, M.M.; Rashidinejad, M.

    2008-01-01

    The rational buyer auction is based on a simultaneous auction that is the redesigned auction mechanism for ancillary services by the California independent system operator (CAISO). The incentive for the rational buyer auction is CAISO's intent to adopt a common sense rule of substituting higher-quality lower-cost services for lower-quality higher-cost services, when it results in reduced total procurement cost. For the purposes of designing a desirable auction where the minimum cost for the objective function as well as prevention of price reversal are achieved, either the payment cost in marginal pricing auction must be lowered or price reversal in rational buyer auction must be avoided. The objectives of this study are (a) to develop a newly proposed 'modified rational buyer' auction that does not allow price reversal and (b) to propose and validate a solution procedure that is based on participation matrix and discrete programming. The validation of the proposed solution procedure is accomplished through examination of two case studies available in the literature. Based on the first case study data, it is shown that the newly developed modified rational buyer auction avoids price reversal occurrence, while the total payment of ISO is increased by 5.8%, as compared with rational buyer auction. Also in comparison with marginal pricing auction, the ISO payment is lowered by 38.8%, when the newly developed modified rational buyer auction is utilized. For future work, it is recommended that the application of the modified rational buyer auction to joint dispatch of energy and ancillary services is investigated. (author)

  15. 76 FR 36400 - Third-Party Provision of Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial Reporting for New Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ...-000 and AD10-13-000] Third-Party Provision of Ancillary Services; Accounting and Financial Reporting... Commission's accounting and financial reporting requirements currently do not contain specific accounting \\12... financial reporting requirements \\41\\ for public utilities \\42\\ are designed to provide information about a...

  16. 47 CFR 25.252 - Special requirements for ancillary terrestrial components operating in the 2000-2020 MHz/2180...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... components operating in the 2000-2020 MHz/2180-2200 MHz bands. 25.252 Section 25.252 Telecommunication... Standards § 25.252 Special requirements for ancillary terrestrial components operating in the 2000-2020 MHz... equivalent. (c) For ATC operations in the 2000-2020 MHz band, the power of any emission outside the licensee...

  17. 75 FR 66110 - Guidelines for Use of Stored Specimens and Access to Ancillary Data and Proposed Cost Schedule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... scientific papers with notable findings. Procedures for Proposals: All investigators (including NIH and NICHD... Proposal: Proposals can be submitted on an ongoing basis. Scientific Review Dates: Technical Panels for... ancillary data will be evaluated by an ad hoc Technical Panel for scientific merit. The BRADSC will...

  18. 41 CFR 102-72.67 - What work is covered under an ancillary repair and alteration delegation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What work is covered under an ancillary repair and alteration delegation? 102-72.67 Section 102-72.67 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 72-DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY...

  19. Benefits of Demand Side Response in Providing Frequency Response Service in the Future GB Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei eTeng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The demand for ancillary service is expected to increase significantly in the future GB electricity system due to high penetration of wind. In particular, the need for frequency response, required to deal with sudden frequency drops following a loss of generator, will increase because of the limited inertia capability of wind plants. This paper quantifies the requirements for primary frequency response and analyses the benefits of frequency response provision from DSR. The results show dramatic changes in frequency response requirements driven by high penetration of wind. Case studies carried out by using an advanced stochastic generation scheduling model suggest that the provision of frequency response from DSR could greatly reduce the system operation cost, wind curtailment and carbon emissions in the future GB system characterised by high penetration of wind. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that the benefit of DSR shows significant diurnal and seasonal variation, whereas an even more rapid (instant delivery of frequency response from DSR could provide significant additional value. Our studies also indicate that the competing technologies to DSR, namely battery storage and more flexible generation could potentially reduce its value by up to 35%, still leaving significant room to deploy DSR as frequency response provider.

  20. Application of the malaria management model to the analysis of costs and benefits of DDT versus non-DDT malaria control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Pedercini

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: DDT is considered to be the most cost-effective insecticide for combating malaria. However, it is also the most environmentally persistent and can pose risks to human health when sprayed indoors. Therefore, the use of DDT for vector control remains controversial. METHODS: In this paper we develop a computer-based simulation model to assess some of the costs and benefits of the continued use of DDT for Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS versus its rapid phase out. We apply the prototype model to the aggregated sub Saharan African region. For putting the question about the continued use of DDT for IRS versus its rapid phase out into perspective we calculate the same costs and benefits for alternative combinations of integrated vector management interventions. RESULTS: Our simulation results confirm that the current mix of integrated vector management interventions with DDT as the main insecticide is cheaper than the same mix with alternative insecticides when only direct costs are considered. However, combinations with a stronger focus on insecticide-treated bed nets and environmental management show higher levels of cost-effectiveness than interventions with a focus on IRS. Thus, this focus would also allow phasing out DDT in a cost-effective manner. Although a rapid phase out of DDT for IRS is the most expensive of the tested intervention combinations it can have important economic benefits in addition to health and environmental impacts that are difficult to assess in monetary terms. Those economic benefits captured by the model include the avoided risk of losses in agricultural exports. CONCLUSIONS: The prototype simulation model illustrates how a computer-based scenario analysis tool can inform debates on malaria control policies in general and on the continued use of DDT for IRS versus its rapid phase out in specific. Simulation models create systematic mechanisms for analyzing alternative interventions and making informed trade

  1. Controllable Grid Interface for Testing Ancillary Service Controls and Fault Performance of Utility-Scale Wind Power Generation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, Vahan; Koralewicz, Przemyslaw; Wallen, Robb; Muljadi, Eduard

    2017-02-01

    The rapid expansion of wind power has led many transmission system operators to demand modern wind power plants to comply with strict interconnection requirements. Such requirements involve various aspects of wind power plant operation, including fault ride-through and power quality performance as well as the provision of ancillary services to enhance grid reliability. During recent years, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) of the U.S. Department of Energy has developed a new, groundbreaking testing apparatus and methodology to test and demonstrate many existing and future advanced controls for wind generation (and other renewable generation technologies) on the multimegawatt scale and medium-voltage levels. This paper describes the capabilities and control features of NREL's 7-MVA power electronic grid simulator (also called a controllable grid interface, or CGI) that enables testing many active and reactive power control features of modern wind turbine generators -- including inertial response, primary and secondary frequency responses, and voltage regulation -- under a controlled, medium-voltage grid environment. In particular, this paper focuses on the specifics of testing the balanced and unbalanced fault ride-through characteristics of wind turbine generators under simulated strong and weak medium-voltage grid conditions. In addition, this paper provides insights on the power hardware-in-the-loop feature implemented in the CGI to emulate (in real time) the conditions that might exist in various types of electric power systems under normal operations and/or contingency scenarios. Using actual test examples and simulation results, this paper describes the value of CGI as an ultimate modeling validation tool for all types of 'grid-friendly' controls by wind generation.

  2. The Connecting South West Ontario (cSWO) Benefits Model: An Approach for the Collaborative Capture of Value of Electronic Health Records and Enabling Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Ted; Huebner, Lori-Anne; Alarakhia, Mohamed; Hollohan, Kirk

    2017-01-01

    This paper explains the benefits model developed and deployed by the connecting South West Ontario (cSWO) program. The cSWO approach is founded on the principles of enabling clinical and organizational value and the recognition that enabling requires a collaborative approach that can include several perspectives. We describe our approach which is aimed at creating a four-part harmony between change management and adoption, best practice research and quality indicators, data analytics and clinical value production.

  3. Cost Benefit Analysis Modeling Tool for Electric vs. ICE Airport Ground Support Equipment – Development and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Francfort; Kevin Morrow; Dimitri Hochard

    2007-02-01

    This report documents efforts to develop a computer tool for modeling the economic payback for comparative airport ground support equipment (GSE) that are propelled by either electric motors or gasoline and diesel engines. The types of GSE modeled are pushback tractors, baggage tractors, and belt loaders. The GSE modeling tool includes an emissions module that estimates the amount of tailpipe emissions saved by replacing internal combustion engine GSE with electric GSE. This report contains modeling assumptions, methodology, a user’s manual, and modeling results. The model was developed based on the operations of two airlines at four United States airports.

  4. Direct benefits of genetic mosaicism and intraorganismal selection: modeling coevolution between a long-lived tree and a short-lived herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folse, Henry J; Roughgarden, Joan

    2012-04-01

    We model direct fitness benefits of genetic mosaicism for a long-lived tree in coevolution with a short-lived herbivore to test four hypotheses: that mosaicism reduces selection on the herbivore for resistance to plant defenses; that module-level selection allows the individual tree to adapt to its herbivore; and that this benefits the tree population, increasing average tree fitness and reducing local adaptation of the herbivore. We show that: mosaicism does not sufficiently reduce selection for resistance in the herbivore to benefit the tree; that individual trees do benefit from module-level selection when somatic mutation introduces new defenses; and that mosaicism does reduce local adaptation in the herbivore, which increases average tree fitness. These results are robust to varying genetic assumptions of dominance and the somatic mutation rate, but only hold for sufficiently long-lived trees with relatively strong selection. We also show that a mixed reproductive strategy of primarily asexual reproduction interspersed with occasional sexual reproduction is effective in coevolving with the herbivore, as it maintains beneficial allele combinations. Finally, we argue that intraorganismal genetic heterogeneity need not threaten the integrity of the individual and may be adaptive when selection acts concordantly between levels. © 2011 The Author. Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. Benefit of modelling regarding the quality and efficiency of PLC-programming in process automation; Nutzen von Modellierung fuer die Qualitaet und Effizienz der Steuerungsprogrammierung in der Automatisierungstechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, D.; Vogel-Heuser, B. [Bergische Univ. Wuppertal (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Automatisierungstechnik/Prozessinformatik

    2006-03-15

    Software development in process automation has many deficiencies in procedures, notations and tool support. As a result, modern software engineering concepts and notations, like object oriented approaches or UML, are not wide spread in this field. Hence, drawbacks regarding start-up times, additional costs and low software quality are immense. This paper will evaluate the benefit of modelling as a design step prior to coding, regarding cognitive paradigms. Two modelling notations (UML and ICL) will be compared analyzing their impact on the quality of automation software written in IEC 61131. (orig.)

  6. Estimating spillover benefits of large R and D projects: Application of real options modelling approach to the case of thermonuclear fusion R and D programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednyagin, Denis; Gnansounou, Edgard

    2012-01-01

    This paper is focused on the analysis of spillover benefits of the ongoing R and D programme on thermonuclear fusion technology. The spillover effects are understood here as positive externalities of publicly funded R and D, demonstration and deployment (RDDD) activities that may be revealed at the companies' level in the form of newly created knowledge stock; development of innovative products/processes with broader market applications; strengthening of R and D, manufacturing and marketing capabilities; etc. An integrated compound real options model is proposed that allows to estimate the strategic net social present value of fusion RDDD programme taking into account the different types of spillover benefits along with the hidden real options value arising due to uncertainty and managerial flexibility. It was found that the value of spillover effects, modelled as “expansion option”, could represent a significant proportion of the overall socio-economic value of fusion RDDD programme (nearly 20%). This paper clearly demonstrates that, besides a high-level mission to assure sustainable energy supply, fusion RDDD programme may yield substantial net socio-economic benefits that may be at least two times higher compared to the expected RD and D costs, and hence the pursuit of even more ambitious programme is economically justified. - Highlights: ► Evaluate the strategic net social present value of fusion RDDD programme. ► Consider different types of spillover effects. ► Economic value of spillovers is estimated with a compound real options model. ► Spillover benefits could represent up to 20% of the value of fusion RDDD programme.

  7. Preliminary Results of Ancillary Safety Analyses Supporting TREAT LEU Conversion Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunett, A. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fei, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Strons, P. S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Papadias, D. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hoffman, E. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kontogeorgakos, D. C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Connaway, H. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wright, A. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT), located at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is a test facility designed to evaluate the performance of reactor fuels and materials under transient accident conditions. The facility, an air-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor designed to utilize fuel containing high-enriched uranium (HEU), has been in non-operational standby status since 1994. Currently, in support of the missions of the Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Material Management and Minimization (M3) Reactor Conversion Program, a new core design is being developed for TREAT that will utilize low-enriched uranium (LEU). The primary objective of this conversion effort is to design an LEU core that is capable of meeting the performance characteristics of the existing HEU core. Minimal, if any, changes are anticipated for the supporting systems (e.g. reactor trip system, filtration/cooling system, etc.); therefore, the LEU core must also be able to function with the existing supporting systems, and must also satisfy acceptable safety limits. In support of the LEU conversion effort, a range of ancillary safety analyses are required to evaluate the LEU core operation relative to that of the existing facility. These analyses cover neutronics, shielding, and thermal hydraulic topics that have been identified as having the potential to have reduced safety margins due to conversion to LEU fuel, or are required to support the required safety analyses documentation. The majority of these ancillary tasks have been identified in [1] and [2]. The purpose of this report is to document the ancillary safety analyses that have been performed at Argonne National Laboratory during the early stages of the LEU design effort, and to describe ongoing and anticipated analyses. For all analyses presented in this report, methodologies are utilized that are consistent with, or improved from, those used in analyses for the HEU Final Safety Analysis

  8. Approaches to Enable Demand Response by Industrial Loads for Ancillary Services Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao

    Demand response has gained significant attention in recent years as it demonstrates potentials to enhance the power system's operational flexibility in a cost-effective way. Industrial loads such as aluminum smelters, steel manufacturers, and cement plants demonstrate advantages in supporting power system operation through demand response programs, because of their intensive power consumption, already existing advanced monitoring and control infrastructure, and the strong economic incentive due to the high energy costs. In this thesis, we study approaches to efficiently integrate each of these types of manufacturing processes as demand response resources. The aluminum smelting process is able to change its power consumption both accurately and quickly by controlling the pots' DC voltage, without affecting the production quality. Hence, an aluminum smelter has both the motivation and the ability to participate in demand response. First, we focus on determining the optimal regulation capacity that such a manufacturing plant should provide. Next, we focus on determining its optimal bidding strategy in the day-ahead energy and ancillary services markets. Electric arc furnaces (EAFs) in steel manufacturing consume a large amount of electric energy. However, a steel plant can take advantage of time-based electricity prices by optimally arranging energy-consuming activities to avoid peak hours. We first propose scheduling methods that incorporate the EAFs' flexibilities to reduce the electricity cost. We then propose methods to make the computations more tractable. Finally, we extend the scheduling formulations to enable the provision of spinning reserve. Cement plants are able to quickly adjust their power consumption rate by switching on/off the crushers. However, switching on/off the loading units only achieves discrete power changes, which restricts the load from offering valuable ancillary services such as regulation and load following, as continuous power changes

  9. A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for adults: informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The definition of health incorporates the physical, social and mental domains, however the Physical Activity (PA) guidelines do not address social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by adults. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model of Health through Sport. Methods A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. Results A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 11 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being wellbeing and reduced distress and stress. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health in addition to improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, club-based or team-based sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. Notwithstanding this, individuals who prefer to participate in sport by themselves can still derive mental health benefits which can enhance the development of true-self-awareness and personal growth which is essential for social health. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is

  10. A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for adults: informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eime, Rochelle M; Young, Janet A; Harvey, Jack T; Charity, Melanie J; Payne, Warren R

    2013-12-07

    The definition of health incorporates the physical, social and mental domains, however the Physical Activity (PA) guidelines do not address social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by adults. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model of Health through Sport. A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 11 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being wellbeing and reduced distress and stress. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health in addition to improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, club-based or team-based sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. Notwithstanding this, individuals who prefer to participate in sport by themselves can still derive mental health benefits which can enhance the development of true-self-awareness and personal growth which is essential for social health. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is limited by the cross

  11. The SPICE concept - An approach to providing geometric and other ancillary information needed for interpretation of data returned from space science instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, Charles H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The Navigation Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF), acting under the direction of NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications, and with substantial participation of the planetary science community, is designing and implementing an ancillary data system - called SPICE - to assist scientists in planning and interpreting scientific observations taken from spaceborne instruments. The principal objective of the implemented SPICE system is that it will hold the essential geometric and related ancillary information needed to recover the full value of science instrument data, and that it will facilitate correlations of individual instrument datasets with data obtained from other instruments on the same or other spacecraft.

  12. Dynamic spatial equilibrium models for social cost benefit analysis of transport projects and policies: implementations for the Netherlands and Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.A.; Varga, A.; Koike, A.

    2008-01-01

    During the late 80’s the so-called SCGE (Spatial Computable General Equilibrium) models were introduced within the research community. These models were cross-sectional in nature and were most interesting from the perspective of showing the consequences of changes in interregional interactions; in

  13. Co-benefits of global and regional greenhouse gas mitigation for US air quality in 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Policies to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG emissions will not only slow climate change but can also have ancillary benefits of improved air quality. Here we examine the co-benefits of both global and regional GHG mitigation for US air quality in 2050 at fine resolution, using dynamical downscaling methods, building on a previous global co-benefits study (West et al., 2013. The co-benefits for US air quality are quantified via two mechanisms: through reductions in co-emitted air pollutants from the same sources and by slowing climate change and its influence on air quality, following West et al. (2013. Additionally, we separate the total co-benefits into contributions from domestic GHG mitigation vs. mitigation in foreign countries. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model to dynamically downscale future global climate to the regional scale and the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE program to directly process global anthropogenic emissions to the regional domain, and we provide dynamical boundary conditions from global simulations to the regional Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ model. The total co-benefits of global GHG mitigation from the RCP4.5 scenario compared with its reference are estimated to be higher in the eastern US (ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 µg m−3 than the west (0–0.4 µg m−3 for fine particulate matter (PM2.5, with an average of 0.47 µg m−3 over the US; for O3, the total co-benefits are more uniform at 2–5 ppb, with a US average of 3.55 ppb. Comparing the two mechanisms of co-benefits, we find that reductions in co-emitted air pollutants have a much greater influence on both PM2.5 (96 % of the total co-benefits and O3 (89 % of the total than the second co-benefits mechanism via slowing climate change, consistent with West et al. (2013. GHG mitigation from foreign countries contributes more to the US O3 reduction (76 % of the total than that from domestic GHG

  14. Co-benefits of global and regional greenhouse gas mitigation for US air quality in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuqiang; Bowden, Jared H.; Adelman, Zachariah; Naik, Vaishali; Horowitz, Larry W.; Smith, Steven J.; West, J. Jason

    2016-08-01

    Policies to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will not only slow climate change but can also have ancillary benefits of improved air quality. Here we examine the co-benefits of both global and regional GHG mitigation for US air quality in 2050 at fine resolution, using dynamical downscaling methods, building on a previous global co-benefits study (West et al., 2013). The co-benefits for US air quality are quantified via two mechanisms: through reductions in co-emitted air pollutants from the same sources and by slowing climate change and its influence on air quality, following West et al. (2013). Additionally, we separate the total co-benefits into contributions from domestic GHG mitigation vs. mitigation in foreign countries. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to dynamically downscale future global climate to the regional scale and the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) program to directly process global anthropogenic emissions to the regional domain, and we provide dynamical boundary conditions from global simulations to the regional Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. The total co-benefits of global GHG mitigation from the RCP4.5 scenario compared with its reference are estimated to be higher in the eastern US (ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 µg m-3) than the west (0–0.4 µg m-3) for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), with an average of 0.47 µg m-3 over the US; for O3, the total co-benefits are more uniform at 2–5 ppb, with a US average of 3.55 ppb. Comparing the two mechanisms of co-benefits, we find that reductions in co-emitted air pollutants have a much greater influence on both PM2.5 (96 % of the total co-benefits) and O3 (89 % of the total) than the second co-benefits mechanism via slowing climate change, consistent with West et al. (2013). GHG mitigation from foreign countries contributes more to the US O3 reduction

  15. The Economic Benefits of Generation Revenue Assessment in Pool-Based Market Model for Restructured Electricity Supply Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngadiron Zuraidah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The electricity supply industry had undergo deregulation and restructuring toward becoming a more transparent and competitive electricity market environment. The pool market model is amongst the most preferred electricity market model. Even though it is a safe option to be more competitive and transparent electricity supply industry, there are issues on the welfare of the generators involved. This paper addresses the pricing issue in the pool market by extending the capacity payment mechanism in the single auction power pool. In the proposed model, the approach of minimum capacity payment involving the efficiency of the generators is introduced. A case study is conducted to illustrate the proposed model. An economic analysis is performed to highlight the merits of the proposed model with the pure pool in term of generation revenue.

  16. Planck intermediate results XXIII. Galactic plane emission components derived from Planck with ancillary data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2015-01-01

    and to clarify the relationship between the various components. The region of the Galactic plane covered is l = 300 ! 0 ! 60where star-formation is highest and the emission is strong enough to make meaningful component separation. The latitude widths in this longituderange lie between 1 and 2, which correspond......Planck data when combined with ancillary data provide a unique opportunity to separate the diuse emission components of the inner Galaxy.The purpose of the paper is to elucidate the morphology of the various emission components in the strong star-formation region lying inside thesolar radius...... along the Galactic plane using the wide frequency coverage of Planck(28.4–857 GHz) in combination with low-frequency radio data at 0.408–2.3 GHz plus WMAP data at 23–94 GHz, along with far-infrared (FIR) datafrom COBE-DIRBE and IRAS. The free-free component is determined from radio recombination line...

  17. Current perspectives on the use of ancillary materials for the manufacture of cellular therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Jennifer; Csontos, Lynn; Clarke, Dominic; Bonyhadi, Mark; Zylberberg, Claudia; McNiece, Ian; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Bell, Rosemarie; Deans, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Continued growth in the cell therapy industry and commercialization of cell therapies that successfully advance through clinical trials has led to increased awareness around the need for specialized and complex materials utilized in their manufacture. Ancillary materials (AMs) are components or reagents used during the manufacture of cell therapy products but are not intended to be part of the final products. Commonly, there are limitations in the availability of clinical-grade reagents used as AMs. Furthermore, AMs may affect the efficacy of the cell product and subsequent safety of the cell therapy for the patient. As such, AMs must be carefully selected and appropriately qualified during the cell therapy development process. However, the ongoing evolution of cell therapy research, limited number of clinical trials and registered cell therapy products results in the current absence of specific regulations governing the composition, compliance, and qualification of AMs often leads to confusion by suppliers and users in this field. Here we provide an overview and interpretation of the existing global framework surrounding AM use and investigate some common misunderstandings within the industry, with the aim of facilitating the appropriate selection and qualification of AMs. The key message we wish to emphasize is that in order to most effectively mitigate risk around cell therapy development and patient safety, users must work with their suppliers and regulators to qualify each AM to assess source, purity, identity, safety, and suitability in a given application. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An Experimental Study of Energy Consumption in Buildings Providing Ancillary Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yashen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Afshari, Sina [University of Michigan; Wolfe, John [University of Michigan; Nazir, Md Salman [University of Michigan; Hiskens, Ian A. [University of Michigan; Johnson, Jeremiah X. [University of Michigan; Mathieu, Johanna L. [University of Michigan; Barnes, Arthur K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Geller, Drew A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-10-03

    Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in commercial buildings can provide ancillary services (AS) to the power grid, but by providing AS their energy consumption may increase. This inefficiency is evaluated using round-trip efficiency (RTE), which is defined as the ratio between the decrease and the increase in the HVAC system's energy consumption compared to the baseline consumption as a result of providing AS. This paper evaluates the RTE of a 30,000 m2 commercial building providing AS. We propose two methods to estimate the HVAC system's settling time after an AS event based on temperature and the air flow measurements from the building. Experimental data gathered over a 4-month period are used to calculate the RTE for AS signals of various waveforms, magnitudes, durations, and polarities. The results indicate that the settling time estimation algorithm based on the air flow measurements obtains more accurate results compared to the temperature-based algorithm. Further, we study the impact of the AS signal shape parameters on the RTE and discuss the practical implications of our findings.

  19. Thermal ice loads on dams and ancillary structures: A brief review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, R.

    1989-01-01

    A major consideration in the design of low to medium head dams in cold regions is the thrust exerted by thermal expansion of a solid ice sheet. Such loads are also of concern in the design of gates, intakes and other ancillary structures. Such loads can be greater than 300-400 kilo Newtons per meter, and are of greatest concern when ice is unshielded by snow from temperature fluctuations. Details are presented of calculation of thermal ice loads, and field measurements of thermal ice forces. Past structural failures, field and laboratory investigations, and analyses, all confirm that thermal ice loads on wide structures such as dams, and isolated structures such as bridge piers and water intakes, can be much more significant than is suggested by the loads currently specified in various North American design guidelines for hydraulic structures. While some guidelines for thermal ice loads are excessively conservative, particularly for protected situations such as gates set between piers, in other more common situations they are dangerously low. Three useful approaches that would yield information for improving thermal ice load specification are: hindcast upper bounds on thermal ice loads by assessing the ice regime and load bearing capacity of existing structures; field measurement of thermal ice loads and stresses using modern instrumentation; and measurement and analysis of the formation and movement of lake and reservoir ice covers. 23 refs., 4 figs

  20. Analysis of the Effects of a Flexible Ramping Ancillary Service Product on Power System Operations: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krad, Ibrahim; Ibanez, Eduardo; Ela, Erik

    2015-10-19

    The recent increased interest in utilizing variable generation (VG) resources such as wind and solar in power systems has motivated investigations into new operating procedures. Although these resources provide desirable value to a system (e.g., no fuel costs or emissions), interconnecting them provides unique challenges. Their variable, non-controllable nature in particular requires significant attention, because it directly results in increased power system variability and uncertainty. One way to handle this is via new operating reserve schemes. Operating reserves provide upward and downward generation and ramping capacity to counteract uncertainty and variability prior to their realization. For instance, uncertainty and variability in real-time dispatch can be accounted for in the hour-ahead unit commitment. New operating reserve methodologies that specifically account for the increased variability and uncertainty caused by VG are currently being investigated and developed by academia and industry. This paper examines one method inspired by the new operating reserve product being proposed by the California Independent System Operator. The method is based on examining the potential ramping requirements at any given time and enforcing those requirements via a reserve demand curve in the market-clearing optimization as an additional ancillary service product.

  1. Mid-term fire danger index based on satellite imagery and ancillary geographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidou, A.; Dragozi, E.; Tompoulidou, M.; Stepanidou, L.; Grigoriadis, D.; Katagis, T.; Stavrakoudis, D.; Gitas, I.

    2017-09-01

    Fire danger forecast constitutes one of the most important components of integrated fire management since it provides crucial information for efficient pre-fire planning, alertness and timely response to a possible fire event. The aim of this work is to develop an index that has the capability of predicting accurately fire danger on a mid-term basis. The methodology that is currently under development is based on an innovative approach that employs dry fuel spatial connectivity as well as biophysical and topological variables for the reliable prediction of fire danger. More specifically, the estimation of the dry fuel connectivity is based on a previously proposed automated procedure implemented in R software that uses Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) time series data. Dry fuel connectivity estimates are then combined with other ancillary data such as fuel type and proximity to roads in order to result in the generation of the proposed mid-term fire danger index. The innovation of the proposed index—which will be evaluated by comparison to historical fire data—lies in the fact that its calculation is almost solely affected by the availability of satellite data. Finally, it should be noted that the index is developed within the framework of the National Observatory of Forest Fires (NOFFi) project.

  2. Impact of Production from Photovoltaic Power Plants on Increase of Ancillary Services in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Smocek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy resources represent a noticeable part of the overall energetic concept development. New integration of renewable energy resources into power grids has a significant impact on the reliability and quality of power supply. The major problem of the photovoltaic and wind power plants is their dependency on weather conditions, since it has a direct effect on their immediate output produced that shows stochastic behaviour. These stochastic outputs result in very adverse impacts on the power grid. Further development of these resources could lead to exceeding of the control and absorption abilities of the power grid. The power grid must be set in balance with respect to the production and consumption of electric power at any time. The operation of photovoltaic power plants impair keeping this balance. That has an adverse impact on the very operation and maintenance of network parameters within the extent required. This survey deals with analysis focused on operation of the photovoltaic power plants with respect to the increase of reserve power in ancillary services in the Czech Republic.

  3. Proposal for a change of contractor to operate the hostels, apartments and ancillary premises

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to inform the Finance Committee of the final outcome of the negotiations with the firm to which the contract was adjudicated for the operation of the hostels, apartments and ancillary premises run by the CERN Housing Service and to request approval for the contract placed with the second lowest bidder. In September 2000, the Finance Committee agreed to the negotiation of a contract with VIENNA INTERNATIONAL HOTEL MANAGEMENT (AT) - SEREG (CH) (cf. CERN/FC/4311). For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is now invited to approve a contract with the consortium ISS MULTISERVICE (CH) - ISS GEBAEUDESERVICE (DE), the second lowest bidder, for an initial period of five years, from 1 January 2001, for a total amount of 7 206 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision until 31 December 2001. The contract includes an option for two one-year extensions beyond the initial five-year period. The consortium has indicated the following distribution by country of the cont...

  4. Cost-Causation-Based Tariffs for Wind Ancillary Service Impacts: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Wan, Y.

    2006-06-01

    Conference paper discussing the integration cost of wind. Although specific tariffs for wind generation for ancillary services are uncommon, we anticipate that balancing authorities (control areas) and other entities will move toward such tariffs. Tariffs for regulation and imbalance services should be cost-based, recognize the relevant time scales that correspond with utility operational cycles, and properly allocate those costs to those entities that cause the balancing authority to incur the costs. In this paper, we present methods for separating wind's impact into regulation and load following (imbalance) time scales. We show that approximating these impacts with simpler methods can significantly distort cost causation and even cause confusion between the relevant time scales. We present results from NREL's wind data collection program to illustrate the dangers of linearly scaling wind resource data from small wind plants to approximate the wind resource data from large wind plants. Finally, we provide a framework for developing regulation and imbalance tariffs, we outline methods to begin examining contingency reserve requirements for wind plants, we provide guidance on the important characteristics to consider, and we provide hypothetical cases that the tariff can be tested against to determine whether the results are desired.

  5. Removal Action Workplan for the 105-DR and 105-F Building Interim Safe Storage Projects and Ancillary Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodovsky, T. J.

    1999-01-01

    This document is the removal action workplan (RAW) for the 105-DR and 105-F Reactor Buildings and ancillary facilities. These buildings and facilities are located in the 100-D/DR and 100-F Areas of the Hanford Site in Benton County, Washington, which is owned and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 100 Areas (including 100-D/DR and 100-F Areas) of the Hanford Site were placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Priorities List under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation,and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). DOE has determined that hazardous substances in the 105-DR and 105-F Reactor Buildings and four ancillary facilities present a potential threat to human health or the environment DOE has also determined that a non-time critical removal action is warranted at these facilities

  6. International Society of Gynecological Pathologists (ISGyP) Endometrial Cancer Project: Guidelines From the Special Techniques and Ancillary Studies Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kathleen R; Cooper, Kumarasen; Croce, Sabrina; Djordevic, Bojana; Herrington, Simon; Howitt, Brooke; Hui, Pei; Ip, Philip; Koebel, Martin; Lax, Sigurd; Quade, Bradley J; Shaw, Patricia; Vidal, August; Yemelyanova, Anna; Clarke, Blaise; Hedrick Ellenson, Lora; Longacre, Teri A; Shih, Ie-Ming; McCluggage, W Glenn; Malpica, Anais; Oliva, Esther; Parkash, Vinita; Matias-Guiu, Xavier

    2018-04-11

    The aim of this article is to propose guidelines and recommendations in problematic areas in pathologic reporting of endometrial carcinoma (EC) regarding special techniques and ancillary studies. An organizing committee designed a comprehensive survey with different questions related to pathologic features, diagnosis, and prognosis of EC that was sent to all members of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists. The special techniques/ancillary studies group received 4 different questions to be addressed. Five members of the group reviewed the literature and came up with recommendations and an accompanying text which were discussed and agreed upon by all members of the group. Twelve different recommendations are made. They address the value of immunohistochemistry, ploidy, and molecular analysis for assessing prognosis in EC, the value of steroid hormone receptor analysis to predict response to hormone therapy, and parameters regarding applying immunohistochemistry and molecular tests for assessing mismatch deficiency in EC.

  7. Short-Term Output Variations in Wind Farms--Implications for Ancillary Services in the United States: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadogan, J. [U.S. Department of Energy (US); Milligan, M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (US); Wan, Y. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (US); Kirby, B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (US)

    2001-09-21

    With the advent of competition in the electric power marketplace, this paper reviews changes that affect wind and other renewable energy technologies, and discusses the role of federal and state policies in the recent wind installations in the United States. In particular, it reviews the implications of ancillary service requirements on a wind farm and presents initial operating results of monitoring one Midwest wind farm. Under federal energy policy, each generator must purchase, or otherwise provide for, ancillary services, such as dispatch, regulation, operation reserve, voltage regulation, and scheduling required to move power to load. As a renewable technology that depends on the forces of nature, short-term output variations are inherently greater for a wind farm than for a gas-fired combined cycle or a supercritical coal-fired unit.

  8. Systems thinking benefits in supply change management:an illustration of the viable systems model in a supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Chronéer, Diana; Mirijamdotter, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Existing product development models are solely an organisational matter. They do not take into consideration the whole supply chain and its different actors. We investigate in this paper how Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Viable System Model (VSM) can support and create an effective use of information in product development and hence identify critical linkages in the supply chain. The aim is to introduce VSM as a framework that enable an analysis of company's supply chains and visualize vi...

  9. Integrated application of river water quality modelling and cost-benefit analysis to optimize the environmental economical value based on various aquatic waste load reduction strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Yu; Fan, Chihhao

    2017-04-01

    To assure the river water quality, the Taiwan government establishes many pollution control strategies and expends huge monetary investment. Despite all these efforts, many rivers still suffer from severe pollution because of massive discharges of domestic and industrial wastewater without proper treatment. A comprehensive evaluation tool seems required to assess the suitability of water pollution control strategies. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to quantify the potential strategic benefits by applying the water quality modelling integrated with cost-benefit analysis to simulating scenarios based on regional development planning. The Erhjen Creek is selected as the study example because it is a major river in southern Taiwan, and its riverine environment impacts a great deal to the neighboring people. For strategy assessment, we established QUAL2k model of Erhjen Creek and conducted the cost-benefit analyses according the proposed strategies. In the water quality simulation, HEC-RAS was employed to calculate the hydraulic parameters and dilution impact of tidal effect in the downstream section. Daily pollution loadings were obtained from the Water Pollution Control Information System maintained by Taiwan EPA, and the wastewater delivery ratios were calculated by comparing the occurrence of pollution loadings with the monitoring data. In the cost-benefit analysis, we adopted the market valuation method, setting a period of 65 years for analysis and discount rate at 2.59%. Capital investments were the costs of design, construction, operation and maintenance for each project in Erhjen Creek catchment. In model calibration and model verification, the mean absolute percentage errors (MAPEs) were calculated to be 21.4% and 25.5%, respectively, which met the prescribed acceptable criteria of 50%. This model was applied to simulating water quality based on implementing various pollution control policies and engineering projects in the Erhjen Creek. The overall

  10. Engineering Task Plan for the Integrity Assessment Examination of Double Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRT) Catch Tanks and Ancillary facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECKER, D.L.

    2000-05-23

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) presents the integrity assessment examination of three DCRTs, seven catch tanks, and two ancillary facilities located in the 200 East and West Areas of the Hanford Site. The integrity assessment examinations, as described in this ETP, will provide the necessary information to enable the independently qualified registered professional engineer (IQRPE) to assess the condition and integrity of these facilities. The plan is consistent with the Double-Shell Tank Waste Transfer Facilities Integrity Assessment Plan.

  11. Engineering Task Plan for the Integrity Assessment Examination of Double-Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRT), Catch Tanks and Ancillary facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BECKER, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) presents the integrity assessment examination of three DCRTs, seven catch tanks, and two ancillary facilities located in the 200 East and West Areas of the Hanford Site. The integrity assessment examinations, as described in this ETP, will provide the necessary information to enable the independently qualified registered professional engineer (IQRPE) to assess the condition and integrity of these facilities. The plan is consistent with the Double-Shell Tank Waste Transfer Facilities Integrity Assessment Plan

  12. Comprehensive behavioral testing in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease shows no benefit from CoQ10 or minocycline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana B Menalled

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of the effects of coenzyme Q10 and minocycline on mouse models of Huntington's disease have produced conflicting results regarding their efficacy in behavioral tests. Using our recently published best practices for husbandry and testing for mouse models of Huntington's disease, we report that neither coenzyme Q10 nor minocycline had significant beneficial effects on measures of motor function, general health (open field, rotarod, grip strength, rearing-climbing, body weight and survival in the R6/2 mouse model. The higher doses of minocycline, on the contrary, reduced survival. We were thus unable to confirm the previously reported benefits for these two drugs, and we discuss potential reasons for these discrepancies, such as the effects of husbandry and nutrition.

  13. A Science for Citizenship Model: Assessing the Effects of Benefits, Risks, and Trust for Predicting Students' Interest in and Understanding of Science-Related Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Brady Michael; Lee, Ling; Yang, Kuay-Keng; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2017-10-01

    This study showcases the Science for Citizenship Model (SCM) as a new instructional methodology for presenting, to secondary students, science-related technology content related to the use of science in society not taught in the science curriculum, and a new approach for assessing the intercorrelations among three independent variables (benefits, risks, and trust) to predict the dependent variable of triggered interest in learning science. Utilizing a 50-minute instructional presentation on nanotechnology for citizenship, data were collected from 301 Taiwanese high school students. Structural equation modeling (SEM) and paired-samples t-tests were used to analyze the fitness of data to SCM and the extent to which a 50-minute class presentation of nanotechnology for citizenship affected students' awareness of benefits, risks, trust, and triggered interest in learning science. Results of SCM on pre-tests and post-tests revealed acceptable model fit to data and demonstrated that the strongest predictor of students' triggered interest in nanotechnology was their trust in science. Paired-samples t-test results on students' understanding of nanotechnology and their self-evaluated awareness of the benefits and risks of nanotechology, trust in scientists, and interest in learning science revealed low significant differences between pre-test and post-test. These results provide evidence that a short 50-minute presentation on an emerging science not normally addressed within traditional science curriculum had a significant yet limited impact on students' learning of nanotechnology in the classroom. Finally, we suggest why the results of this study may be important to science education instruction and research for understanding how the integration into classroom science education of short presentations of cutting-edge science and emerging technologies in support of the science for citizenship enterprise might be accomplished through future investigations.

  14. Map of risks for the implementation of radio-frequency identification: application of ancillaries in the University Hospital Jean Verdier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, E; Schlatter, J

    2010-01-01

    Ancillaries are surgical instruments, such as orthopedical instruments set for reconstruction of knee (a mounting arm...) used to implant or extract prosthesis. Their management involves the departments of sterilization and surgery as well as the suppliers. Such a long circuit exposes the instruments to potential risk hazards like a lack of traceability as the suspicion of Creutzfeldt-Jakob. In order to reduce the risk of errors we will propose the implementation of radio-frequency identification (RFID) to trace the ancillaries during each step of the supply chain. The objective of our study is to analyze and to map the risks associated with RFID implementation. A preliminary analysis of risks (APR) is conducted to map out the hazards for the implementation of RFID. The APR identifies 162 scenarios with a maximum risk connected to environment and technology. To reduce the risks identified, 22 courses of action are proposed, such as audits, training, and internal controls. For each action, a procedure has been designed and evaluated. This preliminary analysis of risks allows targeting the potential dangers for the RFID implementation applied to ancillaries and reduces them significantly.

  15. Breaking through the hydrogen cost barrier by using electrolysis loads to access ancillary services and demand response programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.; McGillivray, R.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation described the use of hydrogen electrolysis as a load resource for handling grid instability resulting from the increased penetration of intermittent renewable power. In particular, it focused on Hydrogenics, the leading global supplier of industrial scale electrolysis equipment and fuel cells. The presentation included an overview of the current incentive and market value of ancillary services provided by the company and demand responses in a number of grids around the world. There is a link between the amount of ancillary services required by the grid and the penetration level of renewable energy power such as wind and solar. The ability of hydrogen generation from electrolysis to satisfy all the requirements of ancillary services markets was also demonstrated. The economic analysis of hydrogen generation was discussed with particular reference to the cost of hydrogen fully loading all capital, energy and operating costs. The resulting reduction in the cost of hydrogen was compared to the existing markets for hydrogen, including use of hydrogen as a fuel for municipal bus fleets relative to the existing cost of fossil fuel fleets. Current industrial hydrogen merchant and bulk market prices were also compared

  16. A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for children and adolescents: informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There are specific guidelines regarding the level of physical activity (PA) required to provide health benefits. However, the research underpinning these PA guidelines does not address the element of social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by children and adolescents. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model. Methods A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. Results A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 30 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being improved self-esteem, social interaction followed by fewer depressive symptoms. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health above and beyond improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, team sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is limited by the fact that the majority of studies identified (n=21) were cross-sectional. Conclusion It is recommended that community sport participation is advocated as a

  17. A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for children and adolescents: informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eime, Rochelle M; Young, Janet A; Harvey, Jack T; Charity, Melanie J; Payne, Warren R

    2013-08-15

    There are specific guidelines regarding the level of physical activity (PA) required to provide health benefits. However, the research underpinning these PA guidelines does not address the element of social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by children and adolescents. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model. A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 30 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being improved self-esteem, social interaction followed by fewer depressive symptoms. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health above and beyond improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, team sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is limited by the fact that the majority of studies identified (n=21) were cross-sectional. It is recommended that community sport participation is advocated as a form of leisure time PA for children

  18. The benefits of using remotely sensed soil moisture in parameter identification of large-scale hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanders, N.; Bierkens, M. F. P.; de Jong, S. M.; de Roo, A.; Karssenberg, D.

    2014-08-01

    Large-scale hydrological models are nowadays mostly calibrated using observed discharge. As a result, a large part of the hydrological system, in particular the unsaturated zone, remains uncalibrated. Soil moisture observations from satellites have the potential to fill this gap. Here we evaluate the added value of remotely sensed soil moisture in calibration of large-scale hydrological models by addressing two research questions: (1) Which parameters of hydrological models can be identified by calibration with remotely sensed soil moisture? (2) Does calibration with remotely sensed soil moisture lead to an improved calibration of hydrological models compared to calibration based only on discharge observations, such that this leads to improved simulations of soil moisture content and discharge? A dual state and parameter Ensemble Kalman Filter is used to calibrate the hydrological model LISFLOOD for the Upper Danube. Calibration is done using discharge and remotely sensed soil moisture acquired by AMSR-E, SMOS, and ASCAT. Calibration with discharge data improves the estimation of groundwater and routing parameters. Calibration with only remotely sensed soil moisture results in an accurate identification of parameters related to land-surface processes. For the Upper Danube upstream area up to 40,000 km2, calibration on both discharge and soil moisture results in a reduction by 10-30% in the RMSE for discharge simulations, compared to calibration on discharge alone. The conclusion is that remotely sensed soil moisture holds potential for calibration of hydrological models, leading to a better simulation of soil moisture content throughout the catchment and a better simulation of discharge in upstream areas. This article was corrected on 15 SEP 2014. See the end of the full text for details.

  19. MODIS/Aqua 0.5 x 0.5 degree Aeronet cutouts of MODIS L1B Radiances, Geolocation, Cloud Mask, and ancillary data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYDARNSS data set consists of MODIS Atmosphere and Ancillary Products subsets that are generated over a number of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites. These...

  20. MODIS/Terra 0.5 x 0.5 degree FluxNet cutouts of MODIS L1B Radiances, Geolocation, Cloud Mask, and ancillary data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODFNSS data set consists of MODIS Atmosphere and Ancillary Products subsets that are generated over a number of FLUXNET sites. FLUXNET is a network of...

  1. MODIS/Aqua 0.5 x 0.5 degree FluxNet cutouts of MODIS L1B Radiances, Geolocation, Cloud Mask, and ancillary data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYDFNSS data set consists of MODIS Atmosphere and Ancillary Products subsets that are generated over a number of FLUXNET sites. FLUXNET is a network of...

  2. LANDMET Ancillary Monthly Mean Thermal Effective Infrared and Microwave Emissivity Data L3 V1 (LANDMET_ANC_TEIME) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is an ancillary product, climatology monthly mean and standard deviation, containing a number of emissivity data. They are broadband thermal IR emissivity from...

  3. A large piece of a small pie: Minimum wages and unemployment benefits in an assignment model with search frictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Gautier (Pieter); C.N. Teulings (Coen)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractMost empirical studies on the minimum wage find a spike at the minimum wage, compression of wage differentials at a large interval above the minimum wage and small employment losses. This paper offers a search model which is consistent with these facts. We consider a continuum of worker

  4. Using direct normal irradiance models and utility electrical loading to assess benefit of a concentrating solar power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct normal irradiance (DNI) is required to evaluate performance of concentrating solar energy systems. The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect of time interval (e.g. year, month, hour) on the accuracy of three different DNI models. The DNI data were measured at three different labora...

  5. UK Local Authority engagement with the Energy Service Company (ESCo) model: Key characteristics, benefits, limitations and considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannon, Matthew J.; Bolton, Ronan

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how some UK Local Authorities (LAs) have opted to engage with the Energy Service Company (ESCo) model in a bid to enhance their influence over local energy system change and help them to deliver on their political ‘public good’ objectives. Three common approaches to LA ESCo model engagement are outlined including the: (1) LA owned ‘arm's-length’ model; (2) private sector owned concession agreement model; and (3) community owned and run model. The LA's decision to establish its own ESCo, or alternatively enter into a partnership with another, predominantly depends on: its willingness to expose itself to risk, the level of strategic control it desires and the resources it has at its disposal. However, the business case is contingent on the extent to which the national policy and regulatory framework facilitates and obligates LAs to play an active energy governance role. Stronger alignment of local and national energy agendas through communication and coordination between different governance actors could help to remove critical barriers to LA ESCo engagement and their wider energy governance activities. - Highlights: • Some UK Local Authorities (LAs) have engaged with Energy Service Company (ESCo). • Driven by a desire to shape local energy system to deliver on their objectives. • LA may establish an ‘arm's length’ ESCo or partner with a private or community ESCo. • Trade-off between strategic control over energy system change and exposure to risk. • LA can bolster ESCo business case but ultimately depends on central government

  6. Benefit of Modeling the Observation Error in a Data Assimilation Framework Using Vegetation Information Obtained From Passive Based Microwave Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolten, John D.; Mladenova, Iliana E.; Crow, Wade; De Jeu, Richard

    2016-01-01

    A primary operational goal of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is to improve foreign market access for U.S. agricultural products. A large fraction of this crop condition assessment is based on satellite imagery and ground data analysis. The baseline soil moisture estimates that are currently used for this analysis are based on output from the modified Palmer two-layer soil moisture model, updated to assimilate near-real time observations derived from the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite. The current data assimilation system is based on a 1-D Ensemble Kalman Filter approach, where the observation error is modeled as a function of vegetation density. This allows for offsetting errors in the soil moisture retrievals. The observation error is currently adjusted using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) climatology. In this paper we explore the possibility of utilizing microwave-based vegetation optical depth instead.

  7. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Implementing a Car-Sharing Model to the Navy’s Passenger Vehicle Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    integration of fleet- sharing telematics technology greatly reduces fleet size and operating costs while potentially increasing customer satisfaction ...motor vehicle model that offer potential cost savings to the Navy and its customers . The purpose of this paper is to analyze vehicle sharing as a...of vehicle availability when needed would negatively affect both customer satisfaction and mission accomplishment. A 15% utilization rate over a 24

  8. The benefits of life cycle inventory parametric models in streamlining data collection. A case study in the wooden pallet sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Di Felice, F.; Ren, J.

    2014-01-01

    LCA methodology is time and resource consuming particularly when it comes to data collection and handling, therefore companies, particularly Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), are inclined to use streamlined approaches to shorten the resource-consuming life cycle inventory (LCI) phase. An effec......LCA methodology is time and resource consuming particularly when it comes to data collection and handling, therefore companies, particularly Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), are inclined to use streamlined approaches to shorten the resource-consuming life cycle inventory (LCI) phase....... An effective way for speeding up the LCI definition of products with similar characteristics is provided by parametric LCI models. A parametric LCI model uses a defined set of parameters to describe the inventory flows through formulas instead of computed numbers in unit process datasets. We present a case...... of elements constituting the wooden pallet, as well as aspects of the manufacturing process, which are information already available to every company. Apart from applicability, the use of an LCI parametric model has also the advantage of flexibility, since the value of the parameters can be easily modified...

  9. The benefits of life cycle inventory parametric models in streamlining data collection. A case study in the wooden pallet sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Di Felice, F.; Ren, J.

    2014-01-01

    LCA methodology is time and resource consuming particularly when it comes to data collection and handling, therefore companies, particularly Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), are inclined to use streamlined approaches to shorten the resource-consuming life cycle inventory (LCI) phase. An effec......LCA methodology is time and resource consuming particularly when it comes to data collection and handling, therefore companies, particularly Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), are inclined to use streamlined approaches to shorten the resource-consuming life cycle inventory (LCI) phase....... An effective way for speeding up the LCI definition of products with similar characteristics is provided by parametric LCI models. A parametric LCI model uses a defined set of parameters to describe the inventory flows through formulas instead of computed numbers in unit process datasets. We present a case...... to consider changes in the design of the wooden pallets. Based on the results of the application of the LCI parametric model to a selection of different wooden pallets, we further determined numerical correlations between the environmental impacts and the most significant inventory parameters, i.e. mass...

  10. Car 'organ-transplant': anticipating energy and environmental benefits of cleaner technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Filipe; Viegas, Jose Manuel (CESUR/Inst. Superior Tecnico (Portugal))

    2009-07-01

    The transport sector faces multiple challenges including the accommodation of increasing fuel prices and environmental pressures. These hurdles become more important in road transport where cars hold a larger share of final energy consumption and emissions. Although not solved, the situation is improving in general and the question of accelerating the transition to new technologies is dominant, yet not sufficient. Technological turnover of car fleets is determined by the replacement of older vehicles by new models. Depending on the diffusion of new cars and driving forces for technological change, the total displacement of older technologies can last 10 to more than 40 years. Car Organ Transplant (COT) is explored here as a complementary alternative to conventional technological turnover of fleets by which potential benefits are delayed as obsolete technologies continue to pollute at preceding levels. COT corresponds to replacing obsolete powertrain and ancillary equipments with cleaner technologies. Consequently, car's service time is extended with upgraded and fully functional technologies. We analyzed lifecycle environmental and economic benefits of COT by comparing different car-ownership approaches over 20 years: keeping car, buying new car, buying remarketed-car; buying transplanted-car or transplanting own car. We concluded that COT is potentially attractive for owners while improving energy and environmental performance of automobility. Additionally, we estimated the pervasiveness of COT in the Portuguese car fleet and corresponding impacts. We concluded that COT potentially yields significant energy and environmental benefits for society. Barriers and implications of COT for the automotive industry were identified. Importantly, increased standardization, modularity-in-design and modularity-in-production are necessary. Lastly, new relationships between car makers and customers may arise like 'evolutionary car selling' by which planned COT

  11. Informing climate policy given incommensurable benefits estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, H.D.

    2003-01-01

    framework for assessing climate benefits, and not a particular estimation method. The objective might have been the development of a single estimation procedure, perhaps one that came as close as possible to a measure directly comparable to cost estimates, with all benefits converted to a common monetary unit. Unfortunately, the complexities of the climate issue combine to rule against the formulation of a single, widely accepted measure of this type. Inevitably, governments will be confronted with sets of benefits estimates that are incommensurable, i.e. they will share no common basis for comparison. To deal with this difficulty, it is recommended here that the OECD support the development of a portfolio of benefits measures, structured to provide transparency when viewing alternative estimates. The development of such a portfolio is a research task, and an effort is made below to outline the work needed. To limit the scope of this discussion several important issues are laid aside. Most important, the benefits considered here are limited to the damage caused by climate change (net of any positive effects) that could be prevented by emissions mitigation. The accounting for adaptation costs, which arises mainly in the context of monetary estimates, are not treated in detail, as they are dealt with in other parts of this OECD project. It is simply assumed that estimates of climate damage (or the benefits of avoiding it) include the effects and costs of economic adaptation. Secondary or ancillary benefits of mitigation actions also are not considered. This last omission is an important one, for many of the issues raised about (net) climate damage apply as well to ancillary benefits and costs. And, although distributional issues will emerge, the discussion does not pretend to cover the range of concerns of developing countries or of sustainable development more broadly. Again, these issues are important, but they as well only add more dimensions to the problem of

  12. Improving recombinant Rubisco biogenesis, plant photosynthesis and growth by coexpressing its ancillary RAF1 chaperone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Spencer M; Birch, Rosemary; Kelso, Celine; Beck, Jennifer L; Kapralov, Maxim V

    2015-03-17

    Enabling improvements to crop yield and resource use by enhancing the catalysis of the photosynthetic CO2-fixing enzyme Rubisco has been a longstanding challenge. Efforts toward realization of this goal have been greatly assisted by advances in understanding the complexities of Rubisco's biogenesis in plastids and the development of tailored chloroplast transformation tools. Here we generate transplastomic tobacco genotypes expressing Arabidopsis Rubisco large subunits (AtL), both on their own (producing tob(AtL) plants) and with a cognate Rubisco accumulation factor 1 (AtRAF1) chaperone (producing tob(AtL-R1) plants) that has undergone parallel functional coevolution with AtL. We show AtRAF1 assembles as a dimer and is produced in tob(AtL-R1) and Arabidopsis leaves at 10-15 nmol AtRAF1 monomers per square meter. Consistent with a postchaperonin large (L)-subunit assembly role, the AtRAF1 facilitated two to threefold improvements in the amount and biogenesis rate of hybrid L8(A)S8(t) Rubisco [comprising AtL and tobacco small (S) subunits] in tob(AtL-R1) leaves compared with tob(AtL), despite >threefold lower steady-state Rubisco mRNA levels in tob(AtL-R1). Accompanying twofold increases in photosynthetic CO2-assimilation rate and plant growth were measured for tob(AtL-R1) lines. These findings highlight the importance of ancillary protein complementarity during Rubisco biogenesis in plastids, the possible constraints this has imposed on Rubisco adaptive evolution, and the likely need for such interaction specificity to be considered when optimizing recombinant Rubisco bioengineering in plants.

  13. The validation of corrosion inhibitors for ancillary cooling systems at Sizewell B PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, S.J.; Garnsey, R.; Lawson, W.F.

    1994-01-01

    Sizewell B has several low temperature ancillary cooling circuits for removing low grade heat. One of the principal circuits is the Component Cooling Water System (CCWS) primarily constructed from carbon steel pipework but also containing stainless steel, titanium, copper and cupronickel components. Linked to the CCWS is another carbon steel system namely the Reserve Ultimate Heat Sink (RUHS) a system unique to Sizewell B providing an independent heat removal capability for the CCWS as a safety back-up. Both systems utilize demineralized water with the addition of an inhibitor to prevent corrosion. The vendor recommended inhibitor namely potassium chromate is highly toxic to marine life and initial discussions with the regulatory authorities indicated that it would be extremely difficult to obtain a discharge consent to cover leakage or potential system purges and dumps associated with maintenance operations. Thus an alternative was sought. Sodium nitrite (anhydrous NaN0 2 )/borax (Na 2 B 4 0 7 1OH 2 0) inhibitor solutions have been used for many years in the power industry for preservation of carbon steel plant and several proprietary formulations are based on this mixture. There has been extensive test work in the UK on this inhibitor for secondary side boiler storage on gas reactors and therefore it was considered a prime candidate for use at Sizewell B. Starting in 1985 a programme of work sponsored by Nuclear Electric plc has been completed by NNC Ltd to compare nitrite/borax with other suitable inhibitors and validate its use for Sizewell B. (authors). 5 figs., 1 tab

  14. Understanding exercise uptake and adherence for people with chronic conditions: a new model demonstrating the importance of exercise identity, benefits of attending and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentecost, C; Taket, A

    2011-10-01

    Understanding the factors influencing uptake and adherence to exercise for people with chronic conditions from different ages, genders and ethnicities is important for planning exercise services. This paper presents evidence supporting a new model of exercise uptake and adherence applicable to people with chronic conditions from diverse socio-demographic backgrounds. The study is based on 130 semi-structured interviews with people with chronic conditions, including both those who did and those who did not attend exercise services, and supporters of those who attended. Analysis followed the guidelines of 'framework analysis'. Results show that three factors were particularly important in influencing adherence behavior: (i) exercise identity, (ii) support and (iii) perceived benefits of attending. Social and cultural identities impacted on willingness to exercise, importance of exercise and perceived appropriateness of exercising. Having at least one supporter providing different types of support was associated with high levels of attendance. Those people who valued the social and psychological benefits of attending were more likely to be high attenders. The new model illustrates interaction between these three factors and discusses how these can be taken into account when planning exercise services for people with chronic conditions drawn from diverse socio-demographic groups.

  15. Choosing wisely: a model-based analysis evaluating the trade-offs in cancer benefit and diagnostic referrals among alternative HPV testing strategies in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Emily A; Pedersen, Kine; Sy, Stephen; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø; Kim, Jane J

    2017-09-05

    Forthcoming cervical cancer screening strategies involving human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for women not vaccinated against HPV infections may increase colposcopy referral rates. We quantified health and resource trade-offs associated with alternative HPV-based algorithms to inform decision-makers when choosing between candidate algorithms. We used a mathematical simulation model of HPV-induced cervical carcinogenesis in Norway. We compared the current cytology-based strategy to alternative strategies that varied by the switching age to primary HPV testing (ages 25-34 years), the routine screening frequency (every 3-10 years), and management of HPV-positive, cytology-negative women. Model outcomes included reductions in lifetime cervical cancer risk, relative colposcopy rates, and colposcopy rates per cervical cancer prevented. The age of switching to primary HPV testing and the screening frequency had the largest impacts on cancer risk reductions, which ranged from 90.9% to 96.3% compared to no screening. In contrast, increasing the follow-up intensity of HPV-positive, cytology-negative women provided only minor improvements in cancer benefits, but generally required considerably higher rates of colposcopy referrals compared to current levels, resulting in less efficient cervical cancer prevention. We found that in order to maximise cancer benefits HPV-based screening among unvaccinated women should not be delayed: rather, policy makers should utilise the triage mechanism to control colposcopy referrals.

  16. Modeling and managing urban water demand through smart meters: Benefits and challenges from current research and emerging trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cominola, A.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Piga, D.; Rizzoli, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    Urban population growth, climate and land use change are expected to boost residential water demand in urban contexts in the next decades. In such a context, developing suitable demand-side management strategies is essential to meet future water demands, pursue water savings, and reduce the costs for water utilities. Yet, the effectiveness of water demand management strategies (WDMS) relies on our understanding of water consumers' behavior, their consumption habits, and the water use drivers. While low spatial and temporal resolution water consumption data, as traditionally gathered for billing purposes, hardly support this understanding, the advent of high-resolution, smart metering technologies allowed for quasi real-time monitoring water consumption at the single household level. This, in turn, is advancing our ability in characterizing consumers' behavior, modeling, and designing user-oriented residential water demand management strategies. Several water smart metering programs have been rolled-out in the last two decades worldwide, addressing one or more of the following water demand management phases: (i) data gathering, (ii) water end-uses characterization, (iii) user modeling, (iv) design and implementation of personalized WDMS. Moreover, the number of research studies in this domain is quickly increasing and big economic investments are currently being devoted worldwide to smart metering programs. With this work, we contribute the first comprehensive review of more than 100 experiences in the field of residential water demand modeling and management, and we propose a general framework for their classification. We revise consolidated practices, identify emerging trends and highlight the challenges and opportunities for future developments given by the use of smart meters advancing residential water demand management. Our analysis of the status quo of smart urban water demand management research and market constitutes a structured collection of information

  17. The role of a hepatitis C virus vaccine: modelling the benefits alongside direct-acting antiviral treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Nick; McBryde, Emma; Vickerman, Peter; Martin, Natasha K; Stone, Jack; Drummer, Heidi; Hellard, Margaret

    2015-08-20

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination is being seriously considered globally. Current elimination models require a combination of highly effective HCV treatment and harm reduction, but high treatment costs make such strategies prohibitively expensive. Vaccines should play a key role in elimination but their best use alongside treatments is unclear. For three vaccines with different efficacies we used a mathematical model to estimate the additional reduction in HCV prevalence when vaccinating after treatment; and to identify in which settings vaccines could most effectively reduce the number of treatments required to achieve fixed reductions in HCV prevalence among people who inject drugs (PWID). A deterministic model of HCV transmission among PWID was calibrated for settings with 25, 50 and 75% chronic HCV prevalence among PWID, stratified by high-risk or low-risk PWID. For vaccines with 30, 60 or 90% efficacies, different rates of treatment and vaccination were introduced. We compared prevalence reductions achieved by vaccinating after treatment to prevent reinfection and vaccinating independently of treatment history in the community; and by allocating treatments and vaccinations to specific risk groups and proportionally across risk groups. Vaccinating after treatment was minimally different to vaccinating independently of treatment history, and allocating treatments and vaccinations to specific risk groups was minimally different to allocating them proportionally across risk groups. Vaccines with 30 or 60% efficacy provided greater additional prevalence reduction per vaccination in a setting with 75% chronic HCV prevalence among PWID than a 90% efficacious vaccine in settings with 25 or 50% chronic HCV prevalence among PWID. Vaccinating after treatment is an effective and practical method of administration. In settings with high chronic HCV prevalence among PWID, even modest coverage with a low-efficacy vaccine could provide significant additional prevalence

  18. Methodology of Evaluating the Science Benefit of Various Satellite/Sensor Constellation Orbital Parameters to an Assimilative Data Forecast Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-02

    associated errors using a physics-based Ionosphere-Plasmasphere model ( TPM ) [Schunk el 136 al., 2004, 2005; Scherliess et al., 2004]. The IPM is based on a...tens of minutes. 209 The ensemble Kalman filter assimilation procedure was implemented as follows. At 0000 UT on 210 day 2010/073 the plasma... Implementation , Ocean Dynamics. 53, 343- 367, DOI 10.1007/sl0236-003-0036-9. 384 Haij, G. A., C. 0. Ao, B. A. Iijima D. Kuang, E. R. Kursinski. A. J. Mannucci

  19. Therapeutic Benefit for Late, but Not Early, Passage Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Pain Behaviour in an Animal Model of Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Chapman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have a therapeutic potential for the treatment of osteoarthritic (OA joint pathology and pain. The aims of this study were to determine the influence of a passage number on the effects of MSCs on pain behaviour and cartilage and bone features in a rodent model of OA. Methods. Rats underwent either medial meniscal transection (MNX or sham surgery under anaesthesia. Rats received intra-articular injection of either 1.5 × 106 late passage MSCs labelled with 10 μg/ml SiMAG, 1.5 × 106 late passage mesenchymal stem cells, the steroid Kenalog (200 μg/20 μL, 1.5 × 106 early passage MSCs, or serum-free media (SFM. Sham-operated rats received intra-articular injection of SFM. Pain behaviour was quantified until day 42 postmodel induction. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was used to localise the labelled cells within the knee joint. Results. Late passage MSCs and Kenalog attenuated established pain behaviour in MNX rats, but did not alter MNX-induced joint pathology at the end of the study period. Early passage MSCs exacerbated MNX-induced pain behaviour for up to one week postinjection and did not alter joint pathology. Conclusion. Our data demonstrate for the first time the role of a passage number in influencing the therapeutic effects of MSCs in a model of OA pain.

  20. Benefits of rebuilding global marine fisheries outweigh costs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ussif Rashid Sumaila

    Full Text Available Global marine fisheries are currently underperforming, largely due to overfishing. An analysis of global databases finds that resource rent net of subsidies from rebuilt world fisheries could increase from the current negative US$13 billion to positive US$54 billion per year, resulting in a net gain of US$600 to US$1,400 billion in present value over fifty years after rebuilding. To realize this gain, governments need to implement a rebuilding program at a cost of about US$203 (US$130-US$292 billion in present value. We estimate that it would take just 12 years after rebuilding begins for the benefits to surpass the cost. Even without accounting for the potential boost to recreational fisheries, and ignoring ancillary and non-market values that would likely increase, the potential benefits of rebuilding global fisheries far outweigh the costs.

  1. Heterogeneous benefits of precision nitrogen management over the Midwestern US: evidence from 1,000 fields derived by satellite imagery and crop modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Z.; Archontoulis, S.; Lobell, D. B.

    2017-12-01

    The wise management of nitrogen (N) fertilizer is important for both economic and environmental considerations. The variable rate technology (VRT) that applies different rates of N fertilizer by fully taking account of the spatial heterogeneity within fields has gained popularity with the recent advent of high-resolution satellites and spectrometers, but its profitability is still uncertain given the dependence of corn-nitrogen responses to soil and climate. To our knowledge, the benefits of adopting VRT in the vast Midwestern US agricultural zones have only been assessed at a very limited number of fields based on labor-costing on-farm samplings. Here we present a study that integrates a range of geospatial tools and data to quantifying the economic benefit of VRT versus uniform N application over 1,000 randomly selected corn fields in the US Midwest. We employed the Google Earth Engine (GEE) and Landsat-5, 7 and 8 collections to derive 30m-resolution yield map for years 2007-2015, and used the multi-year averaged yields to characterize the yield variation and hence the management zones for each field and zone-specific yield goal. The yield goals as well as the Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO) data were then used to calibrate the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) model, which generated a range of variables such as yields, N balance and leaching. Our preliminary results showed that the calibrated APSIM model was able to capture about 60% of the variation in the satellite-based yield estimates, and more than 70% of the yield spread (i.e. maximum - minimum yield). Regardless of the overall environmental benefits of less N loss through leaching, the economic difference between adopting VRT and uniform application ranged from -50 to 200 per acre, with the majority lay between -10 and 40 per acre. Fields with a wider range of yield spread benefited more from adopting VRT, yet the conclusion varies upon weather, especially the precipitation. Our

  2. A Fuzzy ANP Model Integrated with Benefits, Opportunities, Costs, and Risks to Prioritize Intelligent Power Grid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing Hung Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although growth of renewable energy is envisaged, many concerns are critical like the ability to maintain the balance between demands and supply and the variability, noncontrollability, and flexibility of the sources. Then, what will be the future concerns about the main composition of intelligent power grid systems in the future? There is no such research tackled before. Thus, this paper first finds critical success criteria of intelligent power grid systems and then constructs a multiple criteria and decision making model to help in identifying the suitable trends under complex economic performance, environmental impacts, and rapid technological and marketing changes. After empirical demonstration, the paper summarizes that the most suitable composition of future intelligent power grid systems should be constituted by “DHT” P2P grid, “C&D workflow” P2P scheduling, “GARCM” trustworthy P2P grid, and “multipurpose” grid applications in the future.

  3. Cardiometabolic and reproductive benefits of early dietary energy restriction and voluntary exercise in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane, Abdoulaye; Kupreeva, Maria; Borthwick, Faye; Proctor, Spencer D; Pierce, W David; Vine, Donna F

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine-metabolic disorders in women of reproductive age characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and cardiometabolic risk. The overweight-obese PCOS phenotype appears to have exacerbated reproductive dysfunction and cardiometabolic risk. In overweight-obese adult women with PCOS, exercise and energy restricted diets have shown limited and inconsistent effects on both cardiometabolic indices and reproductive outcomes. We hypothesized that an early lifestyle intervention involving exercise and dietary energy restriction to prevent or reduce the propensity for adiposity would modulate reproductive indices and cardiometabolic risk in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model. Weanling obese PCOS-prone and Lean-Control JCR:LA-cp rodents were given a chow diet ad libitum or an energy-restricted diet combined with or without voluntary exercise (4  h/day) for 8 weeks. Dietary energy restriction and exercise lowered total body weight gain and body fat mass by 30% compared to free-fed sedentary or exercising obese PCOS-prone animals (PPCOS-prone animals compared to free-fed and exercise or sedentary groups. The energy restriction and exercise combination in obese PCOS-prone animals significantly increased plasma sex-hormone binding globulin, hypothalamic cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and Kisspeptin mRNA expression to levels of the Lean-Control group, and this was further associated with improvements in estrous cyclicity. The combination of exercise and dietary energy restriction when initiated in early life exerts beneficial effects on cardiometabolic and reproductive indices in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model, and this may be associated with normalization of the hypothalamic neuropeptides, Kisspeptin and CART. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  4. Perceived benefits from enterprise architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Slot, Raymond; Steenbergen, van, Marlies; Plessius, Henk

    2014-01-01

    Enterprise Architecture has been developed in order to optimize the alignment between business needs and the (rapidly changing) possibilities of information technology. But do organizations indeed benefit from the application of Enterprise Architecture according to those who are in any way involved in architecture? To answer this question, a model has been developed (the Enterprise Architecture Value Framework) to organize the benefits of Enterprise Architecture. Based on this model, a survey...

  5. Estimated economic benefits from low-frequency administration of atypical antipsychotics in treatment of schizophrenia: a decision model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furiak Nicolas M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to quantify the direct medical resources used and the corresponding burden of disease in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia. Because low-frequency administration (LFA of risperidone guarantees adherence during treatment intervals and offers fewer opportunities to discontinue, adherence and persistence were assumed to improve, thereby reducing relapses of major symptoms. A decision tree model including Markov processes with monthly cycles and a five-year maximum timeframe was constructed. Costs were adapted from the literature and discounted at a 3% annual rate. The population is a demographically homogeneous cohort of patients with schizophrenia, differentiated by initial disease severity (mildly ill, moderately ill, and severely ill. Treatment parameters are estimated using published information for once-daily risperidone standard oral therapy (RIS-SOT and once-monthly risperidone long-acting injection (RIS-LAI with LFA therapy characteristics derived from observed study trends. One-year and five-year results are expressed as discounted direct medical costs and mean number of relapses per patient (inpatient, outpatient, total and are estimated for LFA therapies given at three, six, and nine month intervals. The one-year results show that LFA therapy every 3 months (LFA-3 ($6,088 is less costly than either RIS-SOT ($10,721 or RIS-LAI ($9,450 with similar trends in the 5-year results. Moreover, the model predicts that LFA-3 vs. RIS-SOT vs. RIS LAI therapy will reduce costly inpatient relapses (0.16 vs. 0.51 vs. 0.41. Extending the interval to six (LFA-6 and nine (LFA-9 months resulted in further reductions in relapse and costs. Limitations include the fact that LFA therapeutic options are hypothetical and do not yet exist and limited applicability to compare one antipsychotic agent versus another as only risperidone therapy is evaluated. However, study results have quantified the potential health

  6. Estimating environmental co-benefits of U.S. low-carbon pathways using an integrated assessment model with state-level resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Yang; Shi, Wenjing; Smith, Steven J.; Ledna, Catherine M.; West, J. Jason; Nolte, Christopher G.; Loughlin, Daniel H.

    2018-04-01

    There are many technological pathways that can lead to reduced carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However, these pathways can have substantially different impacts on other environmental endpoints, such as air quality and energy-related water demand. This study uses an integrated assessment model with state-level resolution of the U.S. energy system to compare environmental impacts of alternative low-carbon pathways. One set of pathways emphasizes nuclear energy and carbon capture and storage (NUC/CCS), while another set emphasizes renewable energy (RE). These are compared with pathways in which all technologies are available. Air pollutant emissions, mortality costs attributable to particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5), and energy-related water demands are evaluated for 50% and 80% CO2 reduction targets in the U.S. in 2050. The RE low-carbon pathways require less water withdrawal and consumption than the NUC/CCS pathways because of the large cooling demands of nuclear power and CCS. However, the NUC/CCS low-carbon pathways produce greater health benefits, mainly because the NUC/CCS assumptions result in less primary PM2.5 emissions from residential wood combustion. Environmental co-benefits differ among states because of factors such as existing technology stock, resource availability, and environmental and energy policies. An important finding is that biomass in the building sector can offset some of the health co-benefits of the low-carbon pathways even though it plays only a minor role in reducing CO2 emissions.

  7. Multijurisdictional practice and the health lawyer: will your practice benefit from the new ABA model rules of professional conduct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerance, Philip L

    2004-01-01

    At the end of the twentieth century, bar scholars and regulators were reexamining two traditionally improper aspects of legal practice. The first was the multidisciplinary practice of law, which would permit lawyers to offer accounting and other professional services to their clients, and allow lawyers to share fees with non-lawyers. The second was the multijurisdictional practice of law, which would permit a lawyer licensed in one jurisdiction to practice law in other jurisdiction in which he was not admitted to the bar. Enron and other corporate scandals deflated the movement towards multidisciplinary practice, but the movement to allow multijurisdictional practice bore some limited, yet important, results. This Article argues that the American Bar Association's new Model Rules 5.5 and 8.5, which broaden the ability of healthcare lawyers to practice outside of the states in which they are admitted, are a suitable accommodation to today's mode of practice, while still preserving the states' ability to regulate lawyers and protect clients.

  8. Benefits of using customized instrumentation in total knee arthroplasty: results from an activity-based costing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibesku, Carsten O; Hofer, Pamela; Portegies, Wesley; Ruys, C J M; Fennema, Peter

    2013-03-01

    The growing demand for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) associated with the efforts to contain healthcare expenditure by advanced economies necessitates the use of economically effective technologies in TKA. The present analysis based on activity-based costing (ABC) model was carried out to estimate the economic value of patient-matched instrumentation (PMI) compared to standard surgical instrumentation in TKA. The costs of the two approaches, PMI and standard instrumentation in TKA, were determined by the use of ABC which measures the cost of a particular procedure by determining the activities involved and adding the cost of each activity. Improvement in productivity due to increased operating room (OR) turn-around times was determined and potential additional revenue to the hospital by the efficient utilization of gained OR time was estimated. Increased efficiency in the usage of OR and utilization of surgical trays were noted with patient-specific approach. Potential revenues to the hospital were estimated with the use of PMI by efficient utilization of time saved in OR. Additional revenues of 78,240 per year were estimated considering utilization of gained OR time to perform surgeries other than TKA. The analysis suggests that use of PMI in TKA is economically effective when compared to standard instrumentation.

  9. Health benefits of reducing sugar-sweetened beverage intake in high risk populations of California: results from the cardiovascular disease (CVD) policy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Tekeshe A; Odden, Michelle C; Coxson, Pamela G; Guzman, David; Lightwood, James; Wang, Y Claire; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) has risen over the past two decades, with over 10 million Californians drinking one or more SSB per day. High SSB intake is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and coronary heart disease (CHD). Reduction of SSB intake and the potential impact on health outcomes in California and among racial, ethnic, and low-income sub-groups has not been quantified. We projected the impact of reduced SSB consumption on health outcomes among all Californians and California subpopulations from 2013 to 2022. We used the CVD Policy Model - CA, an established computer simulation of diabetes and heart disease adapted to California. We modeled a reduction in SSB intake by 10-20% as has been projected to result from proposed penny-per-ounce excise tax on SSB and modeled varying effects of this reduction on health parameters including body mass index, blood pressure, and diabetes risk. We projected avoided cases of diabetes and CHD, and associated health care cost savings in 2012 US dollars. Over the next decade, a 10-20% SSB consumption reduction is projected to result in a 1.8-3.4% decline in the new cases of diabetes and an additional drop of 0.5-1% in incident CHD cases and 0.5-0.9% in total myocardial infarctions. The greatest reductions are expected in African Americans, Mexican Americans, and those with limited income regardless of race and ethnicity. This reduction in SSB consumption is projected to yield $320-620 million in medical cost savings associated with diabetes cases averted and an additional savings of $14-27 million in diabetes-related CHD costs avoided. A reduction of SSB consumption could yield substantial population health benefits and cost savings for California. In particular, racial, ethnic, and low-income subgroups of California could reap the greatest health benefits.

  10. Health benefits of reducing sugar-sweetened beverage intake in high risk populations of California: results from the cardiovascular disease (CVD policy model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekeshe A Mekonnen

    Full Text Available Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB has risen over the past two decades, with over 10 million Californians drinking one or more SSB per day. High SSB intake is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and coronary heart disease (CHD. Reduction of SSB intake and the potential impact on health outcomes in California and among racial, ethnic, and low-income sub-groups has not been quantified.We projected the impact of reduced SSB consumption on health outcomes among all Californians and California subpopulations from 2013 to 2022. We used the CVD Policy Model - CA, an established computer simulation of diabetes and heart disease adapted to California. We modeled a reduction in SSB intake by 10-20% as has been projected to result from proposed penny-per-ounce excise tax on SSB and modeled varying effects of this reduction on health parameters including body mass index, blood pressure, and diabetes risk. We projected avoided cases of diabetes and CHD, and associated health care cost savings in 2012 US dollars.Over the next decade, a 10-20% SSB consumption reduction is projected to result in a 1.8-3.4% decline in the new cases of diabetes and an additional drop of 0.5-1% in incident CHD cases and 0.5-0.9% in total myocardial infarctions. The greatest reductions are expected in African Americans, Mexican Americans, and those with limited income regardless of race and ethnicity. This reduction in SSB consumption is projected to yield $320-620 million in medical cost savings associated with diabetes cases averted and an additional savings of $14-27 million in diabetes-related CHD costs avoided.A reduction of SSB consumption could yield substantial population health benefits and cost savings for California. In particular, racial, ethnic, and low-income subgroups of California could reap the greatest health benefits.

  11. Potentials of mathematical modeling and use of GIS in catchment management and the benefits for the Water Framework Directive fulfilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, T.; Krasa, J.

    2009-04-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) brings relatively strict demands concerning surface waters protection, soil protection and watershed management. Water quality and soil conservation are among the priorities of European environmental policy. The aims and corresponding limits are clearly and strictly formulated but the ways how to fulfill the task remain unspecified. Moreover the side effects and synergic effects are not considered. Therefore there is no recommended methodology for implementing the protection measures. At the Faculty of Civil Engineering (Czech Technical University in Prague) we deal with development and use of various methods routinely applicable in catchment management and engineering praxis. Mainly we focus on soil conservation, sediment transport assessment, retention capacity of landscape evaluation and flood prevention. Our contribution will present overview of applicable approaches and methods useful for the WFD implementation and for Watershed management strategy defining. Very important part of the problem is use of high precision data sources available for environmental modeling. Data in similar formats and precision (considering soil properties, land use and land cover, precipitation, etc.) exist throughout Europe, but the data availability for research is very limited. In spite of the INSPIRE Directive the European coordination here is low. Typical example can be found in Map of soil loss and sediment transport within Czech Republic. Methodically simple approach (using USLE - Wischmeier et al., 1978) was applied to whole Czech territory in coordination with GIS already in 2001 (Dostal et al.,2001). The map was consistently updated and in 2007 the LPIS database allowed us to estimate soil erosion rates in scale of individual parcels (Dostal et al., 2007). Each agricultural field block was assessed in 25m resolution raster (484 835 individual parcels, 35 301 km2). The data were then used for preparing Watershed management strategy

  12. Factor structure of the Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS) across English and Spanish language responders in the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Marisa J; Brintz, Carrie E; Birnbaum-Weitzman, Orit; Penedo, Frank J; Gallo, Linda C; Gonzalez, Patricia; Gouskova, Natalia; Isasi, Carmen R; Navas-Nacher, Elena L; Perreira, Krista M; Roesch, Scott C; Schneiderman, Neil; Llabre, Maria M

    2017-03-01

    Despite widespread use, psychometric investigation of the original English and translated Spanish versions of the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS; Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983) has been limited among the U.S. Hispanic/Latino population. The present study examined the factor structure, factorial invariance, and reliability and validity of PSS scores from English and Spanish versions using data from 5,176 Hispanics/Latinos who participated in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study. The total sample and language multigroup confirmatory factor analyses supported a bifactor model with all 10 PSS items loading on a general perceived stress factor, and the 4 reverse-worded items also loading on a reverse-worded factor. Internal consistency ranged from .68 to .78, and it was indicated that reliable variance exists beyond the general perceived stress factor. The model displayed configural, metric, scalar, and residual invariance across language groups. Convergent validity analyses indicated that both the general perceived stress factor and the reverse-worded factor were related to scores of depression, anxiety, and anger in the expected directions. The reverse-worded factor added to the validity of the PSS beyond the general perceived stress factor. The total computed score of the PSS can be recommended for use with Hispanics/Latinos in the United States that complete the measure in English or Spanish and the reverse-worded factor can enhance prediction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Soil pH Errors Propagation from Measurements to Spatial Predictions - Cost Benefit Analysis and Risk Assessment Implications for Practitioners and Modelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, P. R.; Libohova, Z.; Seybold, C. A.; Wills, S. A.; Peaslee, S.; Beaudette, D.; Lindbo, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    The measurement errors and spatial prediction uncertainties of soil properties in the modeling community are usually assessed against measured values when available. However, of equal importance is the assessment of errors and uncertainty impacts on cost benefit analysis and risk assessments. Soil pH was selected as one of the most commonly measured soil properties used for liming recommendations. The objective of this study was to assess the error size from different sources and their implications with respect to management decisions. Error sources include measurement methods, laboratory sources, pedotransfer functions, database transections, spatial aggregations, etc. Several databases of measured and predicted soil pH were used for this study including the United States National Cooperative Soil Survey Characterization Database (NCSS-SCDB), the US Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) Database. The distribution of errors among different sources from measurement methods to spatial aggregation showed a wide range of values. The greatest RMSE of 0.79 pH units was from spatial aggregation (SSURGO vs Kriging), while the measurement methods had the lowest RMSE of 0.06 pH units. Assuming the order of data acquisition based on the transaction distance i.e. from measurement method to spatial aggregation the RMSE increased from 0.06 to 0.8 pH units suggesting an "error propagation". This has major implications for practitioners and modeling community. Most soil liming rate recommendations are based on 0.1 pH unit increments, while the desired soil pH level increments are based on 0.4 to 0.5 pH units. Thus, even when the measured and desired target soil pH are the same most guidelines recommend 1 ton ha-1 lime, which translates in 111 ha-1 that the farmer has to factor in the cost-benefit analysis. However, this analysis need to be based on uncertainty predictions (0.5-1.0 pH units) rather than measurement errors (0.1 pH units) which would translate in 555-1,111 investment that

  14. Co-benefit and co-control studies in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarne Sivertsen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In both developing and industrialized countries, abatement of air pollution and mitigation of climate change have generally been treated separately. Co-benefits of air quality and climate change related policies are often addressed on national or supra-national level, to document that costs of policies are acceptable, especially when ancillary benefits are considered. On local or regional level, the focus until now has been mainly on air quality management, not considering benefits for climate change mitigation. Today’s air quality management requires integrated and coordinated measures where urban air quality planning includes also greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and climate change issues. The tools available for investigating scenarios for reducing local impacts and health effect improvements can also be used to investigate cost effective actions aimed at reducing GHG emissions. This approach would lead to identification of strategies that consider co-benefits of climate and local air quality measures, and would both improve the health of people and give climate benefits at best possible costs. Approaches based on an existing air quality management tool, prepared for co-benefit studies in Norway as well as plans for co-control projects in China are presented in this paper. These approaches have the potential to focus on issues not included in traditional air pollution abatement studies.

  15. Health and economic benefits of reducing sugar intake in the USA, including effects via non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a microsimulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreman, Rick A; Goodell, Alex J; Rodriguez, Luis A; Porco, Travis C; Lustig, Robert H; Kahn, James G

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Excessive consumption of added sugars in the human diet has been associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), coronary heart disease (CHD) and other elements of the metabolic syndrome. Recent studies have shown that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a critical pathway to metabolic syndrome. This model assesses the health and economic benefits of interventions aimed at reducing intake of added sugars. Methods Using data from US National Health Surveys and current literature, we simulated an open cohort, for the period 2015–2035. We constructed a microsimulation model with Markov chains for NAFLD (including steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)), body mass index, T2D and CHD. We assessed reductions in population disease prevalence, disease-attributable disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and costs, with interventions that reduce added sugars consumption by either 20% or 50%. Findings The model estimated that a 20% reduction in added sugars intake will reduce prevalence of hepatic steatosis, NASH, cirrhosis, HCC, obesity, T2D and CHD. Incidence of T2D and CHD would be expected to decrease by 19.9 (95% CI 12.8 to 27.0) and 9.4 (95% CI 3.1 to 15.8) cases per 100 000 people after 20 years, respectively. A 20% reduction in consumption is also projected to annually avert 0.767 million (M) DALYs (95% CI 0.757M to 0.777M) and a total of US$10.3 billion (B) (95% CI 10.2B to 10.4B) in discounted direct medical costs by 2035. These effects increased proportionally when added sugars intake were reduced by 50%. Conclusions The decrease in incidence and prevalence of disease is similar to results in other models, but averted costs and DALYs were higher, mainly due to inclusion of NAFLD and CHD. The model suggests that efforts to reduce consumption of added sugars may result in significant public health and economic benefits. PMID:28775179

  16. Connecting Capital and Catastrophe in a Modeled World - How re/insurance and public science interact to manage risk for societal benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, R.

    2010-12-01

    a common philosophy on the need for openness and transparency on modeling methodologies and results. The opportunities for future research and collaboration are significant. The re/insurance sector provides a fertile environment for developing refined research avenues on natural hazards and their social and economic impact. Meanwhile the financial aspects of insurance modelling enable possibilities for improving the scientific analysis from hazard, to risk and ultimately financial loss. This often assists in highlighting the importance and impact of research to funding agencies. Meanwhile re/insurer benefit from the knowledge, resources and rigour of public science. This invited talk with unpack these themes and provide case studies and perspectives of how the re/insurance sector and geophysical science communities can build upon this growing relationship for mutual benefit.

  17. Phosphorescent Pt(ii) complexes bearing a monoanionic C^N^N luminophore and tunable ancillary ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebenbrock, Marian; Stegemann, Linda; Kösters, Jutta; Doltsinis, Nikos L; Müller, Jens; Strassert, Cristian A

    2017-03-07

    A versatile design strategy is presented towards new monoanionic pincer luminophores, showing that cyclometallating C^N^N ligands can yield phosphorescent Pt(ii) complexes even if a neutral 1,2,3-triazole ring is inserted by click chemistry. The overall charge, intermolecular interactions and excited state properties can be manipulated and controlled by varying the nature of the ancillary ligand, and its effect on the structural and the triplet state characteristics can be thoroughly investigated and correlated by means of theory and spectroscopy.

  18. Benefits of transmission interconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, D.

    2006-01-01

    The benefits of new power transmission interconnections from Alberta were discussed with reference to the challenges and measures needed to move forward. Alberta's electricity system has had a long period of sustained growth in generation and demand and this trend is expected to continue. However, no new interconnections have been built since 1985 because the transmission network has not expanded in consequence with the growth in demand. As such, Alberta remains weakly interconnected with the rest of the western region. The benefits of stronger transmission interconnections include improved reliability, long-term generation capability, hydrothermal synergies, a more competitive market, system efficiencies and fuel diversity. It was noted that the more difficult challenges are not technical. Rather, the difficult challenges lie in finding an appropriate business model that recognizes different market structures. It was emphasized that additional interconnections are worthwhile and will require significant collaboration among market participants and governments. It was concluded that interties enable resource optimization between systems and their benefits far exceed their costs. tabs., figs

  19. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  20. The impact of obesity on surgical staging, complications, and survival with uterine cancer: a Gynecologic Oncology Group LAP2 ancillary data study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Camille C; Java, James; Moore, Kathleen N; Walker, Joan L

    2014-04-01

    To determine the association of body mass index (BMI) on complications, recurrence, and survival in GOG LAP2, a randomized comparison of laparoscopic versus open staging in clinically early stage uterine cancer (EC). An ancillary data analysis of GOG LAP2 was performed. Categorical variables were compared using Pearson chi-square test and continuous variables using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests by BMI group. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate independent prognostic factors on survival. Statistical tests were two-tailed with α=0.05, except where noted. Statistical analyses utilized R programming language. 2596 women were included. BMI (kg/m(2)) groups were 2days, antibiotic use, wound infection, and venous thrombophlebitis were higher with BMI ≥40. BMI (p=0.016), age (p<0.0001), race (p=0.033), and risk group (p<0.0001) predicted all-cause mortality. BMI was not predictive of disease-specific survival (p=0.79), but age (p=0.032) and risk group (p<0.0001) were significant factors. Obese women have greater surgical risk and lower risk of metastatic disease. BMI is associated with all-cause but not disease-specific mortality, emphasizing the detrimental effect of obesity (independent of EC), which deserves particular attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding the complexity of the Lévy-walk nature of human mobility with a multi-scale cost∕benefit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafetta, Nicola

    2011-12-01

    Probability distributions of human displacements have been fit with exponentially truncated Lévy flights or fat tailed Pareto inverse power law probability distributions. Thus, people usually stay within a given location (for example, the city of residence), but with a non-vanishing frequency they visit nearby or far locations too. Herein, we show that an important empirical distribution of human displacements (range: from 1 to 1000 km) can be well fit by three consecutive Pareto distributions with simple integer exponents equal to 1, 2, and (>) 3. These three exponents correspond to three displacement range zones of about 1 km ≲Δr≲10 km, 10 km ≲Δr≲300 km, and 300 km ≲Δr≲1000 km, respectively. These three zones can be geographically and physically well determined as displacements within a city, visits to nearby cities that may occur within just one-day trips, and visit to far locations that may require multi-days trips. The incremental integer values of the three exponents can be easily explained with a three-scale mobility cost∕benefit model for human displacements based on simple geometrical constrains. Essentially, people would divide the space into three major regions (close, medium, and far distances) and would assume that the travel benefits are randomly∕uniformly distributed mostly only within specific urban-like areas. The three displacement distribution zones appear to be characterized by an integer (1, 2, or >3) inverse power exponent because of the specific number (1, 2, or >3) of cost mechanisms (each of which is proportional to the displacement length). The distributions in the first two zones would be associated to Pareto distributions with exponent β = 1 and β = 2 because of simple geometrical statistical considerations due to the a priori assumption that most benefits are searched in the urban area of the city of residence or in the urban area of specific nearby cities. We also show, by using independent records of

  2. Understanding the complexity of the Lévy-walk nature of human mobility with a multi-scale cost/benefit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafetta, Nicola

    2011-12-01

    Probability distributions of human displacements have been fit with exponentially truncated Lévy flights or fat tailed Pareto inverse power law probability distributions. Thus, people usually stay within a given location (for example, the city of residence), but with a non-vanishing frequency they visit nearby or far locations too. Herein, we show that an important empirical distribution of human displacements (range: from 1 to 1000 km) can be well fit by three consecutive Pareto distributions with simple integer exponents equal to 1, 2, and (>≈) 3. These three exponents correspond to three displacement range zones of about 1km ≲Δr ≲10 km, 10km ≲Δr ≲300 km, and 300km ≲Δr ≲1000 km, respectively. These three zones can be geographically and physically well determined as displacements within a city, visits to nearby cities that may occur within just one-day trips, and visit to far locations that may require multi-days trips. The incremental integer values of the three exponents can be easily explained with a three-scale mobility cost/benefit model for human displacements based on simple geometrical constrains. Essentially, people would divide the space into three major regions (close, medium, and far distances) and would assume that the travel benefits are randomly/uniformly distributed mostly only within specific urban-like areas. The three displacement distribution zones appear to be characterized by an integer (1, 2, or >≈ 3) inverse power exponent because of the specific number (1, 2, or >≈ 3) of cost mechanisms (each of which is proportional to the displacement length). The distributions in the first two zones would be associated to Pareto distributions with exponent β = 1 and β = 2 because of simple geometrical statistical considerations due to the a priori assumption that most benefits are searched in the urban area of the city of residence or in the urban area of specific nearby cities. We also show, by using independent records of human

  3. Cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis of BMPs in controlling agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China based on the SWAT model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruimin; Zhang, Peipei; Wang, Xiujuan; Wang, Jiawei; Yu, Wenwen; Shen, Zhenyao

    2014-12-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) have been widely used in managing agricultural nonpoint source pollution (ANSP) at the watershed level. Most BMPs are related to land use, tillage management, and fertilizer levels. In total, seven BMP scenarios (Reforest1, Reforest2, No Tillage, Contour tillage, and fertilizer level 1-4) that are related to these three factors were estimated in this study. The objectives were to investigate the effectiveness and cost-benefit of these BMPs on ANSP reduction in a large tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China, which are based on the simulation results of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. The results indicated that reforestation was the most economically efficient of all BMPs, and its net benefits were up to CNY 4.36×10(7) years(-1) (about USD 7.08×10(6) years(-1)). Regarding tillage practices, no tillage practice was more environmentally friendly than other tillage practices, and contour tillage was more economically efficient. Reducing the local fertilizer level to 0.8-fold less than that of 2010 can yield a satisfactory environmental and economic efficiency. Reforestation and fertilizer management were more effective in reducing total phosphorus (TP), whereas tillage management was more effective in reducing total nitrogen (TN). When CNY 10,000 (about USD 162) was applied to reforestation, no tillage, contour tillage, and an 0.8-fold reduction in the fertilizer level, then annual TN load can be reduced by 0.08, 0.16, 0.11, and 0.04 t and annual TP load can be reduced by 0.04, 0.02, 0.01 and 0.03 t, respectively. The cost-benefit (CB) ratios of the BMPs were as follows: reforestation (207 %) > contour tillage (129 %) > no tillage (114 %) > fertilizer management (96 and 89 %). The most economical and effective BMPs can be designated as follows: BMP1 (returning arable land with slopes greater than 25° to forests and those lands with slopes of 15-25° to orchards), BMP2 (implementing no tillage

  4. Photocatalytic Conversion of CO2 to CO using Rhenium Bipyridine Platforms Containing Ancillary Phenyl or BODIPY Moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Gabriel A.; Pistner, Allen J.; Yap, Glenn P.A.; Lutterman, Daniel A.; Rosenthal, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Harnessing of solar energy to drive the reduction of carbon dioxide to fuels requires the development of efficient catalysts that absorb sunlight. In this work, we detail the synthesis, electrochemistry and photophysical properties of a set of homologous fac-ReI(CO)3 complexes containing either an ancillary phenyl (8) or BODIPY (12) substituent. These studies demonstrate that both the electronic properties of the rhenium center and BODIPY chromophore are maintained for these complexes. Photolysis studies demonstrate that both assemblies 8 and 12 are competent catalysts for the photochemical reduction of CO2 to CO in DMF using triethanolamine (TEOA) as a sacrificial reductant. Both compounds 8 and 12 display TOFs for photocatalytic CO production upon irradiation with light (λex ≥ 400 nm) of ~5 hr−1 with TON values of approximately 20. Although structural and photophysical measurements demonstrate that electronic coupling between the BODIPY and fac-ReI(CO)3 units is limited for complex 12, this work clearly shows that the photoactive BODIPY moiety is tolerated during catalysis and does not interfere with the observed photochemistry. When taken together, these results provide a clear roadmap for the development of advanced rhenium bipyridine complexes bearing ancillary BODIPY groups for the efficient photocatalytic reduction of CO2 using visible light. PMID:24015374

  5. Effects of beta-adrenergic blockers with different ancillary properties on lipid peroxidation in hyperthyroid rat cardiac muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asayama, K; Dobashi, K; Hayashibe, H; Kato, K

    1989-10-01

    To determine whether beta-blockade protects rat heart against thyroxine (T4)-induced accelelation of lipid peroxidation, in vivo effects of 3 beta-blockers with different ancillary properties on the mitochondrial oxidative enzyme, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxide were investigated. The rats were rendered hyperthyroid by adding T4 to their drinking water for 3 weeks and were treated simultaneously with either carteolol (a blocker with partial agonist activity; 30 mg/kg/day), atenolol (50 mg/kg/day) or arotinolol (a blocker with weak alpha-blocking action; 50 mg/kg/day). The T4-induced tachycardia was alleviated completely by either atenolol or arotinolol, but only partially by carteolol. Cytochrome c oxidase activity in the heart muscle was increased by T4 with a parallel increase in manganese (mitochondrial) superoxide dismutase. Atenolol, but neither carteolol nor arotinolol, suppressed this increase. Similarly, the T4-induced acceleration of lipid peroxidation was suppressed by atenolol alone. Glutathione peroxidase was markedly decreased, and both copper zinc (cytosolic) superoxide dismutase and catalase were also decreased or tended to be decreased by T4. The levels of these 3 enzymes were only minimally affected by the beta-blocker treatments. These results suggest that beta-blockade suppresses mitochondrial hypermetabolism and protects heart muscle against oxidative stress in hyperthyroidism, and that the ancillary properties of beta-blockers such as partial agonist activity and alpha-blocking action negate the protection.

  6. Fine needle biopsy with cytology in paediatrics: the importance of a multidisciplinary approach and the role of ancillary techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroca, H; Bom-Sucesso, M

    2014-02-01

    Fine needle biopsy (FNB) with cytology has long been regarded as an excellent technique as the first choice for diagnosing adult tumours. Being an inexpensive minimally invasive technique with high accuracy and diagnostic immediacy through rapid on-site evaluation, it is also ideal for implementation in the paediatric setting, particularly in developing countries. Furthermore, it allows complementary and advanced procedures such as flow cytometry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), among others, which enhances the diagnostic capacity of this technique and gives it a key role in risk stratification and therapeutic decision-making for several tumours. The advantages of FNB are optimized in the setting of a multidisciplinary team where cytologist, clinician and radiologist play leading roles. Paediatric tumours are rare and most ancillary techniques are cost-effective but complex to be implemented in small centres with limited experience in paediatric pathology. Therefore reference centres are essential, in order to establish teams with extensive experience and expertise. Hence, any child with a suspected malignancy should be directly referred to a paediatric oncology unit. Focusing on a practical approach to the assessment of paediatric lymphadenopathies and non-central nervous system solid tumours we review the effectiveness of FNB as applied concurrently with ancillary techniques in a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic decisions of paediatric tumours and tumour-like lesions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. On combining multi-normalization and ancillary measures for the optimal score level fusion of fingerprint and voice biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed Anzar, Sharafudeen Thaha; Sathidevi, Puthumangalathu Savithri

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we have considered the utility of multi-normalization and ancillary measures, for the optimal score level fusion of fingerprint and voice biometrics. An efficient matching score preprocessing technique based on multi-normalization is employed for improving the performance of the multimodal system, under various noise conditions. Ancillary measures derived from the feature space and the score space are used in addition to the matching score vectors, for weighing the modalities, based on their relative degradation. Reliability (dispersion) and the separability (inter-/intra-class distance and d-prime statistics) measures under various noise conditions are estimated from the individual modalities, during the training/validation stage. The `best integration weights' are then computed by algebraically combining these measures using the weighted sum rule. The computed integration weights are then optimized against the recognition accuracy using techniques such as grid search, genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization. The experimental results show that, the proposed biometric solution leads to considerable improvement in the recognition performance even under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions and reduces the false acceptance rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR), making the system useful for security as well as forensic applications.

  8. A risk-benefit analysis of factor V Leiden testing to improve pregnancy outcomes: a case study of the capabilities of decision modeling in genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Preeti S; Veenstra, David L

    2013-05-01

    We sought to assess the benefits, risks, and personal utility of factor V Leiden mutation testing to improve pregnancy outcomes and to assess the utility of decision-analytic modeling for complex outcomes in genomics. We developed a model to evaluate factor V Leiden testing among women with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss, including heparin therapy during pregnancy in mutation-positive women. Outcomes included venous thromboembolism, major bleeds, pregnancy loss, maternal mortality, and quality-adjusted life-years. Factor V Leiden testing in a hypothetical cohort of 10,000 women led to 7 fewer venous thromboembolic events, 90 fewer pregnancy losses, and an increase of 17 major bleeding events. Small improvements in quality-adjusted life-years were largely attributable to reduced mortality but also to improvements in health-related quality of life. However, sensitivity analyses indicate large variance in results due to data uncertainty. Furthermore, the complexity of outcomes limited our ability to fully capture the repercussions of testing in the quality-adjusted life-year measure. Factor V Leiden testing involves tradeoffs between clinical and personal utility, and additional effectiveness data are needed for heparin use to prevent pregnancy loss. Decision-analytic methods offer somewhat limited value in assessing these tradeoffs, suggesting that evaluation of complex outcomes will require novel approaches to appropriately capture patient-centered outcomes.Genet Med 2013:15(5):374-381.

  9. Equivalent benefit of mTORC1 blockade and combined PI3K-mTOR blockade in a mouse model of tuberous sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollizzi Kristen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberous sclerosis (TSC is a hamartoma syndrome in which renal and lung tumors cause the greatest morbidity. Loss of either TSC1 or TSC2 in TSC hamartomas leads to activation of mTORC1 and suppression of AKT. Recent studies indicate that inhibition of mTORC1 with RAD001 (everolimus leads to rebound activation of AKT, which could protect tumors from drug-induced cell death. Here we examine the potential benefit of inhibition of both mTOR and AKT signaling in a mouse model of TSC, using a dual pan class I PI3K/mTOR catalytic small molecule inhibitor NVP-BEZ235. Results Using ENU to enhance Tsc2+- kidney tumor development, both RAD001 (10 mg/kg PO 5 d/week and NVP-BEZ235 (45 mg/kg PO QD had equivalent effects in suppressing tumor development during a 4 week treatment period, with a 99% reduction in tumor cell mass. Marked reduction in activation of mTORC1, induction of cell cycle arrest, and absence of apoptotic cell death was seen in mice treated with either drug. However, when either was discontinued, there was prompt recovery of tumor growth, with extensive proliferation. Conclusion Both mTORC1 blockade alone and combined PI3K-mTOR blockade lead to suppression of tumor development but not tumor elimination in this TSC model.

  10. Ethics of Ancillary Care in Clinical Trials in Low Income Countries: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Countries: A Nigerian Case Study ... income countries where HIV incidence is high, but the benefits of research are often first enjoyed in high income countries. ..... DA, Kaldor JM. HIV prevention research in a resource-limited setting: the experience of planning a trial in Cambodia. The Lancet. 2005;366(9495):1499-. 503.

  11. Ethics of Ancillary Care in Clinical Trials in Low Income Countries: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    1School of Public Health and Community Medicine, UNSW Australia; 2Afriglobal Medicare Limited Lagos, Nigeria ... in low and middle income countries where HIV incidence is high, but the benefits of research are often first enjoyed in high income countries. The .... facility and having to take transport are some of the many ...

  12. The Role of Relational Reward Benefits for Developing the Non-Financial Value of a Customer to an Organization: Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enny Kristiani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on the customer value to an organization has been widely explored, yet most studies only determined on the financial value based on the customer’s purchasing behavior. The value of customers beyond their purchasing behavior –defined as the relational worth - has not been commonly captured yet. This non-financial value is one of the drivers in retaining customers, hence it becomes a crucial factor in preserving the profitability of the organization. For this reason, this paper aims to examine the customer non-financial valuations of a loyalty reward program. The scope of the study covered a reward program involving consumer exertions in the context of a Frequent Flyer Program (FFP offered by an airline in Indonesia. The hypotheses are empirically tested with a sample of FFP members conducted through an online survey (n=475. The data were statistically analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM as a first order construct. Results indicate that the perceived social rewards lead to an affective and normative commitment as well as consumers’ satisfaction, while the economic reward did not have an effect on developing affective bonds with members for long-term relationships. The relational benefit offered through the FFP creates affectively and normatively committed members who produce relational behaviors, in terms of WOM, immunity, openness and acquiescence of the members to the airline. Furthermore, the FFP members produced social behaviors toward the airline when they felt satisfied with their relational exchanges.

  13. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the 105-DR and 105-F Reactor facilities and ancillary facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenenberg, E.T.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the results of an engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) that was conducted to evaluate alternatives to address final disposition of the 105-DR and 105-F Reactor Buildings (subsequently referred to as facilities), including the fuel storage basins (FSB) and below-grade portions of the reactors, excluding the reactor blocks. The reactor blocks will remain in a safe storage mode for up to 75 years as identified in the Record the Decision (ROD) (58 FR 48509) for the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), Decommissioning of Eight Surplus Production Reactors at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington (DOE 1992a). This EE/CA also addresses final disposition of four ancillary facilities: 116-D and 116-DR Exhaust Air Stacks, 117-DR Exhaust Filter Building, and 119-DR Exhaust Air Sample Building. The 105-DR and 105-F facilities are located in the 100-D and 100-F Areas of the Hanford Site. In November 1989, the 100 Area of the Hanford Site was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). The 100 Area NPL includes the 100-D Area (which includes the 100-DR site) and the 100-F Area, which are in various stages of the remediation process. It has been determined by DOE that hazardous substances in the 105-DR, 105-F, and the four ancillary facilities may present a potential threat to human health or the environment, and that a non-time critical removal action at these facilities is warranted. To help determine the most appropriate action, DOE, in cooperation with the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the EPA, has prepared this EE/CA. The scope of the evaluation includes the 105-DR and 105-F facilities and the four ancillary facilities. The 116-DR and 117-DR facilities are located within the boundaries of the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) unit, which is

  14. SU-F-I-72: Evaluation of the Ancillary Lead Shielding for Optimizing Radiation Protection in the Interventional Radiology Department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkopi, E; Lightfoot, C [Dalhousie University, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Ctr, Halifax, NS (Canada); LeBlanc, E [Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Ctr, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The rising complexity of interventional fluoroscopic procedures has resulted in an increase of occupational radiation exposures in the interventional radiology (IR) department. This study assessed the impact of ancillary shielding on optimizing radiation protection for the IR staff. Methods: Scattered radiation measurements were performed in two IR suites equipped with Axiom Artis systems (Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) installed in 2006 and 2010. Both rooms had suspended ceiling-mounted lead-acrylic shields of 75×60 cm (Mavig, Munich, Germany) with lead equivalency of 0.5 mm, and under-table drapes of 70×116 cm and 65×70 cm in the newer and the older room respectively. The larger skirt can be wrapped around the table’s corner and in addition the newer suite had two upper shields of 25×55 cm and 25×35 cm. The patient was simulated by 30 cm of acrylic, air kerma rate (AKR) was measured with the 180cc ionization chamber (AccuPro Radcal Corporation, Monrovia, CA, USA) at different positions. The ancillary shields, x-ray tube, image detector, and table height were adjusted by the IR radiologist to simulate various clinical setups. The same exposure parameters were used for all acquisitions. AKR measurements were made at different positions relative to the operator. Results: The AKR measurements demonstrated 91–99% x-ray attenuation by the drapes in both suites. The smaller size of the under-table skirt and absence of the side-drapes in the older room resulted in a 20–50 fold increase of scattered radiation to the operator. The mobile suspended lead-acrylic shield reduced AKR by 90–94% measured at 150–170 cm height. The recommendations were made to replace the smaller under-table skirt and to use the ceiling-mounted shields for all IR procedures. Conclusion: The ancillary shielding may significantly affect radiation exposure to the IR staff. The use of suspended ceiling-mounted shields is especially important for reduction of

  15. The benefits and risks of bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination among infants at high risk for both tuberculosis and severe combined immunodeficiency: assessment by Markov model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron D William

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine is given to Canadian Aboriginal neonates in selected communities. Severe reactions and deaths associated with BCG have been reported among infants born with immunodeficiency syndromes. The main objective of this study was to estimate threshold values for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID incidence, above which BCG is associated with greater risk than benefit. Methods A Markov model was developed to simulate the natural histories of tuberculosis (TB and SCID in children from birth to 14 years. The annual risk of tuberculous infection (ARI and SCID incidence were varied in analyses. The model compared a scenario of no vaccination to intervention with BCG. Appropriate variability and uncertainty analyses were conducted. Outcomes included TB incidence and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs. Results In sensitivity analyses, QALYs were lower among vaccinated infants if the ARI was 0.1% and the rate of SCID was higher than 4.2 per 100,000. Assuming an ARI of 1%, this threshold increased to 41 per 100,000. In uncertainty analyses (Monte Carlo simulations which assumed an ARI of 0.1%, QALYs were not significantly increased by BCG unless SCID incidence is 0. With this ARI, QALYs were significantly decreased among vaccinated children if SCID incidence exceeds 23 per 100,000. BCG is associated with a significant increase in QALYs if the ARI is 1%, and SCID incidence is below 5 per 100,000. Conclusion The possibility that Canadian Aboriginal children are at increased risk for SCID has serious implications for continued BCG use in this population. In this context, enhanced TB Control – including early detection and treatment of infection – may be a safer, more effective alternative.

  16. Predicting Vaccination Intention and Benefit and Risk Perceptions: The Incorporation of Affect, Trust, and Television Influence in a Dual-Mode Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nien-Tsu Nancy

    2015-07-01

    Major health behavior change models tend to consider health decisions as primarily resulting from a systematic appraisal of relevant beliefs, such as the perceived benefits and risks of a pharmacological intervention. Drawing on research from the disciplines of risk management, communication, and psychology, this study proposed the inclusion of a heuristic route in established theory and tested the direction of influence between heuristic and systematic process variables. Affect and social trust were included as key heuristics in the proposed dual-mode framework of health decision making. Furthermore, exposure to health-related coverage on television was considered potentially influential over both heuristic and systematic process variables. To test this framework, data were collected from a national probability sample of 584 adults in the United States in 2012 regarding their decision to vaccinate against a hypothetical avian flu. The results provided some support for the bidirectional influence between heuristic and systematic processing. Affect toward flu vaccination and trust in the Food and Drug Administration were found to be powerful predictors of vaccination intention, enhancing intention both directly and indirectly via certain systematic process variables. The direction of influence between perceived susceptibility and severity, on the one hand, and affect, on the other, is less clear, suggesting the need for further research. Contrary to the opinion of media critics, exposure to televised health coverage was negatively associated with the perceived risks of vaccination. Results from this study carry theoretical and practical implications, and applying this model to the acceptance of different health interventions constitutes an area for future inquiries. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. A Spoonful of Math Helps the Medicine Go Down: An Illustration of How Healthcare can Benefit from Mathematical Modeling and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziya Serhan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives A recent joint report from the Institute of Medicine and the National Academy of Engineering, highlights the benefits of--indeed, the need for--mathematical analysis of healthcare delivery. Tools for such analysis have been developed over decades by researchers in Operations Research (OR. An OR perspective typically frames a complex problem in terms of its essential mathematical structure. This article illustrates the use and value of the tools of operations research in healthcare. It reviews one OR tool, queueing theory, and provides an illustration involving a hypothetical drug treatment facility. Method Queueing Theory (QT is the study of waiting lines. The theory is useful in that it provides solutions to problems of waiting and its relationship to key characteristics of healthcare systems. More generally, it illustrates the strengths of modeling in healthcare and service delivery. Queueing theory offers insights that initially may be hidden. For example, a queueing model allows one to incorporate randomness, which is inherent in the actual system, into the mathematical analysis. As a result of this randomness, these systems often perform much worse than one might have guessed based on deterministic conditions. Poor performance is reflected in longer lines, longer waits, and lower levels of server utilization. As an illustration, we specify a queueing model of a representative drug treatment facility. The analysis of this model provides mathematical expressions for some of the key performance measures, such as average waiting time for admission. Results We calculate average occupancy in the facility and its relationship to system characteristics. For example, when the facility has 28 beds, the average wait for admission is 4 days. We also explore the relationship between arrival rate at the facility, the capacity of the facility, and waiting times. Conclusions One key aspect of the healthcare system is its complexity, and

  18. A Spoonful of Math Helps the Medicine Go Down: An Illustration of How Healthcare can Benefit from Mathematical Modeling and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Objectives A recent joint report from the Institute of Medicine and the National Academy of Engineering, highlights the benefits of--indeed, the need for--mathematical analysis of healthcare delivery. Tools for such analysis have been developed over decades by researchers in Operations Research (OR). An OR perspective typically frames a complex problem in terms of its essential mathematical structure. This article illustrates the use and value of the tools of operations research in healthcare. It reviews one OR tool, queueing theory, and provides an illustration involving a hypothetical drug treatment facility. Method Queueing Theory (QT) is the study of waiting lines. The theory is useful in that it provides solutions to problems of waiting and its relationship to key characteristics of healthcare systems. More generally, it illustrates the strengths of modeling in healthcare and service delivery. Queueing theory offers insights that initially may be hidden. For example, a queueing model allows one to incorporate randomness, which is inherent in the actual system, into the mathematical analysis. As a result of this randomness, these systems often perform much worse than one might have guessed based on deterministic conditions. Poor performance is reflected in longer lines, longer waits, and lower levels of server utilization. As an illustration, we specify a queueing model of a representative drug treatment facility. The analysis of this model provides mathematical expressions for some of the key performance measures, such as average waiting time for admission. Results We calculate average occupancy in the facility and its relationship to system characteristics. For example, when the facility has 28 beds, the average wait for admission is 4 days. We also explore the relationship between arrival rate at the facility, the capacity of the facility, and waiting times. Conclusions One key aspect of the healthcare system is its complexity, and policy makers want to

  19. Modelling total coronary heart disease burden and long-term benefit of cholesterol lowering in middle aged men with and without a history of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Chris J; Young, Robin; Ross, Kevin; Ford, Ian; Ambegaonkar, Baishali M; Brudi, Philippe; McCowan, Colin

    2017-10-01

    Cumulative coronary heart disease (CHD) events over 20 years were examined in men screened for, and in those randomized to, the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study. Record linkage provided CHD-related events and days in hospital for the 80 230 screenees, including the randomized cohort of 6595 men. Risk factors were determined at baseline, and disease burden assessed for groups defined by cholesterol. Effects of cholesterol lowering were modelled from differences between groups, and from the treatment arms of the trial. Over 20 years, those without a history of CHD (n = 61 211) had 23.0 events per 100 subjects in the lowest cholesterol group (mean 4.0 mmol/L) and 65.1 per 100 in the highest (8.8 mmol/L). Corresponding days in hospital were 167.2-435.4 per 100 subjects. Analogous figures for men with a CHD history (n = 8570) were 77.3-141.7 events per 100 and 526.1-936.7 hospital days per 100. Lowering cholesterol by about 1.0 mmol/L in men with average cholesterol and no CHD was predicted to be associated with 8.9 fewer events and a saving of 56.0 hospital days per 100. In those with CHD this difference gave, depending on starting level, 26.8-36.5 fewer events and savings of 158.2-247.3 hospital days per 100 subjects. Comparison of cumulative events in 45-54 vs. 55-64 year olds in the trial revealed greater benefit from intervention in the younger decade. Long-term, longitudinal data reveal the considerable CHD burden in middle-aged men and indicate substantial clinical benefits from both moderate and aggressive cholesterol lowering. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Backup Power Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of California, Berkeley; Wei, Max; Lipman, Timothy; Mayyas, Ahmad; Chien, Joshua; Chan, Shuk Han; Gosselin, David; Breunig, Hanna; Stadler, Michael; McKone, Thomas; Beattie, Paul; Chong, Patricia; Colella, Whitney; James, Brian

    2014-06-23

    A total cost of ownership model is described for low temperature proton exchange membrane stationary fuel cell systems for combined heat and power (CHP) applications from 1-250kW and backup power applications from 1-50kW. System designs and functional specifications for these two applications were developed across the range of system power levels. Bottom-up cost estimates were made for balance of plant costs, and detailed direct cost estimates for key fuel cell stack components were derived using design-for-manufacturing-and-assembly techniques. The development of high throughput, automated processes achieving high yield are projected to reduce the cost for fuel cell stacks to the $300/kW level at an annual production volume of 100 MW. Several promising combinations of building types and geographical location in the U.S. were identified for installation of fuel cell CHP systems based on the LBNL modelling tool DER CAM. Life-cycle modelling and externality assessment were done for hotels and hospitals. Reduced electricity demand charges, heating credits and carbon credits can reduce the effective cost of electricity ($/kWhe) by 26-44percent in locations such as Minneapolis, where high carbon intensity electricity from the grid is displaces by a fuel cell system operating on reformate fuel. This project extends the scope of existing cost studies to include externalities and ancillary financial benefits and thus provides a more comprehensive picture of fuel cell system benefits, consistent with a policy and incentive environment that increasingly values these ancillary benefits. The project provides a critical, new modelling capacity and should aid a broad range of policy makers in assessing the integrated costs and benefits of fuel cell systems versus other distributed generation technologies.