WorldWideScience

Sample records for ancient vna lagoon

  1. Transitions in ancient inland freshwater resource management in Sri Lanka affect biota and human populations in and around coastal lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdouh-Guebas, F; Hettiarachchi, S; Lo Seen, D; Batelaan, O; Sooriyarachchi, S; Jayatissa, L P; Koedam, N

    2005-03-29

    The increasing anthropogenic pressure on natural environments results in impacts that affect tropical forest areas and their biodiversity. Adverse impacts on terrestrial and oceanic environments often compound in the intertidal area, where mangrove forest ecosystems thrive. In tropical coastal areas of many developing countries where people depend on wood and other mangrove forest products and services, forest degradation leads to socioeconomic problems. At the same time, increasing freshwater needs in these areas are expected to cause additional problems. On the basis of remote sensing and ground truthing complemented by colonial archival material from the Dutch East India Company (1602-1800), we report that changes to the historic system of inland freshwater management have increased dramatically in recent times. Hydrological changes, such as interbasin transfers, have resulted in a qualitative ecological and socioeconomic degradation in three coastal lagoons in southern Sri Lanka. Variations in river hydrology have caused changes in the areas suitable as mangrove habitat and, thus, have resulted in an altered distribution. However, increases in mangrove area can mask the degradation of the site in terms of floristic composition, significance of the species, and biodiversity (this effect is termed "cryptic ecological degradation"). It is important that such changes be carefully monitored to ensure biological and socioeconomic sustainability.

  2. Vector network analyzer (VNA) measurements and uncertainty assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Shoaib, Nosherwan

    2017-01-01

    This book describes vector network analyzer measurements and uncertainty assessments, particularly in waveguide test-set environments, in order to establish their compatibility to the International System of Units (SI) for accurate and reliable characterization of communication networks. It proposes a fully analytical approach to measurement uncertainty evaluation, while also highlighting the interaction and the linear propagation of different uncertainty sources to compute the final uncertainties associated with the measurements. The book subsequently discusses the dimensional characterization of waveguide standards and the quality of the vector network analyzer (VNA) calibration techniques. The book concludes with an in-depth description of the novel verification artefacts used to assess the performance of the VNAs. It offers a comprehensive reference guide for beginners to experts, in both academia and industry, whose work involves the field of network analysis, instrumentation and measurements.

  3. 60 GHz antenna measurement setup using a VNA without external frequency conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popa, Paula Irina; Pivnenko, Sergey; Nielsen, Jeppe Majlund

    2014-01-01

    an alternative solution which makes use of a standard wideband VNA without external frequency conversion units. The operational capability of the Planar Near-Field (PNF) Antenna Measurement Facility at the Technical University of Denmark was recently extended to 60 GHz employing an Agilent E8361A VNA (up to 67...... GHz). The upgrade involved procurement of very few additional components: two cables operational up to 65 GHz and an openended waveguide probe for tests in U-band (40-60 GHz). The first tests have shown good performance of the PNF setup: 50-60 dB dynamic range and small thermal drift in magnitude...... and phase, 0.06 dB and 6 degrees peak-to-peak deviations over 4 hours. A PNF measurement of a 25 dBi Standard Gain Horn was carried out and the results were compared to those from the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Facility with a good agreement in the validity region. Uncertainty investigations regarding...

  4. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  5. Brazil The Duck Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Brazil covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. The 'Lagoa dos Patos', in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, translates to 'the Duck Lagoon'. It was named by 16th century Jesuit settlers, who asked the King of Spain to grant them title to the lagoon so that they could breed ducks. The King consented, but revoked his edict when he discovered that the 'duck-pond' (measuring about 14,000 square kilometers) was one of the largest lagoonal systems in the world. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. Early Portuguese explorers mistook the entrance to the lagoon for the mouth of a great river and called it the Rio Grande. A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. The lagoon's characteristics change with short-term tide-induced cyclic perturbations, and with longer term large scale meteorological conditions. The distinctive wavelike 'cusps' along the inner shores result from the circulation, erosion and accumulation of sediments driven by wind and tidal action. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) circulation affects precipitation amount and continental runoff, thereby changing the contents of the lagoon waters. High rainfall and increased freshwater discharge during El Nino events correspond with elevated dissolved nutrient concentrations and increased phytoplankton growth. La Nina years are dry and the associated low rainfall reduces the freshwater recharge to the lagoon, causing an increase in salinity. Occasional blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), have been registered in the lagoon when nutrient concentrations are elevated. A number of reeds and grasses are important to the lagoon estuary, including widgeon grass

  6. A Blue Lagoon Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2007-01-01

    We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$.......We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$....

  7. Ancient genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Hoelzel, A Rus

    2005-01-01

    Ever since its invention, the polymerase chain reaction has been the method of choice for work with ancient DNA. In an application of modern genomic methods to material from the Pleistocene, a recent study has instead undertaken to clone and sequence a portion of the ancient genome of the cave bear.

  8. Ancient mitogenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Simon Y. W.; Gilbert, Tom

    2010-01-01

    the technical challenges that face researchers in the field. We catalogue the diverse sequencing methods and source materials used to obtain ancient mitogenomic sequences, summarise the associated genetic and phylogenetic studies that have been conducted, and evaluate the future prospects of the field.......The mitochondrial genome has been the traditional focus of most research into ancient DNA, owing to its high copy number and population-level variability. Despite this long-standing interest in mitochondrial DNA, it was only in 2001 that the first complete ancient mitogenomic sequences were...... obtained. As a result of various methodological developments, including the introduction of high-throughput sequencing techniques, the total number of ancient mitogenome sequences has increased rapidly over the past few years. In this review, we present a brief history of ancient mitogenomics and describe...

  9. Ancient Resistome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaitan, Abiola Olumuyiwa; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-08-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an ancient biological mechanism in bacteria, although its proliferation in our contemporary world has been amplified through antimicrobial therapy. Recent studies conducted on ancient environmental and human samples have uncovered numerous antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance genes. The resistance genes that have been reported from the analysis of ancient bacterial DNA include genes coding for several classes of antibiotics, such as glycopeptides, β-lactams, tetracyclines, and macrolides. The investigation of the resistome of ancient bacteria is a recent and emerging field of research, and technological advancements such as next-generation sequencing will further contribute to its growth. It is hoped that the knowledge gained from this research will help us to better understand the evolution of antibiotic resistance genes and will also be used in drug design as a proactive measure against antibiotic resistance.

  10. Ancient genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen

    2015-01-01

    throughput of next generation sequencing platforms and the ability to target short and degraded DNA molecules. Many ancient specimens previously unsuitable for DNA analyses because of extensive degradation can now successfully be used as source materials. Additionally, the analytical power obtained...... by increasing the number of sequence reads to billions effectively means that contamination issues that have haunted aDNA research for decades, particularly in human studies, can now be efficiently and confidently quantified. At present, whole genomes have been sequenced from ancient anatomically modern humans...

  11. Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  12. Metagenomes of Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L; McMahon, Katherine D; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria.

  13. Metals in some lagoons of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, F G; Sharma, V K; Alexander, V H; Frausto, C A

    1995-02-01

    The concentrations of metals, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined in some lagoons to establish the level of metal pollution. The lagoons studied were Alvarado lagoon, Veracruz; San Andres lagoon, Tamaulipas; and Terminos lagoon, Campeche. The concentrations were determined in water, oyster (Crassostrea virginica), and sediments. Metals were accumulated in either oysters or sediments. Cu and Zn were higher in oysters and Fe and Mn were higher in sediments. The results in water samples were compared with the limit established by the Secretaria de Ecologia and Desarrollo Urbano Report and briefly discussed.

  14. Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. (Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States))

    1991-07-01

    The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

  15. Historical changes of the anthropogenic impact in a coastal lagoon: Pb isotopes and trace elements on mussel's fleshes and shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labonne, M.; Othman, D.B.; Luck, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Molluscs are known to concentrate metals and are used as bioindicators in many programs of coastal survey. The aims of this study were: (1) to better understand the spatial and temporal variations of metals in a greatly anthropized lagoon (Thau, S France) by using concentrations and Pb isotopes in mussel flesh; (2) to compare present and past environment and the different sources of local Pb in recent mussel shells and ones from the Roman empire. Young mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the sea were introduced at various locations in the lagoon. The ancient shells came from a Roman villa on the lagoon coast. We compare their isotopic compositions to different sources present on the watershed such as rocks, road, harbour, ancient lead castings or Spanish and English ingots. Concentrations of trace metals were determined directly by ICP-MS after proper dilution and the isotopic compositions was determined on a VG Sector mass spectrometer. The Pb concentration variations are difficult to separate from weight variations so we use isotopic compositions for determination of lead sources. The Pb isotopic composition of the flesh define nice alignments in 207 Pb/ 204 Pb vs 206 Pb/ 204 Pb diagram with season, which can be explained by two-component mixtures. However, while one end-member remains quite stable and influenced by road network, the other one shifts to more radiogenic values indicating either a variable origin, or varying proportions of a third component. The ancient shells have more radiogenic isotopes than the current shells but shift towards ancient lead castings and ingots signature. Variations of Pb ratios in the ancient shells can be roughly correlated with age and the evolution of population density around the lagoon over the centuries

  16. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  17. EPA GOMEX Wild Goose Lagoon 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We compared nekton use of prominent habitat types within a lagoonal system of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico (GoM). These habitat types were defined by combinations...

  18. Medicine in Ancient Assur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbøll, Troels Pank

    This dissertation is a microhistorical study of a single individual named Kiṣir-Aššur who practiced medicine in the ancient city of Assur (modern northern Iraq) in the 7th century BCE. The study provides the first detailed analysis of one healer’s education and practice in ancient Mesopotamia...

  19. Transport of radionuclides from the LAMPF lagoons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Purtymun, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    Monitoring of the discharge water from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility lagoons continued during June and December of 1983. The list of radionuclides being monitoring includes 7 Be, 57 Co, 134 Cs, 3 H, 54 Mn, 22 Na, and 83 Rb. The sampling locations and the data obtained to date are presented. Movement of radionuclides around the lagoons has been described in a previous report. 1 reference, 1 table

  20. Coastal Evolution in a Mediterranean Microtidal Zone: Mid to Late Holocene Natural Dynamics and Human Management of the Castelló Lagoon, NE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejarque, Ana; Julià, Ramon; Reed, Jane M; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Marco-Barba, Javier; Riera, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    We present a palaeoenvironmental study of the Castelló lagoon (NE Spain), an important archive for understanding long-term interactions between dynamic littoral ecosystems and human management. Combining geochemistry, mineralogy, ostracods, diatoms, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal and archaeo-historical datasets we reconstruct: 1) the transition of the lagoon from a marine to a marginal environment between ~3150 cal BC to the 17th century AD; 2) fluctuations in salinity; and 3) natural and anthropogenic forces contributing to these changes. From the Late Neolithic to the Medieval period the lagoon ecosystem was driven by changing marine influence and the land was mainly exploited for grazing, with little evidence for impact on the natural woodland. Land-use exploitation adapted to natural coastal dynamics, with maximum marine flooding hampering agropastoral activities between ~1550 and ~150 cal BC. In contrast, societies actively controlled the lagoon dynamics and become a major agent of landscape transformation after the Medieval period. The removal of littoral woodlands after the 8th century was followed by the expansion of agrarian and industrial activities. Regional mining and smelting activities polluted the lagoon with heavy metals from the ~11th century onwards. The expansion of the milling industry and of agricultural lands led to the channelization of the river Muga into the lagoon after ~1250 cal AD. This caused its transformation into a freshwater lake, increased nutrient load, and the infilling and drainage of a great part of the lagoon. By tracking the shift towards an anthropogenically-controlled system around ~750 yr ago, this study points out Mediterranean lagoons as ancient and heavily-modified systems, with anthropogenic impacts and controls covering multi-centennial and even millennial timescales. Finally, we contributed to the future construction of reliable seashell-based chronologies in NE Spain by calibrating the Banyuls-sur-Mer

  1. Coastal Evolution in a Mediterranean Microtidal Zone: Mid to Late Holocene Natural Dynamics and Human Management of the Castello Lagoon, NE Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ejarque

    Full Text Available We present a palaeoenvironmental study of the Castelló lagoon (NE Spain, an important archive for understanding long-term interactions between dynamic littoral ecosystems and human management. Combining geochemistry, mineralogy, ostracods, diatoms, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal and archaeo-historical datasets we reconstruct: 1 the transition of the lagoon from a marine to a marginal environment between ~3150 cal BC to the 17th century AD; 2 fluctuations in salinity; and 3 natural and anthropogenic forces contributing to these changes. From the Late Neolithic to the Medieval period the lagoon ecosystem was driven by changing marine influence and the land was mainly exploited for grazing, with little evidence for impact on the natural woodland. Land-use exploitation adapted to natural coastal dynamics, with maximum marine flooding hampering agropastoral activities between ~1550 and ~150 cal BC. In contrast, societies actively controlled the lagoon dynamics and become a major agent of landscape transformation after the Medieval period. The removal of littoral woodlands after the 8th century was followed by the expansion of agrarian and industrial activities. Regional mining and smelting activities polluted the lagoon with heavy metals from the ~11th century onwards. The expansion of the milling industry and of agricultural lands led to the channelization of the river Muga into the lagoon after ~1250 cal AD. This caused its transformation into a freshwater lake, increased nutrient load, and the infilling and drainage of a great part of the lagoon. By tracking the shift towards an anthropogenically-controlled system around ~750 yr ago, this study points out Mediterranean lagoons as ancient and heavily-modified systems, with anthropogenic impacts and controls covering multi-centennial and even millennial timescales. Finally, we contributed to the future construction of reliable seashell-based chronologies in NE Spain by calibrating the

  2. Reconstructing an Ancient Wonder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Christopher J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a Montessori class project involving the building of a model of the ancient Briton monument, Stonehenge. Illustrates how the flexibility of the Montessori elementary curriculum encourages children to make their own toys and learn from the process. (JPB)

  3. Trend of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Lagos Lagoon Ecosystem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    The distribution and occurrence of heavy metals in the sediment, water and benthic animals of the Lagos lagoon ... The concentrations of the metals detected in the lagoon sediment and water ..... waste products contaminating water sources.

  4. Endocrinology in ancient Sparta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoulogiannis, Ioannis N; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2007-01-01

    This article attempts to analyze the crucial link between the plant Agnus castus and human health, particularly hormonal status, with special reference to the needs of the society of ancient Sparta. The ancient Spartans used Agnus both as a cure for infertility and as a remedy to treat battle wounds. These special properties were recognized by the sanctuary of Asclepios Agnita, which was located in Sparta, as well as by medical practitioners in Sparta during the classical, Hellenistic and Roman ages.

  5. Dynamic behaviour of lagoon ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cioffi, F.

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic behaviour of primary producers in coastal lagoons due to change of external control parameters, phosphorous external load and maximum tidal flow rate, is investigated by using a eutrophication model. The eutrophication model allows the simulation of the temporal evolution of the concentration of the following species: a) in the water column: dissolved oxygen, vegetal organic carbon, particulate and dissolved organic carbon, dissolved phosphorous and hydrogen sulphide; b) in sediments: dissolved oxygen, particulate and dissolved organic carbon, dissolved and adsorbed phosphorous, hydrogen sulphide. The vegetal organic carbon is distinguished in three components related to the main groups of primary producers, namely eel grass, macro algae and microalgae, having different modalities of nutrient uptake and kinetics parameters depending on the S/V ratio. Diagrams representing the ecosystems dynamic response to the changes of the control parameters were constructed by simulations. The response diagrams suggest the existence of regime shifts which border different ecosystem stability ranges, characterized by the dominance of a specific group of primary producers and by different ecosystem vulnerability at summer water anoxia. A catastrophic bifurcation or abrupt regime shift, evidenced by Poincare sections obtained mapping, at a prefixed time period, the values of the concentration of the species, occurs for a critical value of the control parameter and manifests itself as an abrupt change of the dominant species from eel grass to macro algae. An analogous abrupt change from eel grass to macro algae occurs for a critical value of the tidal flowrate assumed as control parameter in simulations conducted for an assigned value of external phosphorous load.

  6. Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2006-02-15

    Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Participation and Sustainable Management of Coastal Lagoon Ecosystems: The Case of the Fosu Lagoon in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest K.A. Afrifa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Participation as a tool has been applied as a social learning process and communication platform to create awareness among stakeholders in the context of resource utilisation. The application of participatory processes to aquatic ecosystem management is attracting a growing body of literature. However, the application of participation as a tool for sustainable management of coastal lagoon ecosystems is recent. This paper examines the context and the extent of participation of stakeholders in the management of the Fosu lagoon in Ghana. Six hundred individuals from twenty seven stakeholder groups were randomly selected for study. Both closed and open-ended questions were used in face-to-face interviews with stakeholders. The findings indicate that the stakeholder groups were not involved in decision-making regarding the conservation of the lagoon irrespective of their expertise in planning and/or their interest in lagoon resource utilisation. This situation has created apathy among some of the stakeholders who feel neglected in the decision-making process. There is scope for broadening the base of interest groups in decision-making processes regarding the lagoon and improving stakeholder participation in the management of the lagoon to ensure the sustainability of the management process.

  8. Ancient Chinese Precedents in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geddis, Robert

    1999-01-01

    ... classics from ancient china. The assumption is that since China's political and military leaders state openly that their strategy is based on traditional Chinese strategic concepts, a study of ancient classics on strategy...

  9. Printing Ancient Terracotta Warriors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadecki, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    Standing in awe in Xian, China, at the Terra Cotta warrior archaeological site, the author thought of sharing this experience and excitement with her sixth-grade students. She decided to let her students carve patterns of the ancient soldiers to understand their place in Chinese history. They would make block prints and print multiple soldiers on…

  10. Trepanation in Ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobert, Leah; Binello, Emanuela

    2017-05-01

    Trepanation, the process of making a burr hole in the skull to access the brain, is an ancient form of a primitive craniotomy. There is widespread evidence of contributions made to this practice by ancient civilizations in Europe, Africa, and South America, where archaeologists have unearthed thousands of trepanned skulls dating back to the Neolithic period. Little is known about trepanation in China, and it is commonly believed that the Chinese used only traditional Chinese medicine and nonsurgical methods for treating brain injuries. However, a thorough analysis of the available archeological and literary evidence reveals that trepanation was widely practiced throughout China thousands of years ago. A significant number of trepanned Chinese skulls have been unearthed showing signs of healing and suggesting that patients survived after surgery. Trepanation was likely performed for therapeutic and spiritual reasons. Medical and historical works from Chinese literature contain descriptions of primitive neurosurgical procedures, including stories of surgeons, such as the legendary Hua Tuo, and surgical techniques used for the treatment of brain pathologies. The lack of translation of Chinese reports into the English language and the lack of publications on this topic in the English language may have contributed to the misconception that ancient China was devoid of trepanation. This article summarizes the available evidence attesting to the performance of successful primitive cranial surgery in ancient China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  12. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  13. Ancient ports of Kalinga

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    which plied between Kalinga and south east Asian countries. Nanda Raja, is said to have attacked Kalinga with the intention of getting access to the sea for the landlocked Kingdom of Magadha (Bihar). The ancient texa Artha Sastra (3rd-4th century B...

  14. Analysis of the Szczecin Lagoon waters fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Dąbrowski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the Szczecin Lagoon waters was carried out between April and December 1996. Changes in yeasts numbers of this particular estuary were found to be typical for the marinę and estuary waters with maximum concentration of yeast-like fungi in the summer season. Qualitative analysis of the isolated strains, proved Rhodotorula glutinis to be the most frequently isolated species at the three sampling sites, with Candida coliculosa dominating at the forth one.

  15. PLEIADES IN ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA

    OpenAIRE

    Verderame, L.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I will analyse the different features of the Pleiades in the astronomical, astrological, and calendrical interpretation as well as their mythical and cultural background in ancient Mesopotamia. According to cuneiform sources, the Pleiades are among the most important stars. They are simply known in Sumerian as ―the Stars‖ (MUL.MUL), while their Akkadian name, ―the Bristle‖ (zappu), links them to the imagery and the cultural context of the ―Bull of Heaven‖ constellation (Taurus),...

  16. Shear strength, consolidation and drainage of colliery tailings lagoons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, J M

    1980-01-01

    The shear strength and consolidation characteristics of colliery tailings were related to the structure of the lagoon deposits. First, a theoretical investigation of vane shear tests in layered media is outlined, and then cone penetration tests are considered as an alternative tool for measuring strengths in situ. The geochemistry and sedimentology of colliery lagoons were investigated. The in-situ permeability of lagoons was also investigated and the results used to investigate the drainage characteristics. Finally, overtipping was investigated.

  17. Linen in Ancient Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dr.Rehab Mahmoud Ahmed Elsharnouby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Egypt was famous through the Ancient Near East for both weaving linen cloth and the produced quantities. Cloth was sent as expensive gifts from one king to another and given to a laborer as wages in return for his work. Cloth was regarded as an essential element in everyday life as it could be used for everything: clothing, bedding, trappings for animals, or sails of a ship. It was in fact one of the most widely used item throughout Ancient Egypt. Although other textile fibers were used in Pharaonic Egypt, namely, sheep's wool, goat hair and a form of coir, the majority of textiles were made from the plant Linum usitatissimum, flax. Cloth made from this fiber is defined as linen. The research starts with a brief definition of the flax, and then reviews the scenes representing the sowing and the harvesting of its seeds. It also focuses on the way of removing the seeds heads, the preparing of the flax for spinning: retting, beating and scutching. After that, it deals with transforming flax into orderly lengths, and rolling it into balls or coils. The researcher as well studies the Ancient Egyptian spinning techniques: grasped spindle, support spindle and drop spinning; the different types of weaving: tabby weaves, basket weaves, tapestry weaves and warps-patterned weave and the types of looms that were in use in Egypt, namely, the horizontal and vertical looms.

  18. Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. [Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States)

    1991-07-01

    The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

  19. Suicide in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G

    2014-01-01

    The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say

  20. Lake size and fish diversity in southern Brazil coastal lagoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ribeiro Rodrigues

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, presents a series of shallow lagoons with diverse size and morphology. The objective of this study is to determine whether the size of the lagoon is an effective factor for structuring fish diversity. In this regard, nine lagoons with distinct areas were sampled: three with an area up to 40 hectares, three with area between 40 and 80 hectares, and three with an area of over 80 hectares. Each lagoon was sampled once on the littoral and pelagic zones. At each point, fish were captured through a set of gill nets with different mesh sizes. Captured specimens were identified, quantified and evaluated for weight and length. A total of 24 fish species belonging to 10 families was obtained, with Characidae presenting the highest species richness. Cyanocharax alburnus was the only species that occurred in all lagoons. Cyphocharax voga, Astyanax eigenmmaniorum, Oligosarcus jenynsii and O. robustus were also frequent species, present in most of the sampled lagoons. Lycengraulis grossidens was captured in just two lagoons with increased conductivity. The community structure showed the highest species richness in lakes with an area over 40 ha, however the highest mean diversity values were observed in ponds up to 40 ha. Cluster Analysis yielded the formation of two groups: a group formed by just one lagoon and a second one cluster grouping all the other lagoons. This pattern may be associated with the presence of Lycengraulis grossidens as a dominant species in this lagoon clustered apart. The results indicate that lagoons with up to 40 ha present greater homogeneity on the species composition and higher average values of diversity; while intermediate ponds (between 40 and 80 ha have lower average diversity for the fish fauna due to increased heterogeneity in species abundance.

  1. Climate and Ancient Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Climate, and human responses to it, have a strongly interconnected relationship. This when climate change occurs, the result of either natural or human causes, societies should react and adapt to these. But do they? If so, what is the nature of that change, and are the responses positive...... or negative for the long-term survival of social groups? In this volume, scholars from diverse disciplines including archaeology, geology and climate sciences explore scientific and material evidence for climate changes in the past, their causes, their effects on ancient societies and how those societies...

  2. Urology in ancient India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakti Das

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland.

  3. Mathematics in ancient Greece

    CERN Document Server

    Dantzig, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    More than a history of mathematics, this lively book traces mathematical ideas and processes to their sources, stressing the methods used by the masters of the ancient world. Author Tobias Dantzig portrays the human story behind mathematics, showing how flashes of insight in the minds of certain gifted individuals helped mathematics take enormous forward strides. Dantzig demonstrates how the Greeks organized their precursors' melange of geometric maxims into an elegantly abstract deductive system. He also explains the ways in which some of the famous mathematical brainteasers of antiquity led

  4. Musical ensembles in Ancient Mesapotamia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krispijn, T.J.H.; Dumbrill, R.; Finkel, I.

    2010-01-01

    Identification of musical instruments from ancient Mesopotamia by comparing musical ensembles attested in Sumerian and Akkadian texts with depicted ensembles. Lexicographical contributions to the Sumerian and Akkadian lexicon.

  5. Seasonal hydrochemical variation in a tropical coastal lagoon (Açu Lagoon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Chagas

    Full Text Available Hydrochemical conditions in the Açu Lagoon are described using spatial and temporal variations of various limnological variables (water temperature, dissolved oxygen, electric conductivity, total alkalinity, carbon dioxide, dissolved and total nutrients (N, P and Si, and chlorophyll a. Collected data was used in order to understand the structure and functioning of an enclosed coastal lagoon strongly influenced by climatic conditions. Water samples were collected monthly (November 1999-December 2000 in five sampling stations established along the lagoon. A decreasing spatial gradient of electrical conductivity was observed beginning from a sand bar region between the lagoon and the sea in the direction of the sweet-water input area. The positive correlation observed between the pH and dissolved oxygen (DO values, and the negative one observed between pH values and those of carbon dioxide (CO2, evidenced coupled biological processes, e.g., primary production and decomposition. Both spatial and temporal variation of dissolved nutrients showed fast increase and decrease in the beginning of summer, suggesting that nutrient input resulting from rainfall stimulates phytoplankton production, as reflected by chlorophyll a concentration increase.

  6. Are coastal lagoons physically or biologically controlled ecosystems? Revisiting r vs. K strategies in coastal lagoons and estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Marcos, Concepción; Pérez-Ruzafa, Isabel María; Pérez-Marcos, María

    2013-11-01

    Environmental stress influences biological assemblages, with species responding to stress by adopting particular life-history strategies (e.g., r vs. K). Coastal lagoons and estuaries are considered naturally stressed and physically controlled systems with frequent environmental disturbances and fluctuations. At the same time, their transitional nature (between terrestrial, freshwater and marine) makes them especially vulnerable to human impacts and land and freshwater inputs. As a result, it is hypothesised that residents of coastal lagoons would display characteristics of r-selected species. The r-strategy involves increased reproductive effort through early reproduction, small and numerous offspring with a large dispersive capability, short lifespan and small adult body size. Together, these traits provide a selective advantage in such unpredictable or short-lived environments. Alternatively, immigrants to coastal lagoons should mostly be K-strategists, with a competitive advantage over the r-strategists, at least on a temporary time scale. These hypotheses were explored using a dataset from 73 Atlanto-Mediterranean sites: 27 estuaries, 42 coastal lagoons and 4 from the sea, obtained from published sources. A detailed analysis of the distributions of the different resident fish species according to lagoon characteristics indicated that in lagoons with a higher marine influence the families Gobiidae, Blenniidae and Syngnathidae were common, while lagoons with freshwater influence are characterized by Cyprinidae and other freshwater species. In analyzing the biological strategies of lagoon species we found that fish assemblages inhabiting marine influenced lagoons were characterized by solitary, necto-benthonic sedentary species. These species are often hermaphroditic, with benthic broods and many exhibit brooding behaviour. This suggests that marine influenced lagoons are dominated by K-strategist species, while r-strategy species will be more common in

  7. Oualidia lagoon, Morocco: an estuary without a river | Hilmi | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coupled 2D hydrodynamic and advection-dispersion models (MIKE21) were then used to verify some renewal times. The tidally averaged renewal time for the whole lagoon was found to be 7 days, while the local renewal time at the upstream end of the lagoon was 25 days. Finally, an inverse modelling approach using ...

  8. Assessment of Water Quality Parameters of Kpeshie Lagoon of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the Kpeshi Lagoon to identify the chemical and physical characteristics of the water. A lot of industrial activities are carried out around the Lagoon and it is being gradually turned into a place of refuse damp. Standard methods were used for determining of chemical and physical characteristics of ...

  9. DESIGN INFORMATION REPORT: PROTECTION OF WASTEWATER LAGOON INTERIOR SLOPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A problem common to many wastewater treatment and storage lagoons is erosion of the interior slopes. Erosion may be caused by surface runoff and wind-induced wave action. The soils that compose the steep interior slopes of lagoons are especially susceptible to erosion and slumpin...

  10. Distributions of phytoplankton in a coastal lagoon of Mahin, Ondo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distributions of phytoplankton were investigated in Mahin Lagoon within Transgressive mud coast of Ondo, Western Nigeria. Collections and analyses of samples of phytoplankton and surface waters (for some physico-chemical parameters) were done at fifteen stations along the stretch of the lagoon in October 2013 and ...

  11. Scottish saline lagoons: Impacts and challenges of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Stewart

    2017-11-01

    The majority of Scotland's saline lagoons are located on the low-lying coastlines of the Western Isles and the northern archipelagos of Orkney and Shetland, where recorded annual relative sea level rise rates are among the highest in Scotland. The sediment-impounded lagoons of Orkney and Shetland will either lose their impoundment and become incorporated in marine coastal waters, or become increasingly saline, as relative sea levels rise. The rock-basin lagoons of the Western Isles will retain their restricted exchange with the sea but will also become more saline with rising sea level. Specialist lagoonal organisms tend to have wide salinity tolerances but may succumb to competition from marine counterparts. In all areas, there are sufficient fresh-water inland water bodies with potential to be captured as lagoons to compensate for loss of extent and number, but the specialist lagoon biota tend to have limited dispersal powers. It is thus possible that they will be unable to transfer to their analogue sites before existing lagoons become fully marine, giving conservation managers the problem of deciding on management options: leave natural processes to operate without interference, manage the saline inflow to maintain the current salinity regime, or translocate lagoon organisms perceived as threatened by rising salinities. Timing of conversion and capture is unpredictable due to local topography and complications caused by variable stratification.

  12. Clipperton, a possible future for atoll lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpy, L.; Rodier, M.; Couté, A.; Perrette-Gallet, C.; Bley-Loëz, C.

    2010-09-01

    Closure of the Clipperton Island atoll (10°17' N 109°13' W), now a meromictic lake, is estimated to have occurred between 1839 and 1849. It was still closed in 2005. Brackish waters in the upper layer (0-10 m) were oxygenated, while saline waters in the deep layer (>20 m) were anoxic. Allowing for the methodological difficulties of earlier measurements, the physical characteristics of the lagoon did not seem to have changed significantly since the last expedition (1980). The intermediate layer between brackish and saline waters was characterized by a strong density gradient and a temperature inversion of up to 1.6°C. Microbial activity, water exchange between the deep layer and surrounding oceanic waters and the geothermal flux hypothesis are discussed. The low DIN and SRP concentrations observed in the upper layer, despite high nutrient input by seabird droppings, reflect the high nutrient uptake by primary producers as attested by the elevated overall gross primary production (6.6 g C m-2 day-1), and high suspended photosynthetic biomass (2.23 ± 0.23 μg Chl a l-1) and production (263 ± 27 μg C l-1 day-1). Phytoplankton composition changed in 67 years with the advent of new taxa and the disappearance of previously recorded species. The freshwater phytoplanktonic community comprised 43 taxa: 37 newly identified during the expedition and 6 previously noted; 16 species previously found were not seen in 2005. The closure of the lagoon, combined with the positive precipitation-evaporation budget characteristic of the region, has induced drastic changes in lagoon functioning compared with other closed atolls.

  13. Detecting Ancient Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. Gernaey

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Some diseases have played a more significant role in human development than others. Here we describe the results of a trial to diagnose ancient tuberculosis using chemical methods. Palaeo-epidemiological studies of the disease are compromised, but it has become apparent that tuberculosis (TB is a 'population-density dependent' disease. From modern studies, it is also apparent that the prevalence of TB can be used as an indicator of the level of poverty within the studied population. Mid-shaft rib samples from articulated individuals recovered from the former Newcastle Infirmary Burial Ground (1753-1845 AD were examined for mycolic acids that are species-specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The 24% of ribs positive for mycolic acids correlated with the documented 27% tuberculosis prevalence. Mycolic acid biomarkers have the potential to provide an accurate trace of the palaeo-epidemiology of tuberculosis in ancient populations, thereby providing an indication of the overall level of poverty - a useful adjunct for archaeology.

  14. The marsh vegetation of Kleinmond Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O'Callaghan

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of Kleinmond Lagoon suggests that this system is in transition from an estuary to a coastal lake. Two major types of vegetation were recognized, one which is subjected to soil and water conditions of marine origin and the other which is subjected to conditions of terrestrial origin. These vegetation types are discussed and compared to the vegetation of other estuarine systems. Artificial manipulations of the mouth seem to have resulted in sediment deposition and a freshening of the system. These unseasonable manipulations also threaten the continued existence of a number of species in the system.

  15. Exploring Ancient Skies A Survey of Ancient and Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H

    2011-01-01

    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers—events such as the supernova of 1054 A.D., the "lion horoscope," and the Star of Bethlehem. Explori...

  16. Authenticity in ancient DNA studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske

    2006-01-01

    Ancient DNA studies represent a powerful tool that can be used to obtain genetic insights into the past. However, despite the publication of large numbers of apparently successful ancient DNA studies, a number of problems exist with the field that are often ignored. Therefore, questions exist as ...

  17. Ancient Biomolecules and Evolutionary Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Prohaska, Ana; Racimo, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Over the last decade, studies of ancient biomolecules-particularly ancient DNA, proteins, and lipids-have revolutionized our understanding of evolutionary history. Though initially fraught with many challenges, the field now stands on firm foundations. Researchers now successfully retrieve nucleo...

  18. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliya Gounder Palanichamy

    Full Text Available Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade.

  19. Characterization of Ancient Tripitaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. X. Gong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tripitaka is the world’s most comprehensive version of Buddhist sutra. There are limited numbers of Tripitaka currently preserved, most of them present various patterns of degradation. As little is known about the materials and crafts used in Tripitaka, it appeared necessary to identify them, and to further define adapted conservation treatment. In this work, a study concerning the paper source and dyestuff of the Tripitaka from approximate 16th century was carried out using fiber analysis and thin-layer chromatography (TLC. The results proved that the papers were mainly made from hemp or bark of mulberry tree, and indigo was used for colorizing the paper. At the end, we provide with suggestions for protecting and restoring the ancient Tripitaka.

  20. Ancient Greek new music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Žužek

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I use a contextual approach to questions about the revolutionary »new music« in ancient Greece. This view is different from the nowadays most common formalistk view. Rather than analyze textual sources stylistically, I will try to present the available lata in the context of the structure and events of the Athenian society at a tirne when a wave of »new« poetics appeared. In the following discussion it is argued that the »new music« and the phenomena of the destruction of mousiké connected with it are not an esthetical novum, but more a consequence of the change of the discursive practice, where a musical poetry became less important and needless.

  1. Acid Tar Lagoons: Management and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohers, Anna; Hroncová, Emília; Ladomerský, Juraj

    2017-04-01

    This contribution presents the issue with possibility of definitive removal of dangerous environmental burden in Slovakia - serious historical problem of two acid tar lagoons. In relation to their removal, no technology has been found so far - technologically and economically suitable, what caused problems with its management. Locality Predajná is well known in Slovakia by its character of contrasts: it is situated in the picturesque landscape of National Park buffer zone of Nízke Tatry, on the other site it is contaminated by 229 211m3 of acid tar with its characteristics of toxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, mutagenicity and toxicity especially for animals and plants. Acid tar in two landfills with depth of 1m in case of the first lagoon and 9,5m in case of the second lagoon is a waste product derived from operation of Petrochema Dubová - refinery and petrochemical plant whose activity was to process the crude oil through processes of sulfonation and adsorption technology for producing lubricating and special oils, synthetic detergents and special white oils for cosmetic and medical purposes. A part of acid tar was incinerated in two incineration plats. Concentration of SO2 in combustion gases was too high and it was not possible to decrease it under the value of 2000 mg.mn-3 [LADOMERSKÝ, J. - SAMEŠOVÁ, D.: Reduction in sulfur dioxide emissions waste gases of incineration plant. Acta facultatis ecologiae. 1999, p. 217-223]. That is why it was necessary to put them out of operation. Later, because of public opposition it was not possible to build a new incineration plat corresponding to the state of the art. Even though actual Slovak and European legislative for protection of environment against such impacts, neither of tried methods - bio or non-biologic treatment methods - was proved as suitable for processing or for recovery in the reason of different factors admission: i.e. strong aggressivity, difficulty with handling because of its sludgy and

  2. Overview of ecotoxicological studies performed in the Venice Lagoon (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losso, C; Ghirardini, A Volpi

    2010-01-01

    This work reports on the state of the art of the bioindicators used to assess environmental quality (regarding chemical pollutant impacts) in the Venice lagoon. After a brief description of the roles, advantages and limitations of bioindicators in marine and transitional environments and a summary of the Venice lagoon characteristics, the ecotoxicological methods used during scientific studies and research projects in the Lagoon are reported. Since not all data are available and no database can be formulated, the main evidence from toxicity bioassays, biomarkers and bioaccumulation analyses since the end of the 1970s is spatially synthesized using maps and discussed according to the four Venice lagoon basins. The majority of indicators showed that the Lido basin (north-central lagoon), affected by the presence of the industrial area and the city of Venice, is the one most highly impacted (particularly in the sites located within or in front of the industrial area, which showed very high sediment toxicity and high levels of DNA damage). The Malamocco basin (south-central lagoon) seems to be the least problematic. The southern basin (Chioggia basin) was shown to be impacted by urban contaminants from the town of Chioggia. The northern basin (Treporti basin) presented both impacted sites (high toxicity and high bioaccumulation factor) and relatively unpolluted sites (absence of toxicity, absence of imposex and low levels of bioaccumulation). This review can serve as a basis on which to select pragmatic, cost-effective biomonitoring techniques for environmental effects in lagoon ecosystems.

  3. Hydrodynamics Modeling of Khung Krabaen Lagoon, Chanthaburi Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuspong Pokavanich

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Khung Krabaen Lagoon (KKBL is a small low-inflow water body. There are vast areas of tidal flat occupied nearly 60% of the lagoon that host some of the most productive seagrass habitats in the region. The lagoon is surrounded by mangrove forest and intensive shrimp farms behind it. The KKBL was used as an intake and recipient water for the farms. However due some shrimp disease epidemics and possibly deteriorated water quality, the farms are now taking the intake water from the outer sea through very expensive (to construct and to maintain irrigation system. Objective of this study is to investigate the KKBL’s hydrodynamics using a numerical simulation model validated with measured data. The simulation model was setup two-dimensionally based on the Delft3D model. Results suggested that water currents inside, at the mouth and at the outer sea of the lagoon are mainly governed by tide and wind. Offshore of the lagoon, there are strong tidal currents flowing along northwest and southeast direction. The tidal currents flow into the lagoon through its mouth before dispersion rapidly inside the lagoon. Mean circulation largely varied seasonally and had direct correlations outer sea seasonal mean currents and the monsoons.

  4. A Century of changes for Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrieciu, Marian-Albert; Stanica, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    A Century of changes for Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System Marian-Albert Scrieciu (a), Adrian Stanica (a) (a) National Institute of Marine Geology and Geoecology e GeoEcoMar, Str. Dimitrie Onciul 23e25, Sector 2, 024053 Bucharest, Romania Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System, situated in the NW part of the Black Sea, in tight connection with the Danube Delta, has been subject to major changes due to human interventions in the past century. These changes have resulted into a complete change of the Lagoon specific ecosystems compared to its pristine state. In its natural state, as brackish - transitional environment, Antipa (1894) mentions Razelm Lagoon as one of the places with the greatest fisheries around the Black Sea coast (about 1879 - 1884, there were approximately 10,000 fishermen, all working on the Razelm Sinoe Lagoon System). Starting with the end of the XIXth Century, new canals were dug and existing channels were dredged in order to develop tighter connections with the Danube River. The natural inlet of Portita was blocked four decades ago and connections between the various parts of the lagoon system were controlled by the building of locks and sluices. The 2 inlets of Sinoe Lagoon were also controlled during early 1980s. Under these conditions, the lagoon ecosystem changed from brackish towards freshwater, with major effects on the existing flora and fauna. The period of brutal interventions ended in 1989 and the Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System became part of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve in 1991, with a strict policy of nature protection and restoration. Spatial planning has been the major management option for the entire reserve, lagoon system included. Plans for sustainable development of the Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System have been built in a participative manner, involving the local stakeholders, as part of FP7 ARCH project. Special attention has been given to impacts of climate change. The study presents the vision for the development Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System over

  5. The dominance of cyanobacteria in Mediterranean hypereutrophic lagoons: a case study of Cabras Lagoon (Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pulina

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An intense proliferation of cyanobacteria in Cabras Lagoon was investigated over a period of two years (July 2007 to June 2009. The influence of environmental and meteorological parameters in the lagoon on temporal variations in cyanobacteria orders was assessed. For 17 months, Chroococcales was the only cyanobacterial order observed in the lagoon. Cyanobium-type cells (Reynolds functional group Z were the most abundant phytoplankton taxon during this period. In the following months, drastic changes in the cyanobacteria assemblages occurred simultaneously with constant, intense rainfall that led to a sudden drop in the lagoon’s salinity. The succession of autumn–winter Oscillatoriales (Planktothrix sp. and Pseudanabaena catenata; Reynolds functional group S1 and late spring growth of Nostocales (Aphanizomenon gracile, Aphanizomenon aphanizomenoides, and Anabaenopsis circularis; Reynolds functional group H1 was monitored. Canonical Correspondence Analysis was carried out to quantify the influence of environmental variables, and indicated strong relationships between Chroococcales and salinity, Oscillatoriales and higher values of SRP and the DIN/SRP ratio, and Nostocales and lower nutrient concentrations, the DIN/SRP ratio and salinity.

  6. [Ancient Egyptian Odontology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghult, B

    1999-01-01

    In ancient Egypt during the reign of Pharaoh Djoser, circa 2650 BC, the Step Pyramid was constructed by Imhotep. He was later worshiped as the God of Medicine. One of his contemporaries was the powerful writer Hesy who is reproduced on a panel showing a rebus of a swallow, a tusk and an arrow. He is therefore looked upon as being the first depicted odontologist. The art of writing begun in Egypt in about 3100 BC and the medical texts we know from different papyri were copied with hieratic signs around 1900-1100 BC. One of the most famous is the Papyrus Ebers. It was purchased by professor Ebers on a research travel to Luxor in 1873. Two years later a beautiful facsimile in color was published and the best translation came in 1958 in German. The text includes 870 remedies and some of them are related to teeth and oral troubles like pain in the mouth, gingivitis, periodontitis and cavities in the teeth. The most common oral pain was probably pulpitis caused by extreme attrition due to the high consumption of bread contaminated with soil and/or quern minerals. Another text is the Papyrus Edwin Smith with four surgical cases of dental interest. The "toothworms" that were presumed to bring about decayed teeth have not been identified in the medical texts. It was not until 1889 W.D. Miller presented a scientific explanation that cavities were caused by bacteria. In spite of extensive research only a few evidence of prosthetic and invasive treatments have been found and these dental artifacts have probably been made post mortem. Some of the 150 identified doctors were associated with treatments of disorders of the mouth. The stele of Seneb from Sa'is during the 26th dynasty of Psamtik, 664-525 BC, shows a young man who probably was a dental healer well known to Pharaoh and his court. Clement of Alexandria mentions circa 200 AD that the written knowledge of the old Egyptians was gathered in 42 collections of papyri. Number 37-42 contained the medical writings. The

  7. Is the Venice Lagoon Noisy? First Passive Listening Monitoring of the Venice Lagoon: Possible Effects on the Typical Fish Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolgan, Marta; Picciulin, Marta; Codarin, Antonio; Fiorin, Riccardo; Zucchetta, Matteo; Malavasi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Three passive listening surveys have been carried out in two of the three Venice lagoon tide inlets and inside the Venice island. The spectral content and the intensity level of the underwater noise as well as the presence or absence of Sciaena umbra and the distribution of its different sound patterns have been investigated in all the recording sites. The passive listening proved to be successful in detecting S. umbra drumming sounds in both Venice lagoon tide inlets. Our results indicate that the spectral content and the level of underwater noise pollution in the Venice lagoon could affect fish acoustic communication.

  8. Radioecology of the Kuecuek Cekmece lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unlu, Y.M.

    1977-01-01

    In order to understand the physical-chemical conditions of the Kuecuekcekmece Lagon starting with its creation, meteorological, physical, chemical and biological conditions were determined. Radiometric analyses have been done on the dissected organs of animals which lives in the lagoon and sediments. The effect of the variation of salinity on the accumulationloss and distribution of 65 Zn in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam.) were investigated. Besides of this, determination and comparison of 65 Zn flux rates in Mytilus galloprovincialis in the field and laboratory conditions are made. The results shows that, mixing of both marine and stream water the salinity and elemental composition of the Lagoon change frequently. This events has an influence on the 65 Zn precipitation. Remaining the salinities under the 10 ppt and the pH as an alkali, the 65 Zn adsorption to the small particle became to conciderable quantities. Since Mytilus galloprovincialis feeds itself by fittering the water, we would expect that it would accumulate more activity in such a medium. In contrast to this, less activities accumulated in low salinities and this accumulation is seen mostly in the shells. although the reason for this event cannot be explained as a whole, it can be expressed in two way according to : During adaptation of organisms to the new conditions by its isosmotical ability, some events takes place in the organisms which cause more strongly bounding of the existing zinc in the body. It is for this reason, 65 Zn cannot be able to change with body Zn. The radioactive zinc is not biologically available to the M. galloprovincialis at low salinities

  9. Surface Water Quality Survey of Northern Indian River Lagoon from Sebastian Inlet to Mosquito Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, R. J.; Webb, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    Following news of an emerging brown tide algal bloom in the northern Indian River Lagoon (IRL), researchers sought to gain insight into the surface water quality in the IRL, as well as the extent of the algae coverage. A Portable SeaKeeper from YSI, mounted to a personal watercraft-based coastal profiling system, autonomously collected and analyzed the surface water. The system operates by recording sample data every 12 seconds while continuously underway at speeds up to and greater than 50 km/hr. The researchers covered a transect that started at Sebastian Inlet and followed a zig-zag path extending up through the Haulover Canal and into the Mosquito Lagoon. The survey path covered 166.7 km, and collected 2248 samples. Along the way stops were made at water quality stations used by the Saint John's River Water Management District, so that the data collected can be incorporated into ongoing monitoring efforts. The system analyzed the surface water for dissolved oxygen, pH, chlorophyll-a, salinity, temperature, turbidity, refined fuels, and CDOM. In the two days following the lagoon survey, the inlets at Port Canaveral and Sebastian were also surveyed for tidal currents and hydrography. The IRL transect survey data recorded evidence of the southern extent of the algae bloom in both chlorophyll-a and pH levels. Visual evidence of the bloom was striking as the water in the northern IRL turned a milk chocolaty brown color. Chlorophyll-a levels in the two inlets suggested bloom activity at these locations; however this bloom was different. This oceanic bloom was a result of a persistent upwelling event along the East Florida shelf, and the color was a paler green-yellow. The near-synoptic nature of the comprehensive lagoon survey, conducted in just over 7 hours, allows researchers to obtain a better understanding of water quality in coastal lagoons. Elevated levels of salinity, temperature, and refined fuels in the northern IRL indicate a low exchange rate and absence

  10. VISTA Stares Deeply into the Blue Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This new infrared image of the Lagoon Nebula was captured as part of a five-year study of the Milky Way using ESO's VISTA telescope at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. This is a small piece of a much larger image of the region surrounding the nebula, which is, in turn, only one part of a huge survey. Astronomers are currently using ESO's Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) to scour the Milky Way's central regions for variable objects and map its structure in greater detail than ever before. This huge survey is called VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) [1]. The new infrared image presented here was taken as part of this survey. It shows the stellar nursery called the Lagoon Nebula (also known as Messier 8, see eso0936), which lies about 4000-5000 light-years away in the constellation of Sagittarius (the Archer). Infrared observations allow astronomers to peer behind the veil of dust that prevents them from seeing celestial objects in visible light. This is because visible light, which has a wavelength that is about the same size as the dust particles, is strongly scattered, but the longer wavelength infrared light can pass through the dust largely unscathed. VISTA, with its 4.1-metre diameter mirror - the largest survey telescope in the world - is dedicated to surveying large areas of the sky at near-infrared wavelengths deeply and quickly. It is therefore ideally suited to studying star birth. Stars typically form in large molecular clouds of gas and dust, which collapse under their own weight. The Lagoon Nebula, however, is also home to a number of much more compact regions of collapsing gas and dust, called Bok globules [2]. These dark clouds are so dense that, even in the infrared, they can block the starlight from background stars. But the most famous dark feature in the nebula, for which it is named, is the lagoon-shaped dust lane that winds its way through the glowing cloud of gas. Hot, young stars, which give off intense

  11. Ancient and Current Chaos Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güngör Gündüz

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Chaos theories developed in the last three decades have made very important contributions to our understanding of dynamical systems and natural phenomena. The meaning of chaos in the current theories and in the past is somewhat different from each other. In this work, the properties of dynamical systems and the evolution of chaotic systems were discussed in terms of the views of ancient philosophers. The meaning of chaos in Anaximenes’ philosophy and its role in the Ancient natural philosophy has been discussed in relation to other natural philosophers such as of Anaximander, Parmenides, Heraclitus, Empedocles, Leucippus (i.e. atomists and Aristotle. In addition, the fundamental concepts of statistical mechanics and the current chaos theories were discussed in relation to the views in Ancient natural philosophy. The roots of the scientific concepts such as randomness, autocatalysis, nonlinear growth, information, pattern, etc. in the Ancient natural philosophy were investigated.

  12. assessment of water quality parameters of kpeshi lagoon of ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    A lot of industrial activities are carried out around the Lagoon and it is being gradually ... chemical and physical characteristics of water samples. .... Royal Hotel whereas the third section stretches .... for long in the environment (WRC, 2003).

  13. Physicochemical and microbiological monitoring analysis of the Iquipari Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Batista Justino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The state of Rio de Janeiro holds many coastal lagoons with an extensive biodiversity. The lagoons are considered productive, but also defenseless due anthropic use. They can be great economic sources, as well as an ideal place for leisure and recreation. In order to evaluate the water quality of the Iquipari Lagoon, located in the city of São João da Barra, RJ, this work aims to demonstrate the results of physicochemical and microbiological parameters, and to discuss the results of the analysis. It was possible to observe that the parameters such as thermotolerant coliforms, pH and Turbidity (UNT showed high values established by CONAMA No. 357/05. However, it is necessary to give special attention to environmental education in the locality, as well as to encourage preservation of the natural environment in which the lagoon is located.

  14. Nutrient removal from swine lagoon effluent by duckweed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, B.A.; Cheng, J.; Classen, J.; Stomp, A.M.

    2000-04-01

    Three duckweed geographic isolates were grown on varying concentrations of swine lagoon effluent in a greenhouse to determine their ability to remove nutrients from the effluent. Duckweed biomass was harvested every other day over a 12-day period. Duckweed biomass production, nutrient loss from the swine lagoon effluent, and nutrient content of duckweed biomass were used to identify effluent concentrations/geographic isolate combinations that are effective in terms of nutrient utilization from swine lagoon effluent and production of healthy duckweed biomass. When Lemna minor geographic isolate 8627 was grown on 50% swine lagoon effluent, respective losses of TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, TP, OPO{sub 4}-P, TOC, K, Cu, and Zn were 83, 100, 49, 31, 68, 21, 28 and 67%.

  15. Social foraging by waterbirds in shallow coastal lagoons in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battley, PF; Poot, M; Wiersma, P; Gordon, C; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y; Piersma, T; Battley, Phil F.

    Social foraging in waterbirds in Ghanaian coastal lagoons was studied during October and November 1994. Two types of foraging were social: directionally synchronized flocks (often involving distinctive feeding methods used in unison) and dense pecking aggregations. Social flocks were typically

  16. Reconstructing ancient genomes and epigenomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-01-01

    DNA studies have now progressed to whole-genome sequencing for an increasing number of ancient individuals and extinct species, as well as to epigenomic characterization. Such advances have enabled the sequencing of specimens of up to 1 million years old, which, owing to their extensive DNA damage...... and contamination, were previously not amenable to genetic analyses. In this Review, we discuss these varied technical challenges and solutions for sequencing ancient genomes and epigenomes....

  17. Phosphate gypsum wastes in Venice lagoon. Radiological impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belli, M; Blasi, M; Guogang, J.; Rosamilia, S.; Sansone, U.; Biancotto, R.; Bidoli, P.; Sepulcri, D.

    2000-03-01

    The phosphoric minerals utilized in phosphoric acid production, presents high concentrations of radioactive materials: U238, Th 232, K 40. The phosphogypsum is the waste material obtained in the phosphoric acid production in wet process. This type of production method is employed for many years in Venice lagoon (Porto Marghera chemical plants). In this paper are reported evaluations of radiological impact on aquatic environment of lagoon [it

  18. Gaining insight into Clipperton's lagoon hydrology using tritium

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-baptiste, Philippe; Fourre, Elise; Charlou, Jean-luc; Donval, Jean-pierre; Correge, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    Historical descriptions of the Clipperton lagoon appear to converge on the fact that it became isolated from the surrounding ocean around 1858. Since then, because of the high precipitation rate which largely exceeds evaporation in this region of the eastern tropical Pacific, a brackish lens has formed on top of the saline oceanic waters. In 1980, literature data show that the thickness of this water body was reaching 14 m. During the 2005 Etienne's Clipperton expedition, we collected lagoon ...

  19. Seychelles Lagoon Provides Corals with a Refuge from Bleaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Iluz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An extensive bleaching event in the summer of the year 1997-1998 affected most reefs along East Africa's shores. In the aftermath of that episode, the reefs of Île Alphonse in the Seychelles were examined and it was found that reefs along the seaward slopes of the island lost >95% of their branching coral colonies, with considerably higher survival of massive species. Île Alphonse features a nearly circular shallow lagoon, with steep seaward slopes. Contrary to our expectations, mortality in the warmer lagoon was far lower than of coral colonies on the surrounding slopes, bathed in deeper and cooler waters. We suggest that corals in the lagoon were protected from UV radiation by leachate stemming from seagrass leaves steeped in the lagoon. Our measurements in the lagoon showed a strong attenuation of ultraviolet radiation, not observed in the waters outside the lagoon, and laboratory examination confirmed that the strong UV absorption of substances leached into seawater from decomposing leaves of the seagrass Thalassodendron (=Cymodocea testudinaceum. Our findings demonstrate the synergism between elevated seawater temperature and UV radiation in triggering bleaching on shallow reefs.

  20. Seychelles Lagoon Provides Corals with a Refuge from Bleaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iluz, D.; Chadwick, N.E.; Hoffman, R.; Dubinsky, Z.; Vago, R.; Chadwick, N.E.; Chadwick, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    An extensive bleaching event in the summer of the year 1997-1998 affected most reefs along East Africa's shores. In the aftermath of that episode, the reefs of Ile Alphonse in the Seychelles were examined and it was found that reefs along the seaward slopes of the island lost >95% of their branching coral colonies, with considerably higher survival of massive species. Ile Alphonse features a nearly circular shallow lagoon, with steep seaward slopes. Contrary to our expectations, mortality in the warmer lagoon was far lower than of coral colonies on the surrounding slopes, bathed in deeper and cooler waters. We suggest that corals in the lagoon were protected from UV radiation by leachate stemming from sea grass leaves steeped in the lagoon. Our measurements in the lagoon showed a strong attenuation of ultraviolet radiation, no observed in the waters outside the lagoon, and laboratory examination confirmed that the strong UV absorption of substances leached into seawater from decomposing leaves of the sea grass Thalassodendron (=Cymodocea) testudinaceum. Our findings demonstrate the synergism between elevated seawater temperature and UV radiation in triggering bleaching on shallow reefs.

  1. Chemical composition of sediments from the Patos Lagoon, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baisch, P.R.M.; Asmus, H.E.; Jounneau, J.-M.

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of major elements (Si,Al,Fe,Mg,Mn,Ca,Ti,K,Na), trace elements (Pb,Cu,Zn,Ni,Cr,Zr,Ba,Rb,Sr,Co,Ga) and organic matter (C-org.; N-org., S and P), and of bottom sediments from the Patos Lagoon, aim to define the regional geochemical variables of this lagoon. The results identified three main groups of trace elements: 1) trace elements associated with argillo-mineral and with organic matter: Zn, Ni, Cr, Rb; 2) trace elements of detrital origin: Ti, Za, Ba; and 3) trace elements connected exclusively to organic matter: Mn, Cu, Co. The results of this study also demonstrate the main regional variations of the major and trace elements, of the organic matter and of the sedimentary grain size along a north-south profile in the lagoon. Organic matter is the most important factor for the distribution of trace elements. The Guaiba hydrographic system is the main source for the detrital and non-detrital trace elements in the lagoon. Gradual sedimentation along the Patos Lagoon can be pointed to as the cause of higher concentrations of Pb, Cu and Cr (partial fraction) in the southern part of the lagoon. (author) [pt

  2. METALS POLLLUTION IN EL LIMON LAGOON, CHIAPAS, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Teresa Leal-Ascencio

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available El Limón Lagoon belongs to the Reforma county, in the State of Chiapas, Mexico. Massive fish killings have occurred in the lagoon, demanding a deeper study to determine the pollution state of the lagoon, as well as the possible cause of the deaths. Results show that the average concentrations of Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd and Cu in the lagoon are beyond the recommended limits in Canada and USA to avoid deleterious biological effects in aquatic species. Special mention has to be done for the case of Zn, with a maximum concentration of 1360 mg/kg, presumably associated with the use of this metal as a catalyst in a natural gas plant close to the lagoon. Although the industrial discharges comply with the Mexican Standards for metals in wastewaters, this has not been enough to avoid the accumulation of metals in sediments, which is a demonstration of failure of the Mexican Wastewater Standards that should be more restrictive especially in the case of lagoons with a low water recharge, taking into account the type of water body where the wastewater is loading. In the case of the application of this water for agriculture, the metals can accumulate in soils, with unwanted effects on crops.

  3. Benthic ecology of tropical coastal lagoons: Environmental changes over the last decades in the Términos Lagoon, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenz, Christian; Fichez, Renaud; Silva, Carlos Álvarez; Benítez, Laura Calva; Conan, Pascal; Esparza, Adolfo Contreras Ruiz; Denis, Lionel; Ruiz, Silvia Díaz; Douillet, Pascal; Martinez, Margarita E. Gallegos; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Mendieta, Francisco José Gutiérrez; Origel-Moreno, Montserrat; Garcia, Antonio Zoilo Marquez; Caravaca, Alain Muñoz; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Alvarado, Rocío Torres; Zavala-Hidalgo, Jorge

    2017-10-01

    The Términos Lagoon is a 2000-km2 wide coastal lagoon linked to the largest river catchment in Mesoamerica. Economic development, together with its ecological importance, led the Mexican government to pronounce the Términos Lagoon and its surrounding wetlands as a Federal protected area for flora and fauna in 1994. It is characterized by small temperature fluctuations, but with two distinct seasons (wet and dry) that control the biological, geochemical, and physical processes and components. This paper presents a review of the available information about the Términos Lagoon. The review shows that the diversity of benthic communities is structured by the balance between marine and riverine inputs and that this structuration strongly influences the benthic metabolism and its coupling with the biogeochemistry of the water column. The paper also presents many specific drivers and recommendations for a long-term environmental survey strategy in the context of the expected Global Change in the Central American region.

  4. Did the ancient Egyptians migrate to ancient Nigeria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock M. Agai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Literatures concerning the history of West African peoples published from 1900 to 1970 debate�the possible migrations of the Egyptians into West Africa. Writers like Samuel Johnson and�Lucas Olumide believe that the ancient Egyptians penetrated through ancient Nigeria but Leo�Frobenius and Geoffrey Parrinder frowned at this opinion. Using the works of these early�20th century writers of West African history together with a Yoruba legend which teaches�about the origin of their earliest ancestor(s, this researcher investigates the theories that the�ancient Egyptians had contact with the ancient Nigerians and particularly with the Yorubas.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: There is an existing ideology�amongst the Yorubas and other writers of Yoruba history that the original ancestors of�the Yorubas originated in ancient Egypt hence there was migration between Egypt and�Yorubaland. This researcher contends that even if there was migration between Egypt and�Nigeria, such migration did not take place during the predynastic and dynastic period as�speculated by some scholars. The subject is open for further research.

  5. The lagoon a study in imagery The lagoon a study in imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gago Alvarez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to prove that, through exuberant sensuous imagery - the strange tropical setting, the mystery of elements, light and darkness - Joseph Conrad, in his short-story "The Lagoon" describes and transmits Impressionistically, the dramatic story of a men surprised by his own act of cowardice, a man divided between loyalty to his own blood and love. This man, Arsat suffers a blockaded feeling towards himself because he failed to act when he had the occasion, and he missed it: he left his brother to die in the hands of the enemy while he. Arsat, escaped with his love Diamelen, to live in the "shadows" of "The Lagoon" - his own psychological, subconscious guilty conscience. The story starts with a description of nature, as motionless, and undefined as the plot still is: The forests, somber and dull, stood motionless and silent... In the stillness of the air ... minute blossoms seemed do have been bewitched into an immobility perfect and final. Nothing moved on the river (1 The purpose of this paper is to prove that, through exuberant sensuous imagery - the strange tropical setting, the mystery of elements, light and darkness - Joseph Conrad, in his short-story "The Lagoon" describes and transmits Impressionistically, the dramatic story of a men surprised by his own act of cowardice, a man divided between loyalty to his own blood and love. This man, Arsat suffers a blockaded feeling towards himself because he failed to act when he had the occasion, and he missed it: he left his brother to die in the hands of the enemy while he. Arsat, escaped with his love Diamelen, to live in the "shadows" of "The Lagoon" - his own psychological, subconscious guilty conscience. The story starts with a description of nature, as motionless, and undefined as the plot still is: The forests, somber and dull, stood motionless and silent... In the stillness of the air ... minute blossoms seemed do have been bewitched into an

  6. Tuberculosis in ancient times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Cilliers

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of an array of effective antibiotics, tuberculosis is still very common in developing countries where overcrowding, malnutrition and poor hygienic conditions prevail. Over the past 30 years associated HIV infection has worsened the situation by increasing the infection rate and mortality of tuberculosis. Of those diseases caused by a single organism only HIV causes more deaths internationally than tuberculosis. The tubercle bacillus probably first infected man in Neolithic times, and then via infected cattle, but the causative Mycobacteriacea have been in existence for 300 million years. Droplet infection is the most common way of acquiring tuberculosis, although ingestion (e.g. of infected cows’ milk may occur. Tuberculosis probably originated in Africa. The earliest path gnomonic evidence of human tuberculosis in man was found in osteo-archaeological findings of bone tuberculosis (Pott’s disease of the spine in the skeleton of anEgyptian priest from the 21st Dynasty (approximately 1 000 BC. Suggestive but not conclusiveevidence of tuberculotic lesions had been found in even earlier skeletons from Egypt and Europe. Medical hieroglyphics from ancient Egypt are silent on the disease, which could be tuberculosis,as do early Indian and Chinese writings. The Old Testament refers to the disease schachapeth, translated as phthisis in the Greek Septuagint. Although the Bible is not specific about this condition, tuberculosis is still called schachapeth in modern Hebrew. In pre-Hippocratic Greece Homer did not mention phthisis, a word meaning non-specific wasting of the body. However. Alexander of Tralles (6th century BC seemed to narrow the concept down to a specific disease, and in the Hippocratic Corpus (5th-4th centuries BC phthisis can be recognised as tuberculosis. It was predominantly a respiratory disease commonly seen and considered to be caused by an imbalance of bodily humours. It was commonest in autumn, winter and spring

  7. Mechanism of nitrogen removal in wastewater lagoon: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendramelli, Richard A; Vijay, Saloni; Yuan, Qiuyan

    2017-06-01

    Ammonia being a nutrient facilitates the growth of algae in wastewater and causes eutrophication. Nitrate poses health risk if it is present in drinking water. Hence, nitrogen removal from wastewater is required. Lagoon wastewater treatment systems have become common in Canada these days. The study was conducted to understand the nitrogen removal mechanisms from the existing wastewater treatment lagoon system in the town of Lorette, Manitoba. The lagoon system consists of two primary aerated cells and two secondary unaerated cells. Surface samples were collected periodically from lagoon cells and analysed from 5 May 2015 to 9 November 2015. The windward and leeward sides of the ponds were sampled and the results were averaged. It was found that the free ammonia volatilization to the atmosphere is responsible for most of the ammonia removal. Ammonia and nitrate assimilation into biomass and biological growth in the cells appears to be the other mechanisms of nitrogen removal over the monitoring period. Factors affecting the nitrogen removal efficiency were found to be pH, temperature and hydraulic residence time. Also, the ammonia concentration in the effluent from the wastewater treatment lagoon was compared with the regulatory standard.

  8. Fine and coarse components in surface sediments from Bikini Lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V. E., LLNL

    1997-01-01

    In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations in the lagoon of Bikini Atoll, one of the two sites in the Marshall Islands used by the United States to test nuclear devices from 1946 through 1958. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long-lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show, by comparison, what modifications occurred in the composition since the sediments were first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material that is now found in the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. The 5 cratering events alone at Bikini Atoll redistributed sufficient material to account for the higher inventory of fine material found over the surface 4 cm of the sediment of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to greatly change the general geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor.

  9. The evolution of the Lagoon of Venice as a paradigm of anthropogenic alteration of ecosystems: a palaeoenvironmental reconstruction through wide-area acoustic surveys and core sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madricardo, Fantina; Donnici, Sandra

    2013-04-01

    The Lagoon of Venice (Italy) is the unique result of natural and anthropogenic changes. Through the centuries, human activities, steadily modified its environment, bringing it to the point that the Lagoon of Venice is itself a signature of human activities. Moreover, the historical city of Venice, a world heritage site, is threatened by flooding caused by sea level rises, so much so that major modifications of the lagoon inlets are ongoing in order to protect it. For these reasons, the Lagoon of Venice is at the same time a paradigm of a relatively circumscribed ecosystem in which the Anthropocene has started long ago, and a sensitive testbed of the environmental changes that are taking place at the global level. In this context, a large geophysical survey was carried out to explore the Holocene sediments in order to establish the natural evolution of the lagoon and the impact of human activities. The survey is the basis of an interdisciplinary study that has allowed the reconstruction of ancient landscapes of the lagoon from before its origin to present days. In particular, thanks to acoustic and geologic investigation of the lagoon sub-bottom, and by crossing our data with the environmental records provided by archaeological findings and by the city's historical archives, we could distinguish different phases of the lagoon evolution and evaluate the weight of human-induced changes We first mapped the position and the depth of the alluvial plain that was flooded during the last marine transgression, about 6000 years before present (BP), when the lagoon originated. Then, we mapped the areal extension of a dense network of palaeochannels and palaeosurfaces corresponding to different hydrological conditions and relative mean sea levels. Using many radiocarbon dating and the acoustical sub-bottom reconstruction, we could establish an average sedimentation rate of about 1 mm/year from 2500 and 1500 BP and 0.5 mm/year from 1500 BP up to present and an average migration

  10. On Ancient Babylonian Algebra and Geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ber system prevalent during the ancient Mesopotamian civilization. In this article, we study the ... civilization provides a better insight into the thought processes of the ancient Babylonian mathematicians. In this context, consider the following ...

  11. On the Hydrodynamic Geometry of Flow-Through versus Restricted Lagoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Th. Fourniotis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The classification of a lagoon as a restricted lagoon is shown to depend not solely on its geometry but also on the tidal hydraulics. By numerically simulating the tidal exchange of two lagoons of similar geometrical dimensions, the Nidova lagoon and the Papas lagoon, in Western Greece, subject to very similar tidal forcing, applied to the two tidal inlets in the first case and three in the second, very different residence times are found, namely 2.5 days for the Nidova and 25–30 days for the Papas lagoon. This large difference is attributed to the fact that whereas the Papas lagoon functions as a typical restricted lagoon, in which the water renewal is achieved by mixing in the lagoon of the tidal prism water exchanged within a tidal cycle, the Nidova lagoon functions as a flow-through system because of the differential arrival of the tide at its two tidal inlets. It is suggested that this way of enhancing the flushing rate of a lagoon be considered, whenever possible, when creating a new tidal inlet to the lagoon.

  12. Ancient woodland boundaries in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szabó, Péter

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 2 (2010), s. 205-214 ISSN 0305-7488 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : ancient woodland * historical ecology * landscape archaeology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.983, year: 2010

  13. Ancient Biomolecules and Evolutionary Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Prohaska, Ana; Racimo, Fernando; Welker, Frido; Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Allentoft, Morten E; de Barros Damgaard, Peter; Gutenbrunner, Petra; Dunne, Julie; Hammann, Simon; Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Ilardo, Melissa; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Wang, Yucheng; Sikora, Martin; Vinner, Lasse; Cox, Jürgen; Evershed, Richard P; Willerslev, Eske

    2018-04-25

    Over the last decade, studies of ancient biomolecules-particularly ancient DNA, proteins, and lipids-have revolutionized our understanding of evolutionary history. Though initially fraught with many challenges, the field now stands on firm foundations. Researchers now successfully retrieve nucleotide and amino acid sequences, as well as lipid signatures, from progressively older samples, originating from geographic areas and depositional environments that, until recently, were regarded as hostile to long-term preservation of biomolecules. Sampling frequencies and the spatial and temporal scope of studies have also increased markedly, and with them the size and quality of the data sets generated. This progress has been made possible by continuous technical innovations in analytical methods, enhanced criteria for the selection of ancient samples, integrated experimental methods, and advanced computational approaches. Here, we discuss the history and current state of ancient biomolecule research, its applications to evolutionary inference, and future directions for this young and exciting field. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biochemistry Volume 87 is June 20, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  14. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. Ry

    1997-01-01

    Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification......Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification...

  15. Copper complexation capacity in surface waters of the Venice Lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgadillo-Hinojosa, Francisco; Zirino, Alberto; Nasci, Cristina

    2008-10-01

    Total copper (Cu(T)), copper ion activity (pCu) and the copper complexation capacity (CuCC) were determined in samples of seawater collected in July 2003 from the Venice Lagoon. Cu(T) and CuCC showed considerable spatial variability: Cu(T) ranged from 1.8 to 70.0nM, whereas the CuCC varied from 195 to 573nM. pCu values varied from 11.6 to 12.6 and are consistent with those previously reported in estuarine and coastal areas (10.9-14.1). The range of Cu(T) values compares well with those reported in the past in the lagoon and in the adjacent Adriatic Sea. The highest concentrations of Cu(T) were found in samples collected near the industrial area of Porto Marghera, whereas the lowest were measured near the Chioggia and Malamocco inlets, where an intense tidally-driven renewal of seawater takes place. Although CuCC showed a high degree of spatial variability, the values recorded in the Venice Lagoon are comparable to those reported in other estuarine systems. In addition, CuCC was positively correlated with dissolved organic carbon (DOC), suggesting that organic ligands responsible for Cu complexation are part of the bulk organic matter pool in the lagoon. The CuCC:Cu(T) molar ratio was, on average 55:1, indicating that a large excess of complexation capacity exists in the Venice Lagoon. The high levels of CuCC and the narrow range of pCu indicates the importance of the role played by organic ligands in controlling the free ion Cu concentrations in the lagoon, and as a consequence, regulating its availability and/or toxicity.

  16. Subtidal hydrodynamics in a tropical lagoon: A dimensionless numbers approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio-Fernandez, L.; Valle-Levinson, A.; Gomez-Valdes, J.

    2018-01-01

    Observations in a tropical lagoon of the Yucatan peninsula motivated a non-dimensional number analysis to examine the relative influence of tidal stress, density gradients and wind stress on subtidal hydrodynamics. A two-month observation period in Chelem Lagoon covered the transition from the dry to the wet season. Chelem Lagoon is influenced by groundwater inputs and exhibits a main sub-basin (central sub-basin), a west sub-basin and an east sub-basin. Subtidal hydrodynamics were associated with horizontal density gradients that were modified seasonally by evaporation, precipitation, and groundwater discharge. A tidal Froude number (Fr0), a Wedderburn number (W), and a Stress ratio (S0) were used to diagnose the relative importance of dominant subtidal driving forces. The Froude number (Fr0) compares tidal forcing and baroclinic forcing through the ratio of tidal stress to longitudinal baroclinic pressure gradient. The Wedderburn number (W) relates wind stress to baroclinicity. The stress ratio (S0) sizes tidal stress and wind stress. S0 is a new diagnostic tool for systems influenced by tides and winds, and represents the main contribution of this research. Results show that spring-tide subtidal flows in the tropical lagoon had log(Fr0) ≫ 0 and log(S0) > 0 , i.e., driven mainly by tidal stresses (advective accelerations). Neap tides showed log(Fr0) ≪ 0 and log(S0) < 0) , i.e., flows driven by baroclinicity, especially at the lagoon heads of the east and west sub-basins. However, when the wind stress intensified over the lagoon, the relative importance of baroclinicity decreased and the wind stress controlled the dynamics (log(W) ≫ 0). Each sub-basin exhibited a different subtidal response, according to the dimensionless numbers. The response depended on the fortnightly tidal cycle, the location and magnitude of groundwater input, and the direction and magnitude of the wind stress.

  17. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 100-N Sewage Lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond

  18. Observations of emperor geese feeding at Nelson Lagoon, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Margaret R.

    1983-01-01

    Estuaries along the north side of the Alaska Peninsula provide essential habitat for most of the American population of Emperor Goose (Chen canagica) during migration (Petersen and Gill 1982). Most of the population passes through Nelson Lagoon in spring and fall, with over 40,000 birds recorded there (Gill et al 1981). Little is known about the feeding activity of Emperor Geese while they are in estuaries, and the importance of estuaries as staging areas during spring and fall migration is poorly understood. Here I report observations on the feeding activity of emperor Geese at one estuary (Nelson Lagoon).

  19. Fishing Across the Centuries: What Prospects for the Venice Lagoon?

    OpenAIRE

    Silvestri, Silvia; Pellizzato, M.; Boatto, V.

    2006-01-01

    Fishing has always been an important activity for those Venetians who live near the Lagoon, and it still enjoys an important economic and social role in the region. Over the last few years, however, the fishing industry has been subject to a profound transformation both in the reduction of the variety and the abundance of the species found in the lagoon, and in the change from a complex and well-structured type of activity to one which has become monospecialist, that is based principally on t...

  20. Optical researches for cyanobacteria bloom monitoring in Curonian Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirshin, Evgeny A.; Budylin, Gleb B.; Yakimov, Boris P.; Voloshina, Olga V.; Karabashev, Genrik S.; Evdoshenko, Marina A.; Fadeev, Victor V.

    2016-04-01

    Cyanobacteria bloom is a great ecological problem of Curonian Lagoon and Baltic Sea. The development of novel methods for the on-line control of cyanobacteria concentration and, moreover, for prediction of bloom spreading is of interest for monitoring the state of ecosystem. Here, we report the results of the joint application of hyperspectral measurements and remote sensing of Curonian Lagoon in July 2015 aimed at the assessment of cyanobacteria communities. We show that hyperspectral data allow on-line detection and qualitative estimation of cyanobacteria concentration, while the remote sensing data indicate the possibility of cyanobacteria bloom detection using the spectral features of upwelling irradiation.

  1. Dreams in ancient Greek Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Moschos, M M; Koukaki, E; Vasilopoulos, E; Karamanou, M; Kontaxaki, M-I; Androutsos, G

    2016-01-01

    Dreams preoccupied the Greek and Roman world in antiquity, therefore they had a prominent role in social, philosophical, religious, historical and political life of those times. They were considered as omens and prophetic signs of future events in private and public life, and that was particularly accentuated when elements of actions which took place in the plot of dreams were associated directly or indirectly with real events. This is why it was important to use them in divination, and helped the growth of superstition and folklore believes. Medicine as a science and an anthropocentric art, could not ignore the importance of dreams, having in mind their popularity in antiquity. In ancient Greek medicine dreams can be divided into two basic categories. In the first one -which is related to religious medicine-dreams experienced by religionists are classified, when resorted to great religious sanctuaries such as those of Asclepius (Asclepieia) and Amphiaraos (Amfiaraeia). These dreams were the essential element for healing in this form of religious medicine, because after pilgrims underwent purifications they went to sleep in a special dwelling of the sanctuaries called "enkoimeterion" (Greek: the place to sleep) so that the healing god would come to their dreams either to cure them or to suggest treatment. In ancient Greek literature there are many reports of these experiences, but if there may be phenomena of self-suggestion, or they could be characterized as propaganda messages from the priesthood of each sanctuary for advertising purposes. The other category concerns the references about dreams found in ancient Greek medical literature, where one can find the attempts of ancient Greek physicians to interpret these dreams in a rational way as sings either of a corporal disease or of psychological distress. This second category will be the object of our study. Despite the different ways followed by each ancient Greek physician in order to explain dreams, their

  2. Ancient DNA from marine mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David; Hofreiter, Michael; Morin, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    such as bone, tooth, baleen, skin, fur, whiskers and scrimshaw using ancient DNA (aDNA) approaches provide an oppor- tunity for investigating such changes over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Here, we review the application of aDNA techniques to the study of marine mammals. Most of the studies have...... focused on detecting changes in genetic diversity following periods of exploitation and environmental change. To date, these studies have shown that even small sample sizes can provide useful information on historical genetic diversity. Ancient DNA has also been used in investigations of changes...... in distribution and range of marine mammal species; we review these studies and discuss the limitations of such ‘presence only’ studies. Combining aDNA data with stable isotopes can provide further insights into changes in ecology and we review past studies and suggest future potential applications. We also...

  3. Molecular analysis of ancient caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simón, Marc; Montiel, Rafael; Smerling, Andrea; Solórzano, Eduvigis; Díaz, Nancy; Álvarez-Sandoval, Brenda A.; Jiménez-Marín, Andrea R.; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2014-01-01

    An 84 base pair sequence of the Streptococcus mutans virulence factor, known as dextranase, has been obtained from 10 individuals from the Bronze Age to the Modern Era in Europe and from before and after the colonization in America. Modern samples show four polymorphic sites that have not been found in the ancient samples studied so far. The nucleotide and haplotype diversity of this region have increased over time, which could be reflecting the footprint of a population expansion. While this segment has apparently evolved according to neutral evolution, we have been able to detect one site that is under positive selection pressure both in present and past populations. This study is a first step to study the evolution of this microorganism, analysed using direct evidence obtained from ancient remains. PMID:25056622

  4. Mitogenomic analyses from ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paijmans, Johanna L. A.; Gilbert, Tom; Hofreiter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of ancient DNA is playing an increasingly important role in conservation genetic, phylogenetic and population genetic analyses, as it allows incorporating extinct species into DNA sequence trees and adds time depth to population genetics studies. For many years, these types of DNA...... analyses (whether using modern or ancient DNA) were largely restricted to the analysis of short fragments of the mitochondrial genome. However, due to many technological advances during the past decade, a growing number of studies have explored the power of complete mitochondrial genome sequences...... yielded major progress with regard to both the phylogenetic positions of extinct species, as well as resolving population genetics questions in both extinct and extant species....

  5. Characterisation of a Tunisian coastal lagoon through hyperspectral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2008 an optical procedure was developed and applied in Ghar El Melh, a Tunisian lagoon which has been increasingly impacted by pollutant loading, especially from agriculture. In situ hyperspectral irradiance was measured at several stations, from which the apparent optical properties (AOPs), namely the irradiance ...

  6. Assessment of the pollution in Aghien lagoon and its tributaries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of the pollutants in surface water quality when used for drinking water is of great concern in many developing countries. This study seeks to characterize the types of pollution in Aghien lagoon and its tributaries. For the sampling, water was taken at a depth of 50 cm from the earth surface. Samples were ...

  7. Intertidal deposits: river mouths, tidal flats, and coastal lagoons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisma, D.; Boer, de P.L.; Cadee, G.C.; Dijkema, K.; Ridderinkhof, H.; Phillippart, C.

    1998-01-01

    Intertidal Deposits: River Mouths, Tidal Flats, and Coastal Lagoons combines the authors personal and professional experience with the mass of available literature to present a cohesive overview of intertidal deposits and the widely diverse conditions of their formation worldwide. This includes the

  8. Invasion of Langebaan Lagoon, South Africa, by Mytilus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1992 the invasive mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis began establishing beds on the centre sandbanks of Langebaan Lagoon. This global invader had previously been restricted to rocky shores along the South African coastline. In order to investigate the effect of the invasion on naturally-occurring communities, ...

  9. Carrying capacity of Chaetoceros gracilis in Homa Lagoon and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possibility for nutrient limitation to affect C. gracilis was assessed from two different ecosystems (Izmir Bay and Homa Lagoon). Our goal was to determine the growth rate of all nutrients and the maximum levels of the C. gracilis phytoplankton biomass (the maximum biomass carrying capacity) on the extent of its full ...

  10. Sediment budget in the Lagoon of Venice, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Sarretta, Alessandro; Pillon, Simone; Molinaroli, Emanuela; Guerzoni, Stefano; Fontolan, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    This is the accepted manuscript of the paper "Sediment budget in the Lagoon of Venice, Italy", published ad final paper in "Continental Shelf Research Volume 30, Issue 8, 15 May 2010, Pages 934-9499" (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2009.07.002)

  11. 9 Nutrient Load of the Sakumo Lagoon.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    nutrients studied, phosphates were the highest in the Sakumo lagoon. The decreasing ... (2008), used nutrient and the trophic status to assess the ... the level of nutrient pollution of the Ramsar site. Materials and ... In assessing the nutrient load, water samples of the .... tidal waves resulting in sea water intrusion may account ...

  12. Boron, calcium and magnesium in Kavaratti lagoon water, Lakshadweep Archipelago

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nasnolkar, C.M.; Salkar, V.R.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Abidi, S.A.H.

    1228.8 to 1319.8 mg kg sup(-1) (av. 1280.19 mg kg sup(-1)) and the salinity varied from 35.01 to 35.10 x 10 sup(-3) (av. 35.04 x 10 sup(-3)). The ratios of boron, calcium and magnesium to chlorinity in the lagoon water showed wide variation and were...

  13. Colour Perception in Ancient World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterov, D. I.; Fedorova, M. Yu

    2017-11-01

    How did the human thought form the surrounding color information into the persistent semantic images of a mythological, pseudoscientific and religious nature? The concepts associated with colour perception are suggested. The existence of colour environment does not depend on the human consciousness. The colour culture formation is directly related to the level of the human consciousness development and the possibility to influence the worldview and culture. The colour perception of a person goes through the stages similar to the development of colour vision in a child. Like any development, the colour consciousness has undergone stages of growth and decline, evolution and stagnation. The way of life and difficult conditions for existence made their own adjustments to the development of the human perception of the surrounding world. Wars have been both a powerful engine of progress in all spheres of life and a great destructive force demolishing the already created and preserved heritage. The surrounding world has always been interesting for humans, evoked images and fantasies in the consciousness of ancient people. Unusual and inexplicable natural phenomena spawned numerous legends and myths which was reflected in the ancient art and architecture and, accordingly, in a certain manifestation of colour in the human society. The colour perception of the ancient man, his pragmatic, utilitarian attitude to colour is considered as well as the influence of dependence on external conditions of existence and their reflection in the colour culture of antiquity. “Natural Science” conducts research in the field of the colour nature and their authorial interpretation of the Hellenic period. Several authorial concepts of the ancient world have been considered.

  14. ANCIENT BREAD STAMPS FROM JORDAN

    OpenAIRE

    Kakish, Randa

    2014-01-01

    Marking bread was an old practice performed in different parts of the old world. It was done for religious, magical, economic and identification purposes. Bread stamps differ from other groups of stamps. Accordingly, the aim of this article is to identify such stamps, displayed or stored, in a number of Jordanian Archaeological Museums. A col-lection of twelve ancient bread stamps were identified and studied. Two of the stamps were of unknown provenance while the others came from al-Shuneh, D...

  15. The high resolution mapping of the Venice Lagoon tidal network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madricardo, Fantina; Foglini, Federica; Kruss, Aleksandra; Bellafiore, Debora; Trincardi, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    One of the biggest challenges of the direct observation of the ocean is to achieve a high resolution mapping of its seafloor morphology and benthic habitats. So far, sonars have mapped just 0.05% of the ocean floor with less than ten-meter resolution. The recent efforts of the scientific community have been devoted towards the mapping of both Deep Ocean and very shallow coastal areas. Coastal and transitional environments in particular undergo strong morphological changes due to natural and anthropogenic pressure. Nowadays, only about 5% of the seafloor of these environments † have been mapped: the shallowness of these environments has prevented the use of underwater acoustics to reveal their morphological features. The recent technological development of multibeam echosounder systems, however, enables these instruments to achieve very high performances also in such shallow environments. In this work, we present results and case studies of an extensive multibeam survey carried out in the Lagoon of Venice in 2013. The Lagoon of Venice is the biggest lagoon in the Mediterranean Sea with a surface of about 550 km2 and with an average depth of about 1 m. In the last century, the morphological and ecological properties of the lagoon changed dramatically: the surface of the salt marshes was reduced by 60% and some parts of the lagoon are deepening with a net sediment flux exiting from the inlets. Moreover, major engineering interventions are currently ongoing at the inlets (MOSE project). These changes at the inlets could affect substantially the lagoon environment. To understand and monitor the future evolution of the Lagoon of Venice, ISMAR within the project RITMARE (a National Research Programme funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research) carried out an extensive survey, involving a team of more than 25 scientists, to collect high resolution (0.5 m) bathymetry of key study areas such as the tidal inlets and channels. Following a broad

  16. An investigation into the ancient abortion laws: comparing ancient Persia with ancient Greece and Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Zargaran, Arman; Vatanpour, Azadeh; Abedini, Ehsan; Adhami, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    Since the dawn of medicine, medical rights and ethics have always been one of mankind's concerns. In any civilisation, attention paid to medical laws and ethics depends on the progress of human values and the advancement of medical science. The history of various civilisations teaches that each had its own views on medical ethics, but most had something in common. Ancient civilisations such as Greece, Rome, or Assyria did not consider the foetus to be alive and therefore to have human rights. In contrast, ancient Persians valued the foetus as a living person equal to others. Accordingly, they brought laws against abortion, even in cases of sexual abuse. Furthermore, abortion was considered to be a murder and punishments were meted out to the mother, father, and the person performing it.

  17. Toxicity of contaminants in lagoons and pannes of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, R.; Speelman, J.; Stewart, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Contaminants in water and sediments of lagoons and pannes were 2--90 times greater at sites adjacent to slag and coal piles than those at reference sites. One site (Lagoon-US5) had sediments with very high concentrations of toxic organics (e.g. naphthalene, phenanthrene, dibenzofuran). Although analyses indicated a gradient of contaminant concentration with distance from their sources, toxicity assays were somewhat equivocal. With the exception of less reproduction in Ceriodaphnia at one lagoon site (US3 = 0.55 of reference), survival of fathead minnows and reproduction in Ceriodaphnia in lagoon and panne waters varied independently of the contaminant concentration. In fact, there was better Ceriodaphnia reproduction in water from two contaminated sites (Lagoon-US5, Panne-WP1) than in water from reference sites. Fathead minnow survival, Ceriodaphnia survival, Ceriodaphnia reproduction, amphipod survival, and amphipod growth varied among sites in toxicity assays with sediments, 100% mortality of fatheads at Lagoon-US5, 100% mortality of Ceriodaphnia at Lagoon-US3, and less survival of fathead minnows at Lagoon-US3 indicate possible toxicity from contaminants in sediments at these sites. Of all organisms and end-points tested, Ceriodaphnia survival seemed to be most closely associated with concentrations of contaminants in lagoon water and sediments. Amphipod survival also varied with contaminants in sediments, however, survival in sediments of contaminated sites ranged only from 0.90--0.93 of reference sites. Although the results are not consistent among organisms, toxicity assays indicate that sediments from the lagoon site with the highest contaminants (Lagoon-US5) and possibly those from another contaminated lagoon site (Lagoon-US3) could be toxic to aquatic organisms. Water and sediments from contaminated panne sites do not appear to be toxic to aquatic test organisms

  18. The conscious of Nightmares in ancient China

    OpenAIRE

    西林, 眞紀子

    2006-01-01

    The analaysis concerns Nightmares in ancient China. People in ancient China were very afraid of Nightmares. Nightmares are described in the『春秋左氏傳』etc. The exocis Nightmares is described in the『周禮』. The ceremony "難" of exocis Nightmares in the『禮記』. In the characters Meng (夢) had the conscious of Nightmares in ancient China. The analaysis is about the characters 'Meng', about the characters of the relationship 'Meng'

  19. The Ancient Greece's roots of Olimpism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubka Sergej Nazarovich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focused on the phenomena of sport in Ancient Greece along with history, traditions, religion, education, culture and art. Economic and political conditions are analysed which promote or hamper development of Olympic Games in Ancient Greece. Exceptional stability of Ancient Olympic games during more than eleven centuries are noted as well as their influence on the life of Greek polices of those days. Hellenistic period needs of individual consideration.

  20. Alfred pilot wetland to treat municipal lagoon effluent - case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crolla, A.; Kinsley, C.

    2002-01-01

    A constructed wetland demonstration system has been built to polish the municipal lagoon effluent from the village of Alfred. The treatment lagoons have an annual discharge in the spring and have currently reached maximum capacity; inhibiting further population growth or expansion of the local agri-food industries. The demonstration wetland system is designed to treat 15% of the municipal lagoon influent, that is, 155 m 3 /day or 23,250 m 3 /year. A three year monitoring program (2000-2002) was put in place to evaluate the wetland as a cost effective means to treat municipal lagoon wastewater for the village of Alfred. The 2000 and 2001 monitoring seasons have been completed, and the 2002 monitoring season will operate between June and October 2002. At the completion of the three year monitoring program the Alfred wetland system will be evaluated for its ability to polish the municipal lagoon effluent to meet the Spring/Summer/Fall discharge criteria, set by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE), for the receiving water body (Azatica Brook). As phosphorus is the most difficult element to remove down to MOE guidelines, the Alfred research wetland includes slag phosphorus adsorption filters and a vegetated filter as phosphorus polishing systems. Once the wetland system is approved by the MOE, the village of Alfred will be able to increase its capacity for municipal wastewater treatment. Constructed wetlands are still considered innovative systems in Ontario and government ministries (MOE, OMAFRA) are insisting upon 3-4 years of monitoring data for each constructed wetland system established. There is a clear need for monitoring data to be gathered on established systems, and for this data to be evaluated with the goal of developing reliable design guidelines. Ultimately this should result in having constructed wetlands recognised as viable wastewater treatment options in Ontario. With fewer grant programs for rural municipalities, cost effective systems such

  1. Gaining insight into Clipperton's lagoon hydrology using tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Baptiste, P.; Fourre, E.; Charlou, J.L.; Donval, J.P.; Correge, T.

    2009-01-01

    Historical descriptions of the Clipperton lagoon appear to converge on the fact that it became isolated from the surrounding ocean around 1858. Since then, because of the high precipitation rate which largely exceeds evaporation in this region of the eastern tropical Pacific, a brackish lens has formed on top of the saline oceanic waters. In 1980, literature data show that the thickness of this water body was reaching 14 m. During the 2005 Etienne's Clipperton expedition, we collected lagoon water on two vertical profiles. Salinity, δ 18 O and tritium analyses were performed on these samples with the objective of gaining further insight into the lagoon hydrology and age of the deep waters. The upper 15 m were characterized by low salinities (5.4 ± 0.2), and δ 18 O and tritium values typical of local precipitation. At depth, waters had salinity and δ 18 O similar to oceanic surface waters but with low tritium concentrations, hence pointing to quite isolated waters representing a remnant of marine waters when the lagoon was still communicating with the ocean. At lagoon closure, the excess of precipitation over evaporation raised the lagoon level, thus creating a hydraulic pressure head which favored salt expulsion through the permeable walls of the atoll. A simple geohydrological modeling of this salt expulsion process based on Darcy's law describes reasonably well the time-evolution of the brackish lens. Tritium is used to discuss the main physical processes potentially involved in the slow ventilation of the halo-cline and deep saline layer, including vertical diffusion, sinking of salty Surface water intrusions and deep horizontal exchange through fissures in the limestone. These different mechanisms give reasonable results, which are all compatible with available salinity and isotopic data (δ 18 O and tritium), and therefore are all plausible candidates. Unfortunately, the lack of a detailed description of the vertical tritium profile in the halo

  2. Ancient Indian Leaps into Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, B S

    2011-01-01

    This book presents contributions of mathematicians covering topics from ancient India, placing them in the broader context of the history of mathematics. Although the translations of some Sanskrit mathematical texts are available in the literature, Indian contributions are rarely presented in major Western historical works. Yet some of the well-known and universally-accepted discoveries from India, including the concept of zero and the decimal representation of numbers, have made lasting contributions to the foundation of modern mathematics. Through a systematic approach, this book examines th

  3. Aiding the Interpretation of Ancient Documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roued-Cunliffe, Henriette

    How can Decision Support System (DSS) software aid the interpretation process involved in the reading of ancient documents? This paper discusses the development of a DSS prototype for the reading of ancient texts. In this context the term ‘ancient documents’ is used to describe mainly Greek...... tool it is important first to comprehend the interpretation process involved in reading ancient documents. This is not a linear process but rather a recursive process where the scholar moves between different levels of reading, such as ‘understanding the meaning of a character’ or ‘understanding...

  4. The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, James

    1998-01-01

    The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy combines new scholarship with hands-on science to bring readers into direct contact with the work of ancient astronomers. While tracing ideas from ancient Babylon to sixteenth-century Europe, the book places its greatest emphasis on the Greek period, when astronomers developed the geometric and philosophical ideas that have determined the subsequent character of Western astronomy. The author approaches this history through the concrete details of ancient astronomical practice. Carefully organized and generously illustrated, the book can teach reade

  5. A guide to ancient protein studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendy, Jessica; Welker, Frido; Demarchi, Beatrice

    2018-01-01

    Palaeoproteomics is an emerging neologism used to describe the application of mass spectrometry-based approaches to the study of ancient proteomes. As with palaeogenomics (the study of ancient DNA), it intersects evolutionary biology, archaeology and anthropology, with applications ranging from....... Additionally, in contrast to the ancient DNA community, no consolidated guidelines have been proposed by which researchers, reviewers and editors can evaluate palaeoproteomics data, in part due to the novelty of the field. Here we present a series of precautions and standards for ancient protein research...

  6. Application of neutron activation analysis in study of ancient ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoxia; Zhao Weijuan; Gao Zhengyao; Xie Jianzhong; Huang Zhongxiang; Jia Xiuqin; Han Song

    2000-01-01

    Trace-elements in ancient ceramics and imitative ancient ceramics were determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The NAA data are then analyzed by fuzzy cluster method and the trend cluster diagram is obtained. The raw material sources of ancient ceramics and imitative ancient ceramics are determined. The path for improving quality of imitative ancient ceramics is found

  7. Diet of the clupeid fish Platanichthys platana (Regan, 1917 in two different Brazilian coastal lagoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguiaro Talita

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Platanichthys platana is considered a constant species in both Cabiúnas and Imboassica lagoons that are characterised by different marine and freshwater inputs, and anthropogenic influences. The stomach content analysis of P. platana captured between July 1991 and July 1993 revealed filamentous algae, detritus, eggs of benthic invertebrates, larvae of chironomids and bivalves as the main food sources in Imboassica lagoon. Small-sized cladocerans, copepods and shrimp larvae were the prevailing items in Cabiúnas lagoon. Seasonal food variations were noted for the fishes of Imboassica lagoon. Diet differences were highlighted within specimens lesser than 40 mm standard length in Imboassica lagoon, and were related to the increase of marine influence due to artificial sand barrier openings. Dissimilarities among size classes in relation to invertebrate larvae consumption were observed in fishes from Cabiúnas lagoon.

  8. Interaction between pesticides and humic substances from tropical coastal lagoons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Farias, F.; Carvalho, F.P.; Fowler, S.W.; Cotret, O.

    1999-01-01

    The HS that enter the lagoons with freshwater runoff tend to precipitate with salinity. Experiments were done in laboratory to determine the effect of HS (isolated from coastal lagoons) and humic acids (HA) (Aldrich) on the partition of selected pesticides between water and sediment phases. Due to the accurate results obtained with radio-labelled compounds, 14 C-labelled pesticides were used for the experiments. The selected pesticides were: chlorpyrifos (o,o-di-[1- 14 C]ethyl o-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridil phosphorotioate), DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chloro-[ring-U- 14 C]-phenyl)ethane) and parathion (o,o-diethyl o-4-nitro-[ring-U- 14 C]-phenyl phosphorotioate)

  9. Treatment of off-gas from lagoon sludge thermal decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D. S.; Oh, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Hwang, S. T.; Park, J. H.; Ga, M. J.

    2005-01-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has launched a decommissioning program of the uranium conversion plant in 2001. The treatment of the sludge waste, which was generated during the operation of the plant and stored in the lagoon, is one of the most important tasks in the decommissioning program of the plant. The major compounds of the lagoon sludge are ammonium nitrate, sodium nitrate, calcium nitrate, calcium carbonate, and uranium compounds. The minor compounds are iron, magnesium, aluminum, silicon and phosphorus. A treatment process of the sludge was developed as figure 1 based on the results of the sludge characteristics and the developed treatment technologies. A treatment of off-gas evolved from the nitrate salts thermal decomposition is one of the important process. Off-gas treatment by using a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) method was investigated in this study

  10. Foreign Guests in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora Žbontar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xenía was a special relationship between a foreign guest and his host in Ancient Greece. The ritual of hosting a foreigner included an exchange of objects, feasting, and the establishment of friendship between people from different social backgrounds. This relationship implied trust, loyalty, friendship, and mutual aid between the people involved. Goods and services were also exchanged without any form of payment. There were no formal laws governing xenía – it was based entirely on a moral appeal. Mutual appreciation between the host and the guest was established during the ritual, but the host did retain a certain level of superiority over the guest. Xenía was one of the most important institutions in Ancient Greece. It had a lot of features and obligations similar to kinship and marriage. In literary sources the word xénos varies in meaning from “enemy stranger”, “friendly stranger”, “foreigner”, “guest”, “host” to “ritual friend”, and it is often hard to tell which usage is appropriate in a given passage. The paper describes the emphasis on hospitality towards foreigners. It presents an example of a depiction indicating xenía is presented, as well as several objects which were traded during the ritual. The paper also addresses the importance of hospitality in Greek drama in general, especially with examples of violations of the hospitality code.

  11. Ancient Climatic Architectural Design Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasibeh Faghih

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancient climatic architecture had found out a series of appropriate responses for the best compatibility with the critical climate condition for instance, designing ‘earth sheltered houses’ and ‘courtyard houses’. They could provide human climatic comfort without excessive usage of fossil fuel resources. Owing to the normal thermal conditions in the ground depth, earth sheltered houses can be slightly affected by thermal fluctuations due to being within the earth. In depth further than 6.1 meters, temperature alternation is minute during the year, equaling to average annual temperature of outside. More to the point, courtyard buildings as another traditional design approach, have prepared controlled climatic space based on creating the maximum shade in the summer and maximum solar heat absorption in the winter. The courtyard houses served the multiple functions of lighting to the rooms, acting as a heat absorber in the summer and a radiator in the winter, as well as providing an open space inside for community activities. It must be noted that they divided into summer and winter zones located in south and north of the central courtyard where residents were replaced into them according to changing the seasons. Therefore, Ancient climatic buildings provided better human thermal comfort in comparison with the use contemporary buildings of recent years, except with the air conditioning

  12. Very bright optical transient near the Trifid and Lagoon Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsby, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Peter Dunsby (University of Cape Town) reports the detection of a very bright optical transient in the region between the Lagoon and Trifid Nebulae based on observations obtained from Cape Town on 20 March 2018, between 01:00 and 03:45 UT. The object was visible throughout the full duration of the observations and not seen when this field was observed previously (08 March 2018).

  13. Metabolism and Gaseous Exchanges in Two Coastal Lagoons from Rio de Janeiro with Distinct Limnological Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Sidinei M. Thomaz; Alex Enrich-Prast; José F. Gonçalves Jr.; Anderson M. dos Santos; Francisco A. Esteves

    2001-01-01

    The global metabolism and exchange of gases with the atmosphere were measured during a diel cycle in two tropical coastal lagoons, using the curves of carbon dioxide and dissolved oxygen. Heterotrophic metabolism (net CO2 production and net O2 consumption) was observed in a black water lagoon (Comprida), and autotrophic metabolism (net O2 production and net CO2 consumption) in a clear water lagoon (Imboassica). These differences were attributed to the limnological characteristics of both ecos...

  14. Living benthic Foraminifera from the Saquarema lagoonal system (Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Belart, Pierre; Laut, Vanessa; Clemente, Iara; Raposo, Débora; Martins, Virgínia; Frontalini, Fabrizio; Lorini, Maria; Fortes, Rafael; Laut, Lazaro

    2017-01-01

    Transitional environments such as coastal lagoons with narrow connections to the sea are ecosystems very sensitive to natural or anthropogenic pressures. They are biodiversity hotspots and for this reason it should be studied and preserved. This study lists the benthic Foraminifera species from the Saquarema lagoonal system (SLS), Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. This complex ecosystem consists of four large connected lagoons, namely Urussanga, Jardim, Boqueirão, and Saquarema. A poorly diversif...

  15. Modelling the salinization of a coastal lagoon-aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombani, N.; Mastrocicco, M.

    2017-08-01

    In this study, a coastal area constituted by alternations of saline-brackish lagoons and freshwater bodies was studied and modelled to understand the hydrological processes occurring between the lagoons, the groundwater system of the Po River Delta (Italy) and the Adriatic Sea. The contribution of both evaporation and anthropogenic factors on groundwater salinization was assessed by means of soil, groundwater and surface water monitoring. Highresolution multi-level samplers were used to capture salinity gradients within the aquifer and surface water bodies. Data were employed to calibrate a density-dependent numerical transport model implemented with SEAWAT code along a transect perpendicular to the coast line. The results show that the lagoon is hydraulically well connected with the aquifer, which provides the major source of salinity because of the upcoming of paleo-seawater from the aquitard laying at the base of the unconfined aquifer. On the contrary, the seawater (diluted by the freshwater river outflow) creates only a limited saltwater wedge. The increase in groundwater salinity could be of serious concern, especially for the pinewood located in the dune near the coast, sensitive to salinity increases. This case study represents an interesting paradigm for other similar environmental setting, where the assumption of classical aquifer salinization from a saltwater wedge intruding from the sea is often not representative of the actual aquifer’s salinization mechanisms.

  16. Estrogenic potential of the Venice, Italy, lagoon waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pojana, Giulio; Bonfà, Angela; Busetti, Francesco; Collarin, Anna; Marcomini, Antonio

    2004-08-01

    The exposure of the Venice lagoon (Italy) to endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) from different sources was investigated. Spatial and time distribution of EDC concentrations were determined in four sampling sessions (December 2001-May 2002) by solid phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography separation coupled with mass spectrometry detection via electrospray interface (SPE-HPLC-ESI-MS), which allowed identification of natural (estradiol, estrone) and synthetic estrogenic compounds, both steroidal (ethinylestradiol, mestranol) and nonsteroidal (benzophenone, bisphenol-A, nonylphenol, nonylphenol monoethoxylate carboxylate). No significant differences in the EDC distribution were observed between stations located near selected sources (raw sewage from the historical center of Venice, treated municipal and industrial effluents from sewage treatment plants, and areas undergoing the inflow of rivers). While synthetic nonsteroidal analytes were recorded in the 1 to 1040 ng/L range (average concentration: 34 ng/L), steroidal EDC (estradiol, ethinylestradiol) concentrations were lower (1-125 ng/L; average concentration: 8 ng/L). The estrogenic activity of lagoon waters was estimated in terms of estradiol equivalent concentration (EEQ) by applying the estradiol equivalency factors (EEFs). Steroidal EDCs (estradiol, ethinylestradiol) contributed >97% to the total potential estrogenicity of the waters, which accounted for 4 to 172 ng/L (average: 25 ng/L), as total EEQs. These levels are likely to pose adverse effects on the Venice lagoon aquatic organisms.

  17. Bedrock neutralization study for the Bruin Lagoon Superfund Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patelunas, G.M.; Lenhardt, D.R.; Niece, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    The Bruin Lagoon site is located in Bruin Butler County, Pennsylvania, and is listed as No. 3 on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencies' National Priority List. The Lagoon contains waste petroleum tars, sulfuric acid, coal combustion ash, spent bauxite and other waste materials. This paper reports on the bedrock neutralization study, conducted to assess the feasibility of injecting caustic solutions into acid-contaminated bedrock beneath the lagoon. The site is underlain by a fine to medium grain quartz sandstone which is contaminated with acid to depths in excess of 30 feet. For this investigation, Nx-cores were obtained and pressure tests conducted to a depth of 30 feet below the top of rock. Leach tests were conducted on contaminated core sections using sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate solutions. A total of 12 core sections were exposed in 3-inch diameter test cylinders and permeated under a positive pressure of 25 to 50 psi. Measurements of leachate volume, temperature, pH, and hydraulic conductivity were recorded

  18. Spatiotemporal variation of bacterial community composition and possible controlling factors in tropical shallow lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laque, Thaís; Farjalla, Vinicius F; Rosado, Alexandre S; Esteves, Francisco A

    2010-05-01

    Bacterial community composition (BCC) has been extensively related to specific environmental conditions. Tropical coastal lagoons present great temporal and spatial variation in their limnological conditions, which, in turn, should influence the BCC. Here, we sought for the limnological factors that influence, in space and time, the BCC in tropical coastal lagoons (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil). The Visgueiro lagoon was sampled monthly for 1 year and eight lagoons were sampled once for temporal and spatial analysis, respectively. BCC was evaluated by bacteria-specific PCR-DGGE methods. Great variations were observed in limnological conditions and BCC on both temporal and spatial scales. Changes in the BCC of Visgueiro lagoon throughout the year were best related to salinity and concentrations of NO (3) (-) , dissolved phosphorus and chlorophyll-a, while changes in BCC between lagoons were best related to salinity and dissolved phosphorus concentration. Salinity has a direct impact on the integrity of the bacterial cell, and it was previously observed that phosphorus is the main limiting nutrient to bacterial growth in these lagoons. Therefore, we conclude that great variations in limnological conditions of coastal lagoons throughout time and space resulted in different BCCs and salinity and nutrient concentration, particularly dissolved phosphorus, are the main limnological factors influencing BCC in these tropical coastal lagoons.

  19. Redistribution of fallout radionuclides in Enewetak Atoll lagoon sediments by callianassid bioturbation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurtry, G.M.; Schneider, R.C. (Hawaii Univ., Honolulu (USA). Hawaii Inst. of Geophysics); Colin, P.L. (Hawaii Inst. of Marine Biology, Honolulu (USA)); Buddemeier, R.W. (California Univ., Livermore (USA). Lawrence Livermore Lab.); Suchanek, T.H. (Fairleigh Dickinson Univ., St. Croix, Virgin Islands (USA). West Indies Lab.)

    1985-02-21

    The lagoon sediments of Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands contain a large selection of fallout radionuclides as a result of 43 nuclear weapon tests conducted there between 1948 and 1958. The authors report elevated fallout radionuclide concentrations buried more deeply in the lagoon sediments and evidence of burrowing into the sediment by several species of callianassid ghost shrimp (Crustacea: Thalassinidea) which has displaced highly radioactive sediment. The burrowing activities of callianassids, which are ubiquitous on the lagoon floor, facilitate radionuclide redistribution and complicate the fallout radionuclide inventory of the lagoon.

  20. Numerical Survey of Contaminant Transport and Self-Cleansing of Water in Nador Lagoon, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Chaabelasri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations are presented of the flow hydrodynamics and hypothetical contaminant dispersion patterns in Nador Lagoon, a shallow lagoon with a barrier island situated on the coast of Morocco. It is found that the natural circulation forced by the tidal flow in the lagoon is greatly affected by the development of an artificial inlet in the barrier island. The case study demonstrates the potential use of modern computational hydraulics as a tool integrated in the decision support system designed to manage a lagoon ecosystem.

  1. Redistribution of fallout radionuclides in Enewetak Atoll lagoon sediments by callianassid bioturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurtry, G.M.; Schneider, R.C.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Suchanek, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    The lagoon sediments of Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands contain a large selection of fallout radionuclides as a result of 43 nuclear weapon tests conducted there between 1948 and 1958. The authors report elevated fallout radionuclide concentrations buried more deeply in the lagoon sediments and evidence of burrowing into the sediment by several species of callianassid ghost shrimp (Crustacea: Thalassinidea) which has displaced highly radioactive sediment. The burrowing activities of callianassids, which are ubiquitous on the lagoon floor, facilitate radionuclide redistribution and complicate the fallout radionuclide inventory of the lagoon. (author)

  2. Geologically ancient DNA: fact or artefact?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebsgaard, Martin Bay; Phillips, Matthew J.; Willerslev, Eske

    2005-01-01

    Studies continue to report ancient DNA sequences and viable microbial cells that are many millions of years old. In this paper we evaluate some of the most extravagant claims of geologically ancient DNA. We conclude that although exciting, the reports suffer from inadequate experimental setup and...

  3. The effect of floods on sediment contamination in a microtidal coastal lagoon: the lagoon of Lesina, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Adamo, Raffaele; Specchiulli, Antonietta; Cassin, Daniele; Botter, Margherita; Zonta, Roberto; Fabbrocini, Adele

    2014-10-01

    The effects on the microtidal lagoon of Lesina of runoff and the discharge of water and material from agricultural activities were investigated combining chemical analyses of pollutants [11 metals and 16 priority polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs)], determination of organic matter and grain size, and performance of innovative ecotoxicological tests. For metals, enrichment factors >3 for arsenic, nickel, and copper (Cu) were observed in the eastern zone of the lagoon, which is affected by nearby urban activities with discharge of water and domestic waste and by agricultural input with waters rich in fertilizers. Cu was correlated with no other metal, and its high concentrations (≤77 µg g(-1)) may result from the use of Cu-based fungicides in vineyards. Total PAHs (2,230 ± 3,150 ng g(-1)) displayed a wide range of concentrations with hot spots near freshwater inputs from the part of the catchment area exploited for wheat crops. Pyrolitic contamination also emerged, with higher-mass PAH congeners, such as asphalt, bitumen or coal, usually present in higher fractions as the dominant components. Ecotoxicological evaluations recorded moderate to high toxicity levels; the innovative MOT test bioassay showed good discriminatory ability because it identified a lagoon area whose inputs mainly depend on agricultural activities and which is impacted by metals rather than PAHs. Floods during periods of heavy rain and the discharge of water and material from agricultural activities may impact vulnerable systems, such as the lagoon of Lesina, where the presence of hot spots with remarkably high pollution values was observed.

  4. Hydrogeologic controls on chemical transport at Malibu Lagoon, CA: Implications for land to sea exchange in coastal lagoon systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dimova

    2017-06-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Nearshore lagoons that are seasonally disconnected from the coastal ocean occupy about 10% of coastal areas worldwide. Lagoon systems often are poorly flushed and thus sensitive to nutrient over-enrichment that can lead to eutrophication, oxygen depletion, and/or pervasive algal blooms. This sensitivity is exacerbated in lagoons that are intermittently closed to surface water exchange with the sea and occur in populous coastal areas. Such estuarine systems are disconnected from the sea during most of the year by wave-built barriers, but during the rainy season these berms can breach, enabling direct water exchange. Using naturally-occurring 222Rn as groundwater tracer, we estimate that groundwater discharge to Malibu Lagoon during open berm conditions was one order of magnitude higher (21 ± 17 cm/day than during closed berm conditions (1.8 ± 1.4 cm/day. The SGD (submarine groundwater discharge into nearshore coastal waters at the SurferRider and Colony Malibu was 4.2 cm/day on average. The exported total dissolved nitrogen (TDN through the berm during closed berm was 1.6 × 10−3 mol/day, whereas during open berm (exported by the Creek was 3.5 × 103 mol/day. Although these evaluations are specific to the collection campaigns the 2009 and 2010 hydro years, these two distinct hydrologic scenarios play an important role in the seasonality and geochemical impact of land/sea exchange, and highlight the sensitivity of such systems to future impacts such as sea level rise and increasing coastal populations.

  5. Seasonal steady-state budgets of nutrients and stoichiometric calculations in an Eastern Mediterranean lagoon (Papas Lagoon-Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. KRASAKOPOULOU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Papas Lagoon is an enclosed, small shallow water body in western Greece. The lagoon is naturally affected by eutrophication phenomena, but occasionally during the summer season, dystrophic crises occur, related to the decomposition of large beds of macroalgae. Physicochemical data collected monthly, from June 1998 to September 1999, were compiled and coupled with historical meteorological data, in order to construct seasonal water, salt and nutrients budgets using a single box single layer LOICZ model. Nutrients and other hydrochemical parameters exhibit great spatial and temporal variations. The non-conservative dissolved inorganic phosphorus flux (ΔDIP is always positive, thus indicating that the system acts as a net source of DIP for the adjacent coastal waters. Higher values were estimated  uring summer and autumn, probably due to organic matter mineralisation and release of DIP from surficial sediments in the reduced environment. In contrast to the ΔDIP, the non-conservative balance of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (ΔDIN is negative for most of the year, except for the summer, indicating the dominance of DIN removal processes in the Papas Lagoon. The Ulva growth and decomposition processes seem likely to be of essential importance for the evaluation of the non-conservative DIN fluxes. During the investigated period the amount of organic carbon respired and mineralized is greater than that produced by gross photosynthesis and the Papas Lagoon is a net heterotrophic system. Losses of DIN via denitrification appear to dominate over its inputs through nitrogen fixation throughout the year.

  6. Fish community composition, seasonality and abundance in Fortaleza Lagoon, cidreira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Cabral Schifino

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The Fortaleza Lagoon belongs to the Southern Tramandaí subsystem, formed by lagoons disposed linearly on the north-south direction (30º 08’S, 50º 13’W. The objective of this study was to describe some aspects related to the composition of the fish community of Fortaleza Lagoon. Samples were collected monthly from November 1998 to October 1999. The specimens were captured at four previously determined points in the lagoon, and classified in five orders, 12 families and 22 species. Cyphocharax voga, Hyphessobrycon luetkenii, Oligosarcus jenynsii, Oligosarcus robustus and Loricariichthys anus were more abundant species. Amongst the sampled species only two could not be characterised as freshwater species: Centropomus sp (marine and Lycengraulius grossidens (estuarine. The ichthyofauna of the lagoon was predominantly composed by constant species.A Planície Costeira do Rio Grande do Sul é formada por uma série de corpos d’água, dispostos em seqüência ao longo da costa. A lagoa da Fortaleza pertence ao subsistema lagunar Tramandaí-Sul que é composto por lagoas, dispostas linearmente no sentido norte-sul. O do presente estudo teve como objetivo descrever alguns aspectos relacionados à composição da comunidade de peixes da Lagoa da Fortaleza. As amostragens foram realizadas, mensalmente, no período de novembro de 1998 a outubro de 1999. Os exemplares foram capturados em 4 pontos da lagoa previamente determinados e classificados em 5 ordens, 11 famílias e 22 espécies. As espécies Cyphocharax voga, Hyphessobrycon luetkenii, Oligosarcus jenynsii, Oligosarcus robustus e Loricariichthys anus mostraram-se as mais abundantes. Entre as espécies coletadas apenas duas não caracterizam espécies de água doce: Centropomus sp (marinha and Lycengraulius grossidens (estuarina. A ictiofauna da lagoa caracterizou-se por uma predominância de espécies constantes.

  7. Depositional history and fault-related studies, Bolinas Lagoon, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berquist, Joel R.

    1978-01-01

    Studies of core sediments and seismic reflection profiles elucidate the structure and depositional history of Bolinas Lagoon, Calif., which covers 4.4 km 2 and lies in the San Andreas fault zone at the southeast corner of the Point Reyes Peninsula 20 km northwest of San Francisco. The 1906 trace of the San Andreas fault crosses the west side of the lagoon and was determined from (1) tectonically caused salt-marsh destruction indicated by comparison of 1854 and 1929 U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey (U.S.C. & G.S.) topographic surveys, (2) formation of a tidal channel along the border of destroyed salt marshes, and (3) azimuths of the trend of the fault measured in 1907. Subsidence in the lagoon of 30 cm occurred east of the San Andreas fault in 1906. Near the east shore, seismic-reflection profiling indicates the existence of a graben fault that may connect to a graben fault on the Golden Gate Platform. Comparison of radiocarbon dates on shells and plant debris from boreholes drilled on Stinson Beach spit with a relative sea-level curve constructed for southern San Francisco Bay indicates 5.8 to more than 17.9 m of tectonic subsidence of sediments now located 33 m below mean sea level. Cored sediments indicate a marine transgression dated at 7770?65 yrs B.P. overlying freshwater organic-rich lake deposits. Fossil pollen including 2 to 8 percent Picea (spruce) indicate a late Pleistocene (?)-Early Holocene climate, cooler, wetter, and foggier than at present. Above the transgression are discontinuous and interfingering sequences of transgressive-regressive marine, estuarine, and barrier sediments that reflect rapid lateral and vertical shifts of successive depositional environments. Fossil megafauna indicate (1) accumulation in a protected, shallow-water estuary or bay, and (2) that the lagoon was probably continuously shallow and never a deep-water embayment. Analysis of grain-size parameters, pollen frequencies, and organic remains from a core near the north end of

  8. Mechanisms in ancient Chinese books with illustrations

    CERN Document Server

    Hsiao, Kuo-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a unique approach for studying mechanisms and machines with drawings that were depicted unclearly in ancient Chinese books. The historical, cultural and technical backgrounds of the mechanisms are explained, and various mechanisms described and illustrated in ancient books are introduced. By utilizing the idea for the conceptual design of modern mechanisms, all feasible designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain members and joints that meet the technical standards of the subjects’ time periods are synthesized systematically. Ancient Chinese crossbows (the original crossbow and repeating crossbows), textile mechanisms (silk-reeling mechanism, spinning mechanisms, and looms), and many other artisan's tool mechanisms are used as illustrated examples.  Such an approach provides a logical method for the reconstruction designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain structures. It also provides an innovative direction for researchers to further identify the original structures of mechanisms...

  9. Study of organic sulphur compounds (DMS, DMSP and CS2) in lagoon ecosystems: the case of the Venice lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambaro, Andrea; Moret, Ivo; Piazza, Rossano; Andreoli, Carlo; Corami, Fabiana; Turetta, Clara; Cescon, Paolo

    2003-03-01

    This study of the origin and fate of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) in a particular and complex lagoon ecosystem such as that of the Venice lagoon focuses on the temporal evolutions of DMS concentrations in surface water together with those of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), carbon disulphide (CS2), nutrients (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate, silicate), sulphate, chlorophyll a, chlorinity, water temperature and phytoplankton (composition and density). Measurements were made from 3 March 1997 to 23 July 1998 at three stations in the central part of the Venice lagoon. The temporal trends of DMS concentration showed an absolute maximum concentration in winter (65 nmol S/l, 19/2/1998, Stn. 1; 119 nmol S/l, 19/2/1998, Stn. 2; 29 nmol S/l, 17/2/1998, Stn. 3) and two relative maxima in the spring-summer period. The spring-summer secondary maxima of DMS concentration were related to the maxima of DMSP and chlorophyll a concentrations and consequently to phytoplanktonic abundance while the winter DMS maximum showed no relation to DMSP or to chlorophyll a suggesting that the production and the fate of DMS could be different for the two periods. According to previous studies the CS2 concentration increased in the spring, achieved its maximum in summer, decreased in autumn and fell to its minimum in winter.

  10. Groundwater and porewater as major sources of alkalinity to a fringing coral reef lagoon (Muri Lagoon, Cook Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Cyronak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To better predict how ocean acidification will affect coral reefs, it is important to understand how biogeochemical cycles on reefs alter carbonate chemistry over various temporal and spatial scales. This study quantifies the contribution of shallow porewater exchange (as quantified from advective chamber incubations and fresh groundwater discharge (as traced by 222Rn to total alkalinity (TA dynamics on a fringing coral reef lagoon along the southern Pacific island of Rarotonga over a tidal and diel cycle. Benthic alkalinity fluxes were affected by the advective circulation of water through permeable sediments, with net daily flux rates of carbonate alkalinity ranging from −1.55 to 7.76 mmol m−2 d−1, depending on the advection rate. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD was a source of TA to the lagoon, with the highest flux rates measured at low tide, and an average daily TA flux of 1080 mmol m−2 d−1 at the sampling site. Both sources of TA were important on a reef-wide basis, although SGD acted solely as a delivery mechanism of TA to the lagoon, while porewater advection was either a sink or source of TA dependent on the time of day. This study describes overlooked sources of TA to coral reef ecosystems that can potentially alter water column carbonate chemistry. We suggest that porewater and groundwater fluxes of TA should be taken into account in ocean acidification models in order to properly address changing carbonate chemistry within coral reef ecosystems.

  11. Multi-annual and seasonal patterns of waterbird assemblages in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (El Mellah lagoon of Northeastern Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telailia Salah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Mediterranean coastal lagoons have raised considerable environmental concerns. Long-term studies of seasonal changes in waterbird assemblages are therefore extremely important in terms of ecological relevance and conservation of these sensitive ecosystems. An ornithological survey of four years was carried out in a typical costal wetland (El Mellah lagoon of Northeastern Algeria. Intra-seasonal comparison of waterbird assemblages (diversity indices demonstrates clear changes between the wintering and the breeding periods. It seems that the first one was rich in term of species number than the second season (43 against 24. In contrast, the breeding seasons were more equilibrate (high values of Simpson, Shannon and evenness index. Additionally, curves in the diversity/dominance diagram revealed that both wintering and breeding assemblages share the same characteristics of community structure, few dominant species (with intermediate relative abundance and many rare species with the relative abundance lower than 0.1. Invertebrates (25 species and piscivorous (11 species are the most abundant guilds over the four years of study (no significant differences among years have been calculated. The marked decline in bird species diversity recorded in this study (in comparison with previous studies is mainly due to salinity oscillations (due to aquaculture activities and may be of concern to wetland managers and it might be useful to provide some guidelines about the characteristics that coastal lagoons have to follow in the construction process to enhance the biodiversity.

  12. Ancient aqueous sedimentation on Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldspiel, J.M.; Squyres, S.W.

    1991-01-01

    Viking orbiter images are presently used to calculate approximate volumes for the inflow valleys of the ancient cratered terrain of Mars; a sediment-transport model is then used to conservatively estimate the amount of water required for the removal of this volume of debris from the valleys. The results obtained for four basins with well-developed inflow networks indicate basin sediment thicknesses of the order of tens to hundreds of meters. The calculations further suggest that the quantity of water required to transport the sediment is greater than that which could be produced by a single discharge of the associated aquifer, unless the material of the Martian highlands was very fine-grained and noncohesive to depths of hundreds of meters. 48 refs

  13. Ergonomic design in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmaras, N; Poulakakis, G; Papakostopoulos, V

    1999-08-01

    Although the science of ergonomics did not actually emerge until the 20th century, there is evidence to suggest that ergonomic principles were in fact known and adhered to 25 centuries ago. The study reported here is a first attempt to research the ergonomics concerns of ancient Greeks, on both a conceptual and a practical level. On the former we present a collection of literature references to the concepts of usability and human-centred design. On the latter, examples of ergonomic design from a variety of fields are analysed. The fields explored here include the design of everyday utensils, the sculpture and manipulation of marble as a building material and the design of theatres. Though hardly exhaustive, these examples serve to demonstrate that the ergonomics principles, in content if not in name, actually emerged a lot earlier than is traditionally thought.

  14. Assessment of sediment metal contamination in the Mar Menor coastal lagoon (SE Spain: Metal distribution, toxicity, bioaccumulation and benthic community structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mar Menor coastal lagoon is one of the largest of the Mediterranean Sea. Ancient mining activities in the mountains near its southern basin have resulted in metal contamination in the sediment. The metal bioavailability of these sediments was determined through laboratory toxicity bioassays using three Mediterranean sea urchin species and two amphipod species, and by means of field bioaccumulation measurements involving the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa. The effect of sediment metal contamination on benthic communities was assessed through benthic infaunal analyses, applying classical descriptive parameters and multivariate techniques. The sediments affected by the mining activities presented high levels of toxicity and metals were also accumulated in the seagrass tissues, pointing to metal bioavailability. Although the classical benthic indices were not clear indicators of disturbance, the multivariate techniques applied provided more consistent conclusions.

  15. Salinity levels as a factor of phyto planktonic structure and diversity remediation in a lagoon impact by human activities. (Bolmon Lagoon, Mediterranean Coast, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayolle, S.; Charpy-Roubaud, C.; Ollivier, A.; Maasri, A.; Franquet, E.

    2009-01-01

    The Bolmon lagoon (south-eastern France) is located in the coastal hinterland of the Mediterranean Sea. It is connected to the salty Berre pond and in the other hand receives fresh waters from the La Cadiere River. This hyper-shallow lagoon has been classified in the early 70's as β mixo-mesohaline. Bolmon lagoon is important for human activities (tourism, fishing) and for the preservation of the diversity of marine and birds species. In the last decades, the intensive urbanisation of its drainage basin induced a high eutrophication of its waters and, as a consequence, drastic modifications in the biodiversity and in the functioning os this ecosystem. (Author)

  16. Fish fauna recovery in a newly re-flooded Mediterranean coastal lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrakis, Emmanuil; Sylaios, Georgios; Kamidis, Nikolaos; Markou, Dimitrios; Sapounidis, Argyris

    2009-08-01

    Drana Lagoon, located at the NW site of Evros River Delta, was drained in 1987 and re-flooded in 2004 within the framework of an integrated wetland restoration project. This study presents the results of a monitoring program of the lagoon's oceanographic, water quality and fish fauna characteristics, during the pre- and post-restoration period. Results depict the presence of high salinity water (up to 41) due to seawater intrusion, strong evaporation in its interior and inadequate freshwater inflows. Overall, nutrient levels were low depicting local changes. Tidal variability at the mouth was approximately 0.2 m, producing high velocity tidal currents (up to 0.75 m/s). Eleven fish fauna species were collected; seven species were caught in both the inlet channel and the lagoon during the pre-restoration period and nine species in the post-restoration period. Atherina boyeri (37.6%) and Pomatoschistus marmoratus (31.7%) dominated the lagoon during the post-restoration period. Most of the A. boyeri specimens (88.5%) were caught inside the lagoon, while P. marmoratus had an almost equal distribution in the inlet channel and the lagoon (56.3% and 43.7% respectively). The presence of species of the Mugilidae family (5.2% total average catches after lagoon re-flooding) was mainly in the inlet channel (12.6% of the average catches) and not inside the lagoon (only 1.3% of the average catches). The small number of fish species inhabiting the lagoon might be the result of the recent restoration or it could be related with the increased water flow observed at the lagoon mouth during the flood and ebb tidal phases, and also in the presence of a smooth bank in the concrete waterspout that connects the entrance channel with the lagoon. The limited presence of the Mugilidae juveniles inside the lagoon could be related to the prevailing tidal inlet dynamics (i.e. strong ebb flow at lagoon inlet), thus preventing the species to enter the lagoon. In order to restore the lagoon

  17. Regulation of bacterioplankton density and biomass in tropical shallow coastal lagoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana MacCord

    Full Text Available AIM: Estimating bacterioplankton density and biomass and their regulating factors is important in order to evaluate aquatic systems' carrying capacity, regarding bacterial growth and the stock of matter in the bacterial community, which can be consumed by higher trophic levels. We aim to evaluate the limnological factors which regulate - in space and time - the bacterioplankton dynamics (abundance and biomass in five tropical coastal lagoons in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHOD: The current study was carried out at the following lagoons: Imboassica, Cabiúnas, Comprida, Carapebus and Garças. They differ in morphology and in their main limnological factors. The limnological variables as well as bacterioplankton abundance and biomass were monthly sampled for 14 months. Model selection analyses were performed in order to evaluate the main variables regulating the bacterioplankton's dynamics in these lagoons. RESULT: The salt concentration and the "space" factor (i.e. different lagoons explained great part of the bacterial density and biomass variance in the studied tropical coastal lagoons. When the lagoons were analyzed separately, salinity still explained great part of the variation of bacterial density and biomass in the Imboassica and Garças lagoons. On the other hand, phosphorus concentration was the main factor explaining the variance of bacterial density and biomass in the distrophic Cabiúnas, Comprida and Carapebus lagoons. There was a strong correlation between bacterial density and biomass (r² = 0.70, p < 0.05, indicating that bacterial biomass variations are highly dependent on bacterial density variations. CONCLUSION: (i Different limnological variables regulate the bacterial density and biomass in the studied coastal lagoons, (ii salt and phosphorus concentrations greatly explained the variation of bacterial density and biomass in the saline and distrophic lagoons, respectively, and (iii N-nitrate and chlorophyll

  18. Hydrology and Salt Balance in a Large, Hypersaline Coastal Lagoon: Lagoa de Araruama, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjerfve, Björn; Schettini, C. A. F.; Knoppers, Bastiaan; Lessa, Guilherme; Ferreira, H. O.

    1996-06-01

    Lagoa de Araruama in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is a hypersaline coastal lagoon as a result of semi-arid climate conditions, a small drainage basin and a choked entrance channel. The lagoon has been continuously hypersaline for at least 4·5 centuries, but the mean salinity has varied substantially. It has recently decreased from 57 to 52 as indicated by density (salinity) measurements between 1965 and 1990. Analysis of more than 20 years of salinity time series data, in addition to monthly lagoon cruises to measure the spatial salinity distribution, indicate that the lagoon salinity largely fluctuates in response to the difference between evaporation and precipitation. The major factor explaining the long-term trend of decreasing salinity in the lagoon is the constant pumping of 1 m 3s -1of freshwater to the communities surrounding the lagoon from an adjacent watershed, and subsequent discharge of this water into Lagoa de Araruama. The net salt budget is primarily a balance between the advective import of salt from the coastal ocean and eddy diffusive export of salt to the ocean, although the extensive mining of salt from the lagoon during past decades is also a small but significant contribution to the salt budget. The flushing half-life is proposed as a useful time scale of water exchange, is calculated based on a combination of hydrological and tidal processes, and is excellent for comparison of lagoons and assessing water quality changes. The flushing half-life measures 83·5 days for Lagoa de Araruama, considerably longer than for most other coastal lagoons. The proposed dredging of a second ocean channel to Lagoa de Araruama is probably not a good idea. It is likely to accelerate the decrease of lagoon salinity and somewhat improve the lagoon water exchange. At the same time, this will eliminate the apparent buffering capacity provided by the hypersaline environment, and thus may potentially cause water quality problems.

  19. Ancient Greek in modern language of medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Vera

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to standardize language of medicine, it is essential to have a good command of ancient Greek and Latin. We cannot deny a huge impact of ancient Greek medicine on medical terminology. Compounds of Greek origin related to terms for organs, illnesses, inflammations, surgical procedures etc. have been listed as examples. They contain Greek prefixes and suffixes transcribed into Latin and they have been analyzed. It may be concluded that the modern language of medicine basically represents the ancient Greek language transcribed into Latin.

  20. [Ancient Greek in modern language of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Vera

    2007-01-01

    In order to standardize language of medicine, it is essential to have a good command of ancient Greek and Latin. We cannot deny a huge impact of ancient Greek medicine on medical terminology. Compounds of Greek origin related to terms for organs, illnesses, inflammations, surgical procedures etc. have been listed as examples. They contain Greek prefixes and suffixes transcribed into Latin and they have been analysed. It may be concluded that the modern language of medicine basically represents the ancient Greek language transcribed into Latin.

  1. Length-weight relationship of fishes from coral reefs and lagoons of New Caledonia: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Letourneur, Y.; Kulbicki, M.; Labrosse, P.

    1998-01-01

    Length-weight relationships of 316 reef and lagoon fish from New Caledonia (SW Pacific Ocean) belonging to 68 families are computed. A total of 43,750 individuals was used for this purpose. Fish were sampled by different techniques such as rotenone poisoning, handline and bottom longline fishing, gill and trammel nets, and trawling in various isotopes (coral reefs, lagoon bottoms and mangroves).

  2. Plankton community dynamics in a subtropical lagoonal system and related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LETÍCIA DONADEL

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Changes of the plankton community in a shallow, subtropical lagoonal system and its relation to environmental conditions were investigated during an annual cycle to provide information on its spatial and seasonal variation pattern. The study carried out at four sites (three in the Peixe lagoon and one in the Ruivo lagoon, which are located in the Lagoa do Peixe National Park, southern Brazil. The system has a temporary connection to the Atlantic Ocean by a narrow channel. The phytoplankton density was higher in the Peixe lagoon whereas the specific richness was higher in the Ruivo lagoon which is also a site with the lower salinity. The phytoplankton biomass near the channel showed seasonal variation with the highest value in fall and lowest in winter. Zooplankton richness was inversely correlated with salinity, and had the highest values in the Ruivo lagoon. Ordination analysis indicated seasonal and spatial patterns in plankton community in this lagoonal system, related to variation in salinity. In addition, the wind action and precipitation were important factors on the spatial and seasonal salinity changes in the lagoon with direct influence on the plankton community dynamics.

  3. Water quality characteristics at the estuary of Korle Lagoon in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Korle lagoon is a major run-off water receptacle and outlet from the city of Accra into the Gulf of Guinea. Uncontrolled discharges of domestic wastes and industrial effluents as well as raw sewage (which are washed into the lagoon during high tides), have led to its environment being seriously degraded.

  4. DV142 The application of the LOICZ-model on the Sacco di Goro Lagoon, Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edel, I.M.A.

    2002-01-01

    This report examines the application of the LOICZ-model to the Sacca di Goro lagoon. This estuary is located in the Po river delta, along de North Adriatic Coast, in Northern Italy. Activities in the lagoon itself, like fishery, aquaculture, tourism and activities in the hinterland, like:

  5. Sludge reduction and water quality improvement in anaerobic lagoons through influent pre-treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confined swine production generates large volumes of wastewater typically stored and treated in anaerobic lagoons. These lagoons may require cleanup and closure measures in the future. In practice, liquid and sludge need to be removed by pumping, usually at great expense of energy, and land applied ...

  6. The Defense Committees of Sleepy Lagoon: A Convergent Struggle against Fascism, 1942-1944

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barajas, Frank P.

    2006-01-01

    The Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee originated as an ad hoc committee and evolved to a broad-based movement for legal justice on behalf of seventeen youth convicted of murder and assault charges in connection with the Sleepy Lagoon case in Los Angeles in January 1943. This essay chronicles the multidimensional organizing to shift public opinion in…

  7. Production and zooplankton community structure in the lagoon and surrounding sea at Kavaratti atoll (Lakshadweep)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.

    Higher values for the environmental parameters were generally obtained for the lagoon stations. Average values of pH, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and phosphate-phosphorus, nitrate-nitrogen, silicate and silicon in the lagoon were 7.5, 31...

  8. Beach Ridge and Lagoon Systems as Indicator of Sea-Level Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse

    . This highstand period ended abruptly around 3.5 kyr BP with a marked RSL fall of approx. 1.3 m. In the lagoonal environments, facies transitions from organic-rich marine mud to marine sand are interpreted as winnowing lags resulting from a lowering of the wave-base. In a fossil lagoon system, the sand yields...

  9. Identifying tsunami deposits using shell taphonomy: Sur lagoon, Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, S.; Reinhardt, E.; Rothaus, R.; Boyce, J.

    2007-05-01

    On November 28th, 1945 an 8.1 magnitude earthquake focused in the eastern portion of the Makran subduction zone (Arabian Sea) generated a powerful tsunami that destroyed many coastal villages in Pakistan and India. Reports indicate that the tsunami also caused significant damage in Muscat, Oman, although its effects elsewhere in Oman are unknown. A thick bivalve dominated shell horizon was discovered inside the Sur lagoon, which is located on the eastern promontory of Oman (200 km south of Muscat). This shell deposit is significant because it is laterally extensive (> 1 km2), extends deep within the lagoon (>2 km), ranges in thickness from 5 - 25 cm at the sample localities, contains numerous subtidal and offshore bivalve species, and articulated subtidal and offshore bivalve species are abundant. Although there is an absence of typical tsunami indicators such as allochthonous sediment in and around the lagoon, verbal accounts, cultural evidence recovered during coring, and the absence of strong storms during the past 100 years indicates that this shell unit was caused by the 1945 tsunami. In this setting, it would be advantageous to have another proxy for tsunami detection and risk prediction. The use of shell taphonomy is one of the potential indicators and here we present new evidence of its utility. We sampled this unit in eight locations, and compared the shell taphonomy to surface shell samples collected from beach and reworked horizons in the lagoon, and to shell samples from a known tsunami and corresponding storm/ballast deposit in Israel (Reinhardt et al., 2006). Taphonomic analysis yielded promising results, as the two tsunami horizons shared excellent agreement between the amount of fragmented shells, and the percentage of shells displaying angular breaks. Both of these categories were significantly different from the percentage of fragments and angular fragments recovered from the reworked, beach, and storm/ballast deposits, indicating different

  10. Venice, the city and the lagoon: a lost relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Pedrocco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In June 2011, the Venetians Engineers organized a conference entitled: The Eighth district. The Laguna as a connection matrix. In a world where the concept of “city”, which has become improper, applies to so-called historical centers that increasingly large conurbations, much of the Laguna is peripheral space, where inedited stories and resonant events living with full-blown environmental degradation and decay culture, make it a place of margin. Today, the lagoon and coastal areas are a continuous with the water spaces and islands that separate them, facing with unfinished waterfront towards brackish non-places. In this context, the debates and choices around the Laguna alternate without a unified design. Venice is always less connected with the surroundings by water, and the water itself become a limit to mobility, where, on the contrary, it was the element that guaranteed it.In the renewed debate on development strategies, realized the MOSE, it will be asked for which city it has been made. The conference drew attention to the rediscovery of the central role of the Lagoon. Between local development and global challenges, including heritage and environmental protection. Is it possible to envisage a revitalization of the lagoon system as a matrix of physical and cultural connection? Which opportunities are offered today to the city of Venice to rediscover its amphibious and cosmopolitan size and discover the Laguna as an Eighth District? A place of sites for residence, recreation, work, in a renovated urban dimension across the board, opened towards the spaces of the islands.

  11. Winter-summer nutrient composition linkage to algae-produced toxins in shellfish at a eutrophic coastal lagoon (Óbidos lagoon, Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Patrícia; Botelho, Maria João; Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Vale, Carlos; Moita, Maria Teresa; Gonçalves, Célia

    2012-10-01

    The current work examines the linkage of pronounced winter-summer fluctuations on the nutrient composition with phytoplankton assemblages and mussel toxicity produced by the presence of toxic dinoflagellates. The work was performed at the Óbidos lagoon, a coastal eutrophic ecosystem that is permanently connected to an area characterized by frequent upwelling episodes. The lagoon and adjoining coastal area exhibit recurrent incidents of diarrhetic and paralytic shellfish poisoning. The conclusions are based on: (1) inorganic and organic nutrients at five sites of the lower, middle and upper Óbidos lagoon, and inorganic nutrients at two sites of the adjacent coastal area; biannual campaigns were performed in winter and summer between 2006 and 2010; (2) phytoplankton assemblages at three sites of the lagoon (located at lower and upper areas) in winter and summer of 2009; (3) algae-derived toxicity of wild mussels from the lower lagoon and coastal area, on a 1-2 week time scale, over 2006 and 2009. Nutrient molar ratios in Óbidos lagoon contrast between winter and summer. The lower median ratios DIN:P (31 and 0.8) and Si:P (11 and 3.3) in summer reflect the excess of phosphate. Excess was mainly attributed to phosphorus regeneration in sediments of the upper lagoon with accentuated symptoms of eutrophication. Dissolved organic nitrogen and dissolved organic phosphorus were also higher in summer, particularly in this area. No significant winter-summer differences were recorded for nutrient ratios in the adjacent coastal area. Phytoplankton assemblages pointed to a winter-summer contrast characterized by a shift of non-siliceous-based phytoplankton to diatoms. The toxic dinoflagellate species (Gymnodinium catenatum, Dinophysis cf. acuminata and Dinophysis acuta), presumably imported from the adjacent coast following upwelling episodes in summer, were observed in the lower lagoon. In summer of the two surveyed years, toxins produced by dinoflagellates occurred in

  12. The role of benthic macrophytes and their associated macroinvertebrate community in coastal lagoon resistance to eutrophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Javier; Marín, Arnaldo

    2009-12-01

    Eutrophication is widely recognised as one of the major menaces to coastal environments, particularly enclosed bays and lagoons. Although there is a general understanding of the consequences of eutrophication in these systems, there is a lack of sufficient knowledge concerning biotic feedbacks that influence eutrophication patterns and the resistance capacity of coastal environments. In this paper, the isotope ratios of main producers and consumers of a Mediterranean lagoon were examined in order to elucidate the fate of anthropogenic inputs from the main watercourse flowing into the lagoon. The results of the study of stable isotope data in the Mar Menor lagoon reflected that the whole benthic community plays an important role as a natural 'filter' that removes excess nutrients from the water column and stores them in the sediments, thereby enhancing lagoon resistance to eutrophication.

  13. The role of benthic macrophytes and their associated macroinvertebrate community in coastal lagoon resistance to eutrophication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloret, Javier; Marin, Arnaldo

    2009-01-01

    Eutrophication is widely recognised as one of the major menaces to coastal environments, particularly enclosed bays and lagoons. Although there is a general understanding of the consequences of eutrophication in these systems, there is a lack of sufficient knowledge concerning biotic feedbacks that influence eutrophication patterns and the resistance capacity of coastal environments. In this paper, the isotope ratios of main producers and consumers of a Mediterranean lagoon were examined in order to elucidate the fate of anthropogenic inputs from the main watercourse flowing into the lagoon. The results of the study of stable isotope data in the Mar Menor lagoon reflected that the whole benthic community plays an important role as a natural 'filter' that removes excess nutrients from the water column and stores them in the sediments, thereby enhancing lagoon resistance to eutrophication.

  14. Redistribution of fallout radionuclides in Enewetak Atoll lagoon sediments by callianassid bioturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtry, G M; Schneider, R C; Colin, P L; Buddemeier, R W; Suchanek, T H

    The lagoon sediments of Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands contain a large selection of fallout radionuclides as a result of 43 nuclear weapon tests conducted there between 1948 and 1958. Studies of the burial of fallout radionuclides have been conducted on the islands and in several of the large craters, but studies of their vertical distribution have been limited to about the upper 20 cm of the lagoon sediments. We have found elevated fallout radionuclide concentrations buried more deeply in the lagoon sediments and evidence of burrowing into the sediment by several species of callianassid ghost shrimp (Crustacea: Thalassinidea) which has displaced highly radioactive sediment. The burrowing activities of callianassids, which are ubiquitous on the lagoon floor, facilitate radionuclide redistribution and complicate the fallout radionuclide inventory of the lagoon.

  15. Ancient and modern environmental DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Ermini, Luca; Sarkissian, Clio Der; Haile, James; Hellstrom, Micaela; Spens, Johan; Thomsen, Philip Francis; Bohmann, Kristine; Cappellini, Enrico; Schnell, Ida Bærholm; Wales, Nathan A.; Carøe, Christian; Campos, Paula F.; Schmidt, Astrid M. Z.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Hansen, Anders J.; Orlando, Ludovic; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-01-01

    DNA obtained from environmental samples such as sediments, ice or water (environmental DNA, eDNA), represents an important source of information on past and present biodiversity. It has revealed an ancient forest in Greenland, extended by several thousand years the survival dates for mainland woolly mammoth in Alaska, and pushed back the dates for spruce survival in Scandinavian ice-free refugia during the last glaciation. More recently, eDNA was used to uncover the past 50 000 years of vegetation history in the Arctic, revealing massive vegetation turnover at the Pleistocene/Holocene transition, with implications for the extinction of megafauna. Furthermore, eDNA can reflect the biodiversity of extant flora and fauna, both qualitatively and quantitatively, allowing detection of rare species. As such, trace studies of plant and vertebrate DNA in the environment have revolutionized our knowledge of biogeography. However, the approach remains marred by biases related to DNA behaviour in environmental settings, incomplete reference databases and false positive results due to contamination. We provide a review of the field. PMID:25487334

  16. The Lagoon of Venice : the result of both natural factors and human influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar RAVERA

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present a picture of the lagoon of Venice and analyze the combined effects of natural factors and human influence on this fragile ecotone. The structure, functioning and evolution of the lagoon are illustrated. Under natural conditions, the solid load from the tributaries would transform the lagoon into dry land or, if the violence of the sea exceeded the solid load from the watershed, the lagoon would evolve into a marine bay. This natural succession has been hindered by the works undertaken by the Republic of Venice uninterruptedly through the centuries, because the lagoon environment was essential to the life and power of Venice. The effects of human activities from the beginning of the Venetian Republic to the present are described. In addition, the influence of socio-economic development on the lagoon area and, particularly, the impact of intensive agriculture and industrialization are discussed. A possible effect of eutrophication was the dramatic proliferation of the opportunistic macroalga Ulva rigida, which for about a decade played an important role in the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the lagoon. At present, the most crucial problems of Venice and its lagoon are: the lowering of the level of the city in relation to that of the sea, the continuous decline in the number of inhabitants, the increasing frequency of the “high water” phenomenon, air and water pollution, and the increased erosion and salinity of the lagoon. The recent measures taken and those still to be applied for conserving and recovering Venice and its lagoon and, particularly, the works for preventing the risk of high water are compared. There is an evident need for a new type of socio-economic development in symbiosis with the environment and tradition of Venice.

  17. Problem-oriented approach to Ancient philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berstov, Igor

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Igor Berestov and Marina Wolf of the Institute of philosophy and law, Novosibirsk, discuss various methodological difficulties typical of studies in the history of Ancient Greek philosophy and try to develop their own problem-oriented approach.

  18. AN INTERESTING CASE OF ANCIENT SCHWANNOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Schwannoma is a common benign tumour of nerve sheath. Degenerating type of schwannoma is called ancient schwannoma. Ancient schwannomas of scalp are rare and are often misdiagnosed as sebaceous cyst or dermoid cyst. CASE REPORT : We present a thirty two year old male presented with scalp swel ling of eight years duration. X - ray showed no intracranial extension. He underwent excision of the tumour and histopathology was reported as ancient schwannoma. DISCUSSION : Histopathologically , ancient schwannomas charecterised by cellular Antoni type A ar eas and less cellular Antoni type - B areas. 9 th , 7 th , 11 th , 5 th and 4 th cranial nerves are often affected and may be associated with multiple neuro fibramatosis (Von - Recklinghausen’s disease. Impact : Case is presented for its rarity and possible pre - operative misdiagnosis

  19. Paleo-Environmental Reconstruction Using Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Winther

    The aim of this thesis has been to investigate and expand the methodology and applicability for using ancient DNA deposited in lake sediments to detect and determine its genetic sources for paleo-environmental reconstruction. The aim was furthermore to put this tool into an applicable context...... solving other scientifically interesting questions. Still in its childhood, ancient environmental DNA research has a large potential for still developing, improving and discovering its possibilities and limitations in different environments and for identifying various organisms, both in terms...... research on ancient and modern environmental DNA (Paper 1), secondly by setting up a comparative study (Paper 2) to investigate how an ancient plant DNA (mini)-barcode can reflect other traditional methods (e.g. pollen and macrofossils) for reconstructing floristic history. In prolongation of the results...

  20. NIMI TANTRA (Opthalmology of Ancient India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, C K

    1984-04-01

    The art of opthalmology was well developed in ancient India and was known as Nimi Tantra. In this paper the author presents the main features of Nimi Tantra an authoritative treatises written by Nimi, a prominent opthalmologist of his time.

  1. NIMI TANTRA (Opthalmology of Ancient India)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, C.K.

    1984-01-01

    The art of opthalmology was well developed in ancient India and was known as Nimi Tantra. In this paper the author presents the main features of Nimi Tantra an authoritative treatises written by Nimi, a prominent opthalmologist of his time.

  2. From ancient Greek Logos to European rationality

    OpenAIRE

    APOSTOLOPOULOU GEORGIA

    2016-01-01

    Because of history, culture, and politics, European identity has its archetypical elements in ancient Greek culture. Ancient Greek philosophy brought Logos to fore and defined it as the crucial problem and the postulate of the human. We translate the Greek term Logos in English as reason or rationality. These terms, however, do not cover the semantic field of Logos since this includes, among other things, order of being, ground, language, argument etc. The juxtaposition of Logos (reason) to m...

  3. Surgical history of ancient China: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Louis

    2010-03-01

    In this second part of ancient Chinese surgical history, the practice of bone setting in China began around 3000 years ago. Throughout this period, significant progress was made, some highlights of which are cited. These methods, comparable with Western orthopaedic technique, are still being practised today. In conclusion, the possible reasons for the lack of advancement in operative surgery are discussed, within context of the cultural, social and religious background of ancient China.

  4. Ancient Greek in modern language of medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Marković Vera

    2007-01-01

    In order to standardize language of medicine, it is essential to have a good command of ancient Greek and Latin. We cannot deny a huge impact of ancient Greek medicine on medical terminology. Compounds of Greek origin related to terms for organs, illnesses, inflammations, surgical procedures etc. have been listed as examples. They contain Greek prefixes and suffixes transcribed into Latin and they have been analyzed. It may be concluded that the modern language of medicine basically represent...

  5. Social Norms in the Ancient Athenian Courts

    OpenAIRE

    Lanni, Adriaan M.

    2013-01-01

    Ancient Athens was a remarkably peaceful and well-ordered society by both ancient and contemporary standards. Scholars typically attribute Athens’ success to internalized norms and purely informal enforcement mechanisms. This article argues that the formal Athenian court system played a vital role in maintaining order by enforcing informal norms. This peculiar approach to norm enforcement compensated for apparent weaknesses in the state system of coercion. It mitigated the effects of under-e...

  6. Science and Library in the Ancient Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Sacit Keseroğlu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Science assumes its contemporary identity as a result of the stages of magic, religion and reason. The religious stage starts with the invention of writing and this stage leaves its place to reason with Thales in Ancient Greece. Knowledge eludes from religious beliefs. Ways to reach accurate, reliable and realistic knowledge are sought, along with the answer for what knowledge is. Therefore, beginning of the science is taken into consideration together with science and philosophy. The purpose of this study is to approach knowledge and science of the ancient age in Mesopotamia, Egypt and Ancient Greece in general terms and to determine the relationship between the knowledge produced in those places and libraries established. The hypothesis has been determined as “Egypt and Mesopotamia at the starting point of the history of science and science, and libraries in Ancient Greece have developed parallelly to each other.” The scope of the study has been limited to Mesopotamia, Egypt and Ancient Greece; and Ancient Greece has been explained, with descriptive method, in the frame of the topics of Ionia, Athens, Hellenistic Period and Rome. Many archives and libraries have been established in the ancient age. The difference between an archive and a library has been mentioned first, and then, various libraries have been introduced such as Nineveh in Mesopotamia, Alexandria in Ancient Greece and many others in Egypt. It has been clearly distinguished that there had been a very tight relationship between knowledge production and library, especially with the Library of Alexandria.

  7. Radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, H.

    2001-01-01

    History is a reconstruction of past human activity, evidence of which is remained in the form of documents or relics. For the reconstruction of historic period, the radiocarbon dating of ancient documents provides important information. Although radiocarbon age is converted into calendar age with the calibration curve, the calibrated radiocarbon age is still different from the historical age when the document was written. The difference is known as 'old wood effect' for wooden cultural property. The discrepancy becomes more serious problem for recent sample which requires more accurate age determination. Using Tandetron accelerator mass spectrometer at Nagoya University, we have measured radiocarbon ages of Japanese ancient documents, sutras and printed books written dates of which are clarified from the paleographic standpoint. The purpose is to clarify the relation between calibrated radiocarbon age and historical age of ancient Japanese document by AMS radiocarbon dating. This paper reports 23 radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese documents, sutras and printed books. The calibrated radiocarbon ages are in good agreement with the corresponding historical ages. It was shown by radiocarbon dating of the ancient documents that Japanese paper has little gap by 'old wood effect'; accordingly, ancient Japanese paper is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating of recent historic period. (author)

  8. Bacterial growth and DOC consumption in a tropical coastal lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Farjalla

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to determine the main limiting nutrient to bacterial growth in Imboassica lagoon, southeastern Brazil, to estimate the percentage of dissolved organic carbon (DOC available for bacterial growth, and to determine the bacterial growth efficiency (BGE of natural assemblages. Bacterial growth and DOC consumption were determined in batch culture experiments, in which water samples were supplemented with nitrogen and phosphorus together or separately, or incubated without nutrient additions. When added together, N and P stimulated higher bacterial growth rates and production, as well as higher DOC consumption. The BGEs and DOC consumption rates were strongly dependent on the method used to determine bacterial production. The BGE ranged from 11 to 72%. However, only a minor fraction of bulk DOC was consumed by the planktonic bacteria (from 0.7 to 3.4%. The results suggest that low availability of phosphorus and nitrogen coupled with excess organic carbon was the main factor responsible for the relatively low bacterial utilization of DOC in Imboassica lagoon.

  9. Variability of thermohaline properties in Pearl Lagoon, Nicaragua (ESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos L. Brenes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several hydrographic surveys were carried out in Pearl Lagoon, Nicaragua between april 1995 and december 1997 under the DIPAL (Proyecto para el Desarrollo Integral de la Pesca Artesanal en la Región Autónoma del Atlántico Sur project. Surface temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and turbidity have been measured in 88 hydrographic campaigns. The annual cycle shows maximum and minimum temperatures in May (29.4 °C and December (25.6 °C respectively, maximum salinity (25.6 °C in April, one month before the thermal peak, and minimum salinities (2‰ between July and August, when the annual precipitation index attains its seasonal maximum in the study area. In the case of dissolved O2 the maximum values of oxygen saturation were observed between March and May (90%, when the water turbidity in the lagoon is at its lowest and freshwater contributions from the rivers attains its minimum value. During the rainy season, in the second half of the year, there is an important decrease in oxygen contents, mainly as a consequence of the degradation of organic matter of riverine origin.

  10. Analysis of lagoon sludge characteristics for choice of treatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. H.; Hwang, D. S.; Choi, Y. D.; Lee, K. I.; Hwang, S. T.; Jung, K. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has launched a decommissioning program of uranium conversion plant. One of the important tasks in the decommissioning program is the treatment of the sludge, which was generated during operation and stored in the two ponds of the lagoon. The treatment requires the volume reduction of lagoon sludges for the low cost of the program and the conversion of the chemical forms, including uranium, for the acceptance at the final disposal site. The physical properties, such as densities, were measured and chemical compositions and radiological properties were analyzed. The denitration was a candidate process which would satisfy the requirements for sludge treatment, and the characteristics of thermal decomposition and dissolution with water were analyzed. The main compounds of the sludge were ammonium and sodium nitrate from conversion plant and calcium nitrate, calcium carbonate from Ca precipitation and impurities of the yellow cake. The content of uranium, thorium and Ra-226 was high in pond-1 and low in pond-2 because those were removed during Ca precipitation. On the base of the characteristics of the sludge and available technologies, reviewed in this study and being developed in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, two processes were proposed and evaluated in points of the expected technological difficulties. And the cost for treatment of sludges are estimated for both processes. 79 refs., 44 figs., 37 tabs. (Author)

  11. Enteric viruses in a mangrove lagoon, survival and shellfish incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez de Cardona, I.; Bermudez, M.; Billmire, E.; Hazen, T.C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)

    1988-12-31

    Mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) were screened for enteric viruses. For 18 months oysters were collected from Cano Boqueron, a tropical mangrove lagoon on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. This popular tourist resort has two primary sewage treatment plants which service 158 single family cabanas. In spite of the heavy seasonal input of sewage to Cano Boqueron and high densities of fecal coliform bacteria, enteric viruses were not detected in shellfish meat. Because no viruses were detected in the oysters, a virus survival study was performed. Poliovirus type 1 was placed in diffusion chambers in situ at two sites in Cano Boqueron. More than 95% of the poliovirus inactivation occurred within 24 h. Virus inactivation was significantly different by site, indicating different inactivation rates within the lagoon. Chamber studies done simultaneously with Escherichia coli did not reveal differences between sites. It is suggested that the sewage effluent had an antiviral effect in the absence of an antibacterial effect. This study demonstrates the importance for establishing microbial contamination standards for shellfish growing waters in the tropics based upon in situ studies with tropical species, e.g. mangrove oyster.

  12. Spatial variability in the icthyoplankton structure of a subtropicalhypersaline lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judson da Cruz Lopes da Rosa

    Full Text Available Abstract The Lagoa de Araruama is a hypersaline ecosystem inhabited by distinct fish species, either permanently or during their reproductive season. Over recent years, some significant environmental changes have been observed in this ecosystem related to the sewage runoff, as salinity decrease (from 64 to 41 psu during the last 40 years and nutrients increase. As both changes are thought to affect the ichthyoplankton assemblage, the present study aimed to evaluate all the potential relationships between salinity disruption and fish larvae distribution. Ichtyoplankton samples were collected monthly from January 2010 to March 2011 at eight sites in Araruama Lagoon by means of a WP2 plankton net equipped with a flowmeter. During this period, low egg densities were coincident with high salinity regions, suggesting that adults are avoiding to release their eggs under less favorable environmental conditions to the larvae. The uneven distribution of eggs and larvae inside the lagoon, as revealed by both spatial and temporal analyses lead us to suggest that changes in salinity have influenced the reproductive rhythms of those fish species that depend upon the Lagoa de Araruama.

  13. Vibrio trends in the ecology of the Venice lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Shamsur; Martino, Maria Elena; Cardazzo, Barbara; Facco, Pierantonio; Bordin, Paola; Mioni, Renzo; Novelli, Enrico; Fasolato, Luca

    2014-04-01

    Vibrio is a very diverse genus that is responsible for different human and animal diseases. The accurate identification of Vibrio at the species level is important to assess the risks related to public health and diseases caused by aquatic organisms. The ecology of Vibrio spp., together with their genetic background, represents an important key for species discrimination and evolution. Thus, analyses of population structure and ecology association are necessary for reliable characterization of bacteria and to investigate whether bacterial species are going through adaptation processes. In this study, a population of Vibrionaceae was isolated from shellfish of the Venice lagoon and analyzed in depth to study its structure and distribution in the environment. A multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) was developed on the basis of four housekeeping genes. Both molecular and biochemical approaches were used for species characterization, and the results were compared to assess the consistency of the two methods. In addition, strain ecology and the association between genetic information and environment were investigated through statistical models. The phylogenetic and population analyses achieved good species clustering, while biochemical identification was demonstrated to be imprecise. In addition, this study provided a fine-scale overview of the distribution of Vibrio spp. in the Venice lagoon, and the results highlighted a preferential association of the species toward specific ecological variables. These findings support the use of MLSA for taxonomic studies and demonstrate the need to consider environmental information to obtain broader and more accurate bacterial characterization.

  14. Spatiotemporal dynamics of submerged macrophytes in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrador, Biel; Pretus, Joan Lluís

    2010-03-01

    The seasonal and interannual dynamics of the biomass and spatial distribution of a macrophyte meadow were explored in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Albufera des Grau, Balearic Islands) from 2002 to 2007. The dynamics in the main physicochemical variables were also analysed to assess the factors involved in the spatiotemporal variability of the submerged macrophytes. The meadows were dominated by Ruppia cirrhosa, which showed a marked seasonal cycle with winter quiescence and complete annual regrowth. The annual production of R. cirrhosa had high interannual variability and was amongst the highest described for this species in the literature, ranging 327-919 gDW m -2. The spatial distribution of macrophytes was determined by light availability and wave exposure, with the highest abundances found in shallow and gently sloped areas sheltered from the strong northerly winds. The interannual variations in macrophyte descriptors (area of occurrence, average depth of the meadows, and maximum biomass) were mainly related to water turbidity and salinity, but the effect of these variables was constrained to the spring and summer months, respectively. A significant negative correlation between the extent of coverage of R. cirrhosa and the water level at the end of the previous annual cycle was observed, suggesting a positive effect of desiccation on the extent of coverage of the macrophytes. After six years of apparent stability, the macrophytes abruptly disappeared from the lagoon. Although the mechanisms are not clear, this shift was likely attributable to a combination of several factors.

  15. The atypical hydrodynamics of the Mayotte Lagoon (Indian Ocean): Effects on water age and potential impact on plankton productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, C.; Devenon, J. L.; Pagano, M.; Rougier, G.; Blanchot, J.; Arfi, R.

    2017-09-01

    In mesotidal lagoons of the Indian Ocean, the coral reef barrier may be temporarily submerged at high tide and partially exposed at low tide, and this may cause unusual lagoon dynamics. A field measurement campaign was conducted in the north-east Mayotte Lagoon in order to understand these processes. An experimental approach was used, combining measurements taken by 1) a side-mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) on a moving boat along transects through the reef passages (17 transects) and 2) by more conventional high-resolution moored ADCP measurements. A specific tidal analysis methodology was used to determine the spatial variability of the velocity. The tidal hydrodynamics within the lagoon were determined using a numerical model and then analyzed. The tide acted as a quasi-progressive forced wave in the lagoon: at low tide, water entered through the south passage, over the reef and left the lagoon through the north passage. This flow was reversed at high tide. The tide-driven quasi-progressive wave created a specific lagoon dynamics. Contrary to most other channel lagoons, the flow over the reef was mainly outward. This increases the inflow through the passages, which renews the water in the lagoon as shown by the indicators of age and origin of the water inside the lagoon. This study also showed the importance of these indicators for better understanding the variations and levels of plankton biomass (with chlorophyll concentration as proxy) which is quite high in this lagoon.

  16. Mussel farming as a large-scale bioengineering tool: a numerical modelling case study in Rødsand lagoon, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, Pernille Louise; Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Lumborg, Ulrik

    Rødsand lagoon in southeast Denmark is a non-tidal coastal lagoon, which is home to a wide range of marine flora and fauna and is protected under Natura 2000. An increase in turbidity within the lagoon may reduce the ecosystem health due to hindered light penetration. A threat to the lagoonal...... ecosystem is related to future increasing storm intensities (Olesen et al., 2014), which are presumed to increase the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) within the lagoon. Furthermore the planned construction of a tunnel between Germany and Denmark may propose a threat to the lagoon due to a possible...... spill of sediment, which could increase the longshore sediment influx to Rødsand lagoon. Mussels can reduce the SSC in marine environments (Schröder et al., 2014), why the implementation of a mussel farm has been considered as a management option. In the present study we developed a module to include...

  17. Impact of mussel bioengineering on fine-grained sediment dynamics in a coastal lagoon: a numerical modelling investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, Pernille Louise; Lumborg, Ulrik; Bundgaard, Klavs

    2017-01-01

    Rødsand lagoon in southeast Denmark is a non-tidal coastal lagoon. It is home to a wide range of marine flora and fauna and part of the Natura 2000 network. An increase in turbidity through elevated levels of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) within the lagoon may affect the ecosystem health...... due to reduced light penetration. Increasing SSC levels within Rødsand lagoon could be caused by increasing storm intensity or by a sediment spill from dredging activities west of the lagoon in relation to the planned construction of the Fehmarnbelt fixed link between Denmark and Germany. The aim...... of the study was to investigate the impact of a mussel reef on sediment import and SSC in a semi-enclosed lagoon through the development of a bioengineering modelling application that makes it possible to include the filtrating effect of mussels in a numerical model of the lagoonal system. The numerical...

  18. Evaluation of the Trophic Level of Kune and Vain Lagoons in Albania, Using Phytoplankton as a Bioindicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anni Koci Kallfa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Concentration of chlorophyll is an adequate parameter for assessing the trophic state of lagoon ecosystems. Objectives of this study are: selection of a system of bioindicators to enable a good qualitative evaluation of the trophic state of the lagoons and their dynamics; evaluation of seasonal water quality variability and comparison between lagoons. The trophic state of the lagoons is analysed every month over the year. Water samples are retrieved at four different sites (exact coordinates each month, sites that are representative of different water circulation systems at each lagoon. The trophic level in the respective lagoons is thus assessed through selection of an adequate system of bioindicators, in order to observe the oscillations of the amount of chlorophyll and therefore to determine the level of eutrophication. Based on the above parameters, the comparison of the trophic state in these two lagoons has shown that they have different trophic states.

  19. Are Sea Surface Temperature satellite measurements reliable proxies of lagoon temperature in the South Pacific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wynsberge, Simon; Menkes, Christophe; Le Gendre, Romain; Passfield, Teuru; Andréfouët, Serge

    2017-12-01

    In remote coral reef environments, lagoon and reef in situ measurements of temperature are scarce. Sea Surface Temperature (SST) measured by satellite has been frequently used as a proxy of the lagoon temperature experienced by coral reef organisms (TL) especially during coral bleaching events. However, the link between SST and TL is poorly characterized. First, we compared the correlation between various SST series and TL from 2012 to 2016 in three atolls and one island in the Central South Pacific Ocean. Simple linear correlation between SST and TL ranged between 0.44 and 0.97 depending on lagoons, localities of sensors, and type of SST data. High-resolution-satellite-measurements of SST inside the lagoons did not outperform oceanic SST series, suggesting that SST products are not adapted for small lagoons. Second, we modelled the difference between oceanic SST and TL as a function of the drivers of lagoon water renewal and mixing, namely waves, tide, wind, and season. The multivariate models reduced significantly the bias between oceanic SST and TL. In atoll lagoons, and probably in other hydrodynamically semi-open systems, a correction taking into account these factors is necessary when SST are used to characterize organisms' thermal stress thresholds.

  20. Construction and operation of a covered lagoon methane recovery system for the Cal Poly Dairy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.W.; Moser, M.A.; Norris, G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the design, construction and anticipated operation of a lagoon-type methane recovery system for the Cal Poly Dairy. The initial design was based upon the present and anticipated herd size, 300 to 600 cows, heifers and calves. The lagoon design meets USDA-NRCS standards, and accounts for limitations of the site, primarily shallow sandstone bedrock. The new lagoon, which has a liquid volume of 14,000 m 3 , was constructed next to an existing lagoon. The new lagoon was covered with a flexible membrane incorporating buoyant material so that the cover floats on the surface, and a gas collection system. The predicted output of the lagoon for the present population of approximately 350 cows, heifers and calves is estimated to average up to 320 m 3 of biogas per day. The biogas will fuel a micro-turbine electric generator, and produce up to 23 kW in parallel with the utility system. Odor control is the most important non-economic benefit. This project will provide environmental benefits-odor control by capturing the odorous gases that result from dairy manure storage; methane, a significant greenhouse gas is kept out of the atmosphere; and water pollution is reduced through the reduction in organic matter in the lagoon. Economic benefits include electricity and process heat, together worth up to 16,000 US dollars per year. (author)

  1. The role of connectivity and hydrodynamic conditions in the configuration of ichthyoplankton assemblages in coastal lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Quispe, Jhoni I.; Umgiesser, Georg; Ghezzo, Michol; De Pascalis, Francesca; Marcos, Concepción

    2014-05-01

    Fish assemblages in coastal lagoons are constituted by species with different gilds and life stories including estuarine residents but also a high percentage of marine stragglers and marine migrants. Previous studies showed that different ichthyoplancton assemblages can be identified inside a lagoon, depending on hydrological conditions, but at the same time a high spatial and temporal variability haven observed. The proposed models to explain lagoon assemblages configuration based on probabilities of colonization from the open sea involves an important stochastic component and introduces some randomness that could lead to that high spatial and temporal variability at short and long-term scales. In this work we analyze the relationship between ichthyoplankton assemblages in the Mar Menor lagoon and the adjacent open sea in the framework of the hydrodynamics of the lagoon and connectivity between sampling stations using hydrodynamic models. The results, show a complex interaction between the different factors that lead to a highly variable system with high accumulated richness and diversity of species, and a large proportion of occasional visitors and stragglers suggesting that the mechanisms of competitive lottery can play an important role in the maintenance of communities of coastal lagoons , where environmental variability occurs in a system with strong differences in colonization rates and connectivity, not only with the open sea, but also between locations within the lagoon.

  2. Ancient Greek with Thrasymachus: A Web Site for Learning Ancient Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Alison

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a project that was begun as an attempt by two teachers of Ancient Greek to provide supplementary materials to accompany "Thrasymachus," a first-year textbook for learning ancient Greek. Provides a brief history and description of the project, the format of each chapter, a chronology for completion of materials for each chapter in the…

  3. Balancing Acts Between Ancient and Modern Cities: The Ancient Greek Cities Project of C. A. Doxiadis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantha Zarmakoupi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the inception and development of the Ancient Greek Cities (AGC research project (1963–77 of Constantinos A. Doxiadis and addresses the novelty of its methodological approach to the study of classical urbanism. With the AGC project, Doxiadis launched a comprehensive study of the ancient Greek built environment to provide an overview of the factors involved in its shaping. The project produced 24 published volumes — the first two laying out the historical and methodological parameters of the ensuing 22 monographs with case studies — as well as 12 unpublished manuscripts, and through international conferences initiated a wider dialogue on ancient cities beyond the classical Greek world. It was the first interdisciplinary study that attempted to tackle the environmental factors, together with the social and economic ones, underpinning the creation, development and operation of ancient Greek cities. Doxiadis’s innovative approach to the analysis of the ancient city was indebted to his practice as an architect and town planner and was informed by his theory of Ekistics. His purpose was to identify the urban planning principles of ancient Greek settlements in order to employ them in his projects. This paper examines the concept and methodology of the AGC project as well as the ways in which Doxiadis used the study of ancient cities in relation to his contemporary urban/architectural agendas, and explains this important moment in the historiography of ancient Greek urbanism.

  4. Magnitude and variability of methane production and concentration in tropical coastal lagoons sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Petruzzella

    Full Text Available AIM: Coastal wetlands are potential zones for methane (CH4 production. The present study aims to evaluate the spatial variation of CH4 production and concentration in ten tropical coastal lagoons, the influence of aquatic macrophytes on the sediment CH4 concentration and how the magnitude of these potential CH4 production rates compare to those in other ecosystems. METHODS: Sediments were sampled in ten coastal lagoons, with one site in the limnetic region and another site in aquatic macrophyte stands when they were present in the littoral region. We measured the CH4 production as a potential rate, and CH4 concentration was directly measured from sediment samples. RESULTS: The highest potential CH4 production (PMP rates were found in alkaline and hypersaline lagoons. However, Cabiúnas, which is a freshwater lagoon densely colonized by aquatic macrophytes, also exhibited a high PMP rate. We also observed that the sediment CH4 concentration in the littoral region was higher than in the limnetic region in all of the investigated lagoons except Paulista, which presented the opposite pattern. The PMP rates observed in the studied lagoons were low compared to other aquatic ecosystems. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the sediments of saline lagoons are important CH4 production sites, and in general, aquatic macrophytes have a positive influence on methanogenesis, which was evident based on the CH4 concentrations present in the sediments of these lagoons. Further studies should focus on the processes underlying the CH4 patterns observed in the tropical coastal lagoons, especially concerning the coupling between CH4 production and concentration.

  5. Evidence for Ancient Mesoamerican Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, R. L.; Garcia, B.

    2001-12-01

    Evidence for past earthquake damage at Mesoamerican ruins is often overlooked because of the invasive effects of tropical vegetation and is usually not considered as a casual factor when restoration and reconstruction of many archaeological sites are undertaken. Yet the proximity of many ruins to zones of seismic activity would argue otherwise. Clues as to the types of damage which should be soughtwere offered in September 1999 when the M = 7.5 Oaxaca earthquake struck the ruins of Monte Alban, Mexico, where archaeological renovations were underway. More than 20 structures were damaged, 5 of them seriously. Damage features noted were walls out of plumb, fractures in walls, floors, basal platforms and tableros, toppling of columns, and deformation, settling and tumbling of walls. A Modified Mercalli Intensity of VII (ground accelerations 18-34 %b) occurred at the site. Within the diffuse landward extension of the Caribbean plate boundary zone M = 7+ earthquakes occur with repeat times of hundreds of years arguing that many Maya sites were subjected to earthquakes. Damage to re-erected and reinforced stelae, walls, and buildings were witnessed at Quirigua, Guatemala, during an expedition underway when then 1976 M = 7.5 Guatemala earthquake on the Motagua fault struck. Excavations also revealed evidence (domestic pttery vessels and skeleton of a child crushed under fallen walls) of an ancient earthquake occurring about the teim of the demise and abandonment of Quirigua in the late 9th century. Striking evidence for sudden earthquake building collapse at the end of the Mayan Classic Period ~A.D. 889 was found at Benque Viejo (Xunantunich), Belize, located 210 north of Quirigua. It is argued that a M = 7.5 to 7.9 earthquake at the end of the Maya Classic period centered in the vicinity of the Chixoy-Polochic and Motagua fault zones cound have produced the contemporaneous earthquake damage to the above sites. As a consequences this earthquake may have accelerated the

  6. Fauna of gastropod molluscs in the Curonian Lagoon littoral biotopes (Baltic Sea, Kaliningrad region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Filippenko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the gastropod mollusc fauna in the coastal waters of the southern part of the Curonian Lagoon (Kaliningrad region, Russia were carried out. Study revealed 34 aquatic gastropods representing 30% of Prosobranchia and 70% of Pulmonata. Obtained data showed higher mollusc diversity in the littoral biotopes in comparison with open areas of the Lagoon. The fauna is represented by a typical Central European species complex of freshwater gastropods. The reed zone along the coastline in the Lagoon functions as a barrier and provides shallow water habitats with slow moving and warmer water, where maximum gastropod species concentrate.

  7. Lagoon microbialites on Isla Angel de la Guarda and associated peninsular shores, Gulf of California (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Markes E.; Ledesma-Vázquez, Jorge; Backus, David H.; González, Maria R.

    2012-07-01

    Examples of two closed lagoons with extensive growth of Recent microbialites showing variable surface morphology and internal structure are found on Isla Angel de la Guarda in the Gulf of California. Comparable lagoonal microbialites also occur ashore from Ensenada El Quemado on the adjacent peninsular mainland of Baja California. The perimeters of all three lagoons feature crusted structures indicative of thrombolites with a knobby surface morphology 2 cm to 3 cm in relief and internal clotting without any sign of laminations. Outward from this zone, thrombolitic construction thins to merge with a white calcified crust below which a soft substratum of dark organic material 4 cm to 6 cm in thickness is concealed. The substratum is laminated and heavily mucilaginous, as observed along the edges of extensive shrinkage cracks in the overlying crust. The thrombolitic crust is anchored to the shore, while the thinner crust and associated stromatolitic mats float on the surface of the lagoons. Laboratory cultures of the dark organic material yielded the solitary cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis as the predominant taxon interspersed with filamentous forms. In decreasing order of abundance, other morphotypes present include Phormidium, Oscillatoria, Geitlerinema, Chroococus, and probably Spirulina. The larger of the two island lagoons follows an east-west azimuth and covers 0.225 km2, while the smaller lagoon has a roughly north-south axis and covers only 0.023 km2. The salinity of water in the smaller lagoon was measured as148 ppt. Pliocene strata along the edge of the smaller modern lagoon include siltstone bearing calcified platelets suggestive of a microbial origin. Dry lagoons abandoned during the later Quaternary occur inland at higher elevations on the island, but retain no fossils except for sporadic white crusts cemented on cobbles around distinct margins. Raised Quaternary lagoons parallel to the big lagoon on Isla Angel de la Guarda are partly obscured by flood

  8. Temporal shifts in reef lagoon sediment composition, Discovery Bay, Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Christopher T.; Taylor, Kevin G.; Machent, Philip G.

    2006-03-01

    Discovery Bay, north Jamaica, forms a large (1.5 km wide), deep (up to 56 m) embayment that acts as a sink for reef-derived and lagoonal carbonate sediments. Since the mid-1960s, the bay has also provided a sink for inputs of bauxite sediment that are spilled during loading at a boat terminal constructed within Discovery Bay. Bauxite has accumulated across much of the southern section of the bay with surficial sediments presently composed of up to 35 weight% non-carbonate. Cores recovered from sites on the western side of the bay provide a stratigraphic record of this history of bauxite contamination across water depths from 5 to 25 m. The bauxite-influenced upper sediment horizons are clearly visible in each core from the distinctive red-brown colouration of the sediment. These sediments are composed of approximately 10% non-carbonate (bauxite) and have Fe contents of around 2-3000 μg/g (up to 7000 μg/g). The thickness of this upper bauxite-contaminated sequence increases down transect (approximately 18 cm in the shallowest core, to around 47 cm in the deepest core), and in each core overlies a sequence of 'clean' lagoon carbonates. These typically are poorly sorted carbonate sands with variable amounts of coral rubble. Down-core data on CaCO 3 and Fe content provide a chemical record of decreasing sediment contamination with depth, with the lower 'clean' carbonates composed of only around 2% non-carbonate and coral, mollusc, Amphiroa and Halimeda in the clean lagoon sands, to assemblages dominated by Halimeda and Amphiroa within the surficial sediments. At the deeper sites, no major down-core shifts in sediment constituents occur. These sites thus record a rather complex history of changes in sediment composition and chemistry. Clear shifts in chemistry and stratigraphy occur in all the cores and reflect progressive bauxite contamination in the near-surface horizons. These inputs, however, do not appear to have directly affected carbonate production, since the

  9. Non-native fishes of the central Indian River Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Loftus, William F.; Reaver, Kristen M.

    2018-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive review of the status of non-native fishes in the central Indian River Lagoon (from Cape Canaveral to Grant-Valkaria, east of I-95) through literature review and field surveys. Historical records exist for 17 taxa (15 species, one hybrid, one species complex). We found historical records for one additional species, and collected one species in our field survey that had never been recorded in the region before (and which we eradicated). Thus, we evaluate 19 total taxa herein. Of these, we documented range expansion of four salt-tolerant cichlid species, extirpation of six species that were previously recorded from the area and eradication of three species. There was no noticeable change in geographic range for one widespread species and the records for one species are doubtful and may be erroneous. Currently, there is not enough information to evaluate geographic ranges for four species although at least one of those is established.

  10. The zoobenthic community of the Orbetello Lagoon (Central Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgana, J G; Naviglio, L [ENEA Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente. AMB - PRO - ECO

    1996-12-31

    In this paper an analysis of the macrozoobenthic community structure of the Orbetello Lagoon is shown. During the study period taxa number, density, indices of diversity (Shannon), evenness (Pielou), richness (Margalef) and dominance (Simpson) were calculated for each sampling site. The similarity in species composition among was evaluated by community coefficients: a cluster analysis (UPGMA method) shows that the station 8 (near Ansedonia channel) and the station 4 ( in front of Patanella, near Fibbia channel) are very much alike (community coefficient = 82.86), whilst the station 1 (near Nassa channel) and the station 9 (near the domestic sewage of Orbetello Town) differ markedly from the other stations. The animal biomass (ash free dry weight) and the frequencies of trophic groups of each sampling site were estimated; the authors have found higher proportions of deposit feeders than suspension feeders in all the sampling sites.

  11. The zoobenthic community of the Orbetello Lagoon (Central Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgana, J.G.; Naviglio, L. [ENEA Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente. AMB - PRO - ECO

    1995-12-31

    In this paper an analysis of the macrozoobenthic community structure of the Orbetello Lagoon is shown. During the study period taxa number, density, indices of diversity (Shannon), evenness (Pielou), richness (Margalef) and dominance (Simpson) were calculated for each sampling site. The similarity in species composition among was evaluated by community coefficients: a cluster analysis (UPGMA method) shows that the station 8 (near Ansedonia channel) and the station 4 ( in front of Patanella, near Fibbia channel) are very much alike (community coefficient = 82.86), whilst the station 1 (near Nassa channel) and the station 9 (near the domestic sewage of Orbetello Town) differ markedly from the other stations. The animal biomass (ash free dry weight) and the frequencies of trophic groups of each sampling site were estimated; the authors have found higher proportions of deposit feeders than suspension feeders in all the sampling sites.

  12. Biogeochemical Impact of Hurricane Harvey on Texas Coastal Lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, P.; Hu, X.; Walker, L.; Wetz, M.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey made landfall Friday 25 August 2017 as a Category 4 hurricane, which is the strongest hurricane to hit the middle Texas coast since Carla in 1961. After the wind storm and storm surge, coastal flooding occurred due to the storm lingering over Texas for four more days, dumping as much as 50" of rain near Houston, producing 1:1000 year flood event. The Texas coast is characterized by lagoons behind barrier islands, and their ecology and biogeochemistry are strongly influenced by coastal hydrology. The ensuing inflow event replaced brackish water with fresh water that was high in inorganic an organic matter, significantly enhancing respiration of coastal blue carbon, and dissolved oxygen went to zero for a long period of time. Recovery will likely take months or nearly one year.

  13. Twins in Ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2016-01-01

    This brief outline associates twins with several aspects of life in Ancient Greece. In Greek mythology twins caused ambivalent reactions and were believed to have ambivalent feelings for each other. Very often, they were viewed as the representatives of the dualistic nature of the universe. Heteropaternal superfecundation, which dominates in ancient myths, explains on one hand, the god-like qualities and, on the other hand, the mortal nature of many twins. An assumption is presented that legends referring to twins might reflect the territorial expansions of Ancient Greeks in Northern Mediterranean, around the Black Sea, in Asia Minor, as well as North East Africa. In conclusion, in Greek antiquity, twins have been used as transitional figures between myth and reality.

  14. Genetic diversity among ancient Nordic populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchior, Linea Cecilie; Lynnerup, Niels; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    2010-01-01

    , the success rate varied substantially between sites; the highest rates were obtained with untouched, freshly excavated material, whereas heavy handling, archeological preservation and storage for many years influenced the ability to obtain authentic endogenic DNA. While the nucleotide diversity at two...... the ancient Danes (average 13%) than among extant Danes and Scandinavians ( approximately 2.5%) as well as among other ancient population samples reported. Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type "diluted" by later immigration events. Interestingly, the two Neolithic...... samples (4,200 YBP, Bell Beaker culture) that were typed were haplogroup U4 and U5a, respectively, and the single Bronze Age sample (3,300-3,500 YBP) was haplogroup U4. These two haplogroups have been associated with the Mesolithic populations of Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, at least...

  15. Microanalysis study on ancient Wiangkalong Pottery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won-in, K.; Tancharakorn, S.; Dararutana, P.

    2017-09-01

    Wiangkalong is one of major ceramic production cities in northern of Thailand, once colonized by the ancient Lanna Kingdom (1290 A.D.). Ancient Wiangkalong potteries were produced with shapes and designs as similar as those of the Chinese Yuan and Ming Dynasties. Due to the complex nature of materials and objects, extremely sensitive, spatially resolved, multi-elemental and versatile analytical instruments using non-destructive and non-sampling methods to analyze theirs composition are need. In this work, micro-beam X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy based on synchrotron radiation was firstly used to characterize the elemental composition of the ancient Wiangkalong pottery. The results showed the variations in elemental composition of the body matrix, the glaze and the underglaze painting, such as K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn and Fe.

  16. Did the ancient egyptians discover Algol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetsu, L.; Porceddu, S.; Porceddu, S.; Lyytinen, J.; Kajatkari, P.; Markkanen, T.; Toivari-Viitala, J.

    2013-02-01

    Fabritius discovered the first variable star, Mira, in 1596. Holwarda determined the 11 months period of Mira in 1638. Montanari discovered the next variable star, Algol, in 1669. Its period, 2.867 days, was determined by Goodricke (178). Algol was associated with demon-like creatures, "Gorgon" in ancient Greek and "ghoul" in ancient Arab mythology. This indicates that its variability was discovered much before 1669 (Wilk 1996), but this mythological evidence is ambiguous (Davis 1975). For thousands of years, the Ancient Egyptian Scribes (AES) observed stars for timekeeping in a region, where there are nearly 300 clear nights a year. We discovered a significant periodicity of 2.850 days in their calendar for lucky and unlucky days dated to 1224 BC, "the Cairo Calendar". Several astrophysical and astronomical tests supported our conclusion that this was the period of Algol three millennia ago. The "ghoulish habits" of Algol could explain this 0.017 days period increase (Battersby 2012).

  17. Dacic Ancient Astronomical Research in Sarmizegetuza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel George Oprea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The actual Romanian territory belongs to Carpatho-Danubian Space and to Ancient Europe. The Ancient European Society was a vast cultural entity based on a theocratic, matriarchal society, peaceful and art creating.Temples of Sarmizegetusa have given rise to several theories over time, proven by historians with the most diverse arguments. The largest complex of temples and sanctuaries was founded in Sarmizegetusa Regia, the Dacian’s main fortress and ancient capital of Dacia in the time of King Decebalus. The mysterious form of settlements has led researchers to the conclusion that the locations were astronomical observation shrines. Among the places of Dacian worship in Orastie Mountains the most impressive is the Great Circular Sanctuary, used to perform some celestial observations, and also as original solar calendar. This paper had the purpose to re-discover the Dacian Civilization and Dacian cosmogony based on the accumulated knowledge upon our country’s past.

  18. Damage and repair of ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, David; Willerslev, Eske; Hansen, Anders

    2005-01-01

    degradation, these studies are limited to species that lived within the past 10(4)-10(5) years (Late Pleistocene), although DNA sequences from 10(6) years have been reported. Ancient DNA (aDNA) has been used to study phylogenetic relationships of protists, fungi, algae, plants, and higher eukaryotes...... such as extinct horses, cave bears, the marsupial wolf, the moa, and Neanderthal. In the past few years, this technology has been extended to the study of infectious disease in ancient Egyptian and South American mummies, the dietary habits of ancient animals, and agricultural practices and population dynamics......, and extensive degradation. In the course of this review, we will discuss the current aDNA literature describing the importance of aDNA studies as they relate to important biological questions and the difficulties associated with extracting useful information from highly degraded and damaged substrates derived...

  19. Biological control of trace metal and organometal benthic fluxes in a eutrophic lagoon (Thau Lagoon, Mediterranean Sea, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point, D.; Monperrus, M.; Tessier, E.; Amouroux, D.; Chauvaud, L.; Thouzeau, G.; Jean, F.; Amice, E.; Grall, J.; Leynaert, A.; Clavier, J.; Donard, O. F. X.

    2007-04-01

    In situ benthic chamber experiments were conducted in the Thau Lagoon that allowed the simultaneous determination of the benthic exchanges of trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb and U) and mercury species (iHg and MMHg). Fluxes of organotin compounds (MBT, DBT and TBT) were also investigated for the first time. The benthic incubations were performed during two campaigns at four stations that presented different macrobenthic and macrophytic species distribution and abundance (see [Thouzeau, G., Grall, J., Clavier, J., Chauvaud, L., Jean, F., Leynaert, A., Longpuirt, S., Amice, E., Amouroux, D., 2007. Spatial and temporal variability of benthic biogeochemical fluxes associated with macrophytic and macrofaunal distributions in the Thau lagoon (France). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 72 (3), 432 446.]). The results indicate that most of the flux intensity as well as the temporal and spatial variability can be explained by the combined influence of microscale and macroscale processes. Microscale changes were identified using Mn flux as a good indicator of the redox conditions at the sediment water interface, and by extension, as an accurate proxy of benthic fluxes for most trace metals and mercury species. We also observed that the redox gradient at the interface is promoted by both microbial and macrobenthic species activity that governs O2 budgets. Macroscale processes have been investigated considering macrobenthic organisms activity (macrofauna and macroalgal cover). The density of such macroorganisms is able to explain most of the spatial and temporal variability of the benthic metal fluxes within a specific site. A tentative estimation of the flux of metals and organometals associated with deposit feeder and suspension feeder activity was found to be in the range of the flux determined within the chambers for most considered elements. Furthermore, a light/dark incubation investigating a dense macroalgal cover present at the sediment surface illustrates the role

  20. Unexpected presence of Fagus orientalis complex in Italy as inferred from 45,000-year-old DNA pollen samples from Venice lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffetti, Donatella; Vettori, Cristina; Caramelli, David; Vernesi, Cristiano; Lari, Martina; Paganelli, Arturo; Paule, Ladislav; Giannini, Raffaello

    2007-08-16

    it displays the informative sites characteristic of this complex. The ancient DNA sequences demonstrate for the first time that, in contrast to current knowledge based on palynological and macrofossil data, the F. orientalis complex was already present during the Tyrrhenian period in what is now the Venice lagoon (Italy). This is a new and important insight considering that nowadays West Europe is not the natural area of Fagus orientalis complex, and up to now nobody has hypothesized the presence during the Last Interglacial period of F. orientalis complex in Italy.

  1. The TL dating of ancient porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.L.; Stokes, M.J.; Wang Weida; Xia Junding; Zhou Zhixin

    1997-01-01

    The age determination of ancient porcelain using the pre-dose technique in TL dating was reported. The variation of beta dose with depth below the surface of the porcelain slice, the thermal activation characteristic (TAC) for 110 degree C peak, the measurement of paleodose and the estimation of annual dose were studied. The results show that this technique is suitable for authenticity testing of ancient porcelain, but both accuracy and precision for porcelain dating are worse than those for pottery, because porcelain differs from pottery on composition, structure and firing temperature. Besides, some complicated factors in the pre-dose technique would be the possible cause of the greater errors

  2. TREATMENT OF FRACTURES IN ANCIENT EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. K. Bashurov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most complete information about the medicine in Ancient Egypt two papyrus provided: a large medical papyrus of G. Ebers and papyrus about the surgery of E. Smith. Smith’s papyrus is of particular interest as it contains the information on the status of surgery in Ancient Egypt. Papyrus consists of descriptions of the clinical cases. To the present time, 48 cases have survived; it is arranged in order of location - from the head down to the feet. Orthopedic deformities were reflected in the figures on the walls of the pyramids and temples as well as the description of the mummies and archaeological finds.

  3. Molecular Characterization of Swine Manure Lagoon Microbial and Antibiotic Resistant Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The differences in swine manure lagoon effluent based on differing management styles or approaches such as different stages of swine rearing determines the presence of variable antibiotic resistance determinants and functional microbial populations. These concerns determine the suitabil...

  4. Mysidacea (Crustacea) from the Minicoy lagoon (Lakshadweep, India) with description of a new species of Anisomysis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Biju, A.; Panampunnayil, S.U.; Prabhakaran, M.P.

    Four species of mysids collected from the Minicoy lagoon are reported. Anisomysis minicoyensis sp. nov. is distinguished from the related species by the shape of the rostrum, the relative length of the antennal scale and the short protuberances...

  5. Precise determination of the concentration of radiocesium in the water of Mururoa lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourlat, Y.; Martin, G.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine with maximal precision the concentration of 137 Cs in the water of Mururoa lagoon and to verify if traces of 134 Cs as reported by the Fondation Cousteau in June 1987, were present in the lagoon. Eighteen 1000-litre samples of water were collected from stations within the lagoon during June and July of 1990. Low-level gamma-ray spectrometry was used to determine cesium radionuclides. The concentration of 137 Cs ranged between 2.6 and 3.0 Bq/m 3 (mean 2.79 Bq/m 3 ), which is in good agreement with the annual measurements made by the Service Mixte de Securite Radiologique (SMSR) during systematic monitoring of the lagoon water. No trace of 134 Cs was detected. (author)

  6. Organic carbon isotope ratios of recent sediments from coastal lagoons of the Gulf of Mexico, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botello, A.V.; Mandelli, E.F.; Macko, S.; Parker, P.L.

    1980-01-01

    The stable carbon isotope composition of sedimentary organic carbon was determined in the sediments of seven coastal lagoons of the Gulf of Mexico, Mexico. For most of the lagoons the delta 13 C values for sediments ranged from -20.1 to -23.9 parts per thousand. Anomalously low values, -26.8 to 29.3 parts per thousand were determined in sediments of two of the studied lagoons, probably due to the presence of organic carbon from anthropogenic sources, naturally absent in these environments. The delta 13 C values determined in the tissues of oysters collected at the same time in the different lagoons were very similar to those recorded in the sediments. (author)

  7. Primary productivity of marine macrophytes in the coral reef lagoon of the Kadmat Island, Lakshadweep

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Shaikh, N.

    n situ primary productivity measurements were carried out with different macrophyte species (belonging to four groups) dominating the benthic communities in the coral reef lagoon of the Kadmat Island of the Lakshadweep Archipelago...

  8. The tidal hydrodynamics modeling of the Topolobampo coastal lagoon system and the implications for pollutant dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montano-Ley, Y.; Peraza-Vizcarra, R.; Paez-Osuna, F.

    2007-01-01

    The tidal hydrodynamics of the Topolobampo coastal lagoon system (Mexico) has been investigated through a modified two dimensional non-linear hydrodynamic finite difference model. The advective and diffusive process acting over a hypothetical pollutant released into the coastal lagoon have also been simulated. Maxima tidal currents (0.85 m/s) were predicted within the main channel, in agree with direct measurements. The direction of the observed fastest currents (SW), also agree quite well with the direction of the strongest tidal current predicted in this investigation, which occur during the ebb when the water of the coastal lagoon is discharged into the Gulf of California. Residual currents (0.01-0.05 m/s) were also predicted. The hypothetical pollutant released within the Topolobampo Harbor would spread to both Ohuira and Topolobampo sections, reaching the inlet after approximately 12 days. - A model has been developed to simulate the tidal hydrodynamics and the behavior of a pollutant in the Topolobampo lagoon

  9. Grain size analysis of beach sediment along the barrier bar lagoon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grain size analysis of beach sediment along the barrier bar lagoon coastal system, Lagos, Nigeria; its implication on coastal erosion. R Abdulkarim, EA Akinnigbagbe, DO Imo, MT Imhansoloeva, VO Aniebone, MP Ibitola, BR Faleye, O Shonde, YJ Appia ...

  10. Problems and Alternatives of Settlement Lagoons for Mine Water Treatment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Kil

    2015-04-01

    A field test and computational flow analysis were conducted to identify the structural problems with existing settlement lagoons and to propose effective alternatives. When it comes to existing settlement lagoons without any specifically designed internal structure, mine water flows along a specific route while other regions remained stagnant. Such a flow pattern along a specific region causes a significant reduction in retention time as well as the ineffective use of the space in a settlement lagoon. When applying the modified settlement lagoon design proposed in this study, the flow distribution of mine drainage became uniform and the time taken for mine drainage to reach the outlet was improved by as much as 360 times and the exchange efficiency was significantly enhanced from 14.5% to 82.7%.

  11. Dynamics of pollution-indicator and heterotrophic bacteria in sewage treatment lagoons.

    OpenAIRE

    Legendre, P; Baleux, B; Troussellier, M

    1984-01-01

    The spatio-temporal dynamics of pollution-indicator bacteria and aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were studied in the sewage treatment lagoons of an urban wastewater center after 26 months of biweekly sampling at eight stations in these lagoons. Robust statistical methods of time-series analysis were used to study successional steps (through chronological clustering) and rhythmic behavior through time (through contingency periodogram). The aerobic heterotrophic bacterial community showed two ty...

  12. Bank filtration drinking water treatment in a costal lagoon in south Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Romero-Esquivel, Luis Guillermo; Segalla-Pizzolatti, Bruno; Luiz-Sens, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Bank filtration (BF) consists in obtaining drinking water from wells in alluvial aquifers or other unconsolidated deposits hydraulically connected with a surface water source. The possibility of applying this technique was evaluated in a pilot scale on the banks of the Lagoa do Peri lagoon, Brazil. Observation and grain size analysis showed that the bottom of the lagoon and the adjacent aquifer have sandy texture. In addition, tests of constant head permeameter, standpipe falling head and a p...

  13. Environmental conditions and biotic communities in Foz de Almargem and Salgados coastal lagoons, Algarve (South Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Susana Isabel Eusébio

    2013-01-01

    The present study intended to compare environmental conditions and biotic communities of two choked coastal lagoons located in the Algarve region, Foz de Almargem and Salgados, with the purpose of evaluating the effects of organic pollution from wastewater discharges in water quality and biotic communities from different levels of the food chain, namely phytoplankton and benthic macroinvertebrates. Both lagoons were seasonally connected to the sea, but most of the year they were isolated r...

  14. Feeding ecology of juvenile marine fish in a shallow coastal lagoon of southeastern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Arceo-Carranza; Xavier Chiappa-Carrara

    2015-01-01

    Many species of marine fish use coastal lagoons during early stages of their life cycles due to the protection provided by their turbid waters and complex structure of the environment, such as mangroves and mudflats, and the availability of food derived from the high productivity of these sites. In this study, we analyzed the diet of six species of juvenile marine fishes that use a karstic lagoon system in the northwest portion of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Through stomach contents analys...

  15. Methanogenesis in an impacted and two dystrophic coastal lagoons (Macaé, Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Furtado, André Luiz dos Santos; Casper, Peter; Esteves, Francisco de Assis

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the methanogenic activity in sediment of the Imboacica (human impacted), Cabiúnas and Comprida coastal lagoons in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil). Methane was not detected in water and sediment samples from the three lagoons. The measured nutrient concentrations in the pore-water indicated that methanogens activity was not limited by nutrients. Methanogenic activity was not detected under in vitro conditions, indicating that terminal organic carbon mineralisation via met...

  16. Natural revegetation of coal fly ash in a highly saline disposal lagoon in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, L.M. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Biology

    2008-08-15

    Question: What is the relationship of the naturally colonizing vegetation and substrate characteristics in fly ash lagoons? Location: West lagoon, Deep Bay, a 13-ha coastal lagoon in Hong Kong in subtropical Southeast Asia. Methods: Vegetation establishment was examined in a coal fly ash lagoon two years after its abandonment to investigate the distribution of vegetation in relationship to the chemical properties of the fly ash in the lagoon. A greenhouse experiment assessed the limits imposed on plant growth in fly ash. Results: The fly ash was saline, slightly alkaline and very poor in organic matter and nitrogen. Ash from bare and vegetated areas differed significantly in their salinity and extractable concentrations of inorganic nitrogen and various metals. Bare ash had a significantly higher conductivity and extractable sodium, aluminum, manganese, potassium. and lead. In total 11 plant species that belonged to seven families were found growing on the fly ash: all species except the shrub Tamarix chinensis were herbaceous. Using discriminant analysis, the most important factors in distinguishing bare and vegetated ashes were conductivity and sodium. Cluster analysis of bare samples gave two distinct groups, one from the periphery of the lagoon, which had lower sodium, conductivity, organic carbon, potassium and copper, and the other from a second group that contained ashes from the central region of the lagoon. Results of the greenhouse experiment showed that the inhibition of plant growth was significantly correlated with the presence of soluble toxic elements in ash. Conclusion: Toxicity and salinity seem to be the major limiting factors to plant establishment in fly ash, and these factors must be ameliorated for the successful reclamation of these fly ash lagoons.

  17. The Dynamics of Mercury Speciation and Transport at a Central California Coastal Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, P. M.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Dimova, N. T.; Merckling, J.; Kehrlein, N. C.; Hohn, R. A.; Richardson, C. M.; Johnson, C. D.; Fisher, A. T.; Lamborg, C. H.; Flegal, A. R., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated spatial and temporal trends in total mercury and monomethylmercury (MMHg) in groundwater, lagoon water, and nearshore seawater to assess the drivers of MMHg production in a coastal lagoon system. Many West Coast streams transition from estuarine to lagoon conditions in the dry season when a sand berm develops at the stream mouth, restricting surface water exchange with the ocean. Because lagoons accumulate nutrients from their upstream watershed they are susceptible to eutrophication, which can promote the growth of anaerobic bacteria. In nearshore settings, these bacteria are primarily responsible for producing MMHg, a bioaccumulative neurotoxin. We found that MMHg concentrations in lagoon water (1 - 5 pM) were higher than in groundwater (0.2 - 1 pM) and coastal seawater (0.1 - 0.6 pM). Groundwater depth profiles combined with subsurface resistivity images suggest MMHg in lagoon water was transported through the sand berm to adjacent seawater. MMHg in seawater and groundwater followed similar trends, providing additional evidence of groundwater-surface water interaction. MMHg in groundwater directly below the lagoon was consistently higher where dissolved oxygen and NO3- decreased, implying MMHg production by anaerobic bacteria. Over a ~7-hour period we observed a 0.6 pM decrease in groundwater MMHg (1 to 0.4 pM) that coincided with a decrease in water temperature (16.5 to 13 °C). We hypothesize that microbial activity, and consequently MMHg production, were enhanced in warmer water. Because coastal lagoons support intricate food webs and serve as nurseries for a variety of organisms, processes that influence mercury speciation and transport in these ecosystems may have a disproportionate impact on nearshore mercury biogeochemical cycling.

  18. Assessment of the trophic state of a hypersaline-carbonatic environment: Vermelha Lagoon (Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaro Laut

    Full Text Available Vermelha Lagoon is a hypersaline shallow transitional ecosystem in the state of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil. This lagoon is located in the protected area of Massambaba, between the cities of Araruama and Saquarema (Brazil, and displays two quite uncommon particularities: it exhibits carbonate sedimentation and displays the development of Holocene stromatolites. Due to both particularities, the salt industry and property speculation have been, increasingly, generating anthropic pressures on this ecosystem. This study aims to apply a multiproxy approach to evaluate the trophic state of Vermelha Lagoon based on physicochemical parameters and geochemical data for the quantification and qualification of organic matter (OM, namely total organic carbon (TOC, total sulfur (TS, total phosphorus (TP and biopolymeric carbon (BPC, including carbohydrates (CHO, lipids (LIP and proteins (PTN. The CHO/TOC ratio values suggest that OM supplied to the sediment is of autochthonous origin and results, essentially, from microbial activity. The cluster analyses allowed the identification of four regions in Vermelha Lagoon. The Region I included stations located in shallow areas of the eastern sector of Vermelha lagoon affected by the impact of the artificial channel of connection with Araruama Lagoon. The Region II, under the influence of salt pans, is characterized by the highest values of BPC, namely CHO promoted by microbiological activity. The Region III include stations spread through the lagoon with high values of dissolved oxygen and lower values of TP. Stromatolites and microbial mattes growth was observed in some stations of this sector. Region IV, where the highest values of TOC and TS were found, represents depocenters of organic matter, located in general in depressed areas. Results of this work evidences that the Vermelha Lagoon is an eutrophic but alkaline and well oxygenated environment (at both water column and surface sediment where the autotrophic

  19. Calibration of Linked Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Model for Santa Margarita Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    was used to drive the transport and water quality kinetics for the simulation of 2007–2009. The sand berm, which controlled the opening/closure of...TECHNICAL REPORT 3015 July 2016 Calibration of Linked Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Model for Santa Margarita Lagoon Final Report Pei...Linked Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Model for Santa Margarita Lagoon Final Report Pei-Fang Wang Chuck Katz Ripan Barua SSC Pacific James

  20. The environmental impacts of land transformation in the coastal perimeter of the Mar Menor lagoon (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    GARCÍA-AYLLON VEINTIMILLA, SALVADOR; Miralles García, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Assigned to WIT Press all rights under copyright that may exist in and to the Work and any associated written or multimedia components or other enhancements accompanying the Work. The distinctive environment of the lagoon has long been attractive for visitors. A surge in touristic activities has taken place in the area since the early 1960s, characterised by intense urban development along the lagoon s perimeter to accommodate the growing seasonal population. This phenomenon has particular...

  1. Lagoon-sea exchanges, nutrient dynamics and water quality management of the Ria Formosa (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Alice; Mudge, Stephen M.

    2005-02-01

    Historical data from the Ria Formosa lagoon are classified according to the EEA 2001 guidelines to provide a frame of reference to evaluate the effect of management during the implementation of the environmental legislative Directives. Water samples from the Ria Formosa lagoon were significantly enriched in nitrogen (NH 4+ NO 2- and NO 3-) with respect to the adjacent coastal waters indicating that inputs from sewage, agricultural runoff and benthic fluxes were not fully assimilated within the lagoon. Tidal flushing was insufficient in the inner areas of the lagoon to remove or effectively dilute these inputs. Enrichment was most severe close to the urban centres of Faro and Olhão, as well as in the Gilão Estuary and the shallow extremities. Dissolved oxygen undersaturation (mean 75% during daylight hours) was associated with the area close to the sewage outlets of Faro. In the shallow west end of the lagoon during summer, dissolved oxygen supersaturation reached 140% during the day but fell to 50% at night. Classification using the EEA (2001) guidelines suggests the system is "poor" or "bad" with respect to phosphate concentrations for the majority of the year and "poor" in nitrogen contamination during the autumn rainy period. Due to the high overall nitrogen load in the lagoon, there is a net export to the coastal waters, especially during November and December, and phosphate only becomes limiting briefly during the spring bloom (April). Therefore, substantial phytoplankton populations may be supported year-round in the lagoon. The consequences of water quality deterioration in the Ria Formosa would negatively affect the lagoon as a regional resource, important for its ecological, economic and recreational value. The industries most affected would be tourism, fisheries and aquaculture. Management options include Urban Waste Water Treatment, dredging, artificial inlets, limits on urban development and changes in agricultural practices.

  2. Effects of sandbar openings on the zooplankton community of coastal lagoons with different conservation status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayanne Barros Setubal

    Full Text Available AIM: Artificial sandbar openings are a common management practice in coastal lagoons but they can be a threat when negative effects to the quality of water and to the aquatic biota are observed. The current study compared sandbar opening effects in two coastal lagoons located close to each other, but differing on trophic status and on sandbar openings' background. METHODS:Limnological variables and zooplankton community were recorded monthly during one year before and one year after sandbar openings that occurred in the same month for both lagoons, giving 24 samples. We compared the effects of sandbar opening on response variables, according to the two types of system. RESULTS: The sandbar openings determined changes in some limnological features - depth and salinity - but such effects were different in the two types of system. The zooplankton structure displayed dramatic changes in the eutrophic and commonly opened lagoon. The occurrence and abundance of some species were closely related to changes in limnological variables. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicated that zooplankton communities are more resistant to sandbar openings in coastal lagoons historically less disturbed. The direction and magnitude of changes promoted by sandbar openings might be specific to each lagoon, due to different backgrounds of disturbances that, in the long term, modify the water quality and the structure of zooplankton communities, and consequently, their resistance and resilience.

  3. Nutrient budgets and trophic state in a hypersaline coastal lagoon: Lagoa de Araruama, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcelo F. L.; Kjerfve, Björn; Knoppers, Bastiaan; Landim de Souza, Weber F.; Damasceno, Raimundo N.

    2003-08-01

    Lagoa de Araruama in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is a hypersaline lagoon with salinity varying spatially from 45 to 56. We collected water samples during monthly cruises throughout the lagoon, and along the streams feeding the system, from April 1991 to March 1992. Nutrients and other water quality parameters exhibited great spatial and temporal variations. Mass balance calculations indicate large amounts of anthropogenic nutrient inputs. The data indicate that the lagoon currently is oligotrophic but is in a state of transition to become a mesotrophic system. Molar dissolved inorganic nitrogen:dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIN/DIP) varied between 2.2:1 and 659:1 with a volume-weighted average of 22:1. The high DIN/DIP ratio contrasts with that found in nearby lagoons, suggesting that phytoplankton primary production is limited by phosphorus in Lagoa de Araruama. The major loss of DIP is apparently driven by biological assimilation and diagenic reactions in the sediments. Calculations indicate that the lagoon is slightly net autotrophic at +0.9 mol C m -2 yr -1. This suggests that the biomass of the primary producers is restricted by phosphorus availability. Phosphorus retention in the sediment and the hypersaline state of the lagoon prevent changes in autotrophic communities and the formation of eutrophic conditions.

  4. Mitochondrial and nuclear genetic variation across calving lagoons in Eastern North Pacific gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, S Elizabeth; Ramirez, Sergio Flores; Nigenda, Sergio; Ramirez, Jorge Urbán; Bracho, Lorenzo Rojas; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of population structure in cetaceans is critical for preserving and managing breeding habitat, particularly when habitat is not uniformly protected. Most eastern gray whales return to their major breeding range each winter along the Pacific coast of Baja California, Mexico, concentrating in 3 major calving lagoons, but it is unknown whether genetic differences exist between lagoons. Previous photo-identification studies and genetic studies suggest that gray whales may return to their natal lagoons to breed, potentially resulting in the buildup of genetic differences. However, an earlier genetic study used only one genetic marker and did not include samples from Bahia Magdalena, a major calving lagoon not currently designated as a wildlife refuge. To expand on this previous study, we collected genetic data from the mitochondrial control region (442 bp) and 9 microsatellite markers from 112 individuals across all 3 major calving lagoons. Our data suggest that migration rates between calving lagoons are high but that a small but significant departure from panmixia exists between Bahia Magdalena and Laguna San Ignacio (Fisher's Exact test, P 10% per generation). In addition, microsatellite data showed evidence of a severe population bottleneck. Eastern gray whales are still recovering from the impacts of whaling on their breeding grounds, and these populations should be protected and monitored for future genetic changes.

  5. Spatial and temporal distribution of fish larvae in marginal lagoons of Pantanal, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Keyla Tondato

    Full Text Available An analysis was made of the spatial and temporal distribution of the abundance and composition of fish larvae assemblies, aiming to ascertain correlations with biotic and abiotic factors in marginal lagoons of the Cuiabá River floodplain in Brazil's Pantanal wetlands. Samples were collected bimonthly in the pelagic region of the marginal lagoons (fourteen lagoons close to the littoral zone covered by aquatic macrophytes from December 2006 to April 2007. The captured individuals consisted of 2,739 larvae, represented predominantly by Triportheus spp. (Characidae, Parodontidae, Anostomidae, Characidae and Serrasalmidae. Larval density varied among the sample lagoons in December, but the biotic (zooplankton density and abiotic (water temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, water transparency and lagoon depth factors did not significantly affect larval composition and abundance. Larvae were captured throughout the sample period, with the highest densities occurring in December and early January. Temporally, lagoon depth, water transparency and fluviometric level showed a negative correlation with larval density. Both the zooplankton and the larval density vary positively, responding likewise to the environmental conditions imposed by flooding. The highest larval density was also found to coincide with the first rains (early December, when the rainfall has not yet reached its peak.

  6. Inhibition of microbial metabolism in anaerobic lagoons by selected sulfonamides, tetracyclines, lincomycin, and tylosin tartrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Keith A.; Henny, Cynthia; Adams, Craig D.; Surampali, Rao; Mormile, Melanie R.

    2005-01-01

    Antibiotics are used to maintain healthy livestock and to promote weight gain in concentrated animal feed operations. Antibiotics rarely are metabolized completely by livestock and, thus, are often present in livestock waste and in waste-treatment lagoons. The introduction of antibiotics into anaerobic lagoons commonly used for swine waste treatment has the potential for negative impacts on lagoon performance, which relies on a consortium of microbes ranging from fermentative microorganisms to methanogens. To address this concern, the effects of eight common veterinary antibiotics on anaerobic activity were studied. Anaerobic microcosms, prepared from freshly collected lagoon slurries, were amended with individual antibiotics at 10 mg/L for the initial screening study and at 1, 5, and 25 mg/L for the dose-response study. Monitored metabolic indicators included hydrogen, methane, and volatile fatty acid concentrations as well as chemical oxygen demand. The selected antibiotics significantly inhibited methane production relative to unamended controls, thus indicating that antibiotics at concentrations commonly found in swine lagoons can negatively impact anaerobic metabolism. Additionally, historical antibiotic usage seems to be a potential factor in affecting methane production. Specifically, less inhibition of methane production was noted in samples taken from the lagoon with a history of multiple-antibiotic use.

  7. Inhibition of microbial metabolism in anaerobic lagoons by selected sulfonamides, tetracyclines, lincomycin, and tylosin tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Keith A; Henny, Cynthia; Adams, Craig D; Surampali, Rao; Mormile, Melanie R

    2005-04-01

    Antibiotics are used to maintain healthy livestock and to promote weight gain in concentrated animal feed operations. Antibiotics rarely are metabolized completely by livestock and, thus, are often present in livestock waste and in waste-treatment lagoons. The introduction of antibiotics into anaerobic lagoons commonly used for swine waste treatment has the potential for negative impacts on lagoon performance, which relies on a consortium of microbes ranging from fermentative microorganisms to methanogens. To address this concern, the effects of eight common veterinary antibiotics on anaerobic activity were studied. Anaerobic microcosms, prepared from freshly collected lagoon slurries, were amended with individual antibiotics at 10 mg/L for the initial screening study and at 1, 5, and 25 mg/L for the dose-response study. Monitored metabolic indicators included hydrogen, methane, and volatile fatty acid concentrations as well as chemical oxygen demand. The selected antibiotics significantly inhibited methane production relative to unamended controls, thus indicating that antibiotics at concentrations commonly found in swine lagoons can negatively impact anaerobic metabolism. Additionally, historical antibiotic usage seems to be a potential factor in affecting methane production. Specifically, less inhibition of methane production was noted in samples taken from the lagoon with a history of multiple-antibiotic use.

  8. Moessbauer studies on ancient Jizhon plain Temmoku porcelains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhengfang; Zheng Yufang; Lin Yongqiang

    1994-01-01

    Three kinds of ancient Jizhou plain Temmoku wares and their several ware-making raw materials were studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The firing technique of ancient Jizhou Temmoku porcelains is discussed. (orig.)

  9. An update on the fish composition (Teleostei of the coastal lagoons of the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park and the Imboassica Lagoon, northern Rio de Janeiro State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Di Dario

    Full Text Available AIM: We present an update on the composition of the fish species of the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park and the Imboassica Lagoon, in the northern portion of Rio de Janeiro State, based on collecting efforts of almost two decades, historical museum records, and a review of the literature. METHODS: Specimens were collected using a variety of techniques, mostly between 1994 and 2012, and were fixed with the use of a 10% solution of formalin and subsequently stored in 70% alcohol solution. All specimens examined are deposited in the fish collections of the Núcleo em Ecologia e Desenvolvimento Socioambiental de Macaé, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (NPM, and Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ. Continental (freshwater fishes and some marine or estuarine species frequently collected were regarded as Resident, whereas marine species collected only sporadically were regarded as Occasional. Possible associations between the orientation of the lagoons and the composition of Resident fishes were explored through a Correspondence Analysis (CA. RESULTS: A total of 100 species, belonging to 19 orders and 41 families of the Teleostei were recorded. When both Resident and Occasional species are considered, families Carangidae and Engraulidae, with nine and eight species respectively, are the most representative. When only Resident species are considered, the Gerreidae and Gobiidae, both with seven species, are the most representative families. The Imboassica Lagoon, with 76 species, has the highest species richness among lagoons included in this study. A total of 81 species were recorded in the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, a number two times higher than reported on previous studies. An identification key, including 57 Resident species, is also presented. CONCLUSIONS: Parallel lagoons were characterized by a small group of continental species presumably of marine ancestry (Secondary Division, while marine species

  10. Outreach Testing of Ancient Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartin, J. R. S.; Blanco, M. B. M.

    2015-10-01

    fundamental quantity being given by half the difference between solar distances to vertical at winter and summer solstices, with value about 23.5°. Day and year periods greatly differing by about 2 ½ orders of magnitude, 1 day against 365 days, helps students to correctly visualize and interpret the experimental measurements. Since the gnomon serves to observe at night the moon shadow too, students can also determine the inclination of the lunar orbital plane, as about 5 degrees away from the ecliptic, thus explaining why eclipses are infrequent. Independently, earth taking longer between spring and fall equinoxes than from fall to spring (the solar anomaly), as again verified by the students, was explained in ancient Greek science, which posited orbits universally as circles or their combination, by introducing the eccentric circle, with earth placed some distance away from the orbital centre when considering the relative motion of the sun, which would be closer to the earth in winter. In a sense, this can be seen as hint and approximation of the elliptic orbit proposed by Kepler many centuries later. EPSC Abstracts Vol. 10, EPSC2015-40, 2015 European Planetary Science Congress 2015 c Author(s) 2015 EPSC European Planetary Science Congress Secondly, by observing lunar phases and eclipses from the ground, students could also determine, following Aristarchus of Samos in the 3rd century BC, 4 length ratios involving moon and sun distances to earth, and radii of all three, moon, sun, and earth. The angular width of the moon could be first determined with simplest optical devices as about half a degree; this yields the ratio between moon diameter 2RM and distance DM to earth. Next, eclipses of sun prove its angular width, and thus ratio 2RS/DS, similar to the lunar one, though the relatively high lunar orbital eccentricity, 0.055, does result in not quite a full eclipse if at lunar apogee. Further, at a half-moon phase, when the angle sun-moon-earth is a right one, the angle

  11. Ancient Pyramids Help Students Learn Math Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Courtney D.; Stump, Amanda M.; Lazaros, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an activity that allows students to use mathematics and critical-thinking skills to emulate processes used by the ancient Egyptians to prepare the site for the Pyramids of Giza. To accomplish this, they use three different methods. First, they create a square using only simple technological tools that were available to the…

  12. Modelling human agency in ancient irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ertsen, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Human activity is key in understanding ancient irrigation systems. Results of short term actions build up over time, affecting civilizations on larger temporal and spatial scales. Irrigation systems, with their many entities, social and physical, their many interactions within a changing environment

  13. Analysis of ancient pigments by Raman microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Jian; Xu Cunyi

    1999-01-01

    Raman microscopy can be applied for the spatial resolution, and non-destructive in situ analysis of inorganic pigments in pottery, manuscripts and paintings. Compared with other techniques, it is the best single technique for this purpose. An overview is presented of the applications of Raman microscopy in the analysis of ancient pigments

  14. The Roots of Science in Ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Arthur

    1982-01-01

    A 45-year-old research project (culminating in the multivolume "Science and Civilization in China") is examining major scientific innovations in ancient China and attempting to explain why, although the Chinese gained a technological edge in the past, they did not make the forward leap into modern science. (JN)

  15. Ancient DNA analysis of dental calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyrich, Laura S; Dobney, Keith; Cooper, Alan

    2015-02-01

    Dental calculus (calcified tartar or plaque) is today widespread on modern human teeth around the world. A combination of soft starchy foods, changing acidity of the oral environment, genetic pre-disposition, and the absence of dental hygiene all lead to the build-up of microorganisms and food debris on the tooth crown, which eventually calcifies through a complex process of mineralisation. Millions of oral microbes are trapped and preserved within this mineralised matrix, including pathogens associated with the oral cavity and airways, masticated food debris, and other types of extraneous particles that enter the mouth. As a result, archaeologists and anthropologists are increasingly using ancient human dental calculus to explore broad aspects of past human diet and health. Most recently, high-throughput DNA sequencing of ancient dental calculus has provided valuable insights into the evolution of the oral microbiome and shed new light on the impacts of some of the major biocultural transitions on human health throughout history and prehistory. Here, we provide a brief historical overview of archaeological dental calculus research, and discuss the current approaches to ancient DNA sampling and sequencing. Novel applications of ancient DNA from dental calculus are discussed, highlighting the considerable scope of this new research field for evolutionary biology and modern medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cosmic rays and ancient planetary magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesson, P.S.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility is discussed of using the latitude-dependent cutoff in the intensity and flux of cosmic ray particles reaching the surface of a planet to investigate ancient magnetic fields in the Moon, Mars and the Earth. In the last case, the method could provide a validity test for conventional palaeomagnetism. (Auth.)

  17. Unlocking the Mysteries of Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, Maggie

    1995-01-01

    Describes the work of Egyptologist William Murnane who is recording the ritual scenes and inscriptions of a great columned hall from the days of the pharaohs. The 134 columns, covered with divine imagery and hieroglyphic inscriptions represent an unpublished religious text. Briefly discusses ancient Egyptian culture. Includes several photographs…

  18. Truth Obviousness in Ancient Greek Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halyna I. Budz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the features of the axiomatic approach to the truth understanding in ancient Greek philosophy. Truth in the works by ancient philosophers has axiomatic essence, basing on divine origin of truth. As the truth has a divine origin, it is in reality. The reality, created by Gods is the solemn reality. Therefore, understanding of reality by man is the display of divine reality, which is true and clever. In of the context of ancient Greek philosophy, to know truth is to know something, existing in reality, in other words, something, truly existing, eternal reality. Consequently, to know truth is it to know the substantial reality base. That’s why the justification of the reality origin is the axiomatic doctrine of truth at the same time, because only fundamental principle “truly” exists and is the truth itself. The idea of fundamental principle in ancient Greek philosophy is the axiom, universal principle, which is the base of reality as a substance from ontological perspective and is realized as the truth from gnosiological perspective. Fundamental principle, as Greeks understand it, coincides with the truth, in other words, reality and thinking are identical. The idea of reality source is the universal criterion of world perception at the same time, in other words, it is the truth, which is perceived axiomatically.

  19. Defining Astrology in Ancient and Classical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2015-05-01

    Astrology in the ancient and classical worlds can be partly defined by its role, and partly by the way in which scholars spoke about it. The problem is complicated by the fact that the word is Greek - it has no Babylonian or Egyptian cognates - and even in Greece it was interchangeable with its cousin, 'astronomy'. Yet if we are to understand the role of the sky, stars and planets in culture, debates about the nature of ancient astrology, by both classical and modern scholars, must be taken into account. This talk will consider modern scholars' typologies of ancient astrology, together with ancient debates from Cicero in the 1st century BC, to Plotinus (204/5-270 AD) and Isidore of Seville (c. 560 - 4 April 636). It will consider the implications for our understanding of astronomy's role in culture, and conclude that in the classical period astrology may be best understood through its diversity and allegiance to competing philosophies, and that its functions were therefore similarly varied.

  20. An ancient greek pain remedy for athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Else M.; Swaddling, Judith; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2006-01-01

    and swellings, which was reserved for use by the winners of Olympic events, the so-called "Fuscum Olympionico inscriptum"-(ointment) entitled "dark Olympic victor's". In a time when the Olympic games have recently returned to their homeland, we examine the potential efficacy of this ancient remedy in terms...

  1. The Cost of Living in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Morales Harley

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the most relevant economic aspects of Ancient Greece, more specifically, 5th century BC Athens. It explores the Greek notion of economy, the monetary system, the financial administration and the labor market, in order to contextualize the cost of living. The examples on this matter take into account the products’ costs and the people’s wages.

  2. On Ancient Babylonian Algebra and Geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 8. On Ancient Babylonian Algebra and Geometry. Rahul Roy. General Article Volume 8 Issue 8 August 2003 pp 27-42. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/08/0027-0042. Keywords.

  3. The Challenges of Qualitatively Coding Ancient Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingerland, Edward; Chudek, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    We respond to several important and valid concerns about our study ("The Prevalence of Folk Dualism in Early China," "Cognitive Science" 35: 997-1007) by Klein and Klein, defending our interpretation of our data. We also argue that, despite the undeniable challenges involved in qualitatively coding texts from ancient cultures,…

  4. Ancient Human Parasites in Ethnic Chinese Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hui-Yuan; Mitchell, Piers D

    2016-10-01

    Whilst archaeological evidence for many aspects of life in ancient China is well studied, there has been much less interest in ancient infectious diseases, such as intestinal parasites in past Chinese populations. Here, we bring together evidence from mummies, ancient latrines, and pelvic soil from burials, dating from the Neolithic Period to the Qing Dynasty, in order to better understand the health of the past inhabitants of China and the diseases endemic in the region. Seven species of intestinal parasite have been identified, namely roundworm, whipworm, Chinese liver fluke, oriental schistosome, pinworm, Taenia sp. tapeworm, and the intestinal fluke Fasciolopsis buski . It was found that in the past, roundworm, whipworm, and Chinese liver fluke appear to have been much more common than the other species. While roundworm and whipworm remained common into the late 20th century, Chinese liver fluke seems to have undergone a marked decline in its prevalence over time. The iconic transport route known as the Silk Road has been shown to have acted as a vector for the transmission of ancient diseases, highlighted by the discovery of Chinese liver fluke in a 2,000 year-old relay station in northwest China, 1,500 km outside its endemic range.

  5. Ancient Egyptian Medicine: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Adu-Gyamfi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our present day knowledge in the area of medicine in Ancient Egypt has been severally sourced from medical papyri several of which have been deduced and analyzed by different scholars. For educational purposes it is always imperative to consult different literature or sources in the teaching of ancient Egypt and medicine in particular. To avoid subjectivity the author has found the need to re-engage the efforts made by several scholars in adducing evidences from medical papyri. In the quest to re-engage the efforts of earlier writers and commentaries on the medical papyri, we are afforded the opportunity to be informed about the need to ask further questions to enable us to construct or reconstruct both past and modern views on ancient Egyptian medical knowledge. It is this vocation the author sought to pursue in the interim, through a preliminary review, to highlight, comment and reinvigorate in the reader or researcher the need for a continuous engagement of some pertinent documentary sources on Ancient Egyptian medical knowledge for educational and research purposes. The study is based on qualitative review of published literature. The selection of those articles as sources was based on the focus of the review, in order to purposively select and comment on articles that were published based either on information from a medical papyrus or focused on medical specialization among the ancient Egyptians as well as ancient Egyptian knowledge on diseases and medicine. It was found that the Egyptians developed relatively sophisticated medical practices covering significant medical fields such as herbal medicine, gynecology and obstetrics, anatomy and physiology, mummification and even the preliminary form of surgery. These practices, perhaps, were developed as remedies for the prevailing diseases and the accidents that might have occurred during the construction of their giant pyramids. It must be stated that they were not without flaws. Also, the

  6. Ancient Egypt in our Cultural Heritage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Vasiljević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Inspiration derived from ancient Egypt is usually expressed through the Egyptian motifs in arts and popular culture of the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as through the non-scientific interpretations of the culture, very much based upon the Renaissance ones. The number and variety of material and non-material traces of this fascination are most expressed in the countries where, along with the early support for the institutional development of Egyptology, there existed economically potent educated middle classes (Western and Central Europe, USA, but may also be traced elsewhere. The public fascination by ancient Egypt has not ceased by the times of foundation of Egyptology, marked by the decipherment of the hieroglyphic script in 1822. Until the end of the 20th century Egyptologists have rarely dealt with the prelude to their discipline, limiting their interest to the critical approach to ancient sources and to noting the attempts to interpret the hieroglyphic script and the function of pyramids. However, the rising importance of the reception studies in other disciplines raised the interest of Egyptologists for the "fascination of Egypt", thus changing the status of various modes of expressing "Egyptomania" – they have thus become a part of the cultural heritage, registered, documented, preserved and studied. The research of this kind is only beginning in Serbia. The line of inquiry enhances the knowledge of the scope, manifestations and roles of the interest in Egypt, not limited by the national or political borders. On the other hand, the existence of the cultural heritage similar to the wider European view of ancient Egypt – short remarks by Jerotej Račanin, Kandor by Atanasije Stojković, the usage of architectural motifs derived from Egypt, the emergence of small private collections, to mention several early examples – all show that the research into the reception of ancient Egypt may contribute to the knowledge about the history

  7. Deep sequencing of RNA from ancient maize kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fordyce, Sarah Louise; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen; Rasmussen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The characterization of biomolecules from ancient samples can shed otherwise unobtainable insights into the past. Despite the fundamental role of transcriptomal change in evolution, the potential of ancient RNA remains unexploited - perhaps due to dogma associated with the fragility of RNA. We hy...... maize kernels. The results suggest that ancient seed transcriptomics may offer a powerful new tool with which to study plant domestication....

  8. The Ancient Kemetic Roots of Library and Information Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Itibari M.

    This paper argues that the ancient people of Kemet (Egypt), "the black land," built and operated the first major libraries and institutions of higher education in the world. Topics of discussion include the Ancient Egyptians as an African people; a chronology of Ancient Kemet; literature in Kemet; a history of Egyptian Librarianship; the…

  9. Resistance and resilience of ecosystem descriptors and properties to dystrophic events: a study case in a Mediterranean lagoon

    OpenAIRE

    Basset, Alberto; Barbone, Enrico; Rosati, Ilaria; Vignes, Fabio; Breber, Paolo; Specchiulli, Antonietta; D'Adamo, Raffaele; Renzi, Monia; Focardi, Silvano; Ungaro, Nicola; Pinna, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Mediterranean lagoons are naturally exposed, during the dry season, to dystrophic and hypoxic events determining dis-equilibrium conditions along temporal and spatial scales, which are linked to metabolism and life cycle of the biotic components. In summer 2008, Lesina lagoon (SE Italian coastline) was interested by a geographically localized dystrophic crisis which affected up to 8% of the total lagoon surface. Temporal dynamics of principal descriptors of abiotic (water, sediment) and bioti...

  10. Assessing hog lagoon waste contamination in the Cape Fear Watershed using Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Ann M; Song, Bongkeun; Mallin, Michael A

    2015-09-01

    Hog lagoons can be major sources of waste and nutrient contamination to watersheds adjacent to pig farms. Fecal source tracking methods targeting Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes in pig fecal matter may underestimate or fail to detect hog lagoon contamination in riverine environments. In order to detect hog lagoon wastewater contamination in the Cape Fear Watershed, where a large number of hog farms are present, we conducted pyrosequencing analyses of Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes in hog lagoon waste and identified new hog lagoon-specific marker sequences. Additional pyrosequencing analyses of Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes were conducted with surface water samples collected at 4 sites during 5 months in the Cape Fear Watershed. Using an operational taxonomic unit (OTU) identity cutoff value of 97 %, these newly identified hog lagoon markers were found in 3 of the river samples, while only 1 sample contained the pig fecal marker. In the sample containing the pig fecal marker, there was a relatively high percentage (14.1 %) of the hog lagoon markers and a low pig fecal marker relative abundance of 0.4 % in the Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA gene sequences. This suggests that hog lagoon contamination must be somewhat significant in order for pig fecal markers to be detected, and low levels of hog lagoon contamination cannot be detected targeting only pig-specific fecal markers. Thus, new hog lagoon markers have a better detection capacity for lagoon waste contamination, and in conjunction with a pig fecal marker, provide a more comprehensive and accurate detection of hog lagoon waste contamination in susceptible watersheds.

  11. Three Dinophyceae from Clipperton Island lagoon (eastern Pacific Ocean), including a description of Peridiniopsis cristata var. tubulifera var. nov.

    OpenAIRE

    Coute, Alain; Perrette, Catherine; Chomerat, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Clipperton Island is a small French coral atoll in the eastern Pacific Ocean, which has been rarely investigated because of its remote location and difficult access. There is little scientific information on this ecosystem and only a few microalgae have been reported from the lagoon. To date, only one dinoflagellate taxon, Peridiniopsis cristata, is known to inhabit the lagoon. During an expedition in 2005 to study the lagoon and the surrounding oceanic waters of Clipperton Island, a further ...

  12. CISOCUR - Hydrodynamic circulation in the Curonian Lagoon inferred through stable isotope measurements and numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umgiesser, Georg; Razinkovas-Baziukas, Arturas; Barisevičiūtė, Ruta; Baziukė, Dalia; Ertürk, Ali; Gasiūnaitė, Jovita; Gulbinskas, Saulius; Lubienė, Irma; Maračkinaite, Jurgita; Petkuvienė, Jolita; Pilkaitytė, Renata; Ruginis, Tomas; Zemlys, Petras; Žilius, Mindaugas

    2013-04-01

    The spatial pattern of the hydrodynamic circulation of the Curonian lagoon, the largest European coastal lagoon, is still little understood. In absence of automatic current registration data all the existing models relied mostly on such data as water levels leaving high level of uncertainty. Here we present CISOCUR, a new project financed by the European Social Fund under the Global Grant measure. The project applies a new methodology that uses the carbon stable isotope (SI) ratio of C12 and C13 that characterize different water sources entering the lagoon and may be altered by internal kinetic processes. Through the tracing of these isotope ratios different water masses can be identified. This gives the possibility to validate several hypotheses of water circulation and validate hydrodynamic models. In particular it will be possible to 1) trace water masses entering the lagoon through the Nemunas and the Klaipeda strait; 2) test the hypothesis of sediment transport mechanisms inside the lagoon; 3) evaluate the importance of physical forcing on the lagoon circulation. The use of a hydrodynamic finite element model, coupled with the SI method, will allow for a realistic description of the transport processes inside the Curonian lagoon. So the main research goal is to apply the stable isotope tracers and a finite element model to determine the circulation patterns in the Curonian lagoon. Overall, the project will develop according to 4 main phases: 1) A pilot study to measure the isotope composition of different carbon compounds (dissolved and suspended) in different water bodies that feed water into the central lagoon. Through this pilot study the optimal study sites for the seasonal campaign will be identified as well. 2) Seasonal field campaigns in the monitoring stations identified in phase 1 to measure the carbon isotope ratio. 3) Development of a model that describes the kinetics of carbon isotopes and its transformation. 4) Application of a hydrodynamic model

  13. Groundwater dependence of coastal lagoons: The case of La Pletera salt marshes (NE Catalonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menció, A.; Casamitjana, X.; Mas-Pla, J.; Coll, N.; Compte, J.; Martinoy, M.; Pascual, J.; Quintana, X. D.

    2017-09-01

    Coastal wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems of the world, playing an important role in coastal defense and wildlife conservation. These ecosystems, however, are usually affected by human activities, which may cause a loss and degradation of their ecological status, a decline of their biodiversity, an alteration of their ecological functioning, and a limitation of their ecosystem services. La Pletera salt marshes (NE Spain) are located in a region mainly dominated by agriculture and tourism activities. Part of these wetlands and lagoons has been affected by an incomplete construction of an urban development and in this moment is the focus of a Life+ project, whose aim is to restore this protected area. Several studies have analyzed the role of hydrological regime in nutrients, phytoplankton and zooplankton in this area, however, the role of groundwater was never considered as a relevant factor in the lagoon dynamics, and its influence is still unknown. In this study, the hydrogeological dynamics in La Pletera salt marshes has been analyzed, as a basis to set sustainable management guidelines for this area. In order to determine their dependence on groundwater resources, monthly hydrochemical (with major ions and nutrients) and isotopic (δ18OH2O and δD) campaigns have been conducted, from November 2014 to October 2015. In particular, groundwater from six wells, surface water from two nearby streams and three permanent lagoons, and sea water was considered in these surveys. Taking into account the meteorological data and the water levels in the lagoons, the General Lake Model has been conducted to determine, not only evaporation and rainfall occurring in the lagoons, but also the total inflows and outflows. In addition, the Gonfiantini isotopic model, together with equilibrium chemical-speciation/mass transfer models, has been used to analyze the evaporation and the physicochemical processes affecting the lagoons. Results show that during the dry

  14. Environmental quality of transitional waters: the lagoon of Venice case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheletti, C; Gottardo, S; Critto, A; Chiarato, S; Marcomini, A

    2011-01-01

    The health status of European aquatic environments, including transitional waters such as coastal lagoons, is regulated by the Water Framework Directive (WFD), which requires the classification of the water bodies' environmental quality and the achievement of a good ecological status by 2015. In the Venice lagoon, a transitional water body located in the northeastern part of Italy, the achievement of a good ecological status is hampered by several anthropogenic and natural pressures, such as sediment and water chemical contamination, and sediment erosion. In order to evaluate the lagoon's environmental quality according to the WFD (i.e. 5 quality classes, from High to Bad), an integrated Weight-of-Evidence methodology was developed and applied to classify the quality of the lagoon water bodies, integrating biological, physico-chemical, chemical, ecotoxicological, and hydromorphological data (i.e. Lines of Evidence, LOE). The quality assessment was carried out in two lagoon habitat typologies (previously defined on the basis of morphological, sediment, and hydrodynamic characteristics) which were selected taking into account the ecological gradient from sea to land, and the differences in anthropogenic pressure and contamination levels. The LOE classification was carried out by using indicators scored by comparing site specific conditions to reference conditions measured in lagoon reference sites, or provided by local, national or European regulations (e.g. Environmental Quality Standards, EQS, for chemicals). Finally, the overall quality status for each water body was calculated by a probabilistic approach, i.e. by reporting the final result as the frequency distribution of quality classes. The developed procedure was applied by using data and information concerning selected LOE and collected from monitoring programs and research studies carried out in the last 15 years in the lagoon of Venice. A set of sampling stations characterized by spatially and temporally

  15. Zooplankton of an urban coastal lagoon: composition and association with environmental factors and summer fish kill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo C. e Souza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Zooplankton may be regarded as a sensitive tool for monitoring environmental variations in coastal lagoons due to their ability to immediately react to changes in the water column trophic features and salinity levels. As a coastal lagoon with a broad history of anthropic influence, Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is widely used for water sports and artisanal fishing. The present study aimed to expand the knowledge base about zooplankton in the Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon by assessing the composition and time-spatial distribution of the major zooplankton groups. Samples were collected fortnightly from at four distinct sampling points August 2001 to July 2002. At each point, salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen and water transparency were measured. During the study period, the lagoon behaved as an spatially homogeneous environment in what regards the abiotic variables. However, all these variables showed significant differences along the time, mainly related to seasonality (air temperature and rainy and dry periods. The zooplankton community showed low taxonomic richness, with the predominance of species commonly found in coastal lagoons, especially with mesohaline conditions, as well as those found in estuaries. An interesting fact was the rise in zooplankton abundance at all sampling points right after a fish kill event. Such increase was caused mainly by the Brachionus plicatilis O.F. Müller 1786 species. Thus, the zooplankton community was affected by physical and chemical factors, mainly by the dissolved oxygen decline event and variations in the influx of seawater into the lagoon. In addition, phytoplankton availability and fish predation pressure were suggested as important regulating factors of the zooplankton community.

  16. Water characterization and trophic state of Chichoj Lagoon, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourino, C.; Basterrechea, M.; Molina, S. E.; De Zepeda, M.; De Juarez, Y. C.; Aguilar, E.; Oliva, B.; Palacios, R.; Palma, J. A.; Castellanos, P.

    1993-01-01

    Chichoj lagoon has lost 71.6 ha in last 45 years, equivalent to 65% of its area on 1946. At the present, lagoon shows a great invasion of vegetation, with a trend to disappear if this process continues. Physicochemical data evaluation indicated an evident lymnological stress over lagoon due to minimal natural and significant anthropogenic contributions. Temperature was defined by physical factors as sunlight irradiation periods and caloric exchange with wind, promoting the mixing of its water between december and january. Dissolved oxygen concentrations were typical of euthrophic lakes, with over saturation in surface waters an anoxia below few meters depth describing a non-dependent temperature trend. The main affluent river contributions were oxygen-d efficient. pH behavior was related with dissolved oxygen, due to narrow relation between acidity and redox mechanisms in euthrophic waters. Lagoon and affluent river conductivities showed ionic materials contributions from basin (due to its variation with climatic changes), anthropogenic contributions (observed in affluent river) and metabolic activity from sediments speeded up in last portion of lagoon, draining great amounts of ionic substances through effluent river. Redox potentials indicated the trend of reductive process instead of oxidative ones in the affluent river and below 7 m depth in lagoon. Surface and Profile data evaluation suggested the presence of a point-source of contaminants and nutrients, and evidenced the metabolic activity produced over them in lagoon, expressed as a visual euthrophic condition. Next paper will describe nutrients and other water quality parameters behaviors and their interrelation with the physicochemical parameters described in this paper. 1 map, 5 tabs.(Author)

  17. Hydrologic characteristics of lagoons at San Juan, Puerto Rico, during an October 1974 tidal cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Ellis, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    Flow and water-quality changes were studied during a period of intense rainfall in the San Juan Lagoon system. The study covered a 25-hour period beginning 0900 hours 22 October, 1974. Precipitation during the study period averaged 70 millimeters. Sampling stations were located at Boca de Cangrejos, the main ocean outlet; Canal Pinones between Laguna de Pinones and Laguna La Torrecilla; Canal Suarez between Laguna San Jose, connects to Laguna La Torrecilla; and Cano de Martin Pena between Laguna San Jose and Bahia de San Juan. In addition water-elevation recording gages were installed at each lagoon. Water samples from the canal stations were analyzed for organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus species, and suspended sediment. Specific-conductance measurements were used with the chemical data to estimate the runoff contributions of nutrients. Runoff into the lagoon, system during the study period was about 2.8 million cubic meters, or about 70 percent of the average precipitation. The runoff contributed chemical loadings to the lagoons of 95,000 kilograms total-organic carbon; 2,700 kilograms of total phosphorus; and 10,000 kilograms of total Khjeldhal nitrogen. A comparison with a prior study during which there was no significant rain, show that dry-period loadings are less than 10 percent of the wet-period loadings. At the end of the study period the system had not reached equilibrium, and the lagoons retained 80 percent of the water inflows from 50 to 90 percent of the chemical loads. Nearly 95 percent of the water outflows occurred at the Boca de Cangrejos sea outlet. The three lagoons and interconnecting canals form a very complex hydraulic system that is difficult to study using traditional techniques. A model of the system will facilitate management to improve the quality of water in the lagoons.

  18. Reconstruction of historic sea ice conditions in a sub-Arctic lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrich, Chris; Tivy, Adrienne C.; Ward, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Historical sea ice conditions were reconstructed for Izembek Lagoon, Bering Sea, Alaska. This lagoon is a crucial staging area during migration for numerous species of avian migrants and a major eelgrass (Zostera marina) area important to a variety of marine and terrestrial organisms, especially Pacific Flyway black brant geese (Branta bernicla nigricans). Ice cover is a common feature of the lagoon in winter, but appears to be declining, which has implications for eelgrass distribution and abundance, and its use by wildlife. We evaluated ice conditions from a model based on degree days, calibrated to satellite observations, to estimate distribution and long-term trends in ice conditions in Izembek Lagoon. Model results compared favorably with ground observations and 26 years of satellite data, allowing ice conditions to be reconstructed back to 1943. Specifically, periods of significant (limited access to eelgrass areas) and severe (almost complete ice coverage of the lagoon) ice conditions could be identified. The number of days of severe ice within a single season ranged from 0 (e.g., 2001) to ≥ 67 (e.g., 2000). We detected a slight long-term negative trend in ice conditions, superimposed on high inter-annual variability in seasonal aggregate ice conditions. Based on reconstructed ice conditions, the seasonally cumulative number of significant or severe ice days correlated linearly with mean air temperature from January until March. Further, air temperature at Izembek Lagoon was correlated with wind direction, suggesting that ice conditions in Izembek Lagoon were associated with synoptic-scale weather patterns. Methods employed in this analysis may be transferable to other coastal locations in the Arctic.

  19. Spatial and temporal distribution of coloured dissolved organic matter in a hypertrophic freshwater lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Vaičiūtė

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A dataset of 224 Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS full resolution satellite images were processed to retrieve the concentration of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM in a hypertrophic estuary (Curonian Lagoon, Lithuania and Russia. Images covered a period of 7 months, spanning from the ice melting (March to the late summer (September of 7 consecutive years (2005-2011. The aim of the study was to analyse the spatial and temporal variations of CDOM, by focusing on the main regulating factors (riverine discharge, sea-lagoon water exchange, water temperature, chlorophyll a, wind in a large estuary. The working hypothesis is that CDOM distribution may reveal distinct, site specific seasonal patterns. Our results demonstrated that CDOM concentrations at the whole lagoon level were elevated (1.5-4 m-1 and slightly but significantly higher in spring (1.50 m-1 on average compared to the summer (1.45 m-1 on average. This is due to very different flow of CDOM-rich freshwater from the main lagoon tributary in spring compared to summer. They also highlight macroscopic differences among areas within the lagoon, depending on season, suggesting a complex regulation of CDOM in this system. Significant factors explaining observed differences are the dilution of lagoon water with CDOM-poor brackish water, regeneration of large amounts of dissolved organic matter from sediments and combinations of uptake/release from phytoplankton. CDOM and its variations are understudied due to inherent methodological and analytical difficulties. However, this pool has a demonstrated relevant role in the biogeochemistry of aquatic environments. We speculate that the dissolved organic pool in the Curonian Lagoon has a mainly allochthonous origin in the high discharge period and an autochthonous origin in the summer, algal bloom period. Both positive and negative relationships between CDOM and phytoplankton suggest that pelagic microalgae may act as a source or as

  20. Hydrogeological effects of dredging navigable canals through lagoon shallows. A case study in Venice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Teatini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For the first time a comprehensive investigation has been carried out to quantify the possible effects of dredging a navigable canal on the hydrogeological system underlying a coastal lagoon. The study is focused on the Venice Lagoon, Italy, where the port authority is planning to open a new 10 m deep and 3 km long canal to connect the city passenger terminal to the central lagoon inlet, thus avoiding the passage of large cruise ships through the historic center of Venice. A modeling study has been developed to evaluate the short (minutes, medium (months, and long (decades term processes of water and pollutant exchange between the shallow aquifer system and the lagoon, possibly enhanced by the canal excavation, and ship wakes. An in-depth characterization of the lagoon subsurface along the channel has supported the numerical modeling. Piezometer and sea level records, geophysical acquisitions, laboratory analyses of groundwater and sediment samples (chemical analyses and ecotoxicity testing, and the outcome of 3-D hydrodynamic and computational fluid dynamic (CFD models have been used to set up and calibrate the subsurface multi-model approach. The numerical outcomes allow us to quantify the groundwater volume and estimate the mass of anthropogenic contaminants (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, Se likely leaked from the nearby industrial area over the past decades, and released into the lagoon from the canal bed by the action of depression waves generated by ships. Moreover, the model outcomes help to understand the effect of the hydrogeological layering on the propagation of the tidal fluctuation and salt concentration into the shallow brackish aquifers underlying the lagoon bottom.

  1. Marshall Islands Fringing Reef and Atoll Lagoon Observations of the Tohoku Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Murray; Becker, Janet M.; Merrifield, Mark A.; Song, Y. Tony

    2014-12-01

    The magnitude 9.0 Tohoku earthquake on 11 March 2011 generated a tsunami which caused significant impacts throughout the Pacific Ocean. A description of the tsunami within the lagoons and on the surrounding fringing reefs of two mid-ocean atoll islands is presented using bottom pressure observations from the Majuro and Kwajalein atolls in the Marshall Islands, supplemented by tide gauge data in the lagoons and by numerical model simulations in the deep ocean. Although the initial wave arrival was not captured by the pressure sensors, subsequent oscillations on the reef face resemble the deep ocean tsunami signal simulated by two numerical models, suggesting that the tsunami amplitudes over the atoll outer reefs are similar to that in deep water. In contrast, tsunami oscillations in the lagoon are more energetic and long lasting than observed on the reefs or modelled in the deep ocean. The tsunami energy in the Majuro lagoon exhibits persistent peaks in the 30 and 60 min period bands that suggest the excitation of closed and open basin normal modes, while energy in the Kwajalein lagoon spans a broader range of frequencies with weaker, multiple peaks than observed at Majuro, which may be associated with the tsunami behavior within the more irregular geometry of the Kwajalein lagoon. The propagation of the tsunami across the reef flats is shown to be tidally dependent, with amplitudes increasing/decreasing shoreward at high/low tide. The impact of the tsunami on the Marshall Islands was reduced due to the coincidence of peak wave amplitudes with low tide; however, the observed wave amplitudes, particularly in the atoll lagoon, would have led to inundation at different tidal phases.

  2. Zebra Mussel Farming in the Szczecin (Oder Lagoon: Water-Quality Objectives and Cost-Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Schernewski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Oder (Szczecin Lagoon in the southern Baltic Sea is a heavily eutrophicated and degraded coastal ecosystem. We applied a systems approach framework to critically evaluate whether existing water-management measures achieve water-quality objectives for the river and lagoon systems. Our simulations reveal that the existing water-quality objectives for the river and the coastal waters are not sufficiently complementary. We suggest new water-quality threshold concentrations, which are in agreement with the European Water Framework Directive, and we calculate acceptable maximum nutrient loads for the Oder River. These calculations suggest that external nutrient-load reductions in the river basin alone seem insufficient to achieve good water quality in the lagoon. A comprehensive eutrophication management approach should also include internal nutrient-retention and nutrient-removal measures in the lagoon. We focus on mussel farming, i.e., that of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, because they are efficient in removing nutrients and improving water transparency in the Oder Lagoon. For this purpose, the ecosystem model ERGOM is extended by a mussel module and an economic model. The economic model describes costs and benefits of mussel cultivation depending on the the farm size. We included additional potential sources of income such as water-quality tax or emission certificates. The simulations show that mussel farming in the lagoon is a suitable supportive measure and, at a load-reduction target of 50% or more, it is a cost-efficient measure for removing nutrients and for implementing the Baltic Sea Action Plan. In the Oder Lagoon, mussel farming could potentially remove nearly 1000 t of N (70 t of P/year, or about 2% of the present N and P loads, and it would have the additional benefit of improving water transparency.

  3. The Life of a Sponge in a Sandy Lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilan, M; Abelson, A

    1995-12-01

    Infaunal soft-bottom invertebrates benefit from the presence of sediment, but sedimentation is potentially harmful for hard-bottom dwellers. Most sponges live on hard bottom, but on coral reefs in the Red Sea, the species Biemna ehrenbergi (Keller, 1889) is found exclusively in soft-bottom lagoons, usually in the shallowest part. This location is a sink environment, which increases the deposition of particulate organic matter. Most of the sponge body is covered by sediment, but the chimney-like siphons protrude from the sediment surface. The sponge is attached to the buried beach-rock, which reduces the risk of dislodgment during storms. Dye injected above and into the sediment revealed, for the first time, a sponge pumping interstitial water (rich with particles and nutrients) into its aquiferous system. Visual examination of plastic replicas of the aquiferous system and electron microscopical analysis of sponge tissue revealed that the transcellular ostia are mostly located on the buried surface of the sponge. The oscula, however, are located on top of the siphons; their elevated position and their ability to close combine to prevent the filtering system outflow from clogging. The transcellular ostia presumably remain open due to cellular mobility. The sponge maintains a large population of bacteriocytes, which contains bacteria of several different species. Some of these bacteria disintegrate, and may be consumed by the sponge.

  4. Seagrass community dynamics in a subtropical estuarine lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorhaug, A.; Roessler, M.A.

    1977-11-01

    The temporal and spatial distributions of major plant and animal species were investigated for 4 years in south Biscayne Bay including Card Sound, Florida, a subtropical estuarine lagoon. This was part of a larger study including chemical, physical and geological investigations. The major species of plants were Thalassia testudinum Banks ex Konig, turtle grass, Laurencia poitei (Lamour.) Howe, a red macroalga and the green algae Penicillus capitatus Lamarck and Halimeda incrassata (Ellis) Lamour. Standing crop and production of plant material taken bi-weekly is given in detail for 16 stations in Card Sound for the 4-year period and for eight stations in Biscayne Bay for a 1-year period. The major animal species were not equally distributed; in the near-shore Thalassia community, species of Pagurus, Neopanope, Hippolyte, Cerithium, Bulla, Prunum and Modulus were dominant. In mid-bay, where patchy Thalassia plus green algae occurred, Thor and Chondrilla were the dominant animals. Near the fringing islands, where tidal flow caused more oceanic conditions, the community was dominated by sponges, urchins and corals. This highlights the structural differences in what is now termed the ''Thalassia community.'' Comparisons with other known Thalassia communities are made.

  5. Advection within shallow pore waters of a coastal lagoon, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, J.E.; Martin, Jonathan B.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Lindenberg, Mary K.; Steward, Joel

    2004-01-01

    Ground water sources can be a significant portion of a local water budget in estuarine environments, particularly in areas with high recharge rates, transmissive aquifers, and permeable marine sediments. However, field measurements of ground water discharge are often incongruent with ground water flow modeling results, leaving many scientists unsure which estimates are accurate. In this study, we find that both measurements and model results are reasonable. The difference between estimates apparently results from the sources of water being measured and not the techniques themselves. In two locations in the Indian River Lagoon estuarine system, we found seepage meter rates similar to rates calculated from the geochemical tracers 222Rn and 226Ra. Ground water discharge rates ranged from 4 to 9 cm/d using seepage meters and 3 to 20 cm/d using 222Rn and 226Ra. In contrast, in comparisons to other studies where finite element ground water flow modeling was used, much lower ground water discharge rates of ∼0.05 to 0.15 cm/d were estimated. These low rates probably represent discharge of meteoric ground water from land-recharged aquifers, while the much higher rates measured with seepage meters, 222Rn, and 226Ra likely include an additional source of surface waters that regularly flush shallow (recharged water and recirculated surface waters contributes to the total biogeochemical loading in this shallow estuarine environment.

  6. Fragrances as new contaminants in the Venice lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiato, Marco; Cremonese, Simone; Gregoris, Elena; Barbaro, Elena; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo

    2016-10-01

    Fragrance Materials (FMs) are omnipresent components of household and Personal Care Products (PCPs). In spite of their widespread use, little is known about their environmental occurrence. We selected 17 among the longest-lasting and most stable fragrance ingredients that are commercially available, namely: Amberketal, Ambrofix, Amyl Salicylate, Benzyl Salicylate, Bourgeonal, Dupical, Hexyl Salicylate, Isobutavan, Lemonile, Mefranal, Myraldene, Okoumal, Oranger Crystals, Pelargene, Peonile, Tridecene-2-Nitrile, Ultravanil. A new analytical method was developed to quantify FMs in water samples and it was applied to perform the first study about the distribution of these compounds in the surface waters of the city of Venice and its lagoon. Total FMs concentrations range from about 30ngL(-1) to more than 10μgL(-1) in polluted canals during the low tide. Sewage discharges were supposed to be the main sources of the selected FMs in the environment. Salicylates, oestrogenic and allergenic compounds, were in general the most abundant and widespread components. This study reports for the first time the detection of most of the selected FMs in surface waters and represent the first step to understand their environmental fate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Distribution and ecological relevance of fine sediments in organic-enriched lagoons: The case study of the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magni, P. [CNR-IAMC, National Research Council - Institute for Coastal Marine Environment Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.magni@iamc.cnr.it; De Falco, G. [CNR-IAMC, National Research Council - Institute for Coastal Marine Environment Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); Como, S. [International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); Casu, D. [Dip. di Botanica ed Ecologia vegetale, Universita di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Floris, A. [Dip. di Zoologia e Genetica evoluzionistica, Universita di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Petrov, A.N. [Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas NASU, 99011 Sevastopol (Ukraine); Castelli, A. [Dip. di Biologia, Universita di Pisa, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Perilli, A. [CNR-IAMC, National Research Council - Institute for Coastal Marine Environment Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy)

    2008-03-15

    In organic-enriched sedimentary systems, like many Mediterranean coastal lagoons, a detailed analysis of sediment grain size composition and partitioning within the muds is crucial to investigate sedimentological trends related to both hydrodynamic energy and basin morphology. In these systems, sediment dynamics are particularly important because the partitioning and transport of fine sediments can strongly influence the redistribution and accumulation of large amounts of organic matter, and consequently the distribution of benthic assemblages and the trophic status and functioning of a lagoon. Nevertheless, studies on benthic-sediment relationships have been based mainly on a rather coarse analysis of sediment grain size features. In muddy systems, however, this approach may impede a proper evaluation of the relationships and effects of the distribution of fine sediment and organic matter on the biotic benthic components. Here we show that the distribution of sedimentary organic matter (OM) and total organic carbon (TOC) in the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy) can be explained (i.e., predicted) as a function of a nonlinear increase in the amount of the cohesive fraction of sediments ({<=}8 {mu}m grain size particles) and that this fraction strongly influences the structure, composition and distribution of macrobenthic assemblages. Even in such a homogeneously muddy system, characterized by 'naturally' occurring impoverished communities, impaired benthic assemblages were found at {<=}8 {mu}m, OM, TOC contents of about 77%, 11% and 3.5%, respectively. A review of studies conducted in Mediterranean coastal lagoons highlighted a lack of direct integrated analysis of sediment features and the biotic components. We suggest that, especially in organic-enriched coastal lagoons, monitoring programs should primarily investigate and consider the cohesive fraction of sediments in order to allow a better assessment of benthic-sediment relationships and ecological

  8. Lipids of aquatic sediments, recent and ancient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglinton, G.; Hajibrahim, S. K.; Maxwell, J. R.; Quirke, J. M. E.; Shaw, G. J.; Volkman, J. K.; Wardroper, A. M. K.

    1979-01-01

    Computerized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is now an essential tool in the analysis of the complex mixtures of lipids (geolipids) encountered in aquatic sediments, both 'recent' (less than 1 million years old) and ancient. The application of MS, and particularly GC-MS, has been instrumental in the rapid development of organic geochemistry and environmental organic chemistry in recent years. The techniques used have resulted in the identification of numerous compounds of a variety of types in sediments. Most attention has been concentrated on molecules of limited size, mainly below 500 molecular mass, and of limited functionality, for examples, hydrocarbons, fatty acids and alcohols. Examples from recent studies (at Bristol) of contemporary, 'recent' and ancient sediments are presented and discussed.

  9. AMS radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese sutras

    CERN Document Server

    Oda, H; Nakamura, T; Fujita, K

    2000-01-01

    Radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese sutras whose historical ages were known paleographically were measured by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Calibrated radiocarbon ages of five samples were consistent with the corresponding historical ages; the 'old wood effect' is negligible for ancient Japanese sutras. Japanese paper has been made from fresh branches grown within a few years and the interval from trimming off the branches to writing sutra on the paper is within one year. The good agreement between the calibrated radiocarbon ages and the historical ages is supported by such characteristics of Japanese paper. It is indicated in this study that Japanese sutra is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating in the historic period because of little gap by 'old wood effect'.

  10. AMS radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese sutras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Hirotaka; Yoshizawa, Yasukazu; Nakamura, Toshio; Fujita, Keiko

    2000-01-01

    Radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese sutras whose historical ages were known paleographically were measured by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Calibrated radiocarbon ages of five samples were consistent with the corresponding historical ages; the 'old wood effect' is negligible for ancient Japanese sutras. Japanese paper has been made from fresh branches grown within a few years and the interval from trimming off the branches to writing sutra on the paper is within one year. The good agreement between the calibrated radiocarbon ages and the historical ages is supported by such characteristics of Japanese paper. It is indicated in this study that Japanese sutra is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating in the historic period because of little gap by 'old wood effect'

  11. Resource Economics and Institutions in Ancient Athens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks

    Institutional development in ancient Athens ranged from banking and legally recorded and sustained private ownership of a variety of goods and services that enabled domestic and international trade to liturgical mechanisms for procurement of public goods. These institutions in turn provided...... agreements with Macedonia (IG I2 105). However, no regular channels of trade or transactions are identified before this Macedonian agreement (407/6). We know that some constructed ships were forcefully appropriated to one degree or another through hegemonic tribute or battle (through which they might also......, the “most silent and least recorded of the major ancient industries” (Meiggs). Aristotle highlighted both the threat of illegal forest use and the need for public intervention to curtail it by identifying forest wardens as one of the key items needing state provision for democratic governance (Aristot. Pol...

  12. Ancient shoreline reconstruction at a Maritime Maya Port in Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaijel, Roy; Goodman, Beverly; Glover, Jeffrey; Rissolo, Dominique; Beddows, Patricia; Carter, Alice; Smith, Derek; Ben Avraham, Zvi

    2017-04-01

    Throughout history, worldwide, a major part of the human experience has been to adapt to changing landscapes, and environments. These adaptations can take many forms, sometimes as innovation, manipulation of the conditions, behavioral or technological changes; and in some cases the decision to abandon the area. The northeastern Yucatan peninsula, home of the Maritime maya port site Vista-Alegre, shows signs of such human changes, though little is known about the corresponding landscape and environment. Vista Alegre is located on the meeting point of the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, at the north-eastern tip of the Yucatan peninsula, in the back of the Holbox lagoon. The site was inhabited from the 9th century B.C until the mid 16th century A.D., with an apparent two century abandonment phase from the mid 7th to 9th century A.D. A multidisciplinary effort ("Costa Escondida project") has been investigating the life of past Mayan inhabitants and the broader connections of the site to the Maritime Maya trade network. One of the questions that has arisen is what were the mutual influences between the inhabitants to their surrounding environment. In order to answer that question the site's shoreline geomorphology and climate history is being reconstructed for the past 2-3000 years. The reconstruction is based on multiproxy analysis of marine sediment cores and surface samples, combined with archaeological data. The study presented focuses on the shoreline shifts at the site, revealing the complexity, and significant affect of sea level rise on the marine environment of Vista Alegre. This study contributes to our understanding of the site's possible functions, the environmental challenges the local inhabits contended with, and the identification of ancient harboring locations. The results show five depositional phases over the past 2-3000 years. The ancient shoreline maps show a general trend of sea level rise, though with varying rates over time that relates well

  13. Impact of mussel bioengineering on fine-grained sediment dynamics in a coastal lagoon: A numerical modelling investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Pernille L.; Lumborg, Ulrik; Bundgaard, Klavs; Ernstsen, Verner B.

    2017-12-01

    Rødsand lagoon in southeast Denmark is a non-tidal coastal lagoon. It is home to a wide range of marine flora and fauna and part of the Natura 2000 network. An increase in turbidity through elevated levels of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) within the lagoon may affect the ecosystem health due to reduced light penetration. Increasing SSC levels within Rødsand lagoon could be caused by increasing storm intensity or by a sediment spill from dredging activities west of the lagoon in relation to the planned construction of the Fehmarnbelt fixed link between Denmark and Germany. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of a mussel reef on sediment import and SSC in a semi-enclosed lagoon through the development of a bioengineering modelling application that makes it possible to include the filtrating effect of mussels in a numerical model of the lagoonal system. The numerical implementation of an exterior mussel reef generated a reduction in the SSC in the vicinity of the reef, through the adjacent inlet and in the western part of the lagoon. The mussel reef reduced the sediment import to Rødsand lagoon by 13-22% and reduced the SSC within Rødsand lagoon by 5-9% depending on the filtration rate and the reef length. The results suggest that the implementation of a mussel reef has the potential to relieve the pressure of increasing turbidity levels within a semi-enclosed lagoonal system. However, further assessment and development of the bioengineering application and resulting ecosystem impacts are necessary prior to actual implementation.

  14. Volatile and Isotopic Imprints of Ancient Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Conrad, Pamela G.

    2015-01-01

    The science investigations enabled by Curiosity rover's instruments focus on identifying and exploring the habitability of the Martian environment. Measurements of noble gases, organic and inorganic compounds, and the isotopes of light elements permit the study of the physical and chemical processes that have transformed Mars throughout its history. Samples of the atmosphere, volatiles released from soils, and rocks from the floor of Gale Crater have provided a wealth of new data and a window into conditions on ancient Mars.

  15. Penile representations in ancient Greek art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempelakos, L; Tsiamis, C; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E

    2013-12-01

    The presentation of the cult of phallus in ancient Greece and the artistic appearance of the phenomenon on vase figures and statues, as indicative of the significant role of the male genitalia in all fertility ceremonies. The examination of a great number of penile representations from the ancient Greek pottery and sculpture and the review of the ancient theater plays (satiric dramas and comedies ). Phallus in artistic representation is connected either with gods of fertility, such as the goat-footed and horned Pan or the ugly dwarf Priapus or the semi-animal nailed figures Satyrs, devotees of the god Dionysus accompanying him in all ritual orgiastic celebrations. Phallus also symbolizes good luck, health and sexuality: people bear or wear artificial phalli exactly like the actors as part of their costume or carry huge penises during the festive ritual processions. On the contrary, the Olympic gods or the ordinary mortals are not imaged ithyphallic; the ideal type of male beauty epitomized in classical sculpture, normally depicts genitals of average or less than average size. It is noteworthy that many of these images belong to athletes during or immediately after hard exercise with the penis shrunk. The normal size genitalia may have been simply a convention to distinguish normal people from the gods of sexuality and fertility, protectors of the reproductive process of Nature. The representation of the over-sized and erected genitalia on vase figures or statues of ancient Greek art is related to fertility gods such as Priapus, Pan and Satyrs and there is strong evidence that imagination and legend were replacing the scientific achievements in the field of erectile function for many centuries.

  16. Geomorphic evidence for ancient seas on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Timothy J.; Schneeberger, Dale M.; Pieri, David C.; Saunders, R. Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Geomorphic evidence is presented for ancient seas on Mars. Several features, similar to terrestrial lacustrine and coastal features, were identified along the northern plains periphery from Viking images. The nature of these features argues for formation in a predominantly liquid, shallow body of standing water. Such a shallow sea would require either relatively rapid development of shoreline morphologies or a warmer than present climate at the time of outflow channel formation.

  17. Ancient Terrestrial Carbon: Lost and Found

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon fluxes in terrestrial environments dominate the global carbon cycle. The fluxes of terrestrial carbon are strongly tied to regional climate due to the influences of temperature, water, and nutrient dynamics on plant productivity. However, climate also influences the destruction of terrestrial organic matter, through weathering, erosion, and biomass loss via fire and oxidative microbial processes. Organic geochemical methods enable us to interrogate past terrestrial carbon dynamics and learn how continental processes might accelerate, or mitigate carbon transfer to the atmosphere, and the associated greenhouse warming. Terrestrial soil systems represent the weathering rind of the continents, and are inherently non-depositional and erosive. The production, transport, and depositional processes affecting organics in continental settings each impart their own biases on the amount and characteristics of preserved carbon. Typically, the best archives for biomarker records are sediments in ancient lakes or subaqueous fans, which represents a preservation bias that tends to favor wetter environments. Paleosols, or ancient soils, formed under depositional conditions that, for one reason or another, truncated soil ablation, erosion, or other loss processes. In modern soils, widely ranging organic carbon abundances are almost always substantially greater than the trace amounts of carbon left behind in ancient soils. Even so, measureable amounts of organic biomarkers persist in paleosols. We have been investigating processes that preserve soil organic carbon on geologic timescales, and how these mechanisms may be sensitive to past climate change. Climate-linked changes in temperature, moisture, pH, and weathering processes can impact carbon preservation via organo-mineral sorption, soil biogeochemistry, and stability based on the physical and chemical properties of organic compounds. These will be discussed and illustrated with examples from our studies of Cenozoic

  18. Chemistry Progress and Civilization in Ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yu-Qian; RUAN Shu-Xiang; TANG Shan; SHUAI Zhi-Gang

    2011-01-01

    @@ During the 6,000 years of Chinese civilization, chemistry has played an essential role.The bronzed chime bells of the Warring States Period (475-221 BC) unearthed in Hubei Province shows not only the excellence in musical instruments in ancient China, but also the technological advances in metallurgy.Chinese alchemy was not originated from the quest to turn common metals to gold, instead, it was for searching medicines for longevity of human beings, mostly practised by Taoists.

  19. Biodiversity patterns of macrophyte and macroinvertebrate communities in two lagoons of Western Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyttis, G.; Reizopoulou, S.; Papastergiadou, E.

    2012-04-01

    Aquatic macrophytes and benthic macroinvertebrates were studied seasonally (Spring, Autumn, Summer) between the years 2009 - 2011 in two coastal lagoons (Kotychi and Prokopos) located in Peloponnese, Greece, in order to investigate spatial and temporal biodiversity trends related to hydrological processes (degree of confinement, nitrates, phosphates, chl-a, total suspended materials, light irradiance, pH, salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen). Kotychi lagoon presents a better communication with the sea, while Prokopos has a high degree of confinement. Both ecosystems seasonally receive freshwater input from streams. The submerged aquatic macrophytes constituted a major component of the ecosystems studied. In total, 22 taxa of aquatic macrophytes (angiosperms and macroalgae), 16 taxa for Kotychi (2 Rhodophyta, 8 Chlorophyta, 5 Magnoliophyta, 1 Streptophyta) and 14 taxa for Prokopos (1 Rhodophyta, 5 Chlorophyta, 5 Magnoliophyta, 3 Streptophyta) were found. Ruppia cirrhosa, and Potamogeton pectinatus were dominant in both lagoons. Kotychi lagoon was also dominated by Zostera noltii and Prokopos by Zannichellia pallustris ssp. pedicellata, while the biomass of aquatic species peaked during the summer periods, in both lagoons. The total number of macroinvertebrates found in the lagoons was 28 taxa for Kotychi and 19 for Prokopos. Chironomidae were dominant in both lagoons, while Kotychi was also dominated by Lekanesphaera monodi and Monocorophium insidiosum, and Prokopos by Ostracoda and Lekanesphaera monodi. Benthic diversity ranged from 1.33 to 2.57 in Kotychi and from 0.67 to 2.48 in Prokopos. Species richness, diversity, and abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates were strongly related to aquatic vegetation and to the degree of communication with the marine environment. Moreover, species richness and abundance of both macrophytes and macroinvertebrates were mainly dependent on depth, temperature, pH and concentration of total suspended materials (TSM). Results

  20. [Species and size composition of fishes in Barra de Navidad lagoon, Mexican central Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sansón, Gaspar; Aguilar-Betancourt, Consuelo; Kosonoy-Aceves, Daniel; Lucano-Ramírez, Gabriela; Ruiz-Ramírez, Salvador; Flores-Ortega, Juan Ramón; Hinojosa-Larios, Angel; de Asís Silva-Bátiz, Francisco

    2014-03-01

    Coastal lagoons are considered important nursery areas for many coastal fishes. Barra de Navidad coastal lagoon (3.76km2) is important for local economy as it supports tourism development and artisanal fisheries. However, the role of this lagoon in the dynamics of coastal fish populations is scarcely known. Thus, the objectives of this research were: to characterize the water of the lagoon and related weather conditions, to develop a systematic list of the ichthyofauna, and to estimate the proportion of juveniles in the total number of individuals captured of most abundant species. Water and fish samples were collected between March 2011 and February 2012. Physical and chemical variables were measured in rainy and dry seasons. Several fishing gears were used including a cast net, beach purse seine and gillnets of four different mesh sizes. Our results showed that the lagoon is most of the time euhaline (salinity 30-40ups), although it can be mixopolyhaline (salinity 18-30ups) during short periods. Chlorophyll and nutrients concentrations suggested eutrophication in the lagoon. Mean water temperature changed seasonally from 24.9 degrees C (April, high tide) to 31.4 degrees C (October, low tide). Considering ichthyofauna species, a total of 36 448 individuals of 92 species were collected, 31 of them adding up to 95% of the total of individuals caught. Dominant species were Anchoa spp. (44.6%), Diapterus peruvianus (10.5%), Eucinostomus currani (8.1%), Cetengraulis mysticetus (7.8%), Mugil curema (5.2%) and Opisthonema libertate (4.5%). The lagoon is an important juvenile habitat for 22 of the 31 most abundant species. These included several species of commercial importance such as snappers (Lutjanus argentiventris, L. colorado and L. novemfasciatus), snook (Centropomus nigrescens) and white mullet (Mugil curema). Other four species seem to use the lagoon mainly as adults. This paper is the first contribution on the composition of estuarine ichthyofauna in Jalisco

  1. Mud deposit formation on the open coast of the larger Patos Lagoon-Cassino Beach system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinzon, S. B.; Winterwerp, J. C.; Nogueira, R.; de Boer, G. J.

    2009-03-01

    This paper proposes an explanation of the mud deposits on the inner Shelf of Cassino Beach, South Brazil, by using computational modeling. These mud deposits are mainly formed by sediments delivered from Patos Lagoon, a coastal lagoon connected to the Shelf, next to Cassino Beach. The deposits are characterized by (soft) mud layers of about 1 m thick and are found between the -5 and -20 isobaths. Two hydrodynamic models of the larger Patos Lagoon-Cassino Beach system were calibrated against water elevation measured for a 5 months period, and against currents and salinity measured for a week period. The circulation patterns and water exchange through the mouth were analyzed as a function of local and remote wind effects, and river discharges. The remote wind effect mainly governs the quantity of water exchange with the Lagoon through its effect on mean sea level as a result of Ekman dynamics, while river discharges are important for the salinity of the exchanged water masses. Local winds augment the export-import rates by set-up and set-down within the Lagoon, but their effects are much smaller than those of the remote wind. Currents patterns on the inner Shelf during water outflow revealed a recirculation zone south of the Lagoon, induced by the local geometry and bathymetry of the system. This recirculation zone coincides with observed locations of mud deposition. Water, hence suspended sediment export occurs when remote and local winds are from the N-E, which explains why fine sediment deposits are mainly found south of the Lagoon's breakwater. A sensitivity analysis with the numerical model quantified the contribution of the various mechanisms driving the transport and fate of the fine suspended sediments, i.e. the effects of remote and local wind, of the astronomical tide, of river discharge and fresh-salt water-induced density currents, and of earth rotation. It is concluded that gravitational circulation and earth rotation affects the further dispersion of

  2. Handbook of microwave component measurements with advanced VNA techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Dunsmore, Joel P

    2012-01-01

    This book provides state-of-the-art coverage for making measurements on RF and Microwave Components, both active and passive. A perfect reference for R&D and Test Engineers, with topics ranging from the best practices for basic measurements, to an in-depth analysis of errors, correction methods, and uncertainty analysis, this book provides everything you need to understand microwave measurements. With primary focus on active and passive measurements using a Vector Network Analyzer, these techniques and analysis are equally applicable to measurements made with Spectrum Analyzers or Noise Figure

  3. Cosmologies of the ancient Mediterranean world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Fitzgerald

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cosmology is concerned with the order of the universe and seeks to provide an account, not only of that order, but also of the mind or reason behind it. In antiquity, the cosmos was usually understood religiously, such that the cosmologies of the ancient Mediterranean world were either religious in nature or constituted a reaction to a religiously conceived understanding of the structures of the universe. The oldest form in which ancient cosmologies occur is myth, which, owing to its elasticity as a form, enabled them to be appropriated, adapted and used by different groups. In addition, different cosmologies co-existed within the same ancient culture, each having an authoritative status. This article provides an introductory overview of these cosmological myths and argues that a comparative approach is the most fruitful way to study them. Emphasis is given to certain prominent cosmological topics, including theogony (the genesis of the divine or the relationship of the divine to the cosmos, cosmogony (the genesis of the cosmos, and anthropogony (the origin of humans within the cosmos. Although these myths vary greatly in terms of content and how they envision the origin of the cosmos, many of them depict death as part of the structure of the universe.

  4. Do lagoons near concentrated animal feeding operations promote nitrous oxide supersaturation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makris, Konstantinos C.; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Andra, Syam S.; Bach, Stephan B.H.; Datta, Rupali

    2009-01-01

    Animal wastewater lagoons nearby concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) represent the latest tendency in global animal farming, severely impacting the magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions, including nitrous oxide (N 2 O). We hypothesized that lagoon wastewater could be supersaturated with N 2 O as part of incomplete microbial nitrification/denitrification processes, thereby regulating the N 2 O partitioning in the gaseous phase. The objectives of this study were: (i) to investigate the magnitude of dissolved N 2 O concentrations in the lagoon; and (ii) to determine the extent to which supersaturation of N 2 O occurs in wastewater lagoons. Dissolved N 2 O concentrations in the wastewater samples were high, ranging from 0.4 to 40.5 μg N 2 O mL -1 . Calculated dissolved N 2 O concentrations from the experimentally measured partition coefficients were much greater than those typically expected in aquatic systems ( 2 O mL -1 ). Knowledge of the factors controlling the magnitude of N 2 O supersaturation could potentially bridge mass balance differences between in situ measurements and global N 2 O models. - Supersaturation of nitrous oxide may occur in lagoons near concentrated animal feeding operations.

  5. Comprehensive assessment of hormones, phytoestrogens, and estrogenic activity in an anaerobic swine waste lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Erin E.; Meyer, Michael T.; Dietze, Julie E.; Meissner, Benjamin M.; Williams, Mike; Worley-Davis, Lynn; Lee, Boknam; Kullman, Seth W.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the distribution of steroid hormones, phytoestrogens, and estrogenic activity was thoroughly characterized within the anaerobic waste lagoon of a typical commercial swine sow operation. Three independent rounds of sampling were conducted in June 2009, April 2010, and February 2011. Thirty-seven analytes in lagoon slurry and sludge were assessed using LC/MS-MS, and yeast estrogen screen was used to determine estrogenic activity. Of the hormone analytes, steroidal estrogens were more abundant than androgens or progesterone, with estrone being the predominant estrogen species. Conjugated hormones were detected only at low levels. The isoflavone metabolite equol was by far the predominant phytoestrogen species, with daidzein, genistein, formononetin, and coumestrol present at lower levels. Phytoestrogens were often more abundant than steroidal estrogens, but contributed minimally towards total estrogenic activity. Analytes were significantly elevated in the solid phases of the lagoon; although low observed log KOC values suggest enhanced solubility in the aqueous phase, perhaps due to dissolved or colloidal organic carbon. The association with the solid phase, as well as recalcitrance of analytes to anaerobic degradation, results in a markedly elevated load of analytes and estrogenic activity within lagoon sludge. Overall, findings emphasize the importance of adsorption and transformation processes in governing the fate of these compounds in lagoon waste, which is ultimately used for broadcast application as a fertilizer.

  6. Diversity of resource use and property rights in Tam Giang Lagoon, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta Thi Thanh Huong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, aquaculture has become the most important livelihood activity in Tam Giang Lagoon, Vietnam. The aquaculture boom has reduced the available water area for mobile gear fishers, polarized different user-groups, created resource conflicts, and increased pressures on the lagoon systems. Aquaculture in the lagoon is governed by both customary and legal rights. The objective of this paper is to explore the diversity of resource use and the complexity of property rights in one of the villages located in the lagoon. The paper emphasizes the linkages between changes in commons institutions and changes in resource use and property rights. First, the political and socio-economic changes in Vietnam are examined as well as how they have influenced traditional commons institutions and lagoon resource management in the village. Second, the linkages between common institutions and the diversity of property rights are analyzed. Particular attention is given to the analysis of different types of resource use associated with "bundle of rights" and the diversity of property rights regimes in the village.

  7. Anthropogenic changes to a billabong in New South Wales. 1. lagoon evolution and phosphorus dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, T.H.; Ford, P.W.

    1999-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes detected in the sediment of a shallow (∼1.6 m) billabong (Horseshoe Lagoon) are the result of a Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) connection in 1958 and catchment urbanization around 1974. Nutrient-rich water caused the collapse of macrophyte populations, algal blooms became common, and urbanization increased sediment deposition (∼1 cm year -1 ). Changes in P retention were investigated by using dated cores, pore-water element profiles, and water quality records. Two of the cores were examined by analyses of pollen, 137 Cs, elemental analyses by XRF, C and N stable isotope ratio, and organic concentrations. The lagoon is the last of three STP holding ponds. Ponds 1 and 2 were sand-mining pits; they receive no sediment input and have negligible P adsorption. The Fe:P ratios in sediments from three Australian rivers have a common slope and this relationship was used to examine Fe:P ratios in the anoxic bottom sediments of the lagoon. A potential for effluent P adsorption developed in the lagoon through Fe mobilization and enrichment in the upper sediments and a strong clay-Fe-P association. The mean long- term P adsorption in the lagoon (35±) was the result of maintaining clay input to an oxic waterbody. Bacterial sulfate reduction is the main process decreasing available Fe for effluent P adsorption. Appropriately designed systems could expect to maintain effluent P adsorption efficiencies of around 70%. Copyright (1999) CSIRO Publishing

  8. Studies of lagoon ash from Sarawak to assess the impact on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabir Kumar Kolay; Harwant Singh [University Malaysia Sarawak, Sarawak (Malaysia). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2010-02-15

    Coal utilization, mainly in thermal power plants, has increased significantly from 4.2 to 13 million tonnes within 2000 to 2005, which resulted in the production of approximately 2 million tonnes of coal ash in Malaysia. Of this only a small percentage is used as a cement ingredient, in concrete industry, as a fill material, etc. and with the rest of the amount being disposed in ash ponds or lagoons. If the lagoons are not properly designed with a landfill liner or if there is spillage from the ash pond, the toxic heavy metal present in coal ash can result in the contamination of the subsurface soil and the ground water. The concentration of heavy metals or trace elements in coal residues depends on the composition of a particular parent coal and the bulk utilization of lagoon ash for various purposes requires a complete characterization of the ash. Hence, this paper analyzes the coal ash for its trace element content and characterizes mainly physical, chemical, mineralogical, morphological and thermal properties of the lagoon ash from a local coal based thermal power plant from Sarawak, Malaysia. The results also indicated that, the concentration of some trace elements is quite high from the environmental perspective in this particular lagoon ash. 43 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Nutrient fluxes and net metabolism in a coastal lagoon SW peninsula of Baja California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cervantes Duarte, R.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluxes of nutrients and net metabolism were estimated in coastal lagoon Magdalena Bay using LOICZ biogeochemical model. In situ data were obtained from 14 sites in the lagoon and also from a fixed site in the adjacent ocean area. Intense upwelling (February to July and faint upwelling (August to January were analyzed from monthly time series. The Temperature, nitrite + nitrate, ammonium and phosphate within the lagoon showed significant differences (p<0.05 between the two periods. Salinity (p=0.408 was more homogeneous (no significantly different due to mixing processes. During the intense upwelling period, nutrients increased in and out of the lagoon due to the influence of Transitional Water and Subartic Water transported by the California Current. However, during the faint upwelling, from August to January, the Transition Water and Subtropical Surface Water were predominant. Magdalena Bay showed denitrification processes of throughout the year as it occurred in other semi-arid coastal lagoons. It also showed a net autotrophic metabolism during intense upwelling and heterotrophic metabolism during faint upwelling. Understanding nutrient flows and net metabolism through simple biogeochemical models can provide tools for better management of the coastal zone.

  10. Assessing pollution in a Mediterranean lagoon using acid volatile sulfides and estimations of simultaneously extracted metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaaboub, Noureddine; Helali, Mohamed Amine; Martins, Maria Virgínia Alves; Ennouri, Rym; Béjaoui, Béchir; da Silva, Eduardo Ferreira; El Bour, Monia; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-11-01

    Bizerte Lagoon is a southern Mediterranean semi-enclosed lagoon with a maximum depth of 12 m. After assessing sediment quality, the authors report on the physicochemical characteristics of the lagoon's surface sediment using SEM (simultaneously extracted metals) and AVS (acid volatile sulfides) as proxies. Biogeochemical tools are used to investigate the environmental disturbance at the water-sediment interface by means of SEM and AVS to seek conclusions concerning the study area's pollution status. Results confirm accumulation of trace elements in sediment. The use of the SEM-AVS model with organic matter in sediment (ƒOC) confirms possible bioavailability of accumulated trace elements, especially Zn, in the southern part of the lagoon, with organic matter playing an important role in SEM excess correction to affirm a nontoxic total metal sediment state. Individual trace element toxicity is dependent on the bioavailable fraction of SEM Metal on sediment, as is the influence of lagoon inflow from southern water sources on element bioavailability. Appropriate management strategies are highly recommended to mitigate any potential harmful effects on health from this heavy-metal-based pollution.

  11. Biodegradation of hexadecane using sediments from rivers and lagoons of the Southern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cruz, N Ulises; Sánchez-Avila, Juan I; Valdés-Lozano, David; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo; Aguirre-Macedo, Leopoldina

    2018-03-01

    The Southern Gulf of Mexico is an area highly impacted by crude oil extraction, refining activities and the presence of natural petroleum seepage. Oceanic currents in the Gulf of Mexico continually facilitate the transport of hydrocarbons to lagoons and rivers. This research evaluated hexadecane (HXD) degradation in marine sediment samples from lagoons and rivers that are fed by the Southern Gulf of Mexico, specifically six samples from rivers, three samples from lagoons, and one sample from a marine outfall. The highest rates of biodegradation were observed in sediments from the mouths of the Gonzalez River and the Champotón Lagoon. The lowest consumption rate was found in sediment from the mouth of the Coatzacoalcos River. With regards to the Ostión Lagoon and the Grijalva River, there was a low rate of consumption, but a high efficiency of degradation which took place at the end of the experiments. No correlation was found between the consumption rate and the environmental physicochemical parameters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation of residence time and groundwater flux in Venice Lagoon: comparing radium isotope and hydrodynamic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapaglia, John; Ferrarin, Christian; Zaggia, Luca; Moore, Willard S; Umgiesser, Georg; Garcia-Solsona, Ester; Garcia-Orellana, Jordi; Masqué, Pere

    2010-07-01

    The four naturally-occurring isotopes of radium were coupled with a previously evaluated hydrodynamic model to determine the apparent age of surface waters and to quantify submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the Venice Lagoon, Italy. Mean apparent age of water in the Venice Lagoon was calculated using the ratio of 224Ra to 228Ra determined from 30 monitoring stations and a mean pore water end member. Average apparent age was calculated to be 6.0 d using Ra ratios. This calculated age was very similar to average residence time calculated for the same period using a hydrodynamic model (5.8 d). A mass balance of Ra was accomplished by quantifying each of the sources and sinks of Ra in the lagoon, with the unknown variable being attributed to SGD. Total SGD were calculated to be 4.1 +/- 1.5, 3.8 +/- 0.7, 3.0 +/- 1.3, and 3.5 +/- 1.0 x 10(10) L d(-1) for (223,224,226, 228)Ra, respectively, which are an order of magnitude larger than total mean fluvial discharge into the Venice Lagoon (3.1 x 10(9) L d(-1)). The SGD as a source of nutrients in the Venice Lagoon is also discussed and, though significant to the nutrient budget, is likely to be less important as the dominant control on SGD is recirculated seawater rather than freshwater. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigation of residence time and groundwater flux in Venice Lagoon: comparing radium isotope and hydrodynamical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapaglia, John; Ferrarin, Christian; Zaggia, Luca; Moore, Willard S.; Umgiesser, Georg; Garcia-Solsona, Ester; Garcia-Orellana, Jordi; Masque, Pere

    2010-01-01

    The four naturally-occurring isotopes of radium were coupled with a previously evaluated hydrodynamic model to determine the apparent age of surface waters and to quantify submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the Venice Lagoon, Italy. Mean apparent age of water in the Venice Lagoon was calculated using the ratio of 224 Ra to 228 Ra determined from 30 monitoring stations and a mean pore water endmember. Average apparent age was calculated to be 6.0 d using Ra ratios. This calculated age was very similar to average residence time calculated for the same period using a hydrodynamic model (5.8 d). A mass balance of Ra was accomplished by quantifying each of the sources and sinks of Ra in the lagoon, with the unknown variable being attributed to SGD. Total SGD were calculated to be 4.1 ± 1.5, 3.8 ± 0.7, 3.0 ± 1.3, and 3.5 ± 1.0 x 10 10 L d -1 for 223,224,226,228 Ra, respectively, which are an order of magnitude larger than total mean fluvial discharge into the Venice Lagoon (3.1 x 10 9 L d -1 ). The SGD as a source of nutrients in the Venice Lagoon is also discussed and, though significant to the nutrient budget, is likely to be less important as the dominant control on SGD is recirculated seawater rather than freshwater.

  14. Pan-European management of coastal lagoons: A science-policy-stakeholder interface perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillebø, Ana I.; Stålnacke, Per; Gooch, Geoffrey D.; Krysanova, Valentina; Bielecka, Małgorzata

    2017-11-01

    The main objective of the work carried out in the scope of a three years collaborative research project was to develop science-based strategies and a decision support framework for the integrated management of coastal lagoons and their catchments and, in this context, to enhance connectivity between research and policymaking. In this paper our main objective is to share the lessons learned from the innovative methodology used throughout the project. To achieve the proposed objectives, the multidisciplinary scientific knowledge in the project team was combined and integrated with the knowledge and views of local stakeholders of four selected European coastal lagoons, using a three step participatory approach. With this innovative approach, which included the usage of eco-hydrological and water quality-modelling tools, the team developed and analyzed integrated scenarios of possible economic development and environmental impacts in four European lagoons and their catchments. These scenarios were presented and discussed with stakeholders, giving rise to management recommendations for each case study lagoon. Results show that some management options might be transferrable to other European lagoons having similar climatic, geophysical and socio-economic settings. In management terms, the project output provides a set of policy guidelines derived from the different analyses conducted and proposes initiatives concerning management implementation in a local-regional-national-European setting.

  15. Seagrasses and sediment response to changing physical forcing in a coastal lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Figueiredo da Silva

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ria de Aveiro is an estuary–coastal lagoon system connected to the Atlantic Ocean by a channel with a cross-sectional area that, for more than a century, has increased steadily, partly because of dredging over the last 50 years. Local ocean tides, with amplitudes of up to 3 m, are today transmitted to the lagoon by the single, engineered inlet channel and propagate to the end of the lagoon channels as a damped progressive wave. The increase in tidal amplitude with time has affected the lagoon ecosystem and the water has become more saline. Seagrass beds are important indicators of ecosystem change; until 1980, much of the lagoon bed was covered by seagrasses (Zostera, Ruppia, Potamogeton, which were collected in large quantities for use in agriculture. After 1960, the harvesting declined and the seagrass beds became covered in sediment, so that the area of seagrasses decreased substantially despite the decline in the quantity collected. The change in the pattern of seagrass populations can be related to changes in the physical forcing associated with increased tidal wave penetration. This has, in turn, induced transport and redistribution of coarser, sandy sediment and increased re-suspension and turbidity in the water column. However, the initiating cause for this ecosystem change was dredging, which, since the 1950s, has been used increasingly to widen and deepen the channels of the system.

  16. A review on the availability of ecological data aiming new researches in Peri Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Mello Petrucio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in population as well as the water resource demand has been intensifying the human influence in Peri Lagoon basin. A review on the availability of data concerning the ecology of Peri Lagoon was made, aiming at the development of new researches to understand the functioning of this ecosystem. This information can contribute to the elaboration of a conservation proposal and sustainable use of the Lagoon in the future. High cyanobacteria density (Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii was detected in the Lagoon waters, which happens to be a risky situation for the ecosystem’s health and consequently for the population. The review highlights a lack of available information about the dynamics, functioning and structure of aquatic communities, as well as their relationships with the surrounding area and the infl uence of abiotic factors. Series of continuum data with respect to time are also considered to be lacking. Educational, political and social practices in environmental conservation are necessary, aiming at the management and sustainable use of Peri Lagoon basin. These practices will guarantee water resource quality and availability for the current and future generations.

  17. Trace metals in water and sediments from Ologe Lagoon, southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, K.A.; Osibanjo, O.

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of trace metals in water and sediment samples from Ologe lagoon located in southwestern Nigeria were investigated. The lagoon is a source of water for domestic, transportation and fishing activities. The water quality characteristics for a period of two years (January, 1997 - November, 1998), and the speciation of metals in the lagoon sediments were evaluated. The lagoon water quality characteristics, with respect to heavy metal contamination, were compared with global averages for freshwater and international water quality standards for drinking water. All elements except iron, were well within the safety limits. Sequential extraction techniques were used to establish the association of the total concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Mn in the sediment samples with their contents as exchangeable, carbonates, Fe/Mn oxides, and organic and residual fractions. The concentrations of trace metals in the whole sediments were generally below the world-wide background levels. When compared to a number of sediment quality guidelines, the concentrations of trace metals were found to be below the level considered to have the potential to cause biological effects. Pb and Cd were extracted from the residual fraction at values greater than 50%. The metals that were most easily extractable in the samples analyzed were Mn and Zn, which posed the highest risk to water contamination. The low level of industrialization in the study area has kept the lagoon relatively free from heavy metal contamination. (author)

  18. Atmospheric Deposition of Inorganic Elements and Organic Compounds at the Inlets of the Venice Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Morabito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Venice Lagoon is subjected to long-range transport of contaminants via aerosol from the near Po Valley. Moreover, it is an area with significant local anthropogenic emissions due to the industrial area of Porto Marghera, the urban centres, and the glass factories and with emissions by ships traffic within the Lagoon. Furthermore, since 2005, the Lagoon has also been affected by the construction of the MOSE (Modulo Sperimentale Elettromeccanico—Electromechanical Experimental Module mobile dams, as a barrier against the high tide. This work presents and discusses the results from chemical analyses of bulk depositions, carried out in different sites of the Venice Lagoon. Fluxes of pollutants were also statistically analysed on PCA with the aim of investigating the spatial variability of depositions and their correlation with precipitations. Fluxes of inorganic pollutants depend differently on precipitations, while organic compounds show a more seasonal trend. The statistical analysis showed that the site in the northern Lagoon has lower and almost homogeneous fluxes of pollutants, while the other sites registered more variable concentrations. The study also provided important information about the annual trend of pollutants and their evolution over a period of about five years, from 2005 to 2010.

  19. Preliminary study for treatment methodology establishment of liquid waste containing uranium in refining facility lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Jik; Lee, Kune Woo; Won, Hui Jun; Ahn, Byung Gil; Shim, Joon Bo

    1999-12-01

    The preliminary study which establishes the treatment methodology of the sludge waste containing uranium in the conversion facility lagoon was performed. The property of lagoon liquid waste such as the initial water content, the density including radiochemical analysis results were obtained using the samples taken from the lagoon. The objective of this study is to provide some basically needed materials for selection of the most proper lagoon waste treatment methodology by reviewing the effective processes and methods for minimizing the secondary waste resulting from the treatment and disposition of large amount of radioactive liquid waste according to the facility closing. The lagoon waste can be classified into two sorts, such as supernatant and precipitate. The supernatants contain uranium less than 5 ppm and their water content are about 35 percent. Therefore, supernatants are solutions composed of mainly salt components. However, the precipitates have lots of uranium compound contained in the coagulation matrix, and are formed as two kinds of crystalline structures. The most proper method minimizing the secondary waste would be direct drying and solidification of the supernatants and precipitates after separation of them by filtering. (author)

  20. Integrated Approach to Transboundary Waters Management, such as a Rivermouth and a Lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.H.; Lee, B.K.; Yoo, H.J. [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea); Kang, D.S.; Nam, J.H. [Korea Maritime Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    Estuaries and coastal lagoons (estuarine environments) are typical transitional ecosystems between land and sea, where sea water is mixed with fresh water. It is well known that estuarine environments are very valuable ecosystems because of their unique ecological functions and geographical features, as well as socioeconomic values. These precious estuaries, however, have become severely deteriorated and damaged by human activities through watersheds and intensive coastal developments. In this respect, this study aims to develop integrated management strategies for protection, improvement, and restoration of estuarine environments that would support sustainable uses of those precious natural resources. This study found that regardless of their ecological value, estuaries and coastal lagoons in Korea have deteriorated due to a lack of appropriate management systems and imprudent development and utilization. Furthermore, considering the fact that destruction of the estuaries has been caused by national development projects, the study urges the Korean government to change its development-oriented policies on estuaries and coastal lagoons to more sustainable ones so that future generations may enjoy the benefits from healthy natural estuaries and coastal lagoons. The Korean government, thus, needs to declare that it will no longer promote any development-oriented policy that might destroy valuable estuaries and coastal lagoons, in preparing for the 2002 WSSD which will be held in South Africa in 2002. (author). 175 refs., 72 figs., 95 tabs.

  1. Homosexuality according to ancient Greek physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Moschos, M M; Koukaki, E; Kontaxaki, M-I; Androutsos, G

    2017-01-01

    Homosexuality and pedophilia in ancient Greece greatly concerned many researchers who were mainly interested in highlighting the social aspect of this phenomenon in ancient Greek society. An important source on the subject was the paintings of a man and his lover in attic black and red figured pottery, up to the end of the 5th century BC. Another main source was the information that derived from the texts of ancient Greek literature, especially poetry. Homosexuality was not only referring to relationships between males, but it was also manifested in lesbian love. It is believed that in the Homeric world homosexuality was not favored. In Greek society of the archaic period, the restriction of women at home, the satisfaction of sexual needs with courtesans, the marriage for the purpose of maintaining and managing the property, put women aside, marginalizing them in terms of social life, impeding the cultivation of emotional relationships between sexes. At the same time, in the society of those times, the aristocratic ideal, the constant communication of men during military training and the war, the male nudity in sports and the promotion of beauty and bravery in athletic contests, as well as the gatherings and the entertainment of men at the symposia, created a suitable substrate in which male homosexuality could develop. In this context, pedophile relationships were developed mainly during the archaic period, as recorded on vase paintings, where a mature man developed a special relationship with a teenager of the same social class. The mature man had the role of mentor for the juvenile, he would look after him and cover his living expenses and education cost. In this relationship, exhibiting predominantly the social dimension of an initiation process and introduction to adult life, the erotic homosexual intercourse could find a place to flourish. The above-mentioned relationship could not last forever, given that this would later transform into an emotional

  2. Organic matter composition in the sediment of three Brazilian coastal lagoons: district of Macaé, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Klaus-Gerhard; Furtado, André L S; Casper, Peter; Schwark, Lorenz

    2004-03-01

    Freshwater lagoons comprise important coastal ecosystems and natural buffers between urbanized land areas and open ocean in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Studies of sediment and water chemistry, zooplankton and bacterial communities to assess the extent of anthropogenic disturbance are available. Here we contribute with an organic-geochemical approach supplemented by some microbiological aspects to complete the characterization of these lagoonal ecosystems. Bulk organic matter and extractable lipids (aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols and fatty acids, sterols) were investigated from two locations per lagoon: at the seaward site and landward ends - and at two depth intervals (0-3 and 3-6 cm) per site. Urbanized Imboacica Lagoon received increased anthropogenic input over the most recent years represented by the topmost 3 cm of sediment, whereas deeper sediment layers are less affected by human influence. Eutrophication or nutrient availability favored enhanced algal/cyanobacterial growth. In remote Cabiúnas and Comprida Lagoons pristine conditions are preserved. Organic matter from vascular plants dominates (chain length of free lipids up to C36), which is exceptionally well preserved by acidic lagoonal waters. Differentiation between landward and seaward sites in these two lagoons is less well established due to much smaller surface/volume to catchment ratios. No anthropogenic influences are yet detectable in sediments of Cabiúnas and Comprida Lagoons.

  3. Wind effects on prey availability: How northward migrating waders use brackish and hypersaline lagoons in the Sivash, Ukraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuil, Yvonne I.; Koolhaas, Anita; Van Der Winden, Jan

    1993-01-01

    Large numbers of waders migrating northward in spring use the Sivash, a large system of shallow, brackish and hypersaline lagoons in the Black Sea and Azov Sea region (Ukraine). The bottoms of these lagoons are often uncovered by the wind. Hence, for waders the time and space available for feeding

  4. Urology and the scientific method in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordetsky, Jennifer; O'Brien, Jeanne

    2009-03-01

    To examine the practice of urology in ancient Egypt using various sources, including the Edwin Smith and Ebers Papyri. The sources of knowledge of ancient Egyptian medicine include medical papyri, paleopathology, art, and hieroglyphic carvings. A brief overview of the medical system in ancient Egypt was completed, in addition to an examination of the training and specialization of the physician in the ancient world. Urologic diseases treated in ancient Egypt and some of the first documented urologic surgeries are presented. Finally, we studied the role of the physician-priest and the intertwined use of religion and magic in ancient Egyptian medicine. The same medical conditions urologists treat in the office today were methodically documented thousands of years ago. Medical papyri show evidence that the ancient Egyptians practiced medicine using a scientific method based on the clinical observation of disease. This has been exemplified by the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, a collection of surgical cases that gives a diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis for each ailment, and the discovery of medical specialization in ancient Egypt, giving us perhaps the world's first urologists. Intertwined with the scientific method was also the rich mysticism and religion of ancient Egypt, which were integral components of the healing process. We present an overview of the practice of urology in ancient Egypt, in terms of both pharmacologic and surgical intervention, as well as with a look into the religion of medicine practiced at that time.

  5. Controls of Sediment Nitrogen Dynamics in Tropical Coastal Lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enrich-Prast, Alex; Figueiredo, Viviane; Esteves, Francisco de Assis; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2016-01-01

    Sediment denitrification rates seem to be lower in tropical environments than in temperate environments. Using the isotope pairing technique, we measured actual denitrification rates in the sediment of tropical coastal lagoons. To explain the low denitrification rates observed at all study sites (<5 μmol N2 m-2 h-1), we also evaluated potential oxygen (O2) consumption, potential nitrification, potential denitrification, potential anammox, and estimated dissimilatory nitrate (NO3-) reduction to ammonium (NH4+; DNRA) in the sediment. 15NO3- and 15NH4+ conversion was measured in oxic and anoxic slurries from the sediment surface. Sediment potential O2 consumption was used as a proxy for overall mineralization activity. Actual denitrification rates and different potential nitrogen (N) oxidation and reduction processes were significantly correlated with potential O2 consumption. The contribution of potential nitrification to total O2 consumption decreased from contributing 9% at sites with the lowest sediment mineralization rates to less than 0.1% at sites with the highest rates. NO3- reduction switched completely from potential denitrification to estimated DNRA. Ammonium oxidation and nitrite (NO2-) reduction by potential anammox contributed up to 3% in sediments with the lowest sediment mineralization rates. The majority of these patterns could be explained by variations in the microbial environments from stable and largely oxic conditions at low sediment mineralization sites to more variable conditions and the prevalences of anaerobic microorganisms at high sediment mineralization sites. Furthermore, the presence of algal and microbial mats on the sediment had a significant effect on all studied processes. We propose a theoretical model based on low and high sediment mineralization rates to explain the growth, activity, and distribution of microorganisms carrying out denitrification and DNRA in sediments that can explain the dominance or coexistence of DNRA and

  6. Migration Rate Of Tidal Meanders: Inferences From The Venice Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finotello, A.; D'Alpaos, A.; Ghinassi, M.; Lanzoni, S.; Marani, M.; Rinaldo, A.

    2015-12-01

    Meandering channels are ubiquitous features of tidal landscapes. However, despite their fundamental role on the eco-morphodynamic evolution of these landscapes, tidal meanders have received less attention when compared to their fluvial counterparts. Improving current understanding of tidal meander migration, a largely-examined topic in fluvial landscapes, is a key step to highlight analogies and differences between tidal and fluvial cases. The migration of about 400 meander bends, belonging to 40 salt-marsh channels in the Northern Venice Lagoon (Italy), from 1968 to nowadays, has been investigated by means of both a classical method in fluvial frameworks and new procedure. Similarities with fluvial meanders occur, although important difference also emerge. Meanders cutting through the San Felice marsh follow the relationship between cartesian length and channel width, typical of meanders developed within different settings. However, meander migration rates proved to be smaller than those characterizing fluvial meanders. Indeed, the analysis of meander migration suggests a mean migration rate of about 0.10 m/year, consistent with the few data available in the literature. As for the fluvial case, the maximum-potential migration rate (i.e. the envelope curve of the relationship between migration rate and bend radius, both divided by channel width) reaches a maximum for radius-over-width ratio included between 2 and 3, regardless of the considered method. Nevertheless, the new-proposed method allows us to provide a more objective and continuous characterization. By using this new procedure, the channel curvature has finally been Fourier-analyzed, confirming the importance of even harmonics along the curvature spectrum. A correlation between migration rates and dominant harmonics seems to drive the evolution of tidal meanders and might represent a key-feature to distinguish them from their fluvial counterparts.

  7. Organochlorine pesticides in sediment and biological samples from the coastal lagoons of Nicaragua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro, S.; Lacayo, M.; Picado, F.; Lopez, A.

    1999-01-01

    A study was carried out on the Pacific coast of Nicaragua to investigate the contamination of the coastal lagoons with residues of agricultural pesticides. Samples were taken during 1995 from the areas of Estero Real, Padre Ramos, Maderas Negras, Naranjo and Paso Caballos, and during 1996 from Aposentillo to Estero Barquito - Posoltega River. Analysis of the samples of sediment and aquatic life (fishes, oysters and bivalves) showed that they were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides. The pesticides found in the highest concentrations were toxaphene (1,734 μg.kg -1 ) and p,p-DDE (275 μg kg -1 ). These data indicate widespread contamination of the ecosystem with organochlorine pesticides in the main Pacific coastal lagoons of Nicaragua, resulting from intensive agricultural use of pesticides during the past decades. The contamination has been carried from the agricultural areas to the coastal lagoons by the rivers passing through the cultivated areas. (author)

  8. Numerical and experimental investigations of submarine groundwater discharge to a coastal lagoon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haider, Kinza

    The main goal of this study is to understand and estimate the amount of submarine groundwater discharge into Ringkøbing Fjord from shallow and deep aquifer systems at the Eastern shoreline from Ringkøbing catchment in Western Denmark. In order to accomplish this objective, the study was initiated...... of the groundwater discharge occurred near the shoreline of the lagoon, but also off-shore discharge from deep confined aquifers system occurred at places where confining clay layers are eroded by buried valleys. The simulated fresh groundwater discharge was a non-negligible component, 59 % of recharge on the lagoon...... and 6 % of river input into the lagoon. This large-scale study was the motivation to conduct field investigation techniques in order to understand the dynamic processes in the near-shore environment. Field campaigns were conducted every two months in order to understand the seasonal groundwater...

  9. Distribution to heavy metals in sediments of the Venice Lagoon: The role of the industrial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frignani, M.; Bellucci, L.G.; Ravanelli, M.; Paolucci, D.

    1999-01-01

    The Venice Lagoon has been heavily polluted both from diffuse and direct sources. It has been recently established that the atmospheric delivery of contaminants to the lagoon can be very significant in zones far from direct sources, but the influence of the industrial area of Porto Marghera, though widely recognized, has not been entirely described and quantified. In order to assess the temporal and spatial variability of metal pollution, and to better understand the contribution of the industrial channels as sources of contaminants, in May 1996 we sampled 18 stations in the lagoon and 9 in the channels of the industrial area of Porto Marghera. At each site a short core, 10 cm long, was taken and immediately extruded to obtain 4 slices 2-2.5 cm thick. Sediment samples have been analysed for As, Cd, Pb, and Zn after acid extraction

  10. 210Pb and 210Po in Venice Lagoon Biota and their contribution to population dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Guogang; Rosamilia, S.; Blasi, M.; Sansone, U.; Belli, M.; Sepulcri, D.; Bidoli, P.

    2002-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is a by-product resulting from the processes applied in phosphoric acid or phosphate fertilizer production. The phosphate ore used in these chemical processes contains the naturally occurring radioactive materials U, and Th, along with their decay products. Large volumes of solid waste products were discharged from a phosphoric acid production plant on the edge of the Venice lagoon (Italy). Water, suspended matter, and biota were monitored in the Venice lagoon, since this aquatic environment can be considered to represent the final area of deposition for the radionuclides transported from inland. The present paper reports data on the activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb determined in biota living in the lagoon, and an estimation of the contribution to internal dose to man from the ingestion of food originating in the investigated area. (orig.)

  11. Lagoon Sediment Dynamics: A Coupled Model to Study a Medium-Term Silting of Tidal Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Petti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The silting of tidal channels is a natural process that affects several shallow lagoons and makes it difficult to navigate, requiring regular maintenance interventions. This phenomenon is the result of the complex non-linear interaction between tidal currents and wave motion. In this work, the morphodynamic evolution of the Marano and Grado lagoon is investigated by means of a two-dimensional horizontal (2DH morphological-hydrodynamic and a spectral coupled model. An innovative procedure to reproduce the overall bathymetric changes in the medium term and, in particular, the volumes deposited inside channels, is presented. An average year with a sequence of winds and tides acting over that time was reconstructed, carrying out cross correlation techniques and spectral analyses of measured data. The predicted morphological evolution matches the annual dredged volumes in the lagoon critical branches and shows the distribution of erosion and deposition of cohesive sediments according to spatially variable values of critical shear stress.

  12. Effect of Coastal Waves on Hydrodynamics in One-Inlet Coastal Nador Lagoon, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyar Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nador lagoon is a coastal system connected to the sea through a narrow and shallow inlet; understanding its hydraulic performance is required for its design and operation. This paper investigates the hydrodynamic impacts of the whole lagoon due to tidal waves using a numerical approach. In this study we use a two-dimensional, depth-averaged hydrodynamic model based on so-called shallow water equations solved within triangular mesh by a developed efficient finite volume method. The method was calibrated and validated against observed data and applied to analyze and predict water levels, tidal currents, and wind effects within the lagoon. Two typical idealized scenarios were investigated: tide only and tide with wind forcing. The predicted sea surface elevations and current speeds have been presented during a typical tidal period and show correct physics in different scenarios.

  13. Shallow gas accumulation in sediments of the Patos Lagoon, Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weschenfelder, Jair; Corrrea, Iran C.S.; Pereira, Carla M.; Vasconcellos, Vinicius E.B. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Aliotta, Salvador [Instituto Argentino de Oceanografia Complejo CRIBABB, Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2006-07-15

    A high resolution seismic survey was conducted in the Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil, aboard of the research vessel LARUS of the Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG). Around 400 km of 3.5 k Hz seismic profiles were collected, which provided acoustic signals of good penetration depth and resolution. Seismic anomalies, including turbidity and pocket gas, revealed that gas-charged sediments are common in several areas of the lagoon. The gas accumulations in the Patos Lagoon are controlled by the spatial distribution of the sedimentary facies. Either in 'curtains' or in 'acoustic turbid zones', the main gas accumulations occur in areas with paleotopographic lows related to fluvial channels and valleys developed in the Rio Grande do Sul coastal plain during regressive/transgressive events of the Quaternary. (author)

  14. Comparative scaffolding and gap filling of ancient bacterial genomes applied to two ancient Yersinia pestis genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Daniel; Chauve, Cedric

    2017-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of the bubonic plague, a disease responsible for several dramatic historical pandemics. Progress in ancient DNA (aDNA) sequencing rendered possible the sequencing of whole genomes of important human pathogens, including the ancient Y. pestis strains responsible for outbreaks of the bubonic plague in London in the 14th century and in Marseille in the 18th century, among others. However, aDNA sequencing data are still characterized by short reads and non-uniform coverage, so assembling ancient pathogen genomes remains challenging and often prevents a detailed study of genome rearrangements. It has recently been shown that comparative scaffolding approaches can improve the assembly of ancient Y. pestis genomes at a chromosome level. In the present work, we address the last step of genome assembly, the gap-filling stage. We describe an optimization-based method AGapEs (ancestral gap estimation) to fill in inter-contig gaps using a combination of a template obtained from related extant genomes and aDNA reads. We show how this approach can be used to refine comparative scaffolding by selecting contig adjacencies supported by a mix of unassembled aDNA reads and comparative signal. We applied our method to two Y. pestis data sets from the London and Marseilles outbreaks, for which we obtained highly improved genome assemblies for both genomes, comprised of, respectively, five and six scaffolds with 95 % of the assemblies supported by ancient reads. We analysed the genome evolution between both ancient genomes in terms of genome rearrangements, and observed a high level of synteny conservation between these strains. PMID:29114402

  15. CHANT (CHinese ANcient Texts): a comprehensive database of all ancient Chinese texts up to 600 AD

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Che Wah

    2006-01-01

    The CHinese ANcient Texts (CHANT) database is a long-term project which began in 1988 to build up a comprehensive database of all ancient Chinese texts up to the sixth century AD. The project is near completion and the entire database, which includes both traditional and excavated materials, will be released on the CHANT Web site (www.chant.org) in mid-2002. With more than a decade of experience in establishing an electronic Chinese literary database, we have gained much insight useful to the...

  16. Spatial variability in fish species assemblage and community structure in four subtropical lagoons of the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosepele, K.; Mosepele, B.; Bokhutlo, T.; Amutenya, K.

    The species assemblage and community structure of four lagoons was assessed through time series data collected between 2001 and 2005 in the Okavango Delta. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of lagoons as fish habitats in the Delta. Therefore, this study assessed the importance of these habitats through determining fish species diversity, composition, relative abundance, and community structure between the lagoons. Forty six species belonging to 11 families and five orders were collected over the study period. Main results showed that Cichlidae was the most important family and had the highest species richness in the lagoons. Significant differences ( p lodges are constructed, which makes subsequently makes them vulnerable to pollution. Therefore, the integrity of lagoon habitats needs to be maintained so that their ecosystem functioning (i.e. fish repositories) is maintained.

  17. Assessment of the metals concentration in sediments of Chimaliapan Lagoon, Lerma, Mexico State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez V, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    The San Pedro Tultepec Lagoon of Quiroga in Lerma, known as Chimaliapan Lagoon is one of the Cienegas of the high course of the Lerma river. Considering that the lagoon is adjacent to an industrial area, have been altered the natural conditions of the channels, degrading the water quality and affecting the systems with different pollution sources, among which are industrial and municipal discharges and runoff of farmland. For this reason was decided to conduct a study in order to assess the concentration of metals in sediments of 4 sites and 4 downloads of the Chimaliapan Lagoon in order to infer the possible natural contributions and/or anthropogenic metals and their impact on both flora and fauna and the population that is supplied with the same, while assessing levels of enrichment of Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb metals as a result of contributions previously mentioned applying the technique of Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). According to the results by EDXRF, the sediments of the Lagoon assessed with the criterion of the EPA for the disposal of dredged sediments at this site, Mn and Fe only slightly exceed this criterion, then considering the Canadian criteria for the protection of aquatic life OMe, might have slight effects of Cr, Mn, Fe and Cu. Sediment discharges, evaluated with the same criteria indicate that Cr and Pb exceed the limit recommended by the EPA for the disposal of dredged sediments and Cr, Cu and Zn exceed the limit recommended for the protection of aquatic life OMe, noting that these metals may cause slight effects on organisms living in the Lagoon, such as carp and other organisms that live there, causing potential effects on humans through the food chain. (Author)

  18. Linking pipefishes and seahorses to their habitat: implications for species conservation in the Venice lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Scapin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass meadows of the Venice lagoon (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy are spatially heterogeneous systems, with attributes such as degree of coverage and plant assemblages varying along multiple environmental gradients. They play a particularly relevant role in conservation of fish diversity, since they provide vital habitats for pipefish and seahorse species (family Syngnathidae. Aim of the study was to investigate the diversity of syngnathid assemblages in the Venice lagoon and link species distributions to habitat characteristics, in order to evaluate the importance of seagrass meadows of the lagoon for the conservation of these species. The analyses of this work are based on eight years of fish data collected between 2001 and 2014 in 186 shallow water sites across the entire lagoon. Water parameters, presence of macroalgae, seagrass presence and coverage, as well as meadows species composition, were considered as predictors in a modelling framework, to explain the distribution of each species. Overall, two species of seahorses and seven species of pipefishes including the Adriatic endemism Syngnathus taenionotus were found. Three species (S. abaster, S. typhle and Nerophis ophidion were the most abundant, together accounting for 98% of total individuals caught. Both seagrass presence and its coverage resulted significant predictors, with densities of S. abaster, S. typhle, N. ophidion and Hippocampus guttulatus being positively associated with higher percentages of seagrass cover. In addition, some evidences suggested a different functionality of different meadow types in supporting both S. typhle and N. ophidion. The study highlighted the role of Venice lagoon as biodiversity hotspot for syngnathids, since it supports nine out of the 10 species known in the Mediterranean (with only S. phlegon being absent. Results also suggested the importance of habitat management, which should aim at compensating for seagrass habitat loss and therefore

  19. Study on the sedimentation of the Olho D'Agua Lagoon, State of Pernambuco - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentim, Eliane; Hazin, Clovis A.; Lima, Ricardo de A.; Amaral, Romilton S.; Godoy, Jose M.

    1999-01-01

    The Olho D'Agua Lagoon, placed in the municipal district of Jabotao of Guararapes, metropolitan area of Recife, is the main natural lagoon of the State of Pernambuco. For possessing a great potential paisagistic and environmental and for its extension, articulations between the City hall of Jaboatao of Guararapes and the Federal Government were accomplished in order to be built in I spill it of the lagoon a tourist park with the cooperation of several international organs. The urban and industrial development of this area happened the approximately 50 years ago, and ever since the Olho D'Agua Lagoon has if turned a deposit of domestic and industrial sink, because 95% of the spontaneous establishment are located in its margins and 15% are just assisted by sinks nets. So that a program of revitalization of this estuary is executed it is necessary to evaluate the ecological impact in this lagoon due to the activities. With base in this, it was determined the sedimentation rate and dating of its sediments in order to evaluate the pollution degree in the sets and to compare them with the profile of heavy metals and granulometer of the sediments. The obtained results show an expressive growth of the sedimentation rate, of 0,1 cm/year to 0,3 cm/year for 0,6 cm/year to 1,0 cm/year starting from the decade of 40. These results are in agreement with the text of heavy metals observed in each section of the lagoon and they agree with the industrial history of the area. (author)

  20. Bacterioplankton diversity and community composition in the Southern Lagoon of Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonato, Francesca; Gómez-Pereira, Paola R; Fuchs, Bernhard M; Amann, Rudolf

    2010-04-01

    The Lagoon of Venice is a large water basin that exchanges water with the Northern Adriatic Sea through three large inlets. In this study, the 16S rRNA approach was used to investigate the bacterial diversity and community composition within the southern basin of the Lagoon of Venice and at one inlet in October 2007 and June 2008. Comparative sequence analysis of 645 mostly partial 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated high diversity and dominance of Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes at the lagoon as well as at the inlet station, therefore pointing to significant mixing. Many of these sequences were close to the 16S rRNA of marine, often coastal, bacterioplankton, such as the Roseobacter clade, the family Vibrionaceae, and class Flavobacteria. Sequences of Actinobacteria were indicators of a freshwater input. The composition of the bacterioplankton was quantified by catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) with a set of rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. CARD-FISH counts corroborated the dominance of members of the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. When assessed by a probe set for the quantification of selected clades within Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, bacterioplankton composition differed between October 2007 and June 2008, and also between the inlet and the lagoon. In particular, members of the readily culturable copiotrophic gammaproteobacterial genera Vibrio, Alteromonas and Pseudoalteromonas were enriched in the southern basin of the Lagoon of Venice. Interestingly, the alphaproteobacterial SAR11 clade and related clusters were also present in high abundances at the inlet and within the lagoon, which was indicative of inflow of water from the open sea.

  1. Methane fluxes from tropical coastal lagoons surrounded by mangroves, Yucatán, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, P.-C.; Young, M. B.; Dale, A. W.; Miller, L. G.; Herrera-Silveira, J. A.; Paytan, A.

    2017-05-01

    Methane concentrations in the water column and emissions to the atmosphere were determined for three tropical coastal lagoons surrounded by mangrove forests on the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. Surface water dissolved methane was sampled at different seasons over a period of 2 years in areas representing a wide range of salinities and anthropogenic impacts. The highest surface water methane concentrations (up to 8378 nM) were measured in a polluted canal associated with Terminos Lagoon. In Chelem Lagoon, methane concentrations were typically lower, except in the polluted harbor area (1796 nM). In the relatively pristine Celestún Lagoon, surface water methane concentrations ranged from 41 to 2551 nM. Methane concentrations were negatively correlated with salinity in Celestún, while in Chelem and Terminos high methane concentrations were associated with areas of known pollution inputs, irrespective of salinity. The diffusive methane flux from surface lagoon water to the atmosphere ranged from 0.0023 to 15 mmol CH4 m-2 d-1. Flux chamber measurements revealed that direct methane release as ebullition was up to 3 orders of magnitude greater than measured diffusive flux. Coastal mangrove lagoons may therefore be an important natural source of methane to the atmosphere despite their relatively high salinity. Pollution inputs are likely to substantially enhance this flux. Additional statistically rigorous data collected globally are needed to better consider methane fluxes from mangrove-surrounded coastal areas in response to sea level changes and anthropogenic pollution in order to refine projections of future atmospheric methane budgets.

  2. Assessing the Impact of Animal Waste Lagoon Seepage on the Geochemistry of an Underlying Shallow Aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNab, W W; Singleton, M J; Moran, J E; Esser, B K

    2006-03-07

    Dairy facilities and similar confined animal operation settings pose a significant nitrate contamination threat via oxidation of animal wastes and subsequent transport to shallow groundwater. While nitrate contamination resulting from application of animal manure as fertilizer to fields is well recognized, the impact of manure lagoon leakage on groundwater quality is less well characterized. In this study, a dairy facility located in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California has been instrumented with monitoring wells as part of a two-year multidisciplinary study to evaluate nitrate loading and denitrification associated with facility operations. Among multiple types of data collected from the site, groundwater and surface water samples have been analyzed for major cations, anions, pH, oxidation-reduction potential, dissolved organic carbon, and selected dissolved gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}, Ar, Ne). Modeling of putative geochemical processes occurring within the dairy site manure lagoons shows substantial off-gassing of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} in response to mineralization of organic matter. The gas ebullition appears to strip dissolved gases, including Ar and Ne, from the lagoon water leaving concentrations that are undersaturated with respect to the atmosphere. The resulting fractionated dissolved gas signature serves as an effective tracer for the lagoon water in the underlying shallow groundwater and can be used to constrain inverse geochemical models that assess mixing fractions of lagoon water and local groundwater water. Together with ion exchange and mineral equilibria reactions, identification of lagoon seepage helps explain key attributes of the local groundwater chemistry, including input and cycling of nitrogen, across the site.

  3. Chasing boundaries and cascade effects in a coupled barrier-marsh-lagoon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Trueba, Jorge; Mariotti, Giulio

    2017-08-01

    The long-term dynamic evolution of an idealized barrier-marsh-lagoon system experiencing sea-level rise is studied by coupling two existing numerical models. The barrier model accounts for the interaction between shoreface dynamics and overwash flux, which allows the occurrence of barrier drowning. The marsh-lagoon model includes both a backbarrier marsh and an interior marsh, and accounts for the modification of the wave regime associated with changes in lagoon width and depth. Overwash, the key process that connects the barrier shoreface with the marsh-lagoon ecosystems, is formulated to account for the role of the backbarrier marsh. Model results show that a number of factors that are not typically associated with the dynamics of coastal barriers can enhance the rate of overwash-driven landward migration by increasing backbarrier accommodation space. For instance, lagoon deepening could be triggered by marsh edge retreat and consequent export of fine sediment via tidal dispersion, as well as by an expansion of inland marshes and consequent increase in accommodation space to be filled in with sediment. A deeper lagoon results in a larger fraction of sediment overwash being subaqueous, which coupled with a slow shoreface response sending sediment onshore can trigger barrier drowning. We therefore conclude that the supply of fine sediments to the back-barrier and the dynamics of both the interior and backbarrier marsh can be essential for maintaining the barrier system under elevated rates of sea-level rise. Our results highlight the importance of considering barriers and their associated backbarriers as part of an integrated system in which sediment is exchanged.

  4. A study on provenance relation between Jiaotanxia ancient Guan porcelain and Qingliangsi ancient Ru porcelain by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Rongwu; Feng Songlin; Huang Zhongxiang; Jia Xiuqin

    2004-01-01

    11 samples of ancient Chinese Ru porcelain from Qingliangsi kiln, 23 samples of ancient Chinese Guan porcelain from Jiaotanxia kiln and 4 samples of modern archaized Guan porcelain were obtained to determine the contents of elements in each of them by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The NAA data were further analyzed using fuzzy cluster analysis to obtain the fuzzy cluster trend diagrams for the bodies' samples and the glazes samples respectively. The analysis shows that the raw material origins of the Jiaotanxia ancient Chinese Guan porcelain bodies samples are very concentrated; those of the Qingliangsi ancient Chinese Ru porcelain bodies samples are a little dispersed; those of ancient Chinese Guan porcelain glazes samples are relatively concentrated; those of ancient Chinese Ru porcelain glazes samples are dispersed; and the origins of the raw material of ancient Chinese Guan porcelain glazes samples are obviously different from those of ancient Chinese Ru porcelain glazes samples. The bodies samples and glazes samples of Jiaotanxia ancient Chinese Guan porcelain and those of Qingliangsi ancient Chinese Ru porcelain have some difference but can be compared with each other. (authors)

  5. Methodology for the selection of the regime of flow in lagoons of stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz T, Luis Eduardo; Alayon Torres, Walter E; Monsegny S, Carlos Emilio

    2000-01-01

    To model biological processes, information is needed on the stoichiometry and kinetics of the reactions and about the hydraulic regime of the system. The stoichiometry of a reaction refers to the quantity of consumed reactants (such as substrates) and to the quantity of formed products (such as microorganisms). The hydraulic regime makes reference to the configuration of the flow inside of and outside of the process and to the mixture and distribution of the solids of the fluid inside the reactor. The present article it is centered in studying the different mixture regimens and its kinetic models of degradation of organic matter applied to the case specify of the lagoon of stabilization of residual waters of the Municipality of Tocancipa; also it the methodology discusses to determine the type of flow that is presented in a stabilization lagoon. The kinetic models of degradation of organic matter in stabilization lagoons are classified according with the presence or absence of oxygen in the lagoon and with the mixture regime that it is presented in this. The regimens of flow that are presented in the stabilization lagoons are those of complete mixture and the piston flow, one completely opposed to the other one. Between these two is the denominated regime of dispersed or arbitrary flow. The determination of the mixture regime is of great importance, since with this it is possible to have an idea of the behavior of the rates of removal of the nutrients that arrive to the system, of the consumption of oxygen and the kinetic pattern of removal of organic matter among others. The regime of mixture complete ideal this characterized because the mass of water that enters to the system is dispersed instantly, making that the characteristics of the water are the same ones in any point, that is to say that the reaction rates are constant in the reactor and the demand of oxygen it is identical in any sampling point, likewise it happens with the removal rate; this has big

  6. Dioxins in the Venice lagoon: Present situation, projects and recovering hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccanelli, S; Bonamin, V

    2000-01-01

    Venice is famous around the world for its uniqueness and architectural splendours, arts and the history of the "Serenissima Repubblica", as it was known in the past, but few are aware that Venice economy is strongly dependent on the industrial activities based mainly on the adjacent Porto Marghera area. For many years, the lagoon that physically separates the city from the dry land has avoided association between the concern connected with the pollution derived from these industrial activities and the public perception of Venice. Since 1995, dioxins have appeared as a lagoon contaminant, and their presence, at such a level requiring immediate "in depth" studies and interventions, has been fully realized for decades.

  7. Temporal stability of otolith elemental fingerprints discriminates among lagoon nursery habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournois, Jennifer; Ferraton, Franck; Velez, Laure; McKenzie, David J.; Aliaume, Catherine; Mercier, Lény; Darnaude, Audrey M.

    2013-10-01

    The chemical composition of fish otoliths reflects that of the water masses that they inhabit. Otolith elemental compositions can, therefore, be used as natural tags to discriminate among habitats. However, for retrospective habitat identification to be valid and reliable for any adult, irrespective of its age, significant differences in environmental conditions, and therefore otolith signatures, must be temporally stable within each habitat, otherwise connectivity studies have to be carried out by matching year-classes to the corresponding annual fingerprints. This study investigated how various different combinations of chemical elements in otoliths could distinguish, over three separate years, between four coastal lagoon habitats used annually as nurseries by gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean). A series of nine elements were measured in otoliths of 301 S. aurata juveniles collected in the four lagoons in 2008, 2010 and 2011. Percentages of correct re-assignment of juveniles to their lagoon of origin were calculated with the Random Forest classification method, considering every possible combination of elements. This revealed both spatial and temporal variations in accuracy of habitat identification, with correct re-assignment to each lagoon ranging from 44 to 99% depending on the year and the lagoon. There were also annual differences in the combination of elements that provided the best discrimination among the lagoons. Despite this, when the data from the three years were pooled, a combination of eight elements (B, Ba, Cu, Li, Mg, Rb, Sr and Y) provided greater than 70% correct re-assignment to each single lagoon, with a multi-annual global accuracy of 79%. When considering the years separately, discrimination accuracy with these elemental fingerprints was above 90% for 2008 and 2010. It decreased to 61% in 2011, when unusually heavy rainfall occurred, which presumably reduced chemical differences among several of the

  8. THE APPLICATION OF A BPL INDEX IN THE POLISH PART OF THE VISTULA LAGOON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Agnieszka Michałek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a biopollution assessment results with respect to macrozoobenthic non-indigenous species in the Polish part of the Vistula Lagoon. A biopollution level index (BPL was applied and evaluated based on the studies on macrozoobenthos conducted in 2010 and 2012 within the frame of several individual projects. Overall 15 macrozoobenthic species were identified, 5 of which were aquatic alien species: Marenzelleria neglecta, Rhitropanopeus harrissi, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, Dreissena polymorpha and Rangia cuneata. According to the applied criteria the Vistula Lagoon was moderately influenced by invasive species.

  9. Seasonal succession of cyanoprokaryotes in a hypereutrophic oligo-mesohaline lagoon from the South of France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomérat, Nicolas; Garnier, Robert; Bertrand, Céline; Cazaubon, Arlette

    2007-05-01

    The Bolmon lagoon (South of France) is an oligo-mesohaline coastal lagoon that has undergone intense eutrophication in the past decades, resulting from a strong concentration of human activities in its drainage basin. Consequently, it exhibits some characteristics typical of an advanced trophic state; namely, the disappearance of submerged vegetation, the permanently intense phytoplankton growth and the recurrence of cyanoprokaryote blooms. As cyanoprokaryote dominance in south-temperate saline lagoons is little reported, we carried out this study in order to understand the seasonal variations in the phytoplankton composition and biomass, and to analyse the influence of environmental parameters such as salinity, nutrients and climate on the seasonal succession of species. In this lagoon, the phytoplankton was permanently dominated by cyanoprokaryotes, probably because of high availability of nutrients, low light penetration in the water column and frequent turbulent mixing induced by wind. The two most abundant species Planktothrix agardhii (in winter-spring) and Pseudanabaena limnetica (in summer) have low light requirements and are well adapted to a high mixing frequency, which defines the S1 functional group in Reynolds' typology for phytoplankton. Although widely studied in north-temperate lakes, blooms of these typically freshwater species are almost unreported in the Mediterranean area, especially in brackish ecosystems that are not their normal habitat. In the Bolmon lagoon, all their requirements for nutrients, light and mixing are satisfied and they seem to cope with a moderate presence of salt but P. agardhii was less competitive than P. limnetica at highest salinities, the latter being probably more halophytic. Contrary to the observations in lakes located at higher latitudes, the Mediterranean climate seems to induce a typical seasonal pattern of succession characterised by the dominance of P. agardhii (winter) - Chroococcales (spring

  10. The provenance investigation on ancient chinese Ru porcelains by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhengyao; Wang Jie; Chen Songhua

    1997-01-01

    The 28 samples of glazes and bodies of ancient Chinese Ru porcelains are analyzed by neutron activation. The 36 element contents in each sample are determined. The neutron activation analysis (NAA) data are analyzed by fuzzy cluster. The trend cluster diagram is obtained. The result shows that the ancient Chinese Ru porcelains were most probably from the same raw material source though they were from different time, fired in different kilns and in different colors. The near provenance relation between ancient Jun porcelain and ancient Ru porcelain is preliminarily analyzed. The two modern Ru porcelains approximate to ancient Ru porcelains, one becomes estranged from ancient Ru porcelains. Jingdezhen porcelain is unconcerned with Ru porcelains

  11. Unriddling of ancient-medieval culture by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, M.

    1997-01-01

    Some examples are given for unriddling of ancient-medieval culture by PIXE. Effectiveness of PIXE to analyze art and archaeological objects is also explained. Objects employed here are 1) red, yellow, blue and white pigments painted on sun-dried bricks excavated in Egypt, 2) ancient glass beads used in the Near East, 3) South American mummy hair, 4) ancient slag excavated from Kansai-district, Japan 5) ink used by Galileo Galilei and 6) Renaissance style enameled gold jewelry. (author)

  12. Surgical history of ancient China: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Louis

    2009-12-01

    Although surgery was an accepted and quite proficient craft very early on in Chinese history, it has deteriorated through the ages. Despite the fact that anaesthetic agents in major surgery were employed during the third century, Chinese surgery is conspicuous by its stagnation. Reverence for the dead, filial piety, abhorrence of shedding blood and other conservative attitudes make it impossible for any accurate knowledge of the human anatomy and physiology, without which surgery cannot progress. This article surveys some highlights in the history of surgery in ancient China and examines the factors responsible for its decline. The second concluding part deals with orthopaedics.

  13. Suicide and parasuicide in ancient personal testimonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooff, A J

    1993-01-01

    Attitudes toward suicide have not always been the same as they are today, and understanding the ideas of other cultures and times could enable us to reexamine contemporary conceptions of self-killing. Greek and Roman personal testimonies were examined to investigate the thesis that ancients did not see suicide as caused by psychic or emotional forces. Indeed, though the documents of antiquity give us a closer look into personal motives, they demonstrate that even would-be self-killers themselves wished to regard suicide as a rational act of volition.

  14. The Ancient Maya Landscape from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, T.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The Peten, once inhabited by a population of several million before the collapse of the ancient Maya in the 10th and 11th centuries, is being repopulated toward its former demographic peak. Environmental dynamics, however, impose severe constraints to further development. Current practices in subsistence, commercial agriculture, and cattle raising are causing rapid deforestation resulting in the destruction of environmental and archeological resources. The use of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology is a cost-effective methodology for addressing issues in Maya archeology as well as monitoring the environmental impacts being experienced by the current population.

  15. Study of ancient pottery from Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipka, J.; Fusek, G.; Sitek, J.; Hucl, M.; Rausz, J.; Gajdosova, M.

    1990-01-01

    Ancient pottery samples collected from south-west Slovakia were studied through subjective observation and by Moessbauer spectroscopy. This method is convenient for determining the provenance and the manufacture of pottery. Transformations, induced by firing the clay and characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy, give valuable information regarding the manufacture as, for instance, the final temperature of firing in it. The relative abundance of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ determines the atmosphere used to fire a pottery. It has been found that the determination of the firing atmosphere obtained through the subjective observation is in good agreement with that obtained using Moessbauer spectroscopy. An unfired and fired clay was also investigated. (orig.)

  16. Ancient Indian Astronomy in Introductory Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahari Achar, B. N.

    1997-10-01

    It is customary in introductory survey courses in astronomy to devote some time to the history of astronomy. In the available text books only the Greek contribution receives any attention. Apart from Stonehenge and Chichenitza pictures, contributions from Babylon and China are some times mentioned. Hardly any account is given of ancient Indian astronomy. Even when something is mentioned it is incomplete or incorrect or both. Examples are given from several text books currently available. An attempt is made to correct this situation by sketching the contributions from the earliest astronomy of India, namely Vedaanga Jyotisha.

  17. PIXE analysis of ancient Chinese Changsha porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, E.K.; Yu, Y.C.; Wang, C.W.; Liu, T.Y.; Wu, C.M.; Chen, K.M.; Lin, S.S.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method was applied for the analysis of ancient Chinese Changsha porcelain produced in the Tang dynasty (AD 618-907). A collection of glazed potsherds was obtained in the complex of the famous kiln site at Tongguan, Changsha city, Hunan province. Studies of elemental composition were carried out on ten selected Changsha potsherds. Minor and trace elements such as Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Rb, Sr, and Zr in the material of the porcelain glaze were determined. Variation of these elements from sample to sample was investigated. Details of results are presented and discussed

  18. Goethe among the Ancients: Nature and Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rubio Garrido

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available During his trip to Sicily, a striking triad influenced Goethe. In the first place, a certain mythological predisposition presides over his descriptions. Second, he includes in his narration digressions about geology, geography, and botany. Finally, he dwells on detailed allusions to his artistic experiences, which include principally those related to architecture. As a result, Goethe combined in Sicily the experience of the ancient myth with the intimate conviction that feeling the natural and the Greek, as far as architecture is concerned, joins him to a meaning with validity in his time.

  19. PIXE analysis of ancient Chinese Changsha porcelain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, E.K.; Yu, Y.C.; Wang, C.W.; Liu, T.Y.; Wu, C.M.; Chen, K.M.; Lin, S.S

    1999-04-02

    In this work, proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method was applied for the analysis of ancient Chinese Changsha porcelain produced in the Tang dynasty (AD 618-907). A collection of glazed potsherds was obtained in the complex of the famous kiln site at Tongguan, Changsha city, Hunan province. Studies of elemental composition were carried out on ten selected Changsha potsherds. Minor and trace elements such as Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Rb, Sr, and Zr in the material of the porcelain glaze were determined. Variation of these elements from sample to sample was investigated. Details of results are presented and discussed.

  20. PIXE analysis of ancient Chinese Changsha porcelain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, E. K.; Yu, Y. C.; Wang, C. W.; Liu, T. Y.; Wu, C. M.; Chen, K. M.; Lin, S. S.

    1999-04-01

    In this work, proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method was applied for the analysis of ancient Chinese Changsha porcelain produced in the Tang dynasty (AD 618-907). A collection of glazed potsherds was obtained in the complex of the famous kiln site at Tongguan, Changsha city, Hunan province. Studies of elemental composition were carried out on ten selected Changsha potsherds. Minor and trace elements such as Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Rb, Sr, and Zr in the material of the porcelain glaze were determined. Variation of these elements from sample to sample was investigated. Details of results are presented and discussed.

  1. History through Art and Architecture: Ancient Greek Architecture [and] Ancient Greek Sculpture. Teacher's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ann

    This document consists of two teaching manuals designed to accompany a commercially-available "multicultural, interdisciplinary video program," consisting of four still videotape programs (72 minutes, 226 frames), one teaching poster, and these two manuals. "Teacher's Manual: Ancient Greek Architecture" covers: "Ancient…

  2. Nuclear analytical methods on ancient Thai rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won-in, K.; Thongleurm, C.; Dararutana, P.

    2013-01-01

    For more than half of humanity, rice is life. Rice is a grain which has shaped the history, culture, diet and economy of billions of people in Asia. In Thailand, it is the essence of life. Archaeological evidence revealed that rice had been planted in northeastern area of Thailand more than 5,500 years ago which is earlier than in China and India. The ancient rice grains were found in various archaeological sites in Thailand such as Nakhon Nayok, Suphan Buri and Prachin Buri Provinces. In this work, the ancient black rice from Nakhon Nayok Province was elementally analyzed using scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy and micro-beam energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy was also used to study the chemical composition and bio-molecular structure. The grains were oblique in shape with a rough surface. Three major elements (Si, Ca and Al) and other trace elements were detected. The IR spectra provided some information about the presence of molecular bonds. (author)

  3. Ancient medical texts, modern reading problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carlota Rosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The word tradition has a very specific meaning in linguistics: the passing down of a text, which may have been completed or corrected by different copyists at different times, when the concept of authorship was not the same as it is today. When reading an ancient text the word tradition must be in the reader's mind. To discuss one of the problems an ancient text poses to its modern readers, this work deals with one of the first printed medical texts in Portuguese, the Regimento proueytoso contra ha pestenença, and draws a parallel between it and two related texts, A moche profitable treatise against the pestilence, and the Recopilaçam das cousas que conuem guardar se no modo de preseruar à Cidade de Lixboa E os sãos, & curar os que esteuerem enfermos de Peste. The problems which arise out of the textual structure of those books show how difficult is to establish a tradition of another type, the medical tradition. The linguistic study of the innumerable medieval plague treatises may throw light on the continuities and on the disruptions of the so-called hippocratic-galenical medical tradition.

  4. Mitochondrial phylogenomics of modern and ancient equids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilstrup, Julia T; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Stiller, Mathias; Ginolhac, Aurelien; Raghavan, Maanasa; Nielsen, Sandra C A; Weinstock, Jacobo; Froese, Duane; Vasiliev, Sergei K; Ovodov, Nikolai D; Clary, Joel; Helgen, Kristofer M; Fleischer, Robert C; Cooper, Alan; Shapiro, Beth; Orlando, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    The genus Equus is richly represented in the fossil record, yet our understanding of taxonomic relationships within this genus remains limited. To estimate the phylogenetic relationships among modern horses, zebras, asses and donkeys, we generated the first data set including complete mitochondrial sequences from all seven extant lineages within the genus Equus. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic inference confirms that zebras are monophyletic within the genus, and the Plains and Grevy's zebras form a well-supported monophyletic group. Using ancient DNA techniques, we further characterize the complete mitochondrial genomes of three extinct equid lineages (the New World stilt-legged horses, NWSLH; the subgenus Sussemionus; and the Quagga, Equus quagga quagga). Comparisons with extant taxa confirm the NWSLH as being part of the caballines, and the Quagga and Plains zebras as being conspecific. However, the evolutionary relationships among the non-caballine lineages, including the now-extinct subgenus Sussemionus, remain unresolved, most likely due to extremely rapid radiation within this group. The closest living outgroups (rhinos and tapirs) were found to be too phylogenetically distant to calibrate reliable molecular clocks. Additional mitochondrial genome sequence data, including radiocarbon dated ancient equids, will be required before revisiting the exact timing of the lineage radiation leading up to modern equids, which for now were found to have possibly shared a common ancestor as far as up to 4 Million years ago (Mya).

  5. Mitochondrial Phylogenomics of Modern and Ancient Equids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilstrup, Julia T.; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Stiller, Mathias; Ginolhac, Aurelien; Raghavan, Maanasa; Nielsen, Sandra C. A.; Weinstock, Jacobo; Froese, Duane; Vasiliev, Sergei K.; Ovodov, Nikolai D.; Clary, Joel; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Cooper, Alan; Shapiro, Beth; Orlando, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    The genus Equus is richly represented in the fossil record, yet our understanding of taxonomic relationships within this genus remains limited. To estimate the phylogenetic relationships among modern horses, zebras, asses and donkeys, we generated the first data set including complete mitochondrial sequences from all seven extant lineages within the genus Equus. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic inference confirms that zebras are monophyletic within the genus, and the Plains and Grevy’s zebras form a well-supported monophyletic group. Using ancient DNA techniques, we further characterize the complete mitochondrial genomes of three extinct equid lineages (the New World stilt-legged horses, NWSLH; the subgenus Sussemionus; and the Quagga, Equus quagga quagga). Comparisons with extant taxa confirm the NWSLH as being part of the caballines, and the Quagga and Plains zebras as being conspecific. However, the evolutionary relationships among the non-caballine lineages, including the now-extinct subgenus Sussemionus, remain unresolved, most likely due to extremely rapid radiation within this group. The closest living outgroups (rhinos and tapirs) were found to be too phylogenetically distant to calibrate reliable molecular clocks. Additional mitochondrial genome sequence data, including radiocarbon dated ancient equids, will be required before revisiting the exact timing of the lineage radiation leading up to modern equids, which for now were found to have possibly shared a common ancestor as far as up to 4 Million years ago (Mya). PMID:23437078

  6. Mitochondrial phylogenomics of modern and ancient equids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia T Vilstrup

    Full Text Available The genus Equus is richly represented in the fossil record, yet our understanding of taxonomic relationships within this genus remains limited. To estimate the phylogenetic relationships among modern horses, zebras, asses and donkeys, we generated the first data set including complete mitochondrial sequences from all seven extant lineages within the genus Equus. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic inference confirms that zebras are monophyletic within the genus, and the Plains and Grevy's zebras form a well-supported monophyletic group. Using ancient DNA techniques, we further characterize the complete mitochondrial genomes of three extinct equid lineages (the New World stilt-legged horses, NWSLH; the subgenus Sussemionus; and the Quagga, Equus quagga quagga. Comparisons with extant taxa confirm the NWSLH as being part of the caballines, and the Quagga and Plains zebras as being conspecific. However, the evolutionary relationships among the non-caballine lineages, including the now-extinct subgenus Sussemionus, remain unresolved, most likely due to extremely rapid radiation within this group. The closest living outgroups (rhinos and tapirs were found to be too phylogenetically distant to calibrate reliable molecular clocks. Additional mitochondrial genome sequence data, including radiocarbon dated ancient equids, will be required before revisiting the exact timing of the lineage radiation leading up to modern equids, which for now were found to have possibly shared a common ancestor as far as up to 4 Million years ago (Mya.

  7. Ancient and Medieval Earth in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.

    2015-07-01

    Humankind has always sought to recognize the nature of various sky related phenomena and tried to give them explanations. The purpose of this study is to identify ancient Armenians' pantheistic and cosmological perceptions, world view, notions and beliefs related to the Earth. The paper focuses on the structure of the Earth and many other phenomena of nature that have always been on a major influence on ancient Armenians thinking. In this paper we have compared the term Earth in 31 languages. By discussing and comparing Universe structure in various regional traditions, myths, folk songs and phraseological units we very often came across to "Seven Heavens" (Seven heavens is a part of religious cosmology found in many major religions such as Islam, Judaism, Hinduism and Christianity (namely Catholicism) and "Seven Earths". Armenians in their turn divided Earth and Heavens into seven layers. And in science too, both the Earth and the Heavens have 7 layers. The Seven Heavens refer to the layers of our atmosphere. The Seven Earths refer to the layers of the Earth (from core to crust), as well as seven continents. We conclude that the perception of celestial objects varies from culture to culture and preastronomy had a significant impact on humankind, particularly on cultural diversities.

  8. Spatial and temporal distribution of fish eggs and larvae in a subtropical coastal lagoon, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C. P. Macedo-Soares

    Full Text Available This study investigated the variation in abundance, distribution and composition of ichthyoplankton in a lagoon in southern Brazil through the year and at different stations within the lagoon. Ibiraquera Lagoon is a shallow coastal lagoon connected to the sea by a semi-permanent sandbar. Ichthyoplankton samples were collected monthly from December 2003 to December 2004, with a 200 µm mesh net using horizontal surface hauls. A colder, drier period was detected, contrasting with warm months during which salinity varied depending on rainfall and whether the sandbar was open or closed. The mean abundance of ichthyoplankton over the study period was 459.6 ± 76.2 (SE eggs · 100 m-3 and 63.6 ± 7.9 (SE larvae · 100 m-3, and they were present during all months. Significantly higher abundances of eggs and larvae were observed during warm months. The community was dominated by the family Engraulidae followed by Clupeidae, Gobiidae and Mugilidae. Engraulidae and Clupeidae were present throughout the year, with greater abundances in months with higher temperatures. Some coastal fish species spawn in Ibiraquera Lagoon, mainly near to the sandbar, demonstrating that the lagoon is a spawning area for coastal stock. We recommend the establishment of environmental procedures to promote the conservation of Ibiraquera Lagoon and its ichthyoplankton community.

  9. Spatial variation of acid-volatile sulfide and simultaneously extracted metals in Egyptian Mediterranean Sea lagoon sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Alaa M; El-Zokm, Gehan M; Okbah, Mohamed A

    2014-06-01

    In risk assessment of aquatic sediments, the immobilizing effect of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) on trace metals is a principal control on availability and associated toxicity of metals to aquatic biota, which reduces metal bioavailability and toxicity by binding and immobilizing metals as insoluble sulfides. Spatial variation pattern of AVS, simultaneously extracted metals (SEM), and sediment characteristics were studied for the first time in surface sediment samples (0-20 cm) from 43 locations in Egyptian northern delta lagoons (Manzalah, Burullus, and Maryut) as predictors of the bioavailability of some divalent metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Ni) in sediments as well as indicators of metal toxicity in anaerobic sediments. The results indicated that the ∑SEM (Cu + Zn + Cd + Pb + Ni) values in sediments of lagoon Burullus had higher concentrations than those of Maryut and Manzalah. In contrast, AVS concentrations were considerably higher in lagoons Manzalah and Maryut and seemed to be consistent with the increase in organic matter than lagoon Burullus. Generally, the average concentrations of the SEM in all lagoons were in the order of Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cd. The ratios of ∑SEM/AVS were less than 1 at all the sampling stations except at one station in lagoon Maryut as well as four stations located in lagoon Burullus (∑SEM/AVS > 1), which suggests that the metals have toxicity potential in these sediments. Therefore, SEM concentrations probably are better indicators of the metal bioavailability in sediments than the conventional total metal concentrations.

  10. Monitoring benthic foraminiferal dynamics at Bottsand coastal lagoon (western Baltic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeld, Joachim

    2018-04-01

    Benthic foraminifera from Bottsand coastal lagoon, western Baltic Sea, have been studied since the mid-1960s. They were monitored annually in late autumn since 2003 at the terminal ditch of the lagoon. There were 12 different species recognised, of which three have not been recorded during earlier investigations. Dominant species showed strong interannual fluctuations and a steady increase in population densities over the last decade. Elphidium incertum, a stenohaline species of the Baltic deep water fauna, colonised the Bottsand lagoon in 2016, most likely during a period of salinities >19 units and water temperatures of 18 °C on average in early autumn. The high salinities probably triggered their germination from a propagule bank in the ditch bottom sediment. The new E. incertum population showed densities higher by an order of magnitude than those of the indigenous species. The latter did not decline, revealing that E. incertum used another food source or occupied a different microhabitat. Elphidium incertum survived transient periods of lower salinities in late autumn 2017, though with reduced abundances, and became a regular faunal constituent at the Bottsand lagoon.

  11. Eutrophication patterns in an eastern Mediterranean coastal lagoon: Vassova, Delta Nestos, Macedonia, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ORFANIDIS

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of an intensive monitoring study of main eutrophication parameters in relation to fish farming management, climate and hydrography in the Vassova coastal lagoon (Nestos Delta are presented. The overall aim is to produce basic knowledge in order to contribute to the management of eutrophication of coastal lagoons at local and national levels. Due to extensive spatiotemporal variability of the measured parameters correlation and regression polynomial analysis was used to identify patterns (p<0.05. Freshwater was the main source of nitrate and phosphate in the lagoon. This finding has justified the reduction of freshwater inflow in the past, which, however, has increased mean salinity to 30 PSU and reduced spatial salinity gradients. Maximum nitrate values in winter coincided with adverse climatic and hydrographic conditions (high precipitation, strong NE to E winds and low tide and fish farming management that hinder water circulation. Dissolved phosphorus variability indicated the combination of the external (freshwaters and internal (sediment P-sources. N/P water values indicated nitrogen being the most important nutrient for primary producers throughout the year, except in winter, when phosphorus was the most important nutrient. Practical measures for improving fish farming practices to decrease “eutrophication risk” during winter are suggested. Existing nutrient data from the Vassova and from other Greek lagoons in comparison were also presented and discussed.

  12. The status of fish diversity and fisheries of the Keta lagoon, Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fish and fisheries of three fish landing sites around the Keta lagoon in Ghana have been studied. A total of 18 fish species belonging to 13 families were encountered in the study. Four of the species were found to be commercially important notably, the cichlids (Tilapia guineensis and Sarotherodon melanotheron), the ...

  13. Spatio-temporal impacts of dairy lagoon water reuse on soil: Heavy metals and salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diminishing freshwater resources have brought attention to the reuse of degraded water as a water resource rather than a disposal problem. Dairy lagoon water is degraded water that is often in large supply on concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), but the impact and sustainability of its r...

  14. Trophic ecology and food consumption of fishes in a hypersaline tropical lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Silva, P H; Tubino, R A; Zambrano, L C; Hunder, D A; Garritano, S R; Monteiro-Neto, C

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the trophic ecology (diet composition, trophic strategy, similarities and overlap between species, feeding period and food consumption) of six benthivorous fish species in Araruama Lagoon, the largest hypersaline tropical lagoon on the east coast of South America, with an area of 210 km(2) and an average salinity of 52. The burrfish Chilomycterus spinosus fed on Anomalocardia flexuosa shell deposits, ingesting associated fauna. The caitipa mojarra Diapterus rhombeus differed from all other species, having not only the highest proportions of algae and Nematoda, but also feeding on polychaete tentacles. The two mojarras Eucinostomus spp. showed similar trophic strategies, feeding mostly on Polychaeta. The corocoro grunt Orthopristis ruber also fed mainly on Polychaeta, but differed from Eucinostomus spp. in secondary items. The whitemouth croacker Micropogonias furnieri fed mainly on small Crustacea at night, showing a high number of secondary prey items with low frequencies and high prey-specific abundance. The daily food consumption (g food g(-1) fish mass) for Eucinostomus argenteus was 0·012 and was 0·031 and 0·027 for M. furnieri in two different sampling events. The diet similarities between Araruama Lagoon and other brackish and marine environments indicate that hypersalinity is not a predominant factor shaping the trophic ecology of fishes in this lagoon. The stability of hypersaline conditions, without a pronounced gradient, may explain the presence of several euryhaline fishes and invertebrates well adapted to this condition, resulting in a complex food web. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. Legal, Physical and Biotic Characterization of Açu Lagoon State Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxoel Barros Costa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Since its initial human occupation, the Atlantic Forest suffers from impacts. The damage worsened with the subsequent colonization and exploitation of the area for economic and industrial purposes. In the state of Rio de Janeiro, the sandbank is the most threatened of all ecosystems that make up this biome due to its location in the coastal areas. Currently, there is less than 10% of its original area. The North Fluminense region has large remnants of sandbank. For years, the possibility of creating an Environmental Protection Area that would encompass this area was considered. The Decree 43.522/2012 establishes the creation of Açu Lagoon State Park, which encompasses the Boa Vista Marsh, the Açu Lagoon and part of the Salgada Lagoon within its boundaries, an area with a range of conserved sandbank vegetation, ponds, lagoons, streams that are of great environmental importance to the region. This review aims to make a general analysis from the data collected about the different physical and biotic features of this park, besides the legal parameters that govern it.

  16. Environmental Quality Assessment of Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia) Using Living Foraminifera Assemblages and a Multiproxy Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Martins, Maria Virgínia; Zaaboub, Noureddine; Aleya, Lotfi; Frontalini, Fabrizio; Pereira, Egberto; Miranda, Paulo; Mane, Miguel; Rocha, Fernando; Laut, Lazaro; El Bour, Monia

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the environmental quality of the Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia) through an integrated approach that combined environmental, biogeochemical, and living benthic foraminiferal analyses. Specifically, we analyzed the physicochemical parameters of the water and sediment. The textural, mineralogical, and geochemical characteristics of the sediment, including total organic carbon, total nitrogen, simultaneously extracted metals (SEM), acid volatile sulfides (AVS), chlorophyll a, CaCO3, and changes in bacterial populations and carbon isotopes were measured. The SEM/AVS values indicated the presence of relatively high concentrations of toxic metals in only some areas. Foraminiferal assemblages were dominated by species such as A. parkinsoniana (20–91%), Bolivina striatula (coastal lagoons both in Mediterranean and northeast Atlantic regions. The results of this work suggest that Bizerte Lagoon is a unique setting. This lagoon is populated by typical marine species that invaded this ecosystem, attracted not only by the prevailing favorable environmental conditions but also by the abundance and quality of food. The results indicate that the metal pollution found in some areas have a negative impact on the assemblages of foraminifera. At present, however, this negative impact is not highly alarming. PMID:26372655

  17. Transportation of natural radionuclides and rare earth light elements in the lagoon system of Buena, RJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauria, Dejanira da Costa

    1999-03-01

    it was investigated the transport of the series natural radionuclides and the earth rare light elements in a coastal lagoon system, located in a monazite rich region, in the coast north region of Rio de Janeiro state. The lagoon water showed off abnormal concentrations of radium isotopes and of the earth rare light elements (ERLEs). The longitudinal gradient of the Ra, of the ERLEs and of the major ion concentration's, whose data were obtained during two and half years of the research at the place, and the statistical analysis pointed to two mainly source as responsible for the water lagoon composition - the marine and the underground waters. The underground water supplies the radionuclides and ERLEs, possibly originated by monazite lixiviation. Based on the water speciation modeling, the results of laboratory adsorption on sediment experiments and the sediment characterization, the behavior of the radio isotopes, the ERLEs, U, Th e Pb-210, along of the lagoon, are discussed. It is also discussed the role of the aquatic macrophyte Typha dominguesis Pers in the nuclide uptake and the following liberation. (author)

  18. Anthropogenic Enrichment and Nutrients in Some Tropical Lagoons of Ghana, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a larger study of demographic change in coastal Ghana, we measured the concentrations of major plant nutrients and phytoplankton chlorophyll in eight coastal lagoons with different land use and human population density. The purpose of our study was to relate human acti...

  19. Toxic cyanobacteria blooms in the Lithuanian part of the Curonian Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artūras Razinkovas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae blooms in the Baltic and the surrounding freshwater bodies has been known for several decades. The presence of cyanobacterial toxic metabolites in the Curonian Lagoon has been investigated and demonstrated for the first time in this work (2006-2007. Microcystis aeruginosa was the most common and widely distributed species in the 2006 blooms. Nodularia spumigena was present in the northern part of the Curonian Lagoon, following the intrusion of brackish water from the Baltic Sea; this is the first time that this nodularin-(NOD-producing cyanobacterium has been recorded in the lagoon. With the aid of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, four microcystins (MC-LR, MC-RR, MC-LY, MC-YR and nodularin were detected in 2006. The presence of these cyanobacterial hepatotoxic cyclic peptides was additionally confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and protein phosphatase inhibition assay (PP1. Microcystin-LR, the most frequent of them, was present in every sample at quite high concentrations (from <0.1 to 134.2 µg dm-3. In 2007, no cyanobacterial bloom was recorded and cyanotoxins were detected in only 4% of the investigated samples. A comparably high concentration of nodularin was detected in the northern part of the Curonian Lagoon. In one sample dimethylated MC-RR was also detected (concentration 7.5 µg dm-3.

  20. Transport of steroid hormones, phytoestrogens, and estrogenic activity across a swine lagoon/sprayfield system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Erin E; Meyer, Michael T; Dietze, Julie E; Williams, C Michael; Worley-Davis, Lynn; Lee, Boknam; Kullman, Seth W

    2014-10-07

    The inflow, transformation, and attenuation of natural steroid hormones and phytoestrogens and estrogenic activity were assessed across the lagoon/sprayfield system of a prototypical commercial swine sow operation. Free and conjugated steroid hormones (estrogens, androgens, and progesterone) were detected in urine and feces of sows across reproductive stages, with progesterone being the most abundant steroid hormone. Excreta also contained phytoestrogens indicative of a soy-based diet, particularly, daidzein, genistein, and equol. During storage in barn pits and the anaerobic lagoon, conjugated hormones dissipated, and androgens and progesterone were attenuated. Estrone and equol persisted along the waste disposal route. Following application of lagoon slurry to agricultural soils, all analytes exhibited attenuation within 2 days. However, analytes including estrone, androstenedione, progesterone, and equol remained detectable in soil at 2 months postapplication. Estrogenic activity in the yeast estrogen screen and T47D-KBluc in vitro bioassays generally tracked well with analyte concentrations. Estrone was found to be the greatest contributor to estrogenic activity across all sample types. This investigation encompasses the most comprehensive suite of natural hormone and phytoestrogen analytes examined to date across a livestock lagoon/sprayfield and provides global insight into the fate of these analytes in this widely used waste management system.

  1. Socio-Economic analysis and fishing activites of lagoon and marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fishermen have distinctive social and economic features which affect their fishing operations. The study was therefore designed to identify the socio-economic characteristics of fisher-folks living in lagoon and coastal communities and assesses the fishing activities. Frequency distribution, percentages, chi-square and ...

  2. Trophic–salinity gradients and environmental redundancy resolve mesozooplankton dynamics in a large tropical coastal lagoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rakesh, M.; Madhavirani, K.S.V.K.S.; Kumar, B.C.; Raman, A.V.; Kalavati, C.; Rao, Y.P.; Stephen, R.; Rao, V.R.; Gupta, G.V.M.; Subramanian, B.R.

    –light gradients majorly influence MSP structure in one of Asia’s largest brackish water lagoons in India. Multivariate analysis of environmental variables (May 2004–September 2006; View the MathML source) and MSP examined (May 2004 to October 2005; View the Math...

  3. An evaluation of Iken fishing strategy in tropical Lekki lagoon, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2Fish Gear Technology Unit, Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine ... include the use of luxuriant water hyacinth which will reduce deforestation and ... fish shelter in Lagos and Lekki lagoon, respectively. .... without acoustic (33.33%) and the least catch was ... per unit effort (CPUE) was two to seven times higher in.

  4. Can Biochar Covers Reduce Emissions from Manure Lagoons While Capturing Nutrients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The unique physical and chemical properties of biochars make them promising materials for odor, gas, and nutrient sorption. Floating covers made from organic materials (biocovers) are one option for reducing odor and gas emissions from livestock manure lagoons. This study evaluat...

  5. Integrated water pollution assessment of the Ebrié Lagoon, Ivory Coast, West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheren, P.A.G.M.; Kroeze, C.; Jansen, F.J.J.G.; Hordijk, L.; Ptasinski, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    An environmental pollution assessment of the Ebrie lagoon, the largest coastal ecosystem in Western Africa, was executed by applying the Driving force-Pressure-State-Impacts-Response (DPSIR) framework. The domestic and industrial activities in Abidjan and agricultural activities in the wider

  6. Mathematical-statistical model for analysis of Ulva algal net photosynthesis in Venice lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzo, G.; Rizzo, V.; Bella, A.; Picci, M.; Giordano, P.

    1996-08-01

    The algal net photosynthesis, an important factor for the characterization of water quality in Venice lagoon, has been studied experimentally providing a mathematical model, validated by using statistical methods. This model relates oxygen production with irradiance, according to a well known law in biological literature. Its observed an inverted proportion between algal oxygen production and temperature, thus seasonality

  7. Evaluation of the Abidjan lagoon pollution BRITON BI, G H; *YAO, B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    ABSTRACT: The Abidjan lagoon pollution evaluation via the physicochemical and biochemical characteristics of effluents pouring in it, in order to take decision concerning the installation of a treatment station was reported. All samples of effluents studied contain high quantity of organic and mineral pollutants except for.

  8. Cellulase and xylanase activity during the decomposition of three aquatic macrophytes in a tropical oxbow lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Sciessere

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the connection between enzymatic activity and degradation of different fractions of organic matter, enzyme assays can be used to estimate degradation rates of particulate and dissolved organic carbon in freshwater systems. The aim of this study was to quantify and model the enzymatic degradation involving the decomposition of macrophytes, describing temporal activity of cellulases (EC 3.2.1.4 and EC 3.2.1.91 and xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8 during in situ decomposition of three aquatic macrophytes (Salvinia sp., Eichhornia azurea and Cyperus giganteus on the surface and water-sediment interface (w-s interface of an oxbow lagoon (Óleo lagoon within a natural Brazilian Savanna Reserve. Overall, the enzymatic degradation of aquatic macrophytes in Óleo lagoon occurred during the whole year and was initiated together with leaching. Xylanase production was ca. 5 times higher than cellulase values due to easy access to this compound by cellulolytic microorganisms. Enzymatic production and detritus mass decay were similar on the surface and w-s interface. Salvinia sp. was the most recalcitrant detritus, with low mass decay and enzymatic activity. E. azurea and C. giganteus decomposition rates and enzymatic production were high and similar. Due to the physicochemical homogeneity observed in the Óleo lagoon, the differences between the decay rates of each species are mostly related with detritus chemical quality.

  9. Vadose Zone Monitoring of Dairy Green Water Lagoons using Soil Solution Samplers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brainard, James R.; Coplen, Amy K

    2005-11-01

    Over the last decade, dairy farms in New Mexico have become an important component to the economy of many rural ranching and farming communities. Dairy operations are water intensive and use groundwater that otherwise would be used for irrigation purposes. Most dairies reuse their process/green water three times and utilize lined lagoons for temporary storage of green water. Leakage of water from lagoons can pose a risk to groundwater quality. Groundwater resource protection infrastructures at dairies are regulated by the New Mexico Environment Department which currently relies on monitoring wells installed in the saturated zone for detecting leakage of waste water lagoon liners. Here we present a proposal to monitor the unsaturated zone beneath the lagoons with soil water solution samplers to provide early detection of leaking liners. Early detection of leaking liners along with rapid repair can minimize contamination of aquifers and reduce dairy liability for aquifer remediation. Additionally, acceptance of vadose zone monitoring as a NMED requirement over saturated zone monitoring would very likely significantly reduce dairy startup and expansion costs. Acknowledgment Funding for this project was provided by the Sandia National Laboratories Small Business Assistance Program

  10. Process model for ammonia volatilization from anaerobic swine lagoons incorporating varying wind speeds and biogas bubbling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia volatilization from treatment lagoons varies widely with the total ammonia concentration, pH, temperature, suspended solids, atmospheric ammonia concentration above the water surface, and wind speed. Ammonia emissions were estimated with a process-based mechanistic model integrating ammonia ...

  11. Inventory of fisheries and fishes of the Lagos Lagoon, Lagos, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The systematic literature of fishes and fisheries in Lagos Lagoon is scattered, hence there is need for a comprehensive documentation of the diverse fish species that ... artisanal fishery, points to environmental degradation and possible changes in water quality with biological consequences for the biota in this environment.

  12. Sedimentation rate and lateral migration of tidal channels in the Lagoon of Venice (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnici, Sandra; Madricardo, Fantina; Serandrei-Barbero, Rossana

    2017-11-01

    Tidal channels are crucial for the functioning of highly valuable coastal environments, such as estuaries and lagoons. Their properties, however, are currently less understood than those of river systems. To elucidate their past behaviour, an extensive geophysical investigation was performed to reconstruct the evolution of channels and tidal surfaces in the central part of the Lagoon of Venice (Italy) over the past 5000 years. Comparing high-spatial-resolution acoustic data and sedimentary facies analyses of 41 cores, 29 of which were radiocarbon dated, revealed the sedimentation rates in different lagoonal environments and allowed the migration of two large meanders to be reconstructed. The average sedimentation rate of the study succession in the different sedimentary environments was 1.27 mm yr-1. The lateral migration rates were 13-23 m/century. This estimate is consistent with the lateral migration rates determined by comparing aerial photographs of recent channels. Comparing the buried channels with historical and current maps showed that, in general, the number of active channels is now reduced. Their morphology was sometimes simplified by artificial interventions. An understanding of the impact of the artificial interventions over time is useful for the management and conservation of tidal environments, particularly for the Lagoon of Venice, where management authorities are currently debating the possible deepening and rectification of large navigation channels.

  13. Transcriptomic resources for environmental risk assessment: a case study in the Venice lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milan, M.; Pauletto, M.; Boffo, L.; Carrer, C.; Sorrentino, F.; Ferrari, G.; Pavan, L.; Patarnello, T.; Bargelloni, L.

    2015-01-01

    The development of new resources to evaluate the environmental status is becoming increasingly important representing a key challenge for ocean and coastal management. Recently, the employment of transcriptomics in aquatic toxicology has led to increasing initiatives proposing to integrate eco-toxicogenomics in the evaluation of marine ecosystem health. However, several technical issues need to be addressed before introducing genomics as a reliable tool in regulatory ecotoxicology. The Venice lagoon constitutes an excellent case, in which the assessment of environmental risks derived from the nearby industrial activities represents a crucial task. In this context, the potential role of genomics to assist environmental monitoring was investigated through the definition of reliable gene expression markers associated to chemical contamination in Manila clams, and their subsequent employment for the classification of Venice lagoon areas. Overall, the present study addresses key issues to evaluate the future outlooks of genomics in the environmental monitoring and risk assessment. - Highlights: • Growing need to develop new resources for the evaluation of the environmental status. • Identification of gene expression markers associated to chemical contamination. • Employment of genomics to evaluate the environmental status of Venice lagoon areas. • Hurdles and future outlooks of genomic tools in environmental risk assessment. - Genomics in risk assessment of Venice lagoon

  14. Coastal Dump Sites in the Lagos lagoon and toxicity of their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of the coastal dumpsites and their impacts on shrimp mortality in the Lagos lagoon was investigated. The study involved a census of dumpsites in the major sections of the coastline associated with anthropogenic activities, followed by specific bioassay to determine the acute toxicity of leachates from one of ...

  15. Residual currents and fluxes through the mouth of Vassova coastal lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. SYLAIOS

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available An intensive sampling program of physical and chemical parameters at the mouth of Vassova lagoon (Northern Greece during 4 separate tidal cycles is described. The study aims at understanding the tidal circulation and estimating the instantaneous and residual fluxes of water, salt and nutrients through the entrance canal of this micro-tidal lagoon. Results showed that tidal flood exceeded in duration tidal ebb, under spring and neap tidal conditions. Ebb tidal currents were recorded higher than flood currents, especially under neap tidal conditions. Unsteady flow characterized the temporal variation of longitudinal and lateral velocity, inducing a rightward deflection on flood or ebb flow. The intra-tidal variability of dissolved inorganic nitrogen showed seasonal dependence, with higher values during September, October and early March, and lower during the late March period. Residual current and flux analysis into a Eulerian and a mass transport Stokes drift mechanism illustrated that advective water and dissolved parameters (i.e., salt and nitrates, phosphates and chlorophyll-· fluxes were an order of magnitude higher than tidal pumping effects. Water and dissolved constituents moved into the lagoon under neap tidal conditions and out of the lagoon during spring tidal conditions. Calculated flushing times ranged from 5 to 14 days, with neap tidal conditions and nearly zero freshwater discharge producing the longer flushing time. Lower water flushing effects were generated under spring tides and increased precipitation.

  16. Salinity and its variability in the Lagoon of Venice, 2000–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Zirino

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Yearly averages computed from monthly and bimonthly salinity data collected between 2000 and 2009 from 13 broadly spaced stations in the Venice Lagoon were analysed in view of 30 min data collected semi-continuously during 2009 at nine similarly located stations. Data from all stations and all years indicate that, based on yearly averages, the lagoon may be divided along its major (long axis into three areas: 1 a northern, freshwater impacted area (S = 32 PSU of low, tidally-caused, variability, and 3 an intermediate zone. Salinity changes are closely associated with rainfall events, and the incoming freshwater is consistently distributed throughout the lagoon by tidal action. Much variability is simply a result of the forward and backward motion of the tides and is not caused by a salinity change in the water itself. The consistency of the 2000–2009 data and the historical (to 1961 watershed record support the hypothesis that the Venice Lagoon has been and is currently at steady-state with respect to its salinity distribution. As such, it is conducive to the development of (at least three separate ecosystems.

  17. Occurrence and Diversity of Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Lagoons and Groundwater Underlying Two Swine Production Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee-Sanford, J. C.; Aminov, R.I.; Krapac, I.J.; Garrigues-Jeanjean, N.; Mackie, R.I.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we used PCR typing methods to assess the presence of tetracycline resistance determinants conferring ribosomal protection in waste lagoons and in groundwater underlying two swine farms. All eight classes of genes encoding this mechanism of resistance [tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), tet(M), tetB(P), tet(S), tet(T), and otrA] were found in total DNA extracted from water of two lagoons. These determinants were found to be seeping into the underlying groundwater and could be detected as far as 250 m downstream from the lagoons. The identities and origin of these genes in groundwater were confirmed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequence analyses. Tetracycline-resistant bacterial isolates from groundwater harbored the tet(M) gene, which was not predominant in the environmental samples and was identical to tet(M) from the lagoons. The presence of this gene in some typical soil inhabitants suggests that the vector of antibiotic resistance gene dissemination is not limited to strains of gastrointestinal origin carrying the gene but can be mobilized into the indigenous soil microbiota. This study demonstrated that tet genes occur in the environment as a direct result of agriculture and suggested that groundwater may be a potential source of antibiotic resistance in the food chain.

  18. Ke'e Lagoon and Reef Flat Users Baseline Study, 1999 (NODC Accession 0002277)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ke'e Lagoon is a popular Kauai destination for tourist and resident beach-goers and snorkelers. It is part of the Haena State Park, and is located at the end of...

  19. Strategies of bioremediation of a contaminated coastal Ecosystem (Bolmon Lagoon, South-Easter Mediterranean Coast)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpy-Roubaud, C.; Fayolle, S.; Franquet, E.; Pietri, L.; Anselmet, F.; Brun, L.; Roux, B.

    2009-01-01

    Bolmon ecosystem (Bouches du Rhone, South-easter France) is a coastal mediterranean lagoon. This ecosystem presents a great interest in terms of ecology, economy and cultural aspects. Bolmon is connected to the salty Berre pond, itself connected to Mediterranean sea, via tiny artificial channels and a main one (rove channel) that also bounds it to the South. (Author)

  20. Strategies of bioremediation of a contaminated coastal Ecosystem (Bolmon Lagoon, South-Easter Mediterranean Coast)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charpy-Roubaud, C.; Fayolle, S.; Franquet, E.; Pietri, L.; Anselmet, F.; Brun, L.; Roux, B.

    2009-07-01

    Bolmon ecosystem (Bouches du Rhone, South-easter France) is a coastal mediterranean lagoon. This ecosystem presents a great interest in terms of ecology, economy and cultural aspects. Bomon is connected to the salty Berre pond, itself connected to Mediterranean sea, via tiny artificial channels and a main one (rove channel) that also bounds it to the South. (Author)

  1. Study of the subterranean estuary of Venice lagoon using radium and radon isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gattacceca, J.

    2009-02-01

    This study focuses on hydrological processes in the southern part of Venice lagoon (Italy), and more specifically on the interactions between surface waters and groundwater of superficial coastal aquifers. These aquifers present a hydraulic head and a ground level below sea level. Major elements and stable isotopes were used to characterize mixing processes into the superficial aquifer. Our results, in agreement with hydrodynamic modelling, evidenced the restriction of saline intrusion to a narrow coastal fringe (≤ 1 km). Submarine groundwater discharge fluxes into the lagoon were quantified using radium and radon natural isotopes. Their activities in the lagoon are in excess compared to the sea. Our results and preliminary modelling work evidence that the system requires an input from groundwater enriched in these isotopes to explain measured activities. A mass balance at steady state is used to quantify the flux. Results vary between 8.1*10 5 and 1.5*10 7 m 3 .d -1 . This flux is mainly due to recirculation of lagoon water into the sediments, and is 2 to 10 times higher than surface runoff, and may have significant environmental consequences by releasing contaminants. (author)

  2. Environmental Quality Assessment of Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia Using Living Foraminifera Assemblages and a Multiproxy Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Virgínia Alves Martins

    Full Text Available This study investigated the environmental quality of the Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia through an integrated approach that combined environmental, biogeochemical, and living benthic foraminiferal analyses. Specifically, we analyzed the physicochemical parameters of the water and sediment. The textural, mineralogical, and geochemical characteristics of the sediment, including total organic carbon, total nitrogen, simultaneously extracted metals (SEM, acid volatile sulfides (AVS, chlorophyll a, CaCO3, and changes in bacterial populations and carbon isotopes were measured. The SEM/AVS values indicated the presence of relatively high concentrations of toxic metals in only some areas. Foraminiferal assemblages were dominated by species such as A. parkinsoniana (20-91%, Bolivina striatula (<40%, Hopkinsina atlantica (<17%, and Bolivina ordinaria (<15% that cannot be considered typical of impacted coastal lagoons both in Mediterranean and northeast Atlantic regions. The results of this work suggest that Bizerte Lagoon is a unique setting. This lagoon is populated by typical marine species that invaded this ecosystem, attracted not only by the prevailing favorable environmental conditions but also by the abundance and quality of food. The results indicate that the metal pollution found in some areas have a negative impact on the assemblages of foraminifera. At present, however, this negative impact is not highly alarming.

  3. Effect of some socio-economic activities on fish diversity of lagoon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of some socio-economic activities on fish diversity of lagoon systems in Ogun waterside Local Government of Ogun State, Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  4. Optimal sensor locations for the backward Lagrangian stochastic technique in measuring lagoon gas emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the impact of gas concentration and wind sensor locations on the accuracy of the backward Lagrangian stochastic inverse-dispersion technique (bLS) for measuring gas emission rates from a typical lagoon environment. Path-integrated concentrations (PICs) and 3-dimensional (3D) wi...

  5. Ammonia emissions from Swine waste lagoons in the Utah great basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Lowry A; Weaver, Kim H; Dotson, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    In animal production systems (poultry, beef, and swine), current production, storage, and disposal techniques present a challenge to manage wastes to minimize the emissions of trace gases within relatively small geographical areas. Physical and chemical parameters were measured on primary and secondary lagoons on three different swine farming systems, three replicates each, in the Central Great Basin of the United States to determine ammonia (NH3) emissions. Nutrient concentrations, lagoon water temperature, and micrometeorological data from these measurements were used with a published process model to calculate emissions. Annual cycling of emissions was determined in relation to climatic factors and wind speed was found the predominating factor when the lagoon temperatures were above about 3 degrees C. Total NH3 emissions increased in the order of smallest to largest: nursery, sow, and finisher farms. However, emissions on an animal basis increased from nursery animals being lowest to sow animals being highest. When emissions were compared to the amount of nitrogen (N) fed to the animals, NH3 emissions from sows were lowest with emissions from finisher animals highest. Ammonia emissions were compared to similar farm production systems in the humid East of the United States and found to be similar for finisher animals but had much lower emissions than comparable humid East sow production. Published estimates of NH3 emissions from lagoons ranged from 36 to 70% of feed input (no error range) compared to our emissions determined from a process model of 9.8% with an estimated range of +/-4%.

  6. Functional implications of changes in seagrass species composition in two shallow coastal lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    While the consequences of losing seagrass meadows are well known, there is less information on the functional implications of changes in seagrass species composition. In this study, we use data from a long-term monitoring project in shallow lagoons on the Florida Gulf Coast to as...

  7. Residence times in a hypersaline lagoon: Using salinity as a tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, Stephen M.; Icely, John D.; Newton, Alice

    2008-04-01

    Generally the waters of the Ria Formosa Lagoon, Portugal have a short residence time, in the order of 0.5 days (Tett, P., Gilpin, L., Svendsen, H., Erlandsson, C.P., Larsson, U., Kratzer, S., Fouilland, E., Janzen, C., Lee, J., Grenz, C., Newton, A., Ferreira, J.G., Fernandes, T., Scory, S., 2003. Eutrophication and some European waters of restricted exchange. Continental Shelf Research 23, 1635-1671). This estimation is based on the measurements of currents and the modelling of water exchange at the outlets to the ocean. However, observations of the temperature and salinity in the inner channels imply that residence time is greater in these regions of the lagoon. To resolve this apparent contradiction, spatial measurements of the temperature and salinity were made with a meter for conductivity, temperature and depth along the principal channels of the western portion of the lagoon, with a sampling frequency of two per second. Evaporation rates of 5.4 mm day -1 were measured in a salt extraction pond adjacent to the lagoon and used to determine the residence time through salinity differences with the incoming seawater. In June 2004, the water flooding in from the ocean had an average salinity of 36.07 which contrasted with a maximum of 37.82 at mid ebb on a spring tide, corresponding to a residence time of >7 days; the mean residence time was 2.4 days. As the tide flooded into the channels, the existing water was advected back into the lagoon. Although there was a small amount of mixing with water from another inlet, the water body from the inner lagoon essentially remained distinct with respect to temperature and salinity characteristics. The residence time of the water was further prolonged at the junction between the main channels, where distinct boundaries were observed between the different water masses. As the water ebbed out, the shallow Western Channel was essentially isolated from the rest of the outer lagoon, and the water from this channel was forced

  8. Diuron tolerance and potential degradation by pelagic microbiomes in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent E. Angly

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Diuron is a herbicide commonly used in agricultural areas where excess application causes it to leach into rivers, reach sensitive marine environments like the Great Barrier Reef (GBR lagoon and pose risks to marine life. To investigate the impact of diuron on whole prokaryotic communities that underpin the marine food web and are integral to coral reef health, GBR lagoon water was incubated with diuron at environmentally-relevant concentration (8 µg/L, and sequenced at specific time points over the following year. 16S rRNA gene amplicon profiling revealed no significant short- or long-term effect of diuron on microbiome structure. The relative abundance of prokaryotic phototrophs was not significantly altered by diuron, which suggests that they were largely tolerant at this concentration. Assembly of a metagenome derived from waters sampled at a similar location in the GBR lagoon did not reveal the presence of mutations in the cyanobacterial photosystem that could explain diuron tolerance. However, resident phages displayed several variants of this gene and could potentially play a role in tolerance acquisition. Slow biodegradation of diuron was reported in the incubation flasks, but no correlation with the relative abundance of heterotrophs was evident. Analysis of metagenomic reads supports the hypothesis that previously uncharacterized hydrolases carried by low-abundance species may mediate herbicide degradation in the GBR lagoon. Overall, this study offers evidence that pelagic phototrophs of the GBR lagoon may be more tolerant of diuron than other tropical organisms, and that heterotrophs in the microbial seed bank may have the potential to degrade diuron and alleviate local anthropogenic stresses to inshore GBR ecosystems.

  9. Macrobenthic molluscs from a marine - lagoonal environmental transition in Lesvos Island (Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evagelopoulos, Athanasios; Koutsoubas, Drosos; Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Katsiaras, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an occurence dataset, also including numerical abundance and biomass data, pertaining to the macrobenthic molluscan assemblages from a marine - lagoonal environmental transition. The study system was the soft-substrate benthoscape of the area of the Kalloni solar saltworks (Lesvos Island, Greece). Specifically, the study area extended from the infralittoral zone of the inner Kalloni Gulf (marine habitat) to the bottoms of the first two evaporation ponds of the Kalloni solar saltworks (lagoonal habitat). Bottom sediment samples (3 replicates) were collected with a Van Veen grab sampler (0.1 m 2 ) at four sampling sites, along a 1.5 km long line transect that spanned the marine - lagoonal environmental transition. A total of four surveys were carried out seasonally in 2004.  A total of 39,345 molluscan individuals were sorted out of the sediment samples and were identified to 71 species, belonging to the Gastropoda (36), Bivalvia (34) and Scaphopoda (1) classes. Numerical abundance and wet biomass (with shells) data are included in the dataset. The dataset described in the present paper partially fills a significant gap in the scientific literature: Because ecological research of coastal lagoons has seldom explicitly considered the marine - lagoonal habitats interface, there are no openly accessible datasets pertaining to the particular structural component of the transitional waters benthoscapes of the Mediterranean Sea. Such datasets could prove valuable in the research of the structure and functioning of transitional waters benthoscapes. The present dataset is available as a supplementary file (Suppl. material 1) and can also be accessed at http://ipt.medobis.eu/resource?r=kalloni_saltworks_phd.

  10. Temporal coherence among tropical coastal lagoons: a search for patterns and mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Caliman

    Full Text Available Temporal coherence (i.e., the degree of synchronicity of a given variable among ecological units within a predefined space has been shown for several limnological features among temperate lakes, allowing predictions about the structure and function of ecosystems. However, there is little evidence of temporal coherence among tropical aquatic systems, where the climatic variability among seasons is less pronounced. Here, we used data from long-term monitoring of physical, chemical and biological variables to test the degree of temporal coherence among 18 tropical coastal lagoons. The water temperature and chlorophyll-a concentration had the highest and lowest temporal coherence among the lagoons, respectively, whereas the salinity and water colour had intermediate temporal coherence. The regional climactic factors were the main factors responsible for the coherence patterns in the water temperature and water colour, whereas the landscape position and morphometric characteristics explained much of the variation of the salinity and water colour among the lagoons. These results indicate that both local (lagoon morphometry and regional (precipitation, air temperature factors regulate the physical and chemical conditions of coastal lagoons by adjusting the terrestrial and marine subsidies at a landscape-scale. On the other hand, the chlorophyll-a concentration appears to be primarily regulated by specific local conditions resulting in a weak temporal coherence among the ecosystems. We concluded that temporal coherence in tropical ecosystems is possible, at least for some environmental features, and should be evaluated for other tropical ecosystems. Our results also reinforce that aquatic ecosystems should be studied more broadly to accomplish a full understanding of their structure and function.

  11. Diuron tolerance and potential degradation by pelagic microbiomes in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantos, Olga; Morgan, Thomas C.; Rich, Virginia; Tonin, Hemerson; Bourne, David G.; Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P.; Tyson, Gene W.

    2016-01-01

    Diuron is a herbicide commonly used in agricultural areas where excess application causes it to leach into rivers, reach sensitive marine environments like the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) lagoon and pose risks to marine life. To investigate the impact of diuron on whole prokaryotic communities that underpin the marine food web and are integral to coral reef health, GBR lagoon water was incubated with diuron at environmentally-relevant concentration (8 µg/L), and sequenced at specific time points over the following year. 16S rRNA gene amplicon profiling revealed no significant short- or long-term effect of diuron on microbiome structure. The relative abundance of prokaryotic phototrophs was not significantly altered by diuron, which suggests that they were largely tolerant at this concentration. Assembly of a metagenome derived from waters sampled at a similar location in the GBR lagoon did not reveal the presence of mutations in the cyanobacterial photosystem that could explain diuron tolerance. However, resident phages displayed several variants of this gene and could potentially play a role in tolerance acquisition. Slow biodegradation of diuron was reported in the incubation flasks, but no correlation with the relative abundance of heterotrophs was evident. Analysis of metagenomic reads supports the hypothesis that previously uncharacterized hydrolases carried by low-abundance species may mediate herbicide degradation in the GBR lagoon. Overall, this study offers evidence that pelagic phototrophs of the GBR lagoon may be more tolerant of diuron than other tropical organisms, and that heterotrophs in the microbial seed bank may have the potential to degrade diuron and alleviate local anthropogenic stresses to inshore GBR ecosystems. PMID:26989611

  12. Diuron tolerance and potential degradation by pelagic microbiomes in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angly, Florent E; Pantos, Olga; Morgan, Thomas C; Rich, Virginia; Tonin, Hemerson; Bourne, David G; Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P; Tyson, Gene W

    2016-01-01

    Diuron is a herbicide commonly used in agricultural areas where excess application causes it to leach into rivers, reach sensitive marine environments like the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) lagoon and pose risks to marine life. To investigate the impact of diuron on whole prokaryotic communities that underpin the marine food web and are integral to coral reef health, GBR lagoon water was incubated with diuron at environmentally-relevant concentration (8 µg/L), and sequenced at specific time points over the following year. 16S rRNA gene amplicon profiling revealed no significant short- or long-term effect of diuron on microbiome structure. The relative abundance of prokaryotic phototrophs was not significantly altered by diuron, which suggests that they were largely tolerant at this concentration. Assembly of a metagenome derived from waters sampled at a similar location in the GBR lagoon did not reveal the presence of mutations in the cyanobacterial photosystem that could explain diuron tolerance. However, resident phages displayed several variants of this gene and could potentially play a role in tolerance acquisition. Slow biodegradation of diuron was reported in the incubation flasks, but no correlation with the relative abundance of heterotrophs was evident. Analysis of metagenomic reads supports the hypothesis that previously uncharacterized hydrolases carried by low-abundance species may mediate herbicide degradation in the GBR lagoon. Overall, this study offers evidence that pelagic phototrophs of the GBR lagoon may be more tolerant of diuron than other tropical organisms, and that heterotrophs in the microbial seed bank may have the potential to degrade diuron and alleviate local anthropogenic stresses to inshore GBR ecosystems.

  13. Reconstructing Environmental Changes of a Coastal Lagoon with Coral Reefs in Southeastern Hainan Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Liang; GAO Shu; GAO Jianhua; ZHAO Yangyang; HAN Zhuochen; YANG Yang; JIA Peihong

    2017-01-01

    Coastal lagoons with small catchment basins are highly sensitive to natural processes and anthropogenic activities.To figure out the environmental changes of a coastal lagoon and its contribution to carbon burial,two sediment cores were collected in Xincun Lagoon,southeastern Hainan Island and 210pb activities,grain size parameters,total organic carbon (TOC),total nitrogen (TN),total inorganic carbon (TIC) and stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) were measured.The results show that in 1770-1815,the decreasing water exchange capacity with outer open water,probably caused by the shifting and narrowing of the tidal inlet,not only diminished the currents and fined the sediments in the lagoon,but also reduced the organic matter of marine sources.From 1815 to 1950,the sedimentary environment of Xincun Lagoon was frequently influenced by storm events.These extreme events resulted in the high fluctuation of sediment grain size and sorting,as well as the great variation in contributions of terrestrial (higher plants,soils) and marine sources (phytoplankton,algae,seagrass).The extremely high content of TIC,compared to TOC before 1950 could be attributed to the large-scale coverage of coral reefs.However,with the boost of seawater aquaculture activities after 1970,the health growth of coral species was severely threatened,and corresponding production and inorganic carbon burial flux reduced.The apparent enhanced inorganic carbon burial rate after 1990 might result from the concomitant carbonate debris produced by seawater aquaculture.This result is important for local government long-term coastal management and environmental planning.

  14. Tracing organic matter sources in a tropical lagoon of the Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Hernández, Carlos M.; Garcia-Moya, Alejandro; Tolosa, Imma; Diaz-Asencio, Misael; Corcho-Alvarado, Jose Antonio; Morera-Gomez, Yasser; Fanelli, Emanuela

    2017-09-01

    The natural protected lagoon of Guanaroca, located between Cienfuegos Bay and the Arimao River, Cuba, has been heavily impacted by human-induced environmental changes over the past century. Sources of organic matter in the Guanaroca lagoon and concentrations of radioisotopes (210Pb, 226Ra, 137Cs and 239,240Pu), as tracers of anthropogenic impacts, were investigated in a 78 cm sediment core. Variations in total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), stable isotopic composition (δ13C and δ15N) and ratio of total organic carbon to total nitrogen (C/N) were analysed. On such a basis, environmental changes in the lagoon were revealed. Down core variation patterns of the parameters representing sources of organic matter were predominantly related to the impacts of human activities. Up to the nineteenth century, the principal sources of organic matter to sediments (more than 80%) were a mixing of terrestrial vascular plants ( 48%) and freshwater phytoplankton ( 8%), with minimal contribution from the marine component ( 16%). In the period 1900-1980, due to the strong influence of human activities in the catchment area, the water exchange capacity of the lagoon declined substantially, as indicated by the relatively high proportion of organic matter originated from human activities (58%). Since 1980, as a result of management actions in the protected area, the lagoon has regained gradually its capability to exchange freshwater, showing sources of organic matter similar to the natural conditions recorded previous to 1900, although an indication of human impact (treated sewage contributed for 26% to the organic matter in sediments) was still observed and further management measures would be required.

  15. Metazoan parasites of fishes from the Celestun coastal lagoon, Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Medina, Trinidad; Vidal-Martínez, Víctor M; Aguirre-Macedo, M Leopoldina

    2015-08-31

    The aims of this study were to produce a checklist of the metazoan parasites of fishes from the Celestun coastal lagoon and to determine the degree of faunal similarity among the fishes based on the metazoan parasites they share. A checklist was prepared including all available records (1996-2014) of parasites of marine, brackish water and freshwater fishes of the area. All of these data were included in a presence/absence database and used to determine similarity via Jaccard's index. The results indicate the presence of 62 metazoan parasite species infecting 22 fish species. The number of metazoan parasite species found in the fishes from the Celestún lagoon is apparently the highest reported worldwide for a tropical coastal lagoon. The parasites included 12 species of adult digeneans, 27 digeneans in the metacercarial stage, 6 monogeneans, 3 metacestodes, 9 nematodes, 2 acanthocephalans, 2 crustaceans and 1 annelid. Forty parasite species were autogenic and 23 were allogenic and 1 unknown. The overall similarity among all of the species of fish with respect to the metazoan parasites they share was low (0.08 ± 0.12), with few similarity values above 0.4 being obtained. This low similarity was due primarily to the presence of suites of parasites exclusive to specific species of fish. The autogenic component of the parasite fauna (40 species) dominated the allogenic component (21 species). The most likely explanation for the large number of fish parasites found at Celestún is the good environmental condition of the lagoon, which allows the completion of parasite life cycles and free circulation of euryhaline fishes from the marine environment bringing marine parasites into the lagoon.

  16. Waste Stabilization Ponds and Aerated Lagoons Performance in Removal of Wastewater Indicator Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed ali Ghasemi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performance of two treatment plants in the City of Mashhad, one with an aerated lagoons system and the other one with waste stabilization ponds system were evaluated in regard to their efficiency in reduction of pathogenic microorganisms. For this purpose, over a period of one year (with 15-days intervals, samples were taken from the influent and effluent (prior to disinfection unit of the above mentioned treatment plants. The samples then were analyzed for parameters such as temperature, pH, density of total coliforms (TC and fecal coliforms (FC, dissolved oxygen and total suspended solids concentration. The results indicated that the aerated lagoons system was much more efficient in removal of indicator bacteria than the waste stabilization ponds during autumn and winter periods. However during the summer months, the waste stabilization ponds showed a higher efficiency in this regard. In general, the waste stabilization ponds system reduced the density of TC and FC by 0.21-2.15 log10 and 0.20-2.33 log10, respectively. In contrast, the levels of reduction in aerated lagoons system were in the range of 0.29-2.03 log10 for TC and 0.42-2.40 log10 for FC. Results indicated that solar intensity, pH and dissolved oxygen concentration were found to be the most significant parameters that reduced the microorganisms population in waste stabilization ponds, While, in the aerated lagoons system, the dissolved oxygen concentration in aerated basin and solar intensity play the most important role. In general, without receiving an adequate disinfection, the effluent from waste stabilization ponds and aerated lagoons cannot provide the microbiological standards required for irrigation of agricultural crops.

  17. Evaluation of some heavy metal loading in the Kpeshi lagoon, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fianko, Joseph R.; Laar, Cynthia; Osei, Juilet; Anim, Alfred K.; Gibrilla, Abass; Adomako, Dickson

    2013-03-01

    A study was carried out on the Kpeshi lagoon to evaluate the relative contributions of some heavy metals (Na, k, Ca, K, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Al, Pb) on the current state of the Kpeshi lagoon. The lagoon water was sampled along with some fish samples. Water pH, electrical conductivity and total dissolved salts were measured in situ whilst Na and K were measured using flame emission spectrometry. Heavy metals (iron, manganese, nickel, aluminium, chromium, lead and cadmium) in both water and fish samples were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Measured pH values ranged between 6.60 and 7.87, a mean conductivity and total dissolved salts of 87.31 ± 19.14 μS/cm and 38.4 ± 8.43 mg/L, respectively. Nutrient and organic matter were among the frequent source of pollution in the lagoon with mean sulphate, phosphate and nitrate concentrations of 190 ± 108.84, 1.62 ± 0.49 and 0.89 ± 0.26 mg/L, respectively. Iron and aluminium in the lagoon water measured the highest concentration of 13.2 ± 3.47 and 13.6 ± 4.29 mg/L, respectively. Fish samples however revealed very high concentrations of calcium and potassium measuring 15,709 ± 75.35 and 5,949.49 ± 87.30 mg/kg, respectively. Sodium and aluminium also revealed relatively high concentrations: 3,775.70 ± 24.80 and 708.47 ± 4.95 mg/kg, respectively. Notably, sites closer to settlement community (Teshie Township, e.g. S1, S2, S3 and S4) and the hospitality industries (i.e. dotted hotels, e.g. S7) appeared to be relatively more contaminated.

  18. Zooplankton assemblages and biomass during a 4-period survey in a northern Mediterranean coastal lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam-Hoai, T; Rougier, C

    2001-01-01

    The authors proposed to examine zooplankton biomass at three stations inside (T and Z) and outside (M) a coastal lagoon of the north-western Mediterranean Sea. Station T represented the lagoon central area, and station Z was positioned in a shellfish farming sector, while the seaside station (M) served as a reference of marine environment. Analyses were designed to outline the net zooplankton assemblages (taxonomic structures and length distributions) in different environmental conditions, including the farming activity. A discriminant analysis of environmental variables determined that temperature, salinity and phytoplankton implied mainly in spatial pattern of the samples. An ordination of taxa biomasses showed two main factors which might contribute to the organisation of the zooplankton assemblages: the geographical position and the thermal period. The geographical position integrated the lagoon-sea water exchange under forcing parameters (habitat, tides and winds). The thermal period reflected both the populations development cycles and the environmental constraints (temperature, salinity, trophic resources). The resulting effects appeared in structured zooplankton assemblages in space and time. The number of 50 microns interval length classes and of taxa decreased from the seaside and the lagoon central area free of farming activity to the shallower farming zone. But the biomass-length distribution profiles did not closely follow such an expected opposition between opened and confined areas: more extended profiles were observed at station Z. Biomass dominant size classes concerned the range up to 300 microns. This size category appeared to collapse in terms of biomass from the seaside or central area of the lagoon towards the farming area, similarly to zooplankton global biomass fluctuations. Difference between biomass levels and between biomass structures suggested that net zooplankton partly acted as food competitors of macro-filtering organisms, and as

  19. Light regime and components of turbidity in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrador, Biel; Pretus, Joan Lluís

    2008-03-01

    The underwater light regime of a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Albufera des Grau, Balearic Islands) was studied during four years in order to characterise the spatial and temporal variations in the light attenuation coefficient ( K) and to assess the relative contribution of the different water components to total light attenuation. During the studied period K averaged 1.42 m -1 and ranged from 0.63 m -1 to 3.80 m -1. High temporal variability was observed in light attenuation coefficients, but the lagoon was spatially uniform. Percentage bottom irradiance in relation to specific requirements for the dominant macrophyte species ( Ruppia cirrhosa) was used as an indicator of benthic light limitation. Macrophyte light limitation was expected to occur in the deepest areas of the lagoon during winter, the most turbid period of the annual cycle. During the macrophyte growing season, higher bottom irradiances were observed but a significant percentage of the lagoon benthos (17% in spring and 7% in summer) was expected to be light limited. In the deepest areas of the lagoon (>2 m) changes in bottom irradiance were related more to variations in the light attenuation coefficient than to variations in water level. However, water level appeared to play an important role in determining benthic light limitation at intermediate depths (1.5 m) for the range of K from 1.8 m -1 to 3.3 m -1. The partitioning of the light attenuation coefficient showed that phytoplankton was the main driver of the temporal dynamics of K, but only accounted for 44% of total light attenuation on average. The mean contributions of the other water components to K were: DOC (47%), tripton (6%), and water (3%). At low values of K, attenuation by DOC was responsible for up to 75% of total attenuation. An equation to predict K from the concentration of water components explained 93% of the variance.

  20. Translation: an example from ancient Chinese to modern Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X; Hoede, C.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we gave an idea of translation by means of knowledge graph theory from ancient Chinese to modern Chinese, by using an example story. Actually, we give the details of the method of translation from ancient Chinese to modern Chinese step by step as carried out by hand. From the example,

  1. history repeats itself : saddam and the ancient mesopotamian royal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    harkhu

    ancient Mesopotamia (present day Iraq)2, from the fourth millennium3 until its incorporation into the ..... aspects of Mesopotamian culture that could not be separated from the other. Saddam, on the ..... site of ancient Babylon. Large parts of the ...

  2. Attitudes to Ancient Greek in Three Schools: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Frances

    2018-01-01

    This study comes in response to recent changes in UK policy, whereby Ancient Greek and Latin have been included alongside modern languages as part of the curriculum at Key Stage 2. It aims to understand how Ancient Greek is surviving and thriving in three different types of schools. After a short overview of the history of Greek teaching in the…

  3. A new look at old bread: ancient Egyptian baking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delwen Samuel

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite abundant archaeological, pictorial and textual evidence of ancient Egyptian life and death, we have little detailed information about the staple diet of most of the population. Now experimental work by a postdoctoral Wellcome Research Fellow in Bioarchaeology at the Institute is revealing how the ancient Egyptians made their daily bread.

  4. Sin, Punishment And Forgiveness In Ancient Greek Religion: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper looks in particular at the special sin of hubris in ancient Greek religious thought. It examines what constitutes hubris and some cases in which hubris has been committed and punished. It demonstrates with examples that hubris is an unforgivable sin in ancient Greek religion and examines the reasons for this ...

  5. Quantification and presence of human ancient DNA in burial place ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantification and presence of human ancient DNA in burial place remains of Turkey using real time polymerase chain reaction. ... A published real-time PCR assay, which allows for the combined analysis of nuclear or ancient DNA and mitochondrial DNA, was modified. This approach can be used for recovering DNA from ...

  6. Notions of "Rhetoric as Epistemic" in Ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.

    The notion that rhetoric (and to a lesser extent, argument) is epistemic is an increasingly popular one today, although it can be traced to ancient Greece. The notion holds that rhetoric, or the art of persuasion, creates and shapes knowledge. Two ancient authors--Aristophanes and Plato--provide evidence that others had notions of rhetoric as…

  7. Application of nuclear analysis techniques in ancient chinese porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Songlin; Xu Qing; Feng Xiangqian; Lei Yong; Cheng Lin; Wang Yanqing

    2005-01-01

    Ancient ceramic was fired with porcelain clay. It contains various provenance information and age characteristic. It is the scientific foundation of studying Chinese porcelain to analyze and research the ancient ceramic with modern analysis methods. According to the property of nuclear analysis technique, its function and application are discussed. (authors)

  8. An Ancient Inca Tax and Metallurgy in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of ancient Inca tax rulers and other metallurgical objects in Peru show that the ancient civilizations of the country smelted metals. The analysis shows that the smelters in Peru switched from the production of copper to silver after a tax was imposed on them by the Inca rulers.

  9. Mapping The Ancient Maya Landscape From Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Tom; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Peten region of northern Guatemala is one of the last places on earth where major archeological sites remain to be discovered. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper and IKONOS satellite and airborne Star3-I radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as cities, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. The use of bajos for farming has been a source of debate within the professional community for many years. But the recent detection and verification of cultural features within the bajo system by our research team are providing conclusive evidence that the ancient Maya had adapted well to wetland environments from the earliest times and utilized them until the time of the Maya collapse. The use of the bajos for farming is also an important resource for the future of the current inhabitants who are experiencing rapid population growth. Remote sensing imagery is also demonstrating that in the Preclassic period (600 BC- AD 250), the Maya had already achieved a high organizational level as evidenced by the construction of massive temples and an elaborate inter-connecting roadway system. Although they experienced several setbacks such as droughts and hurricanes, the Maya nevertheless managed the delicate forest ecosystem successfully for several centuries. However, around AD 800, something happened to the Maya to cause their rapid decline and eventual disappearance from the region. The evidence indicates that at this time there was increased climatic dryness, extensive deforestation, overpopulation, and widespread warfare. This raises a question that

  10. Cosmologies of the ancient Mediterranean world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Fitzgerald

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cosmology is concerned with the order of the universe and seeks to provide an account, not only of that order, but also of the mind or reason behind it. In antiquity, the cosmos was usually understood religiously, such that the cosmologies of the ancient Mediterranean world were either religious in nature or constituted a reaction to a religiously conceived understanding of the structures of the universe. The oldest form in which ancient cosmologies occur is myth, which, owing to its elasticity as a form, enabled them to be appropriated, adapted and used by different groups. In addition, different cosmologies co-existed within the same ancient culture, each having an authoritative status. This article provides an introductory overview of these cosmological myths and argues that a comparative approach is the most fruitful way to study them. Emphasis is given to certain prominent cosmological topics, including theogony (the genesis of the divine or the relationship of the divine to the cosmos, cosmogony (the genesis of the cosmos, and anthropogony (the origin of humans within the cosmos. Although these myths vary greatly in terms of content and how they envision the origin of the cosmos, many of them depict death as part of the structure of the universe. Kosmologie het te doen met die orde van die heelal en wil rekenskap gee van hierdie orde en ook van die bewussyn daaragter. In die antieke tyd is die kosmos gewoonlik godsdienstig verstaan, met die gevolg dat die kosmologieë van die antieke Mediterreense wêreld óf ’n godsdienstige aard gehad het óf bestaan het uit ’n reaksie op ’n godsdienstig-geskepte begrip van die strukture van die heelal. Mites was die oudste vorm waarin antieke kosmologieë voorkom wat vanweë hulle plooibaarheid dit bewerk het dat hierdie kosmologieë deur verskillende groepe toegeëien, aangepas en gebruik kon word. Hierbenewens het verskillende kosmologieë in die antieke kultuur langs mekaar bestaan – elkeen

  11. Deciphering Equine Evolution and Spatial Ancestry with Ancient Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Hákon

    High-throughput sequencing has opened ancient DNA research to genomics, revolutionizing the amount of genetic information retrievable from archaeological and paleontological remains. Paleogenomics is still in infancy and requires substantial improvements in computational methods tailored to the s......High-throughput sequencing has opened ancient DNA research to genomics, revolutionizing the amount of genetic information retrievable from archaeological and paleontological remains. Paleogenomics is still in infancy and requires substantial improvements in computational methods tailored...... in the analysis of environmental bacterial sequences, which generally dominate ancient DNA extracts, and in the first pipeline completely devoted to the computational analysis of raw ancient DNA sequences. We then develop a spatially explicit method for determining which extant populations show the greatest...... genetic anity to ancient individuals, which often represents the key question in human paleogenomic projects. We applied the computational infrastructure developed to complete the genomic characterization of extant members of the genus Equus, which is composed of horses, asses and zebras. We sequenced...

  12. Exploring Ancient Skies An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H

    2005-01-01

    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers - events such as the supernova of 1054, the 'lion horoscope' or the 'Star of Bethlehem.' Exploring An...

  13. Fingerprint elements scatter analysis on ancient chinese Ru porcelains samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhengyao; Wang Jie; Chen Xiande

    1997-01-01

    Altogether 28 samples, mainly including glazes and bodies of ancient Chinese Ru porcelain, were analyzed by NAA technique and the contents of 36 elements were compared. The scatter analysis for nine fingerprint-elements indicates that almost all ancient Chinese Ru porcelain samples had nearly identical and long-term stable source of raw materials although they were fired in different kilns, at varying time and with distinct colors, and moreover, the source of raw materials for modern Ru porcelain seems to approach that for ancient one. The close provenance relation between ancient Jun porcelain and ancient Ru porcelain is also preliminarily verified. The glaze material of Jingdezhen white porcelain is totally different from all other samples. It shows that the former came from a separate source

  14. Discovery of a Circumstellar Disk in the Lagoon Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Circumstellar disks of gas and dust play a crucial role in the formation of stars and planets. Until now, high-resolution images of such disks around young stars within the Orion Nebula obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) constituted the most direct proof of their existence. Now, another circumstellar disk has been detected around a star in the Lagoon Nebula - also known as Messier 8 (M8) , a giant complex of interstellar gas and dust with many young stars in the southern constellation of Sagittarius and four times more distant than the Orion Nebula. The observations were carried out by an international team of scientists led by Bringfried Stecklum (Thüringer Landessternwarte, Tautenburg, Germany) [1] who used telescopes located at the ESO La Silla observatory and also observations from the HST archive. These new results are paving the road towards exciting research programmes on star formation which will become possible with the ESO Very Large Telescope. The harsh environment of circumstellar disks The existence of circumstellar disks has been inferred from indirect measurements of young stellar objects, such as the spectral energy distribution, the analysis of the profiles of individual spectral lines and measurements of the polarisation of the emitted light [2]. Impressive images of such disks in the Orion Nebula, known as proplyds (PROto-PLanetarY DiskS), have been obtained by the HST during the recent years. They have confirmed the interpretation of previous ground-based emission-line observations and mapping by radio telescopes. Moreover, they demonstrated that those disks which are located close to hot and massive stars are subject to heating caused by the intense radiation from these stars. Subsequently, the disks evaporate releasing neutral gas which streams off. During this process, shock fronts (regions with increased density) with tails of ionised gas result at a certain distance between the disk and the hot star. These objects appear on

  15. The Vindolanda Tablets and the Ancient Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Kasper Grønlund

    The Vindolanda Tablets are rightly famous for the insights they provide into the life of Roman auxiliaries on the province of Britain’s northern frontier around the turn of the first century AD. Various authors over the years have dealt with the archaeological excavations at Vindolanda, the evide......The Vindolanda Tablets are rightly famous for the insights they provide into the life of Roman auxiliaries on the province of Britain’s northern frontier around the turn of the first century AD. Various authors over the years have dealt with the archaeological excavations at Vindolanda......, the aim is to investigate how best to comprehend the economic system attested at Vindolanda and to consider the wider implications for studies of the ancient economy in general. This is accomplished by a three-step approach: first, the nature of the Vindolandan evidence is assessed, and the state...

  16. Ancient loons stories Pingree told me

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    The book is a collection of short stories, small anecdotes in the life of some historical characters. More concretely, it focuses on the oddities and singularities of some well-known historical figures, not only in science, but also in arts, politics and social sciences. … the book shows the fascination for ancient history, the treasures hidden in original sources and the importance of exploring unusual connections.-Javier Martinez, The European Mathematical Society, January 2013… a rambling, illuminating and thoroughly enjoyable bio/autobiographical and historical sketch, setting Pingree's immense erudition in its professional and intellectual context. Besides a string of amusing and intriguing anecdotes plentifully sprinkled with photos and sketches, this small volume supplies a valuable reminder of how complex, surprising and just plain strange the history of the exact sciences can be.-Kim Plofker, MAA Reviews, October 2012.

  17. Trace elements in ancient ceramics: Pt.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huhou; Sun Yongjun; Zhang Xiangdong

    1987-01-01

    In the last period of Tong Dynasty, Jingdezhen began its production of ceramics. During the Song Dynasty, the ceramic industry greatly developed and produced fine white ware at Hutian. In the Yuan Dynastry, Hutian became the centre of production making the world famous blue and white wares. Here are reported results of analyses of ancient porcelians of Hutian in Jiangdezhen by reactor neutron activation analysis. The results show that the patterns of eight rare earth elements are apparently different for products in different periods, indicating that methods for producing ceramics or kinds of clay used were different. The contents of some other trace elements such as hafnium, tantalum, thorium and uranium show the same regularity in difference of composition also

  18. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James Seymour; McLay, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful...... isolation and amplification of DNA from fossil eggshell up to 19 ka old. aDNA was successfully characterized from eggshell obtained from New Zealand (extinct moa and ducks), Madagascar (extinct elephant birds) and Australia (emu and owl). Our data demonstrate excellent preservation of the nucleic acids......, evidenced by retrieval of both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA from many of the samples. Using confocal microscopy and quantitative PCR, this study critically evaluates approaches to maximize DNA recovery from powdered eggshell. Our quantitative PCR experiments also demonstrate that moa eggshell has...

  19. Optical spectroscopy of ancient paper and textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missori, M.

    2016-01-01

    Ancient paper and textiles represent a striking example of optically inhomogenous materials whose optical responses are strongly governed by scattering effects. In order to recover the absorption coefficient from non-invasive and nondestructive reflectance measurements a specific approach based on Kubelka-Munk two-flux theory must be applied. In this way quantitative chemical information, such as chromophores concentration, can be obtained, as well as quantitative spectra of additional substances such as pigments or dyes. Results on a folio of the Codex on the Flight of Birds by Leonardo da Vinci and a linen cloth dated back to 1653 and called the Shroud of Arquata, a copy of the Shroud of Turin, will be presented.

  20. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B; Christensen, Torben R

    2007-01-01

    -term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence of bacterial survival in samples up to half a million years in age, making this the oldest independently authenticated DNA to date obtained from viable cells. Additionally, we find strong evidence...... geological timescales. There has been no direct evidence in ancient microbes for the most likely mechanism, active DNA repair, or for the metabolic activity necessary to sustain it. In this paper, we couple PCR and enzymatic treatment of DNA with direct respiration measurements to investigate long...... that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability....

  1. Ancient engineers' inventions precursors of the present

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Cesare

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the inventions and designs of ancient engineers who are the precursors of the present. The period ranges mainly from 300 B.C. to 1600 A.D. with several exceptions. Many of the oldest inventions are documented by archaeological finds, often very little known, mainly from Pompeii, Herculaneum and Stabiae and reveal a surprising modernity in their conception. Most of the inventions presented in the first four parts of the book were conceived up to the late Roman Empire and may be considered as milestones, each in their respective field. The fifth part concentrates on more recent centuries. The sixth part deals with some building construction techniques. Generally, for each of the presented inventions, three elements of research and reference are provided: written documents (the classics), iconic references (coins, bas-reliefs, etc.) and archaeological findings. The authors did not write this book for engineers only; hence they describe all the devices without assuming wide technical knowledge...

  2. Mortar alteration: experimental study and ancient analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassineux, Francois

    1987-01-01

    As the durability of cemented matrices is a matter of great importance in numerous domains, notably for the long term reliability of surface storages of radioactive wastes, the objective of this research thesis is to define mechanisms of evolution of cemented matrices when in contact with diluted aqueous solutions. The author notably studied the influence of the lixiviation mode on the evolution of two mortars having different compositions (pH, CO 2 pressure, system containment, and cement mineralogical nature appear to be the main governing parameters), the alteration (dissolution is the prevailing process in the interaction between cemented matrices and a diluted solution such as rain water), and ancient binders (archaeological binders containing mineral phases such as hydrated calcium silicates or hydro-grossulars). The obtained results lead to the definition of alteration mechanisms in modern cements, and highlight factors governing the durability of these materials when submitted to meteoric alteration [fr

  3. Recognition of dementia in ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Lu-Ning; Tian, Jin-Zhou

    2012-12-01

    A search of previous records in the literatures was done to summarize the opinions for dementia in ancient China. The earliest description of dementia was traced in the Yellow emperor's internal classic, a book written 2000 years ago. Hua Tuo (AD 140-208) in Han Dynasty first denominated "dementia" in the book, Hua Tuo Shen Yi Mi Zhuan. The pathogenesis of dementia could be generalized as the insufficiency of Qi, a flowing energy; the stagnation of phlegm, a harmful liquid substance in the body; and the blood stasis, which were also regarded as therapeutic targets. Therefore, we can conclude that dementia has been recognized and investigated in traditional Chinese medicine, which is definitely before the industrial civilization era. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Legacy of the Ancient World: An Educational Guide. Understanding Ancient Culture through Art at the Tampa Museum of Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, R. Lynn

    Among the many contributions made by Ancient Greeks and Romans to contemporary life, are those which influence art, architecture, literature, philosophy, mathematics and science, theater, athletics, religion, and the founding of democracy. The Tampa Museum of Art's classical collection offers a unique opportunity to learn about Ancient Greeks and…

  5. Can Digital Computers Support Ancient Mathematical Consciousness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Sloman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper poses, discusses, but does not definitively answer, the following questions: What sorts of reasoning machinery could the ancient mathematicians, and other intelligent animals, be using for spatial reasoning, before the discovery of modern logical mechanisms? “Diagrams in minds” perhaps? How and why did natural selection produce such machinery? Is there a single package of biological abilities for spatial reasoning, or did different sorts of mathematical competence evolve at different times, forming a “layered” system? Do the layers develop in individuals at different stages? Which components are shared with other intelligent species? Does some or all of the machinery exist at or before birth in humans and if not how and when does it develop, and what is the role of experience in its development? How do brains implement such machinery? Could similar machines be implemented as virtual machines on digital computers, and if not what sorts of non-digital “Super Turing” mechanisms could replicate the required functionality, including discovery of impossibility and necessity? How are impossibility and necessity represented in brains? Are chemical mechanisms required? How could such mechanisms be specified in a genome? Are some not specified in the genome but products of interaction between genome and environment? Does Turing’s work on chemical morphogenesis published shortly before he died indicate that he was interested in this problem? Will the answers to these questions vindicate Immanuel Kant’s claims about the nature of mathematical knowledge, including his claim that mathematical truths are non-empirical, synthetic and necessary? Perhaps it’s time for discussions of consciousness to return to the nature of ancient mathematical consciousness, and related aspects of everyday human and non-human intelligence, usually ignored by consciousness theorists.

  6. Ancient water supports today's energy needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Natyzak, Jennifer L.; Castner, Elizabeth A.; Davis, Kyle F.; Emery, Kyle A.; Gephart, Jessica A.; Leach, Allison M.; Pace, Michael L.; Galloway, James N.

    2017-05-01

    The water footprint for fossil fuels typically accounts for water utilized in mining and fuel processing, whereas the water footprint of biofuels assesses the agricultural water used by crops through their lifetime. Fossil fuels have an additional water footprint that is not easily accounted for: ancient water that was used by plants millions of years ago, before they were transformed into fossil fuel. How much water is mankind using from the past to sustain current energy needs? We evaluate the link between ancient water virtually embodied in fossil fuels to current global energy demands by determining the water demand required to replace fossil fuels with biomass produced with water from the present. Using equal energy units of wood, bioethanol, and biodiesel to replace coal, natural gas, and crude oil, respectively, the resulting water demand is 7.39 × 1013 m3 y-1, approximately the same as the total annual evaporation from all land masses and transpiration from all terrestrial vegetation. Thus, there are strong hydrologic constraints to a reliance on biofuel energy produced with water from the present because the conversion from fossil fuels to biofuels would have a disproportionate and unsustainable impact on the modern water. By using fossil fuels to meet today's energy needs, we are virtually using water from a geological past. The water cycle is insufficient to sustain the production of the fuel presently consumed by human societies. Thus, non-fuel-based renewable energy sources are needed to decrease mankind's reliance on fossil fuel energy without placing an overwhelming pressure on global freshwater resources.

  7. Creating cometary models using ancient Chinese data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, D. K.

    For more than two millennia, Chinese court astronomers maintained a rather comprehensive record of cometary sightings. Owing to the significance of comets as portents for the reigning emperor, early sky watchers from China (as well as their counterparts from Korea and Japan) carefully noted each cometary apparition for the purpose of astrological predictions. The dates and corresponding celestial locations and motions were usually recorded and in some cases, the colors, coma sizes, and tail lengths were also noted. These ancient observations represent the only source of information available for modeling the long-term behavior of periodic comets. For comets Halley and Swift-Tuttle, Chinese records have been identified as far back as 240 B.C. and 69 B.C. respectively and these data have been used to define their long-term motions. As a result, heliocentric and geocentric distances for each Chinese sighting of these two comets can be computed and estimates can be made for each comet's intrinsic brightness at various observed returns. Although the earliest identified apparition of comet Tempel-Tuttle is A.D. 1366, the associated Leonid meteor showers were noted back to at least A.D. 902. The Leonid meteor stream is young in the sense that outstanding meteor displays occur only near the time of the parent comet's perihelion passages. The ancient Chinese records of the Leonid meteor showers and storms have been used to map the particle distribution around the parent comet and this information was used to guide predictions for the 1998-1999 Leonid meteor showers.

  8. Uranium in ancient slag from Rajasthan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeepkumar, T.B.; Fahmi, Sohail; Sharma, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    Anomalous radioactivity was recorded in two ancient slag dumps spread on the surface near Bansda (24 deg 35'N lat., 70 deg 09'E long.) and Dhavadiya (24 deg 30'N lat., 70 deg 05'E long.) villages, Udaipur District, Rajasthan. The slag, with a range of high to low radioactivity levels, is the remnant of ancient smelting in the area, probably for copper. Six samples showing low radioactivity in Bansda contain an average of 0.030% U 3 O 8 , while five moderately radioactive samples analysed contain 0.225% U 3 O 8 and four highly radioactive samples analysed contain 1.15% U 3 O 8 . The 15 samples contain on an average 0.627% copper, 719 ppm zinc, 329 ppm cobalt and 133 ppm vanadium. Fifteen samples from Dhavadiya slag assayed on an average contain 0.040% U 3 O 8 , 0.297% Cu, 292 ppm Zn and 250 ppm Co. The extent of crystallization seen in the slag is intriguing because an over-cooled melt generally forms glass. The high rate of crystal formation may be attributed to high amounts of volatiles, particularly CO 2 and SO 4 , released during the breakdown of limestone (added as flux during smelting) and sulphide minerals in the ore. The high order of radioactivity recorded in the slags of Bansda and Dhavadiya points to the presence of ore-grade uranium concentration associated with sulphide mineralization in the vicinity of the basement Banded Gneissic Complex, intrusive granites and the cover sequence of the Bhinder basin. (author)

  9. [Medicine in ancient Mesopotamia - part 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins E Silva, J

    2010-01-01

    The second part embraces exclusively the main characteristics of the medicine in Ancient Mesopotamia, in its main facets: concept of disease, healers and practice. The disease was considered a divine punishment or resultant from a malign influence. Insofar, the medicine began by being preventive, by the use of appropriate amulets or by offerings or sacrifices intending to pacify those malign forces. The treatment of the generality of the diseases privileged the expulsion of those spirits and malign influences from the patient body, purifying it, which was done by the specific intervention of a approximately shipu (clergymanexorcist); not having results, the treatment was continued by the asû (practical healer) that appealed to a group of physical manipulations, limited surgical acts and the administration or application of prescriptions, resultants of the mixture of organic and inorganic substances. In case of failing, the patients (as well as common healthy individuals or rule leaders) could fall back upon a priest diviner (bârû) that, by examination of the organs of an animal especially sacrificed for, would give a final decision about the disease or the future. Besides this more occult facet, nourished in religious faiths and in the magic, the medicine of Ancient Mesopotamia included rational knowledge, certainly as the result of systematic patients observation and semiotic interpretation. From those observations and knowledge referred to the Sumerian period, carefully logged, refined and transmitted to the following generations, it was built a valuable group of texts with the description of symptoms, signs, diagnosis and prognostic of the most common diseases, still identifiable in the present.

  10. Growth, Survival and Reproduction of the Giant Clam Tridacna maxima (Röding 1798, Bivalvia) in Two Contrasting Lagoons in French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wynsberge, Simon; Andréfouët, Serge; Gaertner-Mazouni, Nabila; Wabnitz, Colette C. C.; Menoud, Mathilde; Le Moullac, Gilles; Levy, Peva; Gilbert, Antoine; Remoissenet, Georges

    2017-01-01

    Shell growth, reproduction, and natural mortality of the giant clam Tridacna maxima were characterized over a two-year-period in the lagoon of the high island of Tubuai (Austral Archipelago) and in the semi-closed lagoon of Tatakoto (Tuamotu Archipelago) in French Polynesia. We also recorded temperature, water level, tidal slope, tidal range, and mean wave height in both lagoons. Lower lagoon aperture and exposure to oceanic swells at Tatakoto than at Tubuai was responsible for lower lagoon water renewal, as well as higher variability in temperature and water level at Tatakoto across the studied period. These different environmental conditions had an impact on giant clams. Firstly, spawning events in the lagoon of Tatakoto, detected by gonad maturity indices in June and July 2014, were timed with high oceanic water inflow and a decrease in lagoon water temperature. Secondly, temperature explained differences in shell growth rates between seasons and lagoons, generating different growth curves for the two sites. Thirdly, local mortality rates were also found to likely be related to water renewal patterns. In conclusion, our study suggests that reef aperture and lagoon water renewal rates play an integral role in giant clam life history, with significant differences in rates of shell growth, mortality and fertility found between open versus semi-closed atoll lagoons in coral reef ecosystems. PMID:28118406

  11. Growth, Survival and Reproduction of the Giant Clam Tridacna maxima (Röding 1798, Bivalvia in Two Contrasting Lagoons in French Polynesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Van Wynsberge

    Full Text Available Shell growth, reproduction, and natural mortality of the giant clam Tridacna maxima were characterized over a two-year-period in the lagoon of the high island of Tubuai (Austral Archipelago and in the semi-closed lagoon of Tatakoto (Tuamotu Archipelago in French Polynesia. We also recorded temperature, water level, tidal slope, tidal range, and mean wave height in both lagoons. Lower lagoon aperture and exposure to oceanic swells at Tatakoto than at Tubuai was responsible for lower lagoon water renewal, as well as higher variability in temperature and water level at Tatakoto across the studied period. These different environmental conditions had an impact on giant clams. Firstly, spawning events in the lagoon of Tatakoto, detected by gonad maturity indices in June and July 2014, were timed with high oceanic water inflow and a decrease in lagoon water temperature. Secondly, temperature explained differences in shell growth rates between seasons and lagoons, generating different growth curves for the two sites. Thirdly, local mortality rates were also found to likely be related to water renewal patterns. In conclusion, our study suggests that reef aperture and lagoon water renewal rates play an integral role in giant clam life history, with significant differences in rates of shell growth, mortality and fertility found between open versus semi-closed atoll lagoons in coral reef ecosystems.

  12. Ecosystem response to human- and climate-induced environmental stress on an anoxic coastal lagoon (Etoliko, Greece) since 1930 AD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutsodendris, Andreas; Brauer, Achim; Zacharias, Ierotheos; Putyrskaya, Victoria; Klemt, Eckehard; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Pross, Jörg

    To better constrain the effects of anthropogenic impact on coastal wetlands with respect to natural variability, we here analyze annually laminated sediments from Etoliko lagoon (western Greece, Mediterranean Sea) spanning the last*80 years. Subdecadal- scale palynomorph (pollen and dinoflagellate

  13. Assessment of Potential Nitrate Pollution Sources in the Marano Lagoon (Italy) and its Catch Mentarea Using a Multi Isotope Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saccon, P.; Leis, A. [Joanneum Research Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Institute for Water, Energy and Sustainability, Graz (Austria); Marca, A.; Kaiser, J.; Campisi, L. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom); Savarino, J.; Erbland, J. [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, St.-Martin-d' Heres (France); Boettcher, M. E. [Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Geochemistry and Isotope Geochemistry Group, Marine Geology Section, Warnemuende (Germany); Eisenhauer, A. [IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel (Germany); Sueltenfuss, J. [University of Bremen, Institute of Environmental Physics, Section of Oceanography, Bremen (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    The aims of this study were mainly: (i) the identification and differentiation of the main anthropogenic nitrogen sources in the Marano Lagoon (Italy) and its catchment area; and (ii) the assessment of the intra-lagoonal water circulation, the morphological development of the lagoon and its anthropogenic pressure by applying a combined approach of hydrochemical, isotopic and remote sensing techniques. To achieve the aforementioned targets analyses of the stable isotope signatures of nitrate, boron, water and sulphate have been used. Moreover the residence times of groundwater were determined by the tritium-helium dating method. To characterize the chemical composition of the different water types the concentrations of the major ions and nutrients as well as the physicochemical parameters have been measured. Remote sensing techniques have been applied to assess the spatial distribution of the most superficial algal flora, water temperature as well as the key environmental and morphological changes of the lagoon since the beginning of the 1970s. (author)

  14. Assessment of Potential Nitrate Pollution Sources in the Marano Lagoon (Italy) and its Catchment Area Using a Multi Isotope Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saccon, P.; Leis, A.; Marca, A.; Kaiser, J.; Campisi, L.; Savarino, J.; Erbland, J.; Boettcher, M.E.; Eisenhauer, A.; Sueltenfuss, J.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were mainly: (i) the identification and differentiation of the main anthropogenic nitrogen sources in the Marano Lagoon (Italy) and its catchment area; and (ii) the assessment of the intra-lagoonal water circulation, the morphological development of the lagoon and its anthropogenic pressure by applying a combined approach of hydrochemical, isotopic and remote sensing techniques. To achieve the aforementioned targets analyses of stable isotope signatures of nitrate, boron, water and sulphate have been used. Moreover the residence times of groundwater were determined by the tritium-helium dating method. To characterize the chemical composition of the different water types the concentrations of the major ions and nutrients as well as the physicochemical parameters have been measured. Remote sensing techniques have been applied to assess the spatial distribution of most superficial algal flora, water temperature as well as the key environmental and morphological changes of the lagoon since the beginning of the 1970s.

  15. Characterization and evolution of the sediments of a Mediterranean coastal lagoon located next to a former mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Gregorio; Muñoz-Vera, Ana

    2015-11-15

    Coastal lagoons are ecosystems that are relatively enclosed water bodies under the influence of both the terrestrial and the marine environment, being vulnerable to human impacts. Human activities, such as mining extraction, are significant anthropogenic coastal stressors that can negatively affect ecosystems and communities. In light of the above, the objective of this research is to examine the influence of metal mining activities on the composition of sediments of a Mediterranean coastal lagoon, named Mar Menor. This paper presents a comprehensive characterization for grain size, mineralogy, geochemistry and organic matter of sediments of this coastal lagoon, investigating their variation along space and time. Sedimentation dynamics are ruling clearly the grain size predominant in each area of the Mar Menor coastal lagoon, determining the existence of entrainment, transport and sedimentation areas. For minerals, elements and organic matter, sedimentation dynamics are also determining their distribution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. NCCOS Assessment: Benthic habitat maps of Saipan Lagoon, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (NCEI Accession 0162517)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Highly detailed maps of benthic habitats within the lagoon along the western shore of Saipan were created by NOAA NCCOS. This data collection includes the...

  17. Before-after environmental impact assessment of an artificial channel opening on a south-western Atlantic choked lagoon system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestrelo, L; Monteiro-Neto, C

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the human induced impact of a channel opening in a choked lagoon and attempted to establish the cause-effect links for the observed changes. The same lagoon system was sampled before and after the channel opening event, and the differences in fish and crustacean assemblages and environmental variables between these periods analysed. The opening of the artificial channel resulted in salinity increases, leading to a shift in species composition, favouring marine species and reducing abundance and diversity of previously dominant freshwater species. Furthermore, saltwater entrance into the choked lagoon caused an unexpected decrease in species richness and biomass, plus deterioration of ecosystem processes, reducing fishing capacity. The effects of salinity on the ecosystem vary depending on the ecosystem's composition and capacity to overcome salinity changes, thus specific monitoring projects are important strategies for developing coastal lagoon conservation management. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Spatial variations in dietary organic matter sources modulate the size and condition of fish juveniles in temperate lagoon nursery sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalas, Arthur; Ferraton, Franck; Paillon, Christelle; Vidy, Guy; Carcaillet, Frédérique; Salen-Picard, Chantal; Le Loc'h, François; Richard, Pierre; Darnaude, Audrey Michèle

    2015-01-01

    Effective conservation of marine fish stocks involves understanding the impact, on population dynamics, of intra-specific variation in nursery habitats use at the juvenile stage. In some regions, an important part of the catching effort is concentrated on a small number of marine species that colonize coastal lagoons during their first year of life. To determine the intra-specific variation in lagoon use by these fish and their potential demographic consequences, we studied diet spatiotemporal variations in the group 0 juveniles of a highly exploited sparid, the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.), during their ∼6 months stay in a NW Mediterranean lagoon (N = 331, SL = 25-198 mm) and traced the origin of the organic matter in their food webs, at two lagoon sites with contrasted continental inputs. This showed that the origin (marine, lagoonal or continental) of the organic matter (OM) available in the water column and the sediment can vary substantially within the same lagoon, in line with local variations in the intensity of marine and continental inputs. The high trophic plasticity of S. aurata allows its juveniles to adapt to resulting differences in prey abundances at each site during their lagoon residency, thereby sustaining high growth irrespective of the area inhabited within the lagoon. However, continental POM incorporation by the juveniles through their diet (of 21-37% on average depending on the site) is proportional to its availability in the environment and could be responsible for the greater fish sizes (of 28 mm SL on average) and body weights (of 40.8 g on average) observed at the site under continental influence in the autumn, when the juveniles are ready to leave the lagoon. This suggests that continental inputs in particulate OM, when present, could significantly enhance fish growth within coastal lagoons, with important consequences on the local population dynamics of the fish species that use them as nurseries. As our results indicate that

  19. Gaining insight into Clipperton's lagoon hydrology using tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean-Baptiste, P.; Fourre, E. [CEA Saclay, LSCE, CEA CNRS IPSL, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Charlou, J.L.; Donval, J.P. [IFREMER, Ctr Brest, DRO GM, Plouzane, (France); Correge, T. [Univ Bordeaux 1, CNRS, UMR 5805, F-33405 Talence, (France)

    2009-07-01

    Historical descriptions of the Clipperton lagoon appear to converge on the fact that it became isolated from the surrounding ocean around 1858. Since then, because of the high precipitation rate which largely exceeds evaporation in this region of the eastern tropical Pacific, a brackish lens has formed on top of the saline oceanic waters. In 1980, literature data show that the thickness of this water body was reaching 14 m. During the 2005 Etienne's Clipperton expedition, we collected lagoon water on two vertical profiles. Salinity, {delta}{sup 18}O and tritium analyses were performed on these samples with the objective of gaining further insight into the lagoon hydrology and age of the deep waters. The upper 15 m were characterized by low salinities (5.4 {+-} 0.2), and {delta}{sup 18}O and tritium values typical of local precipitation. At depth, waters had salinity and {delta}{sup 18}O similar to oceanic surface waters but with low tritium concentrations, hence pointing to quite isolated waters representing a remnant of marine waters when the lagoon was still communicating with the ocean. At lagoon closure, the excess of precipitation over evaporation raised the lagoon level, thus creating a hydraulic pressure head which favored salt expulsion through the permeable walls of the atoll. A simple geohydrological modeling of this salt expulsion process based on Darcy's law describes reasonably well the time-evolution of the brackish lens. Tritium is used to discuss the main physical processes potentially involved in the slow ventilation of the halo-cline and deep saline layer, including vertical diffusion, sinking of salty Surface water intrusions and deep horizontal exchange through fissures in the limestone. These different mechanisms give reasonable results, which are all compatible with available salinity and isotopic data ({delta}{sup 18}O and tritium), and therefore are all plausible candidates. Unfortunately, the lack of a detailed description of the

  20. Potential changes in bacterial metabolism associated with increased water temperature and nutrient inputs in tropical humic lagoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius eScofield

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and nutrient concentrations regulate aquatic bacterial metabolism. However, few studies have focused on the effect of the interaction between these factors on bacterial processes, and none have been performed in tropical aquatic ecosystems. We analyzed the main and interactive effects of changes in water temperature and N and P concentrations on bacterioplankton production (BP, respiration (BR and growth efficiency (BGE in tropical coastal lagoons. We used a factorial design with 3 levels of water temperature (25, 30 and 35 °C and 4 levels of N and/or P additions (Control, N, P and NP additions in five tropical humic lagoons. When data for all lagoons were pooled together, a weak interaction was observed between the increase in water temperature and the addition of nutrients. Water temperature alone had the greatest impact on bacterial metabolism by increasing BR, decreasing BP, and decreasing BGE. An increase of 1°C lead to an increase of ~ 4% in BR, a decrease of ~ 0.9% in BP, and a decrease of ~ 4% in BGE. When data were analyzed separately, lagoons responded differently to nutrient additions depending on DOC concentration. Lagoons with lowest DOC concentrations showed the strongest responses to nutrient additions: BP increased in response to N, P and their interaction, BR increased in response to N and the interaction between N and P, and BGE was negatively affected, mainly by the interaction between N and P additions. Lagoons with the highest DOC concentrations showed almost no significant relationship with nutrient additions. Taken together, these results show that different environmental drivers impact bacterial processes at different scales. Changes of bacterial metabolism related to the increase of water temperature are consistent between lagoons, therefore their consequences can be predicted at a regional scale, while the effect of nutrient inputs is specific to different lagoons but seems to be related to the DOC

  1. Organic matter composition in the sediment of three Brazilian coastal lagoons: district of Macaé, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Zink,Klaus-Gerhard; Furtado,André L. S.; Casper,Peter; Schwark,Lorenz

    2004-01-01

    Freshwater lagoons comprise important coastal ecosystems and natural buffers between urbanized land areas and open ocean in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Studies of sediment and water chemistry, zooplankton and bacterial communities to assess the extent of anthropogenic disturbance are available. Here we contribute with an organic-geochemical approach supplemented by some microbiological aspects to complete the characterization of these lagoonal ecosystems. Bulk organic matter and extract...

  2. Potential changes in bacterial metabolism associated with increased water temperature and nutrient inputs in tropical humic lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Vinicius; Jacques, Saulo M. S.; Guimarães, Jean R. D.; Farjalla, Vinicius F.

    2015-01-01

    Temperature and nutrient concentrations regulate aquatic bacterial metabolism. However, few studies have focused on the effect of the interaction between these factors on bacterial processes, and none have been performed in tropical aquatic ecosystems. We analyzed the main and interactive effects of changes in water temperature and N and P concentrations on bacterioplankton production (BP), bacterioplankton respiration (BR) and bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) in tropical coastal lagoons. We used a factorial design with three levels of water temperature (25, 30, and 35°C) and four levels of N and/or P additions (Control, N, P, and NP additions) in five tropical humic lagoons. When data for all lagoons were pooled together, a weak interaction was observed between the increase in water temperature and the addition of nutrients. Water temperature alone had the greatest impact on bacterial metabolism by increasing BR, decreasing BP, and decreasing BGE. An increase of 1°C lead to an increase of ~4% in BR, a decrease of ~0.9% in BP, and a decrease of ~4% in BGE. When data were analyzed separately, lagoons responded differently to nutrient additions depending on Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) concentration. Lagoons with lowest DOC concentrations showed the strongest responses to nutrient additions: BP increased in response to N, P, and their interaction, BR increased in response to N and the interaction between N and P, and BGE was negatively affected, mainly by the interaction between N and P additions. Lagoons with the highest DOC concentrations showed almost no significant relationship with nutrient additions. Taken together, these results show that different environmental drivers impact bacterial processes at different scales. Changes of bacterial metabolism related to the increase of water temperature are consistent between lagoons, therefore their consequences can be predicted at a regional scale, while the effect of nutrient inputs is specific to different

  3. Spatial patterns and temporal trends in the fisheries landings of the Messolonghi-Etoliko lagoons (Western Greek Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Katselis

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The Messolonghi-Etoliko lagoon is one of the largest lagoon system in the northern Mediterranean coast. This area contains six clearly distinct lagoons with different topographic and hydrological features. The fishery landings of the lagoons are based on the ontogenic and seasonal migrations of the species. The total annual fishery landings of the barrier fish traps are estimated as 195 mt and are mainly composed of 16 species belonging to 8 families. Eel (Anguilla anguilla, the four species of Mugilidae (Liza saliens, L. aurata, L. ramada and Mugil cephalus, the two species of Sparidae (Sparus aurata and Diplodus annularis and one species of Mullidae (Mullus barbatus represent more than 92% of the total annual landings. The composition of the fishery landings varies between lagoons. The cluster analysis showed three groups of lagoons. The first group comprised lagoons in which the landings were dominated by eel, the second group was dominated by Mugilidae species and S. aurata, and the third by L. ramada and M. cephalus. The diversity index of the fishery landings is fairly constant in time, except for the Etoliko lagoon, where repeated anoxic crises decreased the diversity index value to almost zero in 1992. All the landing series showed a dominant annual cycle. Two seasonal patterns of the fishery landings were observed and linked to the fish spawning behaviour and/or their reaction to environmental forcings. The first one concerns species caught from summer to early autumn and the second pattern concerns species trapped during their autumn to winter offshore migration.

  4. Wind effects on prey availability: How northward migrating waders use brackish and hypersaline lagoons in the sivash, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuil, Yvonne; Koolhaas, Anita; Van Der Winden, Jan

    Large numbers of waders migrating northward in spring use the Sivash, a large system of shallow, brackish and hypersaline lagoons in the Black Sea and Azov Sea region (Ukraine). The bottoms of these lagoons are often uncovered by the wind. Hence, for waders the time and space available for feeding depend on wind conditions. In hypersaline lagoons the benthic and pelagic fauna was very poor, consisting mainly of chironomid larvae (0.19 g AFDM·m -2) and brine shrimps Artemia salina, respectively. Brine shrimp abundance was correlated with salinity, wind force, wind direction and water depth. Dunlin Calidris alpina and curlew sandpiper Calidris ferruginea were the only species feeding on brine shrimp. As brine shrimp densities are higher in deeper water, smaller waders such as broad-billed sandpipers Limicola falcinellus are too short-legged to reach exploitable densities of brine shrimp. In brackish lagoons the benthic and pelagic fauna was rich, consisting of polychaetes, bivalves, gastropods, chironomid larvae, isopods and amphipods (8.9 to 30.5 g AFDM·m -2), but there were no brine shrimps. Prey biomass increased with the distance from the coast, being highest on the site that was most frequently inundated. Dunlin, broad-billed sandpiper and grey plover Pluvialis squatarola were the most abundant birds in the brackish lagoon. Due to the effects of wind-tides only a small area was usually available as a feeding site. Gammarus insensibilis was the alternative prey resource in the water layer, and their density varied with wind direction in the same way as brine shrimp. Curlew sandpipers and dunlins in the hypersaline lagoons and broad-billed sandpipers in the brackish lagoons often changed feeding sites, probably following the variation in prey availability. Only because of the large size and variety of lagoons are waders in the Sivash always able to find good feeding sites.

  5. Copper, Cadmium and Lead in superficial sediment, water and the fish Cyprinodon Dearborni, in two Lagoons of Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, J.; Lemus, M.; Chung, K. S

    2000-01-01

    The concentration of copper, cadmium and lead in superficial sediment, water and the fish Cyprenodon dearborni was determined in two coastal lagoons of Sucre State, Venezuela. Chacopata lagoon is hyper saline while Los Patos Lagoon is hypo saline and receives significant waste water from Cumana city. Water, sediment and fish samples were collected in Frebruary 1998. In the laboratory, samples underwent acid digestion and were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean values of the metals in C dearborni from the Chacopata lagoon were: 159.26± 210.68 μg/g for Cu, 44.71±45.58 μg/g for Cd, and 9.31±23.34 μg/g for Pb, while for Los Patos lagoon the mean values were: 64.88±16.30, 19.48± 5.81 and 22.85±20.00, respectively. In the water column, the metal concentration ranges were: 2.3-11.6, 3.9-5.4 and 21-32 mg/l for cooper, cadmium and lead, respectively. These results suggest that metal levels in sediment, water column and organisms in both lagoons do not differ, except for lead, even though only Los Patos receives waste water. (Author) [es

  6. Does coastal lagoon habitat quality affect fish growth rate and their recruitment? Insights from fishing and acoustic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehmer, P.; Laugier, T.; Kantoussan, J.; Galgani, F.; Mouillot, D.

    2013-07-01

    Ensuring the sustainability of fish resources necessitates understanding their interaction with coastal habitats, which is becoming ever more challenging in the context of ever increasing anthropogenic pressures. The ability of coastal lagoons, exposed to major sources of disturbance, to provide resources and suitable habitats for growth and survival of juvenile fish is especially important. We analysed three lagoons with different ecological statuses and habitat quality on the basis of their eutrophication and ecotoxicity (Trix test) levels. Fish abundances were sampled using fishing and horizontal beaming acoustic surveys with the same protocols in the same year. The relative abundance of Anguilla anguilla, Dicentrarchus labrax or the Mugilidae group was not an indicator of habitat quality, whereas Atherina boyeri and Sparus aurata appeared to be more sensitive to habitat quality. Fish abundance was higher in the two lagoons with high eutrophication and ecotoxicity levels than in the less impacted lagoon, while fish sizes were significantly higher in the two most severely impacted lagoons. This leads us to suggest low habitat quality may increase fish growth rate (by the mean of a cascading effect), but may reduce lagoon juvenile abundance by increasing larval mortality. Such a hypothesis needs to be further validated using greater investigations which take into account more influences on fish growth and recruitment in such variable environments under complex multi-stressor conditions.

  7. Environmental changes induced by human activities in the Northern Curonian Lagoon (Eastern Baltic: diatoms and stable isotope data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrė Vaikutienė

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A sediment core collected from the northwestern part of the Curonian Lagoon, which was deposited approximately during 1800-2002, was analysed for several proxy records. Changes in diatom assemblages and carbon, nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N and δ18O revealed two periods, which are characterized by differences in the sedimentation rate, sediment type and trophic state of the northern part of the Curonian Lagoon. Low δ15N values in organics and prevailing fresh-brackish benthic diatoms indicate low enrichment in the shallow, freshwater lagoon during the period 1800-1955. The eutrophic conditions in this shallow lagoon are reflected by a high abundance of planktonic diatoms common in nutrient-rich basins and increased d15N values in organics of the sediments since 1955. Starting approximately in the 1960s, decreased freshwater run-off and increased brackish-water inflow into the lagoon were observed. These changes were likely caused by the construction of the hydropower station (and a reservoir near the Nemunas River and the artificial deepening of the Klaipėda Strait during 1960-1962 and later, also by the rising sea level in the SE Baltic. The changed river run-off and the artificially deepened strait significantly influenced the fresh-brackish water circulation and environmental conditions in the northern part of the Curonian Lagoon in the last decades.

  8. Determination of ancient ceramics reference material by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huhou; Sun Jingxin; Wang Yuqi; Lu Liangcai

    1986-01-01

    Contents of trace elements in the reference material of ancient ceramics (KPS-1) were determined by means of activation analysis, using thermal neutron irradiation produced in nuclear reactor. KPS-1 favoured the analysis of ancient ceramics because it had not only many kinds of element but also appropriate contents of composition. The values presented here are reliable within the experimental precision, and have shown that the reference material had a good homogeneity. So KPS-1 can be used as a suitable reference material for the ancient ceramics analysis

  9. Tracking down human contamination in ancient human teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sampietro, María Lourdes; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Lao, Oscar

    2006-01-01

    DNA sequences can be used to support data authenticity is misleading in scenarios where the presence of old contaminant sequences is possible. We argue therefore that the typing of those involved in the manipulation of the ancient human specimens is critical in order to ensure that generated results......DNA contamination arising from the manipulation of ancient calcified tissue samples is a poorly understood, yet fundamental, problem that affects the reliability of ancient DNA (aDNA) studies. We have typed the mitochondrial DNA hypervariable region I of the only 6 people involved in the excavation...

  10. Ancient Wisdom, Applied Knowledge for a Sustainable Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, K.; Philippe, R. Elde; Dardar, T. M. Elde

    2017-12-01

    Ancient wisdom informs traditional knowledges that guide Indigenous communities on how to interact with the world. These knowledges and the ancient wisdom have been the life-giving forces that have prevented the complete genocide of Indigenous peoples, and is also the wisdom that is rejuvenating ancient ways that will take the world into a future that embraces the seventh generation philosophy.. Western scientists and agency representatives are learning from the work and wisdom of Native Americans. This presentation will share the ways in which the representatives of two Tribes along the coast of Louisiana have been helping to educate and apply their work with Western scientists.

  11. Pathogens and host immunity in the ancient human oral cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warinner, Christina; Rodrigues, João F Matias; Vyas, Rounak

    2014-01-01

    Calcified dental plaque (dental calculus) preserves for millennia and entraps biomolecules from all domains of life and viruses. We report the first, to our knowledge, high-resolution taxonomic and protein functional characterization of the ancient oral microbiome and demonstrate that the oral...... cavity has long served as a reservoir for bacteria implicated in both local and systemic disease. We characterize (i) the ancient oral microbiome in a diseased state, (ii) 40 opportunistic pathogens, (iii) ancient human-associated putative antibiotic resistance genes, (iv) a genome reconstruction...... calculus permits the simultaneous investigation of pathogen activity, host immunity and diet, thereby extending direct investigation of common diseases into the human evolutionary past....

  12. Gakkel Ridge: A window to ancient asthenosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, J.; Hellebrand, E.; Dick, H.; Liu, C.; Stracke, A.

    2008-12-01

    We are accustomed to thinking of the ambient mantle as being a well-stirred reservoir, which contains at most regions of stored subducted slabs and "plums" containing lithophile trace element enrichments. What is forgotten in all of this is that the main process of formation of heterogeneities is a negative one - generating 10x more depleted mantle at any given moment than it does oceanic crust. Because the volume of lithosphere subducted over Earth history is so large, it has always been assumed that the process of subduction and convective mixing re-homogenizes the depleted and enriched reservoirs about as fast as it produces them. What if it doesn't? Our primary means of studying mantle heterogeneity however is basalts. Direct study of the mantle entails observations on xenoliths, ophiolites and orogenic lherzolites, and abyssal peridotites. The latter have the inherent problems of being melting residues, associated with fracture zones, are highly serpentinized and rare. The arctic ridge system gives us a unique perspective on the mantle, and samples we have recovered there are relatively free from these problems. Due to the slow spreading rate, which apparently severely limits the melt productivity, the thickest crust in the Arctic ridge system is approximately "normal". The most common crust is about half thickness and there are large expanses with no crust at all, in the sense of Hess, 1962, exposing mantle peridotite in the floor of extensive rift zones. We have shown Os isotopic evidence for the survival of ancient depletion signatures in Gakkel abyssal peridotites that apparently were not destroyed by subduction, convective stirring or resetting during magma genesis (Liu, et al., 2008). Additionally, preliminary Nd isotopic evidence suggests at least a 400Ma intact prehistory for these samples. Apparently, the low melt productivity on Gakkel Ridge has allowed the Gakkel mantle rocks to escape significant resetting due to melt interaction. This implies a

  13. [Medicine in ancient Mesopotamia--part 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins E Silva, J

    2009-01-01

    The present work summarizes the more elucidating aspects on the foundations and the practice of the medicine in Antique Mesopotamia, since the invention of the writing, more than 5000 thousand years ago, and the beginning of our era. The first part of the article includes a brief perspective about the political and social evolution that characterized those archaic civilizations, as well as the inventions and knowledge further used by the following Humanity's generations. Most of what is known on the subject, as well as the history and political-social events that occurred in the region during that remote epoch, resulted of the laborious decoding of about half a million small clay plates or fragments with text engravings in cuneiform characters that were discovered since the middle of the XIX century in the ruins of the main cities of the Babylonian and Assyrian empires. The second part embraces exclusively the main characteristics of the medicine in Ancient Mesopotamia, in its main facets: concept of disease, healers and practice. The disease was considered a divine punishment or resultant from a malign influence. In that base, the medicine began by being preventive, by the use of appropriate amulets, or by offerings or sacrifices intending to pacify those malign forces. The treatment of the generality of the diseases privileged the expulsion of those spirits and malign influences from the patient body, purifying it, which was done by the specific intervention of an ãshipu (clergyman-exorcist); not having results, the treatment was continued by the asû (practical healer) that appealed to a group of physical manipulations, limited surgical acts and the administration or application of prescriptions, resultants of the mixture of organic and inorganic substances. In case of failing, the patients (as well as individuals or rein leaders) could fall back upon a priest diviner (bârû) who, by examination of the organs of an animal especially sacrificed for the effect

  14. Coastal lagoon sediments as a recorder of Holocene landscape evolution and sea-level development: Samsø, southern Kattegat Sea, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse; Fruergaard, Mikkel; Johannessen, Peter N.

    on the fine-grained (lagoonal) sections of the cores. Age control was facilitated using radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating. Our data produced a surprisingly consistent pattern for the sedimentary successions found in the lagoons. The initial transgression can be identified along...... with the onset of deposition of fine-grained, organic-rich lagoonal sediments. The subsequent truncation and partial erosion of the lagoon sediments can be related to a decreasing sea-level. Based on these findings, we suggest a conceptual model that allows inferring age and elevation of transgressive...... and regressive stages from the lagoon sediments. Indication of geomorphological developments occurring in proximity to the lagoons (barrier formation, overwashing, dune formation) is further recorded in the deposits. These data can be used to support the proposed reconstruction of Samsø’s landscape evolution...

  15. Report on the intercomparison run IAEA-384. Radionuclides in Fangataufa lagoon sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povinec, P.P.; Pham, M.K.

    2000-01-01

    The accurate and precise determinations of radionuclide concentrations in marine samples are important aspects of marine radioactivity assessments and the use of radionuclides in studies of oceanographic processes. To address the problem of data quality, and to assist Member States in verifying the performance of their laboratories, the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL) in Monaco has conducted intercomparison exercises on radionuclides in marine samples for many years as part of its contribution to the IAEA's programme of Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS). For this intercomparison exercise, in 1996 IAEA-MEL collected sediment in Fangataufa lagoon, French Polynesia. The sample aliquots were distributed during 1997-1998 for intercomparison of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides. 110 laboratories worldwide agreed to participate. Of these, only 94 sent results which could be used in the evaluation of this intercomparison exercise. This report describes the results obtained from 94 laboratories on anthropogenic and natural radionuclide determinations in Fangataufa lagoon sediment

  16. Report on the intercomparison run IAEA-384. Radionuclides in Fangataufa lagoon sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povinec, P P; Pham, M K

    2000-07-01

    The accurate and precise determinations of radionuclide concentrations in marine samples are important aspects of marine radioactivity assessments and the use of radionuclides in studies of oceanographic processes. To address the problem of data quality, and to assist Member States in verifying the performance of their laboratories, the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL) in Monaco has conducted intercomparison exercises on radionuclides in marine samples for many years as part of its contribution to the IAEA's programme of Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS). For this intercomparison exercise, in 1996 IAEA-MEL collected sediment in Fangataufa lagoon, French Polynesia. The sample aliquots were distributed during 1997-1998 for intercomparison of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides. 110 laboratories worldwide agreed to participate. Of these, only 94 sent results which could be used in the evaluation of this intercomparison exercise. This report describes the results obtained from 94 laboratories on anthropogenic and natural radionuclide determinations in Fangataufa lagoon sediment.

  17. Actual situation of concentration and inventory of radioactive cesium in Matsukawaura Lagoon sediment, Fukushima Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arita, Koichi; Yabe, Tohru; Hayashi, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    In order to qualitatively evaluate the current status of inventory of radioactive cesium in Matsukawaura Lagoon, profiles of radioactive cesium concentration in sediment cores and sediment characteristics were measured at 36 points. It was shown that sediment characteristics were different even at high concentration of radioactive cesium to the same extent. As a result, the inventory of radioactive cesium were also different. Even at high concentration of radioactive cesium, inventory in southwestern high mud content rate was less than the western. The total inventory of down to 20 cm of sediment throughout Matsukawaura Lagoon was estimated to be about 220 GBq, that more than 80% distributed to 15 cm shallower than has been revealed. (author)

  18. Concentrations of radionuclides in reef and lagoon pelagic fish from the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.L.; Marsh, K.V.

    1981-07-01

    A radiological survey was conducted from September through November of 1978 to assess the concentrations of persistent man-made radionuclides in the terrestrial and marine environments of 11 atolls and 2 islands of the Northern Marshall Islands. The atolls and islands include Rongelap, Utirik, Taka, Bikar, Rongerik, Ailinginae, Likiep, Jemo, Ailuk, Mejet, Wotho, Ujelang and Bikini. Over 4000 terrestrial and marine samples were collected for radionuclide analysis from 76 different islands. Soils, vegetation, indigenous animals, and cistern and groundwater were collected from the islands. Reef fish, pelagic species, clams, lagoon water, and sediments were obtained from the lagoons. A report is given of all available concentration data for 137 Cs, 90 Sr, /sup 239+240/Pu, 238 Pu, 241 Am as well as naturally occurring 40 K and other gamma emitting radionuclides in tissues and organs of different species of fish collected from the atolls

  19. The structure and productivity of the Thalassia testudinum community in Bon Accord Lagoon,Tobago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahanna A Juman

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The Thalassia testudinum dominated seagrass community in the Buccoo Reef/Bon Accord Lagoon Marine Park,measures 0.5 km² and is part of a contiguous coral reef,seagrass bed and mangrove swamp system in southwest Tobago.T.testudinum coverage,productivity and percent turnover rates were measured from February 1998 to February 1999 at four sample locations,while total T.testudinum biomass was measured at two locations in the lagoon from 1992-2002.Productivity and turnover rates varied spatially and seasonally. They were higher in the back-reef area than in the mangrove-fringed lagoon,and were lowest at locations near to a sewage outfall.T.testudinum coverage ranged from 6.6%in the lagoon to 68.5%in the back-reef area while productivity ranged from 3.9 to 4.9 g dry wt m-2 d-1 .Productivity and percentage turnover rates were higher in the dry season (January -Junethan in the wet season (July -December.Productivity ranged from 3.0 in the wet season to 5.0 g dry wt m-2 d-1 in the dry season while percentage turnover rates ranged from 4.2%to 5.6%.Total Thalassia biomass and productivity in Bon Accord Lagoon were compared to six similar sites in the Caribbean that also participate in the Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity Program (CARICOMP.This seagrass community is being negatively impacted by nutrient-enriched conditions.La comunidad de pastos marinos de Buccoo Reef/ Parque Nacional Bon Accord Lagoon,dominado por Thalassia testudinum,mide 0.5 km² y es parte de un complejo de arrecifes,lechos de pastos marinos y manglares en el suroeste de Tobago.La cobertura,productividad y tasa de recambio de T.testudinum fueron medidas de febrero 1998 a febrero 1999 en cuatro localidades,mientras que la biomasa total de T.testudinum fue medida en dos localidades en la laguna,entre 1992-2002.La productividad y la tasa de recambio variaron espacialmente y estacionalmente.Fueron mayores en la parte trasera del arrecife que en el manglar y la laguna del arrecife

  20. Clam bioaccumulation of Alkylphenols and Polyciclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Venice lagoon under different pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademollo, N; Patrolecco, L; Matozzo, V; Marin, M G; Valsecchi, S; Polesello, S

    2017-11-15

    Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factors (BSAFs) of nonylphenols (NPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Ruditapes philippinarum from the Venice Lagoon (Italy) were determined with the aim to verify whether the routine biomonitoring studies are reliable in contaminated sites. Clams and sediments were collected in field campaigns (October 2003 to June 2004) in three sites of the Venice Lagoon. Results showed that Marghera and Campalto sediments were more contaminated by NPs and PAHs than Poveglia. Different trends were observed in the contamination of clams with the highest BSAFs found at Poveglia. BSAF trend appeared to be inversely related to the contaminant pressure on the sites. These results suggest that clam bioaccumulation is not always representative of the chemical pressure on aquatic biota. The direct correlation between sediment and biota concentrations in contaminated sites can be lost as a function of the site-specific conditions such as sediment toxicity and food availability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Harmful algae records in Venice lagoon and in Po River Delta (northern Adriatic Sea, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facca, Chiara; Bilaničovà, Dagmar; Pojana, Giulio; Sfriso, Adriano; Marcomini, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    A detailed review of harmful algal blooms (HAB) in northern Adriatic Sea lagoons (Po River Delta and Venice lagoon) is presented to provide "updated reference conditions" for future research and monitoring activities. In the study areas, the high mollusc production requires the necessity to identify better methods able to prevent risks for human health and socioeconomical interests. So, an integrated approach for the identification and quantification of algal toxins is presented by combining microscopy techniques with Liquid Chromatography coupled with High Resolution Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-HR-TOF-MS). The method efficiency was first tested on some samples from the mentioned coastal areas, where Dinophysis spp. occurred during summer in the sites directly affected by seawaters. Although cell abundance was always <200 cells/L, the presence of Pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), detected by HPLC-HR-TOF-MS, indicated the potential release of detectable amounts of toxins even at low cell abundance.

  2. Transcriptomic resources for environmental risk assessment: a case study in the Venice lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, M; Pauletto, M; Boffo, L; Carrer, C; Sorrentino, F; Ferrari, G; Pavan, L; Patarnello, T; Bargelloni, L

    2015-02-01

    The development of new resources to evaluate the environmental status is becoming increasingly important representing a key challenge for ocean and coastal management. Recently, the employment of transcriptomics in aquatic toxicology has led to increasing initiatives proposing to integrate eco-toxicogenomics in the evaluation of marine ecosystem health. However, several technical issues need to be addressed before introducing genomics as a reliable tool in regulatory ecotoxicology. The Venice lagoon constitutes an excellent case, in which the assessment of environmental risks derived from the nearby industrial activities represents a crucial task. In this context, the potential role of genomics to assist environmental monitoring was investigated through the definition of reliable gene expression markers associated to chemical contamination in Manila clams, and their subsequent employment for the classification of Venice lagoon areas. Overall, the present study addresses key issues to evaluate the future outlooks of genomics in the environmental monitoring and risk assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dioxins in the Venice lagoon. Present situation, projects and recovering hypotheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raccanelli, S. [Interuniversity Consortium Chemistry for the Environment, Marghera (Italy); Bonamin, V. [SGS Ecologia Srl, Villafranca (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Venice is famous around the world for its uniqueness and architectural splendours, arts and the history of the ''Serenissima Repubblica'', as it was known in the past, but few are aware that Venice economy is strongly dependent on the industrial activities based mainly on the adjacent Porto Marghera area. For many years, the lagoon that physically separates the city from the dry land has avoided association between the concern connected with the pollution derived from these industrial activities and the public perception of Venice. Since 1995, dioxins have appeared as a lagoon contaminant, and their presence, at such a level requiring immediate ''in depth'' studies and interventions, has been fully realized for decades. (orig.)

  4. Heavy metals concentration and distribution in soils and vegetation at Korle Lagoon area in Accra, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosu-Mensah, Benedicta Yayra; Addae, Emmanuel; Yirenya-Tawiah, Dzidzo

    2017-01-01

    The call for reclamation of land around Korle Lagoon in Accra, Ghana, where burning of E-waste and cultivation of vegetables takes place, make risk assessment of heavy metal contaminations important. This study aimed at evaluating the levels and risk of heavy metal contamination in soils...... and vegetation around the Korle lagoon area in Accra. Geoaccumulation index, enrichment factor and pollution load index were determined to assess the risk of contamination. The levels and distribution of nine heavy metals (Pb, Hg, Cd, As, Zn, Sn, Ni, Cu and Cr) in soil (0 – 20 cm) and common vegetation (Panicum...... was significantly different (p burning of e-waste should be enforced and animals...

  5. Sedimentological study of a lagoon through natural radioactivity and 137Cs determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Miguel, E.G.; Perez-Moreno, J.P.; Aguado, J.L.; Bolivar, J.P.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

    2003-01-01

    Profiles of artificial fallout (such as 137 Cs) and natural radioactivity radionuclides in sediment cores are useful tools to study sedimentological properties of different aquatic environments as well as to evaluate average sedimentation rates. In the Portil lagoon, a small natural reservoir located in Huelva province (southwest of Spain), and through the analysis of 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 137 Cs, 238 U and 210 Po vertical profiles in sediment cores, it is shown how the accumulative or transport character of the collection zones may be inferred. In the accumulation zone of the lagoon the influence of focusing effects has been analysed and an average sedimentation rate has been determined through 210 Pb in one sediment core. This 210 Pb-sedimentation rate is consistent with sediment dating based on the 137 Cs data. (author)

  6. Environmental perception among residents of Ratones and Peri Lagoon communities, Santa Catarina Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio da Silva Custódio

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lack of basic sanitation is linked to population growth disjointed of public policies. This work developed between July 2015 and July 2016 aimed to evaluate the perceptions of riverside land owners on the status of water bodies in the locations of Ratones River and Peri Lagoon, Florianópolis (Santa Catarina. We interviewed 51 residents in total. And the residents of Ratones knew a larger number of rivers and described direct supply of water bodies to their homes, compared to that obtained in the community of Peri Lagoon, where most homes was supplied by the public network. Both communities have shown intradomiciliary water filtration, assumed riparian forests degraded, considered the rainwater important for ecosystems health, and reported lack of sewage treatment. We conclude that residents tended to have an anthropocentric environmental vision, which residents interpret the environment as a space disconnected from the man.

  7. The distribution of micro zooplankton in the lagoon environments; La distribuzione del microzooplancton negli ambienti lagunari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenni, P.; Creo, C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this work is to verify the possible use of micro zooplankton as a biological indicator in aquatic environments. In particular, studies carried out in lagoon environments are reported, relatively to the Venice lagoon and the Pontine coastal lakes (Italy). New methodologies to assess the micro plankton component are developed and tested, particularly the concentration and count steps. The use of the same methodologies to assess nano plankton component, as biological indicator. are reported. [Italian] Nel presente lavoro viene analizzata la possibilita' di utilizzare il microzooplancton quale indicatore biologico negli ambienti acquatici (mmarini, acquadulcicoli, salmastri). In particolare, vengono riportati gli studi effettuati dall'ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) su tale componente in ambienti lagunari, con riferimento alla laguna di Venezia e alle lagune pontine.

  8. Improvement of Dune Sands by Residual Oil in Order to Use in Construction of Lagoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alborz Hajian nia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research which is based on experimental work, devoted to study the improvement and stabilization of dune sands in order to create strong layer and stabilize slope and floor construction of sewage Lagoons. Materials used stabilizing these soils are residual oil from the refinery. To confirm the effectiveness of the use of residual oil to improve the mechanical properties of the sand, various samples with different percentages were tested. In besides, the geotechnical and environmental tests were done. Results demonstrate that samples made with 5% oil have highest shear and unconfined compaction strength. It revealed that in compare with natural samples, cohesion and loading capacity highly increased and permeability decrease well. Percentage of fine aggregate, minerals and durability of oil in soil material were also investigated. Finally, effects of sewage on the samples were analyzed, and performance the oils were evaluated in order to use in lagoons.

  9. Assessment of sedimentation rate and hydrodynamics of Vembanad lagoon, Southern India, using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Noble; Joseph, T.B.; Hari Kumar, P.S.

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands are natural ecosystems that contribute to flood mitigation, fish and wildlife habitat protection and natural retention of pollutants and nutrients. Despite the importance, wetlands all over the world are undergoing severe degradation in the recent years, because of pollution and human interventions. Hydrology and water quality are the important factors controlling the ecological processes of wetlands and their understanding is essential for the wetlands restoration and management. Vembanad Lagoon, a major component of the Vembanad wetland system, is one of the largest coastal ecosystems in the southwestern part of India. Currently, it is facing numerous problems such as water quality deterioration due to ingression of saltwater, heavy metal contamination, weed infestation etc. and sedimentation due to large scale reclamation, intensive agriculture practices together with deforestation in its catchments. Hence, an isotope investigation was carried out to assess the sedimentation rate, pollution levels in sediments and hydrodynamics of Vembanad Lagoon

  10. The distribution of micro zooplankton in the lagoon environments; La distribuzione del microzooplancton negli ambienti lagunari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenni, P; Creo, C [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this work is to verify the possible use of micro zooplankton as a biological indicator in aquatic environments. In particular, studies carried out in lagoon environments are reported, relatively to the Venice lagoon and the Pontine coastal lakes (Italy). New methodologies to assess the micro plankton component are developed and tested, particularly the concentration and count steps. The use of the same methodologies to assess nano plankton component, as biological indicator. are reported. [Italian] Nel presente lavoro viene analizzata la possibilita' di utilizzare il microzooplancton quale indicatore biologico negli ambienti acquatici (mmarini, acquadulcicoli, salmastri). In particolare, vengono riportati gli studi effettuati dall'ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) su tale componente in ambienti lagunari, con riferimento alla laguna di Venezia e alle lagune pontine.

  11. Spatial and temporal patterns of phytoplankton composition in Burullus Lagoon, Southern Mediterranean Coast, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zein Alabedin Nassar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Burullus Lagoon is a shallow, turbid, and nutrient replete system, suffering from high level of aquatic plants, expansion in fish farming and agricultural drainage discharges. Phytoplankton was evaluated based on four years monitoring seasonally from summer 2009 to spring 2013 at 12 stations representing the eastern, central and western basins of the lagoon. Over the 4-year study period, a total of 283 taxa from 96 genera and eight classes were recorded. The lagoon showed a pronounced algal periodicity. Phytoplankton community was generally dominated by Chlorophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and Cyanobacteria. The western basin had the lowest mean salinity values and highest phytoplankton abundance, in which, blooms of Chlorophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and Cyanobacteria were common. The eastern basin had lowest phytoplankton density and chlorophytes were dominant followed by Bacillariophyceae and/or Cyanobacteria. Euglenophyceae strongly appeared in the eastern basin especially at the second station, which is located in front of El Burullus Drain. The central basin is subjecting to high loading of phosphorus and nitrogen from agricultural drains and had a prevalence of chlorophyte blooms which constituted more than 50% of the total abundance. This study has provided substantial evidence that the phytoplankton abundance and community are governed by the environmental conditions which vary each year, so does the phytoplankton seasonal succession. Generally, about 25-50% reduction was recorded in the phytoplankton densities between 2009 and 2013 and a dramatic decrease in the abundance of many nuisance and eutrophic species was evident. No sign of eutrophication was observed, and recession of Cyanobacteria blooming suggests a major improvement in the water quality of Burullus Lagoon.

  12. Reconstruction of historical atmospheric deposition of DDT in the Zempoala Lagoon, in the center of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    van, Afferden M.; Hansen, A.M.; Fuller, C.C.

    2005-01-01

    Historical trend in deposition of DDT and its metabolites has been reconstructed by analyzing sediment cores of the Zempoala Lagoon, in the center of Mexico. The small watershed of this mountain lagoon is closed, and it is located between 2.800 and 3.700 masl. It ls neither affected by agriculture nor by permanent populations. The Zempoala Lagoon has an average depth of 3.9 mand a maximum depth of 8.8 m. Sediments were extracted with a eore sampler and analyzed by isotope methods (137CS and 2'OPb) for dating. Average sedimentation rate was determined in 0.129 9 cm" yr', corresponding to a maximum age of the 44 cm eore of approximately 60 years. The first presence of total-DDT oecurs in a depth between 28 and 32 cm of the sediment profile, corresponding to the 1960's, with a concentration of 5.3 I1g kg-'. The maximum eoncentration of total-DDT (13.0I1g kg-') occurs in sediment layers representing the late 1970's and beginning 1980's. More recently the concentration decreases towards the present concentration of 1.6 I1g kg-'. This concentration is below most DDT levels reported in recent sediment studies in the USA. The results indicate that the Zempoala Lagoon represents a natural reeipient for studies of the reconstruction of historical trends of atmospheric contaminant deposition in this region. The limitations of the methodology applied, due to the influenee of biodegradation on the definition of correct historical coneentrations of DDT depositions, are demonstrated.

  13. Assessment of the Trophic State of Saquarema Lagoonal System, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Philippe Belart Brandão Dias

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This work intends to apply new ecological descriptors to a coastal marine area aiming to assess its environmental trophic status. This approach makes possible to identify relevant variables associated with eutrophication process applicable and valid worldwide. The aim of this work is to study the organic matter (OM quality and quantity, in terms of biopolymers, in Saquarema Lagoonal System (SLS located in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil. Sediment samples collected in SLS were analyzed in this study for granulometric and geochemical data such as total organic carbon (TOC, total sulfur (TS and biopolimeric carbon (BPC concentrations, including proteins (PTN, carbohydrates (CHO and lipids (LIP. These data were combined with additional environmental parameters measured in water of the four linked lagoons that compose SLS. Data analyses allowed the identification of four distinct regions in SLS: an inner and impacted zone characterized by sediment particularly enriched in TOC, with lowest quality of OM most probably provided by contaminated effluents and rivers runoff; an outer-less impacted lagoonal area with relatively low TOC content and submitted to high hydrodynamic forces; an intermediate area characterized by transitional features between the two previously mentioned and a zone that is influenced mainly by salinity. The organic matter accumulation depends on the hydrodynamic conditions mostly governed by tidal currents. The quality of organic matter seems to be mainly influenced by the water renewal, rivers inputs and mangroves contributions as well as by the autochthonous lagoonal biological productivity. Results of this work indicate that the inner zone of SLS is being affected by eutrophication not necessarily caused by anthropic factors.

  14. Bioaccumulation of mercury in reared and wild Ruditapes philippinarum of a Mediterranean lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giani, Michele; Rampazzo, Federico; Berto, Daniela; Maggi, Chiara; Mao, Andrea; Horvat, Milena; Emili, Andrea; Covelli, Stefano

    2012-11-01

    The Marano and Grado lagoon, one of the largest wetlands in the Mediterranean Sea, has been subject to mercury contamination by industrial and mining activities. This must be considered a severe threat for Manila clam harvesting, which is an important fishing and commercial activity in the area. Contamination levels and potential risk for human consumption both in reared and wild clams collected from the lagoon were assessed by analyzing total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) contents. In addition, relationships between THg and MeHg in sediments and in the bivalves were investigated. Increased bioaccumulation of THg but not of MeHg with increasing size of wild clam populations was observed at most sites. Higher concentrations both of THg (605 ± 210 ng g-1 ww) and MeHg (147 ± 37 ng g-1 ww) were detected in the eastern lagoon where the highest THg contents in sediments were observed as a consequence of the long-term supply of cinnabar rich suspended material from the Isonzo river. The variation of Hg content in seeded Manila clams during growth was monitored over a period of 18 months at two sites of the western sector of the lagoon. Results showed that the two areas were suitable for clam farming, with THg levels in reared bivalves always lower than the 0.5 mg kg-1 ww European Community limit. At the same time, as clams grew bigger in size, their THg and MeHg concentrations decreased, becoming lower than in the starting seeded pool. Reared clams presented lower THg (84 ± 55 ng g-1 ww) and MeHg (44.1 ± 24.6 ng g-1 ww) content than wild clams of the same commercial size (>30 mm). Based on a precautionary approach, intake of Hg and MeHg with the estimated clam consumption does not seem to constitute a risk for human health in the studied area.

  15. Bacterial indicators of pollution of the Douala lagoon, Cameroon: public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoachere, Jane-Francis T K; Oben, Pius M; Mbivnjo, Beryl S; Ndip, Lucy M; Nkwelang, Gerald; Ndip, Roland N

    2008-06-01

    Indiscriminate disposal of untreated wastes which are often heavily laden with sewage microorganisms some of which are pathogenic to humans into aquatic environments near cities could serve as potential dangers to human health. A prospective study was undertaken to investigate the scope of potential bacterial pathogens and to assess the extent of pollution of the Douala lagoon. A total of eighty water samples were collected fortnightly from the lagoon at five stations from March to October 2005 and analysed for heterotrophic bacterial densities, coliform counts, faecal coliform and faecal streptococcal counts. Bacteria were isolated and identified using standard microbiology and biochemical techniques. High heterotrophic bacterial counts (33 x 10(5) - 161 x 10(5) CFU/ mL), total coliform counts (1.8 x 10(2) - 2.4 x 10(2) CFU/100 mL), faecal coliform counts (2.2 x 10(2) - 2.4 x 10(2) CFU/ 100 mL) and faecal streptococcal counts (2.1 x 102 - 2.3 x 10(2) CFU/100mL were observed in all sampling stations. Eleven species of bacteria: Bacteroides fragilis, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, E. coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Citrobacter freundii, Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus mycoides and Serratia marcesens, were frequently isolated. The presence of potential bacterial agents such as Bacteroides fragilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella pneumoniae and E. coli in the lagoon may pose a serious threat to the health and well being of users of the Lagoon and calls for urgent intervention.

  16. Carmel River Lagoon Enhancement Project: Water Quality and Aquatic Wildlife Monitoring, 2006-7

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, William; Watson, Fred; Casagrande, Joel; Hanley, Charles

    2007-01-01

    This is a report to the California Department of Parks and Recreation. It describes water quality and aquatic invertebrate monitoring after the construction of the Carmel River Lagoon Enhancement Project. Included are data that have been collected for two years and preliminary assessment of the enhanced ecosystem. This report marks the completion of 3-years of monitoring water quality and aquatic habitat. The report adopts the same format and certain background text from previous ...

  17. Prokaryotic diversity in one of the largest hypersaline coastal lagoons in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementino, M M; Vieira, R P; Cardoso, A M; Nascimento, A P A; Silveira, C B; Riva, T C; Gonzalez, A S M; Paranhos, R; Albano, R M; Ventosa, A; Martins, O B

    2008-07-01

    Araruama Lagoon is an environment characterized by high salt concentrations. The low raining and high evaporation rates in this region favored the development of many salty ponds around the lagoon. In order to reveal the microbial composition of this system, we performed a 16S rRNA gene survey. Among archaea, most clones were related to uncultured environmental Euryarchaeota. In lagoon water, we found some clones related to Methanomicrobia and Methanothermococcus groups, while in the saline pond water members related to the genus Haloarcula were detected. Bacterial community was dominated by clones related to Gamma-proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Synechococcus in lagoon water, while Salinibacter ruber relatives dominated in saline pond. We also detected the presence of Alpha-proteobacteria, Pseudomonas-like bacteria and Verrucomicrobia. Only representatives of the genus Ralstonia were cosmopolitan, being observed in both systems. The detection of a substantial number of clones related to uncultured archaea and bacteria suggest that the hypersaline waters of Araruama harbor a pool of novel prokaryotic phylotypes, distinct from those observed in other similar systems. We also observed clones related to halophilic genera of cyanobacteria that are specific for each habitat studied. Additionally, two bacterioplankton molecular markers with ecological relevance were analyzed, one is linked to nitrogen fixation (nifH) and the other is linked to carbon fixation by bacterial photosynthesis, the protochlorophyllide genes, revealing a specific genetic distribution in this ecosystem. This is the first study of the biogeography and community structure of microbial assemblages in Brazilian tropical hypersaline environments. This work is directed towards a better understanding of the free-living prokaryotic diversity adapted to life in hypersaline waters.

  18. Spatiotemporal shoreline dynamics of Namibian coastal lagoons derived by a dense remote sensing time series approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behling, Robert; Milewski, Robert; Chabrillat, Sabine

    2018-06-01

    This paper proposes the remote sensing time series approach WLMO (Water-Land MOnitor) to monitor spatiotemporal shoreline changes. The approach uses a hierarchical classification system based on temporal MNDWI-trajectories with the goal to accommodate typical uncertainties in remote sensing shoreline extraction techniques such as existence of clouds and geometric mismatches between images. Applied to a dense Landsat time series between 1984 and 2014 for the two Namibian coastal lagoons at Walvis Bay and Sandwich Harbour the WLMO was able to identify detailed accretion and erosion progressions at the sand spits forming these lagoons. For both lagoons a northward expansion of the sand spits of up to 1000 m was identified, which corresponds well with the prevailing northwards directed ocean current and wind processes that are responsible for the material transport along the shore. At Walvis Bay we could also show that in the 30 years of analysis the sand spit's width has decreased by more than a half from 750 m in 1984-360 m in 2014. This ongoing cross-shore erosion process is a severe risk for future sand spit breaching, which would expose parts of the lagoon and the city to the open ocean. One of the major advantages of WLMO is the opportunity to analyze detailed spatiotemporal shoreline changes. Thus, it could be shown that the observed long-term accretion and erosion processes underwent great variations over time and cannot a priori be assumed as linear processes. Such detailed spatiotemporal process patterns are a prerequisite to improve the understanding of the processes forming the Namibian shorelines. Moreover, the approach has also the potential to be used in other coastal areas, because the focus on MNDWI-trajectories allows the transfer to many multispectral satellite sensors (e.g. Sentinel-2, ASTER) available worldwide.

  19. Environmental influences on fish assemblage distribution of an estuarine coastal lagoon, Ria de Aveiro (Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Pombo, L.; Elliott, M.; Rebelo, J. E.

    2005-01-01

    Fish assemblage was examined for patterns in spatial and seasonal structure within an estuarine coastal lagoon, Ria de Aveiro. Two years of variation in abiotic conditions were recorded to identify factors responsible for maintaining the structure of fish assemblages. Nine sites were sampled monthly with a traditional “chincha” beach-seine net between November 1998 and October 2000. Fish abundance and biomass changed significantly between sites. Temperature was found to be the most important ...

  20. An assessment of contamination of the Fusaro Lagoon (Campania Province, southern Italy) by trace metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arienzo, M; Toscano, F; Di Fraia, M; Caputi, L; Sordino, P; Guida, M; Aliberti, F; Ferrara, L

    2014-09-01

    The Fusaro Lagoon is a shallow lagoon, located in SW Italy, largely influenced in the last decades by several anthropic impacts. The study examined the pollution status of the lagoon, during year 2011-2012 at nine sampling stations with the aim to find out proper measurements of water lagoon restoration. Concentrations of heavy metals (HMs) (aluminium [Al], barium [Ba], cadmium [Cd], copper [Cu], iron [Fe], manganese [Mn], vanadium [V] and zinc [Zn]) were examined in water, sediments and specimens of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis sp. A. Low levels of dissolved oxygen concentration were detected at many stations, with mean values of 5.2-6.4 mg L(-1). The redox potential of surface waters was also low, -2.7 to 50.7 mV. Sediments possessed high organic matter content, 17.7-29.4%. In sediments, the mean Zn level, 251.4 mg kg(-1), was about sixfold higher than that recorded in year 2000 (38.5 mg kg(-1)) and considerably higher than that recorded in 2007 (191 mg kg(-1)). The mean levels of Cd were outstandingly high, with a mean value of 70.5 mg kg(-1), about 30- and 50-fold higher than those determined in 2000 and 2007, respectively. Cadmium (Cd), Cu and nickel (Ni) appeared in excess with respect to most current guidelines, reaching significant pollution levels. C. intestinalis sp. A was detected only at few stations, with metals accumulated preferentially in the body in respect to the tunic, from 1.2 times for Zn (178 mg kg(-1)) to 4.0 times for V (304 mg kg(-1)). Data suggests the necessity of an immediate action of eco-compatible interventions for environmental restoration.