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Sample records for ancient revisits cosmology

  1. Relativistic Cosmology Revisited

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    Crothers S. J.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In a previous paper the writer treated of particular classes of cosmological solutions for certain Einstein spaces and claimed that no such solutions exist in relation thereto. In that paper the assumption that the proper radius is zero when the line-element is singular was generally applied. This general assumption is unjustified and must be dropped. Consequently, solutions do exist in relation to the aforementioned types, and are explored herein. The concept of the Big Bang cosmology is found to be inconsistent with General Relativity

  2. Cosmologies of the ancient Mediterranean world

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    John T. Fitzgerald

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cosmology is concerned with the order of the universe and seeks to provide an account, not only of that order, but also of the mind or reason behind it. In antiquity, the cosmos was usually understood religiously, such that the cosmologies of the ancient Mediterranean world were either religious in nature or constituted a reaction to a religiously conceived understanding of the structures of the universe. The oldest form in which ancient cosmologies occur is myth, which, owing to its elasticity as a form, enabled them to be appropriated, adapted and used by different groups. In addition, different cosmologies co-existed within the same ancient culture, each having an authoritative status. This article provides an introductory overview of these cosmological myths and argues that a comparative approach is the most fruitful way to study them. Emphasis is given to certain prominent cosmological topics, including theogony (the genesis of the divine or the relationship of the divine to the cosmos, cosmogony (the genesis of the cosmos, and anthropogony (the origin of humans within the cosmos. Although these myths vary greatly in terms of content and how they envision the origin of the cosmos, many of them depict death as part of the structure of the universe.

  3. Cosmologies of the ancient Mediterranean world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Fitzgerald

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cosmology is concerned with the order of the universe and seeks to provide an account, not only of that order, but also of the mind or reason behind it. In antiquity, the cosmos was usually understood religiously, such that the cosmologies of the ancient Mediterranean world were either religious in nature or constituted a reaction to a religiously conceived understanding of the structures of the universe. The oldest form in which ancient cosmologies occur is myth, which, owing to its elasticity as a form, enabled them to be appropriated, adapted and used by different groups. In addition, different cosmologies co-existed within the same ancient culture, each having an authoritative status. This article provides an introductory overview of these cosmological myths and argues that a comparative approach is the most fruitful way to study them. Emphasis is given to certain prominent cosmological topics, including theogony (the genesis of the divine or the relationship of the divine to the cosmos, cosmogony (the genesis of the cosmos, and anthropogony (the origin of humans within the cosmos. Although these myths vary greatly in terms of content and how they envision the origin of the cosmos, many of them depict death as part of the structure of the universe. Kosmologie het te doen met die orde van die heelal en wil rekenskap gee van hierdie orde en ook van die bewussyn daaragter. In die antieke tyd is die kosmos gewoonlik godsdienstig verstaan, met die gevolg dat die kosmologieë van die antieke Mediterreense wêreld óf ’n godsdienstige aard gehad het óf bestaan het uit ’n reaksie op ’n godsdienstig-geskepte begrip van die strukture van die heelal. Mites was die oudste vorm waarin antieke kosmologieë voorkom wat vanweë hulle plooibaarheid dit bewerk het dat hierdie kosmologieë deur verskillende groepe toegeëien, aangepas en gebruik kon word. Hierbenewens het verskillende kosmologieë in die antieke kultuur langs mekaar bestaan – elkeen

  4. The cosmological lithium problem revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, C. A.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Shubhchintak

    2016-01-01

    After a brief review of the cosmological lithium problem, we report a few recent attempts to find theoretical solutions by our group at Texas A&M University (Commerce & College Station). We will discuss our studies on the theoretical description of electron screening, the possible existence of parallel universes of dark matter, and the use of non-extensive statistics during the Big Bang nucleosynthesis epoch. Last but not least, we discuss possible solutions within nuclear physics realm. The impact of recent measurements of relevant nuclear reaction cross sections for the Big Bang nucleosynthesis based on indirect methods is also assessed. Although our attempts may not able to explain the observed discrepancies between theory and observations, they suggest theoretical developments that can be useful also for stellar nucleosynthesis.

  5. The cosmological lithium problem revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertulani, C. A., E-mail: carlos.bertulani@tamuc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University-Commerce, Commerce, TX 75429 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 75429 (United States); Mukhamedzhanov, A. M., E-mail: akram@comp.tamu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 75429 (United States); Shubhchintak, E-mail: shub.shubhchintak@tamuc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University-Commerce, Commerce, TX 75429 (United States)

    2016-07-07

    After a brief review of the cosmological lithium problem, we report a few recent attempts to find theoretical solutions by our group at Texas A&M University (Commerce & College Station). We will discuss our studies on the theoretical description of electron screening, the possible existence of parallel universes of dark matter, and the use of non-extensive statistics during the Big Bang nucleosynthesis epoch. Last but not least, we discuss possible solutions within nuclear physics realm. The impact of recent measurements of relevant nuclear reaction cross sections for the Big Bang nucleosynthesis based on indirect methods is also assessed. Although our attempts may not able to explain the observed discrepancies between theory and observations, they suggest theoretical developments that can be useful also for stellar nucleosynthesis.

  6. Ancient cosmological tachyons in the present-day world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molski, M.

    1993-01-01

    The geodesic equation for space-like objects moving along a circular trajectory in the expanding universe is considered. Our analysis leads to the conclusion that ancient cosmological tachyons may exist in the present-day world and may play an important role in (i) the internal structure of hadrons conceived as nonlocal objects called strings, (ii) the T-symmetry violation observed in the weak K-decays, (iii) the multidimensional unified field theories of Kaluza-Klein type, and in (iv) the classical models of charged particles which combine ordinary electromagnetism with a self-interacting version of Newtonian gravity. 18 refs

  7. NEC violation in mimetic cosmology revisited

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    Anna Ijjas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the context of Einstein gravity, if the null energy condition (NEC is satisfied, the energy density in expanding space–times always decreases while in contracting space–times the energy density grows and the universe eventually collapses into a singularity. In particular, no non-singular bounce is possible. It is, though, an open question if this energy condition can be violated in a controlled way, i.e., without introducing pathologies, such as unstable negative-energy states or an imaginary speed of sound. In this letter, we will re-examine the claim that the recently proposed mimetic scenario can violate the NEC without pathologies. We show that mimetic cosmology is prone to gradient instabilities even in cases when the NEC is satisfied (except for trivial examples. Most interestingly, the source of the instability is always the Einstein–Hilbert term in the action. The matter stress-energy component does not contribute spatial gradient terms but instead makes the problematic curvature modes dynamical. We also show that mimetic cosmology can be understood as a singular limit of known, well-behaved theories involving higher-derivative kinetic terms and discuss ways of removing the instability.

  8. Revisiting cosmological bounds on sterile neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, Aaron C. [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology (IPPP), Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Martínez, Enrique Fernández [Departamento and Instituto de Física Teórica (IFT), UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, E-28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Hernández, Pilar; Mena, Olga [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC-Universitat de València, Apartado de Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Lattanzi, Massimiliano, E-mail: aaron.vincent@durham.ac.uk, E-mail: enrique.fernandez-martinez@uam.es, E-mail: m.pilar.hernandez@uv.es, E-mail: omena@ific.uv.es, E-mail: lattanzi@fe.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Science della Terra, Università di Ferrara and INFN, sezione di Ferrara, Polo Scientifico e Tecnologico, Edificio C Via Saragat, 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    We employ state-of-the art cosmological observables including supernova surveys and BAO information to provide constraints on the mass and mixing angle of a non-resonantly produced sterile neutrino species, showing that cosmology can effectively rule out sterile neutrinos which decay between BBN and the present day. The decoupling of an additional heavy neutrino species can modify the time dependence of the Universe's expansion between BBN and recombination and, in extreme cases, lead to an additional matter-dominated period; while this could naively lead to a younger Universe with a larger Hubble parameter, it could later be compensated by the extra radiation expected in the form of neutrinos from sterile decay. However, recombination-era observables including the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the shift parameter R{sub CMB} and the sound horizon r{sub s} from Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) severely constrain this scenario. We self-consistently include the full time-evolution of the coupled sterile neutrino and standard model sectors in an MCMC, showing that if decay occurs after BBN, the sterile neutrino is essentially bounded by the constraint sin{sup 2}θ ∼< 0.026 (m{sub s}/eV){sup −2}.

  9. Beyond the Cosmological: Numerical Scenarios underneath Ancient Annular Architectural Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, M.

    2009-08-01

    ``Cecì est la regle du carré et du cercle. Pour toutes choses, la circonférence (tcheou) est en usage, et les figures circulaire et carrée sont employées. L'officier dit ta-tsiang (grand charpentier, titre du Tcheou-li) prend ses mesures. Le compass et le règle sont apprêtés. Tantot on rompt le carré et on fait un cercle. Tantot on brise le cercle et on fait un carré. Au milieu d'un carré, quand on fait un cercle, on appelle cette figure cercle-carré. Au milieu d'un cercle, quand on fait un carré, on appelle cette figure carré-cercle.'' (Tcheou-Pei-Souan-King, book one, trad. E.Biot, Journal Asiatique, Juin 1841 p. 614 Circles and squares, as geometrical representations of the cosmos, are frequent in ancient cultures, mainly with the earth represented by the square and the sky by the circle. Quite many are the circular or circle-and-square architectures of the past that are to be interpreted as related to the cosmologies of the cultures to which they belong. In this paper we focus on those relevant annular geometries (CQC) where the square inscribable into the external circumference in turn perfectly circumscribes the internal one. Beyond the possible cosmological significances, a CQC geometry bears underneath a strict numerical structure that can be put in relation to the length-units used by the builders. Results are presented of CAD (Computer Aided Drawing) analyses performed on the plans of ancient structures where the CQC geometry was suspected to exist. A large repertory of such structures has been found, from Nuragic Sardinia to Mesoamerica including Minoans, Greeks, Romans and others. In many cases the found length-units coincide with known ancient units. The large variety presented at CAC 2000 cannot be shown in this paper for reasons of space and only a smaller but significant selection is presented.

  10. An Application of the Cosmologic Concepts and Astronomical Symbols in the Ancient Medical Science and Astrology Systems

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    Pikichyan, H. V.

    2015-07-01

    Employing the cosmologic concepts and astronomical symbols, the features of the ancient subjective approach of the achievement or perception of the knowledge and its systematic delivery ways are presented. In particular, the ancient systems of the natural medical science and the art of astrology are discussed, whereas the relations of the five cosmological elements, three dynamical agents, nine luminaries and twelve zodiac signs are applied. It is pointed out some misunderstandings encountered in the contemporary interpretation on the evaluation of ancient systems of the knowledge.

  11. Ancient genomes revisit the ancestry of domestic and Przewalski's horses.

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    Gaunitz, Charleen; Fages, Antoine; Hanghøj, Kristian; Albrechtsen, Anders; Khan, Naveed; Schubert, Mikkel; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Owens, Ivy J; Felkel, Sabine; Bignon-Lau, Olivier; de Barros Damgaard, Peter; Mittnik, Alissa; Mohaseb, Azadeh F; Davoudi, Hossein; Alquraishi, Saleh; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Crubézy, Eric; Benecke, Norbert; Olsen, Sandra; Brown, Dorcas; Anthony, David; Massy, Ken; Pitulko, Vladimir; Kasparov, Aleksei; Brem, Gottfried; Hofreiter, Michael; Mukhtarova, Gulmira; Baimukhanov, Nurbol; Lõugas, Lembi; Onar, Vedat; Stockhammer, Philipp W; Krause, Johannes; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Undrakhbold, Sainbileg; Erdenebaatar, Diimaajav; Lepetz, Sébastien; Mashkour, Marjan; Ludwig, Arne; Wallner, Barbara; Merz, Victor; Merz, Ilja; Zaibert, Viktor; Willerslev, Eske; Librado, Pablo; Outram, Alan K; Orlando, Ludovic

    2018-04-06

    The Eneolithic Botai culture of the Central Asian steppes provides the earliest archaeological evidence for horse husbandry, ~5500 years ago, but the exact nature of early horse domestication remains controversial. We generated 42 ancient-horse genomes, including 20 from Botai. Compared to 46 published ancient- and modern-horse genomes, our data indicate that Przewalski's horses are the feral descendants of horses herded at Botai and not truly wild horses. All domestic horses dated from ~4000 years ago to present only show ~2.7% of Botai-related ancestry. This indicates that a massive genomic turnover underpins the expansion of the horse stock that gave rise to modern domesticates, which coincides with large-scale human population expansions during the Early Bronze Age. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  12. Revisiting Terminalia arjuna – An Ancient Cardiovascular Drug

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    Shridhar Dwivedi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Terminalia arjuna, commonly known as arjuna, belongs to the family of Combretaceae. Its bark decoction is being used in the Indian subcontinent for anginal pain, hypertension, congestive heart failure, and dyslipidemia, based on the observations of ancient physicians for centuries. The utility of arjuna in various cardiovascular diseases needs to be studied further. Therefore, the present review is an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature summarizing the experimental and clinical studies pertinent to arjuna in cardiovascular disorders, which were particularly performed during the last decade. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and clinical studies of arjuna were retrieved through the use of PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases. Most of the studies, both experimental and clinical, have suggested that the crude drug possesses anti-ischemic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and antiatherogenic activities. Its useful phytoconstituents are: Triterpenoids, β-sitosterol, flavonoids, and glycosides. Triterpenoids and flavonoids are considered to be responsible for its beneficial antioxidant cardiovascular properties. The drug has shown promising effect on ischemic cardiomyopathy. So far, no serious side effects have been reported with arjuna therapy. However, its long-term safety still remains to be elucidated. Though it has been found quite useful in angina pectoris, mild hypertension, and dyslipidemia, its exact role in primary/secondary coronary prevention is yet to be explored.

  13. Cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, I.D.

    1979-01-01

    Progress made by this Commission over the period 1976-1978 is reviewed. Topics include the Hubble constant, deceleration parameter, large-scale distribution of matter in the universe, radio astronomy and cosmology, space astronomy and cosmology, formation of galaxies, physics near the cosmological singularity, and unconventional cosmological models. (C.F.)

  14. Quantum gravity and taoist cosmology: Exploring the ancient origins of phenomenological string theory.

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    Rosen, Steven M

    2017-12-01

    This paper carries forward the author's contribution to PBMP's previous special issue on Integral Biomathics (Rosen 2015). In the earlier paper, the crisis in contemporary theoretical physics was described and it was demonstrated that the problem can be addressed effectively only by shifting the foundations of physics from objectivist Cartesian philosophy to phenomenological philosophy. To that end, a phenomenological string theory was proposed based on qualitative topology and hypercomplex numbers. The current presentation takes this further by delving into the ancient Chinese origin of phenomenological string theory. First, we discover a deep connection between the Klein bottle, which is crucial to the theory, and the Ho-t'u, an old Chinese number archetype central to Taoist cosmology. The two structures are seen to mirror each other in expressing the curious psychophysical (phenomenological) action pattern at the heart of microphysics. But tackling the question of quantum gravity requires that a whole family of topological dimensions be brought into play. What we find in engaging with these structures is a closely related family of Taoist forebears that, in concert with their successors, provide a blueprint for cosmic evolution. Whereas conventional string theory accounts for the generation of nature's fundamental forces via a notion of symmetry breaking that is essentially static and thus unable to explain cosmogony successfully, phenomenological/Taoist string theory is guided by the dialectical interplay between symmetry and asymmetry inherent in the principle of synsymmetry. This dynamic concept of cosmic change is elaborated on in the three concluding sections of the paper. Here, a detailed analysis of cosmogony is offered, first in terms of the theory of dimensional development and its Taoist (yin-yang) counterpart, then in terms of the evolution of the elemental force particles through cycles of expansion and contraction in a spiraling universe. The paper

  15. Revisiting the decoupling effects in the running of the Cosmological Constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipin, Oleg; Melic, Blazenka

    2017-01-01

    We revisit the decoupling effects associated with heavy particles in the renormalization group running of the vacuum energy in a mass-dependent renormalization scheme. We find the running of the vacuum energy stemming from the Higgs condensate in the entire energy range and show that it behaves as expected from the simple dimensional arguments meaning that it exhibits the quadratic sensitivity to the mass of the heavy particles in the infrared regime. The consequence of such a running to the fine-tuning problem with the measured value of the Cosmological Constant is analyzed and the constraint on the mass spectrum of a given model is derived. We show that in the Standard Model (SM) this fine-tuning constraint is not satisfied while in the massless theories this constraint formally coincides with the well known Veltman condition. We also provide a remarkably simple extension of the SM where saturation of this constraint enables us to predict the radiative Higgs mass correctly. Generalization to constant curvature spaces is also given. (orig.)

  16. Revisiting the decoupling effects in the running of the Cosmological Constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antipin, Oleg; Melic, Blazenka [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Division of Theoretical Physics, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2017-09-15

    We revisit the decoupling effects associated with heavy particles in the renormalization group running of the vacuum energy in a mass-dependent renormalization scheme. We find the running of the vacuum energy stemming from the Higgs condensate in the entire energy range and show that it behaves as expected from the simple dimensional arguments meaning that it exhibits the quadratic sensitivity to the mass of the heavy particles in the infrared regime. The consequence of such a running to the fine-tuning problem with the measured value of the Cosmological Constant is analyzed and the constraint on the mass spectrum of a given model is derived. We show that in the Standard Model (SM) this fine-tuning constraint is not satisfied while in the massless theories this constraint formally coincides with the well known Veltman condition. We also provide a remarkably simple extension of the SM where saturation of this constraint enables us to predict the radiative Higgs mass correctly. Generalization to constant curvature spaces is also given. (orig.)

  17. Cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contopoulos, G.; Kotsakis, D.

    1987-01-01

    An extensive first part on a wealth of observational results relevant to cosmology lays the foundation for the second and central part of the book; the chapters on general relativity, the various cosmological theories, and the early universe. The authors present in a complete and almost non-mathematical way the ideas and theoretical concepts of modern cosmology including the exciting impact of high-energy particle physics, e.g. in the concept of the ''inflationary universe''. The final part addresses the deeper implications of cosmology, the arrow of time, the universality of physical laws, inflation and causality, and the anthropic principle

  18. Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    García-Bellido, J

    2015-01-01

    In these lectures I review the present status of the so-called Standard Cosmological Model, based on the hot Big Bang Theory and the Inflationary Paradigm. I will make special emphasis on the recent developments in observational cosmology, mainly the acceleration of the universe, the precise measurements of the microwave background anisotropies, and the formation of structure like galaxies and clusters of galaxies from tiny primordial fluctuations generated during inflation.

  19. Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Vittorio, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    Modern cosmology has changed significantly over the years, from the discovery to the precision measurement era. The data now available provide a wealth of information, mostly consistent with a model where dark matter and dark energy are in a rough proportion of 3:7. The time is right for a fresh new textbook which captures the state-of-the art in cosmology. Written by one of the world's leading cosmologists, this brand new, thoroughly class-tested textbook provides graduate and undergraduate students with coverage of the very latest developments and experimental results in the field. Prof. Nicola Vittorio shows what is meant by precision cosmology, from both theoretical and observational perspectives.

  20. Heaven and Earth in Ancient Greek Cosmology From Thales to Heraclides Ponticus

    CERN Document Server

    Couprie, Dirk L

    2011-01-01

    In Miletus, about 550 B.C., together with our world-picture cosmology was born. This book tells the story. In Part One the reader is introduced in the archaic world-picture of a flat earth with the cupola of the celestial vault onto which the celestial bodies are attached. One of the subjects treated in that context is the riddle of the tilted celestial axis. This part also contains an extensive chapter on archaic astronomical instruments. Part Two shows how Anaximander (610-547 B.C.) blew up this archaic world-picture and replaced it by a new one that is essentially still ours. He taught that the celestial bodies orbit at different distances and that the earth floats unsupported in space. This makes him the founding father of cosmology. Part Three discusses topics that completed the new picture described by Anaximander. Special attention is paid to the confrontation between Anaxagoras and Aristotle on the question whether the earth is flat or spherical, and on the battle between Aristotle and Heraclid...

  1. Contribution of the cosmological constant to the relativistic bending of light revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rindler, Wolfgang; Ishak, Mustapha

    2007-01-01

    We study the effect of the cosmological constant Λ on the bending of light by a concentrated spherically symmetric mass. Contrarily to previous claims, we show that, when the Schwarzschild-de Sitter geometry is taken into account, Λ does indeed contribute to the bending

  2. Revisitation of chaos in Bianchi IX Universe and in generalized scalar-tensor cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, Thierry; Di Menza, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    We show that there is a threshold for the onset of chaos in cosmology for the Universe described as a dynamical system derived from the Einstein equations of general relativity (GR). In the case of the mixmaster model (homogeneous and anisotropic cosmology with a Bianchi IX metric) the chaos occurs precisely at the prescribed necessary value H vac =0 of the GR for the energy of the Universe while the system is found regular for H vac >0 and chaotic for H vac <0 with respect to its pure vacuum part. In the case of generalized scalar tensor theories within the Bianchi IX model we show using the ADM formalism and a conformal transformation that the energy of the dynamical system as compared to vacuum lies below the threshold thus the system is not exhibiting chaos and the conclusion still holds in the presence of ordinary matter as well. The suppression of chaos occurs in a similar way for stiff matter alone

  3. Religion, theology and cosmology

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    John T. Fitzgerald

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cosmology is one of the predominant research areas of the contemporary world. Advances in modern cosmology have prompted renewed interest in the intersections between religion, theology and cosmology. This article, which is intended as a brief introduction to the series of studies on theological cosmology in this journal, identifies three general areas of theological interest stemming from the modern scientific study of cosmology: contemporary theology and ethics; cosmology and world religions; and ancient cosmologies. These intersections raise important questions about the relationship of religion and cosmology, which has recently been addressed by William Scott Green and is the focus of the final portion of the article.

  4. Plasmodium vivax populations revisited: mitochondrial genomes of temperate strains in Asia suggest ancient population expansion

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    Miao Miao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium vivax is the most widely distributed human malaria parasite outside of Africa, and its range extends well into the temperate zones. Previous studies provided evidence for vivax population differentiation, but temperate vivax parasites were not well represented in these analyses. Here we address this deficit by using complete mitochondrial (mt genome sequences to elucidate the broad genetic diversity and population structure of P. vivax from temperate regions in East and Southeast Asia. Results From the complete mtDNA sequences of 99 clinical samples collected in China, Myanmar and Korea, a total of 30 different haplotypes were identified from 26 polymorphic sites. Significant differentiation between different East and Southeast Asian parasite populations was observed except for the comparison between populations from Korea and southern China. Haplotype patterns and structure diversity analysis showed coexistence of two different groups in East Asia, which were genetically related to the Southeast Asian population and Myanmar population, respectively. The demographic history of P. vivax, examined using neutrality tests and mismatch distribution analyses, revealed population expansion events across the entire P. vivax range and the Myanmar population. Bayesian skyline analysis further supported the occurrence of ancient P. vivax population expansion. Conclusions This study provided further resolution of the population structure and evolution of P. vivax, especially in temperate/warm-temperate endemic areas of Asia. The results revealed divergence of the P. vivax populations in temperate regions of China and Korea from other populations. Multiple analyses confirmed ancient population expansion of this parasite. The extensive genetic diversity of the P. vivax populations is consistent with phenotypic plasticity of the parasites, which has implications for malaria control.

  5. Keeping it real: revisiting a real-space approach to running ensembles of cosmological N-body simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orban, Chris

    2013-01-01

    In setting up initial conditions for ensembles of cosmological N-body simulations there are, fundamentally, two choices: either maximizing the correspondence of the initial density field to the assumed fourier-space clustering or, instead, matching to real-space statistics and allowing the DC mode (i.e. overdensity) to vary from box to box as it would in the real universe. As a stringent test of both approaches, I perform ensembles of simulations using power law and a ''powerlaw times a bump'' model inspired by baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), exploiting the self-similarity of these initial conditions to quantify the accuracy of the matter-matter two-point correlation results. The real-space method, which was originally proposed by Pen 1997 [1] and implemented by Sirko 2005 [2], performed well in producing the expected self-similar behavior and corroborated the non-linear evolution of the BAO feature observed in conventional simulations, even in the strongly-clustered regime (σ 8 ∼>1). In revisiting the real-space method championed by [2], it was also noticed that this earlier study overlooked an important integral constraint correction to the correlation function in results from the conventional approach that can be important in ΛCDM simulations with L box ∼ −1 Gpc and on scales r∼>L box /10. Rectifying this issue shows that the fourier space and real space methods are about equally accurate and efficient for modeling the evolution and growth of the correlation function, contrary to previous claims. An appendix provides a useful independent-of-epoch analytic formula for estimating the importance of the integral constraint bias on correlation function measurements in ΛCDM simulations

  6. Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, Silke; Meyer, Verena; Pakura, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    were captured when they described entrepreneurs. Therefore, this paper aims to revisit gender role stereotypes among young adults. Design/methodology/approach: To measure stereotyping, participants were asked to describe entrepreneurs in general and either women or men in general. The Schein......Purpose: Entrepreneurship is shaped by a male norm, which has been widely demonstrated in qualitative studies. The authors strive to complement these methods by a quantitative approach. First, gender role stereotypes were measured in entrepreneurship. Second, the explicit notions of participants......: The images of men and entrepreneurs show a high and significant congruence (r = 0.803), mostly in those adjectives that are untypical for men and entrepreneurs. The congruence of women and entrepreneurs was low (r = 0.152) and insignificant. Contrary to the participants’ beliefs, their explicit notions did...

  7. Indigenous cosmology, art forms and past medicinal practices: towards an interpretation of ancient Koma Land sites in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankpeyeng, Benjamin W; Nkumbaan, Samuel N; Insoll, Timothy

    2011-08-01

    The ancient cultural tradition in the middle belt region of northern Ghana, with its stone circle and house mounds, contains varied material culture. The unique contextual arrangements of the material culture within the stone circle mounds and the diverse ceramic art forms, as well as their ethnographic analogues in West Africa, indicate the mounds' association with past shrines that have multiple functions, including curative purposes. The archaeology of the mounds and ethnographic associations related to past indigenous medical practices is reviewed and discussed. This paper will also consider how some of the figurines through which the Koma tradition has achieved 'fame' possibly functioned as physical representations of disease, perhaps underpinned by intentions of transference from afflicted to image. The notions of protection and healing are also examined with reference to the resorted and disarticulated human remains sometimes recovered from the sites.

  8. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  9. Mathematical cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wainwright, J.

    1990-01-01

    The workshop on mathematical cosmology was devoted to four topics of current interest. This report contains a brief discussion of the historical background of each topic and a concise summary of the content of each talk. The topics were; the observational cosmology program, the cosmological perturbation program, isotropic singularities, and the evolution of Bianchi cosmologies. (author)

  10. Theoretical cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raychaudhuri, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled; introduction; Newtonian gravitation and cosmology; general relativity and relativistic cosmology; analysis of observational data; relativistic models not obeying the cosmological principle; microwave radiation background; thermal history of the universe and nucleosynthesis; singularity of cosmological models; gravitational constant as a field variable; cosmological models based on Einstein-Cartan theory; cosmological singularity in two recent theories; fate of perturbations of isotropic universes; formation of galaxies; baryon symmetric cosmology; assorted topics (including extragalactic radio sources; Mach principle). (U.K.)

  11. Mathematical cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberg, P.T.; Evans, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    The subject is dealt with in chapters, entitled: cosmology -some fundamentals; Newtonian gravitation - some fundamentals; the cosmological differential equation - the particle model and the continuum model; some simple Friedmann models; the classification of the Friedmann models; the steady-state model; universe with pressure; optical effects of the expansion according to various theories of light; optical observations and cosmological models. (U.K.)

  12. Observable cosmology and cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardashev, N.S.; Lukash, V.N.; Novikov, I.D.

    1987-01-01

    Modern state of observation cosmology is briefly discussed. Among other things, a problem, related to Hibble constant and slowdown constant determining is considered. Within ''pancake'' theory hot (neutrino) cosmological model explains well the large-scale structure of the Universe, but does not explain the galaxy formation. A cold cosmological model explains well light object formation, but contradicts data on large-scale structure

  13. Modern Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Yuan Zhong

    2002-01-01

    This book is one of a series in the areas of high-energy physics, cosmology and gravitation published by the Institute of Physics. It includes courses given at a doctoral school on 'Relativistic Cosmology: Theory and Observation' held in Spring 2000 at the Centre for Scientific Culture 'Alessandro Volta', Italy, sponsored by SIGRAV-Societa Italiana di Relativita e Gravitazione (Italian Society of Relativity and Gravitation) and the University of Insubria. This book collects 15 review reports given by a number of outstanding scientists. They touch upon the main aspects of modern cosmology from observational matters to theoretical models, such as cosmological models, the early universe, dark matter and dark energy, modern observational cosmology, cosmic microwave background, gravitational lensing, and numerical simulations in cosmology. In particular, the introduction to the basics of cosmology includes the basic equations, covariant and tetrad descriptions, Friedmann models, observation and horizons, etc. The ...

  14. Precision Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bernard J. T.

    2017-04-01

    Preface; Notation and conventions; Part I. 100 Years of Cosmology: 1. Emerging cosmology; 2. The cosmic expansion; 3. The cosmic microwave background; 4. Recent cosmology; Part II. Newtonian Cosmology: 5. Newtonian cosmology; 6. Dark energy cosmological models; 7. The early universe; 8. The inhomogeneous universe; 9. The inflationary universe; Part III. Relativistic Cosmology: 10. Minkowski space; 11. The energy momentum tensor; 12. General relativity; 13. Space-time geometry and calculus; 14. The Einstein field equations; 15. Solutions of the Einstein equations; 16. The Robertson-Walker solution; 17. Congruences, curvature and Raychaudhuri; 18. Observing and measuring the universe; Part IV. The Physics of Matter and Radiation: 19. Physics of the CMB radiation; 20. Recombination of the primeval plasma; 21. CMB polarisation; 22. CMB anisotropy; Part V. Precision Tools for Precision Cosmology: 23. Likelihood; 24. Frequentist hypothesis testing; 25. Statistical inference: Bayesian; 26. CMB data processing; 27. Parametrising the universe; 28. Precision cosmology; 29. Epilogue; Appendix A. SI, CGS and Planck units; Appendix B. Magnitudes and distances; Appendix C. Representing vectors and tensors; Appendix D. The electromagnetic field; Appendix E. Statistical distributions; Appendix F. Functions on a sphere; Appendix G. Acknowledgements; References; Index.

  15. Observational cosmology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, RH; Papantonopoulos, E

    2005-01-01

    I discuss the classical cosmological tests, i.e., angular size-redshift, flux-redshift, and galaxy number counts, in the light of the cosmology prescribed by the interpretation of the CMB anisotropies. The discussion is somewhat of a primer for physicists, with emphasis upon the possible systematic

  16. Ancient genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Hoelzel, A Rus

    2005-01-01

    Ever since its invention, the polymerase chain reaction has been the method of choice for work with ancient DNA. In an application of modern genomic methods to material from the Pleistocene, a recent study has instead undertaken to clone and sequence a portion of the ancient genome of the cave bear.

  17. Ancient mitogenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Simon Y. W.; Gilbert, Tom

    2010-01-01

    the technical challenges that face researchers in the field. We catalogue the diverse sequencing methods and source materials used to obtain ancient mitogenomic sequences, summarise the associated genetic and phylogenetic studies that have been conducted, and evaluate the future prospects of the field.......The mitochondrial genome has been the traditional focus of most research into ancient DNA, owing to its high copy number and population-level variability. Despite this long-standing interest in mitochondrial DNA, it was only in 2001 that the first complete ancient mitogenomic sequences were...... obtained. As a result of various methodological developments, including the introduction of high-throughput sequencing techniques, the total number of ancient mitogenome sequences has increased rapidly over the past few years. In this review, we present a brief history of ancient mitogenomics and describe...

  18. Supernova cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibundgut, B.

    2005-01-01

    Supernovae have developed into a versatile tool for cosmology. Their impact on the cosmological model has been profound and led to the discovery of the accelerated expansion. The current status of the cosmological model as perceived through supernova observations will be presented. Supernovae are currently the only astrophysical objects that can measure the dynamics of the cosmic expansion during the past eight billion years. Ongoing experiments are trying to determine the characteristics of the accelerated expansion and give insight into what might be the physical explanation for the acceleration. (author)

  19. Neutrino cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berstein, J.

    1984-01-01

    These lectures offer a self-contained review of the role of neutrinos in cosmology. The first part deals with the question 'What is a neutrino.' and describes in a historical context the theoretical ideas and experimental discoveries related to the different types of neutrinos and their properties. The basic differences between the Dirac neutrino and the Majorana neutrino are pointed out and the evidence for different neutrino 'flavours', neutrino mass, and neutrino oscillations is discussed. The second part summarizes current views on cosmology, particularly as they are affected by recent theoretical and experimental advances in high-energy particle physics. Finally, the close relationship between neutrino physics and cosmology is brought out in more detail, to show how cosmological constraints can limit the various theoretical possibilities for neutrinos and, more particularly, how increasing knowledge of neutrino properties can contribute to our understanding of the origin, history, and future of the Universe. The level is that of the beginning graduate student. (orig.)

  20. Qualitative cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalatnikov, I.M.; Belinskij, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    Application of the qualitative theory of dynamic systems to analysis of homogeneous cosmological models is described. Together with the well-known cases, requiring ideal liquid, the properties of cosmological evolution of matter with dissipative processes due to viscosity are considered. New cosmological effects occur, when viscosity terms being one and the same order with the rest terms in the equations of gravitation or even exceeding them. In these cases the description of the dissipative process by means of only two viscosity coefficients (volume and shift) may become inapplicable because all the rest decomposition terms of dissipative addition to the energy-momentum in velocity gradient can be large application of equations with hydrodynamic viscosty should be considered as a model of dissipative effects in cosmology

  1. Neutrino cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Lesgourgues, Julien; Miele, Gennaro; Pastor, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The role that neutrinos have played in the evolution of the Universe is the focus of one of the most fascinating research areas that has stemmed from the interplay between cosmology, astrophysics and particle physics. In this self-contained book, the authors bring together all aspects of the role of neutrinos in cosmology, spanning from leptogenesis to primordial nucleosynthesis, their role in CMB and structure formation, to the problem of their direct detection. The book starts by guiding the reader through aspects of fundamental neutrino physics, such as the standard cosmological model and the statistical mechanics in the expanding Universe, before discussing the history of neutrinos in chronological order from the very early stages until today. This timely book will interest graduate students and researchers in astrophysics, cosmology and particle physics, who work with either a theoretical or experimental focus.

  2. Modern cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeldovich, Y.B.

    1983-01-01

    This paper fives a general review of modern cosmology. The following subjects are discussed: hot big bang and periodization of the evolution; Hubble expansion; the structure of the universe (pancake theory); baryon asymmetry; inflatory universe. (Auth.)

  3. Modern Cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yuanzhong

    2002-06-21

    This book is one of a series in the areas of high-energy physics, cosmology and gravitation published by the Institute of Physics. It includes courses given at a doctoral school on 'Relativistic Cosmology: Theory and Observation' held in Spring 2000 at the Centre for Scientific Culture 'Alessandro Volta', Italy, sponsored by SIGRAV-Societa Italiana di Relativita e Gravitazione (Italian Society of Relativity and Gravitation) and the University of Insubria. This book collects 15 review reports given by a number of outstanding scientists. They touch upon the main aspects of modern cosmology from observational matters to theoretical models, such as cosmological models, the early universe, dark matter and dark energy, modern observational cosmology, cosmic microwave background, gravitational lensing, and numerical simulations in cosmology. In particular, the introduction to the basics of cosmology includes the basic equations, covariant and tetrad descriptions, Friedmann models, observation and horizons, etc. The chapters on the early universe involve inflationary theories, particle physics in the early universe, and the creation of matter in the universe. The chapters on dark matter (DM) deal with experimental evidence of DM, neutrino oscillations, DM candidates in supersymmetry models and supergravity, structure formation in the universe, dark-matter search with innovative techniques, and dark energy (cosmological constant), etc. The chapters about structure in the universe consist of the basis for structure formation, quantifying large-scale structure, cosmic background fluctuation, galaxy space distribution, and the clustering of galaxies. In the field of modern observational cosmology, galaxy surveys and cluster surveys are given. The chapter on gravitational lensing describes the lens basics and models, galactic microlensing and galaxy clusters as lenses. The last chapter, 'Numerical simulations in cosmology', deals with spatial and

  4. Current cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeldovich, Ya.

    1984-01-01

    The knowledge is summed up of contemporary cosmology on the universe and its development resulting from a great number of highly sensitive observations and the application of contemporary physical theories to the entire universe. The questions are assessed of mass density in the universe, the structure and origin of the universe, its baryon asymmetry and the quantum explanation of the origin of the universe. Physical problems are presented which should be resolved for the future development of cosmology. (Ha)

  5. Particle cosmology

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The understanding of the Universe at the largest and smallest scales traditionally has been the subject of cosmology and particle physics, respectively. Studying the evolution of the Universe connects today's large scales with the tiny scales in the very early Universe and provides the link between the physics of particles and of the cosmos. This series of five lectures aims at a modern and critical presentation of the basic ideas, methods, models and observations in today's particle cosmology.

  6. Cosmology understanding the evolution of the universe

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Bridging astronomy and physics, cosmology seeks to examine the nature of the universe as a whole. Scientific investigation of cosmology began in ancient times and progressed rapidly after the Scientific Revolution, which produced the discovery of gravity and the heliocentric model of Copernicus. This volume examines the historical developments in the field of cosmology, the evidence supporting the Big Bang theory, and the future implications of dark matter and an expanding universe. Readers will also be introduced to the various thinkers who helped advance study of this endlessly fascinating f

  7. Ancient Resistome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaitan, Abiola Olumuyiwa; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-08-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an ancient biological mechanism in bacteria, although its proliferation in our contemporary world has been amplified through antimicrobial therapy. Recent studies conducted on ancient environmental and human samples have uncovered numerous antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance genes. The resistance genes that have been reported from the analysis of ancient bacterial DNA include genes coding for several classes of antibiotics, such as glycopeptides, β-lactams, tetracyclines, and macrolides. The investigation of the resistome of ancient bacteria is a recent and emerging field of research, and technological advancements such as next-generation sequencing will further contribute to its growth. It is hoped that the knowledge gained from this research will help us to better understand the evolution of antibiotic resistance genes and will also be used in drug design as a proactive measure against antibiotic resistance.

  8. Cosmological expansion and local physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraoni, Valerio; Jacques, Audrey

    2007-01-01

    The interplay between cosmological expansion and local attraction in a gravitationally bound system is revisited in various regimes. First, weakly gravitating Newtonian systems are considered, followed by various exact solutions describing a relativistic central object embedded in a Friedmann universe. It is shown that the 'all or nothing' behavior recently discovered (i.e., weakly coupled systems are comoving while strongly coupled ones resist the cosmic expansion) is limited to the de Sitter background. New exact solutions are presented which describe black holes perfectly comoving with a generic Friedmann universe. The possibility of violating cosmic censorship for a black hole approaching the big rip is also discussed

  9. Higgs cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajantie, Arttu

    2018-03-06

    The discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012 and other results from the Large Hadron Collider have confirmed the standard model of particle physics as the correct theory of elementary particles and their interactions up to energies of several TeV. Remarkably, the theory may even remain valid all the way to the Planck scale of quantum gravity, and therefore it provides a solid theoretical basis for describing the early Universe. Furthermore, the Higgs field itself has unique properties that may have allowed it to play a central role in the evolution of the Universe, from inflation to cosmological phase transitions and the origin of both baryonic and dark matter, and possibly to determine its ultimate fate through the electroweak vacuum instability. These connections between particle physics and cosmology have given rise to a new and growing field of Higgs cosmology, which promises to shed new light on some of the most puzzling questions about the Universe as new data from particle physics experiments and cosmological observations become available.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Higgs cosmology'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  10. Cosmological principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesson, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    The Cosmological Principle states: the universe looks the same to all observers regardless of where they are located. To most astronomers today the Cosmological Principle means the universe looks the same to all observers because density of the galaxies is the same in all places. A new Cosmological Principle is proposed. It is called the Dimensional Cosmological Principle. It uses the properties of matter in the universe: density (rho), pressure (p), and mass (m) within some region of space of length (l). The laws of physics require incorporation of constants for gravity (G) and the speed of light (C). After combining the six parameters into dimensionless numbers, the best choices are: 8πGl 2 rho/c 2 , 8πGl 2 rho/c 4 , and 2 Gm/c 2 l (the Schwarzchild factor). The Dimensional Cosmological Principal came about because old ideas conflicted with the rapidly-growing body of observational evidence indicating that galaxies in the universe have a clumpy rather than uniform distribution

  11. Higgs cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajantie, Arttu

    2018-01-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012 and other results from the Large Hadron Collider have confirmed the standard model of particle physics as the correct theory of elementary particles and their interactions up to energies of several TeV. Remarkably, the theory may even remain valid all the way to the Planck scale of quantum gravity, and therefore it provides a solid theoretical basis for describing the early Universe. Furthermore, the Higgs field itself has unique properties that may have allowed it to play a central role in the evolution of the Universe, from inflation to cosmological phase transitions and the origin of both baryonic and dark matter, and possibly to determine its ultimate fate through the electroweak vacuum instability. These connections between particle physics and cosmology have given rise to a new and growing field of Higgs cosmology, which promises to shed new light on some of the most puzzling questions about the Universe as new data from particle physics experiments and cosmological observations become available. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue `Higgs cosmology'.

  12. Deconstructing cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    The advent of sensitive high-resolution observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation and their successful interpretation in terms of the standard cosmological model has led to great confidence in this model's reality. The prevailing attitude is that we now understand the Universe and need only work out the details. In this book, Sanders traces the development and successes of Lambda-CDM, and argues that this triumphalism may be premature. The model's two major components, dark energy and dark matter, have the character of the pre-twentieth-century luminiferous aether. While there is astronomical evidence for these hypothetical fluids, their enigmatic properties call into question our assumptions of the universality of locally determined physical law. Sanders explains how modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) is a significant challenge for cold dark matter. Overall, the message is hopeful: the field of cosmology has not become frozen, and there is much fundamental work ahead for tomorrow's cosmologis...

  13. Fractal cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickau, Jonathan J.

    2009-01-01

    The use of fractals and fractal-like forms to describe or model the universe has had a long and varied history, which begins long before the word fractal was actually coined. Since the introduction of mathematical rigor to the subject of fractals, by Mandelbrot and others, there have been numerous cosmological theories and analyses of astronomical observations which suggest that the universe exhibits fractality or is by nature fractal. In recent years, the term fractal cosmology has come into usage, as a description for those theories and methods of analysis whereby a fractal nature of the cosmos is shown.

  14. Ancient genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen

    2015-01-01

    throughput of next generation sequencing platforms and the ability to target short and degraded DNA molecules. Many ancient specimens previously unsuitable for DNA analyses because of extensive degradation can now successfully be used as source materials. Additionally, the analytical power obtained...... by increasing the number of sequence reads to billions effectively means that contamination issues that have haunted aDNA research for decades, particularly in human studies, can now be efficiently and confidently quantified. At present, whole genomes have been sequenced from ancient anatomically modern humans...

  15. Cosmological inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Enqvist, K

    2012-01-01

    The very basics of cosmological inflation are discussed. We derive the equations of motion for the inflaton field, introduce the slow-roll parameters, and present the computation of the inflationary perturbations and their connection to the temperature fluctuations of the cosmic microwave background.

  16. Mathematical cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, G F R

    1993-01-01

    Many topics were covered in the submitted papers, showing much life in this subject at present. They ranged from conventional calculations in specific cosmological models to provocatively speculative work. Space and time restrictions required selecting from them, for summarisation here; the book of Abstracts should be consulted for a full overview.

  17. Galileon cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, Nathan; Khoury, Justin

    2009-01-01

    We study the cosmology of a galileon scalar-tensor theory, obtained by covariantizing the decoupling Lagrangian of the Dvali-Gabadadze-Poratti (DGP) model. Despite being local in 3+1 dimensions, the resulting cosmological evolution is remarkably similar to that of the full 4+1-dimensional DGP framework, both for the expansion history and the evolution of density perturbations. As in the DGP model, the covariant galileon theory yields two branches of solutions, depending on the sign of the galileon velocity. Perturbations are stable on one branch and ghostlike on the other. An interesting effect uncovered in our analysis is a cosmological version of the Vainshtein screening mechanism: at early times, the galileon dynamics are dominated by self-interaction terms, resulting in its energy density being suppressed compared to matter or radiation; once the matter density has redshifted sufficiently, the galileon becomes an important component of the energy density and contributes to dark energy. We estimate conservatively that the resulting expansion history is consistent with the observed late-time cosmology, provided that the scale of modification satisfies r c > or approx. 15 Gpc.

  18. Cosmological Views of Anania Shirakatsi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, Sona V.; Mickaelian, Areg M.

    2017-12-01

    Since the ancient times the usage of cosmological ideas in mythology and poetry has contributed to the formation and development of human's philosophical thought. It is believed that before the M. Mashtots's alphabet, ancient Armenians have expressed their astronomical knowledge through stone structures and rock art.In the Armenian reality, the cosmological views, the idea of the spherical shape of the Earth and information of other celestial bodies more vividly were manifested in the works of Movses Khorenatsi, David Anhaght (5th century) and Anania Shirakatsi (7th century).Anania Shirakatsi is an Armenian Astronomer, Mathematician, Philosopher, Geographer and Alchemist.The importance of his work is also noted by foreign authors and he was called 7th century Cosmologist, First Scientist of Armenia and Middival Astronomer. Shirakatsi's works are united in his comprehensive knowledge, his insight of the mind, the ability of combining and analyzing facts and his literature talent.His works have simultaneous historical, cosmic, geographical, religious, literary and mystical significance. In the present study we will show Anania Shirakatsi's cosmological ideas and observations.

  19. Large scale geometry and evolution of a universe with radiation pressure and cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Coquereaux, Robert; Coquereaux, Robert; Grossmann, Alex

    2000-01-01

    In view of new experimental results that strongly suggest a non-zero cosmological constant, it becomes interesting to revisit the Friedmann-Lemaitre model of evolution of a universe with cosmological constant and radiation pressure. In this paper, we discuss the explicit solutions for that model, and perform numerical explorations for reasonable values of cosmological parameters. We also analyse the behaviour of redshifts in such models and the description of ``very large scale geometrical features'' when analysed by distant observers.

  20. Classical stochastic approach to cosmology revisited

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    theory the mean values of both p and w are taken to be nonzero. ... This PDF arises from the point-to-point variance of the Hubble flow. ..... [8] T Padmanabhan, To appear in the proceedings of XIII Rencontres de Blois-Frontiers of the universe ...

  1. Medieval Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, E.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    During the early Middle Ages (ca 500 to ca 1130) scholars with an interest in cosmology had little useful and dependable literature. They relied heavily on a partial Latin translation of PLATO's Timaeus by Chalcidius (4th century AD), and on a series of encyclopedic treatises associated with the names of Pliny the Elder (ca AD 23-79), Seneca (4 BC-AD 65), Macrobius (fl 5th century AD), Martianus ...

  2. Observational cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    Some sixty years after the development of relativistic cosmology by Einstein and his colleagues, observations are finally beginning to have an important impact on our views of the Universe. The available evidence seems to support one of the simplest cosmological models, the hot Big Bang model. The aim of this paper is to assess the observational support for certain assumptions underlying the hot Big Bang model. These are that the Universe is isobaric and homogeneous on a large scale; that it is expanding from an initial state of high density and temperature; and that the proper theory to describe the dynamics of the Universe is unmodified General Relativity. The properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation and recent observations of the abundance of light elements, in particular, support these assumptions. Also examined here are the data bearing on the related questions of the geometry and the future of the Universe (is it ever-expanding, or fated to recollapse). Finally, some difficulties and faults of the standard model are discussed, particularly various aspects of the 'initial condition' problem. It appears that the simplest Big Bang cosmological model calls for a highly specific set of initial conditions to produce the presently observed properties of the Universe. (Auth.)

  3. Smoot Group Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    the Universe About Cosmology Planck Satellite Launched Cosmology Videos Professor George Smoot's group conducts research on the early universe (cosmology) using the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation (CMB science goals regarding cosmology. George Smoot named Director of Korean Cosmology Institute The GRB

  4. String Gas Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenberger, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    String gas cosmology is a string theory-based approach to early universe cosmology which is based on making use of robust features of string theory such as the existence of new states and new symmetries. A first goal of string gas cosmology is to understand how string theory can effect the earliest moments of cosmology before the effective field theory approach which underlies standard and inflationary cosmology becomes valid. String gas cosmology may also provide an alternative to the curren...

  5. Magnetohydrodynamic cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portugal, R.; Soares, I.D.

    1991-01-01

    We analyse a class of cosmological models in magnetohydrodynamic regime extending and completing the results of a previous paper. The material content of the models is a perfect fluid plus electromagnetic fields. The fluid is neutral in average but admits an electrical current which satisfies Ohm's law. All models fulfil the physical requirements of near equilibrium thermodynamics and can be favourably used as a more realistic description of the interior of a collapsing star in a magnetohydrodynamic regime with or without a magnetic field. (author)

  6. Astrophysical cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardeen, J. M.

    The last several years have seen a tremendous ferment of activity in astrophysical cosmology. Much of the theoretical impetus has come from particle physics theories of the early universe and candidates for dark matter, but what promise to be even more significant are improved direct observations of high z galaxies and intergalactic matter, deeper and more comprehensive redshift surveys, and the increasing power of computer simulations of the dynamical evolution of large scale structure. Upper limits on the anisotropy of the microwave background radiation are gradually getting tighter and constraining more severely theoretical scenarios for the evolution of the universe.

  7. Astrophysical cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The last several years have seen a tremendous ferment of activity in astrophysical cosmology. Much of the theoretical impetus has come from particle physics theories of the early universe and candidates for dark matter, but what promise to be even more significant are improved direct observations of high z galaxies and intergalactic matter, deeper and more comprehensive redshift surveys, and the increasing power of computer simulations of the dynamical evolution of large scale structure. Upper limits on the anisotropy of the microwave background radiation are gradually getting tighter and constraining more severely theoretical scenarios for the evolution of the universe. 47 refs

  8. Chemical cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, Jan CA

    2010-01-01

    The composition of the most remote objects brought into view by the Hubble telescope can no longer be reconciled with the nucleogenesis of standard cosmology and the alternative explanation, in terms of the LAMBDA-Cold-Dark-Matter model, has no recognizable chemical basis. A more rational scheme, based on the chemistry and periodicity of atomic matter, opens up an exciting new interpretation of the cosmos in terms of projective geometry and general relativity. The response of atomic structure to environmental pressure predicts non-Doppler cosmical redshifts and equilibrium nucleogenesis by alp

  9. Quantum Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Don N.

    2006-01-01

    A complete model of the universe needs at least three parts: (1) a complete set of physical variables and dynamical laws for them, (2) the correct solution of the dynamical laws, and (3) the connection with conscious experience. In quantum cosmology, item (2) is the quantum state of the cosmos. Hartle and Hawking have made the `no-boundary' proposal, that the wavefunction of the universe is given by a path integral over all compact Euclidean 4-dimensional geometries and matter fields that hav...

  10. Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  11. Fermionic cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimento, L P; Forte, M; Devecchi, F P; Kremer, G M; Ribas, M O; Samojeden, L L

    2011-01-01

    In this work we review if fermionic sources could be responsible for accelerated periods during the evolution of a FRW universe. In a first attempt, besides the fermionic source, a matter constituent would answer for the decelerated periods. The coupled differential equations that emerge from the field equations are integrated numerically. The self-interaction potential of the fermionic field is considered as a function of the scalar and pseudo-scalar invariants. It is shown that the fermionic field could behave like an inflaton field in the early universe, giving place to a transition to a matter dominated (decelerated) period. In a second formulation we turn our attention to analytical results, specifically using the idea of form-invariance transformations. These transformations can be used for obtaining accelerated cosmologies starting with conventional cosmological models. Here we reconsider the scalar field case and extend the discussion to fermionic fields. Finally we investigate the role of a Dirac field in a Brans-Dicke (BD) context. The results show that this source, in combination with the BD scalar, promote a final eternal accelerated era, after a matter dominated period.

  12. Scalar-tensor cosmology with cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslanka, K.

    1983-01-01

    The equations of scalar-tensor theory of gravitation with cosmological constant in the case of homogeneous and isotropic cosmological model can be reduced to dynamical system of three differential equations with unknown functions H=R/R, THETA=phi/phi, S=e/phi. When new variables are introduced the system becomes more symmetrical and cosmological solutions R(t), phi(t), e(t) are found. It is shown that when cosmological constant is introduced large class of solutions which depend also on Dicke-Brans parameter can be obtained. Investigations of these solutions give general limits for cosmological constant and mean density of matter in plane model. (author)

  13. Quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawking, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    The subject of these lectures is quantum effects in cosmology. The author deals first with situations in which the gravitational field can be treated as a classical, unquantized background on which the quantum matter fields propagate. This is the case with inflation at the GUT era. Nevertheless the curvature of spacetime can have important effects on the behaviour of the quantum fields and on the development of long-range correlations. He then turns to the question of the quantization of the gravitational field itself. The plan of these lectures is as follows: Euclidean approach to quantum field theory in flat space; the extension of techniques to quantum fields on a curved background with the four-sphere, the Euclidean version of De Sitter space as a particular example; the GUT era; quantization of the gravitational field by Euclidean path integrals; mini superspace model. (Auth.)

  14. Network cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology.

  15. An introduction to cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Narlikar, Jayant Vishnu

    2002-01-01

    The third edition of this successful textbook is fully updated and includes important recent developments in cosmology. It begins with an introduction to cosmology and general relativity, and goes on to cover the mathematical models of standard cosmology. The physical aspects of cosmology, including primordial nucleosynthesis, the astroparticle physics of inflation, and the current ideas on structure formation are discussed. Alternative models of cosmology are reviewed, including the model of Quasi-Steady State Cosmology, which has recently been proposed as an alternative to Big Bang Cosmology.

  16. Dimensional cosmological principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, L.K.

    1985-01-01

    The dimensional cosmological principles proposed by Wesson require that the density, pressure, and mass of cosmological models be functions of the dimensionless variables which are themselves combinations of the gravitational constant, the speed of light, and the spacetime coordinates. The space coordinate is not the comoving coordinate. In this paper, the dimensional cosmological principle and the dimensional perfect cosmological principle are reformulated by using the comoving coordinate. The dimensional perfect cosmological principle is further modified to allow the possibility that mass creation may occur. Self-similar spacetimes are found to be models obeying the new dimensional cosmological principle

  17. Cosmology and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    The author reviews the standard cosmology, focusing on primordial nucleosynthesis, and discusses how the standard cosmology has been used to place constraints on the properties of various particles. Baryogenesis is examined in which the B, C, CP violating interactions in GUTs provide a dynamical explanation for the predominance of matter over antimatter and the present baryon-to-baryon ratio. Monoposes, cosmology and astrophysics are reviewed. The author also discusses supersymmetry/supergravity and cosmology, superstrings and cosmology in extra dimensions, and axions, astrophics, and cosmology

  18. Lakatos Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Court, Deborah

    1999-01-01

    Revisits and reviews Imre Lakatos' ideas on "Falsification and the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes." Suggests that Lakatos' framework offers an insightful way of looking at the relationship between theory and research that is relevant not only for evaluating research programs in theoretical physics, but in the social…

  19. Particle theory and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaisser, T.K.; Shafi, Q.; Barr, S.M.; Seckel, D.; Rusjan, E.; Fletcher, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses research of professor at Bartol research institute in the following general areas: particle phenomenology and non-accelerator physics; particle physics and cosmology; theories with higher symmetry; and particle astrophysics and cosmology

  20. Friedman's cosmological views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.

    1985-01-01

    Two Friedman's cosmological papers (1922, 1924) and his own interpretation of the obtained results are briefly reviewed. Discussion follows of Friedman's role in the early development of relativistic cosmology. 18 refs. (author)

  1. An introduction to cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Kunze, Kerstin E.

    2016-12-20

    Cosmology is becoming an important tool to test particle physics models. We provide an overview of the standard model of cosmology with an emphasis on the observations relevant for testing fundamental physics.

  2. Introduction to cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Roos, Matts

    2015-01-01

    The Fourth Edition of Introduction to Cosmology provides a concise, authoritative study of cosmology at an introductory level. Starting from elementary principles and the early history of cosmology, the text carefully guides the student on to curved spacetimes, special and general relativity, gravitational lensing, the thermal history of the Universe, and cosmological models, including extended gravity models, black holes and Hawking's recent conjectures on the not-so-black holes.

  3. Particle physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.; Schramm, D.N.

    1985-01-01

    During the past year, the research of the members of our group has spanned virtually all the topics at the interface of cosmology and particle physics: inflationary Universe scenarios, astrophysical and cosmological constraints on particle properties, ultra-high energy cosmic ray physics, quantum field theory in curved space-time, cosmology with extra dimensions, superstring cosmology, neutrino astronomy with large, underground detectors, and the formation of structure in the Universe

  4. Phantom cosmologies and fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimento, Luis P; Forte, Monica; Devecchi, Fernando P; Kremer, Gilberto M

    2008-01-01

    Form invariance transformations can be used for constructing phantom cosmologies starting with conventional cosmological models. In this work we reconsider the scalar field case and extend the discussion to fermionic fields, where the 'phantomization' process exhibits a new class of possible accelerated regimes. As an application we analyze the cosmological constant group for a fermionic seed fluid

  5. Particle physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.; Turner, M.S.

    1982-06-01

    work is described in these areas: cosmological baryon production; cosmological production of free quarks and other exotic particle species; the quark-hadron transition in the early universe; astrophysical and cosmological constraints on particle properties; massive neutrinos; phase transitions in the early universe; and astrophysical implications of an axion-like particle

  6. Cosmological constant problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, S.

    1989-01-01

    Cosmological constant problem is discussed. History of the problem is briefly considered. Five different approaches to solution of the problem are described: supersymmetry, supergravity, superstring; anthropic approach; mechamism of lagrangian alignment; modification of gravitation theory and quantum cosmology. It is noted that approach, based on quantum cosmology is the most promising one

  7. Smoot Cosmology Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    . ______________________________________________________________________________________ Nobelist George Smoot to Direct Korean Cosmology Institute Nobel Laureate George Smoot has been appointed director of a new cosmology institute in South Korea that will work closely with the year-old Berkeley the Early Universe (IEU) at EWHA Womans University in Seoul, Korea will provide cosmology education

  8. Everyone's guide to cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.

    1991-01-01

    The main concepts of cosmology are discussed, and some of the misconceptions are clarified. The features of big bang cosmology are examined, and it is noted that the existence of the cosmic background radiation provides welcome confirmation of the big bang theory. Calculations of relative abundances of the elements conform with observations, further strengthening the confidence in the basic ideas of big bang cosmology

  9. Introduction to cosmology

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2001-01-01

    Cosmology and particle physics have enjoyed a useful relationship over the entire histories of both subjects. Today, ideas and techniques in cosmology are frequently used to elucidate and constrain theories of elementary particles. These lectures give an elementary overview of the essential elements of cosmology, which is necessary to understand this relationship.

  10. Introduction to cosmology

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    1999-01-01

    Cosmology and particle physics have enjoyed a useful relationship over the entire histories of both subjects. Today, ideas and techniques in cosmology are frequently used to elucidate and constrain theories of elementary particles. These lectures give an elementary overview of the essential elements of cosmology, which is necessary to understand this relationship.

  11. A savour of Cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, M.

    2007-01-01

    This is a very concise introductory lecture to Cosmology. We start by reviewing the basics of homogeneous and isotropic cosmology. We then spend some time on the description of the Cosmic Microwave Background. Finally, a small section is devoted to the discussion of the cosmological constant and of some of the related problems

  12. The Philosophy of Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamcham, Khalil; Silk, Joseph; Barrow, John D.; Saunders, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Part I. Issues in the Philosophy of Cosmology: 1. Cosmology, cosmologia and the testing of cosmological theories George F. R. Ellis; 2. Black holes, cosmology and the passage of time: three problems at the limits of science Bernard Carr; 3. Moving boundaries? - comments on the relationship between philosophy and cosmology Claus Beisbart; 4. On the question why there exists something rather than nothing Roderich Tumulka; Part II. Structures in the Universe and the Structure of Modern Cosmology: 5. Some generalities about generality John D. Barrow; 6. Emergent structures of effective field theories Jean-Philippe Uzan; 7. Cosmological structure formation Joel R. Primack; 8. Formation of galaxies Joseph Silk; Part III. Foundations of Cosmology: Gravity and the Quantum: 9. The observer strikes back James Hartle and Thomas Hertog; 10. Testing inflation Chris Smeenk; 11. Why Boltzmann brains do not fluctuate into existence from the de Sitter vacuum Kimberly K. Boddy, Sean M. Carroll and Jason Pollack; 12. Holographic inflation revised Tom Banks; 13. Progress and gravity: overcoming divisions between general relativity and particle physics and between physics and HPS J. Brian Pitts; Part IV. Quantum Foundations and Quantum Gravity: 14. Is time's arrow perspectival? Carlo Rovelli; 15. Relational quantum cosmology Francesca Vidotto; 16. Cosmological ontology and epistemology Don N. Page; 17. Quantum origin of cosmological structure and dynamical reduction theories Daniel Sudarsky; 18. Towards a novel approach to semi-classical gravity Ward Struyve; Part V. Methodological and Philosophical Issues: 19. Limits of time in cosmology Svend E. Rugh and Henrik Zinkernagel; 20. Self-locating priors and cosmological measures Cian Dorr and Frank Arntzenius; 21. On probability and cosmology: inference beyond data? Martin Sahlén; 22. Testing the multiverse: Bayes, fine-tuning and typicality Luke A. Barnes; 23. A new perspective on Einstein's philosophy of cosmology Cormac O

  13. Philosophical Roots of Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovic, M.

    2008-10-01

    We shall consider the philosophical roots of cosmology in the earlier Greek philosophy. Our goal is to answer the question: Are earlier Greek theories of pure philosophical-mythological character, as often philosophers cited it, or they have scientific character. On the bases of methodological criteria, we shall contend that the latter is the case. In order to answer the question about contemporary situation of the relation philosophy-cosmology, we shall consider the next question: Is contemporary cosmology completely independent of philosophical conjectures? The answer demands consideration of methodological character about scientific status of contemporary cosmology. We also consider some aspects of the relation contemporary philosophy-cosmology.

  14. Sensemaking Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Robin; Cornelissen, Joep

    2014-01-01

    We critique and extend theory on organizational sensemaking around three themes. First, we investigate sense arising non-productively and so beyond any instrumental relationship with things; second, we consider how sense is experienced through mood as well as our cognitive skills of manipulation ...... research by revisiting Weick’s seminal reading of Norman Maclean’s book surrounding the tragic events of a 1949 forest fire at Mann Gulch, USA....

  15. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  16. Extending cosmology: the metric approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza, S.

    2012-01-01

    Comment: 2012, Extending Cosmology: The Metric Approach, Open Questions in Cosmology; Review article for an Intech "Open questions in cosmology" book chapter (19 pages, 3 figures). Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/open-questions-in-cosmology/extending-cosmology-the-metric-approach

  17. Cosmology and time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbi Amedeo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Time has always played a crucial role in cosmology. I review some of the aspects of the present cosmological model which are more directly related to time, such as: the definition of a cosmic time; the existence of typical timescales and epochs in an expanding universe; the problem of the initial singularity and the origin of time; the cosmological arrow of time.

  18. Inflation and quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, A.

    1991-01-01

    In this article a review of the present status of inflationary cosmology is given. We start with a discussion of the simplest version of the chaotic inflation scenario. Then we discuss some recent develoments in the inflationary cosmology, including the theory of a self-reproducing inflationary universe (eternal chaotic inflation). We do it with the help of stochastic approach to inflation. The results obtained within this approach are compared with the results obtained in the context of Euclidean quantum cosmology. (WL)

  19. The Bright Universe Cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surdin, M.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that viewed from the 'outside', our universe is a black hole. Hence the 'inside' cosmology considered is termed as the Bright Universe Cosmology. The model proposed avoids the singularities of cosmologies of the Big Bang variety, it gives a good account of the redshifts, the cosmic background radiation, the number counts; it also gives a satisfactory explanation of the 'large numbers coincidence' and of the variation in time of fundamental constants. (Auth.)

  20. Supersymmetry and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.

    2005-01-01

    Cosmology now provides unambiguous, quantitative evidence for new particle physics. I discuss the implications of cosmology for supersymmetry and vice versa. Topics include: motivations for supersymmetry; supersymmetry breaking; dark energy; freeze out and WIMPs; neutralino dark matter; cosmologically preferred regions of minimal supergravity; direct and indirect detection of neutralinos; the DAMA and HEAT signals; inflation and reheating; gravitino dark matter; Big Bang nucleosynthesis; and the cosmic microwave background. I conclude with speculations about the prospects for a microscopic description of the dark universe, stressing the necessity of diverse experiments on both sides of the particle physics/cosmology interface

  1. The inflationary cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Misao

    1983-01-01

    We review the recent status of the inflationary cosmology. After exhibiting the essence of difficulties associated with the horizon, flatness and baryon number problems in the standard big-bang cosmology, we discuss that the inflationary universe scenario is one of the most plausible solutions to these fundamental cosmological problems. Since there are two qualitatively different versions of the inflationary universe scenario, we review each of them separately and discuss merits and demerits of each version. The Hawking radiation in de Sitter space is also reviewed since it may play an essential role in the inflationary cosmology. (author)

  2. Introduction to cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Roos, Matts

    2003-01-01

    The Third Edition of the hugely successful Introduction to Cosmology provides a concise, authoritative study of cosmology at an introductory level. Starting from elementary principles and the history of cosmology, the text carefully guides the student on to curved spacetimes, general relativity, black holes, cosmological models, particles and symmetries, and phase transitions. Extensively revised, this latest edition includes broader and updated coverage of distance measures, gravitational lensing and waves, dark energy and quintessence, the thermal history of the Universe, inflation,

  3. Axions in inflationary cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, A.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of the cosmological constraints on the axion mass is re-examined. It is argued that in the context of inflationary cosmology the constraint m a > or approx.10 -5 eV can be avoided even when the axion perturbations produced during inflation are taken into account. It is shown also that in most axion models the effective parameter f a rapidly changes during inflation. This modifies some earlier statements concerning isothermal perturbations in the axion cosmology. A hybrid inflation scenario is proposed which combines some advantages of chaotic inflation with specific features of new and/or extended inflation. Its implications for the axion cosmology are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Wormholes and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klebanov, I.; Susskind, L.

    1988-10-01

    We review Coleman's wormhole mechanism for the vanishing of the cosmological constant. We find a discouraging result that wormholes much bigger than the Planck size are generated. We also consider the implications of the wormhole theory for cosmology. 7 refs., 2 figs

  5. Particle physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.; Nanopoulos, D.

    1983-01-01

    The authors describe the connection between cosmology and particle physics in an introductory way. In this connection the big bang theory and unified gauge models of strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions are considered. Furthermore cosmological nucleosynthesis is discussed in this framework, and the problem of cosmic neutrinos is considered with special regards to its rest mass. (HSI).

  6. Cosmology and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    Progress in cosmology has become linked to progress in elementary particle physics. In these six lectures, the author illustrates the two-way nature of the interplay between these fields by focusing on a few selected topics. In the next section the author reviews the standard cosmology, especially concentrating on primordial nucleosynthesis and discusses how the standard cosmology has been used to place constraints on the properties of various particles. Grand Unification makes two striking predictions: (i) B non-conservation; (ii) the existence of stable, superheavy magnetic monopoles. Both have had great cosmological impact. In the following section the author discusses baryogenesis, the very attractive scenario in which the B,C,CP violating interactions in GUTs provide a dynamical explanation for the predominance of matter over antimatter and the present baryon-to-photon ratio. Monopoles are a cosmological disaster and an astrophysicist's delight. In Section 4 discusses monopoles, cosmology, and astrophysics. In the fourth lecture the author discusses how a very early (t≤10/sup -34/ sec) phase transition associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) has the potential to explain a handful of very fundamental cosmological facts, facts which can be accommodated by the standard cosmology, but which are not ''explained'' by it. The fifth lecture is devoted to a discussion of structure formation in the universe

  7. New Challenges for Cosmology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weygaert, Rien; van Albada, Tjeerd S.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed account of the ways in which a square kilometer array could further cosmological research. Observational and theoretical studies of the large scale structure and morphology of the local universe are reviewed against the potential capabilities of a new generation telescope. Cosmological

  8. The encyclopedia of cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Barkana, Rennan; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Kim, Jihn E; Nagamine, Kentaro

    2018-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Cosmology, in four volumes, is a major, long-lasting, seminal reference at the graduate student level, laid out by the most prominent, respected researchers in the general field of Cosmology. These volumes will be a comprehensive review of the most important concepts and current status in the field, covering both theory and observation.

  9. Astroparticle physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senjanovic, G.; Smirnov, A.Yu.; Thompson, G.

    2001-01-01

    In this volume a wide spectrum of topics of modern astroparticle physics, such as neutrino astrophysics, dark matter of the universe, high energy cosmic rays, topological defects in cosmology, γ-ray bursts, phase transitions at high temperatures, is covered. The articles written by top level experts in the field give a comprehensive view of the state-of-the-art of modern cosmology

  10. Perspectives in cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilenkin, Alexander, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.ed [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The 'new standard cosmology', based on the theory of inflation, has very impressive observational support. I review some outstanding problems of the new cosmology and the global view of the universe - the multiverse - that it suggests. I focus in particular on prospects for further observational tests of inflation and of the multiverse.

  11. Perspectives in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilenkin, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The n ew standard cosmology , based on the theory of inflation, has very impressive observational support. I review some outstanding problems of the new cosmology and the global view of the universe - the multiverse - that it suggests. I focus in particular on prospects for further observational tests of inflation and of the multiverse.

  12. Astroparticle physics and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senjanovic, G; Smirnov, A Yu; Thompson, G [eds.

    2001-11-15

    In this volume a wide spectrum of topics of modern astroparticle physics, such as neutrino astrophysics, dark matter of the universe, high energy cosmic rays, topological defects in cosmology, {gamma}-ray bursts, phase transitions at high temperatures, is covered. The articles written by top level experts in the field give a comprehensive view of the state-of-the-art of modern cosmology.

  13. Antimatter and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecker, F.W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses two aspects of antimatter and cosmology: 1. the fundamental cosmological question as to whether antimatter plays an equally important role as matter in the universe (overall baryon symmetry), and 2. cosmic-ray antimatter tests for the nature of the dark matter in the universe. (orig.)

  14. Ancient astronomy an encyclopedia of cosmologies and myth

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggles, Clive

    2005-01-01

    Long before astronomy was a science, humans used the stars to mark time, navigate, organize planting and dramatize myths. This encyclopaedia draws on archaeological evidence and oral traditions to reveal how prehistoric humans perceived the skies and celestial phenomena.

  15. Neutrino mass from Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Lesgourgues, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Neutrinos can play an important role in the evolution of the Universe, modifying some of the cosmological observables. In this contribution we summarize the main aspects of cosmological relic neutrinos and we describe how the precision of present cosmological data can be used to learn about neutrino properties, in particular their mass, providing complementary information to beta decay and neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. We show how the analysis of current cosmological observations, such as the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background or the distribution of large-scale structure, provides an upper bound on the sum of neutrino masses of order 1 eV or less, with very good perspectives from future cosmological measurements which are expected to be sensitive to neutrino masses well into the sub-eV range.

  16. A taste of cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verde, L.

    2011-01-01

    This is the summary of two lectures that aim to give an overview of cosmology. I will not try to be toa rigorous in derivations, nor to give a full historical overview. The idea is to provide a 'taste' of cosmology and some of the interesting topics it covers. The standard cosmological model is presented and I highlight the successes of cosmology over the past decade or so. Keys to the development of the standard cosmological model are observations of the cosmic microwave background and of large-scale structure, which are introduced. Inflation and dark energy and the outlook for the future are also discussed. Slides from the lectures are available from the school web site: physicschool.web.cern.ch/PhysicSchool/CLASHEP/CLASHEP2011/. (author)

  17. Classical and quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Calcagni, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    This comprehensive textbook is devoted to classical and quantum cosmology, with particular emphasis on modern approaches to quantum gravity and string theory and on their observational imprint. It covers major challenges in theoretical physics such as the big bang and the cosmological constant problem. An extensive review of standard cosmology, the cosmic microwave background, inflation and dark energy sets the scene for the phenomenological application of all the main quantum-gravity and string-theory models of cosmology. Born of the author's teaching experience and commitment to bridging the gap between cosmologists and theoreticians working beyond the established laws of particle physics and general relativity, this is a unique text where quantum-gravity approaches and string theory are treated on an equal footing. As well as introducing cosmology to undergraduate and graduate students with its pedagogical presentation and the help of 45 solved exercises, this book, which includes an ambitious bibliography...

  18. A Taste of Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Verde, L.

    2013-06-27

    This is the summary of two lectures that aim to give an overview of cosmology. I will not try to be too rigorous in derivations, nor to give a full historical overview. The idea is to provide a "taste" of cosmology and some of the interesting topics it covers. The standard cosmological model is presented and I highlight the successes of cosmology over the past decade or so. Keys to the development of the standard cosmological model are observations of the cosmic microwave background and of large-scale structure, which are introduced. Inflation and dark energy and the outlook for the future are also discussed. Slides from the lectures are available from the school website: physicschool.web.cern.ch/PhysicSchool/CLASHEP/CLASHEP2011/.

  19. Einstein and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gekman, O.

    1982-01-01

    The brief essay of the development of the main ideas of relativistic cosmology is presented. The Einstein's cosmological work about the Universe - ''Cosmological considerations in connection with the general relativity theory'' - gave the basis to all further treatments in this field. In 1922 A. Friedman's work appeared, in which the first expanding Universe model was proposed as a solution of the Einstein field equations. The model was spherically closed, but its curvature radius was a function of time. About 1955 the searches for anisotropic homogeneous solutions to Einstein field equation began. It turned out that isotropic cosmological models are unstable in general. The predominant part of them transform to anisotropic at insignificant breaking of isotropy. The discovery of isotropic background cosmic radiation in 1965, along with the Hubble low of the Universe expansion, served as the direct confirmation of cosmology based on the Einstein theory

  20. Loop quantum cosmology: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Singh, Parampreet

    2011-01-01

    Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) is the result of applying principles of loop quantum gravity (LQG) to cosmological settings. The distinguishing feature of LQC is the prominent role played by the quantum geometry effects of LQG. In particular, quantum geometry creates a brand new repulsive force which is totally negligible at low spacetime curvature but rises very rapidly in the Planck regime, overwhelming the classical gravitational attraction. In cosmological models, while Einstein's equations hold to an excellent degree of approximation at low curvature, they undergo major modifications in the Planck regime: for matter satisfying the usual energy conditions, any time a curvature invariant grows to the Planck scale, quantum geometry effects dilute it, thereby resolving singularities of general relativity. Quantum geometry corrections become more sophisticated as the models become richer. In particular, in anisotropic models, there are significant changes in the dynamics of shear potentials which tame their singular behavior in striking contrast to older results on anisotropies in bouncing models. Once singularities are resolved, the conceptual paradigm of cosmology changes and one has to revisit many of the standard issues-e.g. the 'horizon problem'-from a new perspective. Such conceptual issues as well as potential observational consequences of the new Planck scale physics are being explored, especially within the inflationary paradigm. These considerations have given rise to a burst of activity in LQC in recent years, with contributions from quantum gravity experts, mathematical physicists and cosmologists. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the current state of the art in LQC for three sets of audiences: young researchers interested in entering this area; the quantum gravity community in general and cosmologists who wish to apply LQC to probe modifications in the standard paradigm of the early universe. In this review, effort has been made to

  1. Ancient and Medieval Earth in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.

    2015-07-01

    Humankind has always sought to recognize the nature of various sky related phenomena and tried to give them explanations. The purpose of this study is to identify ancient Armenians' pantheistic and cosmological perceptions, world view, notions and beliefs related to the Earth. The paper focuses on the structure of the Earth and many other phenomena of nature that have always been on a major influence on ancient Armenians thinking. In this paper we have compared the term Earth in 31 languages. By discussing and comparing Universe structure in various regional traditions, myths, folk songs and phraseological units we very often came across to "Seven Heavens" (Seven heavens is a part of religious cosmology found in many major religions such as Islam, Judaism, Hinduism and Christianity (namely Catholicism) and "Seven Earths". Armenians in their turn divided Earth and Heavens into seven layers. And in science too, both the Earth and the Heavens have 7 layers. The Seven Heavens refer to the layers of our atmosphere. The Seven Earths refer to the layers of the Earth (from core to crust), as well as seven continents. We conclude that the perception of celestial objects varies from culture to culture and preastronomy had a significant impact on humankind, particularly on cultural diversities.

  2. Medicine in Ancient Assur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbøll, Troels Pank

    This dissertation is a microhistorical study of a single individual named Kiṣir-Aššur who practiced medicine in the ancient city of Assur (modern northern Iraq) in the 7th century BCE. The study provides the first detailed analysis of one healer’s education and practice in ancient Mesopotamia...

  3. Do current cosmological observations rule out all covariant Galileons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirone, Simone; Frusciante, Noemi; Hu, Bin; Raveri, Marco; Silvestri, Alessandra

    2018-03-01

    We revisit the cosmology of covariant Galileon gravity in view of the most recent cosmological data sets, including weak lensing. As a higher derivative theory, covariant Galileon models do not have a Λ CDM limit and predict a very different structure formation pattern compared with the standard Λ CDM scenario. Previous cosmological analyses suggest that this model is marginally disfavored, yet cannot be completely ruled out. In this work we use a more recent and extended combination of data, and we allow for more freedom in the cosmology, by including a massive neutrino sector with three different mass hierarchies. We use the Planck measurements of cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization; baryonic acoustic oscillations measurements by BOSS DR12; local measurements of H0; the joint light-curve analysis supernovae sample; and, for the first time, weak gravitational lensing from the KiDS Collaboration. We find, that in order to provide a reasonable fit, a nonzero neutrino mass is indeed necessary, but we do not report any sizable difference among the three neutrino hierarchies. Finally, the comparison of the Bayesian evidence to the Λ CDM one shows that in all the cases considered, covariant Galileon models are statistically ruled out by cosmological data.

  4. BMS in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehagias, A.; Riotto, A.

    2016-01-01

    Symmetries play an interesting role in cosmology. They are useful in characterizing the cosmological perturbations generated during inflation and lead to consistency relations involving the soft limit of the statistical correlators of large-scale structure dark matter and galaxies overdensities. On the other hand, in observational cosmology the carriers of the information about these large-scale statistical distributions are light rays traveling on null geodesics. Motivated by this simple consideration, we study the structure of null infinity and the associated BMS symmetry in a cosmological setting. For decelerating Friedmann-Robertson-Walker backgrounds, for which future null infinity exists, we find that the BMS transformations which leaves the asymptotic metric invariant to leading order. Contrary to the asymptotic flat case, the BMS transformations in cosmology generate Goldstone modes corresponding to scalar, vector and tensor degrees of freedom which may exist at null infinity and perturb the asymptotic data. Therefore, BMS transformations generate physically inequivalent vacua as they populate the universe at null infinity with these physical degrees of freedom. We also discuss the gravitational memory effect when cosmological expansion is taken into account. In this case, there are extra contribution to the gravitational memory due to the tail of the retarded Green functions which are supported not only on the light-cone, but also in its interior. The gravitational memory effect can be understood also from an asymptotic point of view as a transition among cosmological BMS-related vacua.

  5. Unimodular-mimetic cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojiri, S; Odintsov, S D; Oikonomou, V K

    2016-01-01

    We combine the unimodular gravity and mimetic gravity theories into a unified theoretical framework, which is proposed to provide a suggestive proposal for a framework that may assist in the discussion and search for a solution to the cosmological constant problem and the dark matter issue. After providing the formulation of the unimodular mimetic gravity and investigating all the new features that the vacuum unimodular gravity implies, by using the underlying reconstruction method, we realize some well known cosmological evolutions, with some of these being exotic for the ordinary Einstein–Hilbert gravity. Specifically we provide the vacuum unimodular mimetic gravity description of the de Sitter cosmology and of the perfect fluid with constant equation of state cosmology. As we demonstrate, these cosmologies can be realized by vacuum mimetic unimodular gravity, without the existence of any matter fluid source. Moreover, we investigate how cosmologically viable cosmologies, which are compatible with the recent observational data, can be realized by the vacuum unimodular mimetic gravity. Since in some cases, a graceful exit from inflation problem might exist, we provide a qualitative description of the mechanism that can potentially generate the graceful exit from inflation in these theories, by searching for the unstable de Sitter solutions in the context of unimodular mimetic theories of gravity. (paper)

  6. BMS in cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehagias, A. [Physics Division, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Zografou Campus, Athens (Greece); Riotto, A. [Department of Theoretical Physics,24 quai E. Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Center for Astroparticle Physics (CAP),24 quai E. Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)

    2016-05-25

    Symmetries play an interesting role in cosmology. They are useful in characterizing the cosmological perturbations generated during inflation and lead to consistency relations involving the soft limit of the statistical correlators of large-scale structure dark matter and galaxies overdensities. On the other hand, in observational cosmology the carriers of the information about these large-scale statistical distributions are light rays traveling on null geodesics. Motivated by this simple consideration, we study the structure of null infinity and the associated BMS symmetry in a cosmological setting. For decelerating Friedmann-Robertson-Walker backgrounds, for which future null infinity exists, we find that the BMS transformations which leaves the asymptotic metric invariant to leading order. Contrary to the asymptotic flat case, the BMS transformations in cosmology generate Goldstone modes corresponding to scalar, vector and tensor degrees of freedom which may exist at null infinity and perturb the asymptotic data. Therefore, BMS transformations generate physically inequivalent vacua as they populate the universe at null infinity with these physical degrees of freedom. We also discuss the gravitational memory effect when cosmological expansion is taken into account. In this case, there are extra contribution to the gravitational memory due to the tail of the retarded Green functions which are supported not only on the light-cone, but also in its interior. The gravitational memory effect can be understood also from an asymptotic point of view as a transition among cosmological BMS-related vacua.

  7. Condensed matter analogues of cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Tom; Srivastava, Ajit

    2013-10-01

    It is always exciting when developments in one branch of physics turn out to have relevance in a quite different branch. It would be hard to find two branches farther apart in terms of energy scales than early-universe cosmology and low-temperature condensed matter physics. Nevertheless ideas about the formation of topological defects during rapid phase transitions that originated in the context of the very early universe have proved remarkably fruitful when applied to a variety of condensed matter systems. The mathematical frameworks for describing these systems can be very similar. This interconnection has led to a deeper understanding of the phenomena in condensed matter systems utilizing ideas from cosmology. At the same time, one can view these condensed matter analogues as providing, at least in a limited sense, experimental access to the phenomena of the early universe for which no direct probe is possible. As this special issue well illustrates, this remains a dynamic and exciting field. The basic idea is that when a system goes through a rapid symmetry-breaking phase transition from a symmetric phase into one with spontaneously broken symmetry, the order parameter may make different choices in different regions, creating domains that when they meet can trap defects. The scale of those domains, and hence the density of defects, is constrained by the rate at which the system goes through the transition and the speed with which order parameter information propagates. This is what has come to be known as the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The resultant scaling laws have now been tested in a considerable variety of different systems. The earliest experiments illustrating the analogy between cosmology and condensed matter were in liquid crystals, in particular on the isotropic-to-nematic transition, primarily because it is very easy to induce the phase transition (typically at room temperature) and to image precisely what is going on. This field remains one of the

  8. Neutrino properties from cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannestad, S.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years precision cosmology has become an increasingly powerful probe of particle physics. Perhaps the prime example of this is the very stringent cosmological upper bound on the neutrino mass. However, other aspects of neutrino physics, such as their decoupling history and possible non......-standard interactions, can also be probed using observations of cosmic structure. Here, I review the current status of cosmological bounds on neutrino properties and discuss the potential of future observations, for example by the recently approved EUCLID mission, to precisely measure neutrino properties....

  9. Cosmology and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    A brief overview is given of recent work that integrates cosmology and particle physics. The observational data regarding the abundance of matter and radiation in the Universe is described. The manner in which the cosmological survival density of stable massive particles can be calculated is discussed along with the process of cosmological nucleosynthesis. Several applications of these general arguments are given with reference to the survival density of nucleons, neutrinos and unconfined fractionally charge particles. The use of nucleosynthesis to limit the number of lepton generations is described together with the implications of a small neutrino mass for the origin of galaxies and clusters. (Auth.)

  10. Cosmology and particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steigman, G [California Univ., Santa Barbara (USA). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Bartol Research Foundation, Newark, Delaware (USA))

    1982-01-29

    The cosmic connections between physics on the very largest and very smallest scales are reviewed with an emphasis on the symbiotic relation between elementary particle physics and cosmology. After a review of the early Universe as a cosmic accelerator, various cosmological and astrophysical constraints on models of particle physics are outlined. To illustrate this approach to particle physics via cosmology, reference is made to several areas of current research: baryon non-conservation and baryon asymmetry; free quarks, heavy hadrons and other exotic relics; primordial nucleosynthesis and neutrino masses.

  11. Neutrino properties from cosmology

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Future, massive large-scale structure survey have been presented and approved.On the theory side, a significant effort has bene devoted to achieve better modeling of small scale clustering that is of cosmological non-linearities. As a result it has become clear that forthcoming cosmological data have enough statitsical power to detect the effect of non-zero neutrino mass (even at the lower mass scale limit imposed by oscillations) and to constrain the absolute neutrino mass scale.Cosmological data can also constrain the numb...

  12. The cosmological constant problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, A.D.

    1989-05-01

    A review of the cosmological term problem is presented. Baby universe model and the compensating field model are discussed. The importance of more accurate data on the Hubble constant and the Universe age is stressed. 18 refs

  13. Time in contemporary cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavrides, Stamatia

    1980-01-01

    Cosmological time is defined, as is coordinated universal time against local times of special relativity. The problems of time and matter, age of the universe, Goedel models, arrow of time, are also discussed [fr

  14. Quantum cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coule, D H

    2005-01-01

    We contrast the initial condition requirements of various contemporary cosmological models including inflationary and bouncing cosmologies. Canonical quantization of general relativity is used, as a first approximation to full quantum gravity, to determine whether suitable initial conditions are present. Various proposals such as Hartle-Hawking's 'no boundary' or tunnelling boundary conditions are assessed on grounds of naturalness and fine tuning. Alternatively, a quiescent initial state or an initial closed timelike curve 'time machine' is considered. Possible extensions to brane models are also addressed. Further ideas about universe creation from a meta-universe are outlined. Semiclassical and time asymmetry requirements of cosmology are briefly discussed and contrasted with the black-hole final-state proposal. We compare the recent loop quantum cosmology of Bojowald and co-workers with these earlier schemes. A number of possible difficulties and limitations are outlined. (topical review)

  15. Cosmological Probes for Supersymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Khlopov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The multi-parameter character of supersymmetric dark-matter models implies the combination of their experimental studies with astrophysical and cosmological probes. The physics of the early Universe provides nontrivial effects of non-equilibrium particles and primordial cosmological structures. Primordial black holes (PBHs are a profound signature of such structures that may arise as a cosmological consequence of supersymmetric (SUSY models. SUSY-based mechanisms of baryosynthesis can lead to the possibility of antimatter domains in a baryon asymmetric Universe. In the context of cosmoparticle physics, which studies the fundamental relationship of the micro- and macro-worlds, the development of SUSY illustrates the main principles of this approach, as the physical basis of the modern cosmology provides cross-disciplinary tests in physical and astronomical studies.

  16. Cosmology solved? Maybe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Michael S.

    1999-01-01

    For two decades the hot big-bang model as been referred to as the standard cosmology - and for good reason. For just as long cosmologists have known that there are fundamental questions that are not answered by the standard cosmology and point to a grander theory. The best candidate for that grander theory is inflation + cold dark matter. It holds that the Universe is flat, that slowly moving elementary particles left over from the earliest moments provide the cosmic infrastructure, and that the primeval density inhomogeneities that seed all the structure arose from quantum fluctuations. There is now prima facie evidence that supports two basic tenets of this paradigm. An avalanche of high-quality cosmological observations will soon make this case stronger or will break it. Key questions remain to be answered; foremost among them are: identification and detection of the cold dark matter particles and elucidation of the dark-energy component. These are exciting times in cosmology!

  17. Mirror fermions and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senjanovic, G.; Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg

    1984-07-01

    Extended supersymmetry, Kaluza-Klein theory and family unification all suggest the existence of mirror fermions, with same quantum numbers but opposite helicities from ordinary fermions. The laboratory and especially cosmological implications of such particles are reviewed and summarized. (author)

  18. Cosmology. A first course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachieze-Rey, Marc

    This book delivers a quantitative account of the science of cosmology, designed for a non-specialist audience. The basic principles are outlined using simple maths and physics, while still providing rigorous models of the Universe. It offers an ideal introduction to the key ideas in cosmology, without going into technical details. The approach used is based on the fundamental ideas of general relativity such as the spacetime interval, comoving coordinates, and spacetime curvature. It provides an up-to-date and thoughtful discussion of the big bang, and the crucial questions of structure and galaxy formation. Questions of method and philosophical approaches in cosmology are also briefly discussed. Advanced undergraduates in either physics or mathematics would benefit greatly from use either as a course text or as a supplementary guide to cosmology courses.

  19. Introduction to cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ryden, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This second edition of Introduction to Cosmology is an exciting update of an award-winning textbook. It is aimed primarily at advanced undergraduate students in physics and astronomy, but is also useful as a supplementary text at higher levels. It explains modern cosmological concepts, such as dark energy, in the context of the Big Bang theory. Its clear, lucid writing style, with a wealth of useful everyday analogies, makes it exceptionally engaging. Emphasis is placed on the links between theoretical concepts of cosmology and the observable properties of the universe, building deeper physical insights in the reader. The second edition includes recent observational results, fuller descriptions of special and general relativity, expanded discussions of dark energy, and a new chapter on baryonic matter that makes up stars and galaxies. It is an ideal textbook for the era of precision cosmology in the accelerating universe.

  20. Tensors, relativity, and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Dalarsson, Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    Tensors, Relativity, and Cosmology, Second Edition, combines relativity, astrophysics, and cosmology in a single volume, providing a simplified introduction to each subject that is followed by detailed mathematical derivations. The book includes a section on general relativity that gives the case for a curved space-time, presents the mathematical background (tensor calculus, Riemannian geometry), discusses the Einstein equation and its solutions (including black holes and Penrose processes), and considers the energy-momentum tensor for various solutions. In addition, a section on relativistic astrophysics discusses stellar contraction and collapse, neutron stars and their equations of state, black holes, and accretion onto collapsed objects, with a final section on cosmology discussing cosmological models, observational tests, and scenarios for the early universe. This fully revised and updated second edition includes new material on relativistic effects, such as the behavior of clocks and measuring rods in m...

  1. Magnetohydrodynamics and Plasma Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidis, Kostas; Kuiroukidis, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Demetrios; Vlahos, Loukas

    2007-09-01

    We study the linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, both in the Newtonian and the general-relativistic limit, as regards a viscous magnetized fluid of finite conductivity and discuss instability criteria. In addition, we explore the excitation of cosmological perturbations in anisotropic spacetimes, in the presence of an ambient magnetic field. Acoustic, electromagnetic (e/m) and fast-magnetosonic modes, propagating normal to the magnetic field, can be excited, resulting in several implications of cosmological significance.

  2. Cosmology Then and Now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, I.D.

    1999-01-01

    In this talk a brief survey has been carried out on the development of cosmology from the days Leopold Infeld was active in the field up to the present. Attention in particular is paid to the history of our knowledge of Hubble's expansion, of the cosmological constant, of the average density of matter and its distribution, and of the related issue of possible types of matter in the Universe. (author)

  3. Cosmological phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.

    1993-10-01

    If modern ideas about the role of spontaneous symmetry breaking in fundamental physics are correct, then the Universe should have undergone a series of phase transitions early in its history. The study of cosmological phase transitions has become an important aspect of early-Universe cosmology. In this lecture I review some very recent work on three aspects of phase transitions: the electroweak transition, texture, and axions

  4. A Planck Vacuum Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Both the big-bang and the quasi-steady-state cosmologies originate in some type of Planck state. This paper presents a new cosmological theory based on the Planck- vacuum negative-energy state, a state consisting of a degenerate collection of negative- energy Planck particles. A heuristic look at the Einstein field equation provides a con- vincing argument that such a vacuum state could provide a theoretical explanation for the visible universe.

  5. Cosmological Models and Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Lars

    Principles in the form of heuristic guidelines or generally accepted dogma play an important role in the development of physical theories. In particular, philosophical considerations and principles figure prominently in the work of Albert Einstein. As mentioned in the talk by Jiří Bičák at this conference, Einstein formulated the equivalence principle, an essential step on the road to general relativity, during his time in Prague 1911-1912. In this talk, I would like to discuss some aspects of cosmological models. As cosmology is an area of physics where "principles" such as the "cosmological principle" or the "Copernican principle" play a prominent role in motivating the class of models which form part of the current standard model, I will start by comparing the role of the equivalence principle to that of the principles used in cosmology. I will then briefly describe the standard model of cosmology to give a perspective on some mathematical problems and conjectures on cosmological models, which are discussed in the later part of this paper.

  6. Reconstructing an Ancient Wonder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Christopher J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a Montessori class project involving the building of a model of the ancient Briton monument, Stonehenge. Illustrates how the flexibility of the Montessori elementary curriculum encourages children to make their own toys and learn from the process. (JPB)

  7. BOOK REVIEW: Observational Cosmology Observational Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Dale Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Observational Cosmology by Stephen Serjeant fills a niche that was underserved in the textbook market: an up-to-date, thorough cosmology textbook focused on observations, aimed at advanced undergraduates. Not everything about the book is perfect - some subjects get short shrift, in some cases jargon dominates, and there are too few exercises. Still, on the whole, the book is a welcome addition. For decades, the classic textbooks of cosmology have focused on theory. But for every Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect there is a Butcher-Oemler effect; there are as many cosmological phenomena established by observations, and only explained later by theory, as there were predicted by theory and confirmed by observations. In fact, in the last decade, there has been an explosion of new cosmological findings driven by observations. Some are so new that you won't find them mentioned in books just a few years old. So it is not just refreshing to see a book that reflects the new realities of cosmology, it is vital, if students are to truly stay up on a field that has widened in scope considerably. Observational Cosmology is filled with full-color images, and graphs from the latest experiments. How exciting it is that we live in an era where satellites and large experiments have gathered so much data to reveal astounding details about the origin of the universe and its evolution. To have all the latest data gathered together and explained in one book will be a revelation to students. In fact, at times it was to me. I've picked up modern cosmological knowledge through a patchwork of reading papers, going to colloquia, and serving on grant and telescope allocation panels. To go back and see them explained from square one, and summarized succinctly, filled in quite a few gaps in my own knowledge and corrected a few misconceptions I'd acquired along the way. To make room for all these graphs and observational details, a few things had to be left out. For one, there are few derivations

  8. Endocrinology in ancient Sparta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoulogiannis, Ioannis N; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2007-01-01

    This article attempts to analyze the crucial link between the plant Agnus castus and human health, particularly hormonal status, with special reference to the needs of the society of ancient Sparta. The ancient Spartans used Agnus both as a cure for infertility and as a remedy to treat battle wounds. These special properties were recognized by the sanctuary of Asclepios Agnita, which was located in Sparta, as well as by medical practitioners in Sparta during the classical, Hellenistic and Roman ages.

  9. Cosmological Ohm's law and dynamics of non-minimal electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenstein, Lukas; Jain, Rajeev Kumar; Urban, Federico R.

    2013-01-01

    The origin of large-scale magnetic fields in cosmic structures and the intergalactic medium is still poorly understood. We explore the effects of non-minimal couplings of electromagnetism on the cosmological evolution of currents and magnetic fields. In this context, we revisit the mildly non-linear plasma dynamics around recombination that are known to generate weak magnetic fields. We use the covariant approach to obtain a fully general and non-linear evolution equation for the plasma currents and derive a generalised Ohm law valid on large scales as well as in the presence of non-minimal couplings to cosmological (pseudo-)scalar fields. Due to the sizeable conductivity of the plasma and the stringent observational bounds on such couplings, we conclude that modifications of the standard (adiabatic) evolution of magnetic fields are severely limited in these scenarios. Even at scales well beyond a Mpc, any departure from flux freezing behaviour is inhibited

  10. On the cosmological gravitational waves and cosmological distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinski, V. A.; Vereshchagin, G. V.

    2018-03-01

    We show that solitonic cosmological gravitational waves propagated through the Friedmann universe and generated by the inhomogeneities of the gravitational field near the Big Bang can be responsible for increase of cosmological distances.

  11. Mitochondrial phylogenomics of modern and ancient equids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilstrup, Julia T; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Stiller, Mathias; Ginolhac, Aurelien; Raghavan, Maanasa; Nielsen, Sandra C A; Weinstock, Jacobo; Froese, Duane; Vasiliev, Sergei K; Ovodov, Nikolai D; Clary, Joel; Helgen, Kristofer M; Fleischer, Robert C; Cooper, Alan; Shapiro, Beth; Orlando, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    The genus Equus is richly represented in the fossil record, yet our understanding of taxonomic relationships within this genus remains limited. To estimate the phylogenetic relationships among modern horses, zebras, asses and donkeys, we generated the first data set including complete mitochondrial sequences from all seven extant lineages within the genus Equus. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic inference confirms that zebras are monophyletic within the genus, and the Plains and Grevy's zebras form a well-supported monophyletic group. Using ancient DNA techniques, we further characterize the complete mitochondrial genomes of three extinct equid lineages (the New World stilt-legged horses, NWSLH; the subgenus Sussemionus; and the Quagga, Equus quagga quagga). Comparisons with extant taxa confirm the NWSLH as being part of the caballines, and the Quagga and Plains zebras as being conspecific. However, the evolutionary relationships among the non-caballine lineages, including the now-extinct subgenus Sussemionus, remain unresolved, most likely due to extremely rapid radiation within this group. The closest living outgroups (rhinos and tapirs) were found to be too phylogenetically distant to calibrate reliable molecular clocks. Additional mitochondrial genome sequence data, including radiocarbon dated ancient equids, will be required before revisiting the exact timing of the lineage radiation leading up to modern equids, which for now were found to have possibly shared a common ancestor as far as up to 4 Million years ago (Mya).

  12. Mitochondrial Phylogenomics of Modern and Ancient Equids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilstrup, Julia T.; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Stiller, Mathias; Ginolhac, Aurelien; Raghavan, Maanasa; Nielsen, Sandra C. A.; Weinstock, Jacobo; Froese, Duane; Vasiliev, Sergei K.; Ovodov, Nikolai D.; Clary, Joel; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Cooper, Alan; Shapiro, Beth; Orlando, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    The genus Equus is richly represented in the fossil record, yet our understanding of taxonomic relationships within this genus remains limited. To estimate the phylogenetic relationships among modern horses, zebras, asses and donkeys, we generated the first data set including complete mitochondrial sequences from all seven extant lineages within the genus Equus. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic inference confirms that zebras are monophyletic within the genus, and the Plains and Grevy’s zebras form a well-supported monophyletic group. Using ancient DNA techniques, we further characterize the complete mitochondrial genomes of three extinct equid lineages (the New World stilt-legged horses, NWSLH; the subgenus Sussemionus; and the Quagga, Equus quagga quagga). Comparisons with extant taxa confirm the NWSLH as being part of the caballines, and the Quagga and Plains zebras as being conspecific. However, the evolutionary relationships among the non-caballine lineages, including the now-extinct subgenus Sussemionus, remain unresolved, most likely due to extremely rapid radiation within this group. The closest living outgroups (rhinos and tapirs) were found to be too phylogenetically distant to calibrate reliable molecular clocks. Additional mitochondrial genome sequence data, including radiocarbon dated ancient equids, will be required before revisiting the exact timing of the lineage radiation leading up to modern equids, which for now were found to have possibly shared a common ancestor as far as up to 4 Million years ago (Mya). PMID:23437078

  13. Mitochondrial phylogenomics of modern and ancient equids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia T Vilstrup

    Full Text Available The genus Equus is richly represented in the fossil record, yet our understanding of taxonomic relationships within this genus remains limited. To estimate the phylogenetic relationships among modern horses, zebras, asses and donkeys, we generated the first data set including complete mitochondrial sequences from all seven extant lineages within the genus Equus. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic inference confirms that zebras are monophyletic within the genus, and the Plains and Grevy's zebras form a well-supported monophyletic group. Using ancient DNA techniques, we further characterize the complete mitochondrial genomes of three extinct equid lineages (the New World stilt-legged horses, NWSLH; the subgenus Sussemionus; and the Quagga, Equus quagga quagga. Comparisons with extant taxa confirm the NWSLH as being part of the caballines, and the Quagga and Plains zebras as being conspecific. However, the evolutionary relationships among the non-caballine lineages, including the now-extinct subgenus Sussemionus, remain unresolved, most likely due to extremely rapid radiation within this group. The closest living outgroups (rhinos and tapirs were found to be too phylogenetically distant to calibrate reliable molecular clocks. Additional mitochondrial genome sequence data, including radiocarbon dated ancient equids, will be required before revisiting the exact timing of the lineage radiation leading up to modern equids, which for now were found to have possibly shared a common ancestor as far as up to 4 Million years ago (Mya.

  14. Quark matter and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.; Fields, B.; Thomas, D.

    1992-01-01

    The possible implications of the quark-hadron transition for cosmology are explored. Possible surviving signatures are discussed. In particular, the possibility of generating a dark matter candidate such as strange nuggets or planetary mass black holes is noted. Much discussion is devoted to the possible role of the transition for cosmological nucleosynthesis. It is emphasized that even an optimized first order phase transition will not significantly alter the nucleosynthesis constraints on the cosmological baryon density nor on neutrino counting. However, it is noted that Be and B observations in old stars may eventually be able to be a signature of a cosmologically significant quark-hadron transition. It is pointed out that the critical point in this regard is whether the observed B/Be ratio can be produced by spallation processes or requires cosmological input. Spallation cannot produce a B/Be ratio below 7.6. A supporting signature would be Be and B ratios to oxygen that greatly exceed galactic values. At present, all data is still consistent with a spallagenic origin

  15. Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleban, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with “flat” (including toroidal) and “open” (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are “flat” or “open”. Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with “flat” or “open” topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.

  16. Cosmology with bulk viscosity and the gravitino problem. Consequences of imperfect fluids on gravitino production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buoninfante, L.; Lambiase, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E.R. Caianiello' ' Universita di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy); INFN-Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy)

    2017-05-15

    The gravitino problem is revisited in the framework of cosmological models in which the primordial cosmic matter is described by a relativistic imperfect fluid. Dissipative effects (or bulk viscosity effects) arise owing to the different cooling rates of the fluid components. We show that the effects of the bulk viscosity allow one to avoid the late abundance of gravitinos. In particular, for particular values of the parameters characterizing the cosmological model, the gravitino abundance turns out to be weakly depending on the reheating temperature. (orig.)

  17. The cosmological singularity

    CERN Document Server

    Belinski, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Written for researchers focusing on general relativity, supergravity, and cosmology, this is a self-contained exposition of the structure of the cosmological singularity in generic solutions of the Einstein equations, and an up-to-date mathematical derivation of the theory underlying the Belinski–Khalatnikov–Lifshitz (BKL) conjecture on this field. Part I provides a comprehensive review of the theory underlying the BKL conjecture. The generic asymptotic behavior near the cosmological singularity of the gravitational field, and fields describing other kinds of matter, is explained in detail. Part II focuses on the billiard reformulation of the BKL behavior. Taking a general approach, this section does not assume any simplifying symmetry conditions and applies to theories involving a range of matter fields and space-time dimensions, including supergravities. Overall, this book will equip theoretical and mathematical physicists with the theoretical fundamentals of the Big Bang, Big Crunch, Black Hole singula...

  18. Cosmological CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    1994-01-01

    Spinor fields are studied in infinite, topologically multiply connected Robertson-Walker cosmologies. Unitary spinor representations for the discrete covering groups of the spacelike slices are constructed. The spectral resolution of Dirac's equation is given in terms of horospherical elementary waves, on which the treatment of spin and energy is based in these cosmologies. The meaning of the energy and the particle-antiparticle concept is explained in the context of this varying cosmic background. Discrete symmetries, in particular inversions of the multiply connected spacelike slices, are studied. The violation of the unitarity of the parity operator, due to self-interference of P-reflected wave packets, is discussed. The violation of the CP and CPT invariance - already on the level of the free Dirac equation on this cosmological background - is pointed out.

  19. Notes on Hadza cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaanes, Thea

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This article concerns Hadza cosmology examined through objects, rituals and the Hadza concept of epeme. A brief background to the Hadza and the eldwork that informs this study is followed by a close analysis of three key objects that are central to the argument presented. The objects...... are intimately linked to women and to aspects of the social and cosmological identity of the individual makers. one object is a materi- alisation of the woman’s name and it leads to an examination by interview of naming practices more generally. Naming a child gives it a spirit and places the child in a strong...... of ethnographic research indicating the potential and need for further examination of the power and role of objects in Hadza society. Keywords: Hadza, epeme, ritual, cosmology, power objects...

  20. The philosophy of cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Silk, Joseph; Barrow, John D; Saunders, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Following a long-term international collaboration between leaders in cosmology and the philosophy of science, this volume addresses foundational questions at the limit of science across these disciplines, questions raised by observational and theoretical progress in modern cosmology. Space missions have mapped the Universe up to its early instants, opening up questions on what came before the Big Bang, the nature of space and time, and the quantum origin of the Universe. As the foundational volume of an emerging academic discipline, experts from relevant fields lay out the fundamental problems of contemporary cosmology and explore the routes toward finding possible solutions. Written for graduates and researchers in physics and philosophy, particular efforts are made to inform academics from other fields, as well as the educated public, who wish to understand our modern vision of the Universe, related philosophical questions, and the significant impacts on scientific methodology.

  1. Cosmology and the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Di Bari, Pasquale

    2018-01-01

    This book discusses cosmology from both an observational and a strong theoretical perspective. The first part focuses on gravitation, notably the expansion of the universe and determination of cosmological parameters, before moving onto the main emphasis of the book, the physics of the early universe, and the connections between cosmological models and particle physics. Readers will gain a comprehensive account of cosmology and the latest observational results, without requiring prior knowledge of relativistic theories, making the text ideal for students.

  2. Non equilibrium relativistic cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novello, M.; Salim, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    A certain systematization through the discussion of results already known on cosmology and the presentation of new ones is given. In section 2 a brief review of the necessary mathematical background is also given. The theory of perturbation of Friedmann-like Universes is presented in section 3. The reduction of Einstein's equations for homogeneous Universes to an autonomous planar system of differential equations is done in section 4. Finally in section 5 the alternative gravitational non-minimal coupling and its consequences to cosmology are discussed. (Author) [pt

  3. Cosmology without a beginning

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    Most of the puzzles with standard big bang cosmology can be avoided if the big bang is NOT identified with the beginning of time. The short-distance cutoff and duality symmetries of superstring theory suggest a new (so-called pre-big bang) cosmology in which the birth of our Universe is the result of a long classical evolution characterized by a gravitational instability. I will motivate and describe this heretical scenario and compare its phenomenological implications with those of ortodox (post-big bang) inflation.

  4. Exploring Cosmology with Supernovae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xue

    distribution of strong gravitational lensing is developed. For Type Ia supernova (SNe Ia), the rate is lower than core-collapse supernovae (CC SNe). The rate of SNe Ia declines beyond z 1:5. Based on these reasons, we investigate a potential candidate to measure cosmological distance: GRB......-SNe. They are a subclass of CC SNe. Light curves of GRB-SNe are obtained and their properties are studied. We ascertain that the properties of GRB-SNe make them another candidate for standardizable candles in measuring the cosmic distance. Cosmological parameters M and are constrained with the help of GRB-SNe. The first...

  5. Adventures in cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volume tells of the quest for cosmology as seen by some of the finest cosmologists in the world. It starts with "Galaxy Formation from Start to Finish" and ends with "The First Supermassive Black Holes in the Universe," exploring in between the grand themes of galaxies, the early universe, expansion of the universe, dark matter and dark energy. This up-to-date collection of review articles offers a general introduction to cosmology and is intended for all probing into the profound questions on where we came from and where we are going.

  6. Horizons of cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Silk, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Horizons of Cosmology: Exploring Worlds Seen and Unseen is the fourth title published in the Templeton Science and Religion Series, in which scientists from a wide range of fields distill their experience and knowledge into brief tours of their respective specialties. In this volume, highly esteemed astrophysicist Joseph Silk explores the vast mysteries and speculations of the field of cosmology in a way that balances an accessible style for the general reader and enough technical detail for advanced students and professionals. Indeed, while the p

  7. Cosmology and Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Tkachev, Igor

    2017-01-01

    This lecture course covers cosmology from the particle physicist perspective. Therefore, the emphasis will be on the evidence for the new physics in cosmological and astrophysical data together with minimal theoretical frameworks needed to understand and appreciate the evidence. I review the case for non-baryonic dark matter and describe popular models which incorporate it. In parallel, the story of dark energy will be developed, which includes accelerated expansion of the Universe today, the Universe origin in the Big Bang, and support for the Inflationary theory in CMBR data.

  8. Einstein and modern cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabell, R.

    1979-01-01

    Einstein applied his gravitation theory to a universe model with positively curved space in 1917. In order to maintain a static universe he introduced the cosmological constant, which in the light of later nonstatic universe models, he described as his life's greatest mistake. The best known such model is the Einstein-de Sitter model, which is here discussed in some detail. The 'big bang' theory is also discussed leading to the cosmic background radiation. The early phase of the 'big bang' cosmology, the first ten seconds, and the first minutes are discussed, leading to the transparent stage. (JIW)

  9. Cosmological models without singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, W.

    1981-01-01

    A previously studied theory of gravitation in flat space-time is applied to homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models. There exist two different classes of models without singularities: (i) ever-expanding models, (ii) oscillating models. The first class contains models with hot big bang. For these models there exist at the beginning of the universe-in contrast to Einstein's theory-very high but finite densities of matter and radiation with a big bang of very short duration. After short time these models pass into the homogeneous and isotropic models of Einstein's theory with spatial curvature equal to zero and cosmological constant ALPHA >= O. (author)

  10. Difficulties with inflationary cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.

    1989-01-01

    According to the author, the idea of inflationary cosmology is an ingenious attempt to solve some of the major puzzles of cosmology, most notably the flatness problem, the homogeneity (horizon) problem, and the monopole problem. The homogeneity problem, in particular, is intimately connected with a largely unappreciated, but profound puzzle presented by the second law of thermodynamics. The author argues that the mechanism of inflation does not, by itself, come to terms with this and consequently, comes nowhere close to providing an understanding of the large-scale homogeneity of the universe

  11. Fourth-rank cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrakchi, A.E.L.; Tapia, V.

    1992-05-01

    Some cosmological implications of the recently proposed fourth-rank theory of gravitation are studied. The model exhibits the possibility of being free from the horizon and flatness problems at the price of introducing a negative pressure. The field equations we obtain are compatible with k obs =0 and Ω obs t clas approx. 10 20 t Planck approx. 10 -23 s. When interpreted at the light of General Relativity the treatment is shown to be almost equivalent to that of the standard model of cosmology combined with the inflationary scenario. Hence, an interpretation of the negative pressure hypothesis is provided. (author). 8 refs

  12. Cosmological constants and variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, John D

    2005-01-01

    We review properties of theories for the variation of the gravitation and fine structure 'constants'. We highlight some general features of the cosmological models that exist in these theories with reference to recent quasar data that is consistent with time-variation in the fine structure 'constant' since a redshift of 3.5. The behaviour of a simple class of varying alpha cosmologies is outlined in the light of all the observational constraints. We also discuss some of the consequences of varying 'constants' for oscillating universes and show by means of exact solutions that they appear to evolve monotonically in time even though the scale factor of the universe oscillates

  13. Conformal symmetry and holographic cosmology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bzowski, A.W.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents a novel approach to cosmology using gauge/gravity duality. Analysis of the implications of conformal invariance in field theories leads to quantitative cosmological predictions which are in agreement with current data. Furthermore, holographic cosmology extends the theory of

  14. Quintessence and the cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, M.; Wetterich, C.

    2003-01-01

    Quintessence -- the energy density of a slowly evolving scalar field -- may constitute a dynamical form of the homogeneous dark energy in the universe. We review the basic idea in the light of the cosmological constant problem. Cosmological observations or a time variation of fundamental 'constants' can distinguish quintessence from a cosmological constant

  15. Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2006-02-15

    Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. The Gate of Heaven: Revisiting Roman Mithraic Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assasi, R.

    2016-01-01

    The definition and origins of Roman Mithraism remain highly problematic and controversial among modern scholars. The majority of research on Roman Mithraism focuses on interpreting the physical evidence because no considerable written narratives or theology from the religion survive. The most important Mithraic artifact is a repeated bull-slaying scene, which leaves no doubt that this figure conveys the core divine message of the cult. There is also another important Mithraic character that seems to be as important as the bull-slayer. This figure is a lion-headed man entwined by a snake. The author suggests that these figures represent the north ecliptic pole and argues for the importance of this astronomical reference in the Mithraic iconography and mythology. The author also demonstrates the possible relation of his proposed astrological model to the geocentric understanding of the axial precession around the ecliptic pole, where the Roman bull-slaying Mithras could be visualized in the form of a Mithraic constellation. This astrological model also is proposed to be the architectural design concept of Roman Mithraeum. The author also points to the core Christian symbols as possible contemporaneous parallels or derivatives of the Mithraic iconography and theology.

  17. Revisiting the Cosmological Principle in a Cellular Framework L ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Voronoi diagram Vs(2,3) in the Hammer–Aitoff projection when 693 galaxies ..... a non-isotropic Universe is a consequence of the previous statement, in other words, ... ings of our paper and the currently accepted picture of the transition to ...

  18. Summary of cosmology workshop

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in quality, quantity, and the scope of cosmological observations. While the ob- ... In this article, I summarize both the oral and poster presentations made at the workshop. ... the angular spectrum of CMB anisotropy with recent measurements of the power spectrum of ..... A thermodynamical treatment within the framework of.

  19. Cosmological Parameters 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Primack, Joel R.

    2000-01-01

    The cosmological parameters that I emphasize are the age of the universe $t_0$, the Hubble parameter $H_0 \\equiv 100 h$ km s$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$, the average matter density $\\Omega_m$, the baryonic matter density $\\Omega_b$, the neutrino density $\\Omega_\

  20. Culture and Children's Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Butterworth, George; Newcombe, Peter A.

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, we examined children's knowledge of cosmology in relation to the shape of the earth and the day-night cycle. Using explicit questioning involving a choice of alternative answers and 3D models, we carried out a comparison of children aged 4-9 years living in Australia and England. Though Australia and England have a close…

  1. Cosmological dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Leon, Genly

    2011-01-01

    In this book are studied, from the perspective of the dynamical systems, several Universe models. In chapter 1 we give a bird's eye view on cosmology and cosmological problems. Chapter 2 is devoted to a brief review on some results and useful tools from the qualitative theory of dynamical systems. They provide the theoretical basis for the qualitative study of concrete cosmological models. Chapters 1 and 2 are a review of well-known results. Chapters 3, 4, 5 and 6 are devoted to our main results. In these chapters are extended and settled in a substantially different, more strict mathematical language, several results obtained by one of us in arXiv:0812.1013 [gr-qc]; arXiv:1009.0689 [gr-qc]; arXiv:0904.1577[gr-qc]; and arXiv:0909.3571 [hep-th]. In chapter 6, we provide a different approach to the subject discussed in astro-ph/0503478. Additionally, we perform a Poincar\\'e compactification process allowing to construct a global phase space containing all the cosmological information in both finite and infinite...

  2. Cosmology and unstable nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1995-01-01

    Primordial nucleosynthesis has established itself as one of the three pillars of Big Bang cosmology. Many of the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis reactions involve unstable nuclei. Hence there is a tight relationship hetween the subject of this conference and cosmology. The prime role of unstable nuclei in cosmology is related to lithium synthesis and the lack of cosmological synthesis of Be and B. These nuclei will thus be focused upon. Nucleosynthesis involves comparing calculated abundances with observed abundances. In general, abundance determinations are dominated by systematic rather than statistical errors, and work on bounding systematics is crucial. The quark-hadron inspired inhomogeneous calculations now unanimously agree that only relatively small variations in Ω b are possible vis-a-vis the homogeneous model; hence the robustness of Ω b ∼0.05 is now apparent. (These calculations depend critically on unstable nuclei.) The above argues that the bulk of the baryons in the universe are not producing visible light. A comparison with the ROSAT cluster data is also shown to be consistent with the standard BBN model. Ω b ∼1 seems to be definitely excluded, so if Ω TOTAL =1, as some recent observations may hint, then non-baryonic dark matter is required. The implications of the recently reported halo microlensing events are discussed. In summary, it is argued that the physics of unstable nuclei affects the fundamental dark matter argument. ((orig.))

  3. Cosmology and the Bispectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sefusatti, Emiliano; /Fermilab /CCPP, New York; Crocce, Martin; Pueblas, Sebastian; Scoccimarro, Roman; /CCPP, New York

    2006-04-01

    The present spatial distribution of galaxies in the Universe is non-Gaussian, with 40% skewness in 50 h{sup -1} Mpc spheres, and remarkably little is known about the information encoded in it about cosmological parameters beyond the power spectrum. In this work they present an attempt to bridge this gap by studying the bispectrum, paying particular attention to a joint analysis with the power spectrum and their combination with CMB data. They address the covariance properties of the power spectrum and bispectrum including the effects of beat coupling that lead to interesting cross-correlations, and discuss how baryon acoustic oscillations break degeneracies. They show that the bispectrum has significant information on cosmological parameters well beyond its power in constraining galaxy bias, and when combined with the power spectrum is more complementary than combining power spectra of different samples of galaxies, since non-Gaussianity provides a somewhat different direction in parameter space. In the framework of flat cosmological models they show that most of the improvement of adding bispectrum information corresponds to parameters related to the amplitude and effective spectral index of perturbations, which can be improved by almost a factor of two. Moreover, they demonstrate that the expected statistical uncertainties in {sigma}s of a few percent are robust to relaxing the dark energy beyond a cosmological constant.

  4. Holography for cosmology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McFadden, P.; Skenderis, K.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a holographic description of four-dimensional single-scalar inflationary universes, and show how cosmological observables, such as the primordial power spectrum, are encoded in the correlation functions of a three-dimensional quantum field theory (QFT). The holographic description

  5. Viscous causal cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novello, M.; Salim, J.M.; Torres, J.; Oliveira, H.P. de

    1989-01-01

    A set of spatially homogeneous and isotropic cosmological geometries generated by a class of non-perfect is investigated fluids. The irreversibility if this system is studied in the context of causal thermodynamics which provides a useful mechanism to conform to the non-violation of the causal principle. (author) [pt

  6. Solitons in relativistic cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullin, J.

    1988-08-01

    The application to the construction of solitonic cosmologies in General Relativity of the Inverse Scattering Technique of Belinskii an Zakharov is analyzed. Three improvements to the mentioned technique are proposed: the inclusion of higher order poles in the scattering matrix, a new renormalization technique for diagonal metrics and the extension of the technique to include backgrounds with material content by means of a Kaluza-Klein formalism. As a consequence of these improvements, three new aspects can be analyzed: a) The construction of anisotropic and inhomogeneous cosmological models which can mimic the formation of halos and voids, due to the presence of a material content. The new renormalization technique allows to construct an exact perturbation theory. b) The analysis of the dynamics of models with cosmological constant (inflationary models) and their perturbations. c) The study of interaction of gravitational solitonic waves on material backgrounds. Moreover, some additional works, connected with the existance of 'Crack of doom' type singularities in Kaluza-Klein cosmologies, stochastic perturbations in inflationary universes and inflationary phase transitions in rotating universes are described. (Author) [es

  7. Tachyon field in cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This report is based on a recent work in collaboration with Bagla and Padmanabhan. [1]. In this paper, we construct cosmological models with homogeneous tachyon matter [2] to provide the dark energy component which drives acceleration of the universe (for a recent review of dark energy models, see [3]). We assume that.

  8. On the cosmological problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.

    1986-01-01

    It is proposed to understand cosmology as a non-local physics. Non-local methods, when developed from locally performed observations, imply a considerable extrapolation, which in turn is possible without some unverifiable assumptions. Cosmology is, therefore, not only a science on the Universe but also about assumptions that render such a science possible. As far as theoretical aspects of cosmology are concerned, cosmology can be treated as a theory of the space of all solutions to Einstein's field equations (called the ensemble of universes). The very distinction is touched upon between solutions of differential equations, expressing laws of nature, and boundary conditions identifying particular instances of the law's operation. Both observational and theoretical studies demonstrate that our Universe occupies a distinguished position within the ensemble of universes. This fact remains in a close relationship with the existence and developing of structures in the Universe. Possible philosophies aimed at justifying or neutralizing our distinguished situation in the ensemble of universes are discussed at some length. 60 refs. (author)

  9. Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehners, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmologies provide theories of the very early and of the very late universe. In these models, the big bang is described as a collision of branes - and thus the big bang is not the beginning of time. Before the big bang, there is an ekpyrotic phase with equation of state w=P/(ρ) >>1 (where P is the average pressure and ρ the average energy density) during which the universe slowly contracts. This phase resolves the standard cosmological puzzles and generates a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of cosmological perturbations containing a significant non-Gaussian component. At the same time it produces small-amplitude gravitational waves with a blue spectrum. The dark energy dominating the present-day cosmological evolution is reinterpreted as a small attractive force between our brane and a parallel one. This force eventually induces a new ekpyrotic phase and a new brane collision, leading to the idea of a cyclic universe. This review discusses the detailed properties of these models, their embedding in M-theory and their viability, with an emphasis on open issues and observational signatures

  10. Cosmology solved? Maybe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Michael S

    1999-03-01

    For two decades the hot big-bang model as been referred to as the standard cosmology - and for good reason. For just as long cosmologists have known that there are fundamental questions that are not answered by the standard cosmology and point to a grander theory. The best candidate for that grander theory is inflation + cold dark matter. It holds that the Universe is flat, that slowly moving elementary particles left over from the earliest moments provide the cosmic infrastructure, and that the primeval density inhomogeneities that seed all the structure arose from quantum fluctuations. There is now prima facie evidence that supports two basic tenets of this paradigm. An avalanche of high-quality cosmological observations will soon make this case stronger or will break it. Key questions remain to be answered; foremost among them are: identification and detection of the cold dark matter particles and elucidation of the dark-energy component. These are exciting times in cosmology{exclamation_point}.

  11. Excessive extrapolations in cosmology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížek, Michal; Somer, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2016), s. 270-280 ISSN 0202-2893 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : cosmology * friedmann equation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.734, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1134%2FS0202289316030105

  12. Modified geodetic brane cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero, Rubén; Cruz, Miguel; Molgado, Alberto; Rojas, Efraín

    2012-01-01

    We explore the cosmological implications provided by the geodetic brane gravity action corrected by an extrinsic curvature brane term, describing a codimension-1 brane embedded in a 5D fixed Minkowski spacetime. In the geodetic brane gravity action, we accommodate the correction term through a linear term in the extrinsic curvature swept out by the brane. We study the resulting geodetic-type equation of motion. Within a Friedmann–Robertson–Walker metric, we obtain a generalized Friedmann equation describing the associated cosmological evolution. We observe that, when the radiation-like energy contribution from the extra dimension is vanishing, this effective model leads to a self-(non-self)-accelerated expansion of the brane-like universe in dependence on the nature of the concomitant parameter β associated with the correction, which resembles an analogous behaviour in the DGP brane cosmology. Several possibilities in the description for the cosmic evolution of this model are embodied and characterized by the involved density parameters related in turn to the cosmological constant, the geometry characterizing the model, the introduced β parameter as well as the dark-like energy and the matter content on the brane. (paper)

  13. Supernova Cosmology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    , i.e. with the cosmology hidden. Looking Beyond Lambda with the Union Supernova Compilation by Rubin et Matrix Description Covariance Matrix with Systematics Description Full Table of All SNe Description Beyond Lambda Figures Updated 11-18-11 Contact: drubin at physics dot fsu dot edu, saul at lbl dot gov

  14. On Antimatter and Cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevane, C J

    1961-02-24

    A cosmological model based on a gravitational plasma of matter and antimatter is discussed. The antigravitational interaction of matter and antimatter leads to segregation and an expansion of the plasma universe. The expansion time scale is controlled by the aggregation time scale.

  15. Projective relativity, cosmology and gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcidiacono, G.

    1986-01-01

    This book describes the latest applications of projective geometry to cosmology and gravitation. The contents of the book are; the Poincare group and Special Relativity, the thermodynamics and electromagnetism, general relativity, gravitation and cosmology, group theory and models of universe, the special projective relativity, the Fantappie group and Big-Bang cosmology, a new cosmological projective mechanics, the plasma physics and cosmology, the projective magnetohydrodynamics field, projective relativity and waves propagation, the generalizations of the gravitational field, the general projective relativity, the projective gravitational field, the De Sitter Universe and quantum physics, the conformal relativity and Newton gravitation

  16. Post-inflationary brane cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumdar, Anupam

    2001-01-01

    The brane cosmology has invoked new challenges to the usual Big Bang cosmology. In this paper we present a brief account on thermal history of the post-inflationary brane cosmology. We have realized that it is not obvious that the post-inflationary brane cosmology would always deviate from the standard Big Bang cosmology. However, if it deviates some stringent conditions on the brane tension are to be satisfied. In this regard we study various implications on gravitino production and its abundance. We discuss Affleck-Dine mechanism for baryogenesis and make some comments on moduli and dilaton problems in this context

  17. Open problems in string cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toumbas, N.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the open problems in string cosmology are highlighted within the context of the recently constructed thermal and quantum superstring cosmological solutions. Emphasis is given on the high temperature cosmological regime, where it is argued that thermal string vacua in the presence of gravito-magnetic fluxes can be used to bypass the Hagedorn instabilities of string gas cosmology. This article is based on a talk given at the workshop on ''Cosmology and Strings'', Corfu, September 6-13, 2009. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Ancient Chinese Precedents in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geddis, Robert

    1999-01-01

    ... classics from ancient china. The assumption is that since China's political and military leaders state openly that their strategy is based on traditional Chinese strategic concepts, a study of ancient classics on strategy...

  19. Printing Ancient Terracotta Warriors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadecki, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    Standing in awe in Xian, China, at the Terra Cotta warrior archaeological site, the author thought of sharing this experience and excitement with her sixth-grade students. She decided to let her students carve patterns of the ancient soldiers to understand their place in Chinese history. They would make block prints and print multiple soldiers on…

  20. Trepanation in Ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobert, Leah; Binello, Emanuela

    2017-05-01

    Trepanation, the process of making a burr hole in the skull to access the brain, is an ancient form of a primitive craniotomy. There is widespread evidence of contributions made to this practice by ancient civilizations in Europe, Africa, and South America, where archaeologists have unearthed thousands of trepanned skulls dating back to the Neolithic period. Little is known about trepanation in China, and it is commonly believed that the Chinese used only traditional Chinese medicine and nonsurgical methods for treating brain injuries. However, a thorough analysis of the available archeological and literary evidence reveals that trepanation was widely practiced throughout China thousands of years ago. A significant number of trepanned Chinese skulls have been unearthed showing signs of healing and suggesting that patients survived after surgery. Trepanation was likely performed for therapeutic and spiritual reasons. Medical and historical works from Chinese literature contain descriptions of primitive neurosurgical procedures, including stories of surgeons, such as the legendary Hua Tuo, and surgical techniques used for the treatment of brain pathologies. The lack of translation of Chinese reports into the English language and the lack of publications on this topic in the English language may have contributed to the misconception that ancient China was devoid of trepanation. This article summarizes the available evidence attesting to the performance of successful primitive cranial surgery in ancient China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  2. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  3. Ancient ports of Kalinga

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    which plied between Kalinga and south east Asian countries. Nanda Raja, is said to have attacked Kalinga with the intention of getting access to the sea for the landlocked Kingdom of Magadha (Bihar). The ancient texa Artha Sastra (3rd-4th century B...

  4. Quantum cosmology - science of Genesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmanabhan, Thanu

    1987-01-01

    Quantum cosmology, the marriage between the theories of the microscopic and macroscopic Universe, is examined in an attempt to explain the birth of the Universe in the 'big bang'. A quantum cosmological model of the Universe does not exist, but a rough approximation, or 'poor man's' version of quantum cosmology has been developed. The idea is to combine the theory of quantum mechanics with the classical cosmological solutions to obtain a quantum mechanical version of cosmology. Such a model of quantum cosmology is described -here the quantum universe behaves like a hydrogen atom with the Planck length replacing the Bohr radius. Properties of quantum cosmologies and the significance of the Planck length are both discussed. (UK)

  5. Cosmology comes of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This year's Nobel prize is welcome recognition for cosmology. Back in the 1960s, according to Paul Davies' new book The Goldilocks Enigma (see 'Seeking anthropic answers' in this issue), cynics used to quip that there is 'speculation, speculation squared - and cosmology'. Anyone trying to understand the origin and fate of the universe was, in other words, dealing with questions that were simply impractical - or even impossible - to answer. But that has all changed with the development of new telescopes, satellites and data-processing techniques - to the extent that cosmology is now generally viewed as a perfectly acceptable branch of science. If anyone was in any doubt of cosmology's new status, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences last month gave the subject welcome recognition with the award of this year's Nobel prize to John Mather and George Smoot (see pp6-7; print version only). The pair were the driving force behind the COBE satellite that in 1992 produced the now famous image of the cosmic microwave background. The mission's data almost certainly proved that the universe started with a Big Bang, while tiny fluctuations in the temperature signal between different parts of the sky were shown to be the seeds of the stars and galaxies we see today. These results are regarded by many as the start of a new era of 'precision cosmology'. But for cosmologists, the job is far from over. There are still massive holes in our understanding of the cosmos, notably the nature of dark matter and dark energy, which together account for over 95% of the total universe. Indeed, some regard dark energy and matter as just ad hoc assumptions needed to fit the data. (Hypothetical particles called 'axions' are one possible contender for dark matter (see pp20-23; print version only), but don't bet your house on it.) Some physicists even think it makes more sense to adjust Newtonian gravity rather than invoke dark matter. But the notion that cosmology is in crisis, as argued by some

  6. Cosmological Tests of Gravity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Extensions of Einstein’s theory of General Relativity are under investigation as a potential explanation of the accelerating expansion rate of the universe. I’ll present a cosmologist’s overview of attempts to test these ideas in an efficient and unbiased manner. I’ll start by introducing the bestiary of alternative gravity theories that have been put forwards. This proliferation of models motivates us to develop model-independent, agnostic tools for comparing the theory space to cosmological data. I’ll introduce the effective field theory for cosmological perturbations, a framework designed to unify modified gravity theories in terms of a manageable set of parameters. Having outlined the formalism, I’ll talk about the current constraints on this framework, and the improvements expected from the next generation of large galaxy clustering, weak lensing and intensity mapping experiments.

  7. Towards a superstring cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    If superstring theory is a theory of everything then it must give a satisfactory description of the very early evolution of the universe. Since the very early universe is not directly observable, then by satisfactory it is mean that the later evolution following the earlier (pre-Planck time era) phase leads to agreement with prediction for the various observable phenomena such as (B-bar B), inflation, galaxy structure, the cosmological constant (infimum), etc. Moreover it is to be hoped that the initial singularity of classical general relativistic cosmology is also avoided. It is clear that superstring theory is not yet able to tackle these problems. This paper describes what has been done so far to construct very simplified versions of string theory relevant to the early universe, and discusses the critical questions still to be answered

  8. Nonlocal teleparallel cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamonde, Sebastian; Capozziello, Salvatore; Faizal, Mir; Nunes, Rafael C

    2017-01-01

    Even though it is not possible to differentiate general relativity from teleparallel gravity using classical experiments, it could be possible to discriminate between them by quantum gravitational effects. These effects have motivated the introduction of nonlocal deformations of general relativity, and similar effects are also expected to occur in teleparallel gravity. Here, we study nonlocal deformations of teleparallel gravity along with its cosmological solutions. We observe that nonlocal teleparallel gravity (like nonlocal general relativity) is consistent with the present cosmological data obtained by SNe Ia + BAO + CC + [Formula: see text] observations. Along this track, future experiments probing nonlocal effects could be used to test whether general relativity or teleparallel gravity gives the most consistent picture of gravitational interaction.

  9. Quantum cosmology: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojowald, Martin

    2015-02-01

    In quantum cosmology, one applies quantum physics to the whole universe. While no unique version and no completely well-defined theory is available yet, the framework gives rise to interesting conceptual, mathematical and physical questions. This review presents quantum cosmology in a new picture that tries to incorporate the importance of inhomogeneity. De-emphasizing the traditional minisuperspace view, the dynamics is rather formulated in terms of the interplay of many interacting 'microscopic' degrees of freedom that describe the space-time geometry. There is thus a close relationship with more-established systems in condensed-matter and particle physics even while the large set of space-time symmetries (general covariance) requires some adaptations and new developments. These extensions of standard methods are needed both at the fundamental level and at the stage of evaluating the theory by effective descriptions.

  10. Elementary particles and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouze, J.; Paty, M.

    2000-01-01

    The universe is the most efficient laboratory of particle physics and the understanding of cosmological processes implies the knowledge of how elementary particles interact. This article recalls the mutual influences between on the one hand: astrophysics and cosmology and on the other hand: nuclear physics and particle physics. The big-bang theory relies on nuclear physics to explain the successive stages of nucleo-synthesis and the study of solar neutrinos has led to discover new aspects of this particle: it is likely that neutrinos undergo oscillations from one neutrino type to another. In some universe events such as the bursting of a super-nova, particles are released with a kinetic energy that would be impossible to reach on earth with a particle accelerator. These events are become common points of interest between astrophysicists and particle physicists and have promoted a deeper cooperation between astrophysics and elementary particle physics. (A.C.)

  11. Nonlocal teleparallel cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahamonde, Sebastian [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Capozziello, Salvatore [Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Pancini' ' , Naples (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Naples (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy); Faizal, Mir [University of British Columbia - Okanagan, Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, Kelowna, BC (Canada); University of Lethbridge, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lethbridge, AB (Canada); Nunes, Rafael C. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Departamento de Fisica, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2017-09-15

    Even though it is not possible to differentiate general relativity from teleparallel gravity using classical experiments, it could be possible to discriminate between them by quantum gravitational effects. These effects have motivated the introduction of nonlocal deformations of general relativity, and similar effects are also expected to occur in teleparallel gravity. Here, we study nonlocal deformations of teleparallel gravity along with its cosmological solutions. We observe that nonlocal teleparallel gravity (like nonlocal general relativity) is consistent with the present cosmological data obtained by SNe Ia + BAO + CC + H{sub 0} observations. Along this track, future experiments probing nonlocal effects could be used to test whether general relativity or teleparallel gravity gives the most consistent picture of gravitational interaction. (orig.)

  12. Supersymmetric GUTs and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarides, G.; Shafi, Q.

    1982-06-01

    By examining the behaviour of supersymmetric GUTs in the very early universe we find two classes of realistic models. In one of them supersymmetry is broken at or near the superheavy GUT scale. The cosmological implications of such models are expected to be similar to those of nonsupersymmetric GUTs. In the second class of models, the superheavy GUT scale is related to the supersymmetry breaking scale a la Witten. Two types of cosmological scenarios appear possible in this case, either with or without an intermediate (new) inflationary phase. They can be experimentally distinguished, since the former predicts an absence and the latter an observable number density of superheavy monopoles. A mechanism for generating baryon asymmetry in such models is pointed out. Further constraint on model building appears if global R invariance is employed to resolve the strong CP problem. (author)

  13. Quantum cosmology. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmanabhan, T.

    1989-01-01

    Quantum cosmology is to quantum gravity what the Bohr model is to the full quantum mechanical description of the hydrogen atom. In quantum cosmology one attempts to give a quantum-mechanical meaning to classical solutions of general relativity. This is discussed in this chapter. The approach is illustrated by quantizing only the conformal degree of freedom of the gravitational field, in particular the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models. And, as in the hydrogen atom, the classical singularity of general relativity is avoided and one has analogous stationary states in the quantum Universe. The chapter ends with a model of the fundamental role that the Planck length may play as the universal cutoff in all field theories, thus ridding the theory of ultra-violet divergences. Two appendices introduce field theory in the Schroedinger representation and the Schroedinger equation for quantum gravity, namely the Wheeler-De Wit equation. (author). 38 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  14. Massive neutrinos and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandarin, S.F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discussed the importance of the consequences of a nonzero neutrino rest mass on cosmology, perhaps, first recognized by Gershtein and Zeldovich, after the discover of the 3-K microwave background radiation MBR. Since the first works on the primordial synthesis of 4 He, it has been known that additional neutrino species increase the rate of expansion of the universe during the epoch of the primordial nucleosynthesis, which increases the yield of 4 He. Combining the results of the theory with astronomical measurements of the 4 He abundance and the estimate of the mass density of MBR, Shvartsman suggested the upper limit on the mass density of all relativistic matter at that epoch: ρ rel ≤ 5ρ MBR which eventually became the upper limit for the number of neutrino species: N ν ≤ 7. At that time, the constraints based on cosmological arguments were much stronger than one based on laboratory experiments

  15. Cosmology and convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, David

    2017-02-01

    I argue that some important elements of the current cosmological model are 'conventionalist' in the sense defined by Karl Popper. These elements include dark matter and dark energy; both are auxiliary hypotheses that were invoked in response to observations that falsified the standard model as it existed at the time. The use of conventionalist stratagems in response to unexpected observations implies that the field of cosmology is in a state of 'degenerating problemshift' in the language of Imre Lakatos. I show that the 'concordance' argument, often put forward by cosmologists in support of the current paradigm, is weaker than the convergence arguments that were made in the past in support of the atomic theory of matter or the quantization of energy.

  16. Cosmology, inflation, and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, A.; Dimopoulos, S.; Fischler, W.; Kolb, E.W.; Raby, S.; Steinhardt, P.J.

    1982-01-01

    Cosmological consequences of supersymmetric grand unified models based on the Witten-O'Raifeartaigh potential are discussed. In particular we study the development of the phase transition in the spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry. We find that in realistic models where light fields feel supersymmetry breaking only through coupling to massive fields, e.g., the Geometric Hierarchy model, the universe does not inflate or reheat. Thus, the standard cosmological flatness, monopole, and horizon problems remain. In addition, we find that the transition is never completed, in the sense that the universe remains dominated by coherent Higgs field energy, resulting in an apparent matter dominated universe with Ω greater than or equal to 10 30

  17. Nonlinear electrodynamics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, Nora

    2010-01-01

    Nonlinear electrodynamics (NLED) generalizes Maxwell's theory for strong fields. When coupled to general relativity NLED presents interesting features like the non-vanishing of the trace of the energy-momentum tensor that leads to the possibility of violation of some energy conditions and of acting as a repulsive contribution in the Raychaudhuri equation. This theory is worth to study in cosmological and astrophysical situations characterized by strong electromagnetic and gravitational fields.

  18. Integrable scalar cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fré, P.; Sorin, A.S.; Trigiante, M.

    2014-01-01

    The question whether the integrable one-field cosmologies classified in a previous paper by Fré, Sagnotti and Sorin can be embedded as consistent one-field truncations into Extended Gauged Supergravity or in N=1 supergravity gauged by a superpotential without the use of D-terms is addressed in this paper. The answer is that such an embedding is very difficult and rare but not impossible. Indeed, we were able to find two examples of integrable models embedded in supergravity in this way. Both examples are fitted into N=1 supergravity by means of a very specific and interesting choice of the superpotential W(z). The question whether there are examples of such an embedding in Extended Gauged Supergravity remains open. In the present paper, relying on the embedding tensor formalism we classified all gaugings of the N=2 STU model, confirming, in the absence on hypermultiplets, the uniqueness of the stable de Sitter vacuum found several years ago by Fré, Trigiante and Van Proeyen and excluding the embedding of any integrable cosmological model. A detailed analysis of the space of exact solutions of the first supergravity-embedded integrable cosmological model revealed several new features worth an in-depth consideration. When the scalar potential has an extremum at a negative value, the Universe necessarily collapses into a Big Crunch notwithstanding its spatial flatness. The causal structure of these Universes is quite different from that of the closed, positive curved, Universe: indeed, in this case the particle and event horizons do not coincide and develop complicated patterns. The cosmological consequences of this unexpected mechanism deserve careful consideration

  19. Cosmology, Clusters and Calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali

    2005-01-01

    I will review the current state of Cosmology with Clusters and discuss the application of microcalorimeter arrays to this field. With the launch of Astro-E2 this summer and a slew of new missions being developed, microcalorimeters are the next big thing in x-ray astronomy. I will cover the basics and not-so-basic concepts of microcalorimeter designs and look at the future to see where this technology will go.

  20. Viscous Friedman cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimek, Z.

    1981-01-01

    The evolution of Friedman models with bulk viscosity in the plane ''Hubble's constant'' - energy density is presented. The general conclusions are: viscosity leads to intense energy production - energy density increases in spite of expansion; if the above result can be regarded as non-physical, the bulk viscosity can produce cosmological models without the initial singularity only for flat universes; the results do not essentially depend on the equation of state.

  1. Supersymmetric inflationary cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Altaba, M.

    1986-06-01

    An action is presented, within the framework of supergravity unification, which satisfies all experimental and cosmological constraints. In intermediate scale, around 10 10 - 10 11 GeV, arises from a critical examination of inflation, supersymmetry breaking, fermion masses, proton decay, baryogenesis, and electroweak breaking - including neutrino oscillations and CP violation. Careful consideration is given to some relevant calculations. 86 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Viscous Friedman cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimek, Z.

    1981-01-01

    The evolution of Friedman models with bulk viscosity in the plane ''Hubble's constant'' - energy density is presented. The general conclusions are: viscosity leads to intense energy production - energy density increases in spite of expansion; if the above result be regarded as non-physical, the bulk viscosity can produce cosmological models without the initial singularity only for flat universes; the results do not essentially depend on the equation of state. (author)

  3. Topics in inflationary cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, S.

    1986-04-01

    Several aspects of inflationary cosmologies are discussed. An introduction to the standard hot big bang cosmological model is reviewed, and some of the problems associated with it are presented. A short review of the proposals for solving the cosmological conundrums of the big bang model is presented. Old and the new inflationary scenarios are discussed and shown to be unacceptable. Some alternative scenarios especially those using supersymmetry are reviewed briefly. A study is given of inflationary models where the same set of fields that breaks supersymmetry is also responsible for inflation. In these models, the scale of supersymmetry breaking is related to the slope of the potential near the origin and can thus be kept low. It is found that a supersymmetry breaking scale of the order of the weak breaking scale. The cosmology obtained from the simplest of such models is discussed in detail and it is shown that there are no particular problems except a low reheating temperature and a violation of the thermal constraint. A possible solution to the thermal constraint problem is given by introducing a second field, and the role played by this second field in the scenario is discussed. An alternative mechanism for the generation of baryon number within the framework of supergravity inflationary models is studied using the gravitational couplings of the heavy fields with the hidden sector (the sector which breaks supersymmetry). This mechanism is applied to two specific models - one with and one without supersymmetry breaking. The baryon to entropy ratio is found to be dependent on parameters which are model dependent. Finally, the effect of direct coupling between the two sectors on results is related, 88 refs., 6 figs

  4. Vacuum inhomogeneous cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanquin, J.-L.

    1984-01-01

    The author presents some results concerning the vacuum cosmological models which admit a 2-dimensional Abelian group of isometries: classifications of these space-times based on the topological nature of their space-like hypersurfaces and on their time evolution, analysis of the asymptotical behaviours at spatial infinity for hyperbolical models as well as in the neighbourhood of the singularity for the models possessing a time singularity during their evolution. (Auth.)

  5. Matter and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effenberger, R.

    1974-09-01

    The author summarizes some of the many questions and answers which have been raised over the years regarding the nature of matter, the origin of its forms and the associated concept of cosmology including the formation of the universe, our place in it and its course of evolution. An examination of the development of the classical concept of matter and its subsequent transformations within the space-time fields of relativity and quantum theory is also presented

  6. Is cosmology consistent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaomin; Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2002-01-01

    We perform a detailed analysis of the latest cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements (including BOOMERaNG, DASI, Maxima and CBI), both alone and jointly with other cosmological data sets involving, e.g., galaxy clustering and the Lyman Alpha Forest. We first address the question of whether the CMB data are internally consistent once calibration and beam uncertainties are taken into account, performing a series of statistical tests. With a few minor caveats, our answer is yes, and we compress all data into a single set of 24 bandpowers with associated covariance matrix and window functions. We then compute joint constraints on the 11 parameters of the 'standard' adiabatic inflationary cosmological model. Our best fit model passes a series of physical consistency checks and agrees with essentially all currently available cosmological data. In addition to sharp constraints on the cosmic matter budget in good agreement with those of the BOOMERaNG, DASI and Maxima teams, we obtain a heaviest neutrino mass range 0.04-4.2 eV and the sharpest constraints to date on gravity waves which (together with preference for a slight red-tilt) favor 'small-field' inflation models

  7. Cosmological phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.

    1987-01-01

    If the universe stated from conditions of high temperature and density, there should have been a series of phase transitions associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking. The cosmological phase transitions could have observable consequences in the present Universe. Some of the consequences including the formation of topological defects and cosmological inflation are reviewed here. One of the most important tools in building particle physics models is the use of spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB). The proposal that there are underlying symmetries of nature that are not manifest in the vacuum is a crucial link in the unification of forces. Of particular interest for cosmology is the expectation that are the high temperatures of the big bang symmetries broken today will be restored, and that there are phase transitions to the broken state. The possibility that topological defects will be produced in the transition is the subject of this section. The possibility that the Universe will undergo inflation in a phase transition will be the subject of the next section. Before discussing the creation of topological defects in the phase transition, some general aspects of high-temperature restoration of symmetry and the development of the phase transition will be reviewed. 29 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  8. Problems in quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amsterdamski, P.

    1986-01-01

    The standard cosmological model is reviewed and shown not to be self-sufficient in that it requires initial conditions most likely to be supplied by quantum cosmology. The possible approaches to the issue of initial conditions for cosmology are then discussed. In this thesis, the author considers three separate problems related to this issue. First, the possibility of inflation is investigated in detail by analyzing the evolution of metric perturbations and fluctuations in the expectation value of a scalar field prior to a phase transition; finite temperature effects are also included. Since the inhomogeneities were damped well before the onset of a phase transition. It is concluded that an inflation was possible. Next, the effective action of neutrino and photon fields is calculated for homogeneous spacetimes with small anisotropy; it is shown that quantum corrections to the action due to these fields influence the evolution of an early Universe in the Same way as do the analogous correction terms arising from a conformally invariant scalar which has been previously studied. Finally, the question of an early anisotropy is also discussed in a framework of Hartle-Hawking wave function of the Universe. A wave function of a Bianchi IX type Universe is calculated in a semiclassical approximation

  9. Course of cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desert, F.-Xavier

    2004-01-01

    After an introduction comprising some definitions, an historical overview, and a discussion of the paradoxical Universe, this course proposes a presentation of fundamental notions and theories, i.e. the restrained relativity and the universal gravitation. The next part addresses the general relativity with the following notions: space-time metrics and principle of generalised covariance, basics of tensor analysis, geodesics, energy-pulse tensor, curvature, Einstein equations, Newtonian limit, Schwarzschild metrics, gravitational waves, gravitational redshift. The next part addresses the standard cosmology with the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metrics and the Friedmann-Lemaitre equations of the evolution of the Universe. The Universe expansion is then addressed: distances and horizons, Hubble law, determination of the Hubble constant. The next chapter deals with the constituents of the Universe: light matter, baryonic dark matter, black matter, supernovae, Universe acceleration and black energy. Then comes the nuclear evolution of the Universe: thermodynamics of the primordial Universe, the matter-antimatter asymmetry, from quarks to atoms, cosmic abundance, neutron cosmological background, matter-radiation equality, cosmo-chronology or the age of the Universe. The next chapter addresses the cosmological background at 3 K: sky electromagnetic spectrum, measurement of CMB anisotropies, interpretation of anisotropies, growth of perturbations. The last chapter addresses the quantum field theory and inflation: paradoxes of the standard Big Bang, the simple inflation, noticeable consequences

  10. Quasars and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliche, H.-H.; Souriau, J.-M.

    1978-03-01

    On the basis of colorimetric data a composite spectrum of quasars is established from the visible to the Lyman's limit. Its agreement with the spectrum of the quasar 3C273, obtained directly, confirms the homogeneity of these objects. The compatibility of the following hypotheses: negligible evolution of quasars, Friedmann type model of the universe with cosmological constant, is studied by means of two tests: a non-correlation test adopted to the observation conditions and the construction of diagrams (absolute magnitude, volume) using the K-correction deduced from the composite spectrum. This procedure happens to give relatively well-defined values of the parameters; the central values of the density parameter, the reduced curvature and the reduced cosmological constant are: Ω 0 =0.053, k 0 =0.245, lambda-zero=1.19, which correspond to a big bang model, eternally expanding, spatially finite, in which Hubble's parameter H is presently increasing. This model responds well to different cosmological tests: density of matter, diameter of radio sources, age of the universe. Its characteristics suggest various cosmogonic mechanisms, espacially mass formation by growth of empty spherical bubbles [fr

  11. Cosmology and astroparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelmini, G.B.

    1996-01-01

    These lectures are devoted to elementary particle physicists and assume the reader has very little or no knowledge of cosmology and astrophysics. After a brief historical introduction to the development of modern cosmology and astro-particles in which the Hot Big Bang model is defined, the Robertson-Walker metric and the dynamics of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology are discussed in section 2. In section 3 the main observational features of the Universe are reviewed, including a description of our neighborhood, homogeneity and isotropy, the cosmic background radiation, the expansion, the age and the matter content of the Universe. A brief account of the thermal history of the Universe follows in section 4, and relic abundances are discussed in section 5. Section 6 is devoted to primordial nucleosynthesis, section 7 to structure formation in the Universe and section 8 to the possibility of detection of the dark matter in the halo of our galaxy. In the relevant sections recent developments are included, such as several so called open-quote open-quote crisis close-quote close-quote (the age crisis, the cluster baryon crisis and the nucleosynthesis crisis), and the MACHO events that may constitute the first detection of dark matter in the halo of our galaxy. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  12. Cosmology and astroparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelmini, Graciela B.

    1996-01-01

    These lectures are devoted to elementary particle physicists and assume the reader has very little or no knowledge of cosmology and astrophysics. After a brief historical introduction to the development of modern cosmology and astro-particles in which the Hot Big Bang model is defined, the Robertson-Walker metric and the dynamics of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology are discussed in section 2. In section 3 the main observational features of the Universe are reviewed, including a description of our neighborhood, homogeneity and isotropy, the cosmic background radiation, the expansion, the age and the matter content of the Universe. A brief account of the thermal history of the Universe follows in section 4, and relic abundances are discussed in section 5. Section 6 is devoted to primordial nucleosynthesis, section 7 to structure formation in the Universe and section 8 to the possibility of detection of the dark matter in the halo of our galaxy. In the relevant sections recent developments are included, such as several so called ''crisis'' (the age crisis, the cluster baryon crisis and the nucleosynthesis crisis), and the MACHO events that may constitute the first detection of dark matter in the halo of our galaxy

  13. Cosmological perturbations in antigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltean, Marius; Brandenberger, Robert

    2014-10-01

    We compute the evolution of cosmological perturbations in a recently proposed Weyl-symmetric theory of two scalar fields with oppositely signed conformal couplings to Einstein gravity. It is motivated from the minimal conformal extension of the standard model, such that one of these scalar fields is the Higgs while the other is a new particle, the dilaton, introduced to make the Higgs mass conformally symmetric. At the background level, the theory admits novel geodesically complete cyclic cosmological solutions characterized by a brief period of repulsive gravity, or "antigravity," during each successive transition from a big crunch to a big bang. For simplicity, we consider scalar perturbations in the absence of anisotropies, with potential set to zero and without any radiation. We show that despite the necessarily wrong-signed kinetic term of the dilaton in the full action, these perturbations are neither ghostlike nor tachyonic in the limit of strongly repulsive gravity. On this basis, we argue—pending a future analysis of vector and tensor perturbations—that, with respect to perturbative stability, the cosmological solutions of this theory are viable.

  14. Cosmology from string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anchordoqui, Luis; Nawata, Satoshi; Goldberg, Haim; Nunez, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    We explore the cosmological content of Salam-Sezgin six-dimensional supergravity, and find a solution to the field equations in qualitative agreement with observation of distant supernovae, primordial nucleosynthesis abundances, and recent measurements of the cosmic microwave background. The carrier of the acceleration in the present de Sitter epoch is a quintessence field slowly rolling down its exponential potential. Intrinsic to this model is a second modulus which is automatically stabilized and acts as a source of cold dark matter, with a mass proportional to an exponential function of the quintessence field (hence realizing varying mass particle models within a string context). However, any attempt to saturate the present cold dark matter component in this manner leads to unacceptable deviations from cosmological data--a numerical study reveals that this source can account for up to about 7% of the total cold dark matter budget. We also show that (1) the model will support a de Sitter energy in agreement with observation at the expense of a miniscule breaking of supersymmetry in the compact space; (2) variations in the fine structure constant are controlled by the stabilized modulus and are negligible; (3) ''fifth'' forces are carried by the stabilized modulus and are short range; (4) the long time behavior of the model in four dimensions is that of a Robertson-Walker universe with a constant expansion rate (w=-1/3). Finally, we present a string theory background by lifting our six-dimensional cosmological solution to ten dimensions

  15. Inflation and quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, A.

    1990-01-01

    We investigate an interplay between elementary particle physics, quantum cosmology and inflation. These results obtained within this approach are compared with the results obtained in the context of Euclidean quantum cosmology. In particular, we discuss relations between the stochastic approach to inflationary cosmology and the approaches based on the investigation of the Hartle-Hawking and tunneling wave functions of the universe. We argue that neither of these wave functions can be used for a complete description of the inflationary universe, but in certain cases they can be used for a description of some particular stages of inflation. It is shown that if the present vacuum energy density ρ υ exceeds some extremely small critical value ρ c (ρ c ∼ 10 -107 ) g cm -3 for chaotic inflation in the theory 1/2m 2 φ 2 ), then the lifetime of mankind in the inflationary universe should be finite, even though the universe as a whole will exist without end. A possible way to justify the anthropic principle in the context of the baby universe theory and to apply it to the evaluation of masses of elementary particles, of their coupling constants and of the vacuum energy density is also discussed. (author)

  16. A varying-α brane world cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youm, Donam

    2001-08-01

    We study the brane world cosmology in the RS2 model where the electric charge varies with time in the manner described by the varying fine-structure constant theory of Bekenstein. We map such varying electric charge cosmology to the dual variable-speed-of-light cosmology by changing system of units. We comment on cosmological implications for such cosmological models. (author)

  17. Oxidative phosphorylation revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nath, Sunil; Villadsen, John

    2015-01-01

    The fundamentals of oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation are revisited. New experimental data on the involvement of succinate and malate anions respectively in oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation are presented. These new data offer a novel molecular mechanistic...

  18. PLEIADES IN ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA

    OpenAIRE

    Verderame, L.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I will analyse the different features of the Pleiades in the astronomical, astrological, and calendrical interpretation as well as their mythical and cultural background in ancient Mesopotamia. According to cuneiform sources, the Pleiades are among the most important stars. They are simply known in Sumerian as ―the Stars‖ (MUL.MUL), while their Akkadian name, ―the Bristle‖ (zappu), links them to the imagery and the cultural context of the ―Bull of Heaven‖ constellation (Taurus),...

  19. Cosmology: The search for the order of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caes, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    Cosmology is fast becoming a ''hot'' topic among physicists and astronomers, but few ''outsiders'' really understand what it's all about. This book discusses metaphysics and sheds an informative, nontechnical light on the roots of the universe and the mysteries that surround it. Focusing on the speculative nature of the sciences, the author brings together religion, theology, philosophy, and astronomy to provide a broad spectrum of theories and ideas that have evolved from the early cosmologies of the Babylonians, Egyptians, the Chinese, the Greeks, the Romans, and other ancients. Highlighted is the work of men like Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Newton and the importance they played in the historical progression of discoveries. The author also examines theories on the origin of galaxies, stars, and the solar system - the sun, asteroids, comets, meteoroids, and planets - and presents the latest evidence on how they were formed

  20. Tot Graeci Tot Sententiae: Astronomical Perspective Multiplicity in Ancient Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, O.

    2011-06-01

    Ancient Greece was made of a multiplicity of thinking heads, in an atmosphere of (relative) freedom of opinions, in every field of knowledge. then we should not wonder if many astronomical and cosmological theories, survived until our 17th century, had already been formulated by different philosophers and in different regions, cities and periods of Greek history. Geocentric and heliocentric theories, as well as an atomistic theory of an infinite universe (with infinite worlds), could survive without crashing with one another. In the same time, religious opinions regarding the planets and Sun as a series of gods were present, however not on a scientific ground.

  1. Linen in Ancient Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dr.Rehab Mahmoud Ahmed Elsharnouby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Egypt was famous through the Ancient Near East for both weaving linen cloth and the produced quantities. Cloth was sent as expensive gifts from one king to another and given to a laborer as wages in return for his work. Cloth was regarded as an essential element in everyday life as it could be used for everything: clothing, bedding, trappings for animals, or sails of a ship. It was in fact one of the most widely used item throughout Ancient Egypt. Although other textile fibers were used in Pharaonic Egypt, namely, sheep's wool, goat hair and a form of coir, the majority of textiles were made from the plant Linum usitatissimum, flax. Cloth made from this fiber is defined as linen. The research starts with a brief definition of the flax, and then reviews the scenes representing the sowing and the harvesting of its seeds. It also focuses on the way of removing the seeds heads, the preparing of the flax for spinning: retting, beating and scutching. After that, it deals with transforming flax into orderly lengths, and rolling it into balls or coils. The researcher as well studies the Ancient Egyptian spinning techniques: grasped spindle, support spindle and drop spinning; the different types of weaving: tabby weaves, basket weaves, tapestry weaves and warps-patterned weave and the types of looms that were in use in Egypt, namely, the horizontal and vertical looms.

  2. Testing cosmology with galaxy clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapetti Serra, David Angelo

    2011-01-01

    PASCOS 2011 will be held in Cambridge UK. The conference will be hosted by the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology (DAMTP) at the Mathematical Sciences site in the University of Cambridge. The aim of the conference is to explore and develop synergies between particle physics, string theory and cosmo......PASCOS 2011 will be held in Cambridge UK. The conference will be hosted by the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology (DAMTP) at the Mathematical Sciences site in the University of Cambridge. The aim of the conference is to explore and develop synergies between particle physics, string theory...... and cosmology. There will be an emphasis on timely interdisciplinary topics: • critical tests of inflationary cosmology • advances in fundamental cosmology • applications of string theory (AdS/CMT) • particle and string phenomenology • new experimental particle physics results • and cosmological probes...

  3. The Dirac-Milne cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien; Chardin, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    We study an unconventional cosmology, in which we investigate the consequences that antigravity would pose to cosmology. We present the main characteristics of the Dirac-Milne Universe, a cosmological model where antimatter has a negative active gravitational mass. In this non-standard Universe, separate domains of matter and antimatter coexist at our epoch without annihilation, separated by a gravitationally induced depletion zone. We show that this cosmology does not require a priori the Dark Matter and Dark Energy components of the standard model of cosmology. Additionally, inflation becomes an unnecessary ingredient. Investigating this model, we show that the classical cosmological tests such as primordial nucleosynthesis, Type Ia supernovæ and Cosmic Microwave Background are surprisingly concordant.

  4. Particles and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachev, Igor

    1993-01-01

    When the common ground between particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology started to become a developing area, the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) of the Russian Academy of Sciences had the foresight in 1981 to institute the Baksan Schools on Particles and Cosmology. This now traditional event, held biannually in the Baksan Valley, has gone on to attract international participation. The site is close to the INR Baksan Neutrino Observatory with its underground and surface installations, including the SAGE gallium solar neutrino detector, the Underground Scintillation Telescope, and the 'Carpet' extensive air shower array. Participation is mainly from experimentalists working in non accelerator particle physics and particle astrophysics. The most recent School, held from April 21 to 28, began with an opening address by INR Director V. A. Matveev. J.Frieman reviewed standard big bang cosmology, emphasizing how the recent COBE results and the observations of large scale galaxy clustering fit into a standard cosmology framework. For inflationary cosmology, he showed how different models may be tested through their predictions for large-scale galactic structure and for cosmic microwave background anisotropy. A.Stebbins presented details of the large scale distribution of galaxies which, combined with velocity information and microwave background anisotropy data, provide strong constraints on theories of the origin of primordial inhomogeneities. Inflation requires, and theories of the large scale structure strongly favour the critical value for the cosmic mass density, while, as D.Seckel explained in his lecture on nucleosynthesis and abundances of the light elements, the baryon contribution to this density has to be tens of times smaller. A general review on the observational evidence for dark matter, dark matter particle candidates and the strategy of dark matter searches was given by I. Tkachev, who stressed the gravitational microlensing MACHO

  5. Conformal Cosmology and Supernova Data

    OpenAIRE

    Behnke, Danilo; Blaschke, David; Pervushin, Victor; Proskurin, Denis

    2000-01-01

    We define the cosmological parameters $H_{c,0}$, $\\Omega_{m,c}$ and $\\Omega_{\\Lambda, c}$ within the Conformal Cosmology as obtained by the homogeneous approximation to the conformal-invariant generalization of Einstein's General Relativity theory. We present the definitions of the age of the universe and of the luminosity distance in the context of this approach. A possible explanation of the recent data from distant supernovae Ia without a cosmological constant is presented.

  6. Cosmology for high energy physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, A.

    1987-11-01

    The standard big bang model of cosmology is presented. Although not perfect, its many successes make it a good starting point for most discussions of cosmology. Places are indicated where well understood laboratory physics is incorporated into the big bang, leading to successful predictions. Much less established aspects of high energy physics and some of the new ideas they have introduced into the field of cosmology are discussed, such as string theory, inflation and monopoles. 49 refs., 5 figs

  7. Suicide in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G

    2014-01-01

    The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say

  8. Perturbations in loop quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W; Agullo, I; Ashtekar, A

    2014-01-01

    The era of precision cosmology has allowed us to accurately determine many important cosmological parameters, in particular via the CMB. Confronting Loop Quantum Cosmology with these observations provides us with a powerful test of the theory. For this to be possible, we need a detailed understanding of the generation and evolution of inhomogeneous perturbations during the early, quantum gravity phase of the universe. Here, we have described how Loop Quantum Cosmology provides a completion of the inflationary paradigm, that is consistent with the observed power spectra of the CMB

  9. An introduction to modern cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Liddle, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    An Introduction to Modern Cosmology Third Edition is an accessible account of modern cosmological ideas. The Big Bang Cosmology is explored, looking at its observational successes in explaining the expansion of the Universe, the existence and properties of the cosmic microwave background, and the origin of light elements in the universe. Properties of the very early Universe are also covered, including the motivation for a rapid period of expansion known as cosmological inflation. The third edition brings this established undergraduate textbook up-to-date with the rapidly evolving observation

  10. Cosmological Reflection of Particle Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Khlopov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The standard model involves particle symmetry and the mechanism of its breaking. Modern cosmology is based on inflationary models with baryosynthesis and dark matter/energy, which involves physics beyond the standard model. Studies of the physical basis of modern cosmology combine direct searches for new physics at accelerators with its indirect non-accelerator probes, in which cosmological consequences of particle models play an important role. The cosmological reflection of particle symmetry and the mechanisms of its breaking are the subject of the present review.

  11. Loop Quantum Cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojowald, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Quantum gravity is expected to be necessary in order to understand situations in which classical general relativity breaks down. In particular in cosmology one has to deal with initial singularities, i.e., the fact that the backward evolution of a classical spacetime inevitably comes to an end after a finite amount of proper time. This presents a breakdown of the classical picture and requires an extended theory for a meaningful description. Since small length scales and high curvatures are involved, quantum effects must play a role. Not only the singularity itself but also the surrounding spacetime is then modified. One particular theory is loop quantum cosmology, an application of loop quantum gravity to homogeneous systems, which removes classical singularities. Its implications can be studied at different levels. The main effects are introduced into effective classical equations, which allow one to avoid the interpretational problems of quantum theory. They give rise to new kinds of early-universe phenomenology with applications to inflation and cyclic models. To resolve classical singularities and to understand the structure of geometry around them, the quantum description is necessary. Classical evolution is then replaced by a difference equation for a wave function, which allows an extension of quantum spacetime beyond classical singularities. One main question is how these homogeneous scenarios are related to full loop quantum gravity, which can be dealt with at the level of distributional symmetric states. Finally, the new structure of spacetime arising in loop quantum gravity and its application to cosmology sheds light on more general issues, such as the nature of time. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2008-4.

  12. Loop Quantum Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojowald Martin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantum gravity is expected to be necessary in order to understand situations in which classical general relativity breaks down. In particular in cosmology one has to deal with initial singularities, i.e., the fact that the backward evolution of a classical spacetime inevitably comes to an end after a finite amount of proper time. This presents a breakdown of the classical picture and requires an extended theory for a meaningful description. Since small length scales and high curvatures are involved, quantum effects must play a role. Not only the singularity itself but also the surrounding spacetime is then modified. One particular theory is loop quantum cosmology, an application of loop quantum gravity to homogeneous systems, which removes classical singularities. Its implications can be studied at different levels. The main effects are introduced into effective classical equations, which allow one to avoid the interpretational problems of quantum theory. They give rise to new kinds of early-universe phenomenology with applications to inflation and cyclic models. To resolve classical singularities and to understand the structure of geometry around them, the quantum description is necessary. Classical evolution is then replaced by a difference equation for a wave function, which allows an extension of quantum spacetime beyond classical singularities. One main question is how these homogeneous scenarios are related to full loop quantum gravity, which can be dealt with at the level of distributional symmetric states. Finally, the new structure of spacetime arising in loop quantum gravity and its application to cosmology sheds light on more general issues, such as the nature of time.

  13. Loop Quantum Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojowald Martin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantum gravity is expected to be necessary in order to understand situations where classical general relativity breaks down. In particular in cosmology one has to deal with initial singularities, i.e., the fact that the backward evolution of a classical space-time inevitably comes to an end after a finite amount of proper time. This presents a breakdown of the classical picture and requires an extended theory for a meaningful description. Since small length scales and high curvatures are involved, quantum effects must play a role. Not only the singularity itself but also the surrounding space-time is then modified. One particular realization is loop quantum cosmology, an application of loop quantum gravity to homogeneous systems, which removes classical singularities. Its implications can be studied at different levels. Main effects are introduced into effective classical equations which allow to avoid interpretational problems of quantum theory. They give rise to new kinds of early universe phenomenology with applications to inflation and cyclic models. To resolve classical singularities and to understand the structure of geometry around them, the quantum description is necessary. Classical evolution is then replaced by a difference equation for a wave function which allows to extend space-time beyond classical singularities. One main question is how these homogeneous scenarios are related to full loop quantum gravity, which can be dealt with at the level of distributional symmetric states. Finally, the new structure of space-time arising in loop quantum gravity and its application to cosmology sheds new light on more general issues such as time.

  14. Cosmology from quantum potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farag Ali, Ahmed, E-mail: ahmed.ali@fsc.bu.edu.eg [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology, Giza, 12588 (Egypt); Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Benha University, Benha, 13518 (Egypt); Das, Saurya, E-mail: saurya.das@uleth.c [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, 4401 University Drive, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4 (Canada)

    2015-02-04

    It was shown recently that replacing classical geodesics with quantal (Bohmian) trajectories gives rise to a quantum corrected Raychaudhuri equation (QRE). In this article we derive the second order Friedmann equations from the QRE, and show that this also contains a couple of quantum correction terms, the first of which can be interpreted as cosmological constant (and gives a correct estimate of its observed value), while the second as a radiation term in the early universe, which gets rid of the big-bang singularity and predicts an infinite age of our universe.

  15. Inflationary Axion Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek, Frank; Turner, Michael S.

    1990-09-01

    If Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry is broken after inflation, the initial axion angle is a random variable on cosmological scales; based on this fact, estimates of the relic-axion mass density give too large a value if the axion mass is less than about 10-6 eV. This bound can be evaded if the Universe underwent inflation after PQ symmetry breaking and if the observable Universe happens to be a region where the initial axion angle was atypically small, .1 . (ma/10-6eV)0.59. We show consideration of fluctuations induced during inflation severely constrains the latter alternative.

  16. Inflationary axion cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.; Wilczek, F.

    1991-01-01

    If Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry is broken after inflation, the initial axion angle is a random variable on cosmological scales; based on this fact, estimates of the relic-axion mass density give too large a value if the axion mass is less than about 10 -6 eV. This bound can be evaded if the Universe underwent inflation after PQ symmetry breaking and if the observable Universe happens to be a region where the initial axion angle was atypically small, θ 1 approx-lt[m a /10 -6 eV 0.59 .] We show consideration of fluctuations induced during inflation severely constrains the latter alternative

  17. Cosmology in antiquity

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Rosemary

    1995-01-01

    The popularity of Stephen Hawking's work has put cosmology back in the public eye. The question of how the universe began, and why it hangs together, still puzzles scientists. Their puzzlement began two and a half thousand years ago when Greek philosophers first 'looked up at the sky and formed a theory of everything.' Though their solutions are little credited today, the questions remain fresh.The early Greek thinkers struggled to come to terms with and explain the totality of their surroundings; to identitify an original substance from which the universe was compounded; and to reconcil

  18. Type Ia Supernova Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibundgut, B.; Sullivan, M.

    2018-03-01

    The primary agent for Type Ia supernova cosmology is the uniformity of their appearance. We present the current status, achievements and uncertainties. The Hubble constant and the expansion history of the universe are key measurements provided by Type Ia supernovae. They were also instrumental in showing time dilation, which is a direct observational signature of expansion. Connections to explosion physics are made in the context of potential improvements of the quality of Type Ia supernovae as distance indicators. The coming years will see large efforts to use Type Ia supernovae to characterise dark energy.

  19. E10 cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinschmidt, Axel; Nicolai, Hermann

    2006-01-01

    We construct simple exact solutions to the E 10 /K(E 10 ) coset model by exploiting its integrability. Using the known correspondences with the bosonic sectors of maximal supergravity theories, these exact solutions translate into exact cosmological solutions. In this way, we are able to recover some recently discovered solutions of M-theory exhibiting phases of accelerated expansion, or, equivalently, S-brane solutions, and thereby accommodate such solutions within the E 10 /K(E 10 ) model. We also discuss the situation regarding solutions with non-vanishing (constant) curvature of the internal manifold

  20. Quintessential brane cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunze, K.E.; Vazquez-Mozo, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    We study a class of braneworlds where the cosmological evolution arises as the result of the movement of a three-brane in a five-dimensional static dilatonic bulk, with and without reflection symmetry. The resulting four-dimensional Friedmann equation includes a term which, for a certain range of the parameters, effectively works as a quintessence component, producing an acceleration of the universe at late times. Using current observations and bounds derived from big-bang nucleosynthesis, we estimate the parameters that characterize the model

  1. Particle physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srednicki, M.

    1990-01-01

    At least eighty percent of the mass of the universe consists of some material which, unlike ordinary matter, neither emits nor absorbs light. This book collects key papers related to the discovery of this astonishing fact and its profound implications for astrophysics, cosmology, and the physics of elementary particles. The book focusses on the likely possibility that the dark matter is composed of an as yet undiscovered elementary particle, and examines the boundaries of our present knowledge of the properties such a particle must possess. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  2. Climate and Ancient Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Climate, and human responses to it, have a strongly interconnected relationship. This when climate change occurs, the result of either natural or human causes, societies should react and adapt to these. But do they? If so, what is the nature of that change, and are the responses positive...... or negative for the long-term survival of social groups? In this volume, scholars from diverse disciplines including archaeology, geology and climate sciences explore scientific and material evidence for climate changes in the past, their causes, their effects on ancient societies and how those societies...

  3. Urology in ancient India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakti Das

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland.

  4. Mathematics in ancient Greece

    CERN Document Server

    Dantzig, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    More than a history of mathematics, this lively book traces mathematical ideas and processes to their sources, stressing the methods used by the masters of the ancient world. Author Tobias Dantzig portrays the human story behind mathematics, showing how flashes of insight in the minds of certain gifted individuals helped mathematics take enormous forward strides. Dantzig demonstrates how the Greeks organized their precursors' melange of geometric maxims into an elegantly abstract deductive system. He also explains the ways in which some of the famous mathematical brainteasers of antiquity led

  5. Musical ensembles in Ancient Mesapotamia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krispijn, T.J.H.; Dumbrill, R.; Finkel, I.

    2010-01-01

    Identification of musical instruments from ancient Mesopotamia by comparing musical ensembles attested in Sumerian and Akkadian texts with depicted ensembles. Lexicographical contributions to the Sumerian and Akkadian lexicon.

  6. Cosmological effects of nonlinear electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novello, M; Goulart, E; Salim, J M; Bergliaffa, S E Perez

    2007-01-01

    It will be shown that a given realization of nonlinear electrodynamics, used as a source of Einstein's equations, generates a cosmological model with interesting features, namely a phase of current cosmic acceleration, and the absence of an initial singularity, thus pointing to a way of solving two important problems in cosmology

  7. Quantum Gravity Effects in Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Je-An

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the geometrodynamic approach to quantum cosmology, we studied the quantum gravity effects in cosmology. The Gibbons-Hawking temperature is corrected by quantum gravity due to spacetime fluctuations and the power spectrum as well as any probe field will experience the effective temperature, a quantum gravity effect.

  8. Neutrino physics and precision cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannestad, Steen

    2016-01-01

    I review the current status of structure formation bounds on neutrino properties such as mass and energy density. I also discuss future cosmological bounds as well as a variety of different scenarios for reconciling cosmology with the presence of light sterile neutrinos....

  9. Modified General Relativity and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, A.-M. M.

    1997-10-01

    Aspects of the modified general relativity theory of Rastall, Al-Rawaf and Taha are discussed in both the radiation- and matter-dominated flat cosmological models. A nucleosynthesis constraint on the theory's free parameter is obtained and the implication for the age of the Universe is discussed. The consistency of the modified matter- dominated model with the neoclassical cosmological tests is demonstrated.

  10. Vignettes in Gravitation and Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Sriramkumar, L

    2012-01-01

    This book comprises expository articles on different aspects of gravitation and cosmology that are aimed at graduate students. The topics discussed are of contemporary interest assuming only an elementary introduction to gravitation and cosmology. The presentations are to a certain extent pedagogical in nature, and the material developed is not usually found in sufficient detail in recent textbooks in these areas.

  11. Kerr metric in cosmological background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidya, P C [Gujarat Univ., Ahmedabad (India). Dept. of Mathematics

    1977-06-01

    A metric satisfying Einstein's equation is given which in the vicinity of the source reduces to the well-known Kerr metric and which at large distances reduces to the Robertson-Walker metric of a nomogeneous cosmological model. The radius of the event horizon of the Kerr black hole in the cosmological background is found out.

  12. Introduction to gravity and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jauneau, L.

    1988-09-01

    Relativity principles, equivalence principles, and the general covariance principle are introduced. Curved space analysis via tensor calculus and absolute differential calculus is outlined. Einstein's equations are presented. The Schwarzschild solution; tests of general relativity; and black holes are discussed. Application of general relativity to cosmology is considered. The Standard Model of cosmology and its extensions are reviewed

  13. Highlights in gravitation and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, B.R.; Kembhavi, Ajit; Narlikar, J.V.; Vishveshwara, C.V.

    1988-01-01

    This book assesses research into gravitation and cosmology by examining the subject from various viewpoints: the classical and quantum pictures, along with the cosmological and astrophysical applications. There are 35 articles by experts of international standing. Each defines the state of the art and contains a concise summary of our present knowledge of a facet of gravitational physics. These edited papers are based on those first given at an international conference held in Goa, India at the end of 1987. The following broad areas are covered: classical relativity, quantum gravity, cosmology, black holes, compact objects, gravitational radiation and gravity experiments. In this volume there are also summaries of discussions on the following special topics: exact solutions of cosmological equations, mathematical aspects of general relativity, the early universe, and quantum gravity. For research workers in cosmology and gravitation this reference book provides a broad view of present achievements and current problems. (author)

  14. Is the cosmological singularity compulsory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekenstein, J.D.; Meisels, A.

    1980-01-01

    The cosmological singularity is inherent in all conventional general relativistic cosmological models. There can be no question that it is an unphysical feature; yet there does not seem to be any convervative way of eliminating it. Here we present singularity-free isotropic cosmological models which are indistinguishable from general relativistic ones at late times. They are based on the general theory of variable rest masses that we developed recently. Outside cosmology this theory simulates general relativity well. Thus it provides a framework incorporating those features which have made geneal relativity so sucessful while providing a way out of singularity dilemma. The cosmological models can be made to incorporate Dirac's large numbers hypothesis. G(now)/G(0)approx.10 -38

  15. Higher dimensional loop quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiangdong

    2016-01-01

    Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) is the symmetric sector of loop quantum gravity. In this paper, we generalize the structure of loop quantum cosmology to the theories with arbitrary spacetime dimensions. The isotropic and homogeneous cosmological model in n + 1 dimensions is quantized by the loop quantization method. Interestingly, we find that the underlying quantum theories are divided into two qualitatively different sectors according to spacetime dimensions. The effective Hamiltonian and modified dynamical equations of n + 1 dimensional LQC are obtained. Moreover, our results indicate that the classical big bang singularity is resolved in arbitrary spacetime dimensions by a quantum bounce. We also briefly discuss the similarities and differences between the n + 1 dimensional model and the 3 + 1 dimensional one. Our model serves as a first example of higher dimensional loop quantum cosmology and offers the possibility to investigate quantum gravity effects in higher dimensional cosmology. (orig.)

  16. Towards a new cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachieze-Rey, Marc

    2005-01-01

    After having recalled that the Platonist and Aristotelian views were the basis of cosmology during the Antiquity and the Middle-Age, the author indicates that these views have been put into question again by Copernicus, Giordano Bruno, Kepler, Galileo and others whose works resulted in Newton physics. The author then follows and comments this history with the emergence of contemporary physics (relativistic and quantum physics) and new concepts for matter, space and time, light, energy, and the Universe with a relativistic cosmology. After having commented these last issues, the author evokes how new results confirmed big-bang models. He also outlines problems to be solved or addressed: observations related to the hidden mass, issue of unification, technological issues to obtain information about what went on more than 13 billions years ago. The author comments the issue of other universes, and issues regarding science, metaphysics and religion raised by these theoretical developments. He also comments the emergence of new physics (supersymmetry, quantum gravity)

  17. Topics in inflationary cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis examines several topics in the theory of inflationary cosmology. It first proves the existence of Hawking Radiation during the slow-rolling period of a new inflationary universe. It then derives and somewhat extends Bardeen's gauge invariant formalism for calculating the growth of linear gravitational perturbations in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological background. This formalism is then applied, first to several new inflationary universe models all of which show a Zel'dovich spectrum of fluctuations, but with amplitude sigma(100 4 ) above observational limits. The general formalism is next applied to models that exhibit primordial inflation. Fluctuations in these models also exhibit a Zel'dovich spectrum here with an acceptable amplitude. Finally the thesis presents the results of new, numerical calculations. A classical, (2 + 1) dimensional computer model is developed that includes a Higgs field (which drives inflation) along with enough auxiliary fields to generate dynamically not only a thermal bath, but also the fluctuations that naturally accompany that bath. The thesis ends with a discussion of future prospects

  18. Cosmology with MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Dan

    2016-01-01

    This volume makes explicit use of the synergy between cosmology and high energy physics, for example, supersymmetry and dark matter, or nucleosynthesis and the baryon-to-photon ratio. In particular the exciting possible connection between the recently discovered Higgs scalar and the scalar field responsible for inflation is explored.The recent great advances in the accuracy of the basic cosmological parameters is exploited in that no free scale parameters such as h appear, rather the basic calculations are done numerically using all sources of energy density simultaneously. Scripts are provided that allow the reader to calculate exact results for the basic parameters. Throughout MATLAB tools such as symbolic math, numerical solutions, plots and 'movies' of the dynamical evolution of systems are used. The GUI package is also shown as an example of the real time manipulation of parameters which is available to the reader.All the MATLAB scripts are made available to the reader to explore examples of the uses of ...

  19. Indian cosmogonies and cosmologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajin Dušan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Various ideas on how the universe appeared and develops, were in Indian tradition related to mythic, religious, or philosophical ideas and contexts, and developed during some 3.000 years - from the time of Vedas, to Puranas. Conserning its appeareance, two main ideas were presented. In one concept it appeared out of itself (auto-generated, and gods were among the first to appear in the cosmic sequences. In the other, it was a kind of divine creation, with hard work (like the dismembering of the primal Purusha, or as emanation of divine dance. Indian tradition had also various critiques of mythic and religious concepts (from the 8th c. BC, to the 6c., who favoured naturalistic and materialistic explanations, and concepts, in their cosmogony and cosmology. One the peculiarities was that indian cosmogony and cosmology includes great time spans, since they used a digit system which was later (in the 13th c. introduced to Europe by Fibonacci (Leonardo of Pisa, 1170-1240.

  20. Particle physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.

    1986-10-01

    This series of lectures is about the role of particle physics in physical processes that occurred in the very early stages of the bug gang. Of particular interest is the role of particle physics in determining the evolution of the early Universe, and the effect of particle physics on the present structure of the Universe. The use of the big bang as a laboratory for placing limits on new particle physics theories will also be discussed. Section 1 reviews the standard cosmology, including primordial nucleosynthesis. Section 2 reviews the decoupling of weakly interacting particles in the early Universe, and discusses neutrino cosmology and the resulting limits that may be placed on the mass and lifetime of massive neutrinos. Section 3 discusses the evolution of the vacuum through phase transitions in the early Universe and the formation of topological defects in the transitions. Section 4 covers recent work on the generation of the baryon asymmetry by baryon-number violating reactions in Grand Unified Theories, and mentions some recent work on baryon number violation effects at the electroweak transition. Section 5 is devoted to theories of cosmic inflation. Finally, Section 6 is a discussion of the role of extra spatial dimensions in the evolution of the early Universe. 78 refs., 32 figs., 6 tabs

  1. Cosmology and Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, D. K.

    2006-08-01

    Microbes swarming on a sand grain planet or integral complex organisms evolving consciousness at the forefront of cosmic evolution? How is our new cosmology contributing to redefining who we see ourselves to be at the edge of the 21^st century, as globalization and capitalism speed forward? How is the evolution of stardust and the universe offering new paradigms of process and identity regarding the role, function and emergence of life in space-time? What are the cultural and philosophical questions that are arising and how might astronomy be contributing to the creation of new visions for cooperation and community at a global scale? What is the significance of including astronomy in K-12 education and what can it offer youth regarding values in light of the present world situation? Exploring our new cosmological concepts and the emergence of life at astronomical scales may offer much of valuable orientation toward reframing the human role in global evolution. Considering new insight from astrobiology each diverse species has a definitive role to play in the facilitation and functioning of the biosphere. Thus the question may arise: Is there any sort of ethic implied by natural science and offered by our rapidly expanding cosmic frontier?

  2. Cosmology and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salati, P.

    1986-01-01

    If the hot Big Bang model is correct, the very early universe provides us with a good laboratory to test our ideas on particle physics. The temperature and the density at that time are so high that each known particle must exist in chemical and in thermal equilibrium with the others. When the universe cools, the particles freeze out, leaving us today with a cosmic background. Such a kind of relic is of great interest because we can probe the Big Bang Model by studying the fossilized gas of a known particle. Conversely we can use that model to derive information about a hypothetical particle. Basically the freezing of a gas occurs a temperature T o and may be thermal or chemical. Studying the decoupling of a stable neutrino brings information on its mass: if the mass M ν lies in the forbidden range, the neutrino has to be unstable and its lifetime is constrained by cosmology. As for the G.U.T. Monopole, cosmology tells us that its present mass density is either to big or to small (1 monopole/observable universe) owing to a predicted flux far from the Parker Limit. Finally, the super red-giant star life time constrains the axion or the Higgs to be more massive than .2 MeV [fr

  3. Scalar cosmological perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uggla, Claes; Wainwright, John

    2012-01-01

    Scalar perturbations of Friedmann-Lemaitre cosmologies can be analyzed in a variety of ways using Einstein's field equations, the Ricci and Bianchi identities, or the conservation equations for the stress-energy tensor, and possibly introducing a timelike reference congruence. The common ground is the use of gauge invariants derived from the metric tensor, the stress-energy tensor, or from vectors associated with a reference congruence, as basic variables. Although there is a complication in that there is no unique choice of gauge invariants, we will show that this can be used to advantage. With this in mind our first goal is to present an efficient way of constructing dimensionless gauge invariants associated with the tensors that are involved, and of determining their inter-relationships. Our second goal is to give a unified treatment of the various ways of writing the governing equations in dimensionless form using gauge-invariant variables, showing how simplicity can be achieved by a suitable choice of variables and normalization factors. Our third goal is to elucidate the connection between the metric-based approach and the so-called 1 + 3 gauge-invariant approach to cosmological perturbations. We restrict our considerations to linear perturbations, but our intent is to set the stage for the extension to second-order perturbations. (paper)

  4. Cosmology Without Finality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahootian, F.

    2009-12-01

    The rapid convergence of advancing sensor technology, computational power, and knowledge discovery techniques over the past decade has brought unprecedented volumes of astronomical data together with unprecedented capabilities of data assimilation and analysis. A key result is that a new, data-driven "observational-inductive'' framework for scientific inquiry is taking shape and proving viable. The anticipated rise in data flow and processing power will have profound effects, e.g., confirmations and disconfirmations of existing theoretical claims both for and against the big bang model. But beyond enabling new discoveries can new data-driven frameworks of scientific inquiry reshape the epistemic ideals of science? The history of physics offers a comparison. The Bohr-Einstein debate over the "completeness'' of quantum mechanics centered on a question of ideals: what counts as science? We briefly examine lessons from that episode and pose questions about their applicability to cosmology. If the history of 20th century physics is any indication, the abandonment of absolutes (e.g., space, time, simultaneity, continuity, determinacy) can produce fundamental changes in understanding. The classical ideal of science, operative in both physics and cosmology, descends from the European Enlightenment. This ideal has for over 200 years guided science to seek the ultimate order of nature, to pursue the absolute theory, the "theory of everything.'' But now that we have new models of scientific inquiry powered by new technologies and driven more by data than by theory, it is time, finally, to relinquish dreams of a "final'' theory.

  5. Cosmology with decaying particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1984-09-01

    We consider a cosmological model in which an unstable massive relic particle species (denoted by X) has an initial mass density relative to baryons β -1 identically equal rho/sub X//rho/sub B/ >> 1, and then decays recently (redshift z less than or equal to 1000) into particles which are still relativistic today (denoted by R). We write down and solve the coupled equations for the cosmic scale factor a(t), the energy density in the various components (rho/sub X/, rho/sub R/, rho/sub B/), and the growth of linear density perturbations (delta rho/rho). The solutions form a one parameter (β) family of solutions; physically β -1 approx. = (Ω/sub R//Ω/sub NR/) x (1 + z/sub D/) = (ratio today of energy density of relativistic to nonrelativistic particles) x (1 + redshift of (decay)). We discuss the observational implications of such a cosmological model and compare our results to earlier results computed in the simultaneous decay approximation. In an appendix we briefly consider the case where one of the decay products of the X is massive and becomes nonrelativistic by the present epoch. 21 references

  6. Cosmology with decaying particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.S.

    1984-09-01

    We consider a cosmological model in which an unstable massive relic particle species (denoted by X) has an initial mass density relative to baryons ..beta../sup -1/ identically equal rho/sub X//rho/sub B/ >> 1, and then decays recently (redshift z less than or equal to 1000) into particles which are still relativistic today (denoted by R). We write down and solve the coupled equations for the cosmic scale factor a(t), the energy density in the various components (rho/sub X/, rho/sub R/, rho/sub B/), and the growth of linear density perturbations (delta rho/rho). The solutions form a one parameter (..beta..) family of solutions; physically ..beta../sup -1/ approx. = (..cap omega../sub R//..cap omega../sub NR/) x (1 + z/sub D/) = (ratio today of energy density of relativistic to nonrelativistic particles) x (1 + redshift of (decay)). We discuss the observational implications of such a cosmological model and compare our results to earlier results computed in the simultaneous decay approximation. In an appendix we briefly consider the case where one of the decay products of the X is massive and becomes nonrelativistic by the present epoch. 21 references.

  7. Cosmology and philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, V.L.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of establishing boundaries between cosmology and philosophy is discussed. It is stated that the theoretic knowledge and observation data do not contradict the selection of one of non-stationary homogenous and isotropic relativistic models, which are also called the Friedmann models. In this model (with a zero Λ - member) there is a critical value of the substance density which is 10 -29 g/cm 2 . The determination of the average density of the Universe substance relatively to this value enables to choose between a closed and an open Universe model. Nowadays, this problem is not yet solved. But some philosophic theses reject the closed cosmological model without any naturally scientific argumentation. Critical remarks about such an approach to the problem studied are presented. The conclusion is made that the problems of the Universe volume infinity of finity, laws of its evolution in time or the like are not philosophic and should be considered taking into account the data of astronomic observations and modern physics

  8. Progress in quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartle, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    Our observations of the world give us specific facts. Here, there is a galaxy; there is none. Today, there is a supernova explosion; yesterday, there was a star. Here, there are fission fragments; before, there was a uranium nucleus. The task of physics is to compress the message which describes these facts into a shorter form -to compress it, in particular, to a form where the message consists of just a few observed facts together with simple universal laws of nature from which the rest can be deduced. In the past, physics has concentrated on finding dynamical laws which correlate facts at different times. Such laws predict later evolution given observed initial conditions. However, there is no logical reason why we could not look for laws which correlate facts at the same time. Such laws would be, in effect, laws of initial conditions. It was the limited nature of our observations which led to our focus on dynamical laws. Now, however, in cosmology, in the observations of the early universe and even on familiar scales, it is possible to discern regularities of the world which may find a compressed expression in a simple, testable, theory of the initial conditions of the universe as a whole. The search for this law of the initial conditions is the subject of quantum cosmology and the subject whose recent development is reviewed. (author)

  9. Detecting Ancient Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. Gernaey

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Some diseases have played a more significant role in human development than others. Here we describe the results of a trial to diagnose ancient tuberculosis using chemical methods. Palaeo-epidemiological studies of the disease are compromised, but it has become apparent that tuberculosis (TB is a 'population-density dependent' disease. From modern studies, it is also apparent that the prevalence of TB can be used as an indicator of the level of poverty within the studied population. Mid-shaft rib samples from articulated individuals recovered from the former Newcastle Infirmary Burial Ground (1753-1845 AD were examined for mycolic acids that are species-specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The 24% of ribs positive for mycolic acids correlated with the documented 27% tuberculosis prevalence. Mycolic acid biomarkers have the potential to provide an accurate trace of the palaeo-epidemiology of tuberculosis in ancient populations, thereby providing an indication of the overall level of poverty - a useful adjunct for archaeology.

  10. Exploring Ancient Skies A Survey of Ancient and Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H

    2011-01-01

    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers—events such as the supernova of 1054 A.D., the "lion horoscope," and the Star of Bethlehem. Explori...

  11. The cosmological perturbation theory in loop cosmology with holonomy corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jian-Pin; Ling, Yi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the scalar mode of first-order metric perturbations over spatially flat FRW spacetime when the holonomy correction is taken into account in the semi-classical framework of loop quantum cosmology. By means of the Hamiltonian derivation, the cosmological perturbation equations is obtained in longitudinal gauge. It turns out that in the presence of metric perturbation the holonomy effects influence both background and perturbations, and contribute the non-trivial terms S h1 and S h2 in the cosmological perturbation equations

  12. Current Issues in Cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbour, J B [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester (United States)

    2007-02-07

    These colloquium proceedings will be valuable, the blurb says, for graduate students and researchers in cosmology and theoretical astrophysics. Specifically, the book 'looks at both the strengths and weaknesses of the current big bang model in explaining certain puzzling data' and gives a 'comprehensive coverage of the expanding field of cosmology'. The reality is rather different. Conference proceedings rarely compare in value with a solid monograph or good review articles, and Current Issues in Cosmology is no exception. The colloquium was convened by the two editors, who have both long harboured doubts about the big bang, and was held in Paris in June 2004. The proceedings contain 19 presented papers and relatively brief summary comments by four panel speakers. The questions and answers at the end of each talk and a general discussion at the end were recorded and transcribed but contain little of interest. The nature of the colloquium is indicated by panellist Francesco Bertola's comment: 'While in the 1950s it was possible to speak of rival theories in cosmology, now the big-bang picture has no strong rivals. This is confirmed by the fact that out of 1500 members of the IAU Division VIII (Galaxies and the Universe) only a dozen, although bright people, devote their time to the heterodox views.' This was largely a platform for them to give their views. At least half of the dozen, all the 'usual suspects', were present: Geoffery and Margaret Burbidge, Jayant Narlikar, Halton Arp, Chandra Wickramasinghe and, in spirit only but playing a role somewhat like the ghost of Hamlet's father, the late Fred Hoyle. Doubters presented 12 of the 19 papers. Orthodoxy should certainly be challenged and the sociology of science questioned, but I found two main problems with this book. The papers putting the orthodox view are too short, even perfunctory. The most that a serious graduate student would get out of them is a reference

  13. Current Issues in Cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbour, J B

    2007-01-01

    These colloquium proceedings will be valuable, the blurb says, for graduate students and researchers in cosmology and theoretical astrophysics. Specifically, the book 'looks at both the strengths and weaknesses of the current big bang model in explaining certain puzzling data' and gives a 'comprehensive coverage of the expanding field of cosmology'. The reality is rather different. Conference proceedings rarely compare in value with a solid monograph or good review articles, and Current Issues in Cosmology is no exception. The colloquium was convened by the two editors, who have both long harboured doubts about the big bang, and was held in Paris in June 2004. The proceedings contain 19 presented papers and relatively brief summary comments by four panel speakers. The questions and answers at the end of each talk and a general discussion at the end were recorded and transcribed but contain little of interest. The nature of the colloquium is indicated by panellist Francesco Bertola's comment: 'While in the 1950s it was possible to speak of rival theories in cosmology, now the big-bang picture has no strong rivals. This is confirmed by the fact that out of 1500 members of the IAU Division VIII (Galaxies and the Universe) only a dozen, although bright people, devote their time to the heterodox views.' This was largely a platform for them to give their views. At least half of the dozen, all the 'usual suspects', were present: Geoffery and Margaret Burbidge, Jayant Narlikar, Halton Arp, Chandra Wickramasinghe and, in spirit only but playing a role somewhat like the ghost of Hamlet's father, the late Fred Hoyle. Doubters presented 12 of the 19 papers. Orthodoxy should certainly be challenged and the sociology of science questioned, but I found two main problems with this book. The papers putting the orthodox view are too short, even perfunctory. The most that a serious graduate student would get out of them is a reference to a far better review article or book on modern

  14. Authenticity in ancient DNA studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske

    2006-01-01

    Ancient DNA studies represent a powerful tool that can be used to obtain genetic insights into the past. However, despite the publication of large numbers of apparently successful ancient DNA studies, a number of problems exist with the field that are often ignored. Therefore, questions exist as ...

  15. Ancient Biomolecules and Evolutionary Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Prohaska, Ana; Racimo, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Over the last decade, studies of ancient biomolecules-particularly ancient DNA, proteins, and lipids-have revolutionized our understanding of evolutionary history. Though initially fraught with many challenges, the field now stands on firm foundations. Researchers now successfully retrieve nucleo...

  16. Scale-relativistic cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nottale, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    The principle of relativity, when it is applied to scale transformations, leads to the suggestion of a generalization of fundamental dilations laws. These new special scale-relativistic resolution transformations involve log-Lorentz factors and lead to the occurrence of a minimal and of a maximal length-scale in nature, which are invariant under dilations. The minimal length-scale, that replaces the zero from the viewpoint of its physical properties, is identified with the Planck length l P , and the maximal scale, that replaces infinity, is identified with the cosmic scale L=Λ -1/2 , where Λ is the cosmological constant.The new interpretation of the Planck scale has several implications for the structure and history of the early Universe: we consider the questions of the origin, of the status of physical laws at very early times, of the horizon/causality problem and of fluctuations at recombination epoch.The new interpretation of the cosmic scale has consequences for our knowledge of the present universe, concerning in particular Mach's principle, the large number coincidence, the problem of the vacuum energy density, the nature and the value of the cosmological constant. The value (theoretically predicted ten years ago) of the scaled cosmological constant Ω Λ =0.75+/-0.15 is now supported by several different experiments (Hubble diagram of Supernovae, Boomerang measurements, gravitational lensing by clusters of galaxies).The scale-relativity framework also allows one to suggest a solution to the missing mass problem, and to make theoretical predictions of fundamental energy scales, thanks to the interpretation of new structures in scale space: fractal/classical transitions as Compton lengths, mass-coupling relations and critical value 4π 2 of inverse couplings. Among them, we find a structure at 3.27+/-0.26x10 20 eV, which agrees closely with the observed highest energy cosmic rays at 3.2+/-0.9x10 20 eV, and another at 5.3x10 -3 eV, which corresponds to the

  17. Cosmological constant problem and renormalized vacuum energy density in curved background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohri, Kazunori [Theory Center, IPNS, KEK, Tsukuba 305-0801, Ibaraki (Japan); Matsui, Hiroki, E-mail: kohri@post.kek.jp, E-mail: matshiro@post.kek.jp [The Graduate University of Advanced Studies (Sokendai), Tsukuba 305-0801, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2017-06-01

    The current vacuum energy density observed as dark energy ρ{sub dark}≅ 2.5×10{sup −47} GeV{sup 4} is unacceptably small compared with any other scales. Therefore, we encounter serious fine-tuning problem and theoretical difficulty to derive the dark energy. However, the theoretically attractive scenario has been proposed and discussed in literature: in terms of the renormalization-group (RG) running of the cosmological constant, the vacuum energy density can be expressed as ρ{sub vacuum}≅ m {sup 2} H {sup 2} where m is the mass of the scalar field and rather dynamical in curved spacetime. However, there has been no rigorous proof to derive this expression and there are some criticisms about the physical interpretation of the RG running cosmological constant. In the present paper, we revisit the RG running effects of the cosmological constant and investigate the renormalized vacuum energy density in curved spacetime. We demonstrate that the vacuum energy density described by ρ{sub vacuum}≅ m {sup 2} H {sup 2} appears as quantum effects of the curved background rather than the running effects of cosmological constant. Comparing to cosmological observational data, we obtain an upper bound on the mass of the scalar fields to be smaller than the Planck mass, m ∼< M {sub Pl}.

  18. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliya Gounder Palanichamy

    Full Text Available Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade.

  19. Traces of the Gods: Ancient Astronauts as a Vision of Our Future

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Ancient astronaut speculation (also called paleo-SETI), often labeled pseudoscience or modern myth, still awaits in-depth research. Focusing on Erich von Däniken and reconstructing his views on god and cosmology from scattered statements throughout his books, this article analyzes his attitudes toward science and religion as well as his concepts of god and creation. In this regard, his pantheistic combination of the big bang theory with a model of god as supercomputer is of special interest. ...

  20. Characterization of Ancient Tripitaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. X. Gong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tripitaka is the world’s most comprehensive version of Buddhist sutra. There are limited numbers of Tripitaka currently preserved, most of them present various patterns of degradation. As little is known about the materials and crafts used in Tripitaka, it appeared necessary to identify them, and to further define adapted conservation treatment. In this work, a study concerning the paper source and dyestuff of the Tripitaka from approximate 16th century was carried out using fiber analysis and thin-layer chromatography (TLC. The results proved that the papers were mainly made from hemp or bark of mulberry tree, and indigo was used for colorizing the paper. At the end, we provide with suggestions for protecting and restoring the ancient Tripitaka.

  1. Ancient Greek new music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Žužek

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I use a contextual approach to questions about the revolutionary »new music« in ancient Greece. This view is different from the nowadays most common formalistk view. Rather than analyze textual sources stylistically, I will try to present the available lata in the context of the structure and events of the Athenian society at a tirne when a wave of »new« poetics appeared. In the following discussion it is argued that the »new music« and the phenomena of the destruction of mousiké connected with it are not an esthetical novum, but more a consequence of the change of the discursive practice, where a musical poetry became less important and needless.

  2. Inflationary cosmologies from compactification?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the compactification of (d+n)-dimensional pure gravity and of superstring or M-theory on an n-dimensional internal space to a d-dimensional Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology, with a spatial curvature k=0,±1, in the Einstein conformal frame. The internal space is taken to be a product of Einstein spaces, each of which is allowed to have arbitrary curvature and a time-dependent volume. By investigating the effective d-dimensional scalar potential, which is a sum of exponentials, it is shown that such compactifications, in the k=0,+1 cases, do not lead to large amounts of accelerating expansion of the scale factor of the resulting FLRW universe, and, in particular, do not lead to inflation. The case k=-1 admits solutions with eternal accelerating expansion for which the acceleration, however, tends to zero at late times

  3. Cosmology for physicists

    CERN Document Server

    Lyth, David

    2016-01-01

    Written by an award-winning cosmologist, this brand new textbook provides advanced undergraduate and graduate students with coverage of the very latest developments in the observational science of cosmology. The book is separated into three parts; part I covers particle physics and general relativity, part II explores an account of the known history of the universe, and part III studies inflation. Full treatment of the origin of structure, scalar fields, the cosmic microwave background and the early universe are provided. Problems are included in the book with solutions provided in a separate solutions manual. More advanced extension material is offered in the Appendix, ensuring the book is fully accessible to students with a wide variety of background experience.

  4. BMSSM implications for cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, Nicolas; Blum, Kfir; Nir, Yosef; Losada, Marta

    2009-01-01

    The addition of non-renormalizable terms involving the Higgs fields to the MSSM (BMSSM) ameliorates the little hierarchy problem of the MSSM. We analyze in detail the two main cosmological issues affected by the BMSSM: dark matter and baryogenesis. The regions for which the relic abundance of the LSP is consistent with WMAP and collider constraints are identified, showing that the bulk region and other previously excluded regions are now permitted. Requiring vacuum stability limits the allowed regions. Based on a two-loop finite temperature effective potential analysis, we show that the electroweak phase transition can be sufficiently first order in regions that for the MSSM are incompatible with the LEP Higgs mass bound, including parameter values of tan β∼ t -tilde 1 >m t , m Q < < TeV.

  5. Cosmological disformal invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domènech, Guillem; Sasaki, Misao [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Naruko, Atsushi, E-mail: guillem.domenech@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: naruko@th.phys.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2015-10-01

    The invariance of physical observables under disformal transformations is considered. It is known that conformal transformations leave physical observables invariant. However, whether it is true for disformal transformations is still an open question. In this paper, it is shown that a pure disformal transformation without any conformal factor is equivalent to rescaling the time coordinate. Since this rescaling applies equally to all the physical quantities, physics must be invariant under a disformal transformation, that is, neither causal structure, propagation speed nor any other property of the fields are affected by a disformal transformation itself. This fact is presented at the action level for gravitational and matter fields and it is illustrated with some examples of observable quantities. We also find the physical invariance for cosmological perturbations at linear and high orders in perturbation, extending previous studies. Finally, a comparison with Horndeski and beyond Horndeski theories under a disformal transformation is made.

  6. LHC, Astrophysics and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Auriemma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the impact on cosmology of recent results obtained by the LHC (Large Hadron Collider experiments in the 2011-2012 runs, respectively at √s = 7 and 8 TeV. The capital achievement of LHC in this period has been the discovery of a spin-0 particle with mass 126 GeV/c2, very similar to the Higgs boson of the Standard Model of Particle Physics. Less exciting, but not less important, negative results of searches for Supersymmetric particles or other exotica in direct production or rare decays are discussed in connection with particles and V.H.E. astronomy searches for Dark Matter.

  7. Neutrinos in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayler, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    The standard model of the hot big bang cosmological theory, which appears to be in agreement, at least qualitatively, with the observed properties of the Universe, assumes that the early Universe was homogeneous and isotropic and that it has been continuously expanding from a state characterized by very high temperature and density, where matter and radiation were to a good approximation in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium. In this standard model, it is assumed that baryon number, charge number and the various lepton numbers are all conserved. Only the baryon number is non-zero and this, expressed as the ratio of the net number of baryons (baryons minus antibaryons) to the number of photons per unit volume is the undefined parameter in the model. The author discusses the importance of knowing how many types of neutrinos there are with regard to the He 4 abundance, and the implication of a small, non-zero neutrino mass. (Auth.)

  8. Galaxy clusters and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    White, S

    1994-01-01

    Galaxy clusters are the largest coherent objects in Universe. It has been known since 1933 that their dynamical properties require either a modification of the theory of gravity, or the presence of a dominant component of unseen material of unknown nature. Clusters still provide the best laboratories for studying the amount and distribution of this dark matter relative to the material which can be observed directly -- the galaxies themselves and the hot,X-ray-emitting gas which lies between them.Imaging and spectroscopy of clusters by satellite-borne X -ray telescopes has greatly improved our knowledge of the structure and composition of this intergalactic medium. The results permit a number of new approaches to some fundamental cosmological questions,but current indications from the data are contradictory. The observed irregularity of real clusters seems to imply recent formation epochs which would require a universe with approximately the critical density. On the other hand, the large baryon fraction observ...

  9. Decoherence in quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliwell, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    We discuss the manner in which the gravitational field becomes classical in quantum cosmology. This involves two steps. First, one must show that the quantum state of the gravitational field becomes strongly peaked about a set of classical configurations. Second, one must show that the system is in one of a number of states of a relatively permanent nature that have negligible interference with each other. This second step involves decoherence---destruction of the off-diagonal terms in the density matrix, representing interference. To introduce the notion of decoherence, we discuss it in the context of the quantum theory of measurement, following the environment-induced superselection approach of Zurek. We then go on to discuss the application of these ideas to quantum cosmology. We show, in a simple homogeneous isotropic model, that the density matrix of the Universe will decohere if the long-wavelength modes of an inhomogeneous massless scalar field are traced out. These modes effectively act as an environment which continuously ''monitors'' the scale factor. The coherence width is very small except in the neighborhood of a classical bounce. This means that one cannot really say that a classical solution bounces because the notion of classical spacetime does not apply. The coherence width decreases as the scale factor increases, which has implications for the arrow of time. We also show, using decoherence arguments, that the WKB component of the wave function of the Universe which represents expanding universes has negligible interference with the collapsing component. This justifies the usual assumption that they may be treated separately

  10. Cosmological and supernova neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Balantekin, A. B.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Kusakabe, M.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Pehlivan, Y.; Shibagaki, S.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-06-01

    The Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are the pillars of modern cosmology. It has recently been suggested that axion which is a dark matter candidate in the framework of the standard model could condensate in the early universe and induce photon cooling before the epoch of the photon last scattering. Although this may render a solution to the overproduction problem of primordial 7Li abundance, there arises another serious difficulty of overproducing D abundance. We propose a hybrid dark matter model with both axions and relic supersymmetric (SUSY) particles to solve both overproduction problems of the primordial D and 7Li abundances simultaneously. The BBN also serves to constrain the nature of neutrinos. Considering non-thermal photons produced in the decay of the heavy sterile neutrinos due to the magnetic moment, we explore the cosmological constraint on the strength of neutrino magnetic moment consistent with the observed light element abundances. Core-collapse supernovae eject huge flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like 7Li, 11B, 92Nb, 138La and 180Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ13 with predicted and observed supernova-produced abundance ratio 11B/7Li encapsulated in the presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos (SRN) that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter and adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  11. Cosmological and supernova neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajino, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aoki, W. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Balantekin, A. B. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Cheoun, M.-K. [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Hayakawa, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakara-Shirane 2-4, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hidaka, J. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan and Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kusakabe, M. [School of Liberal Arts and Science, Korea Aerospace University, Goyang 412-791 (Korea, Republic of); Mathews, G. J. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Nakamura, K. [Waseda University, Ohkubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Pehlivan, Y. [Mimar Sinan GSÜ, Department of Physics, Şişli, İstanbul 34380 (Turkey); Suzuki, T. [Nihon University, Sakurajosui 3-25-40, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan)

    2014-06-24

    The Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are the pillars of modern cosmology. It has recently been suggested that axion which is a dark matter candidate in the framework of the standard model could condensate in the early universe and induce photon cooling before the epoch of the photon last scattering. Although this may render a solution to the overproduction problem of primordial {sup 7}Li abundance, there arises another serious difficulty of overproducing D abundance. We propose a hybrid dark matter model with both axions and relic supersymmetric (SUSY) particles to solve both overproduction problems of the primordial D and {sup 7}Li abundances simultaneously. The BBN also serves to constrain the nature of neutrinos. Considering non-thermal photons produced in the decay of the heavy sterile neutrinos due to the magnetic moment, we explore the cosmological constraint on the strength of neutrino magnetic moment consistent with the observed light element abundances. Core-collapse supernovae eject huge flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ{sub 13} with predicted and observed supernova-produced abundance ratio {sup 11}B/{sup 7}Li encapsulated in the presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos (SRN) that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter and adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  12. Cosmology and the weak interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)):(Chicago Univ., IL (USA))

    1989-12-01

    The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. This review will emphasize two of its most publicized cosmological connections: Big Bang nucleosynthesis and Dark Matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of Neutrino Flavours, N{sub {nu}} {approximately} 3 which is now being confirmed at SLC and LEP. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galaxy and structure formation in the universe. This review will demonstrate the role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure. 87 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Cosmology and the weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1989-12-01

    The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. This review will emphasize two of its most publicized cosmological connections: Big Bang nucleosynthesis and Dark Matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of Neutrino Flavours, N ν ∼ 3 which is now being confirmed at SLC and LEP. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galaxy and structure formation in the universe. This review will demonstrate the role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure. 87 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  14. A new cosmological paradigm: the cosmological constant and dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Standard Cosmological Model of the 1980 close-quote s is no more. I describe the definitive evidence that the density of matter is insufficient to result in a flat universe, as well as the mounting evidence that the cosmological constant is not zero. I finally discuss the implications of these results for particle physics and direct searches for non-baryonic dark matter. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  15. The cosmological term and a modified Brans-Dicke cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, M.; Fukui, T.

    1977-01-01

    Adding the cosmological term Λ, which is assumed to be variable in this paper, to the Brans-Dicke Lagrangian, an attempt is made to understand the meaning of the term and to relate it to the mass of the universe. The Dirac large-number hypothesis is considered, applying the results obtained from the application of the present theory to a uniform cosmological model. (author)

  16. Cosmological applications in Kaluza—Klein theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanas, M.I.; Nashed, Gamal G. L.; Nowaya, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The field equations of Kaluza—Klein (KK) theory have been applied in the domain of cosmology. These equations are solved for a flat universe by taking the gravitational and the cosmological constants as a function of time t. We use Taylor's expansion of cosmological function, Λ(t), up to the first order of the time t. The cosmological parameters are calculated and some cosmological problems are discussed. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  17. Revisiting Okun's Relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixon, R.; Lim, G.C.; van Ours, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Our paper revisits Okun's relationship between observed unemployment rates and output gaps. We include in the relationship the effect of labour market institutions as well as age and gender effects. Our empirical analysis is based on 20 OECD countries over the period 1985-2013. We find that the

  18. Revisiting the Okun relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixon, R. (Robert); Lim, G.C.; J.C. van Ours (Jan)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractOur article revisits the Okun relationship between observed unemployment rates and output gaps. We include in the relationship the effect of labour market institutions as well as age and gender effects. Our empirical analysis is based on 20 OECD countries over the period 1985–2013. We

  19. Bounded Intention Planning Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Sievers Silvan; Wehrle Martin; Helmert Malte

    2014-01-01

    Bounded intention planning provides a pruning technique for optimal planning that has been proposed several years ago. In addition partial order reduction techniques based on stubborn sets have recently been investigated for this purpose. In this paper we revisit bounded intention planning in the view of stubborn sets.

  20. A Hydrostatic Paradox Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganci, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    This paper revisits a well-known hydrostatic paradox, observed when turning upside down a glass partially filled with water and covered with a sheet of light material. The phenomenon is studied in its most general form by including the mass of the cover. A historical survey of this experiment shows that a common misunderstanding of the phenomenon…

  1. The Faraday effect revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Nenciu, Gheorghe

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series revisiting the (effect of) Faraday rotation. We formulate and prove the thermodynamic limit for the transverse electric conductivity of Bloch electrons, as well as for the Verdet constant. The main mathematical tool is a regularized magnetic and geometric...

  2. Heavy ion collisions and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floerchinger, Stefan

    2016-12-15

    There are interesting parallels between the physics of heavy ion collisions and cosmology. Both systems are out-of-equilibrium and relativistic fluid dynamics plays an important role for their theoretical description. From a comparison one can draw interesting conclusions for both sides. For heavy ion physics it could be rewarding to attempt a theoretical description of fluid perturbations similar to cosmological perturbation theory. In the context of late time cosmology, it could be interesting to study dissipative properties such as shear and bulk viscosity and corresponding relaxation times in more detail. Knowledge and experience from heavy ion physics could help to constrain the microscopic properties of dark matter from observational knowledge of the cosmological fluid properties.

  3. Thermodynamics in Loop Quantum Cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.F.; Zhu, J.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) is very powerful to deal with the behavior of early universe. Moreover, the effective loop quantum cosmology gives a successful description of the universe in the semiclassical region. We consider the apparent horizon of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe as a thermodynamical system and investigate the thermodynamics of LQC in the semiclassical region. The effective density and effective pressure in the modified Friedmann equation from LQC not only determine the evolution of the universe in LQC scenario but also are actually found to be the thermodynamic quantities. This result comes from the energy definition in cosmology (the Misner-Sharp gravitational energy) and is consistent with thermodynamic laws. We prove that within the framework of loop quantum cosmology, the elementary equation of equilibrium thermodynamics is still valid.

  4. Modernism and cosmology absurd lights

    CERN Document Server

    Ebury, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Through examining the work of W. B. Yeats, James Joyce, and Samuel Beckett, Katherine Ebury shows cosmology had a considerable impact on modernist creative strategies, developing alternative reading models of difficult texts such as Finnegans Wake and 'The Trilogy'.

  5. Newtonian cosmology Newton would understand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemons, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    Isaac Newton envisioned a static, infinite, and initially uniform, zero field universe that was gravitationally unstable to local condensations of matter. By postulating the existence of such a universe and using it as a boundary condition on Newtonian gravity, a new field equation for gravity is derived, which differs from the classical one by a time-dependent cosmological term proportional to the average mass density of the universe. The new field equation not only makes Jeans' analysis of the gravitational instability of a Newtonian universe consistent, but also gives rise to a family of Newtonian evolutionary cosmologies parametrized by a time-invariant expansion velocity. This Newtonian cosmology contrasts with both 19th-century ones and with post general relativity Newtonian cosmology

  6. Introduction. Cosmology meets condensed matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, T W B; Pickett, G R

    2008-08-28

    At first sight, low-temperature condensed-matter physics and early Universe cosmology seem worlds apart. Yet, in the last few years a remarkable synergy has developed between the two. It has emerged that, in terms of their mathematical description, there are surprisingly close parallels between them. This interplay has been the subject of a very successful European Science Foundation (ESF) programme entitled COSLAB ('Cosmology in the Laboratory') that ran from 2001 to 2006, itself built on an earlier ESF network called TOPDEF ('Topological Defects: Non-equilibrium Field Theory in Particle Physics, Condensed Matter and Cosmology'). The articles presented in this issue of Philosophical Transactions A are based on talks given at the Royal Society Discussion Meeting 'Cosmology meets condensed matter', held on 28 and 29 January 2008. Many of the speakers had participated earlier in the COSLAB programme, but the strength of the field is illustrated by the presence also of quite a few new participants.

  7. Cosmological principles. II. Physical principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, E.R.

    1974-01-01

    The discussion of cosmological principle covers the uniformity principle of the laws of physics, the gravitation and cognizability principles, and the Dirac creation, chaos, and bootstrap principles. (U.S.)

  8. Cosmology and unified gauge theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oraifeartaigh, L.

    1981-09-01

    Theoretical points in common between cosmology and unified gauge theory (UGT) are reviewed, with attention given to areas of one which have proven useful for the other. The underlying principles for both theoretical frameworks are described, noting the differences in scale, i.e., 10 to the 25th cm in cosmology and 10 to the -15th cm for UGT. Cosmology has produced bounds on the number of existing neutrino species, and also on the mass of neutrinos, two factors of interest in particle physics. Electrons, protons, and neutrinos, having been spawned from the same massive leptons, each composed of three quarks, have been predicted to be present in equal numbers in the Universe by UGT, in line with necessities of cosmology. The Grand UGT also suggests specific time scales for proton decay, thus accounting for the observed baryon assymmetry.

  9. Evolution in bouncing quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielczarek, Jakub; Piechocki, Włodzimierz

    2012-01-01

    We present the method of describing an evolution in quantum cosmology in the framework of the reduced phase space quantization of loop cosmology. We apply our method to the flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model coupled to a massless scalar field. We identify the physical quantum Hamiltonian that is positive-definite and generates globally a unitary evolution of the considered quantum system. We examine the properties of expectation values of physical observables in the process of the quantum big bounce transition. The dispersion of evolved observables is studied for the Gaussian state. Calculated relative fluctuations enable an examination of the semi-classicality conditions and possible occurrence of the cosmic forgetfulness. Preliminary estimations based on the cosmological data suggest that there was no cosmic amnesia. Presented results are analytical, and numerical computations are only used for the visualization purposes. Our method may be generalized to sophisticated cosmological models including the Bianchi-type universes. (paper)

  10. Precision cosmology and the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael

    2006-01-01

    After reviewing the cosmological constant problem--why is Lambda not huge?--I outline the two basic approaches that had emerged by the late 1980s, and note that each made a clear prediction. Precision cosmological experiments now indicate that the cosmological constant is nonzero. This result strongly favors the environmental approach, in which vacuum energy can vary discretely among widely separated regions in the universe. The need to explain this variation from first principles constitutes an observational constraint on fundamental theory. I review arguments that string theory satisfies this constraint, as it contains a dense discretuum of metastable vacua. The enormous landscape of vacua calls for novel, statistical methods of deriving predictions, and it prompts us to reexamine our description of spacetime on the largest scales. I discuss the effects of cosmological dynamics, and I speculate that weighting vacua by their entropy production may allow for prior-free predictions that do not resort to explicitly anthropic arguments

  11. Chaos, decoherence and quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calzetta, Esteban

    2012-01-01

    In this topical review we discuss the connections between chaos, decoherence and quantum cosmology. We understand chaos as classical chaos in systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom, decoherence as environment induced decoherence and quantum cosmology as the theory of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation or else the consistent history formulation thereof, first in mini super spaces and later through its extension to midi super spaces. The overall conclusion is that consideration of decoherence is necessary (and probably sufficient) to sustain an interpretation of quantum cosmology based on the wavefunction of the Universe adopting a Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin form for large Universes, but a definitive account of the semiclassical transition in classically chaotic cosmological models is not available in the literature yet. (topical review)

  12. Physical and Relativistic Numerical Cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anninos, Peter

    1998-01-01

    In order to account for the observable Universe, any comprehensive theory or model of cosmology must draw from many disciplines of physics, including gauge theories of strong and weak interactions, the hydrodynamics and microphysics of baryonic matter, electromagnetic fields, and spacetime curvature, for example. Although it is difficult to incorporate all these physical elements into a single complete model of our Universe, advances in computing methods and technologies have contributed significantly towards our understanding of cosmological models, the Universe, and astrophysical processes within them. A sample of numerical calculations addressing specific issues in cosmology are reviewed in this article: from the Big Bang singularity dynamics to the fundamental interactions of gravitational waves; from the quark-hadron phase transition to the large scale structure of the Universe. The emphasis, although not exclusively, is on those calculations designed to test different models of cosmology against the observed Universe.

  13. Physical and Relativistic Numerical Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Anninos

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to account for the observable Universe, any comprehensive theory or model of cosmology must draw from many disciplines of physics, including gauge theories of strong and weak interactions, the hydrodynamics and microphysics of baryonic matter, electromagnetic fields, and spacetime curvature, for example. Although it is difficult to incorporate all these physical elements into a single complete model of our Universe, advances in computing methods and technologies have contributed significantly towards our understanding of cosmological models, the Universe, and astrophysical processes within them. A sample of numerical calculations addressing specific issues in cosmology are reviewed in this article: from the Big Bang singularity dynamics to the fundamental interactions of gravitational waves; from the quark--hadron phase transition to the large scale structure of the Universe. The emphasis, although not exclusively, is on those calculations designed to test different models of cosmology against the observed Universe.

  14. Three Studies in Epicurean Cosmology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, F.A.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three studies dealing with various aspects of Epicurean cosmology. The first study discusses the Epicurean practice of explaining astronomical and meteorological phenomena by multiple alternative theories. The second study compares the meteorological accounts of

  15. Bimetric gravity is cosmologically viable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashar Akrami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bimetric theory describes gravitational interactions in the presence of an extra spin-2 field. Previous work has suggested that its cosmological solutions are generically plagued by instabilities. We show that by taking the Planck mass for the second metric, Mf, to be small, these instabilities can be pushed back to unobservably early times. In this limit, the theory approaches general relativity with an effective cosmological constant which is, remarkably, determined by the spin-2 interaction scale. This provides a late-time expansion history which is extremely close to ΛCDM, but with a technically-natural value for the cosmological constant. We find Mf should be no larger than the electroweak scale in order for cosmological perturbations to be stable by big-bang nucleosynthesis. We further show that in this limit the helicity-0 mode is no longer strongly-coupled at low energy scales.

  16. HAWKING'S Theory of Quantum Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Fang Li; Chao, Wu Zhong

    The most important problem in cosmology is the birth of the universe. Recently Hartle and Hawking put forward a ground state proposal for the quantum state of the universe which incorporates the idea that the universe must come from nothing. Many models have been discussed in quantum cosmology with this boundary condition. It has been shown that every model is a step towards to a realistic universe, i.e. a 4-dimensional isotropic universe with a long inflationary stage.

  17. Quantum cosmology on the worldsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, A.R.; Susskind, L.; Thorlacius, L.

    1991-08-01

    Two-dimensional quantum gravity coupled to conformally invariant matter central c > 25 provides a toy model for quantum gravity in four dimensions. Two-dimensional quantum cosmology can thus be studied in terms of string theory in background fields. The large scale cosmological constant depends on non-linear dynamics in the string theory target space and does not appear to be suppressed by wormhole effects. 13 refs

  18. [Ancient Egyptian Odontology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghult, B

    1999-01-01

    In ancient Egypt during the reign of Pharaoh Djoser, circa 2650 BC, the Step Pyramid was constructed by Imhotep. He was later worshiped as the God of Medicine. One of his contemporaries was the powerful writer Hesy who is reproduced on a panel showing a rebus of a swallow, a tusk and an arrow. He is therefore looked upon as being the first depicted odontologist. The art of writing begun in Egypt in about 3100 BC and the medical texts we know from different papyri were copied with hieratic signs around 1900-1100 BC. One of the most famous is the Papyrus Ebers. It was purchased by professor Ebers on a research travel to Luxor in 1873. Two years later a beautiful facsimile in color was published and the best translation came in 1958 in German. The text includes 870 remedies and some of them are related to teeth and oral troubles like pain in the mouth, gingivitis, periodontitis and cavities in the teeth. The most common oral pain was probably pulpitis caused by extreme attrition due to the high consumption of bread contaminated with soil and/or quern minerals. Another text is the Papyrus Edwin Smith with four surgical cases of dental interest. The "toothworms" that were presumed to bring about decayed teeth have not been identified in the medical texts. It was not until 1889 W.D. Miller presented a scientific explanation that cavities were caused by bacteria. In spite of extensive research only a few evidence of prosthetic and invasive treatments have been found and these dental artifacts have probably been made post mortem. Some of the 150 identified doctors were associated with treatments of disorders of the mouth. The stele of Seneb from Sa'is during the 26th dynasty of Psamtik, 664-525 BC, shows a young man who probably was a dental healer well known to Pharaoh and his court. Clement of Alexandria mentions circa 200 AD that the written knowledge of the old Egyptians was gathered in 42 collections of papyri. Number 37-42 contained the medical writings. The

  19. Higgs Physics and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Alex

    2016-08-01

    Recently, a new framework for describing the multiverse has been proposed which is based on the principles of quantum mechanics. The framework allows for well-defined predictions, both regarding global properties of the universe and outcomes of particular experiments, according to a single probability formula. This provides complete unification of the eternally inflating multiverse and many worlds in quantum mechanics. We elucidate how cosmological parameters can be calculated in this framework, and study the probability distribution for the value of the cosmological constant. We consider both positive and negative values, and find that the observed value is consistent with the calculated distribution at an order of magnitude level. In particular, in contrast to the case of earlier measure proposals, our framework prefers a positive cosmological constant over a negative one. These results depend only moderately on how we model galaxy formation and life evolution therein. We explore supersymmetric theories in which the Higgs mass is boosted by the non-decoupling D-terms of an extended U(1) X gauge symmetry, defined here to be a general linear combination of hypercharge, baryon number, and lepton number. Crucially, the gauge coupling, gX, is bounded from below to accommodate the Higgs mass, while the quarks and leptons are required by gauge invariance to carry non-zero charge under U(1)X. This induces an irreducible rate, sigmaBR, for pp → X → ll relevant to existing and future resonance searches, and gives rise to higher dimension operators that are stringently constrained by precision electroweak measurements. Combined, these bounds define a maximally allowed region in the space of observables, (sigmaBR, mX), outside of which is excluded by naturalness and experimental limits. If natural supersymmetry utilizes non-decoupling D-terms, then the associated X boson can only be observed within this window, providing a model independent 'litmus test' for this broad

  20. Was Newtonian cosmology really inconsistent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Peter

    This paper follows up a debate as to the consistency of Newtonian cosmology. Whereas Malament [(1995). Is Newtonian cosmology really inconsistent? Philosophy of Science 62, 489-510] has shown that Newtonian cosmology is not inconsistent, to date there has been no analysis of Norton's claim [(1995). The force of Newtonian cosmology: Acceleration is relative. Philosophy of Science 62, 511-522.] that Newtonian cosmology was inconsistent prior to certain advances in the 1930s, and in particular prior to Seeliger's seminal paper of Seeliger [(1895). Über das Newton'sche Gravitationsgesetz. Astronomische Nachrichten 137 (3273), 129-136.] In this paper I agree that there are assumptions, Newtonian and cosmological in character, and relevant to the real history of science, which are inconsistent. But there are some important corrections to make to Norton's account. Here I display for the first time the inconsistencies-four in total-in all their detail. Although this extra detail shows there to be several different inconsistencies, it also goes some way towards explaining why they went unnoticed for 200 years.

  1. Quantum cosmology and baby universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishchuk, L.P.

    1990-01-01

    The contributed papers presented to the workshop on ''Quantum Cosmology and Baby Universes'' have demonstrated the great interest in, and rapid development of, the field of quantum cosmology. In my view, there are at least three areas of active research at present. The first area can be defined as that of practical calculations. Here researchers are dealing with the basic quantum cosmological equation, which is the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. They try to classify all possible solutions to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation or seek a specific integration contour in order to select one particular wave function or generalize the simple minisuperspace models to more complicated cases, including various inhomogeneities, anisotropies, etc. The second area of research deals with the interpretational issues of quantum cosmology. There are still many questions about how to extract the observational consequences from a given cosmological wave function, the role of time in quantum cosmology, and how to reformulate the rules of quantum mechanics in such a way that they could be applicable to the single system which is our Universe. The third area of research is concerned with the so-called ''third quantization'' of gravity. In this approach a wave function satisfying the Wheeler-DeWitt equation becomes an operator acting on a Wave Function of the many-universes system. Within this approach one operates with Euclidean worm-holes joining different Lorentzian universes. (author)

  2. Parameterized post-Newtonian cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghai, Viraj A A; Clifton, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Einstein’s theory of gravity has been extensively tested on solar system scales, and for isolated astrophysical systems, using the perturbative framework known as the parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism. This framework is designed for use in the weak-field and slow-motion limit of gravity, and can be used to constrain a large class of metric theories of gravity with data collected from the aforementioned systems. Given the potential of future surveys to probe cosmological scales to high precision, it is a topic of much contemporary interest to construct a similar framework to link Einstein’s theory of gravity and its alternatives to observations on cosmological scales. Our approach to this problem is to adapt and extend the existing PPN formalism for use in cosmology. We derive a set of equations that use the same parameters to consistently model both weak fields and cosmology. This allows us to parameterize a large class of modified theories of gravity and dark energy models on cosmological scales, using just four functions of time. These four functions can be directly linked to the background expansion of the universe, first-order cosmological perturbations, and the weak-field limit of the theory. They also reduce to the standard PPN parameters on solar system scales. We illustrate how dark energy models and scalar-tensor and vector-tensor theories of gravity fit into this framework, which we refer to as ‘parameterized post-Newtonian cosmology’ (PPNC). (paper)

  3. Cosmology of a charged universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, A.

    1979-01-01

    The Proca generalization of electrodynamics admits the possibility that the universe could possess a net electric charge uniformly distributed throughout space, while possessing no electric field. A charged intergalactic (and intragalactic) medium of this kind could contain enough energy to be of cosmological importance. A general-relativistic model of cosmological expansion dominated by such a charged background has been calculated, and is consistent with present observational limits on the Hubble constant, the decleration parameter, and the age of the universe. However, if this cosmology applied at the present epoch, the very early expansion of the universe would have been much more rapid than in conventional ''big bang'' cosmologies, too rapid for cosmological nucleosynthesis or thermalization of the background radiation to have occurred. Hence, domination of the present expansion by background charge appears to be incompatible with the 3 K background and big-bang production of light elements. If the present background charge density were sufficiently small (but not strictly zero), expansion from the epoch of nucleosynthesis would proceed according to the conventional scenario, but the energy due to the background charge would have dominated at some earlier epoch. This last possibility leads to equality of pressure and energy density in the primordial universe, a condition of special significance in certain cosmological theories

  4. Parameterized post-Newtonian cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghai, Viraj A. A.; Clifton, Timothy

    2017-03-01

    Einstein’s theory of gravity has been extensively tested on solar system scales, and for isolated astrophysical systems, using the perturbative framework known as the parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism. This framework is designed for use in the weak-field and slow-motion limit of gravity, and can be used to constrain a large class of metric theories of gravity with data collected from the aforementioned systems. Given the potential of future surveys to probe cosmological scales to high precision, it is a topic of much contemporary interest to construct a similar framework to link Einstein’s theory of gravity and its alternatives to observations on cosmological scales. Our approach to this problem is to adapt and extend the existing PPN formalism for use in cosmology. We derive a set of equations that use the same parameters to consistently model both weak fields and cosmology. This allows us to parameterize a large class of modified theories of gravity and dark energy models on cosmological scales, using just four functions of time. These four functions can be directly linked to the background expansion of the universe, first-order cosmological perturbations, and the weak-field limit of the theory. They also reduce to the standard PPN parameters on solar system scales. We illustrate how dark energy models and scalar-tensor and vector-tensor theories of gravity fit into this framework, which we refer to as ‘parameterized post-Newtonian cosmology’ (PPNC).

  5. Ancient and Current Chaos Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güngör Gündüz

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Chaos theories developed in the last three decades have made very important contributions to our understanding of dynamical systems and natural phenomena. The meaning of chaos in the current theories and in the past is somewhat different from each other. In this work, the properties of dynamical systems and the evolution of chaotic systems were discussed in terms of the views of ancient philosophers. The meaning of chaos in Anaximenes’ philosophy and its role in the Ancient natural philosophy has been discussed in relation to other natural philosophers such as of Anaximander, Parmenides, Heraclitus, Empedocles, Leucippus (i.e. atomists and Aristotle. In addition, the fundamental concepts of statistical mechanics and the current chaos theories were discussed in relation to the views in Ancient natural philosophy. The roots of the scientific concepts such as randomness, autocatalysis, nonlinear growth, information, pattern, etc. in the Ancient natural philosophy were investigated.

  6. Crucial test of the Dirac cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steigman, G.

    1978-01-01

    In a cosmology consistent with the Cosmological Principle (large scale, statistical isotropy and homogeneity of the universe), a Planck spectrum is not preserved as the universe evolves unless the number of photons in a comoving volume is conserved. It is shown that a large class of cosmological models based on Dirac's Large Numbers Hypothesis (LNH) violate this constraint. The observed isotropy and spectral distribution of the microwave background radiation thus provide a crucial test of such cosmologies. After reviewing the LNH, the general evolution of radiation spectra in cosmologies consistent with the cosmological principle is outlined. It is shown that the predicted deviations from a Planck spectrum for Dirac cosmologies (as well as for ''tired-light'' cosmologies) are enormous. The Planckian (or near-Planckian) spectral form for the microwave radiation provides a crucial test, failed by such cosmologies

  7. Axion cold dark matter in nonstandard cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visinelli, Luca; Gondolo, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    We study the parameter space of cold dark matter axions in two cosmological scenarios with nonstandard thermal histories before big bang nucleosynthesis: the low-temperature reheating (LTR) cosmology and the kination cosmology. If the Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaks during inflation, we find more allowed parameter space in the LTR cosmology than in the standard cosmology and less in the kination cosmology. On the contrary, if the Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaks after inflation, the Peccei-Quinn scale is orders of magnitude higher than standard in the LTR cosmology and lower in the kination cosmology. We show that the axion velocity dispersion may be used to distinguish some of these nonstandard cosmologies. Thus, axion cold dark matter may be a good probe of the history of the Universe before big bang nucleosynthesis.

  8. Dark matter and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between ``cold`` and ``hot`` non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed ``seeds`` that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.

  9. Dark matter and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between cold'' and hot'' non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed seeds'' that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.

  10. Cosmology for the curious

    CERN Document Server

    Perlov, Delia

    2017-01-01

    This book is an introductory text for all those wishing to learn about modern views of the cosmos. Our universe originated in a great explosion – the big bang. For nearly a century cosmologists have studied the aftermath of this explosion: how the universe expanded and cooled down, and how galaxies were gradually assembled by gravity. The nature of the bang itself has come into focus only relatively recently. It is the subject of the theory of cosmic inflation, which was developed in the last few decades and has led to a radically new global view of the universe. Students and other interested readers will find here a non-technical but conceptually rigorous account of modern cosmological ideas - describing what we know, and how we know it. One of the book's central themes is the scientific quest to find answers to the ultimate cosmic questions: Is the universe finite or infinite? Has it existed forever? If not, when and how did it come into being? Will it ever end? The book is based on the undergraduate cour...

  11. Entropy, matter, and cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigogine, I; Géhéniau, J

    1986-09-01

    The role of irreversible processes corresponding to creation of matter in general relativity is investigated. The use of Landau-Lifshitz pseudotensors together with conformal (Minkowski) coordinates suggests that this creation took place in the early universe at the stage of the variation of the conformal factor. The entropy production in this creation process is calculated. It is shown that these dissipative processes lead to the possibility of cosmological models that start from empty conditions and gradually build up matter and entropy. Gravitational entropy takes a simple meaning as associated to the entropy that is necessary to produce matter. This leads to an extension of the third law of thermodynamics, as now the zero point of entropy becomes the space-time structure out of which matter is generated. The theory can be put into a convenient form using a supplementary "C" field in Einstein's field equations. The role of the C field is to express the coupling between gravitation and matter leading to irreversible entropy production.

  12. Early cosmology constrained

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul [Institute of Cosmos Sciences, University of Barcelona, IEEC-UB, Martí Franquès, 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Bellini, Emilio [University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Pigozzo, Cassio [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Heavens, Alan F., E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: emilio.bellini@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: cpigozzo@ufba.br, E-mail: a.heavens@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: raul.jimenez@icc.ub.edu [Imperial Centre for Inference and Cosmology (ICIC), Imperial College, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-01

    We investigate our knowledge of early universe cosmology by exploring how much additional energy density can be placed in different components beyond those in the ΛCDM model. To do this we use a method to separate early- and late-universe information enclosed in observational data, thus markedly reducing the model-dependency of the conclusions. We find that the 95% credibility regions for extra energy components of the early universe at recombination are: non-accelerating additional fluid density parameter Ω{sub MR} < 0.006 and extra radiation parameterised as extra effective neutrino species 2.3 < N {sub eff} < 3.2 when imposing flatness. Our constraints thus show that even when analyzing the data in this largely model-independent way, the possibility of hiding extra energy components beyond ΛCDM in the early universe is seriously constrained by current observations. We also find that the standard ruler, the sound horizon at radiation drag, can be well determined in a way that does not depend on late-time Universe assumptions, but depends strongly on early-time physics and in particular on additional components that behave like radiation. We find that the standard ruler length determined in this way is r {sub s} = 147.4 ± 0.7 Mpc if the radiation and neutrino components are standard, but the uncertainty increases by an order of magnitude when non-standard dark radiation components are allowed, to r {sub s} = 150 ± 5 Mpc.

  13. Cosmology with exponential potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehagias, Alex; Kofinas, Georgios

    2004-01-01

    We examine in the context of general relativity the dynamics of a spatially flat Robertson-Walker universe filled with a classical minimally coupled scalar field φ of exponential potential V(φ) ∼ exp(-μφ) plus pressureless baryonic matter. This system is reduced to a first-order ordinary differential equation for Ω φ (w φ ) or q(w φ ), providing direct evidence on the acceleration/deceleration properties of the system. As a consequence, for positive potentials, passage into acceleration not at late times is generically a feature of the system for any value of μ, even when the late-times attractors are decelerating. Furthermore, the structure formation bound, together with the constraints Ω m0 ∼ 0.25 - 0.3, -1 ≤ w φ0 ≤ -0.6, provides, independently of initial conditions and other parameters, the necessary condition 0 N , while the less conservative constraint -1 ≤ w φ ≤ -0.93 gives 0 N . Special solutions are found to possess intervals of acceleration. For the almost cosmological constant case w φ ∼ -1, the general relation Ω φ (w φ ) is obtained. The generic (nonlinearized) late-times solution of the system in the plane (w φ , Ω φ ) or (w φ , q) is also derived

  14. Dark matter and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the Ω = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between ''cold'' and ''hot'' non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed ''seeds'' that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed

  15. Nuclear physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1989-12-01

    Nuclear physics has provided one of the 2 critical observational tests of all Big Bang cosmology, namely Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Furthermore, this same nuclear physics input enables a prediction to be made about one of the most fundamental physics questions of all, the number of elementary particle families. This paper reviews the standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis arguments. The primordial He abundance is inferred from He--C and He--N and He--O correlations. The strengthened Li constraint as well as 2 D plus 3 He are used to limit the baryon density. This limit is the key argument behind the need for non-baryonic dark matter. The allowed number of neutrino families, N ν , is delineated using the new neutron lifetime value of τ n = 890 ± 4s (τ 1/2 = 10.3 min). The formal statistical result is N ν = 2.6 ± 0.3 (1σ) providing a reasonable fit (1.3σ) to 3 families but making a fourth light (m ν approx-lt 10 MeV) neutrino family exceedingly unlikely (approx-gt 4.7σ) (barring significant systematic errors either in D + 3 He, and Li and/or 4 He and/or τ n ). It is also shown that uncertainties induced by postulating a first-order quark-hadron phase transition do not seriously affect the conclusions. 21 refs., 3 figs

  16. Cosmological quantum entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; Menicucci, Nicolas C

    2012-01-01

    We review recent literature on the connection between quantum entanglement and cosmology, with an emphasis on the context of expanding universes. We discuss recent theoretical results reporting on the production of entanglement in quantum fields due to the expansion of the underlying spacetime. We explore how these results are affected by the statistics of the field (bosonic or fermionic), the type of expansion (de Sitter or asymptotically stationary), and the coupling to spacetime curvature (conformal or minimal). We then consider the extraction of entanglement from a quantum field by coupling to local detectors and how this procedure can be used to distinguish curvature from heating by their entanglement signature. We review the role played by quantum fluctuations in the early universe in nucleating the formation of galaxies and other cosmic structures through their conversion into classical density anisotropies during and after inflation. We report on current literature attempting to account for this transition in a rigorous way and discuss the importance of entanglement and decoherence in this process. We conclude with some prospects for further theoretical and experimental research in this area. These include extensions of current theoretical efforts, possible future observational pursuits, and experimental analogues that emulate these cosmic effects in a laboratory setting. (paper)

  17. Nuclear physics and cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, David N.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear physics has provided one of two critical observational tests of all Big Bang cosmology, namely Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Furthermore, this same nuclear physics input enables a prediction to be made about one of the most fundamental physics questions of all, the number of elementary particle families. The standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis arguments are reviewed. The primordial He abundance is inferred from He-C and He-N and He-O correlations. The strengthened Li constraint as well as D-2 plus He-3 are used to limit the baryon density. This limit is the key argument behind the need for non-baryonic dark matter. The allowed number of neutrino families, N(nu), is delineated using the new neutron lifetime value of tau(n) = 890 + or - 4s (tau(1/2) = 10.3 min). The formal statistical result is N(nu) = 2.6 + or - 0.3 (1 sigma), providing a reasonable fit (1.3 sigma) to three families but making a fourth light (m(nu) less than or equal to 10 MeV) neutrino family exceedly unlikely (approx. greater than 4.7 sigma). It is also shown that uncertainties induced by postulating a first-order quark-baryon phase transition do not seriously affect the conclusions.

  18. Cosmological helium production simplified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, J.; Brown, L.S.; Feinberg, G.

    1988-01-01

    We present a simplified model of helium synthesis in the early universe. The purpose of the model is to explain clearly the physical ideas relevant to the cosmological helium synthesis, in a manner that does not overlay these ideas with complex computer calculations. The model closely follows the standard calculation, except that it neglects the small effect of Fermi-Dirac statistics for the leptons. We also neglect the temperature difference between photons and neutrinos during the period in which neutrons and protons interconvert. These approximations allow us to express the neutron-proton conversion rates in a closed form, which agrees to 10% accuracy or better with the exact rates. Using these analytic expressions for the rates, we reduce the calculation of the neutron-proton ratio as a function of temperature to a simple numerical integral. We also estimate the effect of neutron decay on the helium abundance. Our result for this quantity agrees well with precise computer calculations. We use our semi-analytic formulas to determine how the predicted helium abundance varies with such parameters as the neutron life-time, the baryon to photon ratio, the number of neutrino species, and a possible electron-neutrino chemical potential. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  19. New ekpyrotic cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchbinder, Evgeny I.; Khoury, Justin; Ovrut, Burt A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new scenario of the early universe that contains a pre-big bang ekpyrotic phase. By combining this with a ghost condensate, the theory explicitly violates the null energy condition without developing any ghostlike instabilities. Thus the contracting universe goes through a nonsingular bounce and evolves smoothly into the expanding post-big bang phase. The curvature perturbation acquires a scale-invariant spectrum well before the bounce in this scenario. It is sourced by the scale-invariant entropy perturbation engendered by two ekpyrotic scalar fields, a mechanism recently proposed by Lehners et al. Since the background geometry is nonsingular at all times, the curvature perturbation remains nearly constant on superhorizon scales. It emerges from the bounce unscathed and imprints a scale-invariant spectrum of density fluctuations in the matter-radiation fluid at the onset of the hot big bang phase. The ekpyrotic potential can be chosen so that the spectrum has a red tilt, in accordance with the recent data from WMAP. As in the original ekpyrotic scenario, the model predicts a negligible gravity wave signal on all observable scales. As such ''new ekpyrotic cosmology'' provides a consistent and distinguishable alternative to inflation to account for the origin of the seeds of large-scale structure

  20. Chain inflation revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chialva, Diego; Danielsson, Ulf H

    2008-01-01

    This paper represents an in-depth treatment of the chain inflation scenario. We fully determine the evolution of the universe in the model, the conditions necessary in order to have a successful inflationary period, and the matching with the observational results regarding the cosmological perturbations. We study in great detail, and in general, the dynamics of the background, as well as the mechanism of generation of the perturbations. We also find an explicit formula for the spectrum of adiabatic perturbations. Our results prove that chain inflation is a viable model for solving the horizon, entropy and flatness problems of standard cosmology and for generating the right amount of adiabatic cosmological perturbations. The results are radically different from those found in previous works on the subject. Finally, we argue that there is a natural way to embed chain inflation into flux compactified string theory. We discuss the details of the implementation and how to fit observations

  1. Reconstructing ancient genomes and epigenomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-01-01

    DNA studies have now progressed to whole-genome sequencing for an increasing number of ancient individuals and extinct species, as well as to epigenomic characterization. Such advances have enabled the sequencing of specimens of up to 1 million years old, which, owing to their extensive DNA damage...... and contamination, were previously not amenable to genetic analyses. In this Review, we discuss these varied technical challenges and solutions for sequencing ancient genomes and epigenomes....

  2. Implications of a decay law for the cosmological constant in higher dimensional cosmology and cosmological wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rami, El-Nabulsi Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Higher dimensional cosmological implications of a decay law for the cosmological constant term are analyzed. Three independent cosmological models are explored mainly: 1) In the first model, the effective cosmological constant was chosen to decay with times like Δ effective = Ca -2 + D(b/a I ) 2 where a I is an arbitrary scale factor characterizing the isotropic epoch which proceeds the graceful exit period. Further, the extra-dimensional scale factor decays classically like b(t) approx. a x (t), x is a real negative number. 2) In the second model, we adopt in addition to Δ effective = Ca -2 + D(b/a I ) 2 the phenomenological law b(t) = a(t)exp( -Qt) as we expect that at the origin of time, there is no distinction between the visible and extra dimensions; Q is a real number. 3) In the third model, we study a Δ - decaying extra-dimensional cosmology with a static traversable wormhole in which the four-dimensional Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime is subject to the conventional perfect fluid while the extra-dimensional part is endowed by an exotic fluid violating strong energy condition and where the cosmological constant in (3+n+1) is assumed to decays like Δ(a) = 3Ca -2 . The three models are discussed and explored in some details where many interesting points are revealed. (author)

  3. New inflation revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandenberger, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    Cosmological phase transitions are examined using a new approach based on the dynamical analysis of the equations of motion of quantum fields rather than on static effective potential considerations. In many models the universe enters a period of exponential expansion required for an inflationary cosmology. Analytical methods show that this will be the case if the interaction rate due to quantum field nonlinearities is small compared to the expansion rate of the universe. They derive a heuristic criterion for the maximal value of the coupling constant for which they expect inflation. The prediction is in good agreement with numerical results

  4. Cosmological tests of modified gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kazuya

    2016-04-01

    We review recent progress in the construction of modified gravity models as alternatives to dark energy as well as the development of cosmological tests of gravity. Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR) has been tested accurately within the local universe i.e. the Solar System, but this leaves the possibility open that it is not a good description of gravity at the largest scales in the Universe. This being said, the standard model of cosmology assumes GR on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. In this review, we first give an overview of recent developments in modified gravity theories including f(R) gravity, braneworld gravity, Horndeski theory and massive/bigravity theory. We then focus on common properties these models share, such as screening mechanisms they use to evade the stringent Solar System tests. Once armed with a theoretical knowledge of modified gravity models, we move on to discuss how we can test modifications of gravity on cosmological scales. We present tests of gravity using linear cosmological perturbations and review the latest constraints on deviations from the standard [Formula: see text]CDM model. Since screening mechanisms leave distinct signatures in the non-linear structure formation, we also review novel astrophysical tests of gravity using clusters, dwarf galaxies and stars. The last decade has seen a number of new constraints placed on gravity from astrophysical to cosmological scales. Thanks to on-going and future surveys, cosmological tests of gravity will enjoy another, possibly even more, exciting ten years.

  5. Effect of the cosmological constant on the deflection angle by a rotating cosmic string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusufi, Kimet; Övgün, Ali

    2018-03-01

    We report the effect of the cosmological constant and the internal energy density of a cosmic string on the deflection angle of light in the spacetime of a rotating cosmic string with internal structure. We first revisit the deflection angle by a rotating cosmic string and then provide a generalization using the geodesic equations and the Gauss-Bonnet theorem. We show there is an agreement between the two methods when employing higher-order terms of the linear mass density of the cosmic string. By modifying the integration domain for the global conical topology, we resolve the inconsistency between these two methods previously reported in the literature. We show that the deflection angle is not affected by the rotation of the cosmic string; however, the cosmological constant Λ strongly affects the deflection angle, which generalizes the well-known result.

  6. Partial rip scenario - a cosmology with a growing cosmological term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefancic, H.

    2004-01-01

    A cosmology with the growing cosmological term is considered. If there is no exchange of energy between vacuum and matter components, the requirement of general covariance implies the time dependence of the gravitational constant G. Irrespectively of the exact functional form of the cosmological term growth, the universe ends in a de Sitter regime with a constant asymptotic Λ, but vanishing G. Although there is no divergence of the scale factor in finite time, such as in the 'Big Rip' scenario, gravitationally bound systems eventually become unbound. In the case of systems bound by non-gravitational forces, there is no unbounding effect, as the asymptotic Λ is insufficiently large to disturb these systems

  7. Entropy and cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, M. H.

    This paper is a critical analysis and reassessment of entropic functioning as it applies to the question of whether the ultimate fate of the universe will be determined in the future to be "open" (expanding forever to expire in a big chill), "closed" (collapsing to a big crunch), or "flat" (balanced forever between the two). The second law of thermodynamics declares that entropy can only increase and that this principle extends, inevitably, to the universe as a whole. This paper takes the position that this extension is an unwarranted projection based neither on experience nonfact - an extrapolation that ignores the powerful effect of a gravitational force acting within a closed system. Since it was originally presented by Clausius, the thermodynamic concept of entropy has been redefined in terms of "order" and "disorder" - order being equated with a low degree of entropy and disorder with a high degree. This revised terminology more subjective than precise, has generated considerable confusion in cosmology in several critical instances. For example - the chaotic fireball of the big bang, interpreted by Stephen Hawking as a state of disorder (high entropy), is infinitely hot and, thermally, represents zero entropy (order). Hawking, apparently focusing on the disorderly "chaotic" aspect, equated it with a high degree of entropy - overlooking the fact that the universe is a thermodynamic system and that the key factor in evaluating the big-bang phenomenon is the infinitely high temperature at the early universe, which can only be equated with zero entropy. This analysis resolves this confusion and reestablishes entropy as a cosmological function integrally linked to temperature. The paper goes on to show that, while all subsystems contained within the universe require external sources of energization to have their temperatures raised, this requirement does not apply to the universe as a whole. The universe is the only system that, by itself can raise its own

  8. Did the ancient Egyptians migrate to ancient Nigeria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock M. Agai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Literatures concerning the history of West African peoples published from 1900 to 1970 debate�the possible migrations of the Egyptians into West Africa. Writers like Samuel Johnson and�Lucas Olumide believe that the ancient Egyptians penetrated through ancient Nigeria but Leo�Frobenius and Geoffrey Parrinder frowned at this opinion. Using the works of these early�20th century writers of West African history together with a Yoruba legend which teaches�about the origin of their earliest ancestor(s, this researcher investigates the theories that the�ancient Egyptians had contact with the ancient Nigerians and particularly with the Yorubas.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: There is an existing ideology�amongst the Yorubas and other writers of Yoruba history that the original ancestors of�the Yorubas originated in ancient Egypt hence there was migration between Egypt and�Yorubaland. This researcher contends that even if there was migration between Egypt and�Nigeria, such migration did not take place during the predynastic and dynastic period as�speculated by some scholars. The subject is open for further research.

  9. Cosmological tests of coupled Galileons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brax, Philippe; Burrage, Clare; Davis, Anne-Christine; Gubitosi, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the cosmological properties of Galileon models which admit Minkowski space as a stable solution in vacuum. This is motivated by stable, positive tension brane world constructions that give rise to Galileons. We include both conformal and disformal couplings to matter and focus on constraints on the theory that arise because of these couplings. The disformal coupling to baryonic matter is extremely constrained by astrophysical and particle physics effects. The disformal coupling to photons induces a cosmological variation of the speed of light and therefore distorsions of the Cosmic Microwave Background spectrum which are known to be very small. The conformal coupling to baryons leads to a variation of particle masses since Big Bang Nucleosynthesis which is also tightly constrained. We consider the background cosmology of Galileon models coupled to Cold Dark Matter (CDM), photons and baryons and impose that the speed of light and particle masses respect the observational bounds on cosmological time scales. We find that requiring that the equation of state for the Galileon models must be close to -1 now restricts severely their parameter space and can only be achieved with a combination of the conformal and disformal couplings. This leads to large variations of particle masses and the speed of light which are not compatible with observations. As a result, we find that cosmological Galileon models are viable dark energy theories coupled to dark matter but their couplings, both disformal and conformal, to baryons and photons must be heavily suppressed making them only sensitive to CDM

  10. Relic gravitons and viscous cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldo, Mauricio; Mella, Patricio

    2006-01-01

    Previously it was shown that there exists a class of viscous cosmological models which violate the dominant energy condition for a limited amount of time after which they are smoothly connected to the ordinary radiation era (which preserves the dominant energy conditions). This violation of the dominant energy condition at an early cosmological epoch may influence the slopes of energy spectra of relic gravitons that might be of experimental relevance. However, the bulk viscosity coefficient of these cosmologies became negative during the ordinary radiation era, and then the entropy of the sources driving the geometry decreases with time. We show that in the presence of viscous sources with a linear barotropic equation of state p=γρ we get viscous cosmological models with positive bulk viscous stress during all their evolution, and hence the matter entropy increases with the expansion time. In other words, in the framework of viscous cosmologies, there exist isotropic models compatible with the standard second law of thermodynamics which also may influence the slopes of energy spectra of relic gravitons

  11. 'Felson Signs' revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Phiji P.; Irodi, Aparna; Keshava, Shyamkumar N.; Lamont, Anthony C.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we revisit, with the help of images, those classic signs in chest radiography described by Dr Benjamin Felson himself, or other illustrious radiologists of his time, cited and discussed in 'Chest Roentgenology'. We briefly describe the causes of the signs, their utility and the differential diagnosis to be considered when each sign is seen. Wherever possible, we use CT images to illustrate the basis of some of these classic radiographic signs.

  12. Time functions revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Albert

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we revisit our joint work with Antonio Siconolfi on time functions. We will give a brief introduction to the subject. We will then show how to construct a Lipschitz time function in a simplified setting. We will end with a new result showing that the Aubry set is not an artifact of our proof of existence of time functions for stably causal manifolds.

  13. Seven Issues, Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehead, Jim; De Bra, Paul; Grønbæk, Kaj; Larsen, Deena; Legget, John; schraefel, monica m.c.

    2002-01-01

    It has been 15 years since the original presentation by Frank Halasz at Hypertext'87 on seven issues for the next generation of hypertext systems. These issues are: Search and Query Composites Virtual Structures Computation in/over hypertext network Versioning Collaborative Work Extensibility and Tailorability Since that time, these issues have formed the nucleus of multiple research agendas within the Hypertext community. Befitting this direction-setting role, the issues have been revisited ...

  14. Deterministic Graphical Games Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Daniel; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2008-01-01

    We revisit the deterministic graphical games of Washburn. A deterministic graphical game can be described as a simple stochastic game (a notion due to Anne Condon), except that we allow arbitrary real payoffs but disallow moves of chance. We study the complexity of solving deterministic graphical...... games and obtain an almost-linear time comparison-based algorithm for computing an equilibrium of such a game. The existence of a linear time comparison-based algorithm remains an open problem....

  15. Recombination epoch revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolik, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies of cosmological recombination have shown that this process produces as a by-product a highly superthermal population of Ly-alpha photons which retard completion of recombination. Cosmological redshifting was thought to determine the frequency distribution of the photons, while two-photon decay of hydrogen's 2s state was thought to control their numbers. It is shown here that frequency diffusion due to photon scattering dominate the cosmological redshift in the frequency range near line center which fixes the ratio of ground state to excited state population, while incoherent scattering into the far-red damping wing effectively destroys Ly-alpha photons as a rate which is competitive with two-photon decay. The former effect tends to hold back recombination, while the latter tends to accelerate it; the net results depends on cosmological parameters, particularly the combination Omega(b) h/sq rt (2q0), where Omega(b) is the fraction of the critical density provided by baryons. 18 references

  16. Second viscosity effects in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potupa, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    The object of the investigation is to draw attention to two important aspects in the choice of a substance model, namely an allowance for the viscosity and behaviour of the metrics at the later stages of cosmological evolution. It is shown that in homogeneous cosmological models taking into account the viscosity there are solutions which realize interpolation between the Fridman and steady-state regimes. In a closed model a solution is obtained which corresponds to the ''curvature compensation'' regime with an unboundedly increasing radius. The problem of compensation of singularity at t → o is discussed as well as the choice of the equations of state for the early (hadron) stages of cosmological evolution in connection with the hydrodynamic theory of multiple hadron production

  17. Cosmology on a cosmic ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedermann, Florian; Schneider, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We derive the modified Friedmann equations for a generalization of the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) model in which the brane has one additional compact dimension. The main new feature is the emission of gravitational waves into the bulk. We study two classes of solutions: first, if the compact dimension is stabilized, the waves vanish and one exactly recovers DGP cosmology. However, a stabilization by means of physical matter is not possible for a tension-dominated brane, thus implying a late time modification of 4D cosmology different from DGP. Second, for a freely expanding compact direction, we find exact attractor solutions with zero 4D Hubble parameter despite the presence of a 4D cosmological constant. The model hence constitutes an explicit example of dynamical degravitation at the full nonlinear level. Without stabilization, however, there is no 4D regime and the model is ruled out observationally, as we demonstrate explicitly by comparing to supernova data

  18. Quantum gravity and quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Papantonopoulos, Lefteris; Siopsis, George; Tsamis, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    Quantum gravity has developed into a fast-growing subject in physics and it is expected that probing the high-energy and high-curvature regimes of gravitating systems will shed some light on how to eventually achieve an ultraviolet complete quantum theory of gravity. Such a theory would provide the much needed information about fundamental problems of classical gravity, such as the initial big-bang singularity, the cosmological constant problem, Planck scale physics and the early-time inflationary evolution of our Universe.   While in the first part of this book concepts of quantum gravity are introduced and approached from different angles, the second part discusses these theories in connection with cosmological models and observations, thereby exploring which types of signatures of modern and mathematically rigorous frameworks can be detected by experiments. The third and final part briefly reviews the observational status of dark matter and dark energy, and introduces alternative cosmological models.   ...

  19. Working group report: Cosmology and astroparticle physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is the report of the cosmology and astroparticle physics working group ... origin of the accelerating Universe: Dark energy and particle cosmology by Y-Y Keum, .... Neutrino oscillations with two and three mass varying supernova neutrinos ...

  20. The current status of observational cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in quality, quantity and the scope of cosmological observations. The measurement .... In this article, we limit our attention to the simplest case of a cosmological ... On the large angular scales, the CMB anisotropy directly probes the primordial.

  1. A philosophy for big-bang cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, W H

    1970-10-03

    According to recent developments in cosmology we seem bound to find a model universe like the observed universe, almost independently of how we suppose it started. Such ideas, if valid, provide fresh justification for the procedures of current cosmological theory.

  2. Averaging in spherically symmetric cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coley, A. A.; Pelavas, N.

    2007-01-01

    The averaging problem in cosmology is of fundamental importance. When applied to study cosmological evolution, the theory of macroscopic gravity (MG) can be regarded as a long-distance modification of general relativity. In the MG approach to the averaging problem in cosmology, the Einstein field equations on cosmological scales are modified by appropriate gravitational correlation terms. We study the averaging problem within the class of spherically symmetric cosmological models. That is, we shall take the microscopic equations and effect the averaging procedure to determine the precise form of the correlation tensor in this case. In particular, by working in volume-preserving coordinates, we calculate the form of the correlation tensor under some reasonable assumptions on the form for the inhomogeneous gravitational field and matter distribution. We find that the correlation tensor in a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background must be of the form of a spatial curvature. Inhomogeneities and spatial averaging, through this spatial curvature correction term, can have a very significant dynamical effect on the dynamics of the Universe and cosmological observations; in particular, we discuss whether spatial averaging might lead to a more conservative explanation of the observed acceleration of the Universe (without the introduction of exotic dark matter fields). We also find that the correlation tensor for a non-FLRW background can be interpreted as the sum of a spatial curvature and an anisotropic fluid. This may lead to interesting effects of averaging on astrophysical scales. We also discuss the results of averaging an inhomogeneous Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution as well as calculations of linear perturbations (that is, the backreaction) in an FLRW background, which support the main conclusions of the analysis

  3. Particle accelerators test cosmological theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.; Steigman, G.

    1988-01-01

    Over the past decade two subfields of science, cosmology and elementary-particle physics, have become married in a symbiotic relationship that has produced a number of exciting offspring. These offspring are beginning to yield insights on the creation of spacetime and matter at epochs as early as 10 to the minus 43 to 10 to the minus 35 second after the birth of the universe in the primordial explosion known as the big bang. Important clues to the nature of the big bang itself may even come from a theory currently under development, known as the ultimate theory of everything (T.E.O.). A T.E.O. would describe all the interactions among the fundamental particles in a single bold stroke. Now that cosmology ahs begun to make predictions about elementary-particle physics, it has become conceivable that those cosmological predictions could be checked with carefully controlled accelerator experiments. It has taken more than 10 years for accelerators to reach the point where they can do the appropriate experiments, but the experiments are now in fact in progress. The preliminary results confirm the predictions of cosmology. The cosmological prediction the authors have been concerned with pertains to setting limits on the number of fundamental particles of matter. It appears that there are 12 fundamental particles, as well as their corresponding antiparticles. Six of the fundamental particles are quarks. The other six are leptons. The 12 particles are grouped in three families, each family consisting of four members. Cosmology suggests there must be a finite number of families and, further limits the possible range of to small values: only three or at most four families exist. 7 figs

  4. Cosmological dynamics of extended chameleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamanini, Nicola; Wright, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the cosmological dynamics of the recently proposed extended chameleon models at both background and linear perturbation levels. Dynamical systems techniques are employed to fully characterize the evolution of the universe at the largest distances, while structure formation is analysed at sub-horizon scales within the quasi-static approximation. The late time dynamical transition from dark matter to dark energy domination can be well described by almost all extended chameleon models considered, with no deviations from ΛCDM results at both background and perturbation levels. The results obtained in this work confirm the cosmological viability of extended chameleons as alternative dark energy models.

  5. Brane cosmology with curvature corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kofinas, Georgios; Maartens, Roy; Papantonopoulos, Eleftherios

    2003-01-01

    We study the cosmology of the Randall-Sundrum brane-world where the Einstein-Hilbert action is modified by curvature correction terms: a four-dimensional scalar curvature from induced gravity on the brane, and a five-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet curvature term. The combined effect of these curvature corrections to the action removes the infinite-density big bang singularity, although the curvature can still diverge for some parameter values. A radiation brane undergoes accelerated expansion near the minimal scale factor, for a range of parameters. This acceleration is driven by the geometric effects, without an inflation field or negative pressures. At late times, conventional cosmology is recovered. (author)

  6. Baryon symmetric big bang cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecker, F.W.

    1978-01-01

    It is stated that the framework of baryon symmetric big bang (BSBB) cosmology offers our greatest potential for deducting the evolution of the Universe because its physical laws and processes have the minimum number of arbitrary assumptions about initial conditions in the big-bang. In addition, it offers the possibility of explaining the photon-baryon ratio in the Universe and how galaxies and galaxy clusters are formed. BSBB cosmology also provides the only acceptable explanation at present for the origin of the cosmic γ-ray background radiation. (author)

  7. Cosmological dynamics of extended chameleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamanini, Nicola [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA-Saclay, CNRS UMR 3681, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Wright, Matthew, E-mail: nicola.tamanini@cea.fr, E-mail: matthew.wright.13@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the cosmological dynamics of the recently proposed extended chameleon models at both background and linear perturbation levels. Dynamical systems techniques are employed to fully characterize the evolution of the universe at the largest distances, while structure formation is analysed at sub-horizon scales within the quasi-static approximation. The late time dynamical transition from dark matter to dark energy domination can be well described by almost all extended chameleon models considered, with no deviations from ΛCDM results at both background and perturbation levels. The results obtained in this work confirm the cosmological viability of extended chameleons as alternative dark energy models.

  8. The Higgs Portal and Cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assamagan, Ketevi [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Chen, Chien-Yi [Perimeter Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Univ. of Victoria, BC (Canada); Chou, John Paul [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States); Curtin, David [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Fedderke, Michael A. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Gershtein, Yuri [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States); He, Xiao-Gang [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China); Klute, Markus [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Kozaczuk, Jonathon [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kotwal, Ashutosh [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Lowette, Steven [Vrije Univ., Brussels (Belgium); No, Jose Miguel [Univ. of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom); Plehn, Tilman [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany); Qian, Jianming [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ramsey-Musolf, Michael [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Safonov, Alexei [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Shelton, Jessie [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Spannowsky, Michael [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Su, Shufang [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Walker, Devin G. E. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Willocq, Stephane [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Winslow, Peter [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2016-04-18

    Higgs portal interactions provide a simple mechanism for addressing two open problems in cosmology: dark matter and the baryon asymmetry. In the latter instance, Higgs portal interactions may contain the ingredients for a strong first-order electroweak phase transition as well as new CP-violating interactions as needed for electroweak baryogenesis. These interactions may also allow for a viable dark matter candidate. We survey the opportunities for probing the Higgs portal as it relates to these questions in cosmology at the LHC and possible future colliders.

  9. Cosmology in the plasma universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1987-05-01

    Space observations have opened the spectral regions of X-rays and γ-rays, which are produced by plasma processes. The Plasma Universe derived from observations in these regions is drastically different from the now generally accepted 'Visual Light Universe' based on visual light observations alone. Historically this transitions can be compared only to the transition from the geocentric to the heliocentric cosmology. The purpose of this paper is to discuss what criteria a cosmological theory must satisfy in order to be acceptable in the Plasma Universe. (author)

  10. Chandra Cluster Cosmology Project III: Cosmological Parameter Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikhlinin, A.; Kravtsov, A. V.; Burenin, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    function evolution to be used as a useful growth of a structure-based dark energy probe. In this paper, we present cosmological parameter constraints obtained from Chandra observations of 37 clusters with langzrang = 0.55 derived from 400 deg2 ROSAT serendipitous survey and 49 brightest z ≈ 0.05 clusters...

  11. Viscous cosmological models with a variable cosmological term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Einstein's field equations for a Friedmann-Lamaitre Robertson-Walker universe filled with a dissipative fluid with a variable cosmological term L described by full Israel-Stewart theory are considered. General solutions to the field equations for the flat case have been obtained. The solution corresponds to the dust free model ...

  12. Constraints on cosmological parameters in power-law cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rani, Sarita; Singh, J.K.; Altaibayeva, A.; Myrzakulov, R.; Shahalam, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we examine observational constraints on the power law cosmology; essentially dependent on two parameters H 0 (Hubble constant) and q (deceleration parameter). We investigate the constraints on these parameters using the latest 28 points of H(z) data and 580 points of Union2.1 compilation data and, compare the results with the results of ΛCDM . We also forecast constraints using a simulated data set for the future JDEM, supernovae survey. Our studies give better insight into power law cosmology than the earlier done analysis by Kumar [arXiv:1109.6924] indicating it tuning well with Union2.1 compilation data but not with H(z) data. However, the constraints obtained on and i.e. H 0 average and q average using the simulated data set for the future JDEM, supernovae survey are found to be inconsistent with the values obtained from the H(z) and Union2.1 compilation data. We also perform the statefinder analysis and find that the power-law cosmological models approach the standard ΛCDM model as q → −1. Finally, we observe that although the power law cosmology explains several prominent features of evolution of the Universe, it fails in details

  13. The Case for a Hierarchical Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucouleurs, G. de

    1970-01-01

    The development of modern theoretical cosmology is presented and some questionable assumptions of orthodox cosmology are pointed out. Suggests that recent observations indicate that hierarchical clustering is a basic factor in cosmology. The implications of hierarchical models of the universe are considered. Bibliography. (LC)

  14. A null test of the cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Takeshi; Nakamura, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    We provide a consistency relation between cosmological observables in general relativity with the cosmological constant. Breaking of this relation at any redshift would imply the breakdown of the hypothesis of the cosmological constant as an explanation of the current acceleration of the universe. (author)

  15. The Universe Adventure - The Beginnings of Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Universe Adventure [ next ] [ home ] Go The Beginnings of Cosmology Since the beginning of of stars? What do the stars tell us about the future? Where did the Universe come from? Cosmology is will introduce you to Cosmology and the study of the structure, history, and fate of the Universe. In

  16. Tuberculosis in ancient times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Cilliers

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of an array of effective antibiotics, tuberculosis is still very common in developing countries where overcrowding, malnutrition and poor hygienic conditions prevail. Over the past 30 years associated HIV infection has worsened the situation by increasing the infection rate and mortality of tuberculosis. Of those diseases caused by a single organism only HIV causes more deaths internationally than tuberculosis. The tubercle bacillus probably first infected man in Neolithic times, and then via infected cattle, but the causative Mycobacteriacea have been in existence for 300 million years. Droplet infection is the most common way of acquiring tuberculosis, although ingestion (e.g. of infected cows’ milk may occur. Tuberculosis probably originated in Africa. The earliest path gnomonic evidence of human tuberculosis in man was found in osteo-archaeological findings of bone tuberculosis (Pott’s disease of the spine in the skeleton of anEgyptian priest from the 21st Dynasty (approximately 1 000 BC. Suggestive but not conclusiveevidence of tuberculotic lesions had been found in even earlier skeletons from Egypt and Europe. Medical hieroglyphics from ancient Egypt are silent on the disease, which could be tuberculosis,as do early Indian and Chinese writings. The Old Testament refers to the disease schachapeth, translated as phthisis in the Greek Septuagint. Although the Bible is not specific about this condition, tuberculosis is still called schachapeth in modern Hebrew. In pre-Hippocratic Greece Homer did not mention phthisis, a word meaning non-specific wasting of the body. However. Alexander of Tralles (6th century BC seemed to narrow the concept down to a specific disease, and in the Hippocratic Corpus (5th-4th centuries BC phthisis can be recognised as tuberculosis. It was predominantly a respiratory disease commonly seen and considered to be caused by an imbalance of bodily humours. It was commonest in autumn, winter and spring

  17. [Medical myths and notions in Ancient Greece].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulogne, J

    2001-01-01

    The article deals with the views on health and disease prevalent in Ancient Greece, the cradle of modern European medicine, focusing on the ever-present myths functioning in that realm despite attempts to rationally explain medical phenomena. On the basis of the works of Hippocrates and Galen, the author has distinguished five different epistemological attitudes towards those phenomena: the holistic, macrocosmological, monistic, anti-hypothetical and eclectic. The first was based on the idea of mechanical and logical causes. In medicine it is marked by determinism connected with climatic conditions. Hippocrates believed that health depended on the weather, in particular on the effects of winds, types of water and properties of soil. Myth emerged in this conception in the way matter - earth, water, air and fire - was conceived, particular in the properties ascribed to them: cold, humidity, aridity and warmth. The author charges that this conception was permeated with ethnocentrism and cites examples invoked by Hippocrates on the basis of his observations on the Scythians. The macrocosmological attitude involves subordinating medicine to cosmology. Man's body is a microcosm. The author cites the treatise 'On Diets', in which the greatest importance both in the universe and in processes taking place in the human body as ascribed to two factors - fire and water. Their combination was said to have played a crucial role in the typology of corporal and mental constitutions. Those features, together with the seasons of the year, mode of behaviour and food, constitute the four forces guiding vital processes. The author then presents the embryogenic conception contained in the cosmological treatise. It was based on such things as numerological speculations, hence - despite its rationalistic assumptions, consigns it to the mythic. The third attitude, the monistic approach, presents a treatise ascribed to Hippocrates 'On the Sacred Disease' and dealing with epilepsy. The

  18. Geodesic behaviour around cosmological milestones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Jambrina, L; Lazkoz, R

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we provide a thorough classification of Friedman-LemaItre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmological models in terms of the strong or weak character of their singularities according to the usual definitions. The classification refers to a generalised Puiseux power expansion of the scale factor of the model around a singular event

  19. Geodesic behaviour around cosmological milestones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Jambrina, L [Matematica Aplicada, E.T.S.I. Navales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Arco de la Victoria s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Lazkoz, R [Fisica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo. 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    In this paper we provide a thorough classification of Friedman-LemaItre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmological models in terms of the strong or weak character of their singularities according to the usual definitions. The classification refers to a generalised Puiseux power expansion of the scale factor of the model around a singular event.

  20. Nikolay Lossky’s Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadii Aliaiev

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on cosmological ideas of a twentieth-century Russian philosopher Nikolay Lossky (1870-1965. It specifies the place of these ideas within the entire framework of his philosophical views, as well as in the context of his topology of philosophical systems, in particular ― the discrimination between organic and non-organic worldview. A historico-philosophical analysis of Lossky’s cosmology allows revealing the interaction of gnoseological and ontological principles of his system, e.g. explicating the difference of Lossky’s intuitionism from the one of Bergson. The key section of the organic worldview is the doctrine of the hierarchy of substantival agents: the hierarchical personalism, as well as the notions of transcreation, dynamic understanding of matter, and the doctrine of free will closely related to it. The paper specifies the peculiarities of Lossky’s interpretations of panvitalism and panpsychism, as well as the doctrine of reincarnation, which has a particular place in his system. The final stage of Lossky’s cosmological ideas development is his ontological aesthetics: on this stage he understands the world as an embodiment of beauty. The conclusion is drawn that Lossky’s cosmological doctrine is Christian and metaphysical in its nature.

  1. Sterile neutrino constraints from cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of light particles beyond the standard model's three neutrino species can profoundly impact the physics of decoupling and primordial nucleosynthesis. I review the observational signatures of extra light species, present constraints from recent data, and discuss the implications of po...... of possible sterile neutrinos with O(eV)-masses for cosmology....

  2. Self-similar cosmological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, W Z [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics

    1981-07-01

    The kinematics and dynamics of self-similar cosmological models are discussed. The degrees of freedom of the solutions of Einstein's equations for different types of models are listed. The relation between kinematic quantities and the classifications of the self-similarity group is examined. All dust local rotational symmetry models have been found.

  3. The Higgs boson and cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaposhnikov, Mikhail

    2015-01-13

    I will discuss how the Higgs field of the Standard Model may have played an important role in cosmology, leading to the homogeneity, isotropy and flatness of the Universe; producing the quantum fluctuations that seed structure formation; triggering the radiation-dominated era of the hot Big Bang; and contributing to the processes of baryogenesis and dark matter production.

  4. Loop quantum cosmology and singularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyve, Ward

    2017-08-15

    Loop quantum gravity is believed to eliminate singularities such as the big bang and big crunch singularity. This belief is based on studies of so-called loop quantum cosmology which concerns symmetry-reduced models of quantum gravity. In this paper, the problem of singularities is analysed in the context of the Bohmian formulation of loop quantum cosmology. In this formulation there is an actual metric in addition to the wave function, which evolves stochastically (rather than deterministically as the case of the particle evolution in non-relativistic Bohmian mechanics). Thus a singularity occurs whenever this actual metric is singular. It is shown that in the loop quantum cosmology for a homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker space-time with arbitrary constant spatial curvature and cosmological constant, coupled to a massless homogeneous scalar field, a big bang or big crunch singularity is never obtained. This should be contrasted with the fact that in the Bohmian formulation of the Wheeler-DeWitt theory singularities may exist.

  5. Evidence for cosmological particle creation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigozzo, C. [Imperial Centre for Inference and Cosmology, Imperial College, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Carneiro, S.; Borges, H.A. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Rua Barão de Geremoabo, Salvador, 40210-340, BA (Brazil); Alcaniz, J.S. [Departamento de Astronomia, Observatório Nacional, Rua General José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, 20921-400, RJ (Brazil); Fabris, J.C., E-mail: cpigozzo@ufba.br, E-mail: saulo.carneiro@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: alcaniz@on.br, E-mail: humberto@ufba.br, E-mail: fabris@pq.cnpq.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Av. Fernando Ferrari 514, Vitória, 29075-910, ES (Brazil)

    2016-05-01

    A joint analysis of the linear matter power spectrum, distance measurements from type Ia supernovae and the position of the first peak in the anisotropy spectrum of the cosmic microwave background indicates a cosmological, late-time dark matter creation at 95% confidence level.

  6. Particle cosmology comes of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    The application of modern ideas in particle physics to astrophysical and cosmological settings is a continuation of a fruitful tradition in astrophysics which began with the application of atomic physics, and then nuclear physics. In the past decade particle cosmology and particle astrophysics have been recognized as 'legitimate activities' by both particle physicists and astrophysicists and astronomers. During this time there has been a high level of theoretical activity producing much speculation about the earliest history of the Universe, as well as important and interesting astrophysical and cosmological constraints to particle physics theories. This period of intense theoretical activity has produced a number of ideas most worthy of careful consideration and scrutiny, and even more importantly, amenable to experimental/observational test. Among the ideas which are likely to be tested in the next decade are: the cosmological bound to the number of neutrino flavors, inflation, relic WIMPs as the dark matter, and MSW neutrino oscillations as a solution to the solar neutrino problems. (orig.)

  7. Particle cosmology comes of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1987-12-01

    The application of modern ideas in particle physics to astrophysical and cosmological settings is a continuation of a fruitful tradition in astrophysics which began with the application of atomic physics, and then nuclear physics. In the past decade particle cosmology and particle astrophysics have been recognized as 'legitimate activities' by both particle physicists and astrophysicists and astronomers. During this time there has been a high level of theoretical activity producing much speculation about the earliest history of the Universe, as well as important and interesting astrophysical and cosmological constraints to particle physics theories. This period of intense theoretical activity has produced a number of ideas most worthy of careful consideration and scrutiny, and even more importantly, amenable to experimental/observational test. Among the ideas which are likely to be tested in the next decade are: the cosmological bound to the number of neutrino flavors, inflation, relic WIMPs as the dark matter, and MSW neutrino oscillations as a solution to the solar neutrino problems. 94 refs

  8. How Cosmology Became a Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush, Stephen G.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the origin of the science of cosmology and the competing theories to explain the beginning of the universe. The big bang theory for the creation of the universe is contrasted with the steady state theory. The author details discoveries that led to the demise of the steady state theory. (PR)

  9. Eigenvalue treatment of cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novello, M.; Soares, D.

    1976-08-01

    From the decomposition of Weyl tensor into its electric and magnetic parts, it is formulated the eigenvalue problem for cosmological models, and is used quasi-maxwellian form of Einstein's equation to propagate it along a time-like congruence. Three related theorems are presented

  10. Hyperbolic geometry of cosmological attractors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carrasco, John Joseph M.; Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei; Roest, Diederik

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological alpha attractors give a natural explanation for the spectral index n(s) of inflation as measured by Planck while predicting a range for the tensor-to-scalar ratio r, consistent with all observations, to be measured more precisely in future B-mode experiments. We highlight the crucial

  11. Integrated cosmological probes: concordance quantified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicola, Andrina; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre, E-mail: andrina.nicola@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: adam.amara@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: alexandre.refregier@phys.ethz.ch [Department of Physics, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2017-10-01

    Assessing the consistency of parameter constraints derived from different cosmological probes is an important way to test the validity of the underlying cosmological model. In an earlier work [1], we computed constraints on cosmological parameters for ΛCDM from an integrated analysis of CMB temperature anisotropies and CMB lensing from Planck, galaxy clustering and weak lensing from SDSS, weak lensing from DES SV as well as Type Ia supernovae and Hubble parameter measurements. In this work, we extend this analysis and quantify the concordance between the derived constraints and those derived by the Planck Collaboration as well as WMAP9, SPT and ACT. As a measure for consistency, we use the Surprise statistic [2], which is based on the relative entropy. In the framework of a flat ΛCDM cosmological model, we find all data sets to be consistent with one another at a level of less than 1σ. We highlight that the relative entropy is sensitive to inconsistencies in the models that are used in different parts of the analysis. In particular, inconsistent assumptions for the neutrino mass break its invariance on the parameter choice. When consistent model assumptions are used, the data sets considered in this work all agree with each other and ΛCDM, without evidence for tensions.

  12. Non-equilibrium Friedmann cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, H.P. de; Salim, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    A uniform cosmological model filled with a fluid which possesses pressure and bulk viscosity is developed using extended thermodynamics. The Einsten and thermodynamic equations can be exactly integrated on Friedmann-like situation. One of the solutions is non singular: it starts from a steady state behavior and expands to a situation where viscosity dies out. (author) [pt

  13. Cosmology with the cosmic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero-Romero, J. E.

    2017-07-01

    This talk summarizes different algorithms that can be used to trace the cosmic web both in simulations and observations. We present different applications in galaxy formation and cosmology. To finalize, we show how the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) could be a good place to apply these techniques.

  14. Cosmological models in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cosmological models in general relativity. B B PAUL. Department of Physics, Nowgong College, Nagaon, Assam, India. MS received 4 October 2002; revised 6 March 2003; accepted 21 May 2003. Abstract. LRS Bianchi type-I space-time filled with perfect fluid is considered here with deceler- ation parameter as variable.

  15. The Search for Cosmological Antimatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streitmatter, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    For more than 40 years, experimentalists have searched in the cosmic radiation for evidence of antimatter which may have been created in the early Universe. The experimental evidence for cosmologically significant amounts of antimatter in the Universe is reviewed. There is no compelling evidence, either theoretical of experimental. However, the possibility is not completely ruled out.

  16. The Higgs boson and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Shaposhnikov, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    I will discuss how the Higgs field of the Standard Model may have played an important role in cosmology, leading to the homogeneity, isotropy and flatness of the Universe; producing the quantum fluctuations that seed structure formation; triggering the radiation-dominated era of the hot Big Bang; and contributing to the processes of baryogenesis and dark matter production.

  17. Cosmological horizons, quintessence and string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaloper, Nemanja

    2003-01-01

    String theory is presently the best candidate for a quantum theory of gravity unified with other forces. It is natural to hope that applications of string theory to cosmology may shed new light on the cosmological conundra, such as singularities, initial conditions, cosmological constant problem and the origin of inflation. Before we can apply string theory to cosmology, there are important conceptual and practical problems which must be addressed. We have reviewed here some of these problems, related to how one defines string theory in a cosmological setting. (author)

  18. On Ancient Babylonian Algebra and Geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ber system prevalent during the ancient Mesopotamian civilization. In this article, we study the ... civilization provides a better insight into the thought processes of the ancient Babylonian mathematicians. In this context, consider the following ...

  19. iCosmo: an interactive cosmology package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refregier, A.; Amara, A.; Kitching, T. D.; Rassat, A.

    2011-04-01

    Aims: The interactive software package iCosmo, designed to perform cosmological calculations is described. Methods: iCosmo is a software package to perfom interactive cosmological calculations for the low-redshift universe. Computing distance measures, the matter power spectrum, and the growth factor is supported for any values of the cosmological parameters. It also computes derived observed quantities for several cosmological probes such as cosmic shear, baryon acoustic oscillations, and type Ia supernovae. The associated errors for these observable quantities can be derived for customised surveys, or for pre-set values corresponding to current or planned instruments. The code also allows for calculation of cosmological forecasts with Fisher matrices, which can be manipulated to combine different surveys and cosmological probes. The code is written in the IDL language and thus benefits from the convenient interactive features and scientific libraries available in this language. iCosmo can also be used as an engine to perform cosmological calculations in batch mode, and forms a convenient adaptive platform for the development of further cosmological modules. With its extensive documentation, it may also serve as a useful resource for teaching and for newcomers to the field of cosmology. Results: The iCosmo package is described with a number of examples and command sequences. The code is freely available with documentation at http://www.icosmo.org, along with an interactive web interface and is part of the Initiative for Cosmology, a common archive for cosmological resources.

  20. Deterministic Graphical Games Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Klas Olof Daniel; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2012-01-01

    Starting from Zermelo’s classical formal treatment of chess, we trace through history the analysis of two-player win/lose/draw games with perfect information and potentially infinite play. Such chess-like games have appeared in many different research communities, and methods for solving them......, such as retrograde analysis, have been rediscovered independently. We then revisit Washburn’s deterministic graphical games (DGGs), a natural generalization of chess-like games to arbitrary zero-sum payoffs. We study the complexity of solving DGGs and obtain an almost-linear time comparison-based algorithm...

  1. Bottomonium spectrum revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Segovia, Jorge; Entem, David R.; Fernández, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the bottomonium spectrum motivated by the recently exciting experimental progress in the observation of new bottomonium states, both conventional and unconventional. Our framework is a nonrelativistic constituent quark model which has been applied to a wide range of hadronic observables from the light to the heavy quark sector and thus the model parameters are completely constrained. Beyond the spectrum, we provide a large number of electromagnetic, strong and hadronic decays in order to discuss the quark content of the bottomonium states and give more insights about the better way to determine their properties experimentally.

  2. Metamorphosis in Craniiformea revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Wanninger, Andreas; Holmer, Lars E.

    2013-01-01

    We revisited the brachiopod fold hypothesis and investigated metamorphosis in the craniiform brachiopod Novocrania anomala. Larval development is lecithotrophic and the dorsal (brachial) valve is secreted by dorsal epithelia. We found that the juvenile ventral valve, which consists only of a thin...... brachiopods during metamorphosis to cement their pedicle to the substrate. N. anomala is therefore not initially attached by a valve but by material corresponding to pedicle cuticle. This is different to previous descriptions, which had led to speculations about a folding event in the evolution of Brachiopoda...

  3. The several faces of the cosmological principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beisbart, Claus [TU Dortmund (Germany). Fakultaet 14, Institut fuer Philosophie und Politikwissenschaft

    2010-07-01

    Much work in relativistic cosmology relies upon the cosmological principle. Very roughly, this principle has it hat the universe is spatially homogeneous and isotropic. However, if the principle is to do some work, it has to be rendered more precise. The aim of this talk is to show that such a precification significantly depends on the theoretical framework adopted and on its ontology. Moreover, it is shown that present-day cosmology uses the principle in different versions that do not fit together nicely. Whereas, in theoretical cosmology, the principle is spelt out as a requirement on space-time manifolds, observational cosmology cashes out the principle using the notion of a random process. I point out some philosophical problems that arise in this context. My conclusion is that the cosmological principle is not a very precise hypothesis, but rather a rough idea that has several faces in contemporary cosmology.

  4. Graviton fluctuations erase the cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, C.

    2017-10-01

    Graviton fluctuations induce strong non-perturbative infrared renormalization effects for the cosmological constant. The functional renormalization flow drives a positive cosmological constant towards zero, solving the cosmological constant problem without the need to tune parameters. We propose a simple computation of the graviton contribution to the flow of the effective potential for scalar fields. Within variable gravity, with effective Planck mass proportional to the scalar field, we find that the potential increases asymptotically at most quadratically with the scalar field. The solutions of the derived cosmological equations lead to an asymptotically vanishing cosmological "constant" in the infinite future, providing for dynamical dark energy in the present cosmological epoch. Beyond a solution of the cosmological constant problem, our simplified computation also entails a sizeable positive graviton-induced anomalous dimension for the quartic Higgs coupling in the ultraviolet regime, substantiating the successful prediction of the Higgs boson mass within the asymptotic safety scenario for quantum gravity.

  5. On estimating cosmology-dependent covariance matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Christopher B.; Schneider, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a statistical model to estimate the covariance matrix of matter tracer two-point correlation functions with cosmological simulations. Assuming a fixed number of cosmological simulation runs, we describe how to build a 'statistical emulator' of the two-point function covariance over a specified range of input cosmological parameters. Because the simulation runs with different cosmological models help to constrain the form of the covariance, we predict that the cosmology-dependent covariance may be estimated with a comparable number of simulations as would be needed to estimate the covariance for fixed cosmology. Our framework is a necessary first step in planning a simulations campaign for analyzing the next generation of cosmological surveys

  6. Ancient woodland boundaries in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szabó, Péter

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 2 (2010), s. 205-214 ISSN 0305-7488 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : ancient woodland * historical ecology * landscape archaeology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.983, year: 2010

  7. Ancient Biomolecules and Evolutionary Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Prohaska, Ana; Racimo, Fernando; Welker, Frido; Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Allentoft, Morten E; de Barros Damgaard, Peter; Gutenbrunner, Petra; Dunne, Julie; Hammann, Simon; Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Ilardo, Melissa; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Wang, Yucheng; Sikora, Martin; Vinner, Lasse; Cox, Jürgen; Evershed, Richard P; Willerslev, Eske

    2018-04-25

    Over the last decade, studies of ancient biomolecules-particularly ancient DNA, proteins, and lipids-have revolutionized our understanding of evolutionary history. Though initially fraught with many challenges, the field now stands on firm foundations. Researchers now successfully retrieve nucleotide and amino acid sequences, as well as lipid signatures, from progressively older samples, originating from geographic areas and depositional environments that, until recently, were regarded as hostile to long-term preservation of biomolecules. Sampling frequencies and the spatial and temporal scope of studies have also increased markedly, and with them the size and quality of the data sets generated. This progress has been made possible by continuous technical innovations in analytical methods, enhanced criteria for the selection of ancient samples, integrated experimental methods, and advanced computational approaches. Here, we discuss the history and current state of ancient biomolecule research, its applications to evolutionary inference, and future directions for this young and exciting field. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biochemistry Volume 87 is June 20, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  8. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. Ry

    1997-01-01

    Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification......Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification...

  9. Revisiting Nursing Research in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-08-18

    Aug 18, 2016 ... health care research, it is therefore pertinent to revisit the state of nursing research in the country. .... platforms, updated libraries with electronic resource ... benchmarks for developing countries of 26%, [17] the amount is still ...

  10. Wave packets in quantum cosmology and the cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, C.

    1990-01-01

    Wave packets are constructed explicitly in minisuperspace of quantum gravity corresponding to a Friedmann universe containing a conformally coupled scalar field with and without a cosmological constant. The construction is performed in close analogy to the case of constructing coherent states in quantum mechanics. Various examples are also depicted numerically. The corresponding lorentzian path integrals are evaluated for some cases. It is emphasized that the new concept of time in quantum gravity demands the imposition of a kind of boundary conditions not encountered in quantum gravity demands the imposition of a kind of boundary conditions not encountered in quantum mechanics. Connection is also made to recent investigations predicting a vanishing cosmological constant. It is shown that the fact of whether this result is generic or not depends on where the boundary conditions are imposed in the configuration space. (orig.)

  11. How does pressure gravitate? Cosmological constant problem confronts observational cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narimani, Ali; Afshordi, Niayesh; Scott, Douglas

    2014-08-01

    An important and long-standing puzzle in the history of modern physics is the gross inconsistency between theoretical expectations and cosmological observations of the vacuum energy density, by at least 60 orders of magnitude, otherwise known as the cosmological constant problem. A characteristic feature of vacuum energy is that it has a pressure with the same amplitude, but opposite sign to its energy density, while all the precision tests of General Relativity are either in vacuum, or for media with negligible pressure. Therefore, one may wonder whether an anomalous coupling to pressure might be responsible for decoupling vacuum from gravity. We test this possibility in the context of the Gravitational Aether proposal, using current cosmological observations, which probe the gravity of relativistic pressure in the radiation era. Interestingly, we find that the best fit for anomalous pressure coupling is about half-way between General Relativity (GR), and Gravitational Aether (GA), if we include Planck together with WMAP and BICEP2 polarization cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations. Taken at face value, this data combination excludes both GR and GA at around the 3 σ level. However, including higher resolution CMB observations (``highL'') or baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO) pushes the best fit closer to GR, excluding the Gravitational Aether solution to the cosmological constant problem at the 4- 5 σ level. This constraint effectively places a limit on the anomalous coupling to pressure in the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) expansion, ζ4 = 0.105 ± 0.049 (+highL CMB), or ζ4 = 0.066 ± 0.039 (+BAO). These represent the most precise measurement of this parameter to date, indicating a mild tension with GR (for ΛCDM including tensors, with 0ζ4=), and also among different data sets.

  12. How does pressure gravitate? Cosmological constant problem confronts observational cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narimani, Ali; Scott, Douglas; Afshordi, Niayesh

    2014-01-01

    An important and long-standing puzzle in the history of modern physics is the gross inconsistency between theoretical expectations and cosmological observations of the vacuum energy density, by at least 60 orders of magnitude, otherwise known as the cosmological constant problem. A characteristic feature of vacuum energy is that it has a pressure with the same amplitude, but opposite sign to its energy density, while all the precision tests of General Relativity are either in vacuum, or for media with negligible pressure. Therefore, one may wonder whether an anomalous coupling to pressure might be responsible for decoupling vacuum from gravity. We test this possibility in the context of the Gravitational Aether proposal, using current cosmological observations, which probe the gravity of relativistic pressure in the radiation era. Interestingly, we find that the best fit for anomalous pressure coupling is about half-way between General Relativity (GR), and Gravitational Aether (GA), if we include Planck together with WMAP and BICEP2 polarization cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations. Taken at face value, this data combination excludes both GR and GA at around the 3 σ level. However, including higher resolution CMB observations (''highL'') or baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO) pushes the best fit closer to GR, excluding the Gravitational Aether solution to the cosmological constant problem at the 4- 5 σ level. This constraint effectively places a limit on the anomalous coupling to pressure in the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) expansion, ζ 4  = 0.105 ± 0.049 (+highL CMB), or ζ 4  = 0.066 ± 0.039 (+BAO). These represent the most precise measurement of this parameter to date, indicating a mild tension with GR (for ΛCDM including tensors, with 0ζ 4 =), and also among different data sets

  13. Dreams in ancient Greek Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Moschos, M M; Koukaki, E; Vasilopoulos, E; Karamanou, M; Kontaxaki, M-I; Androutsos, G

    2016-01-01

    Dreams preoccupied the Greek and Roman world in antiquity, therefore they had a prominent role in social, philosophical, religious, historical and political life of those times. They were considered as omens and prophetic signs of future events in private and public life, and that was particularly accentuated when elements of actions which took place in the plot of dreams were associated directly or indirectly with real events. This is why it was important to use them in divination, and helped the growth of superstition and folklore believes. Medicine as a science and an anthropocentric art, could not ignore the importance of dreams, having in mind their popularity in antiquity. In ancient Greek medicine dreams can be divided into two basic categories. In the first one -which is related to religious medicine-dreams experienced by religionists are classified, when resorted to great religious sanctuaries such as those of Asclepius (Asclepieia) and Amphiaraos (Amfiaraeia). These dreams were the essential element for healing in this form of religious medicine, because after pilgrims underwent purifications they went to sleep in a special dwelling of the sanctuaries called "enkoimeterion" (Greek: the place to sleep) so that the healing god would come to their dreams either to cure them or to suggest treatment. In ancient Greek literature there are many reports of these experiences, but if there may be phenomena of self-suggestion, or they could be characterized as propaganda messages from the priesthood of each sanctuary for advertising purposes. The other category concerns the references about dreams found in ancient Greek medical literature, where one can find the attempts of ancient Greek physicians to interpret these dreams in a rational way as sings either of a corporal disease or of psychological distress. This second category will be the object of our study. Despite the different ways followed by each ancient Greek physician in order to explain dreams, their

  14. Cosmology and CPT violating neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barenboim, Gabriela; Salvado, Jordi [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Departament de Fisica Teorica y Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Burjassot (Spain)

    2017-11-15

    The combination charge conjugation-parity-time reversal (CPT) is a fundamental symmetry in our current understanding of nature. As such, testing CPT violation is a strongly motivated path to explore new physics. In this paper we study CPT violation in the neutrino sector, giving for the first time a bound, for a fundamental particle, in the CPT violating particle-antiparticle gravitational mass difference. We argue that cosmology is nowadays the only data sensitive to CPT violation for the neutrino-antineutrino mass splitting and we use the latest data release from Planck combined with the current baryonic-acoustic-oscillation measurement to perform a full cosmological analysis. To show the potential of the future experiments we also show the results for Euclid, a next generation large scale structure experiment. (orig.)

  15. Axions in astrophysics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikivie, P.

    1984-07-01

    Axion models often have a spontaneously broken exact discrete symmetry. In that case, they have discretely degenerate vacua and hence domain walls. The properties of the domain walls, the cosmological catastrophe they produce and the ways in which this catastrophe may be avoided are explained. Cosmology and astrophysics provide arguments that imply the axion decay constant should lie in the range 10 8 GeV less than or equal to f/sub a/ less than or equal to 10 12 GeV. Reasons are given why axions are an excellent candidate to constitute the dark matter of galactic halos. Using the coupling of the axions to the electromagnetic field, detectors are described to look for axions floating about in the halo of our galaxy and for axions emitted by the sun

  16. Accelerating cosmologies from exponential potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neupane, Ishwaree P.

    2003-11-01

    It is learnt that exponential potentials of the form V ∼ exp(-2cφ/M p ) arising from the hyperbolic or flux compactification of higher-dimensional theories are of interest for getting short periods of accelerated cosmological expansions. Using a similar potential but derived for the combined case of hyperbolic-flux compactification, we study a four-dimensional flat (or open) FRW cosmologies and give analytic (and numerical) solutions with exponential behavior of scale factors. We show that, for the M-theory motivated potentials, the cosmic acceleration of the universe can be eternal if the spatial curvature of the 4d spacetime is negative, while the acceleration is only transient for a spatially flat universe. We also briefly discuss about the mass of massive Kaluza-Klein modes and the dynamical stabilization of the compact hyperbolic extra dimensions. (author)

  17. Gravitational lenses and cosmological evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of gravitational lensing on the apparent cosmological evolution of extragalactic radio sources is investigated. Models for a lens population consisting of galaxies and clusters of galaxies are constructed and used to calculate the distribution of amplification factors caused by lensing. Although many objects at high redshifts are predicted to have flux densities altered by 10 to 20 per cent relative to a homogeneous universe, flux conservation implies that de-amplification is as common as amplification. The effects on cosmological evolution as inferred from source counts and redshift data are thus relatively small; the slope of the counts is not large enough for intrinsically rare lensing events of high amplitude to corrupt observed samples. Lensing effects may be of greater importance for optically selected quasars, where lenses of mass as low as approximately 10 -4 solar mass can cause large amplifications. (author)

  18. Exact cosmological solutions for MOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roshan, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    We find some new exact cosmological solutions for the covariant scalar-tensor-vector gravity theory, the so-called modified gravity (MOG). The exact solution of the vacuum field equations has been derived. Also, for non-vacuum cases we have found some exact solutions with the aid of the Noether symmetry approach. More specifically, the symmetry vector and also the Noether conserved quantity associated to the point-like Lagrangian of the theory have been found. Also we find the exact form of the generic vector field potential of this theory by considering the behavior of the relevant point-like Lagrangian under the infinitesimal generator of the Noether symmetry. Finally, we discuss the cosmological implications of the solutions. (orig.)

  19. Craig and Kalam Cosmological Argument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhosein Tavacoly

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Among different arguments for the existence of God the Kalam cosmological argument is a very famous one which is elaborated by Professor William lane Craig. Craig claims that the universe began to exist , then he continues to say: everything that begins to exist has a cause and therefore the universe has a cause. But how do we know that the universe began to exist? This premise forms the most important part of Craig’s contention, and he bolsters it by four arguments, the first two are driven from philosophy and the other two, which he prefers to name them “confirmations from sciences” are driven from sciences the first one evokes to big bang theory and the seconds to the second principle of thermodynamic which are respectively adopted from cosmology and physics.   In this essay we are going to survey Craig’s arguments and estimate their value and weight.

  20. Craig and Kalam Cosmological Argument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhosein Tavacoly

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available   Among different arguments for the existence of God the Kalam cosmological argument is a very famous one which is elaborated by Professor William lane Craig. Craig claims that the universe began to exist , then he continues to say: everything that begins to exist has a cause and therefore the universe has a cause. But how do we know that the universe began to exist? This premise forms the most important part of Craig’s contention, and he bolsters it by four arguments, the first two are driven from philosophy and the other two, which he prefers to name them “confirmations from sciences” are driven from sciences the first one evokes to big bang theory and the seconds to the second principle of thermodynamic which are respectively adopted from cosmology and physics.   In this essay we are going to survey Craig’s arguments and estimate their value and weight.

  1. Craig and Kalam Cosmological Argument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavacoli, Gh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Among different arguments for the existence of God the Kalam cosmological argument is a very famous one which is elaborated by Professor William lane Craig. Craig claims that the universe began to exist, then he continues to say: everything that begins to exist has a cause and therefore the universe has a cause. But how do we know that the universe began to exist? This premise forms the most important part of Craig’s contention, and he bolsters it by four arguments, the first two are driven from philosophy and the other two, which he prefers to name them “confirmations from sciences” are driven from sciences; the first one evokes to big bang theory and the seconds to the second principle of thermodynamic which are respectively adopted from cosmology and physics.In this essay we are going to survey Craig’s arguments and estimate their value and weight.

  2. Attractor behaviour in ELKO cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basak, Abhishek; Bhatt, Jitesh R.; Shankaranarayanan, S.; Varma, K.V. Prasantha

    2013-01-01

    We study the dynamics of ELKO in the context of accelerated phase of our universe. To avoid the fine tuning problem associated with the initial conditions, it is required that the dynamical equations lead to an early-time attractor. In the earlier works, it was shown that the dynamical equations containing ELKO fields do not lead to early-time stable fixed points. In this work, using redefinition of variables, we show that ELKO cosmology admits early-time stable fixed points. More interestingly, we show that ELKO cosmology admit two sets of attractor points corresponding to slow and fast-roll inflation. The fast-roll inflation attractor point is unique for ELKO as it is independent of the form of the potential. We also discuss the plausible choice of interaction terms in these two sets of attractor points and constraints on the coupling constant

  3. An introduction to cosmological inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liddle, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    An introductory account is given of the inflationary cosmology, which postulates a period of accelerated expansion during the Universe's earliest stages. The historical motivation is briefly outlined, and the modelling of the inflationary epoch explained. The most important aspect of inflation is that it provides a possible model for the origin of structure in the Universe, and key results are reviewed, along with a discussion of the current observational situation and outlook. (author)

  4. Cosmological aspects of superstring models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binetruy, P.

    1986-10-01

    I consider more specifically the cosmological aspects of supersymmetry breaking in ''superstring models'' (grand unified models which are believed to describe the effective theory obtained by compactification of superstring theories). The most interesting aspects are related to the presence of flat directions in the scalar potential (vacuum degeneracies). These flat directions are discussed both in the hidden sector of these models (do they give rise to inflation) and in the observable sector of quarks, leptons and Higgs particles, in connection with baryogenesis

  5. Observational constraints on undulant cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barenboim, Gabriela; /Valencia U.; Mena Requejo, Olga; Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2005-10-01

    In an undulant universe, cosmic expansion is characterized by alternating periods of acceleration and deceleration. We examine cosmologies in which the dark-energy equation of state varies periodically with the number of e-foldings of the scale factor of the universe, and use observations to constrain the frequency of oscillation. We find a tension between a forceful response to the cosmic coincidence problem and the standard treatment of structure formation.

  6. A black-hole cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debney, G.; Farnsworth, D.

    1983-01-01

    Motivated by the fact that 2m/r is of the order of magnitude unity for the observable universe, we explore the possibility that a Schwarzschild or black hole cosmological model is appropriate. Luminosity distance and frequency shifts of freely-falling, standard, monochromatic objects are viewed by a freely-falling observer. The observer is inside r=2m. The observer in such a world does not see the same universe as do astronomers. (author)

  7. Qualitative methods in nonhomogeneous cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco, G.

    1986-01-01

    Methods of qualitative dynamical systems are introduced in the study of general gravitational fields near the initial singularity. Using a synchronous reference frame it is proved that any cosmological singularity in a globally hyperbolic spacetime contains in its neighborhood a region where the metric tensor is close to a generalized Kasner universe. Consequences of this result in the description of the behaviour of Einstein's equations near the singularity are emphasized. (Author) [pt

  8. Observations and hypotheses in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1978-05-01

    The existing observational material of cosmological significance is reviewed. It is found that because of the general acceptance of the Big Bang hypothesis a large number of ad hoc assumptions have been made in order to accomodate the observational facts into its framework. Discriminating between speculative conclusions and conclusions which can be drawn with a reasonable degree of certainty, it is found that no convincing proof of the Big Bang hypothesis exists today

  9. Nontrivial Pfaffian forms in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Paal, G.

    1989-01-01

    The compatibility of possible continuous cosmological particle production with thermodynamics was studied. It was found that with the usual K=2 Pfaffian (dQ=TdS) the compatibility held only in very special cases. K≥3 Pfaffians could easily be reconciled with continuous production. Since in this case the full thermodynamic state space was accessible by quasistatic adiabatic processes, such systems showed local rather than global irreversibility. This fact may prevent Heat Death even in indefinitely old model Universes. (author) 36 refs

  10. Inflation and cosmological parameter estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, J.

    2007-05-15

    In this work, we focus on two aspects of cosmological data analysis: inference of parameter values and the search for new effects in the inflationary sector. Constraints on cosmological parameters are commonly derived under the assumption of a minimal model. We point out that this procedure systematically underestimates errors and possibly biases estimates, due to overly restrictive assumptions. In a more conservative approach, we analyse cosmological data using a more general eleven-parameter model. We find that regions of the parameter space that were previously thought ruled out are still compatible with the data; the bounds on individual parameters are relaxed by up to a factor of two, compared to the results for the minimal six-parameter model. Moreover, we analyse a class of inflation models, in which the slow roll conditions are briefly violated, due to a step in the potential. We show that the presence of a step generically leads to an oscillating spectrum and perform a fit to CMB and galaxy clustering data. We do not find conclusive evidence for a step in the potential and derive strong bounds on quantities that parameterise the step. (orig.)

  11. Disformal transformation of cosmological perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Minamitsuji

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the gauge-invariant cosmological perturbations in the gravity and matter frames in the general scalar–tensor theory where two frames are related by the disformal transformation. The gravity and matter frames are the extensions of the Einstein and Jordan frames in the scalar–tensor theory where two frames are related by the conformal transformation, respectively. First, it is shown that the curvature perturbation in the comoving gauge to the scalar field is disformally invariant as well as conformally invariant, which gives the predictions from the cosmological model where the scalar field is responsible both for inflation and cosmological perturbations. Second, in case that the disformally coupled matter sector also contributes to curvature perturbations, we derive the evolution equations of the curvature perturbation in the uniform matter energy density gauge from the energy (nonconservation in the matter sector, which are independent of the choice of the gravity sector. While in the matter frame the curvature perturbation in the uniform matter energy density gauge is conserved on superhorizon scales for the vanishing nonadiabatic pressure, in the gravity frame it is not conserved even if the nonadiabatic pressure vanishes. The formula relating two frames gives the amplitude of the curvature perturbation in the matter frame, once it is evaluated in the gravity frame.

  12. Averaging Robertson-Walker cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Iain A.; Robbers, Georg; Behrend, Juliane

    2009-01-01

    The cosmological backreaction arises when one directly averages the Einstein equations to recover an effective Robertson-Walker cosmology, rather than assuming a background a priori. While usually discussed in the context of dark energy, strictly speaking any cosmological model should be recovered from such a procedure. We apply the scalar spatial averaging formalism for the first time to linear Robertson-Walker universes containing matter, radiation and dark energy. The formalism employed is general and incorporates systems of multiple fluids with ease, allowing us to consider quantitatively the universe from deep radiation domination up to the present day in a natural, unified manner. Employing modified Boltzmann codes we evaluate numerically the discrepancies between the assumed and the averaged behaviour arising from the quadratic terms, finding the largest deviations for an Einstein-de Sitter universe, increasing rapidly with Hubble rate to a 0.01% effect for h = 0.701. For the ΛCDM concordance model, the backreaction is of the order of Ω eff 0 ≈ 4 × 10 −6 , with those for dark energy models being within a factor of two or three. The impacts at recombination are of the order of 10 −8 and those in deep radiation domination asymptote to a constant value. While the effective equations of state of the backreactions in Einstein-de Sitter, concordance and quintessence models are generally dust-like, a backreaction with an equation of state w eff < −1/3 can be found for strongly phantom models

  13. Stability of cosmological deflagration fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mégevand, Ariel; Membiela, Federico Agustín

    2014-05-01

    In a cosmological first-order phase transition, bubbles of the stable phase nucleate and expand in the supercooled metastable phase. In many cases, the growth of bubbles reaches a stationary state, with bubble walls propagating as detonations or deflagrations. However, these hydrodynamical solutions may be unstable under corrugation of the interface. Such instability may drastically alter some of the cosmological consequences of the phase transition. Here, we study the hydrodynamical stability of deflagration fronts. We improve upon previous studies by making a more careful and detailed analysis. In particular, we take into account the fact that the equation of motion for the phase interface depends separately on the temperature and fluid velocity on each side of the wall. Fluid variables on each side of the wall are similar for weakly first-order phase transitions, but differ significantly for stronger phase transitions. As a consequence, we find that, for large enough supercooling, any subsonic wall velocity becomes unstable. Moreover, as the velocity approaches the speed of sound, perturbations become unstable on all wavelengths. For smaller supercooling and small wall velocities, our results agree with those of previous works. Essentially, perturbations on large wavelengths are unstable, unless the wall velocity is higher than a critical value. We also find a previously unobserved range of marginally unstable wavelengths. We analyze the dynamical relevance of the instabilities, and we estimate the characteristic time and length scales associated with their growth. We discuss the implications for the electroweak phase transition and its cosmological consequences.

  14. Cosmology with primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindley, D.

    1981-09-01

    Cosmologies containing a substantial amount of matter in the form of evaporating primordial black holes are investigated. A review of constraints on the numbers of such black holes, including an analysis of a new limit found by looking at the destruction of deuterium by high energy photons, shows that there must be a negligible population of small black holes from the era of cosmological nucleosynthesis onwards, but that there are no strong constraints before this time. The major part of the work is based on the construction of detailed, self-consistent cosmological models in which black holes are continually forming and evaporating The interest in these models centres on the question of baryon generation, which occurs via the asymmetric decay of a new type of particle which appears as a consequence of the recently developed Grand Unified Theories of elementary particles. Unfortunately, there is so much uncertainty in the models that firm conclusions are difficult to reach; however, it seems feasible in principle that primordial black holes could be responsible for a significant part of the present matter density of the Universe. (author)

  15. The Age of Precision Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, David T.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, our understanding of the evolution and fate of the universe has increased dramatically. This "Age of Precision Cosmology" has been ushered in by measurements that have both elucidated the details of the Big Bang cosmology and set the direction for future lines of inquiry. Our universe appears to consist of 5% baryonic matter; 23% of the universe's energy content is dark matter which is responsible for the observed structure in the universe; and 72% of the energy density is so-called "dark energy" that is currently accelerating the expansion of the universe. In addition, our universe has been measured to be geometrically flat to 1 %. These observations and related details of the Big Bang paradigm have hinted that the universe underwent an epoch of accelerated expansion known as Uinflation" early in its history. In this talk, I will review the highlights of modern cosmology, focusing on the contributions made by measurements of the cosmic microwave background, the faint afterglow of the Big Bang. I will also describe new instruments designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in order to search for evidence of cosmic inflation.

  16. Multiverse understanding of cosmological coincidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousso, Raphael; Hall, Lawrence J.; Nomura, Yasunori

    2009-01-01

    There is a deep cosmological mystery: although dependent on very different underlying physics, the time scales of structure formation, of galaxy cooling (both radiatively and against the CMB), and of vacuum domination do not differ by many orders of magnitude, but are all comparable to the present age of the universe. By scanning four landscape parameters simultaneously, we show that this quadruple coincidence is resolved. We assume only that the statistical distribution of parameter values in the multiverse grows towards certain catastrophic boundaries we identify, across which there are drastic regime changes. We find order-of-magnitude predictions for the cosmological constant, the primordial density contrast, the temperature at matter-radiation equality, the typical galaxy mass, and the age of the universe, in terms of the fine structure constant and the electron, proton and Planck masses. Our approach permits a systematic evaluation of measure proposals; with the causal patch measure, we find no runaway of the primordial density contrast and the cosmological constant to large values.

  17. Disformal transformation of cosmological perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamitsuji, Masato

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the gauge-invariant cosmological perturbations in the gravity and matter frames in the general scalar–tensor theory where two frames are related by the disformal transformation. The gravity and matter frames are the extensions of the Einstein and Jordan frames in the scalar–tensor theory where two frames are related by the conformal transformation, respectively. First, it is shown that the curvature perturbation in the comoving gauge to the scalar field is disformally invariant as well as conformally invariant, which gives the predictions from the cosmological model where the scalar field is responsible both for inflation and cosmological perturbations. Second, in case that the disformally coupled matter sector also contributes to curvature perturbations, we derive the evolution equations of the curvature perturbation in the uniform matter energy density gauge from the energy (non)conservation in the matter sector, which are independent of the choice of the gravity sector. While in the matter frame the curvature perturbation in the uniform matter energy density gauge is conserved on superhorizon scales for the vanishing nonadiabatic pressure, in the gravity frame it is not conserved even if the nonadiabatic pressure vanishes. The formula relating two frames gives the amplitude of the curvature perturbation in the matter frame, once it is evaluated in the gravity frame

  18. Fluid observers and tilting cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coley, A A; Hervik, S; Lim, W C

    2006-01-01

    We study perfect fluid cosmological models with a constant equation of state parameter γ in which there are two naturally defined timelike congruences, a geometrically defined geodesic congruence and a non-geodesic fluid congruence. We establish an appropriate set of boost formulae relating the physical variables, and consequently the observed quantities, in the two frames. We study expanding spatially homogeneous tilted perfect fluid models, with an emphasis on future evolution with extreme tilt. We show that for ultra-radiative equations of state (i.e. γ > 4/3), generically the tilt becomes extreme at late times and the fluid observers will reach infinite expansion within a finite proper time and experience a singularity similar to that of the big rip. In addition, we show that for sub-radiative equations of state (i.e. γ < 4/3), the tilt can become extreme at late times and give rise to an effective quintessential equation of state. To establish the connection with phantom cosmology and quintessence, we calculate the effective equation of state in the models under consideration and we determine the future asymptotic behaviour of the tilting models in the fluid frame variables using the boost formulae. We also discuss spatially inhomogeneous models and tilting spatially homogeneous models with a cosmological constant

  19. Quantum propagation across cosmological singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Steffen; Turok, Neil

    2017-05-01

    The initial singularity is the most troubling feature of the standard cosmology, which quantum effects are hoped to resolve. In this paper, we study quantum cosmology with conformal (Weyl) invariant matter. We show that it is natural to extend the scale factor to negative values, allowing a large, collapsing universe to evolve across a quantum "bounce" into an expanding universe like ours. We compute the Feynman propagator for Friedmann-Robertson-Walker backgrounds exactly, identifying curious pathologies in the case of curved (open or closed) universes. We then include anisotropies, fixing the operator ordering of the quantum Hamiltonian by imposing covariance under field redefinitions and again finding exact solutions. We show how complex classical solutions allow one to circumvent the singularity while maintaining the validity of the semiclassical approximation. The simplest isotropic universes sit on a critical boundary, beyond which there is qualitatively different behavior, with potential for instability. Additional scalars improve the theory's stability. Finally, we study the semiclassical propagation of inhomogeneous perturbations about the flat, isotropic case, at linear and nonlinear order, showing that, at least at this level, there is no particle production across the bounce. These results form the basis for a promising new approach to quantum cosmology and the resolution of the big bang singularity.

  20. Cosmological aspects of spontaneous baryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, Andrea De; Kobayashi, Takeshi [SISSA,Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste,Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2016-08-24

    We investigate cosmological aspects of spontaneous baryogenesis driven by a scalar field, and present general constraints that are independent of the particle physics model. The relevant constraints are obtained by studying the backreaction of the produced baryons on the scalar field, the cosmological expansion history after baryogenesis, and the baryon isocurvature perturbations. We show that cosmological considerations alone provide powerful constraints, especially for the minimal scenario with a quadratic scalar potential. Intriguingly, we find that for a given inflation scale, the other parameters including the reheat temperature, decoupling temperature of the baryon violating interactions, and the mass and decay constant of the scalar are restricted to lie within ranges of at most a few orders of magnitude. We also discuss possible extensions to the minimal setup, and propose two ideas for evading constraints on isocurvature perturbations: one is to suppress the baryon isocurvature with nonquadratic scalar potentials, another is to compensate the baryon isocurvature with cold dark matter isocurvature by making the scalar survive until the present.

  1. High energy physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    This research will focus on the implications of recent theories and experiments in high energy physics of the evolution of the early universe, and on the constraints that cosmological considerations can place on such theories. Several problems are under investigation, including studies of the nature of dark matter and the signature of annihilations in the galactic halo, where the resulting γ-ray fluxes are potentially observable, and in stars, where stellar evolution may be affects. We will develop constraints on the inflationary predictions of scale-free primordial fluctuations in a universe at critical closure density by studying their linear and non-linear evolution after they re-enter the particle horizon, examining the observable imprint of primordial density fluctuations on the cosmic microwave background radiation in both flat and curved cosmological models, and implications for observations of large-scale galaxy clustering and structure formation theories. We will also study spectral distortions in the microwave background radiation that are produced by exotic particle decays in the very early universe. We expect such astrophysical considerations to provide fruitful insights both into high-energy particle physics and into possible cosmological for the early universe

  2. Ancient DNA from marine mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David; Hofreiter, Michael; Morin, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    such as bone, tooth, baleen, skin, fur, whiskers and scrimshaw using ancient DNA (aDNA) approaches provide an oppor- tunity for investigating such changes over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Here, we review the application of aDNA techniques to the study of marine mammals. Most of the studies have...... focused on detecting changes in genetic diversity following periods of exploitation and environmental change. To date, these studies have shown that even small sample sizes can provide useful information on historical genetic diversity. Ancient DNA has also been used in investigations of changes...... in distribution and range of marine mammal species; we review these studies and discuss the limitations of such ‘presence only’ studies. Combining aDNA data with stable isotopes can provide further insights into changes in ecology and we review past studies and suggest future potential applications. We also...

  3. Molecular analysis of ancient caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simón, Marc; Montiel, Rafael; Smerling, Andrea; Solórzano, Eduvigis; Díaz, Nancy; Álvarez-Sandoval, Brenda A.; Jiménez-Marín, Andrea R.; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2014-01-01

    An 84 base pair sequence of the Streptococcus mutans virulence factor, known as dextranase, has been obtained from 10 individuals from the Bronze Age to the Modern Era in Europe and from before and after the colonization in America. Modern samples show four polymorphic sites that have not been found in the ancient samples studied so far. The nucleotide and haplotype diversity of this region have increased over time, which could be reflecting the footprint of a population expansion. While this segment has apparently evolved according to neutral evolution, we have been able to detect one site that is under positive selection pressure both in present and past populations. This study is a first step to study the evolution of this microorganism, analysed using direct evidence obtained from ancient remains. PMID:25056622

  4. Mitogenomic analyses from ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paijmans, Johanna L. A.; Gilbert, Tom; Hofreiter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of ancient DNA is playing an increasingly important role in conservation genetic, phylogenetic and population genetic analyses, as it allows incorporating extinct species into DNA sequence trees and adds time depth to population genetics studies. For many years, these types of DNA...... analyses (whether using modern or ancient DNA) were largely restricted to the analysis of short fragments of the mitochondrial genome. However, due to many technological advances during the past decade, a growing number of studies have explored the power of complete mitochondrial genome sequences...... yielded major progress with regard to both the phylogenetic positions of extinct species, as well as resolving population genetics questions in both extinct and extant species....

  5. Understanding Creation: Cosmology at the Dawn of the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andrew E.

    1997-01-01

    Cosmology attempts to answer questions concerning the origin of the universe, the way in which it evolves, and the way in which it will end. These are ancient questions that fascinate humanity and attendant metaphysical answers predate recorded history. The dawn of the 21st century has witnessed the first scientific answers. The goal of modern cosmology is to determine the basic properties of the universe. Numerous discoveries have been made in the last century which have had a profound influence on cosmology such as the expansion of the universe and the existence of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). CMB and other phenomena act as fossils for cosmologists who attempt to characterize the early universe through an interpretive methodology similar to that of archaeologists. Programs and tools such as NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) have been designed to illuminate the morphologic history of the universe including the big bang theory and the current density of the universe. In this primer for cosmology, these and other discoveries and postulations are discussed.

  6. Colour Perception in Ancient World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterov, D. I.; Fedorova, M. Yu

    2017-11-01

    How did the human thought form the surrounding color information into the persistent semantic images of a mythological, pseudoscientific and religious nature? The concepts associated with colour perception are suggested. The existence of colour environment does not depend on the human consciousness. The colour culture formation is directly related to the level of the human consciousness development and the possibility to influence the worldview and culture. The colour perception of a person goes through the stages similar to the development of colour vision in a child. Like any development, the colour consciousness has undergone stages of growth and decline, evolution and stagnation. The way of life and difficult conditions for existence made their own adjustments to the development of the human perception of the surrounding world. Wars have been both a powerful engine of progress in all spheres of life and a great destructive force demolishing the already created and preserved heritage. The surrounding world has always been interesting for humans, evoked images and fantasies in the consciousness of ancient people. Unusual and inexplicable natural phenomena spawned numerous legends and myths which was reflected in the ancient art and architecture and, accordingly, in a certain manifestation of colour in the human society. The colour perception of the ancient man, his pragmatic, utilitarian attitude to colour is considered as well as the influence of dependence on external conditions of existence and their reflection in the colour culture of antiquity. “Natural Science” conducts research in the field of the colour nature and their authorial interpretation of the Hellenic period. Several authorial concepts of the ancient world have been considered.

  7. ANCIENT BREAD STAMPS FROM JORDAN

    OpenAIRE

    Kakish, Randa

    2014-01-01

    Marking bread was an old practice performed in different parts of the old world. It was done for religious, magical, economic and identification purposes. Bread stamps differ from other groups of stamps. Accordingly, the aim of this article is to identify such stamps, displayed or stored, in a number of Jordanian Archaeological Museums. A col-lection of twelve ancient bread stamps were identified and studied. Two of the stamps were of unknown provenance while the others came from al-Shuneh, D...

  8. On the Cold Big Bang Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assis A. V. D. B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We solve the general relativity (GR field equations under the cosmological scope via one extra postulate. The plausibility of the postulate resides within the Heisenberg indeterminacy principle, being heuristically analysed throughout the appendix. Under this approach, a negative energy density may provide the positive energy content of the universe via fluctuation, since the question of conservation of energy in cosmology is weakened, supported by the known lack of scope of the Noether's theorem in cosmology. The initial condition of the primordial universe turns out to have a natural cutoff such that the temperature of the cosmological substratum converges to the absolute zero, instead of the established divergence at the very beginning. The adopted postulate provides an explanation for the cosmological dark energy open question. The solution agrees with cosmological observations, including a 2.7K CMBT prediction.

  9. Cosmological string solutions by dimensional reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrndt, K.; Foerste, S.

    1993-12-01

    We obtain cosmological four dimensional solutions of the low energy effective string theory by reducing a five dimensional black hole, and black hole-de Sitter solution of the Einstein gravity down to four dimensions. The appearance of a cosmological constant in the five dimensional Einstein-Hilbert produces a special dilaton potential in the four dimensional effective string action. Cosmological scenarios implement by our solutions are discussed

  10. Particle physics and cosmology, Task C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1993-05-01

    The research has spanned many topics at the boundary of particle physics and cosmology. The major focus has been in the general areas of inflationary cosmology, cosmological phase transitions, astrophysical constraints to particle physics theories, and dark matter/structure formation as it relates to particle physics. Some attention is given to axion physics. Narrative summaries of the research of the individual group members are given, followed by a list of publications

  11. Gravitational particle production in braneworld cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambi, C; Urban, F R

    2007-11-09

    Gravitational particle production in a time variable metric of an expanding universe is efficient only when the Hubble parameter H is not too small in comparison with the particle mass. In standard cosmology, the huge value of the Planck mass M{Pl} makes the mechanism phenomenologically irrelevant. On the other hand, in braneworld cosmology, the expansion rate of the early Universe can be much faster, and many weakly interacting particles can be abundantly created. Cosmological implications are discussed.

  12. Cosmological string theory with thermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Kiyoshi.

    1988-09-01

    An attempt to construct a cosmological scenario directly from string theory is made. Cosmological string theory was presented by Antoniadis, Bachas, Ellis and Nanopoulos. They also expect loop effects on cosmological string theory. In this paper, we point out the other importance of the one-loop effect, the finite temperature effect. The equations of motion for background geometry at finite temperature is given. We address a problem on derivation of the effective action at non-zero temperature. (author)

  13. Life quality index revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2004-01-01

    The derivation of the life quality index (LQI) is revisited for a revision. This revision takes into account the unpaid but necessary work time needed to stay alive in clean and healthy conditions to be fit for effective wealth producing work and to enjoyable free time. Dimension analysis...... at birth should not vary between countries. Finally the distributional assumptions are relaxed as compared to the assumptions made in an earlier work by the author. These assumptions concern the calculation of the life expectancy change due to the removal of an accident source. Moreover a simple public...... consistency problems with the standard power function expression of the LQI are pointed out. It is emphasized that the combination coefficient in the convex differential combination between the relative differential of the gross domestic product per capita and the relative differential of the expected life...

  14. Quantum duel revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Alexandre G M; Paiva, Milena M

    2012-01-01

    We revisit the quantum two-person duel. In this problem, both Alice and Bob each possess a spin-1/2 particle which models dead and alive states for each player. We review the Abbott and Flitney result—now considering non-zero α 1 and α 2 in order to decide if it is better for Alice to shoot or not the second time—and we also consider a duel where players do not necessarily start alive. This simple assumption allows us to explore several interesting special cases, namely how a dead player can win the duel shooting just once, or how can Bob revive Alice after one shot, and the better strategy for Alice—being either alive or in a superposition of alive and dead states—fighting a dead opponent. (paper)

  15. Satellite failures revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-12-01

    In January 1994, the two geostationary satellites known as Anik-E1 and Anik-E2, operated by Telesat Canada, failed one after the other within 9 hours, leaving many northern Canadian communities without television and data services. The outage, which shut down much of the country's broadcast television for hours and cost Telesat Canada more than $15 million, generated significant media attention. Lam et al. used publicly available records to revisit the event; they looked at failure details, media coverage, recovery effort, and cost. They also used satellite and ground data to determine the precise causes of those satellite failures. The researchers traced the entire space weather event from conditions on the Sun through the interplanetary medium to the particle environment in geostationary orbit.

  16. Logistics Innovation Process Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta; Su, Shong-Iee Ivan; Yang, Su-Lan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to learn more about logistics innovation processes and their implications for the focal organization as well as the supply chain, especially suppliers. Design/methodology/approach – The empirical basis of the study is a longitudinal action research project...... that was triggered by the practical needs of new ways of handling material flows of a hospital. This approach made it possible to revisit theory on logistics innovation process. Findings – Apart from the tangible benefits reported to the case hospital, five findings can be extracted from this study: the logistics...... innovation process model may include not just customers but also suppliers; logistics innovation in buyer-supplier relations may serve as an alternative to outsourcing; logistics innovation processes are dynamic and may improve supplier partnerships; logistics innovations in the supply chain are as dependent...

  17. Klein's double discontinuity revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winsløw, Carl; Grønbæk, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Much effort and research has been invested into understanding and bridging the ‘gaps’ which many students experience in terms of contents and expectations as they begin university studies with a heavy component of mathematics, typically in the form of calculus courses. We have several studies...... of bridging measures, success rates and many other aspects of these “entrance transition” problems. In this paper, we consider the inverse transition, experienced by university students as they revisit core parts of high school mathematics (in particular, calculus) after completing the undergraduate...... mathematics courses which are mandatory to become a high school teacher of mathematics. To what extent does the “advanced” experience enable them to approach the high school calculus in a deeper and more autonomous way ? To what extent can “capstone” courses support such an approach ? How could it be hindered...

  18. Reframing in dentistry: Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Nuvvula

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The successful practice of dentistry involves a good combination of technical skills and soft skills. Soft skills or communication skills are not taught extensively in dental schools and it can be challenging to learn and at times in treating dental patients. Guiding the child′s behavior in the dental operatory is one of the preliminary steps to be taken by the pediatric dentist and one who can successfully modify the behavior can definitely pave the way for a life time comprehensive oral care. This article is an attempt to revisit a simple behavior guidance technique, reframing and explain the possible psychological perspectives behind it for better use in the clinical practice.

  19. Landscape predictions from cosmological vacuum selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael; Yang, Sheng

    2007-04-23

    In Bousso-Polchinski models with hundreds of fluxes, we compute the effects of cosmological dynamics on the probability distribution of landscape vacua. Starting from generic initial conditions, we find that most fluxes are dynamically driven into a different and much narrower range of values than expected from landscape statistics alone. Hence, cosmological evolution will access only a tiny fraction of the vacua with small cosmological constant. This leads to a host of sharp predictions. Unlike other approaches to eternal inflation, the holographic measure employed here does not lead to staggering, an excessive spread of probabilities that would doom the string landscape as a solution to the cosmological constant problem.

  20. Landscape predictions from cosmological vacuum selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousso, Raphael; Yang, I-S.

    2007-01-01

    In Bousso-Polchinski models with hundreds of fluxes, we compute the effects of cosmological dynamics on the probability distribution of landscape vacua. Starting from generic initial conditions, we find that most fluxes are dynamically driven into a different and much narrower range of values than expected from landscape statistics alone. Hence, cosmological evolution will access only a tiny fraction of the vacua with small cosmological constant. This leads to a host of sharp predictions. Unlike other approaches to eternal inflation, the holographic measure employed here does not lead to staggering, an excessive spread of probabilities that would doom the string landscape as a solution to the cosmological constant problem

  1. Beyond the Standard Model of Cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, John; Nanopoulos, D. V.

    2004-01-01

    Recent cosmological observations of unprecented accuracy, by WMAP in particular, have established a 'Standard Model' of cosmology, just as LEP established the Standard Model of particle physics. Both Standard Models raise open questions whose answers are likely to be linked. The most fundamental problems in both particle physics and cosmology will be resolved only within a framework for Quantum Gravity, for which the only game in town is string theory. We discuss novel ways to model cosmological inflation and late acceleration in a non-critical string approach, and discuss possible astrophysical tests

  2. Multi-dimensional cosmology and GUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeynali, K.; Motavalli, H. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Tabriz, 51666-16471, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Darabi, F., E-mail: k.zeinali@arums.ac.ir, E-mail: f.darabi@azaruniv.edu, E-mail: motavalli@tabrizu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, 53714-161, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-01

    We consider a multidimensional cosmological model with FRW type metric having 4-dimensional space-time and d-dimensional Ricci-flat internal space sectors with a higher dimensional cosmological constant. We study the classical cosmology in commutative and GUP cases and obtain the corresponding exact solutions for negative and positive cosmological constants. It is shown that for negative cosmological constant, the commutative and GUP cases result in finite size universes with smaller size and longer ages, and larger size and shorter age, respectively. For positive cosmological constant, the commutative and GUP cases result in infinite size universes having late time accelerating behavior in good agreement with current observations. The accelerating phase starts in the GUP case sooner than the commutative case. In both commutative and GUP cases, and for both negative and positive cosmological constants, the internal space is stabilized to the sub-Planck size, at least within the present age of the universe. Then, we study the quantum cosmology by deriving the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, and obtain the exact solutions in the commutative case and the perturbative solutions in GUP case, to first order in the GUP small parameter, for both negative and positive cosmological constants. It is shown that good correspondence exists between the classical and quantum solutions.

  3. The Effective Field Theory of nonsingular cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yong [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); Wan, Youping [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy,University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Li, Hai-Guang [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); Qiu, Taotao [Institute of Astrophysics, Central China Normal University,Wuhan 430079 (China); Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE), Central China Normal University,Wuhan 430079 (China); Piao, Yun-Song [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,P.O. Box 2735, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2017-01-20

    In this paper, we explore the nonsingular cosmology within the framework of the Effective Field Theory (EFT) of cosmological perturbations. Due to the recently proved no-go theorem, any nonsingular cosmological models based on the cubic Galileon suffer from pathologies. We show how the EFT could help us clarify the origin of the no-go theorem, and offer us solutions to break the no-go. Particularly, we point out that the gradient instability can be removed by using some spatial derivative operators in EFT. Based on the EFT description, we obtain a realistic healthy nonsingular cosmological model, and show the perturbation spectrum can be consistent with the observations.

  4. Multi-dimensional cosmology and GUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeynali, K.; Motavalli, H.; Darabi, F.

    2012-01-01

    We consider a multidimensional cosmological model with FRW type metric having 4-dimensional space-time and d-dimensional Ricci-flat internal space sectors with a higher dimensional cosmological constant. We study the classical cosmology in commutative and GUP cases and obtain the corresponding exact solutions for negative and positive cosmological constants. It is shown that for negative cosmological constant, the commutative and GUP cases result in finite size universes with smaller size and longer ages, and larger size and shorter age, respectively. For positive cosmological constant, the commutative and GUP cases result in infinite size universes having late time accelerating behavior in good agreement with current observations. The accelerating phase starts in the GUP case sooner than the commutative case. In both commutative and GUP cases, and for both negative and positive cosmological constants, the internal space is stabilized to the sub-Planck size, at least within the present age of the universe. Then, we study the quantum cosmology by deriving the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, and obtain the exact solutions in the commutative case and the perturbative solutions in GUP case, to first order in the GUP small parameter, for both negative and positive cosmological constants. It is shown that good correspondence exists between the classical and quantum solutions

  5. The Effective Field Theory of nonsingular cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yong; Wan, Youping; Li, Hai-Guang; Qiu, Taotao; Piao, Yun-Song

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the nonsingular cosmology within the framework of the Effective Field Theory (EFT) of cosmological perturbations. Due to the recently proved no-go theorem, any nonsingular cosmological models based on the cubic Galileon suffer from pathologies. We show how the EFT could help us clarify the origin of the no-go theorem, and offer us solutions to break the no-go. Particularly, we point out that the gradient instability can be removed by using some spatial derivative operators in EFT. Based on the EFT description, we obtain a realistic healthy nonsingular cosmological model, and show the perturbation spectrum can be consistent with the observations.

  6. Quantum Gravity and Cosmology: an intimate interplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2017-08-01

    I will briefly discuss three cosmological models built upon three distinct quantum gravity proposals. I will first highlight the cosmological rôle of a vector field in the framework of a string/brane cosmological model. I will then present the resolution of the big bang singularity and the occurrence of an early era of accelerated expansion of a geometric origin, in the framework of group field theory condensate cosmology. I will then summarise results from an extended gravitational model based on non-commutative spectral geometry, a model that offers a purely geometric explanation for the standard model of particle physics.

  7. On Gauge Invariant Cosmological Perturbations in UV-modified Hořava Gravity: A Brief Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mu-In

    2018-01-01

    We revisit gauge invariant cosmological perturbations in UV-modified, z = 3 Hořava gravity with one scalar matter field, which has been proposed as a renormalizable gravity theory without the ghost problem in four dimensions. We confirm that there is no extra graviton modes and general relativity is recovered in IR, which achieves the consistency of the model. From the UV-modification terms which break the detailed balance condition in UV, we obtain scale-invariant power spectrums for non-inflationary backgrounds, like the power-law expansions, without knowing the details of early expansion history of Universe. This could provide a new framework for the Big Bang cosmology.

  8. On Gauge Invariant Cosmological Perturbations in UV-modified Hořava Gravity: A Brief Introduction*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Mu-In

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We revisit gauge invariant cosmological perturbations in UV-modified, z = 3 Hořava gravity with one scalar matter field, which has been proposed as a renormalizable gravity theory without the ghost problem in four dimensions. We confirm that there is no extra graviton modes and general relativity is recovered in IR, which achieves the consistency of the model. From the UV-modification terms which break the detailed balance condition in UV, we obtain scale-invariant power spectrums for non-inflationary backgrounds, like the power-law expansions, without knowing the details of early expansion history of Universe. This could provide a new framework for the Big Bang cosmology.

  9. An investigation into the ancient abortion laws: comparing ancient Persia with ancient Greece and Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Zargaran, Arman; Vatanpour, Azadeh; Abedini, Ehsan; Adhami, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    Since the dawn of medicine, medical rights and ethics have always been one of mankind's concerns. In any civilisation, attention paid to medical laws and ethics depends on the progress of human values and the advancement of medical science. The history of various civilisations teaches that each had its own views on medical ethics, but most had something in common. Ancient civilisations such as Greece, Rome, or Assyria did not consider the foetus to be alive and therefore to have human rights. In contrast, ancient Persians valued the foetus as a living person equal to others. Accordingly, they brought laws against abortion, even in cases of sexual abuse. Furthermore, abortion was considered to be a murder and punishments were meted out to the mother, father, and the person performing it.

  10. The Relation of Philosophy and Medicine in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RHEE Kee-Bag

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to deal with two questions concerning the relation of philosophy and medicine in ancient greece  (1 Which influences had philosophy on medicine? (2 Whom did attack the author of On the ancient medicine? And (3 was his criticism right? (1 Philosophy’s influences was twofold  (a As early Greek philosophers had explained natural phenomena by natural elements without recourse to any supernatural god  so authors of Hippocratic Works also had sought to explain diseases  They had replaced magical and religious medicine with rational medicine by virtue of rational explanation  This seems to have represented medicine’s debt to philosophy  (b Many medical authors primarily had studied the nature of human  i e  the basic constituents of the body  since they had thought the very same to be causes of diseases  This aspect shows the conspicuous influence of philosophy  Because it was the nature of cosmos  i e  the source or basic constituent that early Greek philosophers had searched to explain cosmos and all natural phenomena in it  (2 On the other hand the author of On the ancient medicine attacks physicians that are influenced by cosmology of early Greek philosophers  The point of his criticism in Chapter 1 is that ‘philosophical physicians’ postulate one or two constituents of the body as the primary cause of men’s diseases  Then are physicians that postulate various constituents free from the author’s criticism? At least according to Chapter 20 it is not so  He seems to criticize physicians in general who proceed by the hypothetical method  He contrasts this method with the method of trial and error  and asserts that this is of medicine  but that is of philosophy  (3 Although this methodological separation was right in a sense  at least the opinion of the author seems to be extreme  Because medicine can’t be science  if it does not make use of any hypothesis

  11. Double neutron stars: merger rates revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chruslinska, Martyna; Belczynski, Krzysztof; Klencki, Jakub; Benacquista, Matthew

    2018-03-01

    We revisit double neutron star (DNS) formation in the classical binary evolution scenario in light of the recent Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO)/Virgo DNS detection (GW170817). The observationally estimated Galactic DNS merger rate of R_MW = 21^{+28}_{-14} Myr-1, based on three Galactic DNS systems, fully supports our standard input physics model with RMW = 24 Myr-1. This estimate for the Galaxy translates in a non-trivial way (due to cosmological evolution of progenitor stars in chemically evolving Universe) into a local (z ≈ 0) DNS merger rate density of Rlocal = 48 Gpc-3 yr-1, which is not consistent with the current LIGO/Virgo DNS merger rate estimate (1540^{+3200}_{-1220} Gpc-3 yr-1). Within our study of the parameter space, we find solutions that allow for DNS merger rates as high as R_local ≈ 600^{+600}_{-300} Gpc-3 yr-1 which are thus consistent with the LIGO/Virgo estimate. However, our corresponding BH-BH merger rates for the models with high DNS merger rates exceed the current LIGO/Virgo estimate of local BH-BH merger rate (12-213 Gpc-3 yr-1). Apart from being particularly sensitive to the common envelope treatment, DNS merger rates are rather robust against variations of several of the key factors probed in our study (e.g. mass transfer, angular momentum loss, and natal kicks). This might suggest that either common envelope development/survival works differently for DNS (˜10-20 M⊙ stars) than for BH-BH (˜40-100 M⊙ stars) progenitors, or high black hole (BH) natal kicks are needed to meet observational constraints for both types of binaries. Our conclusion is based on a limited number of (21) evolutionary models and is valid within this particular DNS and BH-BH isolated binary formation scenario.

  12. HOW THE DENSITY ENVIRONMENT CHANGES THE INFLUENCE OF THE DARK MATTER–BARYON STREAMING VELOCITY ON COSMOLOGICAL STRUCTURE FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Kyungjin, E-mail: kjahn@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Earth Sciences, Chosun University, Gwangju 61452 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-20

    We study the dynamical effect of the relative velocity between dark matter and baryonic fluids, which remained supersonic after the epoch of recombination. The impact of this supersonic motion on the formation of cosmological structures was first formulated by Tseliakhovich and Hirata, in terms of the linear theory of small-scale fluctuations coupled to large-scale, relative velocities in mean-density regions. In their formalism, they limited the large-scale density environment to be that of the global mean density. We improve on their formulation by allowing variation in the density environment as well as the relative velocities. This leads to a new type of coupling between large-scale and small-scale modes. We find that the small-scale fluctuation grows in a biased way: faster in the overdense environment and slower in the underdense environment. We also find that the net effect on the global power spectrum of the density fluctuation is to boost its overall amplitude from the prediction by Tseliakhovich and Hirata. Correspondingly, the conditional mass function of cosmological halos and the halo bias parameter are both affected in a similar way. The discrepancy between our prediction and that of Tseliakhovich and Hirata is significant, and therefore, the related cosmology and high-redshift astrophysics should be revisited. The mathematical formalism of this study can be used for generating cosmological initial conditions of small-scale perturbations in generic, overdense (underdense) background patches.

  13. Time variation of the cosmological redshift in Dicke-Brans-Jordan cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruediger, R.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper the time variation z of the cosmological redshift z is discussed for Dicke-Brans-Jordan (DBJ) cosmologies. We determine the general z-z relation in the functional form zH -1 0 = F(z; q 0 , sigma 0 ,xi 0 , ω) for small values of z, where all the symbols have their conventional meanings. For certain combinations of cosmological parameters, which are within the present observational limitations, the DBJ terms in the function F can dominate the general relativistic terms. Furthermore, zH -1 0 can be positive in DBJ cosmologies in contrast to general relativistic cosmologies with q 0 >0

  14. Cosmology with weak lensing surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munshi, Dipak; Valageas, Patrick; Waerbeke, Ludovic van; Heavens, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing is responsible for the shearing and magnification of the images of high-redshift sources due to the presence of intervening matter. The distortions are due to fluctuations in the gravitational potential, and are directly related to the distribution of matter and to the geometry and dynamics of the Universe. As a consequence, weak gravitational lensing offers unique possibilities for probing the Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe. In this review, we summarise the theoretical and observational state of the subject, focussing on the statistical aspects of weak lensing, and consider the prospects for weak lensing surveys in the future. Weak gravitational lensing surveys are complementary to both galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations as they probe the unbiased non-linear matter power spectrum at modest redshifts. Most of the cosmological parameters are accurately estimated from CMB and large-scale galaxy surveys, so the focus of attention is shifting to understanding the nature of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. On the theoretical side, recent advances in the use of 3D information of the sources from photometric redshifts promise greater statistical power, and these are further enhanced by the use of statistics beyond two-point quantities such as the power spectrum. The use of 3D information also alleviates difficulties arising from physical effects such as the intrinsic alignment of galaxies, which can mimic weak lensing to some extent. On the observational side, in the next few years weak lensing surveys such as CFHTLS, VST-KIDS and Pan-STARRS, and the planned Dark Energy Survey, will provide the first weak lensing surveys covering very large sky areas and depth. In the long run even more ambitious programmes such as DUNE, the Supernova Anisotropy Probe (SNAP) and Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) are planned. Weak lensing of diffuse components such as the CMB and 21 cm emission can also

  15. Lorentzian condition in holographic cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertog, Thomas; Monten, Ruben; Vreys, Yannick

    2017-01-01

    We derive a sufficient set of conditions on the Euclidean boundary theory in dS/CFT for it to predict classical, Lorentzian bulk evolution at large spatial volumes. Our derivation makes use of a canonical transformation to express the bulk wave function at large volume in terms of the sources of the dual partition function. This enables a sharper formulation of dS/CFT. The conditions under which the boundary theory predicts classical bulk evolution are stronger than the criteria usually employed in quantum cosmology. We illustrate this in a homogeneous isotropic minisuperspace model of gravity coupled to a scalar field in which we identify the ensemble of classical histories explicitly.

  16. Inflationary cosmology: First 30+ years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Katsuhiko; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2015-08-01

    Starting with an account of historical developments in Japan and Russia, we review inflationary cosmology and its basic predictions in a pedagogical manner. We also introduce the generalized G-inflation model, in terms of which all the known single-field inflation models may be described. This formalism allows us to analyze and compare the many inflationary models that have been proposed simultaneously and within a common framework. Finally, current observational constraints on inflation are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the sensitivity of the inferred constraints to the choice of datasets used.

  17. Cosmological perturbations beyond linear order

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Cosmological perturbation theory is the standard tool to understand the formation of the large scale structure in the Universe. However, its degree of applicability is limited by the growth of the amplitude of the matter perturbations with time. This problem can be tackled with by using N-body simulations or analytical techniques that go beyond the linear calculation. In my talk, I'll summarise some recent efforts in the latter that ameliorate the bad convergence of the standard perturbative expansion. The new techniques allow better analytical control on observables (as the matter power spectrum) over scales very relevant to understand the expansion history and formation of structure in the Universe.

  18. The zen in modern cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Chi-Sing

    2008-01-01

    According to Modern Cosmology, our Universe came from a primordial state 13.7 billion years ago, with no matter and very little energy. In other words, it was almost empty. Where do the stars and galaxies, and everything else in the present universe come from then?. This captivating book provides an answer to this question, and explains the observations and evidence behind the assertion of an almost empty primordial universe. Aimed at a general audience, it assumes no prior knowledge of astronomy or physics. The emptiness of the primordial universe is reminiscent of the emptiness in Zen Buddhi

  19. Recent progress in observational cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Gangui, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    We present here a short update of some topics on observational cosmology, with special emphasis given to the latest results on the cosmic microwave background radiation anisotropies and polarization. Fil: Gangui, Alejandro. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciónes Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Ciudad Universitaria. Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio. - Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Instituto de Astronomía y Físi...

  20. 2002 astroparticle physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, G.; Perez-Lorenzana, A.; Senjanovic, G.; Thompson, G.; Vissani, F.

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 Summer School on Astroparticle Physics and Cosmology was held at ICTP, in the three weeks from June 17 to July 5. As in previous Schools in this series, the main topics were covered by sets of 3-5 lectures (regular courses); some special topics were presented in dedicated sessions (special lectures); and emphasis was given to the discussion sessions. The main aim of the School was to give an updated survey of astroparticle physics and cosmology, with an emphasis on theoretical aspects. W. Hu introduced and discussed the theory of structure formation, and the most important features of the cosmic microwave background radiation. A closely connected topic, inflation, was reviewed in detail in the lectures of A. Riotto. The connection between dark matter and particle physics was outlined by R. Bernabei. The search for other dark matter candidates, such as monopoles and axions, was discussed by G. Giacomelli and E. Masso. Dark energy and the cosmological constant - the most puzzling aspect of particle and astroparticle physics, according to many - were the topics of the lectures of G. Dvali, who offered many stimulating proposals and speculations. G. Gabadadze reviewed the physics of large extra dimensions, and suggested a number of applications of these ideas in cosmology. Field theory at finite temperature has been presented by M. Laine. S. Sarkar and P. Tinyakov addressed the cosmic rays of ultra-high energies and discussed the puzzles they pose to astrophysics and particle physics. The lectures of W. Buchmueller provided an overview of current ideas about baryogenesis, and in particular the mechanism of leptogenesis - which draws a connection with neutrino masses. A.Yu. Smirnov discussed the status of the solar neutrino problem. An introduction to neutrino astronomy was given by F. Vissani. Finally, L. Rezzolla gave a detailed discussion of the status and perspectives for gravitational wave detection (of great interest for interferometers like VIRGO and