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Sample records for ancient nursery area

  1. Ancient nursery area for the extinct giant shark megalodon from the Miocene of Panama.

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    Catalina Pimiento

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As we know from modern species, nursery areas are essential shark habitats for vulnerable young. Nurseries are typically highly productive, shallow-water habitats that are characterized by the presence of juveniles and neonates. It has been suggested that in these areas, sharks can find ample food resources and protection from predators. Based on the fossil record, we know that the extinct Carcharocles megalodon was the biggest shark that ever lived. Previous proposed paleo-nursery areas for this species were based on the anecdotal presence of juvenile fossil teeth accompanied by fossil marine mammals. We now present the first definitive evidence of ancient nurseries for C. megalodon from the late Miocene of Panama, about 10 million years ago. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We collected and measured fossil shark teeth of C. megalodon, within the highly productive, shallow marine Gatun Formation from the Miocene of Panama. Surprisingly, and in contrast to other fossil accumulations, the majority of the teeth from Gatun are very small. Here we compare the tooth sizes from the Gatun with specimens from different, but analogous localities. In addition we calculate the total length of the individuals found in Gatun. These comparisons and estimates suggest that the small size of Gatun's C. megalodon is neither related to a small population of this species nor the tooth position within the jaw. Thus, the individuals from Gatun were mostly juveniles and neonates, with estimated body lengths between 2 and 10.5 meters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that the Miocene Gatun Formation represents the first documented paleo-nursery area for C. megalodon from the Neotropics, and one of the few recorded in the fossil record for an extinct selachian. We therefore show that sharks have used nursery areas at least for 10 millions of years as an adaptive strategy during their life histories.

  2. 7 CFR 301.75-6 - Interstate movement of regulated nursery stock from a quarantined area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-6 Interstate movement of regulated nursery... from a quarantined area into any area of the United States except commercial citrus-producing areas...

  3. Anthropogenic disturbance on nursery function of estuarine areas for marine species

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    Courrat, A.; Lobry, J.; Nicolas, D.; Laffargue, P.; Amara, R.; Lepage, M.; Girardin, M.; Le Pape, O.

    2009-01-01

    Estuaries serve as nursery grounds for many marine fish species. However increasing human activities within estuaries and surrounding areas lead to significant habitat loss for the juveniles and decrease the quality of the remaining habitats. This study is based on the data of 470 beam trawls from surveys that were conducted in 13 French estuaries for the purpose of the European Water Framework Directive. It aimed at testing the effects of anthropogenic disturbances on the nursery function of estuaries. With a multispecific approach based on ecological guilds, two fish metrics, abundance and species richness of Marine Juvenile migrant fishes, were used as proxies for the estuarine nursery function. Indices of heavy metal and organic contaminations were used to estimate anthropogenic disturbances impacting these estuaries. Fish metrics were described with statistical models that took into account: (a) sampling protocol, (b) estuarine features and (c) contamination. The results of these models showed that the fish metrics highly depend on the sampling protocol, and especially type of gear, depth and salinity, which highlights the necessity of considering such metrics at the sampling (trawl haul) scale. Densities and species richness of Marine Juvenile fishes appeared to be strongly and negatively correlated to contamination indices. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that human disturbances impact the nursery function of estuaries. Finally, the densities of Marine Juvenile migrant species appeared as a potential robust and useful fish indicator for the assessment of the ecological status of estuaries within the Water Framework Directive.

  4. Bimini Islands: a characterization of the two major nursery areas; status and perspectives.

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    Trave, Claudia; Sheaves, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Bimini Islands (Bahamas, 25°44' N 79°16' W) are characterized by a unique tropical marine environment which provides critical nursery habitats and food resources for many important species of ecological and economical value. Two areas are particularly important in the function and dynamics of the local marine environment: North Sound and South Bimini. Since 1998 the northern part of the island has been subject to an intense urbanization process that involves the construction of an extensive touristic complex. Over the years this activity has radically modified a substantial portion of the land, and part of the underwater environment as well, threatening the fragile balance of the North Sound nursery ground. Effects on marine habitats and on local species have been reported, and although some measures to limit the damage have already been taken, the local ecosystem could ultimately suffer from continuation of the construction work on the area. In 2010, we performed surveys of both main nursery grounds to assess the current ecological status and the main differences between the two areas, investigating macrobenthic epifauna abundance, seagrass density and abiotic parameters. The results of this study indicate that the ecosystem still appears in reasonably healthy condition, although showing some concerning trends. These data provide baseline conditions to assess further changes, and possibly to support the development of plans for the conservation of the North Sound and South Bimini coastal ecosystems. PMID:24936392

  5. The food and growth of 0-group flatfish on nursery grounds in the Clyde Sea Area

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    Poxton, M. G.; Eleftheriou, A.; McIntyre, A. D.

    1983-09-01

    In early summer plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa L.) in the Clyde Sea Area eat Tellina siphons and spionid palps. As they grow, they take progressively larger siphons, fragments of spionids and some crustaceans. In late summer they eat entire spionids and other sedentary polychaetes. There is no significant predation on fish. The common dab [ Limanda limanda (L.)] took a wider range of prey species than the plaice, but also depended mainly on polychaetes, crustaceans and bivalves. Depth distribution may limit both intra- and interspecific competition between these fish and also influence the choice of prey. The results from the main nursery areas of Irvine and Ayr Bays were similar to those from the other bays throughout the Clyde Sea Area and support earlier work at Firemore Bay in north-west Scotland and in the Dutch Wadden Sea. The growth rate of the fish increases during the early summer and may be related to increasing food availability, feeding experience of the fish and longer day length. Growth rate between areas appeared to be correlated with benthic productivity. 0-group plaice in Irvine, Ayr and Firemore Bays grew to different mean lengths by the end of the summer growth season, being 82 mm, 73 mm and 61 mm, respectively, for the period 1972-1974. This agrees with the known differences in standing stocks of intertidal macrobenthos in these bays (17·0, 11·1 and 1·3 g m -2 dry weight, respectively). The significance of this in relation to survival is discussed. Offshore migration of the larger fish in the autumn may result in apparent slowing of growth rates prematurely in inshore areas. The year-class strength depends more on the food availability in the nursery areas than on the number of plaice that settle on the bottom.

  6. PIXE study on ancient pottery from Chinese Shanghai area

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    Cheng, H.S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: hscheng@fudan.edu.cn; Zhang, Z.Q. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Song, J. [Shanghai Museum, Shanghai 200003 (China); Gao, M.H. [Department of Cultural Relics and Museology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhu, D. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Lin, J.W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Feng, S.L. [Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918, Beijing 100039 (China)

    2006-08-15

    Shanghai is the largest city in China, and it also has a very long history. Archaeologists have found that six thousand yeas ago, there were ancient people living at Songze, Qingpu County, Shanghai. This paper reports the study of ancient potteries unearthed from the Guangfulin site located at Songjiang, Shanghai. The potteries unearthed from Guangfulin site belonged to two different culture types: the Liangzhu culture type (local culture) and a new culture, which might be derived from elsewhere. PIXE has been used to measure the chemical compositions of samples and factor analysis was used. Experimental results show that the compositions of the pottery from the two phases are different from each other. It means that the raw materials used to make the ancient pottery originate from different places. This results support the idea suggested by archaeologists that a group of ancient people migrated to the Shanghai area from some other place 4000 years ago.

  7. PIXE study on ancient pottery from Chinese Shanghai area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanghai is the largest city in China, and it also has a very long history. Archaeologists have found that six thousand yeas ago, there were ancient people living at Songze, Qingpu County, Shanghai. This paper reports the study of ancient potteries unearthed from the Guangfulin site located at Songjiang, Shanghai. The potteries unearthed from Guangfulin site belonged to two different culture types: the Liangzhu culture type (local culture) and a new culture, which might be derived from elsewhere. PIXE has been used to measure the chemical compositions of samples and factor analysis was used. Experimental results show that the compositions of the pottery from the two phases are different from each other. It means that the raw materials used to make the ancient pottery originate from different places. This results support the idea suggested by archaeologists that a group of ancient people migrated to the Shanghai area from some other place 4000 years ago

  8. Nursery School

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    Nursery school

    2016-01-01

    Enrolments 2016-2017 Enrolments for the school year 2016-2017 to the Nursery, the Nursery school and the school will take place on 7, 8 and 9 March 2016 from 8 to 10 am at the Nursery School. Registration forms will be available from Thursday 3rd March. More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/.

  9. Feeding habits of European pilchard late larvae in a nursery area in the Adriatic Sea

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    Borme, Diego; Tirelli, Valentina; Palomera, Isabel

    2013-04-01

    European pilchard Sardina pilchardus late larvae were collected in the Gulf of Manfredonia, an important nursery area, during their seasonal inshore occurrence. Thanks to diel cycle sampling and to the wide range of larval lengths (from a minimum of 27 mm to a maximum of 45 mm), both feeding rhythm and ontogenetic changes were analysed. The feeding peak was observed in the afternoon, before sunset. Sardine larvae were exclusively zooplanktivorous, their diet being based on Calanoid Copepods from the genus Paracalanus (IRI% = 65.7), on the species Temora longicornis (IRI% = 15.5) and other small-sized Copepods. Other planktonic organisms appeared in the stomach contents occasionally and never reached IRI% values > 1. The number of prey per stomach increased suddenly at larval lengths around 40 mm, corresponding to the development of the stomach. Prey composition in the environment was established by contemporaneous sampling of plankton, performed by means of two plankton nets with different meshes. The main prey items were positively selected among those available in the field, but some other prey (Centropages spp., Harpacticoids, Corycaeids, Temora stylifera and Acartia spp.) were also preferred, although rare in the plankton samples. In contrast, copepod nauplii, despite their abundance in the environment (15,848 ± 4441 individuals m- 3), were only occasionally recovered in the larval gut contents (N = 0.26%). This shows that sardine late larvae have switched to larger prey items.

  10. Nursery school

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    Jardin d'enfants

    2010-01-01

    * * * * * Enrollments 2010-2011 Monday 8, Tuesday 9 and Wednesday 10 March From 8:00 to 10:00 at the Nursery School   Registration forms will be available from 5th March onwards: At the Nursery School, from Catherine Regelbrugge, Secretary tel: 73604, Catherine.Regelbrugge@cern.ch At the Nursery School, from Brigitte Pillionnel, Headmistress tel: 77925, Brigitte.Pillionnel@cern.ch On the pages of the Nursery School website http://kindergarten.web.cern.ch/kindergarten/docs/cond%20gales%2010-2011%20EN.pdf  

  11. Nursery School

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    Jardin d'enfant

    2012-01-01

      Enrollments 2012-2013  Monday 5, Tuesday 6 and Wednesday 7 March From 8.00 to 10.00 at the Nursery School  Registration forms will be available from 2nd March onwards: – At the Nursery School, from Catherine Regelbrugge, Secretary   Catherine.Regelbrugge@cern.ch, tel : 73604. – At the Nursery School, from Brigitte Pillionnel, Headmistress    Brigitte.Pillionnel@cern.ch, tel : 77925. – On the pages of the Nursery School website    http://kindergarten.web.cern.ch/kindergarten/docs/cond%20gales%2012-2013%20EN.pdf

  12. Nursery School

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    Nursery School

    2015-01-01

    Enrolments 2015-2016 Enrolments for the school year 2015-2016 to the Nursery, the Nursery school and the school will take place on: Monday 2, Tuesday 3 and Thursday 4 March 2015 More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/

  13. An experimental study of Aurelia aurita feeding behaviour: Inference of the potential predation impact on a temperate estuarine nursery area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Rita; Teodósio, Maria Alexandra; Garrido, Susana

    2014-06-01

    Temperate estuaries are nursery areas for economically important fisheries resources. The common jellyfish Aurelia aurita is a resident species in many of these areas, where it can reach high abundances. This work aimed to determine the potential for predation of A. aurita on zooplanktonic organisms and early life stages of fishes, measuring feeding rates at concentrations that mimic those occurring for zooplankton, fish eggs and larvae in an estuarine nursery area. A set of experiments was aimed at determining the feeding selectivity of jellyfish when offered a mixture of fish eggs and larvae and wild plankton. Clearance rates varied markedly with prey availability and concentrations. When given mixtures of different prey types, jellyfish preferentially elected some taxa (copepods and fish eggs). Data obtained in the laboratory experiments were used to infer the potential impact of jellyfish predation upon zooplankton and ichthyoplankton in the Guadiana estuary (Southern Iberia). Repeated sampling of zooplankton, fish eggs and medusae was undertaken during the summer season of 2011. Abundance determinations were combined with experimentally estimated clearance rates of individual medusa to infer the potential jellyfish-induced mortality on prey in the area. In June and early August jellyfish-induced mortality rates were very high, and half-life times (t1/2) were consequently short for the zooplankton and ichthyoplankton. Although the potentially overestimation of our feeding rates typical of confined laboratory experiments, the results show high ingestion and clearance rates at high temperatures, typical from summer condition, and results also suggest that either by predation on early life stages of fish, or by competition for food resources, jellyfish may have a significant impact on estuarine communities and its nursery function.

  14. Recruitment of fish larvae and juveniles into two estuarine nursery areas with evidence of ebb tide use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattrick, Paula; Strydom, Nadine

    2014-08-01

    Recruitment of larvae and early juveniles, against the ebb tide in the shallower, slower-flowing marginal areas of two permanently open estuaries in the Eastern Cape, South Africa was observed. To determine tidal, diel and seasonal variations of larval and juvenile fish recruitment, fyke nets were used during a 24-hour cycle over two years from December 2010 to October 2012. On either side of each estuary bank, two fyke nets with mouth openings facing opposite directions (i.e. one net facing the incoming or outgoing tide and the other facing the opposing direction) were used to sample fishes. The aims of this study were to determine if 1) on the flood tide, were the nets facing the incoming tide collecting more larvae and early juveniles recruiting into the estuarine nursery area, than the nets facing the opposing direction and 2) on the ebb tide, were the nets facing the sea, and hence the opposing direction of the outgoing ebb tide, collecting more fishes recruiting into the nursery against the ebb tide, than the nets facing the outgoing ebb tide? Larval and juvenile fish CPUE, species diversity and richness varied seasonally between estuarine systems and between diel and tidal conditions. Highest catches were recorded on the flood tide, which coincided with sunrise in the Swartkops Estuary. Greatest catches of larvae and early juveniles were observed during the ebb tide at night in the Sundays Estuary. On the ebb tide, higher catches of several dominant species and several commercially important fishery species, occurred in the fyke nets which faced the sea, indicating the early developmental stages of these fish species are not necessarily being lost from the nursery. These larvae and juveniles are actively swimming against the ebb tide in the shallower, slower-flowing marginal areas facilitating recruitment against ebb flow.

  15. An empirical test of the 'shark nursery area concept' in Texas bays using a long-term fisheries-independent data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froeschke, John T.; Stunz, Gregory W.; Sterba-Boatwright, Blair; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    Using a long-term fisheries-independent data set, we tested the 'shark nursery area concept' proposed by Heupel et al. (2007) with the suggested working assumptions that a shark nursery habitat would: (1) have an abundance of immature sharks greater than the mean abundance across all habitats where they occur; (2) be used by sharks repeatedly through time (years); and (3) see immature sharks remaining within the habitat for extended periods of time. We tested this concept using young-of-the-year (age 0) and juvenile (age 1+ yr) bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas from gill-net surveys conducted in Texas bays from 1976 to 2006 to estimate the potential nursery function of 9 coastal bays. Of the 9 bay systems considered as potential nursery habitat, only Matagorda Bay satisfied all 3 criteria for young-of-the-year bull sharks. Both Matagorda and San Antonio Bays met the criteria for juvenile bull sharks. Through these analyses we examined the utility of this approach for characterizing nursery areas and we also describe some practical considerations, such as the influence of the temporal or spatial scales considered when applying the nursery role concept to shark populations.

  16. The seascape of demersal fish nursery areas in the North Mediterranean Sea, a first step towards the implementation of spatial planning for trawl fisheries.

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    Francesco Colloca

    Full Text Available The identification of nursery grounds and other essential fish habitats of exploited stocks is a key requirement for the development of spatial conservation planning aimed at reducing the adverse impact of fishing on the exploited populations and ecosystems. The reduction in juvenile mortality is particularly relevant in the Mediterranean and is considered as one of the main prerequisites for the future sustainability of trawl fisheries. The distribution of nursery areas of 11 important commercial species of demersal fish and shellfish was analysed in the European Union Mediterranean waters using time series of bottom trawl survey data with the aim of identifying the most persistent recruitment areas. A high interspecific spatial overlap between nursery areas was mainly found along the shelf break of many different sectors of the Northern Mediterranean indicating a high potential for the implementation of conservation measures. Overlap of the nursery grounds with existing spatial fisheries management measures and trawl fisheries restricted areas was also investigated. Spatial analyses revealed considerable variation depending on species and associated habitat/depth preferences with increased protection seen in coastal nurseries and minimal protection seen for deeper nurseries (e.g. Parapenaeus longirostris 6%. This is partly attributed to existing environmental policy instruments (e.g. Habitats Directive and Mediterranean Regulation EC 1967/2006 aiming at minimising impacts on coastal priority habitats such as seagrass, coralligenous and maerl beds. The new knowledge on the distribution and persistence of demersal nurseries provided in this study can support the application of spatial conservation measures, such as the designation of no-take Marine Protected Areas in EU Mediterranean waters and their inclusion in a conservation network. The establishment of no-take zones will be consistent with the objectives of the Common Fisheries Policy

  17. Ichthyoplankton in a southern african surf zone: Nursery area for the postlarvae of estuarine associated fish species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, A. K.

    1989-12-01

    The surf zone ichthyoplankton of Swartvlei Bay was studied between February 1986 and June 1987, with particular emphasis on its potential role as a nursery area for estuarine associated marine fish species. Larvae and/or postlarvae of 16 families were identified from the surf zone, with the Gobiidae, Soleidae, Sparidae and Mugilidae comprising 85·7% of all teleosts sampled. The postlarvae of several taxa (including the six most common species), which utilize the Swartvlei estuary as a juvenile nursery area, were abundant in the surf zone. Conversely, species which are common in nearshore marine waters as juveniles and adults, but seldom enter estuaries, totalled less than 8% of the surf zone ichthyoplankton assemblage. Larval and postlarval densities peaked during summer when water temperatures exceeded 19°C and the estuary mouth was open. Concentrations of ichthyoplankton were highest at those sampling stations closest to the estuary mouth during the summer period. Diel changes in total catches revealed no significant difference between day and night densities; but of the four major taxa, the Mugilidae and Sparidae tended to be more abundant during the day, the Gobiidae at night and the Soleidae showed no distinct pattern. Results from a 24 h sampling session indicated that tidal phase may also be important in governing ichthyoplankton abundance in the surf zone.

  18. Nursery School

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    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      Registration of school year of 2014-2015 at the Nursery school of Cern Staff Association     Dear parents, We would like to inform you that the dates of enrolments will be 3, 4 and 5th March 2014 from 8:00 a.m to 10:00 a.m at the nursery school Bulding 562. Reminder : From 0-2 years, your child goes to the nursery, from 2-4 to the kindergarten, and from 4 years onwards, your child will join the school, following the program of first and second year of primary school (première and deuxième primaire in the Swiss system), which corresponds to the moyenne and grande section in France.

  19. Nursery school

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    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Nursery school was founded in 1961 in Meyrin, before it found a new home on the CERN site in 1965. It expanded from a “garderie” in the morning-only with 30 children, to the Crèche/Kindergarten/School with 147 children and 42 staff we have today. Every year the Nursery school makes an art exhibition in the main building. In 2000 the theme was “Monet’s garden” and it was complete, not even the little bridge was missing! This year, the theme of the exhibition was transport. We could see a garbage truck, a train, and much more.

  20. Fish assemblages in a small temperate estuary on the Argentinian coast: spatial variation, environmental influence and relevance as nursery area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Solari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe effects of different environmental variables on the fish community structure were evaluated in a small temperate estuary. The biological and environmental data were collected bimonthly between 2007 and 2009 along the main estuarine axis. Multivariate analyses were applied (CLUSTER, SIMPER, CCA to determine the spatial structure of fish community and to estimate the environmental influence on it. A total of 48 species of "teleost" fishes were observed, with the families Characidae and Sciaenidae presenting the largest number of species, 90% of the catches being juveniles. The fish community was overwhelmingly dominated by one species (Micropogonias furnieri, 88.9%, and only four species contributed more than 1% of total catch (Odontesthes argentinensis5.4%, Brevoortia aurea 1.1%, Paralonchurus brasiliensis 1.1%, and Mugil platanus 1.0%. Estuarine and freshwater stragglers dominated in number of species, followed by freshwater migrants and marine migrants. Three areas with different fish assemblages, with distinctive species and functional guilds, were defined along the main axis. The occurrence and spatial spread of these areas were linked to spatial variation in salinity, which was consistently influenced by discharge from the Río de la Plata and local precipitation. The results highlight the importance of shallow environments as nursery areas and permit emphasis on their susceptibility to environmental changes.

  1. Bio-physical model provides insight into dispersal of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.) from putative spawning grounds to nursery areas on the west coast of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zölck, Melanie; Brophy, Deirdre; Mohn, Christian; Minto, Cóilín; McGrath, David

    2015-05-01

    In this study we use an individual-based coupled physical biological model (ICPBM) to reconstruct the dispersal pathways of 0-group juveniles (young of the year) collected from nursery grounds in Galway Bay and to identify probable spawning ground locations for plaice on the west coast of Ireland. The relative importance of passive transport, behaviour and individual growth rates on successful larval delivery, from three putative spawning grounds to suitable nursery areas, was also investigated. Using a hydrodynamic Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS), combined with a particle tracking model, three model scenarios were tested: a passive tracer scenario (PTS), a linear growth scenario (LGS) and a temperature-dependent growth scenario (TDS). Hydrodynamic conditions were modelled and biological information (pelagic larval durations and size at settlement) incorporated. The LGS and TDS included vertical migration and tidally synchronised behaviour. Generalized Linear Model (GLM) comparisons showed that incorporation of behaviour and temperature-dependent growth, resulted in approximately two to three times more particles being delivered to sites of suitable depth for settlement (≤ 10 m), compared to passive transport alone (p LGS 19-78%; TDS 40-81%). The probability of successful delivery also varied significantly depending on the location, year and week of release (p < 0.05). A comparison of temperature histories between particles that were delivered to shallow inshore areas and those that failed to reach depths suitable for settlement indicated that dispersal to coastal nursery areas is facilitated by entrainment into a cool coastal current system. This study identifies a probable plaice spawning area in western Ireland and reconfirms the importance of including behaviour and growth in dispersal simulations. The model results suggest that differences in growth can influence larval delivery to potentially suitable nursery areas.

  2. Study on Soil Erosion of Tussah Silkworm Nursery in Mountain Area of Eastern Liaoning%辽东山区柞蚕场土壤侵蚀研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹忠杰; 林素兰; 贾天会

    2001-01-01

    辽宁省东部山区现有柞蚕场面积74.5万hm2,由于近年来过度开发,管理粗放,造成土壤侵蚀加剧,生产力下降。为更好治理柞蚕场,了解掌握其土壤侵蚀程度和规律,结合全省土壤侵蚀研究,通过野外模拟降雨试验,着重对不同降雨、坡度、雨前土壤含水量和植被盖度条件下柞蚕场的土壤侵蚀规律,进行了较为系统的研究,得出4因子与土壤侵蚀之关系,为有的放矢地采取相应的治理管护措施,提供了一套科学的基础依据%The area of tussah silkworm nursery in mountain area of eastern Liaoning is about 745 000 hm2,owing to overexploitation, extensive management in recent years,the soil erosion has become intensified,the productivity declined.Combining soil erosion study of whole province,through the experiment of field simulated rainfall,the law of soil erosion in tussah silkworm nursery is studied systematically under the conditions of different rainfall,slopes,soil moisture before rainfall and percentage of vegetation in order to manage the tussah silkworm nursery well,to understand and master its situation and law of soil erosion.Therefore,the relation between four factors and soil erosion is obtained.That provide a set of scientific basis for the corresponding measure of control and management.

  3. PIXE study on ancient pottery from Chinese Sanxia area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-nine pieces of Neolithic pottery, made about 4500 years ago, were collected from Maliutuo, Maliuwan and Suheping village sites in Chinese Sanxia area. Nine pieces of pottery in the Shang Dynasty (1600-1100 BC) and ten pieces of pottery in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770-256 BC) were also collected from Maliutuo. PIXE and factor analysis were used to study interchange of the Neolithic pottery between these three sites. The source of raw material of pottery from Maliutuo was simultaneously studied. The major and trace element contents in pottery were determined by PIXE. Factor analysis was employed to classify these pieces of pottery. The results showed that the trace element contents were more useful to distinguish these pieces of pottery than the major element contents. In about 2500 BC, no interchange of pottery occurred between the three villages. Although Maliutuo was close to Maliuwan, the pottery products used in daily life in the two villages were independently made and not exchanged. In the source of raw material, the Neolithic pottery samples from Maliutuo were identical with those in the Shang Dynasty, but different from those in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty

  4. PIXE study on ancient pottery from Chinese Sanxia area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B.; Pan, B.H.; Zhang, Z.Q.; Cheng, H.S. E-mail: hscheng@fudan.edu.cn; Gao, M.H.; Yang, F.J.; Peng, X.B

    2004-06-01

    Thirty-nine pieces of Neolithic pottery, made about 4500 years ago, were collected from Maliutuo, Maliuwan and Suheping village sites in Chinese Sanxia area. Nine pieces of pottery in the Shang Dynasty (1600-1100 BC) and ten pieces of pottery in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770-256 BC) were also collected from Maliutuo. PIXE and factor analysis were used to study interchange of the Neolithic pottery between these three sites. The source of raw material of pottery from Maliutuo was simultaneously studied. The major and trace element contents in pottery were determined by PIXE. Factor analysis was employed to classify these pieces of pottery. The results showed that the trace element contents were more useful to distinguish these pieces of pottery than the major element contents. In about 2500 BC, no interchange of pottery occurred between the three villages. Although Maliutuo was close to Maliuwan, the pottery products used in daily life in the two villages were independently made and not exchanged. In the source of raw material, the Neolithic pottery samples from Maliutuo were identical with those in the Shang Dynasty, but different from those in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty.

  5. Does damming of the Colorado River affect the nursery area of blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris (Decapoda: Penaeidae) in the Upper Gulf of California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-Noriega, E A; Calderón-Aguilera, L E

    2000-12-01

    After damming the Colorado River the freshwater flow was reduced to 1% of its virgin flow to the Upper Gulf of California (UGC). The ecological effects need to be properly documented. The UGC is the nursery area for Litopenaeus stylirostris, the most profitable fishery in the zone. In order to know the relative abundance of L. stylirostris postlarval stage we conducted a sampled survey every 14 days in 1993, 1994 and 1997, plus an intensive sampling during a complete tide cycle in July 1995 and 1996. We did 10 min trawls each hour during the flood tide. Relative abundance of postlarvae was higher (p < 0.05) in those years when freshwater flow reached the UGC. PMID:11487932

  6. Localisation of nursery areas based on comparative analyses of the horizontal and vertical distribution patterns of juvenile Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Lundgren, Bo; Kristensen, Kasper;

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution of juvenile cod is essential for obtaining precise recruitment data to conduct sustainable management of the eastern and western Baltic cod stocks. In this study, the horizontal and vertical distribution and density patterns of settled juvenile 0- and 1-group...... and acoustic research surveys. Horizontal distribution maps for the 2001–2010 cohorts of juvenile cod are further generated by applying a statistical log-Gaussian Cox process model to the standard trawl survey data. The analyses indicate size-dependent horizontal and distinct vertical and diurnal distribution...... patterns related to the seabed topography, water layer depth, and the presence of hydrographic frontal zones (pycnoclines) as well as intraspecific patterns in relation to the presence of adult cod. The extent of the nursery areas also depends on the cod year class strength. Juvenile cod (≥3 cm...

  7. Analysis of some ancient glass samples unearthed in Sichuan area by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique is an effective method for the chemical composition analysis of ancient glass samples without destruction. Chemical composition of the ancient glass samples dated from the Warring States Period (770-476 B.C.) to the Six Dynasties Period (220-589 A.D.), which were unearthed in Sichuan area, was quantitatively determined by the PIXE technique. The results show that the glass Bi (disc) and the glass eye beads of the Warring States Period all belong to the PbO-BaO-SiO2 system. According to the composition and shape, we infer that these glass Bi and eye beads were made in China. Whereas, the chemical compositions of the glass ear pendants and beads of the Six Dynasties Period are varied, including K2O-CaO-SiO2, K2O-SiO2 and other glass systems, Based on the obtained results and those from literatures, some questions related to the technical propagation of the ancient Chinese glass are discussed. (authors)

  8. Ancient Himalayan wolf (Canis lupus chanco) lineage in Upper Mustang of the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetri, Madhu; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Jnawali, Shant R; Subedi, Naresh; Dhakal, Maheshwar; Yumnam, Bibek

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic status of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Nepal's Trans-Himalaya is poorly understood. Recent genetic studies have revealed the existence of three lineages of wolves in the Indian sub-continent. Of these, the Himalayan wolf, Canis lupus chanco, has been reported to be the most ancient lineage historically distributed within the Nepal Himalaya. These wolves residing in the Trans-Himalayan region have been suggested to be smaller and very different from the European wolf. During October 2011, six fecal samples suspected to have originated from wolves were collected from Upper Mustang in the Annapurna Conservation Area of Nepal. DNA extraction and amplification of the mitochondrial (mt) control region (CR) locus yielded sequences from five out of six samples. One sample matched domestic dog sequences in GenBank, while the remaining four samples were aligned within the monophyletic and ancient Himalayan wolf clade. These four sequences which matched each other, were new and represented a novel Himalayan wolf haplotype. This result confirms that the endangered ancient Himalayan wolf is extant in Nepal. Detailed genomic study covering Nepal's entire Himalayan landscape is recommended in order to understand their distribution, taxonomy and, genetic relatedness with other wolves potentially sharing the same landscape. PMID:27199590

  9. Identification of fish nursery areas in a free tributary of an impoundment region, upper Uruguay River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Alves da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the importance of different environments of the Ligeiro River (upper Uruguay River, Brazil in fish reproduction. For this purpose, three environments (sampling sites were selected: rapids, a pool, and the mouth of the Ligeiro River. Ichthyoplankton, zooplankton, and benthos were sampled six times per month from September, 2006 to March, 2007. Zooplankton and ichthyoplankton samples were collected early in the evening with plankton nets (64 µm and 500 µm, respectively. Benthos samples were also collected early in the evening with a Van Veen dredge. Local abiotic variables (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, water speed, alkalinity, water hardness, and water transparency were measured simultaneously with the biotic data sampling and were complemented by regional variables (water flow and precipitation. A total of 43,475 eggs and 2,269 larvae were captured. Of these larvae, 80.1% were in the pre-flexion and larval yolk stages. Digestive tract content showed that the greatest degree of repletion among the larvae in more advanced phases occurred in the pool environment. Water speed was the main characteristic used to differentiate the river's rapids and mouth from the pool. The abundance of zooplankton and benthos was not related to the distribution of densities among the different components of the ichthyoplankton. A greater abundance of eggs and larvae with yolk was found in the rapids and river mouth. Ordination analyses showed a connection between the advanced stage larvae and the pool environment. In conclusion, the rapids and river mouth of the Ligeiro River's are important locations for fish reproduction, particularly in regard to spawning and drifting of the ichthyoplankton's initial stages, whereas the pool represents a nursery place for larval growth.O presente estudo visa determinar a importância de diferentes ambientes do rio Ligeiro (alto rio Uruguai/Brasil na reprodução dos

  10. Identifying eastern Baltic cod nursery grounds using hydrodynamic modelling: knowledge for the design of Marine Protected Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Kraus, Gerd; Böttcher, Uwe;

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of juvenile cod is essential to closing the life cycle in population dynamic models, and it is a prerequisite for the design of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) aiming at the protection of juveniles. In this study, we use a hydrodynamic model...... evidence that the final destinations of juvenile cod drift routes are affected by decadal climate variability. Application of the methodology to MPA design is discussed, e.g. identifying the overlap of areas with a high probability of successful juvenile cod settlement and regions of high fishing effort...

  11. First identification of a possible nursery area for diadromous Coilia nasus in the Poyang Lake nearly 1000 km away from the Yangtze River Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Estuarine tapertail anchovy Coilia nasus is a small-sized anadromous species in the Yangtze River, China. It is probably the most expensive fish in the world with price as high as $1000/kg and even $9600 for a single extremely large individual with a total length of 45.3 cm and body weight of 0.325 kg in the Jiangsu section of the river in 2012. However, when and where C. nasus spawn along the Yangtze River has still remained a mystery so far. In our field surveys of 2014 and 2015, some highly mature female and male C. nasus with stage V or VI gonads were firstly collected in the water region around Xingzi County in the Poyang Lake, which is nearly 1000 km away from the mouth of the Yangtze River. Although previous studies believed that all C. nasus in the Poyang Lake were freshwater residents, the otolith microchemistry signatures of the present study determined with EPMA and LA-ICPMS further clearly demonstrated that these fish were anadromous individuals. The findings indicated that the C. nasus migrated over nearly 1000 km upstream, with an extremely strong migration ability, passing through the lower reaches of the Yangtze River from the adjacent Yellow sea (even from the areas nearly straight line for as far as ca. 300 km off the Chinese coast line or East China Sea (Figure 1. The aforementioned evidence strongly suggests that the water region around Xingzi County in the Poyang Lake is a possible spawning/nursery area for anadromous C. nasus. It will be critical to ensure the protection of this region of the Poyang Lake being free from the environmental destruction of anthropogenic activities, especially hydraulic structure (especially dam construction and sand mining.

  12. Nursery and nursery products in Beijing, Tianjin, Shandong and Shanghai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.H.; Zhang XiaoYong, Xiaoyong

    2003-01-01

    The production and demand of nursery products is growing rapidly in China, particularly in big cities as Beijing, Tianjin, Shandong and Shanghai. The report describes the development and the prospects of production and demand of nursery products and the structure of the nursery sector in these regio

  13. Determination of ancient volcanic eruption center based on gravity methods (3D) in Gunungkidul area Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, Agus; Sismanto, Setiawan, Ary; Pramumijoyo, Subagyo

    2016-05-01

    Ancient eruption centers can be determined by detecting the position of the ancient volcanic material, it is important to understand the elements of ancient volcanic material by studying the area geologically and prove the existence of an ancient volcanic eruption centers using geophysics gravity method. The measuring instrument is Lacoste & Romberg gravimeter type 1115, the number of data are 900 points. The area 60×40 kilometers, the modeling 3D software is reaching depth of 15 km at the south of the island of Java subduction zone. It is suported by geological data in the field that are found as the following: 1. Pyroclastic Fall which is a product of volcanic eruptions, and lapilli tuff with felsic mineral. 2. Pyroclastic flow with Breccia, tuffaceous sandstone and tuff breccia. 3. Hot springs near Parangwedang Parangtritis. 4. Igneous rock with scoria structure in Parang Kusumo, structured amigdaloida which is the result of the eruption of lava/volcanic eruptions, and Pillow lava in the shows the flowing lava into the sea. Base on gravity anomaly shows that there are strong correlationship between those geological data to the gravity anomaly. The gravblox modeling (3D) shows the position of ancient of volcanic eruption in this area clearly.

  14. Community tree nursery, Meru, Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This is a photograph of a community tree nursery, Meru, Kenya. In this nursery a community group has started a nursery to provide seedlings for their own forest reforestation projects as well as for sale. This shows that use of common pool resources and shows community forestry activities that also do private tree planting on homesteads.

  15. 宁夏干旱沙区速生杨苗圃地化学除草试验%Experiment on Chemical Weeding on Land of Fast-growing Poplar Nursery in Arid Sandy Area of Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张发国; 孙小华; 周维维

    2012-01-01

    对宁夏干旱沙区不同土壤类型速生杨苗圃地进行化学除草试验,结果表明,用草甘膦与施田补120倍液混配剂防除效果最好,杂草死亡率达89%~92%,持效期可达30 d,对苗木生长无不良影响,可防除多年生冰草及阔叶性杂草;其次是草甘膦120倍液,杂草死亡率88%~90%。风沙土苗圃地杂草死亡率略低于沙壤土中杂草死亡率。%An experiment on chemical weeding on different types of soil of fast growing poplar nursery in arid sandy area of Ningxia was conducted.The result showed that the control effect was best when glyphosate and Shi Tianbu 120 times solution mixture was used and weed mortality up to 89%~92% and effective duration up to 30 days.No adverse effect on seedling growth.Perennial ice grass and broadleaf weed could be weeded.The control effect was second-best when glyphosate 120 times solution was used and weed mortality up to 88%~90%.The weed mortality of Aeolian sandy soil nursery was little bit lower than that of sand loam nursery.

  16. Cooperative Atlantic States Shark Pupping and Nursery (COASTSPAN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Survey of inshore areas used by sharks for pupping and nurseries. Various locations have been surveyed, from the U.S. Virgin Islands to Massachusetts, most in...

  17. Caribou nursery site habitat characteristics in two northern Ontario parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha L. Carr

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available To prevent further range recession, habitat features essential to the life-history requisites of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou such as calving and nursery sites need to be protected for the persistence of the species. Woodland caribou may minimize predation risk during calving by either spacing out or spacing away from predators in the forest to calve on islands, wetlands, or shorelines. Our objective was to determine the characteristics of shoreline habitats used as calving and nursery sites by female woodland caribou in northern Ontario. Detailed vegetation and other site characteristics were measured at nursery sites used by cow-calf pairs in Wabakimi and Woodland Caribou Provincial Parks for comparison with shoreline sites that were not used by caribou within each park. Differences in habitat variables selected by female caribou in the two study areas reflect broad ecoregional differences in vegetation and topography. In Wabakimi Provincial Park, understorey tree density and ground detection distance played key roles in distinguishing nursery sites from sites that were not used. In Woodland Caribou Provincial Park, groundcover vegetation and shrub density were important in the selection of nursery sites by female caribou. Generally, female caribou in both parks selected nursery sites with greater slope, lower shrub density but thicker groundcover vegetation, including greater lichen abundance, and higher densities of mature trees than shoreline sites that were not used. The identification of these important features for caribou nursery sites provides a basis for improving their protection in future management policies and legislation.

  18. 77 FR 64033 - Establishment of the Ancient Lakes of Columbia Valley Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... Comments Received TTB published Notice No. 128 in the Federal Register on May 8, 2012 (77 FR 27001... information as to the identity and quality of the product. The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB... effective, wine bottlers using ``Ancient Lakes of Columbia Valley'' in a brand name, including a...

  19. 77 FR 27001 - Proposed Establishment of the Ancient Lakes of Columbia Valley Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... USGS map markings. Ancient Lakes of Columbia Valley Petition TTB received a petition from Joan R... grapevine growth (``General Viticulture,'' by Albert J. Winkler, University of California Press, 1974, pages... by T.D. ATF-190, which published in the Federal Register (49 FR 44895) on November 13, 1984. T.D....

  20. Artificial Neural Network Model for Discrimination of Stability of Ancient Landslide in Impounding Area of Three Gorges Project, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Pinggen

    2003-01-01

    The factors of geomorphology, geological setting, effect of ground water and environment dynamic factors (e. g. rainfall and artificial water recharge) should be integrated in the discrimination of the stability of the ancient landslide. As the criterion of landslide stability has been studied, the artificial neural network model was then applied to discriminate the stability of the ancient landslide in the impounding area of the Three Gorges project on the Yangtze River, China. The model has the property of self-adaptive identifying and integrating complex qualitative factors and quantitative factors. The results of the artificial neural network model are coincided well with what were gained by classical limit equilibrinm analysis (the Bishop method and Janbu method) and by other comprehensive discrimination methods.

  1. SEM/EDS analysis of soil and roasting vessels fragments from ancient mercury ore roasting sites at Idrija area

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Teršič

    2011-01-01

    Numerous roasting vessels fragments can be found at ancient roasting site areas in the surroundings of Idrija town, which were used for ore roasting in the first 150 years of Hg production in Idrija. The earthen vessels fragments lay just below the surface humus layer and in some parts they stretch more than 1 meter deep; they arecovered with red (cinnabar) or black (metacinnabar) coatings.SEM/EDS analysis of roasting vessels fragments and soil samples from roasting site areas P{enk and Frbej...

  2. Methodological proposals for the study of ancient rural landscapes in the central area of the Contestania

    OpenAIRE

    Grau Mira, Ignasi; César CARRERAS; Jaime MOLINA; Pau DE SOTO; Josep María SEGURA

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we have two main objectives. The first is the presentation of fieldwork and geophysics assisted with GPS, GIS and other Spatial Technologies applied to archaeological research. The advantage of this approach is the scarce aggression to soils and environment and the request of smaller economic and temporary resources than other archaeological fieldwork. The second objective is to reflect on ancient land uses, the diachronic sequence and structure of a complex Iberian Iron Age and...

  3. Ancient Himalayan wolf ( Canis lupus chanco ) lineage in Upper Mustang of the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Chetri, Madhu; Jhala, Yadvendradev V.; Jnawali, Shant R.; Subedi, Naresh; Dhakal, Maheshwar; Yumnam, Bibek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The taxonomic status of the wolf ( Canis lupus ) in Nepal’s Trans-Himalaya is poorly understood. Recent genetic studies have revealed the existence of three lineages of wolves in the Indian sub-continent. Of these, the Himalayan wolf, Canis lupus chanco , has been reported to be the most ancient lineage historically distributed within the Nepal Himalaya. These wolves residing in the Trans-Himalayan region have been suggested to be smaller and very different from the European wolf. Du...

  4. Methodological proposals for the study of ancient rural landscapes in the central area of the Contestania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignasi GRAU MIRA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have two main objectives. The first is the presentation of fieldwork and geophysics assisted with GPS, GIS and other Spatial Technologies applied to archaeological research. The advantage of this approach is the scarce aggression to soils and environment and the request of smaller economic and temporary resources than other archaeological fieldwork. The second objective is to reflect on ancient land uses, the diachronic sequence and structure of a complex Iberian Iron Age and Roman site of long duration (3rd cent. BC to 7th cent. AD. The accurate mapping of dispersion of the archaeological record allows this kind of historical analysis.

  5. A STUDY ON THE PRODUCTION OF NURSERY TREE IN ISPARTA PROVINCE

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIRIM, Adnan N.; Fatma KOYUNCU

    2005-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the current situation of nursery tree production in Isparta province. Results revealed that fruit nursery tree production was 850.570 trees per year based on the survey study. In the research area, 57% of fruit nursery tree production was for apple following sweet cherry (16%) and peach (10%). The use of clonal rootstocks and seedlings by state and private sector for fruit nursery tree were 51% and 49%, respectively. Apple is mostly propagated by the cl...

  6. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  7. Importance of shallow-water bay biotopes as nurseries for Caribbean reef fishes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelkerken, I.A.

    2000-01-01

    Mangroves and seagrass beds can harbour high densities of mostly juvenile fishes. It has therefore long been assumed that these habitats function as nursery areas. In the present thesis the nursery function of mangroves, seagrass beds and other shallow-water biotopes, located in sheltered inland bay

  8. Nursery School - ENROLMENTS 2011-2012

    CERN Multimedia

    Jardin d'enfants

    2011-01-01

    Tuesday 8, Wednesday 9 and Thursday 10 March From 8.00 to 10.00 at the Nursery School Registration forms available from 4th March onwards: At the Nursery School, from Catherine Regelbrugge, Secretary, tel: 73604, Catherine.Regelbrugge@cern.ch At the Nursery School, from Brigitte Pillionnel, Headmistress, tel: 77925, Brigitte.Pillionnel@cern.ch On the pages of the Nursery School website

  9. Nursery School - Enrollments 2011-2012

    CERN Multimedia

    Jardin d'Enfants

    2011-01-01

    Tuesday 8, Wednesday 9 and Thursday 10 March From 8.00 to 10.00 at the Nursery School Registration forms will be available from 4th March onwards: At the Nursery School, from Catherine Regelbrugge, Secretary tel: 73604, Catherine.Regelbrugge@cern.ch    At the Nursery School, from Brigitte Pillionnel, Headmistress tel:77925, Brigitte.Pillionnel@cern.ch    On the pages of the Nursery School website

  10. Evolvement of the Street Pattern of Xi' an Ancient Urban Area%西安古城区街道形态演变研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高茜

    2012-01-01

    Xi'an ancient streets and historic building have suffered severe damage. From the perspective of historical development and on the basis of the four Main streets, the paper analyzes the functions, nature and the patterns of the ancient streets in the ancient urban area. The study of the morphological evolution of the ancient city helps the gorenment understand the urban context, protect the structure of the ancient city area and make a plan for the network of main roads, providing guidance for the urban construction in the future.%针对西安古城区街道、历史建筑遭受严重破坏的现象.本文从历史发展的角度,以西安古城区四条大街交通主轴为基础,分析了古城区主要街道的功能、性质以及街道的形态演变.古城区形态演变的研究有助于西安市政府对城市文脉的理解,古城区完整格局的保护和城市主干道网络的规划,为今后城市建设提供发展空间.

  11. A preliminary research on characteristics of rare-earth elements in ancient pottery of neolithic age in Su Wan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of rare-earth elements in the three ancient ruins of pottery of the Neolithic age along Yangtze River is analyzed by means of Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence Spectrometry. It is shown that the distribution of rare-earth elements varies with the sites where the ancient pottery samples were unearthed. Therefore the analysis of the content of the rate-earth elements may help explore the ancient pottery production sites and the route of the ancient culture exchange

  12. Recirculation nursery systems for bivalves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamermans, P.; Blanco Garcia, A.; Joaquim, Sandra; Matias, Domitilia; Magnesen, Thorolf; Nicolas, J.; Petten, Bruno; Robert, Rene

    2016-01-01

    n order to increase production of bivalves in hatcheries and nurseries, the development of new technology and its integration into commercial bivalve hatcheries is important. Recirculation aquaculture systems (RASs) have several advantages: high densities of the species can be cultured resulting in

  13. Cottonwood Control in Nursery Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate preemergence herbicides for control of black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) in nursery containers. In 2006, granular preemergence herbicides were applied to recently filled, weed-free containers. In May 2006, containers were infested with cottonwood seed b...

  14. SEM/EDS analysis of soil and roasting vessels fragments from ancient mercury ore roasting sites at Idrija area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Teršič

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous roasting vessels fragments can be found at ancient roasting site areas in the surroundings of Idrija town, which were used for ore roasting in the first 150 years of Hg production in Idrija. The earthen vessels fragments lay just below the surface humus layer and in some parts they stretch more than 1 meter deep; they arecovered with red (cinnabar or black (metacinnabar coatings.SEM/EDS analysis of roasting vessels fragments and soil samples from roasting site areas P{enk and Frbejžene trate was performed in order to characterize the solid forms of Hg in applied sampling material. Mercuric sulphide HgS was found to be the main mercury compound present in the samples. Analysis of earthen vessels fragmentsshowed abundant HgS coatings on the surface of ceramics, forming either crust-like aggregates on matrix or isolated grains. Some well-shaped grains with indicated structure and the size of up to 200 μm could also be observed. In soil HgS was present as powder-like concentrations scattered in soil samples, frequently coating silicate and quartz crystals and clay-minerals. Polycristalline, mercury- and sulphur- rich particles comprising silica, clay mineralsand Al-, Fe- and Mg-oxides that were also observed in the samples were interpreted as soil aggregates infiltrated by mercuric and sulphur vapours and by liquid mercury spilled during roasting. These particles suggest a possible presence of mercury-sulphur associations other than HgS.

  15. Juvenile fish condition in estuarine nurseries along the Portuguese coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, R. P.; Reis-Santos, P.; Fonseca, V.; Ruano, M.; Tanner, S.; Costa, M. J.; Cabral, H. N.

    2009-03-01

    Connectivity between estuarine fish nurseries and coastal adult habitats can be affected by variations in juvenile growth and survival. Condition indices are renowned proxies of juvenile nutritional status and growth rates and are valuable tools to assess habitat quality. Biochemical (RNA:DNA ratio) and morphometric (Fulton's condition factor K) condition indices were determined in juveniles of Solea solea, Solea senegalensis, Platichthys flesus, Diplodus vulgaris and Dicentrarchus labrax collected in putative nursery areas of nine estuaries along the Portuguese coast (Minho, Douro, Ria de Aveiro, Mondego, Tejo, Sado, Mira, Ria Formosa and Guadiana) in the Spring and Summer of two consecutive years (2005 and 2006) with distinct climatic characteristics. Individual condition showed significant variation amongst species. The combined use of both condition indices highlighted the low correlation between them and that RNA:DNA had a higher sensitivity. RNA:DNA varied between years but overall the site relative patterns in condition were maintained from one year to the other. Higher RNA:DNA values were found in Spring than in Summer in most species. Intra-estuarine variation also occurred in several cases. Species specific trends in the variability of condition amongst estuaries were highlighted. Some estuaries had higher juvenile condition for more than one species but results did not reveal an identical trend for all species and sites, hindering the hypotheses of one estuarine nursery promoting superior growth for all present species. Significant correlations were found between condition indices, juvenile densities and environmental variables (water temperature, salinity and depth) in the estuarine nurseries. These influenced juvenile nutritional condition and growth, contributing to the variability in estuarine nursery habitat quality. Management and conservation wise, interest in multi-species approaches is reinforced as assessments based on a single species may not

  16. Organic tree propagation under Welsh nursery conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, David; Clarke, Aldwyn

    2007-01-01

    The demand for organically raised tree and hedging plants had been reported from organic farmers in Tir Gofal, as well as within the landscaping industry. Although there are a number of plant raising nurseries producing organically raised plants for vegetable and fruit production, there are no tree nurseries producing to organic standards. Nursery tree growers were concerned that there was currently too little known about the performance of tree seedlings in organic substrates (e.g. in root-t...

  17. The importance of estuary head waters as nursery areas for young estuary- and marine-spawned fishes in temperate South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Ryan J.; Strydom, Nadine A.

    2011-07-01

    The restriction of freshwater flow into estuaries, the presence of in-stream barriers and the occurrence of invasive fish species in these habitats are identified as major threats to these young estuary- and marine-spawned fish species. These aspects have been investigated using the distribution and abundance of young estuary- and marine-spawned fish species in the headwater environments of four permanently open estuaries of the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Fishes were collected twice per season over the 2009 and 2010 period, using mixed method sampling with seine net hauls and overnight fyke net deployments. Of the 74,751 fishes collected, 37,444 fishes, 18 families and 34 species were taken in fyke net catches, while 34,308 fishes, 21 families and 38 species were caught in seine nets. In the Great Fish, Kowie, Kariega and Sundays River systems, juveniles of estuarine residents dominated headwater catches, followed by juveniles of estuary-dependent marine species. The prevalence of larval and small juvenile stages of estuary- and marine-spawned fish species highlights the potential importance of these transitional areas for young fish.

  18. Au-Sn-W-Cu-Mineralization in the Astaneh-Sarband Area, West Central Iran : including a comparison of the ores with ancient bronze artifacts from Western Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Nezafati, Nima

    2006-01-01

    The present study deals with two primary aims; (1) geological, mineralogical, and geochemical investigations of the Deh Hosein, Astaneh, and Nezam Abad mineralizations in the Astaneh-Sarband area, west central Iran, with the aim to understand the characteristics of the occurrences and their conditions of formation, and (2) geochemical investigations on ancient bronze artifacts from Iran and Western Asia in order to compare their characteristics with the high-tin copper ore of Deh Hosein and e...

  19. Gaseous pollutants on rural and urban nursery schools in Northern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, R A O; Branco, P T B S; Alvim-Ferraz, M C M; Martins, F G; Sousa, S I V

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air quality in nursery schools is different from other schools and this has been largely ignored, particularly in rural areas. Urban and rural nursery schools have different environmental characteristics whose knowledge needs improvement. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate continuously the concentrations of CO2, CO, NO2, O3, CH2O and total VOC in three rural nursery schools and one urban, being the only one comparing urban and rural nurseries with continuous measurements, thus considering occupation and non-occupation periods. Regarding CO2, urban nursery recorded higher concentrations (739-2328 mg m(-3)) than rural nurseries (653-1078 mg m(-3)). The influence of outdoor air was the main source of CO, NO2 and O3 indoor concentrations. CO and NO2 concentrations were higher in the urban nursery and O3 concentrations were higher in rural ones. CH2O and TVOC concentrations seemed to be related to internal sources, such as furniture and flooring finishing and cleaning products. PMID:26239833

  20. A rapid approach to evaluate putative nursery sites for penaeid prawns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew D.; Smith, James A.; Boys, Craig A.; Whitney, Hannah

    2016-08-01

    Identifying nursery habitats for an aquatic species generally requires tracing adult individuals back through time and space to the area or habitat in which they developed as juveniles. We develop and trial a study design and analytical approach to evaluate the suitability of using stable isotopes to trace emigrating prawns to putative nursery sites, and evaluate assumptions inherent in the application of the approach using two penaeid species with Type-II life cycles: Penaeus (Melicertus) plebejus and Metapenaeus macleayi. Prawns were collected in putative nursery sites within the Hunter River, Australia, and analysed as composite samples of 6 individuals to provide habitat-specific isotopic signatures. Prawns emigrating from the mouth of the river were used as a proxy for individuals recruiting to the adult population, and assigned to putative nursery sites using a probabilistic mixing model and a simple, distance-based approach. Bivariate (δ15N and δ13C) isotopic data was sufficient to distinguish prawns from different putative nursery sites, and isotopic composition correlated closely with salinity. Approximately 90% of emigrating prawns collected could be assigned to these sites using bivariate isotopic data, and both analytical approaches gave similar results. The design developed here is broadly applicable to a suite of penaeid species, but its application will be most powerful when sampling is also aimed at understanding nursery function by simultaneous monitoring of size structure/growth, density, and trophic relationships within nursery habitats.

  1. Ambitious Survey Spots Stellar Nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    -dimensional geometry of the Magellanic system. Chris Evans from the VMC team adds: "The VISTA images will allow us to extend our studies beyond the inner regions of the Tarantula into the multitude of smaller stellar nurseries nearby, which also harbour a rich population of young and massive stars. Armed with the new, exquisite infrared images, we will be able to probe the cocoons in which massive stars are still forming today, while also looking at their interaction with older stars in the wider region." The wide-field image shows a host of different objects. The bright area above the centre is the Tarantula Nebula itself, with the RMC 136 cluster of massive stars in its core. To the left is the NGC 2100 star cluster. To the right is the tiny remnant of the supernova SN1987A (eso1032). Below the centre are a series of star-forming regions including NGC 2080 - nicknamed the "Ghost Head Nebula" - and the NGC 2083 star cluster. The VISTA Magellanic Cloud Survey is one of six huge near-infrared surveys of the southern sky that will take up most of the first five years of operations of VISTA. Notes [1] VISTA ― the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy ― is the newest telescope at ESO's Paranal Observatory in northern Chile. VISTA is a survey telescope working at near-infrared wavelengths and is the world's largest survey telescope. Its large mirror, wide field of view and very sensitive detectors will reveal a completely new view of the southern sky. The telescope is housed on the peak adjacent to the one hosting ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) and shares the same exceptional observing conditions. VISTA has a main mirror that is 4.1 m across. In photographic terms it can be thought of as a 67-megapixel digital camera with a 13 000 mm f/3.25 mirror lens. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries

  2. Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Virginia

    This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

  3. Relative importance of estuarine flatfish nurseries along the Portuguese coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Henrique N.; Vasconcelos, Rita; Vinagre, Catarina; França, Susana; Fonseca, Vanessa; Maia, Anabela; Reis-Santos, Patrick; Lopes, Marta; Ruano, Miguel; Campos, Joana; Freitas, Vânia; Santos, Paulo T.; Costa, Maria José

    2007-02-01

    The relative importance of nursery areas and their relationships with several environmental variables were evaluated in nine estuarine systems along the Portuguese coast based on trawl surveys. Historical data were used to outline changes and trends in the nursery function of some of these estuaries over the past decades. The dominant flatfish species in Portuguese estuaries were Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758), Solea solea (Linnaeus, 1758), Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858 and Monochirus hispidus Rafinesque, 1814, but their occurrence differed among the estuaries. P. flesus only occurred in estuaries north of the Tejo estuary (39°N), S. solea was quite rare along the southern Portuguese coast (south of 37°30'N), S. senegalensis occurred in estuaries throughout the coast, but its abundance varied considerably, and the occurrence of M. hispidus was limited to the Sado estuary and Ria Formosa. A Correspondence Analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between flatfish species abundance and geomorphologic and hydrologic characteristics of estuaries (latitude, freshwater flow, estuarine area, intertidal area, mean depth and residence time). Abiotic characteristics (depth, temperature, salinity, sediment type) of nursery grounds of each flatfish species were also evaluated. Results showed that some estuaries along the Portuguese coast have nursery grounds used by several flatfish species (e.g. Ria de Aveiro, Sado estuary), while in other systems a segregation was noticed, with juveniles of different species occurring in distinct estuarine areas (e.g. Minho and Mondego estuaries). This emphasizes the relevance of niche overlap, but the potential for competition may be considerably minimized by differences in resource use patterns and by an extremely high abundance of resources. Peak densities of flatfishes recorded in nurseries areas along the Portuguese coast were within the range of values reported for other geographical areas. Inter-annual abundance

  4. Evidence of estuarine nursery origin of five coastal fish species along the Portuguese coast through otolith elemental fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Rita P.; Reis-Santos, Patrick; Tanner, Susanne; Maia, Anabela; Latkoczy, Christopher; Günther, Detlef; Costa, Maria José; Cabral, Henrique

    2008-08-01

    Connectivity is a critical property of marine populations, particularly for species with segregated juvenile and adult habitats. Knowledge of this link is fundamental in understanding population structure and dynamics. Young adults of commercially important fish species Solea solea, Solea senegalensis, Platichthys flesus, Diplodus vulgaris and Dicentrarchus labrax were sampled off the Portuguese coast in order to establish preliminary evidence of estuarine nursery origins through otolith elemental fingerprints. Concentrations of Li, Na, Mg, K, Mn, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ba and Pb in the otolith section corresponding to juvenile's nursery life period were determined through laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Element: Ca ratios in coastal fish differed significantly amongst collection areas, except for Platichthys flesus, and were compared with the elemental fingerprints previously defined for age 0 juveniles in the main estuarine nurseries of the Portuguese coast. Identification of nursery estuaries was achieved for four of the species. Assigned nursery origins varied amongst species and differences in the spatial scale of fish dispersal were also found. Diplodus vulgaris was not reliably assigned to any of the defined nurseries. Overall, results give evidence of the applicability of estuarine habitat tags in future assessments of estuarine nursery role. Research developments on the links between juvenile and adult habitats should contribute for the integrated management and conservation of nurseries and coastal stocks.

  5. Habitat type and nursery function for coastal marine fish species, with emphasis on the Eastern Cape region, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Alan K.; Pattrick, Paula

    2015-07-01

    A considerable amount of research has been undertaken to document and assess the nursery function of a variety of coastal habitats for marine fish species around the world. Most of these studies have focused on particular habitats and have generally been confined to a limited range of fish species associated with specific nursery areas. In this review we conduct a general assessment of the state of knowledge of coastal habitats in fulfilling the nursery-role concept for marine fishes, with particular emphasis on biotic and abiotic factors that influence nursery value. A primary aim was to synthesize information that can be used to drive sound conservation planning and provide a conceptual framework so that new marine protected areas (MPAs) incorporate the full range of nursery areas that are present within the coastal zone. We also use published data from a coastal section in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, to highlight the differential use of shallow aquatic habitats by a range of juvenile marine fish species within this region. Although the Eastern Cape case study does not assess the relative growth, food availability or predation in nursery and non-nursery areas within the coastal zone, it does document which habitats are important to the juveniles of dominant marine species within each area. These habitats, which range from intertidal pools, subtidal gulleys and surf zones to estuaries, do appear to perform a key role in the biological success of species assemblages, with the juveniles of particular marine fishes tending to favour specific nursery areas. According to a multivariate analysis of nursery habitat use within this region, marine species using estuaries tend to differ considerably from those using nearshore coastal waters, with a similar pattern likely to occur elsewhere in the world.

  6. Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic evidence for ancient lower continental crust beneath the Xi Ujimqin area of NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaofeng; Guo, Feng; Xiao, Peixi; Kang, Lei; Xi, Rengang

    2016-05-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is the largest Phanerozoic accretionary orogen on Earth. The role that Precambrian continental microblocks played in its formation, however, remains a highly controversial topic. New zircon U-Pb age data and whole-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic studies on Permian (253-251 Ma) andesites from the Xi Ujimqin area provide the first evidence for the existence of a continental lower mafic crust in the eastern segment of the CAOB. These Permian lavas generally have chemical compositions similar to experimental melts of garnet pyroxenites. Based on Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositional differences, they can be further subdivided into two groups. Group 1 has moderately radiogenic Sr (87Sr/86Sr(i) = 0.7060-0.7062) and nonradiogenic Nd (εNd(t) = - 9.0-8.3) and Pb (e.g., 206Pb/204Pb = 17.18-17.23) isotopic compositions similar to the ancient lower mafic crust beneath the North China Craton (NCC). Compared with Group 1, Group 2 has less radiogenic Sr (87Sr/86Sr(i) = 0.7051-0.7055), and more radiogenic Nd (εNd(t) = - 0.2-+1.4) and Pb (e.g., 206Pb/204Pb = 18.04-18.20) isotopic compositions as observed in the Phanerozoic granitoids and felsic lavas of the CAOB. The combined geochemical and isotopic data indicate that Group 1 was derived from ancient lower mafic crust of the NCC affinity, with a residual assemblage of pyroxene + plagioclase + amphibole. The source for Group 2 was a mixture of ancient lower mafic crust and a juvenile crustal component, and melting left a residue of orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + plagioclase + garnet + amphibole. Generation of these two types of late Permian andesites favors a model whereby breakoff of a subducted slab and subsequent lithospheric extension triggered extensive asthenospheric upwelling and melting of the continental mafic lower crust of the eastern CAOB. The discovery of ancient lower continental crust of the NCC affinity in the CAOB implies that the NCC experienced continental breakup during

  7. Ancient genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen;

    2015-01-01

    , archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when...

  8. Ancient mitogenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Simon Y W; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2010-01-01

    the technical challenges that face researchers in the field. We catalogue the diverse sequencing methods and source materials used to obtain ancient mitogenomic sequences, summarise the associated genetic and phylogenetic studies that have been conducted, and evaluate the future prospects of the field....

  9. Influence of food availability on the spatial distribution of juvenile fish within soft sediment nursery habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tableau, A.; Brind'Amour, A.; Woillez, M.; Le Bris, H.

    2016-05-01

    Soft sediments in coastal shallow waters constitute nursery habitats for juveniles of several flatfishes. The quality of a nursery is defined by its capacity to optimize the growth and the survival of juvenile fish. The influence of biotic factors, such as food availability, is poorly studied at the scale of a nursery ground. Whether food availability limits juvenile survival is still uncertain. A spatial approach is used to understand the influence of food availability on the distribution of juvenile fish of various benthic and demersal species in the Bay of Vilaine (France), a productive nursery ground. We quantified the spatial overlap between benthic macro-invertebrates and their predators (juvenile fish) to assess if the latter were spatially covering the most productive areas of the Bay. Three scenarios describing the shapes of the predator-prey spatial relationship were tested to quantify the strength of the relationship and consequently the importance of food availability in determining fish distribution. Our results underline that both food availability and fish densities vary greatly over the nursery ground. When considering small organisational levels (e.g., a single fish species), the predator-prey spatial relationship was not clear, likely because of additional environmental effects not identified here; but at larger organisational level (the whole juvenile fish community), a strong overlap between the fish predators and their prey was identified. The evidence that fish concentrate in sectors with high food availability suggests that either food is the limiting factor in that nursery or/and fish display behavioural responses by optimising their energetic expenditures associated with foraging. Further investigations are needed to test the two hypotheses and to assess the impact of benthic and demersal juvenile fish in the food web of coastal nurseries.

  10. Management and Decision Making in the Nursery School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Verna; Paolucci, Beatrice

    1974-01-01

    Types of decisions (educational, social, and resource) made by nursery school personnel and the process of helping children become effective decision-makers are explored. Nursery school management may be evaluated by asking, how effective is decision making in the nursery school, and how is each child actually progressing? (AJ)

  11. Nursery Rhymes Intertextual Methods in English Fantasy

    OpenAIRE

    Канчура, Євгенія Орестівна

    2014-01-01

    Nursery rhymes allusions in some works of English fantasy are regarded as intertextual methods, which help to create inner consistency of secondary world reality and build links between real and fantasy world. Fantasy literature also renews the mythological thinking hidden in children’s folklore and shows the way to individualisation through finding awareness in collective unconscious.

  12. The Bing Nursery School. The Child's View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berquist, Robert, Ed.

    Photographs, diagrams, and words are used to tell about the nursery school at Stanford University. Supported largely by tuition, this school enrolls 270 pupils who attend school during one of three different session schedules. A full-time staff of 12 is assisted by students from psychology, education, and nursing. The environment offers…

  13. COMPETITION FROM BLACK COTTONWOOD IN NURSERY CONTAINERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottonwood species (Populus spp.) are weedy in container nursery production throughout much of the U.S. Cottonwood species vary throughout the country, with black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray) predominating Oregon and other parts of the Pacific Northwest U.S. Cottonwood release see...

  14. Case studies of nurseries in Malawi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namoto, M.; Likoswe, M.G.

    , and to explain about their problems and opportunities in the nursery business. The assessment was made within the framework of Improved Seed Supply for Agroforestry in African Countries (ISSAAC), a Danida supported programme implemented in cooperation between Forest & Landscape Denmark and World Agroforestry...

  15. Availability, usage and expected contribution of potential nursery habitats for the California halibut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodrie, F. Joel; Mendoza, Guillermo

    2006-06-01

    Coastal ecosystems have been identified as important nursery habitats for many of the world's fishery species. Beyond this, there remain many questions about what exactly constitutes high-value, even critical, habitat for juvenile fish. A first step in investigating nursery habitat value should be to catalogue the spatial coverage (availability) of all potential nursery habitats as well as the distribution (usage) of juvenile fish within those habitats. We conducted two years of fall surveys in the nearshore areas of San Diego County, CA, examining the spatial distribution of 0-group California halibut, Paralichthys californicus. The database generated by 527 otter trawls and block-net seine collections was used to produce a series of models employing regression trees to study the abiotic factors (water column and bottom features) that affect juvenile distributions. Along the exposed coast, highest 0-group densities (0.002-0.008 individuals/m 2 (indiv/m 2)) occurred where temperatures exceeded 21.5 °C (2003), and at depths between 3.3 and 5.2 m (2004). Within protected embayments, densities were higher at depths less than 1.5 m (0.054-0.430 indiv/m 2) and, in 2004, inside channeled marsh estuaries (0.156 indiv/m 2). The spatial coverage of potential nursery habitats was calculated using a Geographic Information System (GIS) database, and the total number of resident 0-group halibut within each site was estimated (habitat area × juvenile halibut density) as a proxy for expected contribution of halibut advancing to the adult stock from each nursery. Although 85% of the potential nursery habitat area occurred along the exposed coastline, 69% (2003) to 58% (2004) of 0-group halibut resided in protected embayments. Embayment contribution is much greater in the southern half of the study region, largely due to Mission and San Diego bays. We conclude that all nursery habitat types demonstrate the potential to contribute significantly to stock fitness, and that in

  16. Disconnected runoff contributing areas: Evidence provided by ancient watershed management systems in arid north-eastern Marmarica (NW-Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, T.; Rieger, A.-K.; Nicolay, A.

    2014-05-01

    This study presents the importance of disconnectivity in dryland area runoff demonstrated by manmade water harvesting structures dated to Greco-Roman times. Located on the coastal strip of some 20 km width along the Mediterranean coast of modern northwestern Egypt covering the north-eastern part of the region known in antiquity as Marmarica, the area receives winterly rainfalls of up to 140 mm. Further south, precipitation decreases quickly and desert conditions become more pronounced. Bedrocks are predominantly calcareous, soils are loamy, stony, calcareous, and shallow, except in relief sinks with sedimentary deposits. The land rises from the coast up to 230 m a.s.l. on the Marmarica Plateau in a sequence of zonal northsloping plains and scarps the northern parts of which are dissected and drained by wadis. Agriculturally suitable areas comprise some 9% of the coastal zone and adjacent tablelands. Overland flow controls the discharge dynamics and is the main source of wadi runoff and hence agricultural water supply. The land use pattern is scattered because cropping areas depend mainly on suitability of soils and the generation of runoff harvest, which are closely interrelated because of the arid water and sediment regime. The patchiness of runoff generation increases further south where aridity is higher and topography inhibits greater drainage patterns. The abundance of cisterns, many of them originally Greco-Roman, is strong evidence that tableland overland flows occur and are frequently disconnected from larger drainage systems.

  17. Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  18. Trophic interactions of Platichthys flesus and Solea solea juveniles in the Lima estuary nursery (NW Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Mendes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Trophic interactions play a key role in nursery habitats, and by affecting growth and condition of the juveniles, may control the quality of a given estuarine nursery. This study investigated the trophic ecology of flounder (Platichthys flesus and common sole (Solea solea juveniles in the Lima estuary nursery. Feeding location, main organic matter sources, and prey of the target species were assessed by carbon (δ13C and nitrogen (δ15N stable isotopes, as well as by stomach content analysis. The juveniles, macroinvertebrates, and sediment and water column samples were collected in August 2014 in the lower, middle and upper sections of the Lima estuary. The diet of 0+ flounder relied upon prey from the upper estuary (salinity >5, namely Chironomid larvae and Corophium spp. which showed the role of the upper estuary prey to the 0+ flounder diet and suggest the relative site fidelity of the young juveniles. In contrast, 1+ flounder juveniles had a diverse diet based on bivalves, polychaetes and crustaceans, and a variable stable isotope signature indicating they fed in different areas along the estuary. The 1+ sole juveniles also fed on polychaetes, crustaceans, and bivalves, but the stable isotope values suggested a dependence on the lower estuary (salinity >30 and marine food web sources. Such differential use of food may be understood as a strategic approach to reduce intra- and interspecific competition and thus ensuring the use of Lima estuary as nursery area for these two flatfish species.

  19. Illustration of genetic syndromes in the nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnab, A J; Langlois, S

    2006-01-15

    Reading to children and storytelling has documented developmental benefits. Traditional Nursery Rhymes (Mother Goose tales in North America) encapsulate 'snapshots' of the people described and chronicle their customs, superstitions, and amusements. Art has long been employed to document the impact of human imperfections and diseases. We investigated whether illustrations accompanying nursery rhymes, suggest that any characters illustrated may have had or been based on recognized morphological abnormalities, and if this literature documents a role for grandmothers as storytellers. Archival materials were reviewed at the Victoria and Albert museum and Mary Evans picture library, and via the web. As early as 1695, Perrault included a frontispiece of a mature woman as storyteller in his book of fairytales. Similar scenes by various artists (Boilly, Cruikshank, Guy, Highmore, Maclise, Richter, and Smith) are found consistently from 1744 to 1908. Many illustrators (Aldin, Caldecott, Cruikshank, Doré, Dulac, Gale, Greenaway, Rackham, Tarrant, and Wood) portray infants, children, and adults who are dwarfed, giant, or whimsically grotesque. Many images certainly suggest genetic syndromes, and in some characters consistency of specific features is evident between artists. Our research confirms the wealth of children's nursery rhyme illustrations suggesting pathology; that an authoritative compilation of the morphologies depicted is lacking; and that historically, grandmothers have a central role as storytellers. PMID:16353252

  20. Climate and the protection of ancient books-an introduction to the general protection of the ancient books of Guangdong province Shantou coastal area%气候与古籍保护--浅谈广东省汕头市沿海地区古籍综合保护问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢震宇

    2014-01-01

    随着古籍保护工作在全国的开展推进,我区图书馆也把古籍保护工作提上议事日程。本文通过对广东省汕头市沿海地区的气候特点及其对古籍保存的影响的分析,论述要做好古籍保护工作必须根据当地的气候、地理环境,采取适合当地自然条件的方法、措施的道理。%With the development of the ancient books protection in the country, the protection of ancient books in our district’s library has been put on our agenda. With analysis on the climate characteristics of Guangdong province Shantou coastal areas and the influence of the ancient book preservation, this essay stresses on the importance of the ancient book preservation in accordance with local climate, geographical environment, and adopt methods and measures suited to local natural conditions.

  1. NURSERY ENGLISH” IN THE LIGHT OF UNIVERSAL LANGUAGE TENDENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrebneva Tamara Grigoryevna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes "nursery English" in its substandard manifestations. It aims at classifying lexical units of the chosen colloquial area. Grouping the words is based on the comparison of neutral patterns and their specific ('nursery' counterparts. The results of the analysis demonstrate the two main tendencies of the language – redundancy and insufficiency – in their diverse expressions on the level of lexis of the researched field. The investigation discloses the basic models of "nursery English" (the English used by children registered in fiction (A. Milne's prose and poetry have been chosen for the analysis. It points out the mechanisms, both, phonetic and morphological, used to create the specific nature of the language of the chosen area. The word reduction and extension is registered in the initial, medium, and final positions. Both linguistic phenomena may be caused by simplifying a complex sound structure, when a child is trying to overcome the difficulty of pronouncing the word; or they may arise in the event of eliminating or adding semantically insignificant word components, or be the consequence of insufficient knowledge of grammar. In most cases, the new formations of nursery English are quite clear to the speakers due to the context or speech situation. Yet, there appear structures which cause misunderstanding. The investigated stylistic area overlaps the specific scope of substandard English used by grown-up speakers; however, certain samples of the first one may be regarded as strictly "nursery". It is not unlikely that the expansion of the researched resource will reveal other transformations. The findings can benefit the studies of English stylistics and English Language System studies.

  2. Bycatch and catch-release mortality of small sharks in the Gulf coast nursery grounds of Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor

    OpenAIRE

    Robert E Hueter; Manire, Charles A.

    1994-01-01

    The bays and estuaries of the southeast United States coast generally are thought to serve as nursery areas for various species of coastal sharks, where juvenile sharks find abundant food and are less exposed to predation by larger sharks. Because these areas typically support substantial commercial and recreational fisheries, fishing mortality of sharks in the nurseries particularly by bycatch, may be significant. This two-year project assessed the relative importance of two estuaries of the...

  3. Particulate matter in rural and urban nursery schools in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have been showing strong associations between exposures to indoor particulate matter (PM) and health effects on children. Urban and rural nursery schools have different known environmental and social differences which make their study relevant. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate indoor PM concentrations on different microenvironments of three rural nursery schools and one urban nursery school, being the only study comparing urban and rural nursery schools considering the PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 fractions (measured continuously and in terms of mass). Outdoor PM2.5 and PM10 were also obtained and I/O ratios have been determined. Indoor PM mean concentrations were higher in the urban nursery than in rural ones, which might have been related to traffic emissions. However, I/O ratios allowed concluding that the recorded concentrations depended more significantly of indoor sources. WHO guidelines and Portuguese legislation exceedances for PM2.5 and PM10 were observed mainly in the urban nursery school. - Highlights: • This is the only study comparing urban and rural nurseries considering PM fractions. • A low number of children in classrooms is enough to increase PM concentrations. • Children in urban nurseries are exposed to higher PM concentrations than in rural. • Children were mainly exposed to the finer fractions, which are worse to health. - PM levels were higher in the urban nursery than in the rural ones, which might have been related to traffic emissions. Still concentrations depended more significantly of indoor sources

  4. Environmental Redox Changes of the Ancient Sea in the Yangtze Area during the Ordo-Silurian Transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Detian; CHEN Daizhao; WANG Qingchen; WANG Jianguo; CHU Yang

    2008-01-01

    Extensive organic-matter (OM) rich facies (black shales) occur in the Ordo-Silurian boundary successions in the Yangtze area, South China. To investigate the redox changes of the Yangtze Sea during the Ordo-Silurian transition, two OM sections (Wangjiawan in Yichang, Hubei Province, and Sanjiaguan in Zhangjiajie, Hunan Province) straddling the Ordo-Silurian boundary are studied. The measurements finished in this study include contents of the total organic carbon (TOC), pyrite sulphur, and different species of Fe, including dithionite-extractable Fe (Feo), pyrite Fe (Fee), HCl-extractable Fe (Fen), and total Fe (Fer), in black shales, as well as other redox proxies, such as theS/C ratio, the ratio between highly reactive Fe (FeHR = FeD + Fee) and FeT, and the Fev/(Fep + FeH) ratio, known as the degree of pyritization (DOP). In the Wangjiawan section, the Middle Ashgill sediments have high FeHR/Fer ratios (0.20-0.77; avg. 0.45), high DOP values (0.21-0.72; avg. 0.54), and a relatively constant sulfur content independent of the organic carbon content. By the contrast, the mid-early Hirnantian deposits generally have low FeI.FeHR/Fer ratios (0.10-4).35; avg. 0.21), low DOP values (0.11- 0.40; avg. 0.28), and S/C values are clnstering on the normal marine value (S/C = 0.36). The late Hirnantian and early Rhuddanian deposits, similar to those of the Middle Ashgill deposits, are characterized by high FeHR/FeT ratios (0.32-0.49; avg. 0.41), high DOP values (0.46-0.68; avg. 0.53) and fairly constant sulfur contents. These data suggest the occurrences of marine anoxia on the Yangtze Sea shelf during intervals of the Mid Ashgill, Late Hirnantian and Early Rhuddanian, and ventilated and oxygenated marine conditions during the mid-early Hirnantian time. The mid-early Hirnantian ventilated event was concomitant with the global glacial period, likely resulted from the glacio-enstatic sea-level fall and subsequent circulation of cold, dense oxygenated waters upon the sheff seabed

  5. Nursery fidelity, food web interactions and primary sources of nutrition of the juveniles of Solea solea and S. senegalensis in the Tagus estuary (Portugal): A stable isotope approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, C.; Salgado, J.; Costa, M. J.; Cabral, H. N.

    2008-01-01

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes were used to assess site fidelity of Solea solea and Solea senegalensis juveniles, to investigate food web interactions and to determine the dominant nutrient pathways in two nursery areas in the Tagus estuary, Portugal. Samples of water from the main sources and from the nursery areas and respective saltmarsh creeks were collected for isotope analysis, as well as sediment, benthic microalgae, saltmarsh halophytes, S. solea, S. senegalensis and its main prey, Nereis diversicolor, Scrobicularia plana and Corophium spp. While site fidelity was high in 0-group juveniles, it was lower for 1-group juveniles, possibly due to an increase in mobility and energy demands with increasing size. Analysis of the food web revealed a complex net of relations. Particulate organic matter from the freshwater sources, from each nursery's waters and saltmarsh creeks presented similar isotopic composition. Sediment isotopic composition and saltmarsh halophytes also did not differentiate the two areas. All components of the food web from the benthic microalgae upwards were isotopically different between the nursery areas. These components were always more enriched in δ13C and δ15N at the lower nursery area than at the nursery located upstream, appearing as if there were two parallel trophic chains with little trophic interaction between each other. A mixture of carbon and nitrogen sources is probably being incorporated into the food web. The lower nursery area is more dependent upon an isotopically enriched energy pathway, composed of marine particulate organic matter, marine benthic microalgae and detritus of the C 4 saltmarsh halophyte Spartina maritima. The two nursery areas present a different level of dependence upon the freshwater and marine energy pathways, due to hydrological features, which should be taken into account for S. solea and S. senegalensis fisheries and habitat management.

  6. Compost and vermicompost as nursery pot components: effects on tomato plant growth and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazcano, C.; Arnold, J.; Tato, A.; Zaller, J. G.; Dominguez, J.

    2009-07-01

    Abstract Post transplant success after nursery stage is strongly influenced by plant morphology. Cultural practices strongly shape plant morphology, and substrate choice is one of the most determining factors. Peat is the most often used amendment in commercial potting substrates, involving the exploitation of non-renewable resources and the degradation of highly valuable peatland ecosystems and therefore alternative substrates are required. Here the feasibility of replacing peat by compost or vermicompost for the production of tomato plants in nurseries was investigated through the study of the effect of increasing proportions of these substrates (0%, 10%, 20%, 50%, 75% and 100%) in target plant growth and morphological features, indicators of adequate post-transplant growth and yield. Compost and vermicompost showed to be adequate substrates for tomato plant growth. Total replacement of peat by vermicompost was possible while doses of compost higher than 50% caused plant mortality. Low doses of compost (10 and 20%) and high doses of vermicompost produced significant increases in aerial and root biomass of the tomato plants. In addition these treatments improved significantly plant morphology (higher number of leaves and leaf area, and increased root volume and branching). The use of compost and vermicompost constitute an attractive alternative to the use of peat in plant nurseries due to the environmental benefits involved but also due to the observed improvement in plant quality. Additional key words: peat moss, plant nursery, soil-less substrate, Solanum lycopersicum L. (Author) 37 refs.

  7. External Genital Abnormalities and Inguinal Hernia among Males of Children Nurseries, North West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Haratipour

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Abnormalities of external genitalia in male children nurseries and inguinal hernia are the most common congenital disorders in children. We aimed to determine prevalence rate of inguinal hernia and other genital among children nurseries, in Shahrood-Iran. Materials and Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study, we examined 920 children nurseries boys. Physical examination of children was performed in presence of a parent in a warm room in supine and upright position with and without Valsalva maneuver. A written consent was obtained from parents before examination. Past medical history and history of surgery on inguinal and genital area was taken. Examination was performed 2 interns who were trained about genital system examination.   Results A total of 920 children nurseries boys aged 3 to 6 years were examined which were detected in 88 children and prevalence rate of these abnormalities were 9.6%. The prevalence of abnormalities in the children under study were as follows: Inguinal hernia (5.1%, cryptorchidism (2.1%, Hydrocele (1.5%, hypospadias (0.4%, Varicocele (0.1%, micropenis (0.4%. Conclusion Regarding to relatively high prevalence rate of these abnormalities and low level of people knowledge, seem screening systems for diagnosis and appropriate treatment of these abnormalities to be necessary.

  8. Weather Impact on Nursery Diseases of Mango Saplings in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. H. Khan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out during the period of July 2010 to April 2012 to find out the effect of weather prevalence of seedling diseases ofmango in different areas of Bangladesh. The locations were Mymensingh Dinajpur, Rajshahi and Khagrachari. Altogether 12 nurseries in fourdistricts of Bangladesh were surveyed and mango seedling diseases were recorded. Incidence and severity of important seedling diseases ofhas been studied under different geographical locations (viz. Mymensingh, Dinajpur, Rajshahi and Khagrachari of Bangladesh. The effects oftemperature, rainfall, and relative humidity on the incidence and severity of noted diseases were observed the aforesaid locations of Bangladesh.The studied diseases were anthracnose, leaf spot, red rust, powdery mildew, scab, bacterial leaf blight and malformation of mango seedlings.The graphs of weather parameters and incidence and severity of diseases were performed to determine the relationship between differentcomponents of climatic factor and seedling diseases of mango.

  9. Carbon isotopes in otolith amino acids identify residency of juvenile snapper (Family: Lutjanidae) in coastal nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, K. W.; Berumen, M. L.; Mateo, I.; Elsdon, T. S.; Thorrold, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    This study explored the potential for otolith geochemistry in snapper (Family: Lutjanidae) to identify residency in juvenile nursery habitats with distinctive carbon isotope values. Conventional bulk otolith and muscle stable isotope analyses (SIA) and essential amino acid (AA) SIA were conducted on snapper collected from seagrass beds, mangroves, and coral reefs in the Red Sea, Caribbean Sea, and Pacific coast of Panama. While bulk stable isotope values in otoliths showed regional differences, they failed to distinguish nursery residence on local scales. Essential AA δ13C values in otoliths, on the other hand, varied as a function of habitat type and provided a better tracer of residence in different juvenile nursery habitats than conventional bulk otolith SIA alone. A strong linear relationship was found between paired otolith and muscle essential AA δ13C values regardless of species, geographic region, or habitat type, indicating that otolith AAs recorded the same dietary information as muscle AAs. Juvenile snapper in the Red Sea sheltered in mangroves but fed in seagrass beds, while snapper from the Caribbean Sea and Pacific coast of Panama showed greater reliance on mangrove-derived carbon. Furthermore, compound-specific SIA revealed that microbially recycled detrital carbon, not water-column-based new phytoplankton carbon, was the primary carbon source supporting snapper production on coastal reefs of the Red Sea. This study presented robust tracers of juvenile nursery residence that will be crucial for reconstructing ontogenetic migration patterns of fishes among coastal wetlands and coral reefs. This information is key to determining the importance of nursery habitats to coral reef fish populations and will provide valuable scientific support for the design of networked marine-protected areas.

  10. Carbon isotopes in otolith amino acids identify residency of juvenile snapper (Family: Lutjanidae) in coastal nurseries

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Kelton

    2011-08-26

    This study explored the potential for otolith geochemistry in snapper (Family: Lutjanidae) to identify residency in juvenile nursery habitats with distinctive carbon isotope values. Conventional bulk otolith and muscle stable isotope analyses (SIA) and essential amino acid (AA) SIA were conducted on snapper collected from seagrass beds, mangroves, and coral reefs in the Red Sea, Caribbean Sea, and Pacific coast of Panama. While bulk stable isotope values in otoliths showed regional differences, they failed to distinguish nursery residence on local scales. Essential AA δ13C values in otoliths, on the other hand, varied as a function of habitat type and provided a better tracer of residence in different juvenile nursery habitats than conventional bulk otolith SIA alone. A strong linear relationship was found between paired otolith and muscle essential AA δ13C values regardless of species, geographic region, or habitat type, indicating that otolith AAs recorded the same dietary information as muscle AAs. Juvenile snapper in the Red Sea sheltered in mangroves but fed in seagrass beds, while snapper from the Caribbean Sea and Pacific coast of Panama showed greater reliance on mangrove-derived carbon. Furthermore, compound-specific SIA revealed that microbially recycled detrital carbon, not water-column-based new phytoplankton carbon, was the primary carbon source supporting snapper production on coastal reefs of the Red Sea. This study presented robust tracers of juvenile nursery residence that will be crucial for reconstructing ontogenetic migration patterns of fishes among coastal wetlands and coral reefs. This information is key to determining the importance of nursery habitats to coral reef fish populations and will provide valuable scientific support for the design of networked marine-protected areas. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Edge Effects Influence the Abundance of the Invasive Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Woody Plant Nurseries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, P Dilip; Martinson, Holly M; Bergmann, Erik J; Shrewsbury, Paula M; Raupp, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), has caused severe economic losses in the United States and is also a major nuisance pest invading homes. In diverse woody plant nurseries, favored host plants may be attacked at different times of the season and in different locations in the field. Knowledge of factors influencing H. halys abundance and simple methods to predict where H. halys are found and cause damage are needed to develop effective management strategies. In this study, we examined H. halys abundance on plants in tree nurseries as a function of distance from field edges (edge and core samples) and documented the abundance in tree nurseries adjoining different habitat types (corn, soybean, residential areas, and production sod). We conducted timed counts for H. halys on 2,016 individual trees belonging to 146 unique woody plant cultivars at two commercial tree nurseries in Maryland. Across three years of sampling, we found that H. halys nymphs and adults were more abundant at field edges (0-5 m from edges) than in the core of fields (15-20 m from edges). Proximity of soybean fields was associated with high nymph and adult abundance. Results indicate that monitoring efforts and intervention tactics for this invasive pest could be restricted to field edges, especially those close to soybean fields. We show clearly that spatial factors, especially distance from edge, strongly influence H. halys abundance in nurseries. This information may greatly simplify the development of any future management strategies.

  12. A canteen for the Nursery School A project for CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2007-01-01

    For a number of years a minimum service has been offered at lunchtime between 12.15 and 13.30 for children enrolled for the full day at the CERN Nursery School. This service is provided by qualified staff at the Nursery School, on the premises, the meals being supplied by the parents.

  13. Optimaal en efficient voeren van mosselbroed in een nursery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiele, van der T.M.

    2007-01-01

    Stage verslag van een student van de hogeschool Zeeland, opleiding aquatische Ecotechnologie. Bij dit onderzoek is gekeken naar optimaal en efficient voeren van mosselbroed in een nursery. Geconcludeerd wordt dat de beste manier om mosselbroed in een nursery te voeren is door de algen toe te dienen

  14. 76 FR 78610 - Notice of Intent To Suspend the Nursery Production, the Nursery and Floriculture Chemical Use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... and Floriculture Chemical Use, and the Christmas Tree Production Surveys and All Associated Reports... Service (NASS) to suspend currently approved information collections for all Nursery and Christmas Tree... Christmas Tree Production Surveys Along with the Nursery and Floriculture Chemical Use Survey and...

  15. What Are Nurseries For?: The Concept of Primary Task and Its Application in Differentiating Roles and Tasks in Nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfer, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Communities in the UK are seeing a sustained shift in the balance of care of babies and the youngest children from families to nurseries, with a particular emphasis being placed on early learning. Yet a basic question of whether nurseries should be modelled on the intimacy and spontaneity of family interactions or the more professional and planned…

  16. Best Management Practices for Minimizing Nitrate Leaching from Container-Grown Nurseries

    OpenAIRE

    Jianjun Chen; Yingfeng Huang; Russell D. Caldwell

    2001-01-01

    Containerized plant production represents an extremely intensive agricultural practice; 40,000 to 300,000 containers may occupy one acre of surface area to which a large amount of chemical fertilizer is applied. Currently, recommended fertilizer application rates for the production of containerized nursery ornamental plants are in excess of plant requirements, and up to 50% of the applied fertilizers may run off or be leached from containers. Among the nutrients leached or allowed to runoff, ...

  17. Nursery pre-conditioning of plants for revegetation, gardening and landscaping in semi-arid environments

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Leemhuis, José Antonio; Martínez Sánchez, Juan José; Fernández Hernández, Juan Antonio; Bañón Arias, Sebastián del Pilar; Ochoa Rego, Jesús; Vicente Colomer, María José

    2010-01-01

    In landscaping and xerogardening projects, under semi-arid conditions, appropriate techniques used in the nursery during seedling production are crucial for the establishment, survival and subsequent growth of plants after transplanting (Figure 1). Morphological and anatomical adaptations in seedlings include reductions in shoot height and/or leaf area, rises in root-collar diameter and root growth potential and, often, a reduction in the shoot:root ratio; in addition, there are physiological...

  18. Immigration and early life stages recruitment of the European flounder (Platichthys flesus) to an estuarine nursery: The influence of environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Eva; Ramos, Sandra; Elliott, Michael; Bordalo, Adriano A.

    2016-01-01

    Connectivity between coastal spawning grounds and estuarine nurseries is a critical step in the life cycle of many fish species. Larval immigration and transport-associated physical-biological processes are determinants of recruitment success to nursery areas. The recruitment of the European flounder, Platichthys flesus, to estuarine nurseries located at the southern edge of the species distribution range, has been usually investigated during its juvenile stages, while estuarine recruitment during the earlier planktonic life stage remains largely unstudied. The present study investigated the patterns of flounder larval recruitment and the influence of environmental factors on the immigration of the early life stages to the Lima estuary (NW Portugal), integrating data on fish larvae and post-settlement individuals (effects upon ocean-estuarine connectivity is required to improve our understanding of the population dynamics of marine spawning fish that use estuarine nurseries.

  19. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  20. 基于环境心理学原理的幼儿区域活动环境创设%The Creation of Environment for Area Activities in Nursery Schools:An Environmental Psychology Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰晓燕

    2016-01-01

    区域活动作为幼儿集体教学的有效补充,以其“隐形课程”的特点,对促进幼儿发展有着积极的作用。从环境心理学原理出发,阐述了环境心理学对区域环境创设的意义以及如何从环境空间行为理论、感知认知理论、环境超负荷理论、人与环境交互作用模型理论来创设幼儿园区域活动环境,从而进一步提升区域活动的价值。%As an implicit curriculum, area activities are an effective supplement to collective teaching activities at kindergartens. This paper expounds the significance of creating appropriate environment for area activities based on the theories of environmental psychology such as spatial behavior theory, perceptive and cognitive theory, theory of overloaded environment and the theory of interaction between human and environment so that the value of area activities can be promoted.

  1. Mechanisms explaining nursery habitat association: how do juvenile snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) benefit from their nursery habitat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Darren M; Middleton, Crispin; Spong, Keren T; Mackay, Graeme; Smith, Matt D; Buckthought, Dane

    2015-01-01

    Nursery habitats provide elevated survival and growth to the organisms that associate with them, and as such are a crucial early life-stage component for many fishes and invertebrates. The exact mechanisms by which these benefits are afforded to associated organisms, however, are often unclear. Here we assessed potential explanations of the nursery function of structurally complex habitats for post-settlement snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in New Zealand. Specifically, we deployed Artificial Seagrass Units (ASUs) and used a combination of video observation, netting and diet analysis of associated post-settlement snapper as well describing potential prey within the micro-habitats surrounding ASUs. We did not observe any predation attempts and few potential predators, suggesting that for snapper the nursery value of structurally complex habitats is not as a predation refuge. The diet of post-settlement snapper mostly consisted of calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, which were most commonly sampled from within the water column. Nearly all suspected feeding events were also observed within the water column. When considering the velocity of water flow at each ASU, plankton sampling revealed a greater availability of copepods with increasing current strength, while netting and video observation demonstrated that the abundance of snapper was highest at sites with intermediate water velocity. This study highlights that the interaction between water flow and food availability may represent an important trade-off between energy expenditure and food intake for post-settlement snapper. Structurally complex habitats may mediate this relationship, allowing snapper to access sites with higher food availability while reducing swimming costs. This mechanism may have broader relevance, potentially explaining the importance of estuarine nursery habitats for other species. PMID:25803443

  2. Mechanisms explaining nursery habitat association: how do juvenile snapper (Chrysophrys auratus benefit from their nursery habitat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M Parsons

    Full Text Available Nursery habitats provide elevated survival and growth to the organisms that associate with them, and as such are a crucial early life-stage component for many fishes and invertebrates. The exact mechanisms by which these benefits are afforded to associated organisms, however, are often unclear. Here we assessed potential explanations of the nursery function of structurally complex habitats for post-settlement snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in New Zealand. Specifically, we deployed Artificial Seagrass Units (ASUs and used a combination of video observation, netting and diet analysis of associated post-settlement snapper as well describing potential prey within the micro-habitats surrounding ASUs. We did not observe any predation attempts and few potential predators, suggesting that for snapper the nursery value of structurally complex habitats is not as a predation refuge. The diet of post-settlement snapper mostly consisted of calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, which were most commonly sampled from within the water column. Nearly all suspected feeding events were also observed within the water column. When considering the velocity of water flow at each ASU, plankton sampling revealed a greater availability of copepods with increasing current strength, while netting and video observation demonstrated that the abundance of snapper was highest at sites with intermediate water velocity. This study highlights that the interaction between water flow and food availability may represent an important trade-off between energy expenditure and food intake for post-settlement snapper. Structurally complex habitats may mediate this relationship, allowing snapper to access sites with higher food availability while reducing swimming costs. This mechanism may have broader relevance, potentially explaining the importance of estuarine nursery habitats for other species.

  3. Management of genetic resources in the nursery system of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proietti R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of genetic and adaptive traits of reproductive materials used in the nursery system of wild cherry, could be an useful instrument to improve ecological and economic sustainability of plantation ecosystems. This work reports results from a research which the objectives were: 1 to study the genetic variation of a Prunus avium L. Population, used for seed harvesting, through its multi-locus genotypes detected by starch gel electrophoresis; 2 to analyze the level of genetic variation within and among different steps in a commercial nursery system (basic population and sub-populations, seedlings aged S1T1 and S1T2, plantation. Results showed low genetic variation levels of the basic population, similar to a reference system of other 12 wild cherry Italian populations and to other French and Caucasian materials. The genetic distances among Monte Baldo and some closer Lombardy provenances (Area Garda, Bosco Fontana, Valtellina were smaller than the Venice Region populations (Monti Lessini and Asiago. Number of alleles and percentage of polymorphic loci within the complex of Monte Baldo provenance and multiplication materials were similar, whilst a variable value of Fis was noted. Indeed, along with the nursery system until the plantation, heterozygosis initially (S1T1 increased, then decreased proceeding to the plantation. This fluctuation of FIS values could be determined by seed lots characterized initially by higher levels of variation, due to self-incompatibility. In the following steps, a possible selection pressure can affect randomly the genotypic structure of wild cherry by increasing the homozygosity. There is not among population a well defined geographic characterization, as suggested by genetic distances, therefore homogeneous seed harvest could be established an area larger than geographic and administrative borders. On this way we could have reproductive material with a wide genetic base and environmental adaptability. To

  4. Group Endeavor in Nursery School Can Be Valuable Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Sally

    1987-01-01

    Presents anecdotes from nursery school daily records which illustrate significant learning experience through cooperative work and play. Suggests that children process and learn information by playing with that information. (NH)

  5. Sonne dysentery in day schools and nurseries: an eighteen-year study in Edmonton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M E; Tillett, H E

    1973-09-01

    A study of Sonne dysentery infections in 19 primary and 11 secondary day-schools and 4 day-nurseries has been made over a period of 18 years in an urban area. Measures were taken throughout to try to prevent and control outbreaks. Sonne dysentery was not endemic in the school population and, even at times of high incidence, epidemics were localized within a few of the primary schools, usually in the spring or autumn terms. Incidence rates of Sonne dysentery were highest in primary schools with large infant departments and in nurseries. Secondary schools entirely escaped outbreaks.The co-operation of head teachers was engaged for all precautionary measures in schools. A policy of immediate exclusion of suspected and infected children was useful in preventing and controlling school epidemics of dysentery. Toilet hygiene was often poor in schools with outbreaks, and this was found to be a profitable field for applying control measures. Infected kitchen workers were only occasionally involved.Recommendations are given in the light of this study, and some reference is made to the more difficult problem posed by dysentery outbreaks in day-nurseries, where temporary closure may be the best policy. It is important that responsibility for infectious disease control in schools be clearly delineated in the reorganized health services of 1974. Teachers can play an important part in limiting infection. PMID:4518360

  6. Impact of ectohumus application in birch and pine nurseries on the presence of soil mites (Acari, Oribatida in particular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimek Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensively used forest nurseries are characterised by degradation processes that lead to a drop in the quality of seedlings. The main reason of this problem is a decrease in biological soil diversity. Therefore, an attempt of nursery soil enrichment by introducing ectohumus – as compost and fresh litter – from the pine forest was carried out. The research was carried out in 2009–2011 in the Bielawy forest nursery near the city of Toruń, Poland. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of organic fertilisation (compost made up of forest humus and mulching using fresh ectohumus on the density and community composition of Acari mites and on species composition of oribatid mites (Oribatida in the nurseries of silver birch and Scots pine. Mites, especially oribatid mites, were treated as bioindicators of soil biological activity. Research has shown that mulching using fresh ectohumus caused a multiple increase in the density of mites, especially in saprophagous mites Oribatida. Oribatid mites were clearly more numerous in birch cultivation than in that of pine. Overall, 27 species of oribatid mites were found. Mulching resulted in a significant growth in species diversity in both cultivations. The most numerous oribatid mite in the area under the study was Oribatula tibialis. This species was present in all plots and showed clear preference for birch cultivation. Tectocepheus velatus and Oppiella nova, common and known to be present in a variety of environments, were slightly less numerous.

  7. Effect of nursery habitat degradation on flatfish population: Application to Solea solea in the Eastern Channel (Western Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochette, S.; Rivot, E.; Morin, J.; Mackinson, S.; Riou, P.; Le Pape, O.

    2010-07-01

    Estuaries and coastal waters are essential nursery habitats for many marine species, and especially for flatfishes. Thus, investigating how anthropogenic disturbances affect the quality of these habitats is of major importance to understand their consequences on the population renewal of marine species. The aim of the present study was to analyse the effects of estuarine habitat degradation on the population of the common sole in the Eastern Channel, a key species in the fish community and fisheries in this area. We especially focused on the drastic drop in the surface area and on the low water quality of the Seine estuary, the main river of the Eastern Channel. A geographic Information System (GIS) was used to develop quantitative maps of sole nursery habitats in the Eastern Channel by using a habitat suitability model based on bathymetry and sediment structure. This approach indicated that juvenile densities are low in the Seine estuary with regards to other nursery sectors. Then, thanks to historical maps of the Seine estuary, habitat suitability maps were built for key dates in the modifications of this estuary since 1850. This backward predictive approach suggests that habitat loss in the Seine estuary has led to a 42% decrease of its nursery capacity. As the density of juvenile sole in the Seine estuary is low in comparison to other sectors, this represents only a 3% loss at the sole population scale, in the Eastern Channel. However, when we assumed that prior to anthropogenic disturbance the juvenile density in the Seine estuary might have been equivalent to the current density of adjacent sectors with higher quality, the loss in abundance could be nearly 23% (8-36%). Results suggest that the loss in habitat surface combined with habitat degradation has led to an important loss in the contribution of the Seine estuary nursery to the whole sole population in the Eastern Channel.

  8. Studying Ancient History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Robin

    1982-01-01

    Defends the value and relevance of the study of ancient history and classics in history curricula. The unique homogeneity of the classical period contributes to its instructional manageability. A year-long, secondary-level course on fifth-century Greece and Rome is described to illustrate effective approaches to teaching ancient history. (AM)

  9. Colonization and nursery habitat use patterns of larval and juvenile flatfish species in a small temperate estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, Ana Lígia; Azeiteiro, Ulisses M.; Marques, Sónia C.; Martinho, Filipe; Baptista, Joana; Pardal, Miguel A.

    2013-02-01

    Migrations between coastal and estuarine nursery areas are essential for successful completion of the life cycle of several marine fish. The present study evaluates the use of a small temperate estuary, the Mondego, Portugal, as a nursery habitat for several flatfishes during their early life stages. Data from seasonal and diel larval sampling at the mouth of the estuary and both larvae and juvenile monthly spatial distribution in the estuary (2005-2009) were gathered in order to investigate the life cycle of Platichthys flesus, Solea solea and Solea senegalensis. Larvae entrance in the estuary occurred mainly during summer and autumn with no evidence for diel or tidal vertical stratification. S. senegalensis larvae were present in all seasons at downstream areas presenting low successful settlement and juveniles' densities inside the estuary. Conversely, P. flesus and S. solea were mainly present as juveniles with upstream areas being preferred by flounder. Both species larvae seemed to settle in nearby coastal areas. The importance of the Mondego estuary for flatfishes differed according to the species, playing an important role mainly during the first year for all species. The present study highlights the importance of integrating larval and juvenile stages of fish to assess the very important role of estuaries as nursery areas.

  10. Labor and Technology Change in the Nursery Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bitsch, Vera; Buccola, Steven T.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. nursery industry is highly complex, and affected on their demand side by the construction industry and on their factor supply side by the market for low-skill labor, which in turn is influenced by gyrating construction activity as well as southern-border immigration. We examine an industry seeking to adapt to a changing demand and labor environment. Our emphasis is on the manner in which nurseries cope with increasing retailer power, increasingly quality- and variety-conscious consum...

  11. Sources of organic matter for flatfish juveniles in coastal and estuarine nursery grounds: A meta-analysis for the common sole (Solea solea) in contrasted systems of Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Le Pape, Olivier; Moderan, J.; Beaunee, G.; Riera, Pascal; Nicolas, Delphine; Savoye, N.; Harmelin-Vivien, M.; Darnaude, A.M.; Brind'Amour, Anik; Le Bris, H.; Cabral, H.; Vinagre, C.; Pasquaud, S.; Franca, S.; Kostecki, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Coastal and estuarine nursery grounds are essential habitats for sustaining flatfish stocks since only these shallow and productive areas provide the high food supply that allows maximizing juvenile growth and survival in most flatfish species. However, the main organic matter sources at the basis of benthic food webs might differ drastically between estuarine nursery grounds under strong freshwater influences, where food webs are mainly supported by continental organic matter, and coastal ec...

  12. 29 CFR 780.216 - Nursery activities generally and Christmas tree production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nursery activities generally and Christmas tree production... Nursery activities generally and Christmas tree production. (a) The employees of a nursery who are engaged... Christmas trees are considered to be agricultural or horticultural commodities. Employees engaged in...

  13. Promoting Healthy Eating in Nursery Schoolchildren: A Quasi-Experimental Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korwanich, Kanyarat; Sheiham, Aubrey; Srisuphan, Wichit; Srisilapanan, Patcharawan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of implementing a healthy eating policy on nursery schoolchildren's dietary practices in nurseries in Phrae Province, Thailand. Design: Quasi-experimental action research was used to compare the effects of school healthy eating policy on the diets of nursery schoolchildren in eight intervention and eight matched…

  14. Differential adaptations in nursery seedlings from diverse Chilean provenances of Peumus boldus Mol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magni CR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination, seedling growth and biomass allocation of the endemic species Peumus boldus Mol. (Boldo were studied in four provenances (two northern and two southern provenances from central Chile. Seeds collected from five different mother plants for each provenance were sowed in plastic pots and placed in an ambient nursery. Germinated seeds were transplanted to 130-mL containers and cultivated under nursery conditions during one growing season. Germination capacity, seed weight, morphological traits of seedlings (root collar diameter, height, number of leaves, foliar area, root length, their biomass allocation pattern (dry mass of leaves, shoots and roots and survival were analyzed. Results showed significant differences among provenances and mother plants for most traits. Northern provenances showed slower germination, smaller size, higher root biomass, lesser leaf area, and higher survival, while seedlings from southern provenances were taller, with more body mass, larger leaf area and lower root biomass. We concluded that northern provenances of Peamus boldus are more tolerant to drought and therefore are suitable for ecological restoration of drought-prone Mediterranean sites, while the use of southern provenances must be restricted to restoration of more humid environments.

  15. A low-cost drone based application for identifying and mapping of coastal fish nursery grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Daniele; Bruno, Michele; Jona Lasinio, Giovanna; Belluscio, Andrea; Ardizzone, Giandomenico

    2016-03-01

    Acquiring seabed, landform or other topographic data in the field of marine ecology has a pivotal role in defining and mapping key marine habitats. However, accessibility for this kind of data with a high level of detail for very shallow and inaccessible marine habitats has been often challenging, time consuming. Spatial and temporal coverage often has to be compromised to make more cost effective the monitoring routine. Nowadays, emerging technologies, can overcome many of these constraints. Here we describe a recent development in remote sensing based on a small unmanned drone (UAVs) that produce very fine scale maps of fish nursery areas. This technology is simple to use, inexpensive, and timely in producing aerial photographs of marine areas. Both technical details regarding aerial photos acquisition (drone and camera settings) and post processing workflow (3D model generation with Structure From Motion algorithm and photo-stitching) are given. Finally by applying modern algorithm of semi-automatic image analysis and classification (Maximum Likelihood, ECHO and Object-based Image Analysis) we compared the results of three thematic maps of nursery area for juvenile sparid fishes, highlighting the potential of this method in mapping and monitoring coastal marine habitats.

  16. GROWTH OF Jacaranda puberula Cham. SEEDLINGS IN NURSERY UNDER DIFFERENT SHADING LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lausanne Soraya de Almeida

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Jacaranda puberula, known as caroba, is a species that presents potential use for the recovery of degraded areas, since it possesses fast growth and adapts well to sandy and loamy soils. It presents great aggressiveness in secondary forests and it can be used as urban tree because it produces beautiful lilac flowers. With the intention of obtaining information about potential species for use in recovery of riparian forest, were tested in the nursery of the city hall of the municipal district of Colombo, the development of seedlings of Jacaranda puberula submitted at 30, 50 and 70% of shading. There were used 40 seedlings by treatment and there were evaluated the following parameters: height (60, 90 and 120 days and diameter (90 and 120 days of all seedlings, leaf area and root and shoot dry weight of 6 seedlings per treatment. The largest averages of the analyzed variables were obtained for the 30% shading, except for root dry weight.  The seedlings exposed to full sun presented high mortality rate and was not compared to the others. The smallest averages of the analyzed variables, except for height, were observed for the shading of 70%, indicating that this treatment is not advisable for the production of seedlings of this species in nursery. The best condition for planting the seedlings appears to be in open areas with shading of 30 to 50%, since its natural occurrence is not at full exposure.

  17. Esotericism Ancient and Modern

    OpenAIRE

    Frazer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Leo Strauss presents at least two distinct accounts of the idea that the authors in the political-philosophical canon have often masked their true teachings. A weaker account of esotericism, dependent on the contingent fact of persecution, is attributed to the moderns, while a stronger account, stemming from a necessary conflict between philosophy and society, is attributed to the ancients. Although most interpreters agree that Strauss here sides with the ancients, this view fails to consider...

  18. Beauveria brongniartii Sacc. (Petch) against Melolontha spp. white grubs in forest nurseries with different soil pH

    OpenAIRE

    Sierpińska Alicja; Popowska-Nowak Elżbieta; Bednarek Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, the General Directorate of State Forests in Poland managed 669 forest nurseries on the total area of 2411 ha that produced forest tree seedlings bare root systems, hence vulnerable to Melolontha spp. white grubs. Up to date, no chemical or biological plant protection product for control of cockchafer grubs in forests has been registered in Poland. The study was carried out with the aim to evaluate the efficacy of a biocontrol product Bovecol with BP strain of Beauveria brongniartii o...

  19. The Emotional Complexity of Attachment Interactions in Nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Jools; Elfer, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In a single intensive nursery case study, using in depth interviews, group discussion and self completed daily diaries, this article reports on staff accounts of the emotional aspects of their interactions with young children. The findings show how much the staff achieved through their empathy for children and families and the establishment of…

  20. Early Childhood Schooling and Socialization at French Nursery School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisance, Eric; Rayna, Sylvie

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose to examine the question of the French early childhood schooling in terms of the socialization processes. The authors start by presenting briefly the main characteristics of the French nursery school. They then discuss socialization processes through sociological perspectives on historical and anthropological…

  1. Parent Cooperative Nursery, 1978-1979. Report Number 8041.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Patricia B.

    This document presents 1978-1979 evaluation data for three components (developmental/educational, parent involvement, and staff development) of the Parent Cooperative Nursery Program (PCN). The developmental/educational component consists of classroom practices, child developmental status, and achievement of program graduates. Classroom activities…

  2. Preemergence Control of Black Cottonwood in Nursery Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate preemergence herbicides for control of black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) in nursery containers. In 2006, granular preemergence herbicides were applied to recently filled, weed-free containers in May just prior to seed release from mature cottonwood tr...

  3. Spray technologies for insect and disease control in ornamental nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite stringent market requirements for blemish-free ornamentals, applications of pesticides and other pest or disease control strategies have helped to achieve this goal. However, proficient applications of pesticide are often complicated by many factors. Pesticide applications in nursery crops i...

  4. Improved ventilation and temperature control in a nursery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.

    2011-01-01

    We performed an intervention study in a nursery. We have measured the air quality with as indicator CO2 and temperature in the original configuration. The maximum observed CO2 concentration during a three week monitoring period was 1834 ppm. The average CO2 concentration during the sleeping period w

  5. Indoor air pollution on nurseries and primary schools: impact on childhood asthma – study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Sofia I V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have demonstrated an association between the exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP and childhood asthma. Evidence is suggesting that several air pollutants may contribute to both exacerbation and development of asthma, but some uncertainty remains concerning the specific causative role of IAP. This paper reports an epidemiologic study aiming to reduce the existing lacks on the association between long-term exposure to pollution mixtures and the development and exacerbation of childhood asthma. Methods/design Based on the implementation of the study in 8 nurseries and 8 primary schools, from which, 2 nurseries and 2 primary schools in sites influenced by traffic and other 2 nurseries and 2 primary schools in background sites at urban and rural areas, the study will analyse the exposure to both urban and rural pollution as well as to traffic emissions (some homes of the children will be included in the study. Furthermore, based on the answers to validated questionnaires (as those used in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood - ISAAC filled in by the parents and on medical exams, the study will assess the prevalence, incidence and exacerbation of asthma, thus considering both short and long-term effects. The approximate number of children in the study will never be less than 600, guaranteeing 80% of study power (significant at a 5% level. Discussion This study intends to contribute for the understanding of the role of environmental factors, namely indoor air pollution, on asthma considering a risk group of different ages, and for the development of preventive measures, which are considered priority issues by the European Commission, according to the European Environmental Agency and the World Health Organization.

  6. Nursery use of shallow habitats by epibenthic fishes in Maine nearshore waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, M. A.; Sherman, S.; Kanwit, J. K.

    2003-01-01

    Species richness and abundance of epibenthic fishes were quantified with daytime beam trawl tows in shallow water habitats during April-November 2000 of three mid-coast Maine estuaries: Casco Bay, Muscongus Bay and the Weskeag River. Five shallow (fishes were collected. Species richness per tow was greater in Casco Bay followed by the Weskeag River and Muscongus Bay. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) of fishes was greater in Casco Bay than in the Weskeag River or Muscongus Bay. Species richness and faunal abundances were positively associated with vegetation, particularly Zostera, at all sampling locations. CPUEs of fishes were higher in Zostera primarily due to the abundance of Gasterosteus aculeatus, Apeltes quadracus, Pungitius pungitius, Myoxocephalus aenaeus, and Cylcopterus lumpus. The fish community of mid-coast estuaries was dominated by young-of-the-year (YOY) and juvenile fishes and all of the habitat types function as nursery areas. Twelve species (38%) of commercial and recreational importance were collected in the three estuaries, but the percentage was higher in Casco Bay (44%) and the Weskeag River (46%). These species included Anguilla rostrata, Clupea harengus, Gadus morhua, Microgadus tomcod, Pollachius virens, Urophycis chuss, Urophycis regia, Urophycis tenuis, Osmerus mordax, Macrozoarces americanus, Tautogolabrus adspersus, and Pleuronectes americanus. Four species, G. morhua, M. tomcod, P. virens, and U. tenuis were more common in spring than summer or autumn. P. americanus was most abundant in summer followed by spring and autumn. This study documents the importance of shallow estuarine areas in Maine as nurseries for these species.

  7. Seasonal and spatial ontogenetic movements of Gerreidae in a Brazilian tropical estuarine ecocline and its application for nursery habitat conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, J A A; Barletta, M; Dantas, D V; Costa, M F

    2016-07-01

    The density and biomass of different ontogenetic phases (juvenile, sub-adult and adult) of the two most important sympatric Gerreidae species in the Goiana Estuary, north-east Brazil, are described in order to determine the patterns of estuarine habitat use and to identify nursery grounds. Eugerres brasilianus and Eucinostomus melanopterus were the most abundant gerreids in the main channel and adjacent estuarine beach habitats. Eugerres brasilianus is abundant in the main channel, whereas E. melanopterus is most common in the beach habitats. Significant interaction in density and biomass of juvenile and sub-adult size classes of E. brasilianus was found between season and area. In addition, E. brasilianus adults and E. melanopterus sub-adults differed significantly in density and biomass between areas of the estuary. Both the upper estuary, during the late dry season, and the middle estuary, during the early rainy season, functioned as nursery habitats for E. brasilianus. During the early rainy season and dry season, the beaches were a nursery for the E. melanopterus. The concentration of these ontogenetic phases was mainly related to the dissolved oxygen and salinity gradients of the estuary, which drive not only gerreid movement between estuarine habitats but also moves the habitats. This study reinforces the importance of conserving the habitats of the Goiana Estuary so that species such as gerreids can complete their life cycle in the face of pressure from anthropogenic activities, such as mangrove forest deforestation, overfishing, fish contamination by plastic ingestion and domestic effluent disposal. PMID:26887637

  8. 7 CFR 301.38-3 - Protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... rust-susceptible plants of the genera Berberis, Mahoberberis, and Mahonia under the cooperative Federal... ensure that they are free of rust-susceptible plants. During the requisite nursery inspections, all... each year to ensure that plant nurseries within that area are free of rust-susceptible plants of...

  9. [Psychiatry in ancient Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón Narváez, G

    1992-12-01

    Using studies on prehispanic and early post-conquest documents of Ancient Mexico--such as the Badianus Manuscript, also known as Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis, and Brother Bernardino de Sahagún's famous work History of the Things of the New Spain, a description of some existing medical and psychiatric problems, and treatments Ancient Aztecs resorted to, is presented. The structure of the Aztec family, their problems with the excessive ingestion of alcoholic beverages, and the punishments native authorities had implemented in order to check alcoholism up are also described. PMID:1341125

  10. Best Management Practices for Minimizing Nitrate Leaching from Container-Grown Nurseries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Chen

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Containerized plant production represents an extremely intensive agricultural practice; 40,000 to 300,000 containers may occupy one acre of surface area to which a large amount of chemical fertilizer is applied. Currently, recommended fertilizer application rates for the production of containerized nursery ornamental plants are in excess of plant requirements, and up to 50% of the applied fertilizers may run off or be leached from containers. Among the nutrients leached or allowed to runoff, nitrogen (N is the most abundant and is of major concern as the source of ground and surface water pollution. In this report, current N fertilizer application rates for different container-grown nursery ornamental plants, the amount of nitrate leaching or runoff from containers, and the potential for nitrate contamination of ground and surface water are discussed. In contrast, our best N management practices include: (1 applying fertilizers based on plant species need; (2 improving potting medium�s nutrient holding capacity using obscure mineral additives; (3 using controlled-release fertilizers; and (4 implementing zero runoff irrigation or fertigation delivery systems that significantly reduce nitrate leaching or runoff in containerized plant production and encourage dramatic changes in N management.

  11. Sole larval supply to coastal nurseries: Interannual variability and connectivity at interregional and interpopulation scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savina, M.; Lunghi, M.; Archambault, B.; Baulier, L.; Huret, M.; Le Pape, O.

    2016-05-01

    Simulating fish larval drift helps assess the sensitivity of recruitment variability to early life history. An individual-based model (IBM) coupled to a hydrodynamic model was used to simulate common sole larval supply from spawning areas to coastal and estuarine nursery grounds at the meta-population scale (4 assessed stocks), from the southern North Sea to the Bay of Biscay (Western Europe) on a 26-yr time series, from 1982 to 2007. The IBM allowed each particle released to be transported by currents, to grow depending on temperature, to migrate vertically depending on development stage, to die along pelagic stages or to settle on a nursery, representing the life history from spawning to metamorphosis. The model outputs were analysed to explore interannual patterns in the amounts of settled sole larvae at the population scale; they suggested: (i) a low connectivity between populations at the larval stage, (ii) a moderate influence of interannual variation in the spawning biomass, (iii) dramatic consequences of life history on the abundance of settling larvae and (iv) the effects of climate variability on the interannual variability of the larvae settlement success.

  12. Meta-analysis of estuarine nurseries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Densities of juvenile fishery species and other animals (all generally 100 mm total length) were summarized for shallow estuarine areas along coastal Texas and...

  13. Adoption in ancient times

    OpenAIRE

    Bisha Eugena

    2015-01-01

    Since in ancient times, in all human cultures, children transfered from biological parents to parents that want them to create family, for political alliances, for inheritance, for a future marriage, or to care for elderly parents. The practice of adoption was fairly common in different places and periods. Adoption is mention on Bible and Quran. Greeks, Romans, Egyptians and Babylonians had adoption systems.

  14. Ancient ports of Kalinga

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    which plied between Kalinga and south east Asian countries. Nanda Raja, is said to have attacked Kalinga with the intention of getting access to the sea for the landlocked Kingdom of Magadha (Bihar). The ancient texa Artha Sastra (3rd-4th century B...

  15. Ancient deforestation revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J Donald

    2011-01-01

    The image of the classical Mediterranean environment of the Greeks and Romans had a formative influence on the art, literature, and historical perception of modern Europe and America. How closely does is this image congruent with the ancient environment as it in reality existed? In particular, how forested was the ancient Mediterranean world, was there deforestation, and if so, what were its effects? The consensus of historians, geographers, and other scholars from the mid-nineteenth century through the first three quarters of the twentieth century was that human activities had depleted the forests to a major extent and caused severe erosion. My research confirmed this general picture. Since then, revisionist historians have questioned these conclusions, maintaining instead that little environmental damage was done to forests and soils in ancient Greco-Roman times. In a reconsideration of the question, this paper looks at recent scientific work providing proxy evidence for the condition of forests at various times in ancient history. I look at three scientific methodologies, namely anthracology, palynology, and computer modeling. Each of these avenues of research offers support for the concept of forest change, both in abundance and species composition, and episodes of deforestation and erosion, and confirms my earlier work.

  16. Printing Ancient Terracotta Warriors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadecki, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    Standing in awe in Xian, China, at the Terra Cotta warrior archaeological site, the author thought of sharing this experience and excitement with her sixth-grade students. She decided to let her students carve patterns of the ancient soldiers to understand their place in Chinese history. They would make block prints and print multiple soldiers on…

  17. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  18. Ancient Egyptian surgical heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Aly

    2010-12-01

    Egyptian medicine influenced the medicine of neighboring cultures, including the culture of ancient Greece. From Greece, its influence spread onward, thereby affecting Western civilization significantly. The oldest extant Egyptian medical texts are six papyri: The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus and the Ebers Medical Papyrus are famous. PMID:21208098

  19. Ancient Egypt: History 380.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Laraine D.

    "Ancient Egypt," an upper-division, non-required history course covering Egypt from pre-dynastic time through the Roman domination is described. General descriptive information is presented first, including the method of grading, expectation of student success rate, long-range course objectives, procedures for revising the course, major course…

  20. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  1. A Vibrant Ancient City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGTONG

    2004-01-01

    LIJIANG is a small city onthe Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau in southern Chinawith an 800-year history.Word of its ancient language and music, and unique natural scenery has spread over the decades, and Lijiang is now known throughout the world. It was added

  2. Assessing anthropogenic pressures on estuarine fish nurseries along the Portuguese coast: a multi-metric index and conceptual approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, R P; Reis-Santos, P; Fonseca, V; Maia, A; Ruano, M; França, S; Vinagre, C; Costa, M J; Cabral, H

    2007-03-15

    Estuaries are among the most productive ecosystems and simultaneously among the most threatened by conflicting human activities which damage their ecological functions, namely their nursery role for many fish species. A thorough assessment of the anthropogenic pressures in Portuguese estuarine systems (Douro, Ria de Aveiro, Mondego, Tejo, Sado, Mira, Ria Formosa and Guadiana) was made applying an aggregating multi-metric index, which quantitatively evaluates influences from key components: dams, population and industry, port activities and resource exploitation. Estuaries were ranked from most (Tejo) to least pressured (Mira), and the most influential types of pressure identified. In most estuaries overall pressure was generated by a dominant group of pressure components, with several systems being afflicted by similar problematic sources. An evaluation of the influence of anthropogenic pressures on the most important sparidae, soleidae, pleuronectidae, moronidae and clupeidae species that use these estuaries as nurseries was also performed. To consolidate information and promote management an ecological conceptual model was built to identify potential problems for the nursery function played by these estuaries, identifying pressure agents, ecological impacts and endpoints for the anthropogenic sources quantified in the assessment. This will be important baseline information to safeguard these vital areas, articulating information and forecasting the potential efficacy of future management options.

  3. The impact of extreme turbidity events on the nursery function of a temperate European estuary with regulated freshwater inflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ortegón, E.; Subida, M. D.; Cuesta, J. A.; Arias, A. M.; Fernández-Delgado, C.; Drake, P.

    2010-04-01

    Estuaries are used as nursery grounds by numerous marine species despite being usually subject to strong anthropogenic disturbances. Abundances of marine recruits (fish and crustacean decapods) and their main prey (mysids) were monitored by monthly sampling, from June 1997 to February 2009, in the lower reaches of the Guadalquivir estuary (SW Spain). During that period, unusually high and persistent turbidity events (HPTEs) were observed twice. Both HPTEs started with strong and sudden freshwater discharges after relatively long periods of very low freshwater inflow. Data from this time-series were used to test the hypothesis that HPTEs may negatively impact the nursery function of estuaries either by decreasing prey availability or by decreasing survival/arrival of marine recruits. During HPTEs, the commonest mysid ( Mesopodopsis slabberi), a key species in the estuarine food web, showed a significant decrease in abundance. Likewise, some marine recruits that prey on M. slabberi and whose peaks of abundance within the estuary occur in summer-autumn ( Engraulis encrasicolus and Pomadasys incisus) were less abundant during HPTEs. It is also suggested that HPTEs might have triggered a shift in the distribution of the most euryhaline prey ( Neomysis integer) and predator ( Dicentrarchus punctatus and Crangon crangon) species, towards more saline waters. This could have contributed to an increase in the inter-specific competition (for food/habitat) within the estuarine nursery area. The results discussed in this study call attention to the need to reduce as much as possible the anthropogenic pressures that may stimulate the occurrence of high and persistent turbidity events (HPTEs) in order to preserve the nursery function of temperate estuaries.

  4. Are growth and density quantitative indicators of essential fish habitat quality? An application to the common sole Solea solea nursery grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliers, C.; Le Pape, O.; Désaunay, Y.; Morin, J.; Guérault, D.; Amara, R.

    2006-08-01

    Bio-indicators were measured on juvenile fish to assess the quality of eight coastal and estuarine nursery grounds in the Eastern English Channel and in the Bay of Biscay during 3 years. Growth (size and otolith daily increment width), body condition (morphometric index) and abundance of juvenile common soles were analysed together with xenobiotic concentrations (heavy metals and organic contaminants). Condition indices displayed important variations and did not allow relevant estimation of environmental quality. On the contrary, growth and density indicators showed good steadiness above years but varied among sites. In spite of difficulties of interpreting these indicators on such a meso-scale approach, analyses highlighted the estuaries of Seine and Gironde. In these nursery areas, the levels of contamination were especially high, and the combination of fish growth performances and density was significantly lower than in other sites. The combination of these variables appears to provide reliable indicators of habitat quality and anthropogenic pressure on nursery grounds, especially highlighting contaminated areas. Such indicators may thus contribute to improve assessment of environmental quality of essential fish habitats with the aim of a sustainable management of fisheries resources. A study at a different scale, from this meso-scale nursery approach with more precise analyses, on local habitats, will nevertheless be necessary to optimize the relevance of these indicators for the assessment of essential fish habitat quality.

  5. Trade patterns of the tree nursery industry in Europe and changes following findings of citrus longhorn beetle, Anoplophora chinensis Forster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Eschen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The trade in plants for planting is a major pathway for the introduction and further spread of alien plants, pests and diseases. Information about the structure of plant trade networks is not generally available, but it is valuable for better assessing the potential risks associated with the trade in live plants and the development of prevention and mitigation measures and policy. The discovery of two larvae of Anoplophora chinensis (citrus longhorn beetle – CLB in 2009, at a nursery importing Acer palmatum from China in one of the major Dutch tree nursery areas, has resulted in the creation of a detailed dataset on the intra-European Union trade in its potential hosts. This study describes European imports of the primary host of A. chinensis, Acer spp., into the Netherlands (1998-2012 and the effects of the finding in a tree nursery area. In addition, shipments of Acer spp. from 138 producers in the nursery area in 2009 were analysed in a one-off analysis of intra-EU trade. The volume of Acer spp. imports from Asia was stable early during the studied period, and declined to 5% of the initial imports after a period of interceptions, illustrating the effect of regulations. The number of notifications of A. chinensis infestations in imported consignments of Acer spp. increased sharply in the years up to 2007, then declined as imports also reduced. Although plants were shipped to destinations throughout Europe, each producer shipped plants only to few destinations in few countries. Most of the plants were shipped to nurseries in EU countries. These patterns could make it easier to target these high risk destinations for control measures. The lack of transaction records makes it difficult to trace the destination of plants. More systematic electronic record keeping by traders and growers and the data being collated in a database that can be made available to regulatory authorities, together with further studies of plant trade data using network

  6. Effects of modern and ancient human activities on mercury in the environment in Xi'an area, Shannxi Province, P.R. China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of water, soil, sediment, and pomegranate were collected from Xi'an and the Qinshihuang Mausoleum in Shaanxi Province, China to assess the effects of human activities on mercury in the environment. The total mercury concentrations ranged from 3.9 to 992.7 ng L-1 for the water samples, 40.6 to 2204.0 ng g-1 for the soil samples, 14.2 to 376.7 ng g-1 for the sediment samples, and 0.22 to 1.74 ng g-1 for the pomegranates samples. The higher values in the water samples collected from the rivers closer to and downstream of the city resulted from wastewater discharges. The effects of the mercury buried in the Qinshihuang Mausoleum thousands of years ago on the environment were neither significant nor widespread. Immediate actions should be taken to stop the direct and continuous discharges of industrial and residential wastewaters to prevent mercury and other pollutants from accumulating and spreading in the area. - Urban activities are sources of mercury to the environment and the pomegranates grown over the burial mound of the Qinshihuang Mausoleum are not mercury-contaminated

  7. Effects of modern and ancient human activities on mercury in the environment in Xi'an area, Shannxi Province, P.R. China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Yongqing; Wang Xiaojuan [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, M5B 2K3 (Canada); Lu Julia [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, M5B 2K3 (Canada)], E-mail: julialu@ryerson.ca; Zhang Chengxiao [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China)], E-mail: cxzhang@snnu.edu.cn; Duan Qingbo [Shaanxi Archaeology Institute, Xi' an 710054 (China)

    2008-05-15

    Samples of water, soil, sediment, and pomegranate were collected from Xi'an and the Qinshihuang Mausoleum in Shaanxi Province, China to assess the effects of human activities on mercury in the environment. The total mercury concentrations ranged from 3.9 to 992.7 ng L{sup -1} for the water samples, 40.6 to 2204.0 ng g{sup -1} for the soil samples, 14.2 to 376.7 ng g{sup -1} for the sediment samples, and 0.22 to 1.74 ng g{sup -1} for the pomegranates samples. The higher values in the water samples collected from the rivers closer to and downstream of the city resulted from wastewater discharges. The effects of the mercury buried in the Qinshihuang Mausoleum thousands of years ago on the environment were neither significant nor widespread. Immediate actions should be taken to stop the direct and continuous discharges of industrial and residential wastewaters to prevent mercury and other pollutants from accumulating and spreading in the area. - Urban activities are sources of mercury to the environment and the pomegranates grown over the burial mound of the Qinshihuang Mausoleum are not mercury-contaminated.

  8. Effects of modern and ancient human activities on mercury in the environment in Xi'an area, Shannxi Province, P.R. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yongqing; Wang, Xiaojuan; Lu, Julia; Zhang, Chengxiao; Duan, Qingbo

    2008-05-01

    Samples of water, soil, sediment, and pomegranate were collected from Xi'an and the Qinshihuang Mausoleum in Shaanxi Province, China to assess the effects of human activities on mercury in the environment. The total mercury concentrations ranged from 3.9 to 992.7ngL(-1) for the water samples, 40.6 to 2204.0ngg(-1) for the soil samples, 14.2 to 376.7ngg(-1) for the sediment samples, and 0.22 to 1.74ngg(-1) for the pomegranates samples. The higher values in the water samples collected from the rivers closer to and downstream of the city resulted from wastewater discharges. The effects of the mercury buried in the Qinshihuang Mausoleum thousands of years ago on the environment were neither significant nor widespread. Immediate actions should be taken to stop the direct and continuous discharges of industrial and residential wastewaters to prevent mercury and other pollutants from accumulating and spreading in the area.

  9. Trophic interactions of Platichthys flesus and Solea solea juveniles in the Lima estuary nursery (NW Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia Mendes; Michael Elliott

    2015-01-01

    Trophic interactions play a key role in nursery habitats, and by affecting growth and condition of the juveniles, may control the quality of a given estuarine nursery. This study investigated the trophic ecology of flounder (Platichthys flesus) and common sole (Solea solea) juveniles in the Lima estuary nursery. Feeding location, main organic matter sources, and prey of the target species were assessed by carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotopes, as well as by stomach content analysi...

  10. Beauveria brongniartii Sacc. (Petch against Melolontha spp. white grubs in forest nurseries with different soil pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierpińska Alicja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the General Directorate of State Forests in Poland managed 669 forest nurseries on the total area of 2411 ha that produced forest tree seedlings bare root systems, hence vulnerable to Melolontha spp. white grubs. Up to date, no chemical or biological plant protection product for control of cockchafer grubs in forests has been registered in Poland. The study was carried out with the aim to evaluate the efficacy of a biocontrol product Bovecol with BP strain of Beauveria brongniartii on sterilized wheat grain in control of Melolontha spp. white grubs in forest nurseries, established on acidic soils (with pH analogous to that of forest soils as well as on those alkaline. The active substance of Bovecol was 108 fungal conidia per 1g of the product. Study plots were established in 3 bareroot nurseries, situated in the areas with different soil reaction values and abundant populations of Melolontha spp. white grubs (assessed before Bovecol treatments. The product was applied against L1 larvae (rates in the Czerniawka and Bałtów nurseries: 120 kg/ha and 240 kg/ha and against L2 larvae (the Iłki nursery: 240 kg/ha. Grub population numbers were assessed 2, 3 and 4 months after the treatments. Application of Bovecol against L1 into the soil with neutral reaction (pH 6.8 caused the reduction of white grub numbers in 2 months, down to the threshold recommended by the Instruction of the protection of forests (mandatory guidelines for the protection of Poland’s State Forests, i.e. less than 1 grub/sampling pit. Bovecol treatment against L1 cockchafer larvae into acidic soil (pH 4.8 had no statistically significant effect on the reduction of grub population numbers, even 4 months after product application. Bovecol treatment against L2 larvae applied into the soil with medium pH value (5.3 gave poorer results when compared to the soil with pH 6.8, but considerably better – when compared to the soil with pH 4.8. The selection of a fungal strain

  11. Comets in ancient India

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Patrick Das

    2014-01-01

    The Indo-aryans of ancient India observed stars and constellations for ascertaining auspicious times for sacrificial rites ordained by vedas. It is but natural that they would have recounted in the vedic texts about comets. In Rigveda ($\\sim $ 1700 - 1500 BC) and Atharvaveda ($\\sim $ 1150 BC), there are references to dhumaketus and ketus, which stand for comets in Sanskrit. Varahamihira in 550 AD and Ballala Sena ($\\sim $ 1100 - 1200 AD) have described a large number of comets recorded by ancient seers such as Parashara, Vriddha Garga, Narada, Garga, etc. In this article, I conjecture that an episode narrated in Mahabharata of a radiant king, Nahusha, ruling the heavens, and later turning into a serpent after he had kicked the seer Agastya (also the star Canopus), is a mythological retelling of a cometary event.

  12. Ancient human microbiomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J.; Lewis, Cecil M.

    2015-01-01

    Very recently, we discovered a vast new microbial self: the human microbiome. Our native microbiota interface with our biology and culture to influence our health, behavior, and quality of life, and yet we know very little about their origin, evolution, or ecology. With the advent of industrialization, globalization, and modern sanitation, it is intuitive that we have changed our relationship with microbes, but we have little information about the ancestral state of our microbiome, and therefore, we lack a foundation for characterizing this change. High-throughput sequencing has opened up new opportunities in the field of paleomicrobiology, allowing us to investigate the evolution of the complex microbial ecologies that inhabit our bodies. By focusing on recent coprolite and dental calculus research, we explore how emerging research on ancient human microbiomes is changing the way we think about ancient disease and how archaeological studies can contribute to a medical understanding of health and nutrition today. PMID:25559298

  13. Temporal and spatial patterns of habitat use by juveniles of a small coastal shark (Mustelus lenticulatus in an estuarine nursery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm P Francis

    Full Text Available Juvenile rig (Mustelus lenticulatus were internally tagged with acoustic transmitters and tracked with acoustic receivers deployed throughout two arms of Porirua Harbour, a small (7 km(2 estuary in New Zealand. Ten rig were tracked for up to four months during summer-autumn to determine their spatial and temporal use of the habitat. The overall goal was to estimate the size of Marine Protected Areas required to protect rig nursery areas from direct human impacts. Rig showed clear site preferences, but those preferences varied among rig and over time. They spent most of their time in large basins and on shallow sand and mud flats around the margins, and avoided deep channels. Habitat range increased during autumn for many of the rig. Only one shark spent time in both harbour arms, indicating that there was little movement between the two. Rig home ranges were 2-7 km(2, suggesting that an effective MPA would need to cover the entire Porirua Harbour. They moved to outer harbour sites following some high river flow rates, and most left the harbour permanently during or soon after a river spike, suggesting that they were avoiding low salinity water. Rig showed strong diel movements during summer, although the diel pattern weakened in autumn. Persistent use of the same day and night sites indicates that diel movements are directed rather than random. Further research is required to determine the sizes of rig home ranges in larger harbours where nursery habitat is more extensive. Marine Protected Areas do not control land-based impacts such as accelerated sedimentation and heavy metal pollution, so integration of marine and terrestrial management tools across a range of government agencies is essential to fully protect nursery areas.

  14. A bacteriological study of the environment of pediatric ward and neonatal nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhawat, P S; Singh, R N; Shekhawat, R; Joshi, K R

    1992-03-01

    The hospital environment is full of pathogens which may cause nosocomial infections. A bacteriological survey of hospital air, floor, water, milk and fomites was done. The air survey showed large number of bacteria carrying particles in air. A direct relation between floor area per person and bacterial contamination of air was established. The floor survey showed that there is abundance of bacteria on the hospital floors, much more than the accepted fair standards of house keeping. The hospital water had a high coliform and total bacterial count and stored tank water was more dirty. Neonatal nursery milk also had high total bacterial and coliform counts. Regular surveillance of hospital environment may help to reduce the incidence of cross infection.

  15. Dependence of juvenile reef fishes on semi-arid hypersaline estuary microhabitats as nurseries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, N S; Dias, T L P; Baeta, A; Pessanha, A L M

    2016-07-01

    The differences between fish assemblages in three microhabitat types, in relation to vegetation and sediment characteristics of a hypersaline estuary located in an semi-arid zone in north-eastern Brazil, were investigated. Fishes were collected using a beach seine during the rainy and dry seasons in 2012. A total of 78 species were recorded, with the most common families being Gerreidae, Lutjanidae and Tetraodontidae. The majority of species were represented by juveniles, with Eucinostomus argenteus, Ulaema lefroyi and Sphoeroides greeleyi being the dominant species. The fish assemblage structures differed significantly among microhabitat types, with the narrow intertidal flat adjacent to the mangrove fringe supporting the most diverse fish fauna. In addition, only 27 species were common to all of the microhabitats. The results support the hypothesis that hypersaline estuaries serve as important nursery areas for various reef fish species, due to the structural complexity provided by their macroalgae beds and mangroves.

  16. Suicide in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G

    2014-01-01

    The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say

  17. Suicide in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G

    2014-01-01

    The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say

  18. Lightning Environment in Wudangshan Mountain Scenic Area and Lightning Protection of Ancient Buildings%武当山景区雷电环境及古建筑防雷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段振中; 朱传林; 刘国臻

    2013-01-01

    武当山是世界文化与自然遗产,因而武当山风景区的雷电防护尤为重要.截取风景区的地闪数据,以1km2范围为基本单元,得到各单元内2008-01-01-2011-12-31期间的全部地闪频次、极性、强度等参数,分析了武当山的雷电环境及地理环境对雷电活动的影响.研究表明:雷击大地密度整体上随高度表现出明显的增长趋势,电流强度平均值与高度大致呈现反向分布趋势.通过研究致灾环境的基本规律,进而有针对性的制定出科学合理的防护措施,对古建筑的防雷具有重要意义.%Wudangshan Mountain is the World Cultural and Natural Heritage,so that lightning protection is particularly important about Wudangshan Mountain Scenic Area.The lightning frequency,polarity,intensity and other parameters in each unit from January 1,2008 to December 31,2011 are gained,with the range of 1 km2(1 km × 1km) being the basic unit,for the whole area of the Wudangshan Mountain.At the same time,the influences of geological features and the lightning environment and geographical environment of the Wudangshan Mountain on lightning activities are analyzed.Research shows that:the lightning frequency increases with increasing altitude,while the average lightning current intensity decreases in the mountainous areas.It is targeted to make scientific and reasonable measures by researching and analyzing the basic laws of the hazard environment,which is of great significance for lightning protection of ancient buildings.

  19. Dance in Ancient Greek Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Spalva, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The greatness and harmony of ancient Greece has had an impact upon the development of the Western European culture to this day. The ancient Greek culture has influenced contemporary literature genres and systems of philosophy, principles of architecture, sculpture and drama and has formed basis for such sciences as astronomy and mathematics. The art of ancient Greece with its penchant for beauty and clarity has been the example of the humanity’s search for an aesthetic ideal. Despite only bei...

  20. A Systemic-functional Approach to Ideational Metaphor in English Nursery Rhymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Er-wei

    2014-01-01

    Ideational metaphor is a typical type of grammatical metaphor. The analysis of grammatical metaphor in English nurs-ery rhymes from the perspective of ideational metaphor, which tries to explore possible evidence of the existence of ideational metaphor in the language of young children-nursery rhymes. Children learn probably many equally complex systems as that of human language.

  1. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Nurseries in Lebanon: A Cross Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaya, Monique; Saab, Dahlia; Maalouf, Fadi T.; Boustany, Rose-Mary

    2016-01-01

    In Lebanon, no estimate for autism prevalence exists. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in toddlers in nurseries in Beirut and Mount-Lebanon. The final sample included 998 toddlers (16-48 months) from 177 nurseries. We sent parents the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) for…

  2. The mangrove nursery paradigm revisited: otolith stable isotopes support nursery-to-reef movements by Indo-Pacific fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael A Kimirei

    Full Text Available Mangroves and seagrass beds have long been perceived as important nurseries for many fish species. While there is growing evidence from the Western Atlantic that mangrove habitats are intricately connected to coral reefs through ontogenetic fish migrations, there is an ongoing debate of the value of these coastal ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific. The present study used natural tags, viz. otolith stable carbon and oxygen isotopes, to investigate for the first time the degree to which multiple tropical juvenile habitats subsidize coral reef fish populations in the Indo Pacific (Tanzania. Otoliths of three reef fish species (Lethrinus harak, L. lentjan and Lutjanus fulviflamma were collected in mangrove, seagrass and coral reef habitats and analyzed for stable isotope ratios in the juvenile and adult otolith zones. δ(13C signatures were significantly depleted in the juvenile compared to the adult zones, indicative of different habitat use through ontogeny. Maximum likelihood analysis identified that 82% of adult reef L. harak had resided in either mangrove (29% or seagrass (53% or reef (18% habitats as juveniles. Of adult L. fulviflamma caught from offshore reefs, 99% had passed through mangroves habitats as juveniles. In contrast, L. lentjan adults originated predominantly from coral reefs (65-72% as opposed to inshore vegetated habitats (28-35%. This study presents conclusive evidence for a nursery role of Indo-Pacific mangrove habitats for reef fish populations. It shows that intertidal habitats that are only temporarily available can form an important juvenile habitat for some species, and that reef fish populations are often replenished by multiple coastal habitats. Maintaining connectivity between inshore vegetated habitats and coral reefs, and conserving habitat mosaics rather than single nursery habitats, is a major priority for the sustainability of various Indo Pacific fish populations.

  3. The ancient Greeks present: Rational Trigonometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wildberger, N J

    2008-01-01

    Pythagoras' theorem, the area of a triangle as one half the base times the height, and Heron's formula are amongst the most important and useful results of ancient Greek geometry. Here we look at all three in a new and improved light, using quadrance not distance. This leads to a simpler and more elegant trigonometry, in which angle is replaced by spread, and which extends to arbitrary fields and more general quadratic forms.

  4. Science in the Study of Ancient Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Zakrzewski, Sonia; Shortland, Andrew; Rowland, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Egyptology has been dominated by the large quantity of written and pictorial material available. This amazing archaeology has opened up a wonderful view of the ancient Egyptian world. The importance of hieroglyphics and texts, and their interpretation, has led to other areas of archaeology playing much less prominence in the study of Egypt. Perhaps most notable in this is relative lack of the application of analytical science to answer Egyptian questions. This problem has been compounded by d...

  5. Climate and Ancient Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Climate, and human responses to it, have a strongly interconnected relationship. This when climate change occurs, the result of either natural or human causes, societies should react and adapt to these. But do they? If so, what is the nature of that change, and are the responses positive...... or negative for the long-term survival of social groups? In this volume, scholars from diverse disciplines including archaeology, geology and climate sciences explore scientific and material evidence for climate changes in the past, their causes, their effects on ancient societies and how those societies...

  6. Mathematics in ancient Greece

    CERN Document Server

    Dantzig, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    More than a history of mathematics, this lively book traces mathematical ideas and processes to their sources, stressing the methods used by the masters of the ancient world. Author Tobias Dantzig portrays the human story behind mathematics, showing how flashes of insight in the minds of certain gifted individuals helped mathematics take enormous forward strides. Dantzig demonstrates how the Greeks organized their precursors' melange of geometric maxims into an elegantly abstract deductive system. He also explains the ways in which some of the famous mathematical brainteasers of antiquity led

  7. Ancient concrete works

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    It is commonly believed that the ancient Romans were the first to create and use concrete. This is not true, as we can easily learn from the Latin literature itself. For sure, Romans were able to prepare high-quality hydraulic cements, comparable with the modern Portland cements. In this paper, we will see that the use of concrete is quite older, ranging back to the Homeric times. For instance, it was used for the floors of some courts and galleries of the Mycenaean palace at Tiryns

  8. Spatially explicit analysis of gastropod biodiversity in ancient Lake Ohrid

    OpenAIRE

    Hauffe, T.; Albrecht, C.; Schreiber, K.; Birkhofer, K.; S. Trajanovski; Wilke, T.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of spatial analyses of biodiversity is improved by (i) utilizing study areas with well defined physiogeographical boundaries, (ii) limiting the impact of widespread species, and (iii) using taxa with heterogeneous distributions. These conditions are typically met by ecosystems such as oceanic islands or ancient lakes and their biota. While research on ancient lakes has contributed significantly to our understanding of evolutionary processes, statistically sound studies of spatial ...

  9. Ancient Archways and Ancestral Halls in Shexian County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    SHEXIAN, located in the southern foothills of Huangshan Mountain in Anhui Province, is an ancient county which was once the seat of Huizhou Prefecture. The area is also known as the birthplace of Anhui merchants. With a long history, favorable geographic position and a unique culture created mainly by those rich Anhui merchants, Shexian has retained a large number of cultural relics, especially ancient archways,

  10. AESTHETIC / POETICAL ENCOUNTERS BETWEEN MUSIC AND BABIES IN NURSERY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Richter

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay approaches the intimacy between the aesthetic and poetic dimensions of language in the context of nursery school and proposes a phenomenological listening of encounters between adults and babies through the experience of music as a playful action of the expressive body in the world. Considering that without aesthetics life lacks flavor and without poetics it lacks sense, the article focuses on the merleaupontian understanding of the sensitive body as the primary source of significance to assert the inseparability between sensitive and intelligible in the action of learning to co-exist. The educational intention is to claim another rationality to stand up to the simplifying trend in encounters between adults and babies with the plurality of ways of interacting in language. Thus, thinking the aesthetic and poetic event - in the sense of poiesis and aisthesis terms - the link between sound and silence with life taken as its reflexive starting point - not what the baby does but how he experiences what he does in the musical encounters in nursery school. This study allows us to assert the vital and playful power of the expressive body feeling itself and the world in the plurality of ways of being in language that empowers everyday life through acting, producing, creating, doing.

  11. Coastal nurseries and their importance for conservation of sea kraits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Bonnet

    Full Text Available Destruction and pollution of coral reefs threaten these marine biodiversity hot stops which shelter more than two thirds of sea snake species. Notably, in many coral reef ecosystems of the Western Pacific Ocean, large populations of sea kraits (amphibious sea snakes have drastically declined during the past three decades. Protecting remaining healthy populations is thus essential. In New Caledonia, coral reefs shelter numerous sea krait colonies spread throughout an immense lagoon (24,000 km2. Sea kraits feed on coral fish but lay their eggs on land. However, ecological information on reproduction and juveniles is extremely fragmentary, precluding protection of key habitats for reproduction. Our 10 years mark recapture study on Yellow sea kraits (L. saintgironsi >8,700 individuals marked revealed that most neonates aggregate in highly localized coastal sites, where they feed and grow during several months before dispersal. Hundreds of females emigrate seasonally from remote populations (>50 km away to lay their eggs in these coastal nurseries, and then return home. Protecting these nurseries is a priority to maintain recruitment rate, and to retain sea krait populations in the future.

  12. Genetic Test of New Cottonwood Clones at Nursery Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QINGuanghua; JIANGYuezhong

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-five new clones belong to Populus Aigeiros of both domestic and foreign origin had been introduced and tested at nursery stage in Shandong province. Results showed that height (H),diameter at stem base (DO) and survival rate (SR) varied significantly and genetic variation were very large among the clones. CVg and broad-sense heritability (h2) of H, DO and SR of 1-year-old stock nursery were 7.43%, 9.25%, 18.78% and 78.91%, 96.31%, 95.93%, respectively, showing high genetic control on the tested traits. 11 superior clones with characteristics of high growth rate and medium or high SR were primarily selected and genetic gains (△G) of H, DO and SR were 16.89%, 16.08% and 13.08%, respectively.Rooting habits test of some selected clones were also conducted based on the cutting culture in water container and annual growth increment measured. The date of first root emergence, number of main roots, number of lateral roots, length of main roots and the emergence date of growth peak varied to certain degree among the selected clones.

  13. 75 FR 75169 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Update of Nursery Stock...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    ... Approval of an Information Collection; Update of Nursery Stock Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... collection associated with regulations for the importation of nursery stock into the United States. DATES: We... regulations for the importation of nursery stock into the United States, contact Mr. Alex Belano, Branch...

  14. Nursery use patterns of commercially important marine fish species in estuarine systems along the Portuguese coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, R. P.; Reis-Santos, P.; Maia, A.; Fonseca, V.; França, S.; Wouters, N.; Costa, M. J.; Cabral, H. N.

    2010-03-01

    Analysing the estuarine use patterns of juveniles of marine migrant fish species is vital for identifying important sites for juveniles as well as the basic environmental features that characterize these sites for different species. This is a key aspect towards understanding nursery function. Various estuarine systems along the Portuguese coast (Minho, Douro, Ria de Aveiro, Mondego, Tejo, Sado, Mira, Ria Formosa and Guadiana) were sampled during Spring and Summer 2005 and 2006. Juveniles of commercially important marine fish species Solea solea, Solea senegalensis, Platichthys flesus, Diplodus vulgaris and Dicentrarchus labrax, predominantly 0-group individuals, were amongst the most abundant species and had distinct patterns of estuarine use as well as conspicuous associations with several environmental features. Juvenile occurrence and density varied amongst estuaries and sites within them, and differed with species. Sites with consistently high juvenile densities were identified as important juvenile sites (i.e. putative nursery grounds). Through generalized linear models (GLM), intra-estuarine variation in occurrence and density of each of the individual species was largely explained by environmental variables (temperature; salinity; depth; percentage of mud in the sediment; presence of seagrass; importance of intertidal areas; relative distance to estuary mouth; macrozoobenthos densities; and latitude). Decisive environmental factors defining important sites for juveniles varied depending on the system as a result of different environmental gradients, though there were common dominant features for each species regardless of the estuary considered. Analysed environmental variables in the GLM also accounted for inter-estuarine variation in species' occurrence and density. In several estuaries, the identified important juvenile sites were used by many of these species simultaneously and may be of increased value to both management and conservation. Overall, the

  15. The Sediment and Hydrographic Characteristics of Three Horseshoe Crab Nursery Beaches in Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helen M.C. Chiu; Brian Morton

    2003-01-01

    Horseshoe crab juveniles have been recorded from sand and sandy-mud nursery beaches at Pak Nai (western New Territories ), San Tau and Shui Hau (Lantau Island), Hong Kong. In order to provide a better understanding of these beaches and to identify those plausible factors which have made them preferred by spawning horseshoe crabs, environmental parameters, including temperature, salinity, pH and dissolved oxygen content of the water, and particle size distribution and organic matter content of the sediments at the three sites, were determined and compared. The hydrographic and sediment data obtained for the three study sites have revealed some common environmental features. The three nursery beaches are relatively remote, and far (in Hong Kong terms) from urbanized and densely populated areas. The beaches are generally well sheltered from strong wave action and inundated regularly by estuarine waters. Horseshoe crab adults tend to select these beaches for spawning as their protected features ensures the laid eggs are less likely to be washed out of the sand, and hatched juveniles can feed on the meiofauna and grow. Sediments of the three beaches largely comprise medium-sized sand particles and are moderately sorted, suggesting medium porosity and good water permeability. Such a sand type, with the generally high oxygen levels in incursing waters, may help create a well-oxygenated micro-environment for the normal development of horseshoe crab eggs, larvae and juveniles. Lantau Island beaches at San Tau and Shui Hau are relatively free from organic pollution, as reflected in generally high dissolved oxygen level, and low BOD5 and ammonia nitrogen values. Pak Nai is, however, more polluted.

  16. Exploring Ancient Skies A Survey of Ancient and Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H

    2011-01-01

    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers—events such as the supernova of 1054 A.D., the "lion horoscope," and the Star of Bethlehem. Explori...

  17. Authenticity in ancient DNA studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske

    2006-01-01

    Ancient DNA studies represent a powerful tool that can be used to obtain genetic insights into the past. However, despite the publication of large numbers of apparently successful ancient DNA studies, a number of problems exist with the field that are often ignored. Therefore, questions exist as ...

  18. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliya Gounder Palanichamy

    Full Text Available Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade.

  19. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade. PMID:25299580

  20. Rangifer and man: An ancient relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Gordon

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A long-term relationship between Rangifer and humans is documented in three case studies: the Canadian Barrenlands (8000 years ago to Historic period, Ice-Age France (11 000-19 000 years ago and Mesolithic Russia (7000¬10 000 years ago. Ancient human and herd migration occurred in all areas, based upon Rangifer remains and seasonal variations in tools along reconstructed migration routes, with few if any hunting camps outside the routes. An April peak of ancient human births is inferred from the historic record where we see births occurring nine months after peak nutritional states in herds and people. The origin of reindeer domestication and breeding in Eurasia is discussed.

  1. Retroperitoneal Ancient Schwannoma: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalişkan, Selahattin; Gümrükçü, Gülistan; Kaya, Cevdet

    2015-01-01

    Schwannomas are extremely rare tumors that are composed of Schwann cells. Retroperitoneal localization comprises 0.7% to 2.6% of all schwannomas. Patients usually present with nonspecific symptoms. There are no pathognomonic features on radiologic evaluation. Preoperative biopsy is not recommended because of complication risks; however, surgery is necessary for diagnosis and treatment. Although most schwannomas are benign tumors, those that are associated with von Recklinghausen disease are malignant. Schwannomas exhibit regions of high and low cellularity, termed Antoni A and Antoni B areas, with a diffuse positivity of S100 protein on pathologic evaluation. If there are degenerative changes, such as cyst formation, hemorrhage, calcification, and hyalinization, these tumors are termed ancient schwannomas. We present a case of retroperitoneal ancient schwannoma.

  2. Ancient Chinese Sundials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kehui

    Timekeeping was essential in the agricultural society of ancient China. The use of sundials for timekeeping was associated with the use of the gnomon, which had its origin in remote antiquity. This chapter studies three sundials (guiyi 晷仪) from the Qin and Han dynasties, the shorter shadow plane sundial (duanying ping yi 短影平仪) invented by Yuan Chong in the Sui Dynasty, and the sundial chart (guiyingtu 晷影图) invented by Zeng Minxing in the Southern Song dynasty. This chapter also introduces Guo Shoujing's hemispherical sundial (yang yi 仰仪). A circular stone sundial discovered at the Small Wild Goose Pagoda in Xi'an is also mentioned. It is dated from the Sui and Tang dynasties. A brief survey of sundials from the Qing dynasty shows various types of sundials.

  3. Ancient Land Routes On The Paximadhi Peninsula, Karystos, Euboea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, D.; Hom, E.

    Recent regional surface surveys have placed more focus on rural investigations, but the means of transport and communication within those rural surroundings has not always received adequate attention. The Southern Euboea Exploration Project has undertaken a new phase of research in the Karystos area with the goal of developing a methodology that allows for a more detailed record of the pre-modern land routes. On the Paximadhi peninsula it was possible to identify numerous fragments of suspected ancient routes dating to the Classical and Hellenistic periods. In the majority of cases these fragments were closely associated with adjacent datable ancient sites. By taking into consideration the evidence recorded during the survey it was sometimes possible to propose the extension of these ancient segments and to theorize the directions, lengths, and purposes of ancient networks.

  4. Growth study of branching coral Acropora formosa between natural reef habitats and in situ coral nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Loke Hai; Hyde, Julian; Cob, Zaidi Che; Adzis, Kee Alfian Abdul

    2013-11-01

    Being a common reef building coral in Malaysian waters, growth of Acropora Formosa in natural reef habitat and coral nursery condition had been studied in aspects of extension growth, survival and proto-branch generation. The study sites took place at two separate islands with different environment conditions. In this study, A. formosa samples of natural reefs at Pangkor Island turbid waters recorded better growth in average extension rate (0.71 ±0.48 cm/month) and higher proto-branch generation rate (up to 52% after 6 months) than Tioman Island samples (0.38 ±0.34 cm/month, highest 17% after 6 months). However, Tioman Island natural reef samples maintained 100% survival throughout the study period. Then, branch fragments or nubbins of A. formosa were transplanted into two coral nursery sites at Tioman Island. Among these two coral nurseries, the Tekek site had better growth in all three aspects than Air Batang site. This was believed due to Tekek nursery had been setup with nubbins for more than 6 months before Air Batang nursery, thus the Tekek samples were conditioned long enough for growing in the coral nursery environment. The results of this study documented the growth of this particular coral species in two islands of Peninsular Malaysia, and demonstrated the potential application of A. Formosa for coral transplant, in situ nursery and active reef restoration.

  5. The range of juvenile movements of estuarine and coastal nursery dependent flatfishes: estimation from a meta-analytical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pape, Olivier; Cognez, Noriane

    2016-01-01

    The juvenile pleuronectiforms need specific feeding and sheltering conditions in order to succeed in the critical period following their metamorphosis. This dependence to restricted nurseries grounds is the reason why movements are limited along this stage of flatfish development relative to the larval planktonic stage. However, a controversy remains about the home range of young-of-the-year coastal and estuarine-dependent flatfishes: both a limited home range and the capacity of considerable movements are alternatively reported. In the present meta-analysis based on a review of existing literature on pleuronectiforms, we gathered information about young-of-the-year flatfish movements, in order to better understand the scale of their dependence to local habitat (i.e., whether and at which scale they move between different habitats of a nursery area). For this meta-analysis, two different methods were retained to estimate the range of movements: the daily maximal distance of displacement and the minimal distance of segregation between distinct pools of flatfishes (contrasted patterns in natural tracers, growth, and fitness). We analysed patterns in daily movements and distances of segregation with respect to habitat features and to fish life history, accounting for discrepancies linked to methods of estimation. The scale of movements depends on both semi-passive tidal transport, linked to tidal amplitude, and the ability of individuals to move, which is related to body length of the group-0 flatfishes, but remains limited (few 100 s meters without tidal cyclic migration). These moderate movements lead to segregation among patches of juvenile fish at small scales in upstream-downstream estuarine gradients (5 km), and of moderate scales along the coastline (10 km). This meta-analytical approach allowed for the resolution of strong dependence of young of the year flatfishes upon local nursery habitats.

  6. Fish utilisation of wetland nurseries with complex hydrological connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ben; Johnston, Ross; Baker, Ronald; Sheaves, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The physical and faunal characteristics of coastal wetlands are driven by dynamics of hydrological connectivity to adjacent habitats. Wetlands on estuary floodplains are particularly dynamic, driven by a complex interplay of tidal marine connections and seasonal freshwater flooding, often with unknown consequences for fish using these habitats. To understand the patterns and subsequent processes driving fish assemblage structure in such wetlands, we examined the nature and diversity of temporal utilisation patterns at a species or genus level over three annual cycles in a tropical Australian estuarine wetland system. Four general patterns of utilisation were apparent based on CPUE and size-structure dynamics: (i) classic nursery utlisation (use by recently settled recruits for their first year) (ii) interrupted peristence (iii) delayed recruitment (iv) facultative wetland residence. Despite the small self-recruiting 'facultative wetland resident' group, wetland occupancy seems largely driven by connectivity to the subtidal estuary channel. Variable connection regimes (i.e. frequency and timing of connections) within and between different wetland units (e.g. individual pools, lagoons, swamps) will therefore interact with the diversity of species recruitment schedules to generate variable wetland assemblages in time and space. In addition, the assemblage structure is heavily modified by freshwater flow, through simultaneously curtailing persistence of the 'interrupted persistence' group, establishing connectivity for freshwater spawned members of both the 'facultative wetland resident' and 'delayed recruitment group', and apparently mediating use of intermediate nursery habitats for marine-spawned members of the 'delayed recruitment' group. The diversity of utilisation pattern and the complexity of associated drivers means assemblage compositions, and therefore ecosystem functioning, is likely to vary among years depending on variations in hydrological connectivity

  7. Fish utilisation of wetland nurseries with complex hydrological connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Davis

    Full Text Available The physical and faunal characteristics of coastal wetlands are driven by dynamics of hydrological connectivity to adjacent habitats. Wetlands on estuary floodplains are particularly dynamic, driven by a complex interplay of tidal marine connections and seasonal freshwater flooding, often with unknown consequences for fish using these habitats. To understand the patterns and subsequent processes driving fish assemblage structure in such wetlands, we examined the nature and diversity of temporal utilisation patterns at a species or genus level over three annual cycles in a tropical Australian estuarine wetland system. Four general patterns of utilisation were apparent based on CPUE and size-structure dynamics: (i classic nursery utlisation (use by recently settled recruits for their first year (ii interrupted peristence (iii delayed recruitment (iv facultative wetland residence. Despite the small self-recruiting 'facultative wetland resident' group, wetland occupancy seems largely driven by connectivity to the subtidal estuary channel. Variable connection regimes (i.e. frequency and timing of connections within and between different wetland units (e.g. individual pools, lagoons, swamps will therefore interact with the diversity of species recruitment schedules to generate variable wetland assemblages in time and space. In addition, the assemblage structure is heavily modified by freshwater flow, through simultaneously curtailing persistence of the 'interrupted persistence' group, establishing connectivity for freshwater spawned members of both the 'facultative wetland resident' and 'delayed recruitment group', and apparently mediating use of intermediate nursery habitats for marine-spawned members of the 'delayed recruitment' group. The diversity of utilisation pattern and the complexity of associated drivers means assemblage compositions, and therefore ecosystem functioning, is likely to vary among years depending on variations in hydrological

  8. Diversity and persistence of ectomycorrhizal fungi and their effect on nursery-inoculated Pinus pinaster in a post-fire plantation in Northern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Albina R; Sousa, Nadine R; Ramos, Miguel A; Oliveira, Rui S; Castro, Paula M L

    2014-11-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF) play an important role in forest ecosystems, often mitigating stress factors and increasing seedling performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a nursery inoculation on Pinus pinaster growth and on the fungal communities established when reforesting burned areas. Inoculated P. pinaster saplings showed 1.5-fold higher stem height than the non-inoculated controls after a 5 year growth period, suggesting that fungal inoculation could potentiate tree growth in the field. Ordination analysis revealed the presence of different ECMF communities on both plots. Among the nursery-inoculated fungi, Laccaria sp., Rhizopogon sp., Suillus bovinus and Pisolithus sp. were detected on inoculated Pinus saplings on both sampling periods, indicating that they persisted after field establishment. Other fungi were also detected in the inoculated plants. Phialocephala sp. was found on the first assessment, while Terfezia sp. was detected on both sampling periods. Laccaria sp. and Rhizopogon sp. were identified in the control saplings, belonging however to different species than those found in the inoculated plot. Inocybe sp., Thelephora sp. and Paxillus involutus were present on both sampling periods in the non-inoculated plots. The results suggest that ECMF inoculation at nursery stage can benefit plant growth after transplantation to a post-fire site and that the inoculated fungi can persist in the field. This approach has great potential as a biotechnological tool to aid in the reforestation of burned areas. PMID:25004993

  9. Did the ancient Egyptians migrate to ancient Nigeria?

    OpenAIRE

    Jock M. Agai

    2014-01-01

    Literatures concerning the history of West African peoples published from 1900 to 1970 debate�the possible migrations of the Egyptians into West Africa. Writers like Samuel Johnson and�Lucas Olumide believe that the ancient Egyptians penetrated through ancient Nigeria but Leo�Frobenius and Geoffrey Parrinder frowned at this opinion. Using the works of these early�20th century writers of West African history together with a Yoruba legend which teaches�about the origin of their earliest ancesto...

  10. [Ancient Egyptian Odontology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghult, B

    1999-01-01

    In ancient Egypt during the reign of Pharaoh Djoser, circa 2650 BC, the Step Pyramid was constructed by Imhotep. He was later worshiped as the God of Medicine. One of his contemporaries was the powerful writer Hesy who is reproduced on a panel showing a rebus of a swallow, a tusk and an arrow. He is therefore looked upon as being the first depicted odontologist. The art of writing begun in Egypt in about 3100 BC and the medical texts we know from different papyri were copied with hieratic signs around 1900-1100 BC. One of the most famous is the Papyrus Ebers. It was purchased by professor Ebers on a research travel to Luxor in 1873. Two years later a beautiful facsimile in color was published and the best translation came in 1958 in German. The text includes 870 remedies and some of them are related to teeth and oral troubles like pain in the mouth, gingivitis, periodontitis and cavities in the teeth. The most common oral pain was probably pulpitis caused by extreme attrition due to the high consumption of bread contaminated with soil and/or quern minerals. Another text is the Papyrus Edwin Smith with four surgical cases of dental interest. The "toothworms" that were presumed to bring about decayed teeth have not been identified in the medical texts. It was not until 1889 W.D. Miller presented a scientific explanation that cavities were caused by bacteria. In spite of extensive research only a few evidence of prosthetic and invasive treatments have been found and these dental artifacts have probably been made post mortem. Some of the 150 identified doctors were associated with treatments of disorders of the mouth. The stele of Seneb from Sa'is during the 26th dynasty of Psamtik, 664-525 BC, shows a young man who probably was a dental healer well known to Pharaoh and his court. Clement of Alexandria mentions circa 200 AD that the written knowledge of the old Egyptians was gathered in 42 collections of papyri. Number 37-42 contained the medical writings. The

  11. Ancient Astronomical Monuments of Athens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.

    2010-07-01

    In this work, four ancient monuments of astronomical significance found in Athens and still kept in the same city in good condition are presented. The first one is the conical sundial on the southern slope of the Acropolis. The second one is the Tower of the Winds and its vertical sundials in the Roman Forum of Athens, a small octagonal marble tower with sundials on all 8 of its sides, plus a water-clock inside the tower. The third monument-instrument is the ancient clepsydra of Athens, one of the findings from the Ancient Agora of Athens, a unique water-clock dated from 400 B.C. Finally, the fourth one is the carved ancient Athenian calendar over the main entrance of the small Byzantine temple of the 8th Century, St. Eleftherios, located to the south of the temple of the Annunciation of Virgin Mary, the modern Cathedral of the city of Athens.

  12. Layout of Ancient Maya Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylesworth, Grant R.

    Although there is little doubt that the ancient Maya of Mesoamerica laid their cities out based, in part, on astronomical considerations, the proliferation of "cosmograms" in contemporary scholarly discourse has complicated matters for the acceptance of rigorous archaeoastronomical research.

  13. Irrigation water sources and irrigation application methods used by U.S. plant nursery producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Krishna P.; Pandit, Mahesh; Hinson, Roger

    2016-02-01

    We examine irrigation water sources and irrigation methods used by U.S. nursery plant producers using nested multinomial fractional regression models. We use data collected from the National Nursery Survey (2009) to identify effects of different firm and sales characteristics on the fraction of water sources and irrigation methods used. We find that regions, sales of plants types, farm income, and farm age have significant roles in what water source is used. Given the fraction of alternative water sources used, results indicated that use of computer, annual sales, region, and the number of IPM practices adopted play an important role in the choice of irrigation method. Based on the findings from this study, government can provide subsidies to nursery producers in water deficit regions to adopt drip irrigation method or use recycled water or combination of both. Additionally, encouraging farmers to adopt IPM may enhance the use of drip irrigation and recycled water in nursery plant production.

  14. Reconstructing ancient genomes and epigenomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-01-01

    DNA studies have now progressed to whole-genome sequencing for an increasing number of ancient individuals and extinct species, as well as to epigenomic characterization. Such advances have enabled the sequencing of specimens of up to 1 million years old, which, owing to their extensive DNA damage and...... contamination, were previously not amenable to genetic analyses. In this Review, we discuss these varied technical challenges and solutions for sequencing ancient genomes and epigenomes....

  15. Orthopedic surgery in ancient Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-01-01

    Background — Ancient Egypt might be considered the cradle of medicine. The modern literature is, however, sometimes rather too enthusiastic regarding the procedures that are attributed an Egyptian origin. I briefly present and analyze the claims regarding orthopedic surgery in Egypt, what was actually done by the Egyptians, and what may have been incorrectly ascribed to them. Methods — I reviewed the original sources and also the modern literature regarding surgery in ancient Egypt, concentra...

  16. Shifts in nursery habitat utilization by 0-group plaice in the western Dutch Wadden Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Vânia; Witte, Johannes I. J.; Tulp, Ingrid; van der Veer, Henk W.

    2016-05-01

    Since the mid-1980s major changes in spatiotemporal patterns of distribution of juvenile plaice have occurred in the Wadden Sea. Large juvenile (I- and II-group) plaice have almost completely disappeared from the intertidal flats in spring and summer and are no longer found in subtidal and tidal channels in autumn, consistent with an offshore movement reported in the nearshore coastal zone. In this paper we evaluate the present functional importance of the western Wadden Sea as a nursery for young-of-the-year (0-group) plaice and the changes over time compared to the mid-1980s period by analyzing abundance, growth and distribution patterns in various intertidal, subtidal and tidal channel areas. Spatiotemporal changes in habitat use were observed compared to 1986 based on a depth-stratified sampling repeated two decades later, in 2009. Present results showed that the utilization of the western Wadden Sea has greatly changed, with changing patterns of depth distribution of the 0-group. Settlement of 0-group plaice still occurred in the intertidal, however, shortly thereafter, they moved to deeper waters. Such shift in habitat use did not seem to have affected growth rates. Overall, it seems that the western Wadden Sea can still support young-of-the-year plaice population and in spite of changes in habitat use, the functional importance of the area for this group has not been affected.

  17. Diversity of Ancient Woody Species in Urban Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fornal-Pieniak Beata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mostly parks and forest are the most important ‘green islands’ in urban ecological network. Urban forests are belong to green areas and collected many plant species. The main aim of the article was characteristic of ancient plant species in urban forests in Tarnów. The field studies were carried out in years 2011-2012. It covered 80 phytosociological records on the area 500 m2 in herb layer of urban forests and in forest nature on oak-hornbeam. The results showed that many ancient plant species were growing in urban forest but less than in nature reserves

  18. Environmental metabolism of educational services : case study of nursery schools in the city of Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjuan Delmás, David; Petit, Anna; Martínez Blanco, Julia; Rieradevall, Joan

    2015-01-01

    The environmental analysis of public nursery schools is of great interest since they are crucial in the early education of children and are expected to show high environmental standards. This paper aims to analyse the environmental profile (energy, water and transport flows) of this sector. A sample of 12 public nursery schools belonging to the Scholar Agenda 21 (SA21) of the city of Barcelona were selected given their data quality (eight centres applied to all analysis) to determine their en...

  19. Use of Azolla as a growing medium component in the nursery production of olive trees

    OpenAIRE

    Petruccelli, Raffaella; Carlozzi, Pietro; Padovani, Giulia; Bartolini, Giorgio; Briccoli Bati, Caterina; Vignozzi, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Peat is used in olive-tree nurseries as a component in commercial growing media. Environmental and economic pressures are questioning the use of peat as a component of substrates. In order to remain competitive and to satisfy environmental concerns, it is necessary to identify and evaluate possible alternatives to peat. This study involves the use of Azolla filiculoides, as a growing media component in olive nurseries (Olea europaea L.) for containerized plants. Four treatments were establish...

  20. Urban composts as an alternative for peat in forestry nursery growing media

    OpenAIRE

    López Núñez, Rafael; Cabrera, Francisco; Madejón, Engracia; Sancho, Felipe; Álvarez, José María

    2008-01-01

    Including urban composts in nursery growing media could reduce peat use and promote new markets for these products. The objective of this work was to study the effects of compost incorporation in forestry nursery growing media. Growing media were prepared mixing composts (0-75% in volume) from biosolids, municipal solid waste and pruning waste with peat. As control treatment, a peat-based substrate was employed. Hydrophysical and chemical properties of growing media were determined. Moreover ...

  1. DETERMINATION OF THE EMPATY LEVELS OF THE RESPONSIBLE PERSONS IN GROUPS AT NURSERIES AND CHILDREN'S HOME

    OpenAIRE

    BİBER, Kazım; Sezer, Türker

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this research is to determinate the empathy levels of the responsible persons in groups at nurseries and children's homes which are subject to social services and children society for the protection of children (SHÇEK) and to investigate them according to the some variables. The research was performed as a descriptive study and "Empathy Scale" was used to collect data about the empathy levels of the responsible persons in groups at nurseries and chil...

  2. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of pedunculate and sessile oak seedlings from bare-root forest nurseries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leski, Tomasz; Pietras, Marcin; Rudawska, Maria

    2010-03-01

    In this study, we present the detailed molecular investigation of the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) community of Quercus petraea and Quercus robur seedlings grown in bare-root forest nurseries. In all tested oak samples, mycorrhizal colonization was nearly 100%. Morphological observation and molecular investigations (sequencing of fungal ITS rDNA) revealed a total of 23 mycorrhizal taxa. The most frequent and abundant fungal taxa were Hebeloma sacchariolens, Tuber sp., and Peziza sp.; from the detected fungal taxa, 20 were noted for Q. petraea and 23 for Q. robur. Depending on the nursery, the species richness of identified ECM fungal taxa for both oak species ranged from six to 11 taxa. The mean species richness for all nurseries was 5.36 and 5.82 taxa per Q. petraea and Q. robur sample, respectively. According to the analysis of similarity, ECM fungal communities were similar for Q. petraea and Q. robur (R = 0.019; p = 0.151). On the other hand, detected fungal communities were significantly different between nurseries (R = 0.927; p ectomycorrhizal diversity (in terms of richness, the Shannon diversity, evenness, and Simpson dominance indices) is significantly related to the soil parameters of each nursery. We conclude that individual nursery may be considered as separate ecological niches that strongly discriminate diversity of ECM fungi. PMID:19756776

  3. Comparative efficiency and yield in different systems and densities at the nursery culture phase of the oyster Crassostrea gigas in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Magalhães Ferreira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare different aquaculture systems and seed densities for the nursery phase ofCrassostrea gigas in Brazil. Small oyster seeds (2 mm in height reared in three nursery systems (same area/floor, a lantern net, a bouncing bucket or a floating box were compared with three initial stocking densities (50, 100 and 200 mL of seeds/system floor. As density increased, there was a significant decline in seed growth and yield, mainly in the lantern nets (P=0.0002. Better yields were observed in the box (P=0.005 and bucket systems (P=0.02 under densities of 50 and 100 mL. However, at the highest density, the nursery box system had the highest seed yield when compared to the lantern net and bucket systems (P=0.003. The results showed that the floating box was the most efficient system tested with a survival of 54% at a density of 100 mL. This was more than twice the survival for the same volumes used in the nursery lantern nets (24%, which was the most common culture method in Brazil prior to this experiment (2002. An additional advantage is the reduced cost of starting with 2.0 mm seeds that cost 50% less than the usual 4.0 to 8.0 mm seeds. These results showed the efficiency of the floating box system, which is currently used by over 90% of oyster producers in Brazil.

  4. Nursery inoculation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus viscosum and its effect on the growth and physiology of hybrid artichoke seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Campanelli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Most nurseries operating in Italy adopt high technologies and produce transplants that well suit and satisfy the grower’s need to produce high value crops. Mycorrhizas are discussed as a tool for improving and developing plant production in the nursery. Much research has been carried out on mycorrhizal symbiosis and we now know more about the symbiontic relationship between fungi and host plants. Plants receive numerous benefits from this symbiosis which are more macroscopic the earlier in the ontogenetic cycle this symbiosis is established. Therefore, it appears that the most effective period in which the inoculum should be made corresponds to the in-nursery growing stage. The earlier the plant is inoculated, the more evident the effect will be. In this study, several aspects related to the physiological foundations of arbuscular mycorrhiza in artichoke plants are presented. The main goal was to study the effects of mycorrhiza on the growth and physiological parameters of three hybrids of artichokes growing in the nursery. The experimental 3¥2 design included two treatments (with or without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and three hybrids of artichokes marketed by Nunhems (Opal F1, Madrigal F1, Concerto F1. Mycorrhizal plants have greater shoot length, leaf area, shoot and root fresh and dry mass, and root density. This also corresponded with increased photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance of mycorrhizal plants. Mycorrhizal colonization improves relative water content and increases proline concentration in vegetal tissue. Inoculation produced the most beneficial effect on hybrid Madrigal F1 and on hybrid Opal F1; the best mycorrhizal affinity was enhanced when compared to hybrid Concerto F1. The results showed that mycorrhizal symbiosis stimulated the growth of inoculated seedlings providing a qualitatively good propagation material.

  5. Role of mangroves as a nursery ground for juvenile reef fishes in the southern Egyptian Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Abu El-Regal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to study the importance of mangrove area as nursery grounds for the juvenile of reef fishes in the Red Sea. Juvenile fishes were collected during three seasons in 2010 from three mangrove swamps by a beach seine net. The net was dragged on the bottom for 100 m three times. A total of 269 juvenile fishes were collected, representing 21 species in 19 families. The most abundant species formed about 86% of all collected fishes. Nine species were collected for the first time from mangrove areas in the Egyptian Red Sea. Most of the collected fishes are economically important fishes. Moreover, eleven families were belonging to coral reef fishes. The highest species richness value was recorded in Hamata mangroves. This finding showed that how mangroves could support the life history of many coral reef fishes.

  6. Did the ancient Egyptians migrate to ancient Nigeria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock M. Agai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Literatures concerning the history of West African peoples published from 1900 to 1970 debate�the possible migrations of the Egyptians into West Africa. Writers like Samuel Johnson and�Lucas Olumide believe that the ancient Egyptians penetrated through ancient Nigeria but Leo�Frobenius and Geoffrey Parrinder frowned at this opinion. Using the works of these early�20th century writers of West African history together with a Yoruba legend which teaches�about the origin of their earliest ancestor(s, this researcher investigates the theories that the�ancient Egyptians had contact with the ancient Nigerians and particularly with the Yorubas.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: There is an existing ideology�amongst the Yorubas and other writers of Yoruba history that the original ancestors of�the Yorubas originated in ancient Egypt hence there was migration between Egypt and�Yorubaland. This researcher contends that even if there was migration between Egypt and�Nigeria, such migration did not take place during the predynastic and dynastic period as�speculated by some scholars. The subject is open for further research.

  7. Japan: The Modernization of an Ancient Culture. Series on Public Issues No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolken, Lawrence C.

    This booklet, one of a series of booklets intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues of the day, traces the modernization of the ancient culture of Japan. Four major areas are covered: (1) "An Ancient Culture" covers the period from the first settling of Japan through the Heian period, the medieval ages, the Meiji…

  8. Application of pre-emergence herbicides in poplar nursery production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Verica Vasic; Sasa Orlovic; Predrag Pap; Branislav Kovacevic; Milan Drekic; Leopold Poljakovic Pajnik; Zoran Galic

    2015-01-01

    In addition to pests and diseases, weeds are a major problem in poplar nursery production. The possibili-ties of herbicide application in juvenile poplar growth were researched, taking into account that weeds are one of the main limiting factors. The following pre-emergence herbi-cides were tested: acetochlor, S-metolachlor, metribuzin, oxifluorfen, and dimethenamid during two vegetation sea-sons at two locations, which differed by the soil physico-chemical characteristics. The study results show that the number of weeds on sample plots was significantly reduced by the tested herbicides when compared to control plots. The highest reduction in the number of weeds was achieved using the herbicides acetochlor and metribuzin. However, me-tribuzin showed a phytotoxic effect on sandy soil. Metribu-zin application is recommended only on the soils with higher contents of organic matter, where the phytotoxic effect was absent. Acetochlor, S-metolachlor, oxifluorfen, and dime-thenamid were not phytotoxic to poplars and can be used for weed suppression in the production of poplar plants.

  9. Let’s focus on our Nursery school!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    In the 241st issue of Echo, the Staff Association shared its concerns about the future of the CERN Nursery school. Indeed, the EVEE ‘Espace de vie Enfantine et École’ has faced significant financial difficulties in the last few years. According to an audit carried out in 2015, overall the management is sound, but the report shows that the potential gains are not sufficient to restore budgetary balance. Naturally, the EVEE is turning to CERN in order for the Organization to increase its commitment to ensure the sustainability of this structure which is crucial for the lives of many CERN families. To this end, a joint working group has been set up by Martin Steinacher, Director for Finance and Human Resources, who has given the mandate (see below) and established the composition of the group. This joint working group being technical in nature, it will also be necessary to hold political discussions between the Staff Association and the Management. An internal working group of t...

  10. Annual and spatial variation in the abundance length and condition of juvenile turbot ( Psetta maxima L.) on nursery grounds on the west coast of Ireland: 2000-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Paula S.; Brophy, Deirdre; McGrath, David; O'Callaghan, Roisin; Comerford, Stephen; Casburn, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Turbot ( Psetta maxima Linnaeus) is a high value commercially exploited marine flatfish which occurs in European waters, from the Northeast Atlantic to the Arctic Circle, the Baltic and Mediterranean Sea. In Ireland, turbot are the most valuable commercial non-quota species. Very little is known about their population dynamics in the wild, in particular during the sandy beach nursery phase of the life history. In 2000, a survey was established to assess flatfish species on nursery grounds on the west coast of Ireland. Eleven sandy beaches were assessed for 0+ turbot by beach seining, over an eight year period (2000-2007) during the months of August and September. The objective of the study was to estimate juvenile turbot abundance and size structure to determine if any spatial and annual trends existed. Large scale variability in the recruitment of fish to nursery grounds may be indicative of fluctuations in the adult stock. Turbot were found to recruit to five beaches consistently over the eight year period. Temporal and spatial variability in the relative abundance and length of turbot was discerned, with no apparent overall trend. However, certain nursery grounds were shown in most of the years examined to support higher abundances of turbot in comparison to other areas over the eight year period. Turbot abundances on nursery grounds were significantly correlated with mean spring sea temperatures during the pelagic stage. The condition of turbot did not significantly differ on an annual or spatial scale. Mean densities of 0+ turbot along the Irish coast were found to be similar and at times higher than other areas in Europe, ranging from 0.1 (± 0.3) individuals 1000 m - 2 to 18.5 (± 6.9) individuals 1000 m - 2 . Mean turbot total length on beaches ranged from 3.8 cm (± 0.6) to 6.6 cm (± 4.3). The observed spatial and temporal variability in abundance and length highlights the need for long-term studies when assessing juvenile flatfish populations. Results

  11. Ancient DNA in Greece. Problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The promise associated with early 'ancient DNA' results has not been translated into routine techniques of value to archaeologists. The reasons for this are partly technical - ancient DNA analysis is an extremely difficult technique - and partly practical - ancient DNA analysis is often an 'after thought' to an archaeological project. In this paper ancient human DNA analysis is briefly reviewed paying particular attention to specimens originating from Greek archaeological contexts. Problems commonly encountered during ancient DNA research are summarised and recommendations for future strategies in the application of ancient DNA in archaeology are proposed. (author)

  12. Production of Fig (Ficus carica L. Nursery Plants by Stem Layering Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faik Ekmel Tekintas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out in Turkey in 2006. The aim of the present research is to study the possibility of fig nursery plant production with stool bed layering method. Fig cultivar Sarilop was used as a material. It is the best fig cultivar for drying and it can also be consumed fresh. The mother plants were planted horizontally with distance of 70 x 60 cm in November after the fall of the leaves. In February, all the buds on the ground side of plants were blunted and plants were fixed parallel (layered to the ground surface with prongs made of a thick galvanized wire in the shape of U. Bottom parts of the new shoots which developed from the mother plants and reached 20 cm were covered by 10 cm of soil. Bottom parts of the newly formed shoots were continuously covered with the soil taken from between the rows appropriately to the development of the shoots during vegetation period. At the end of the vegetation period, eighty nursery plants of different sizes were obtained from twenty mother plants. Most of the nursery plants (77.5 % had sufficient qualitative and quantitative features for sale. The small sized plants, which may not be sold, can be used as nursery plant or mother plant (stock after one year of care period. It was determined in this research that it was possible to propagate nursery plant by stem layering. The production of fi g nursery plants by stem layering with low production costs is suggested to as an alternative method for the production of fig nursery plants.

  13. Acoustics of ancient Greek and Roman theaters in use today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Anders Christian; Angelakis, Konstantinos

    2006-01-01

    In the Mediteranan area a large number of open, ancient Greek and Roman theatres are still today facing a busy schedule of performances including both classical and contemporary works of dance, drama, concerts, and opera. During the EU funded ``Erato'' project and a subsequent master thesis project...

  14. The role of spatial information in the preservation of the shrimp nursery function of mangroves: a spatially explicit bio-economic model for the assessment of land use trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavalloni, Matteo; Groeneveld, Rolf A; van Zwieten, Paul A M

    2014-10-01

    Conversion to aquaculture affects the provision of important ecosystem services provided by mangrove ecosystems, and this effect depends strongly on the location of the conversion. We introduce in a bio-economic mathematical programming model relevant spatial elements that affect the provision of the nursery habitat service of mangroves: (1) direct or indirect connection of mangroves to watercourses; (2) the spatial allocation of aquaculture ponds; and (3) the presence of non-linear relations between mangrove extent and juvenile recruitment to wild shrimp populations. By tracing out the production possibilities frontier of wild and cultivated shrimp, the model assesses the role of spatial information in the trade-off between aquaculture and the nursery habitat function using spatial elements relevant to our model of a mangrove area in Ca Mau Province, Viet Nam. Results show that where mangrove forests have to coexist with shrimp aquaculture ponds, the inclusion of specific spatial information on ecosystem functions in considerations of land allocation can achieve aquaculture benefits while largely preserving the economic benefits generated by the nursery habitat function. However, if spatial criteria are ignored, ill-advised land allocation decisions can easily lead to a collapse of the mangrove's nursery function.

  15. Dynamics of an estuarine nursery ground: the spatio-temporal relationship between the river flow and the food web of the juvenile common sole ( Solea solea, L.) as revealed by stable isotopes analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostecki, C.; Le Loc'h, F.; Roussel, J.-M.; Desroy, N.; Huteau, D.; Riera, P.; Le Bris, H.; Le Pape, O.

    2010-07-01

    Estuaries are essential fish habitats because they provide nursery grounds for a number of marine species. Previous studies in the Bay of Vilaine (part of the Bay of Biscay, France) have underlined the estuarine dependence of juvenile common sole ( Solea solea, L.) and shown that the extent of sole nursery grounds was positively influenced by the variability of the river flow. In the present study, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes were used to describe the trophic network until the young-of-the-year sole and to compare interannual variations in the dominant trophic pathways in the sole nursery areas in this bay. Particulate organic matter (POM), sediment organic matter (SOM), microphytobenthos, benthic invertebrate sole prey and young-of-the-year common sole were collected during the summer over 4 years characterised by contrasting river discharges. POM isotopic signatures were used to identify the origins of nutrient and organic matter assimilated into the estuarine food web through benthic organisms to juvenile common sole. Interannual spatial variations were found in the POM carbon stable isotope signatures, with the importance of these variations depending on the interannual fluctuations of the river flow. Moreover, the spatio-temporal variability of this POM isotopic signature was propagated along the food webs up to juvenile sole, confirming the central role of river discharge and terrigeneous subsidy input in the estuarine benthic food web in determining the size of the sole nursery habitat.

  16. Preliminary Study of Ancient Town Protection and Rural Tourism Development of Caoshi Town in Hengdong County,Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The typical style and features of mountains and waters in Caoshi Ancient Town,have hitherto been well preserved. Caoshi Ancient Town boasts superior base of the natural eco-environment and deep-rooted background of regional culture,where mountains,waters,shoals,towns and other landscape elements are merged harmoniously,the transportation and geographical conditions have been fundamentally changed. Ancient towns,old temples,ancient forests,ancient wells and ancient piers are unique in different ways,with characteristics of tourism resources such as long history and ancient folklore. It should seize the historical opportunity of China vigorously developing rural tourism based on the construction of the new socialist countryside,to make characteristic agricultural economy gain ground; assume the leading role to drive the development of tourism economy in surrounding areas; correctly handle the relationship between development and protection to walk the path of sustainable development of tourism.

  17. Night blindness and ancient remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hajar Al Binali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A.

  18. Hedera helix L. and damages in Tlos Ancient City

    OpenAIRE

    Elinç, Z.K.; Korkut, T.; Kaya, L.G.

    2013-01-01

    There are various plant types in Tlos Ancient City of Fethiye district in the Province of Mugla, a city where different residential ruins of Lycia Civilization starting from Classical Age until Byzantine Period. Tlos is an important city in West-Lycia and is situated right on the control point of Lycia Way. Hedera helix L. is one of the plants living in this area, which attracts the attention as it mostly harms the ancient ruins. One of the most important reasons why Hedera helix L. is gr...

  19. Tuberculosis in ancient times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Cilliers

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of an array of effective antibiotics, tuberculosis is still very common in developing countries where overcrowding, malnutrition and poor hygienic conditions prevail. Over the past 30 years associated HIV infection has worsened the situation by increasing the infection rate and mortality of tuberculosis. Of those diseases caused by a single organism only HIV causes more deaths internationally than tuberculosis. The tubercle bacillus probably first infected man in Neolithic times, and then via infected cattle, but the causative Mycobacteriacea have been in existence for 300 million years. Droplet infection is the most common way of acquiring tuberculosis, although ingestion (e.g. of infected cows’ milk may occur. Tuberculosis probably originated in Africa. The earliest path gnomonic evidence of human tuberculosis in man was found in osteo-archaeological findings of bone tuberculosis (Pott’s disease of the spine in the skeleton of anEgyptian priest from the 21st Dynasty (approximately 1 000 BC. Suggestive but not conclusiveevidence of tuberculotic lesions had been found in even earlier skeletons from Egypt and Europe. Medical hieroglyphics from ancient Egypt are silent on the disease, which could be tuberculosis,as do early Indian and Chinese writings. The Old Testament refers to the disease schachapeth, translated as phthisis in the Greek Septuagint. Although the Bible is not specific about this condition, tuberculosis is still called schachapeth in modern Hebrew. In pre-Hippocratic Greece Homer did not mention phthisis, a word meaning non-specific wasting of the body. However. Alexander of Tralles (6th century BC seemed to narrow the concept down to a specific disease, and in the Hippocratic Corpus (5th-4th centuries BC phthisis can be recognised as tuberculosis. It was predominantly a respiratory disease commonly seen and considered to be caused by an imbalance of bodily humours. It was commonest in autumn, winter and spring

  20. HUBBLE PEEKS INTO A STELLAR NURSERY IN A NEARBY GALAXY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    HUBBLE PEEKS INTO A STELLAR NURSERY IN A NEARBY GALAXY NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has peered deep into a neighboring galaxy to reveal details of the formation of new stars. Hubble's target was a newborn star cluster within the Small Magellanic Cloud, a small galaxy that is a satellite of our own Milky Way. The new images show young, brilliant stars cradled within a nebula, or glowing cloud of gas, cataloged as N 81. These massive, recently formed stars inside N 81 are losing material at a high rate, sending out strong stellar winds and shock waves and hollowing out a cocoon within the surrounding nebula. The two most luminous stars, seen in the Hubble image as a very close pair near the center of N 81, emit copious ultraviolet radiation, causing the nebula to glow through fluorescence. Outside the hot, glowing gas is cooler material consisting of hydrogen molecules and dust. Normally this material is invisible, but some of it can be seen in silhouette against the nebular background, as long dust lanes and a small, dark, elliptical-shaped knot. It is believed that the young stars have formed from this cold matter through gravitational contraction. Few features can be seen in N 81 from ground-based telescopes, earning it the informal nick-name 'The Blob.' Astronomers were not sure if just one or a few hot stars were embedded in the cloud, or if it was a stellar nursery containing a large number of less massive stars. Hubble's high-resolution imaging shows the latter to be the case, revealing that numerous young, white-hot stars---easily visible in the color picture---are contained within N 81. This crucial information bears strongly on theories of star formation, and N 81 offers a singular opportunity for a close-up look at the turbulent conditions accompanying the birth of massive stars. The brightest stars in the cluster have a luminosity equal to 300,000 stars like our own Sun. Astronomers are especially keen to study star formation in the Small Magellanic

  1. Understanding Malaria: Fighting an Ancient Scourge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Malaria Fighting an Ancient Scourge U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Understanding Malaria Fighting an Ancient Scourge U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH ...

  2. Phylogenetic estimation of timescales using ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molak, Martyna; Lorenzen, Eline; Shapiro, Beth;

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, ancient DNA has increasingly been used for estimating molecular timescales, particularly in studies of substitution rates and demographic histories. Molecular clocks can be calibrated using temporal information from ancient DNA sequences. This information comes from the ages...

  3. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. Ry

    1997-01-01

    Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification......Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification...

  4. CASE REPORT: Giant Retroperitoneal Presacral Ancient Schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Jiffry, B.O1, 2; Othman,B.S2; Hatem, M1

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Ancient schwannoma, is a rare variant of schwannoma with characterization of degenerative changes and diffuse hypercellularity. Retroperitoneal presacral form is often found incidentally, because they present with vague symptoms or symptomless. Schwannoma occurring in this area occasionally presents with enormous dimensions, known as a giant schwannoma. The tumor removal is a surgical challenge due to the difficult approach and abundant vascularity. In this report we describe a 61 –year old female presented to ER with vaginal bleeding and lower abdominal pain. The case diagnosed on clinical, CT and MRI findings to be a fibroma of the left ovary. Exploration by the gynecology team revealed a huge retroperitoneal presacral tumor compressing the left external iliac vessels and displacing the left ureter; they took a biopsy and closed the abdomen. Histopathological result was benign schwannoma. The patient were referred to our hospital (Al Hada Armed Forces Hospital, Taif, Saudi Arabia to be managed from postoperative DVT when her family asked our department of surgery for further management and signed a high risk consent. We explored the case after insertion of IVC filter and ureteric catheter. A 20x20 cm mass was thoroughly dissected and resected with part of sacrum. The final histopathological result was benign nerve sheath tumor with features consistent with degenerated (ancient schwannoma and the tumor was completely resected. The patient was discharged from the hospital without complications and follow up for three years revealed no recurrence. The clinical, radiological, and pathological features of this disease are discussed in this report. To conclude, retroperitoneal giant ancient schwannomas are a rare variant of the benign schwannoma and often present as unrecognized slow growing masses. Keep in mind potentially severe bleeding and neurological deficit risk of surgical intervention without away from oncologic principle

  5. Emphasizing Local Features for Effective Environmental Education: Environmental Attitudes of Elementary School Students Living in Ancient Halicarnassus (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Meltem; Teksoz, Gaye Tuncer; Ertepinar, Hamide

    2011-01-01

    Ancient Halicarnassus, the site of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, has become famous since the 1980s as one of the major tourism centers of Turkey. Although the contribution of Ancient Halicarnassus to Turkey's economy increases as the number of tourists visiting the area increases, the area's historical, cultural and environmental values have…

  6. Wisdom of an Ancient City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE JIANXIONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ The famous painting,Along the River During Qingming Festival,impresses visitors at the China Pavilion not iust because of the animated figures in the electronic version of the painting but because it shows a prosperous view of Kaifeng,capital of the Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127).It also showcases the wisdom of city planning in ancient China.

  7. The ancient art of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Allan

    2013-12-01

    Revision of Freud's theory requires a new way of seeking dream meaning. With the idea of elaborative encoding, Sue Llewellyn has provided a method of dream interpretation that takes into account both modern sleep science and the ancient art of memory. Her synthesis is elegant and compelling. But is her hypothesis testable? PMID:24304762

  8. Ancient medicine--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Lipozencić, Jasna; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Schachter, Neil; Mucić-Pucić, Branka; Neralić-Meniga, Inja

    2008-01-01

    Different aspects of medicine and/or healing in several societies are presented. In the ancient times as well as today medicine has been closely related to magic, science and religion. Various ancient societies and cultures had developed different views of medicine. It was believed that a human being has two bodies: a visible body that belongs to the earth and an invisible body of heaven. In the earliest prehistoric days, a different kind of medicine was practiced in countries such as Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mesopotamia, India, Tibet, China, and others. In those countries, "medicine people" practiced medicine from the magic to modern physical practices. Medicine was magical and mythological, and diseases were attributed mostly to the supernatural forces. The foundation of modern medicine can be traced back to ancient Greeks. Tibetan culture, for instance, even today, combines spiritual and practical medicine. Chinese medicine developed as a concept of yin and yang, acupuncture and acupressure, and it has even been used in the modern medicine. During medieval Europe, major universities and medical schools were established. In the ancient time, before hospitals had developed, patients were treated mostly in temples. PMID:18812066

  9. The Echoes of Ancient Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watzman, Haim

    2006-01-01

    Several artifacts found at the Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, or Daughters of Jacob Bridge, archaeological site in Israel provide a picture of ancient human ancestors that is different from the once accepted by most scholars. The discoveries by Israeli archaeologist Naama Goren-Inbar suggest that humans developed language and other key abilities far…

  10. Adult Reading of Ancient Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casler, Frederick H.

    Traditionally, students of ancient languages have been taught to translate rather than read. The four most popular current approaches to language instruction--the grammar-translation method, the direct-reading or inductive approach, the audiolingual method, and the structural approach--all have inherent deficiencies that are magnified when applied…

  11. Sources of organic matter for flatfish juveniles in coastal and estuarine nursery grounds: A meta-analysis for the common sole (Solea solea) in contrasted systems of Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pape, O.; Modéran, J.; Beaunée, G.; Riera, P.; Nicolas, D.; Savoye, N.; Harmelin-Vivien, M.; Darnaude, A. M.; Brind'Amour, A.; Le Bris, H.; Cabral, H.; Vinagre, C.; Pasquaud, S.; França, S.; Kostecki, C.

    2013-01-01

    Coastal and estuarine nursery grounds are essential habitats for sustaining flatfish stocks since only these shallow and productive areas provide the high food supply that allows maximizing juvenile growth and survival in most flatfish species. However, the main organic matter sources at the basis of benthic food webs might differ drastically between estuarine nursery grounds under strong freshwater influences, where food webs are mainly supported by continental organic matter, and coastal ecosystems under limited freshwater influence, where the local marine primary production is the main source of carbon for the benthos. To better understand the links between continental inputs to the coastal zone and stock maintenance in the highly prized common sole, Solea solea (L.), we investigated the variability in the organic matter sources supporting the growth of its young-of-the-year (YoY) in five contrasted estuarine and coastal nursery grounds under varying freshwater influence. Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen allowed tracing the origin of the organic matter exploited by YoY soles in the very first months following their benthic settlement, i.e. when most of the juvenile mortality occurs in the species. A mixing model was run to unravel and quantify the contribution of all major potential sources of organic matter to sole food webs, with a sensitivity analysis allowing assessment of the impact of various trophic enrichment factors on model outputs. This meta-analysis demonstrated a relative robustness of the estimation of the respective contributions of the various organic matter sources. At the nursery scale, the upstream increase in freshwater organic matter exploitation by YoY soles and its positive correlation with inter-annual variations in the river flow confirmed previous conclusions about the importance of organic matter from continental origin for juvenile production. However, inter-site differences in the organic matter sources exploited for growth

  12. Nursery Cultural Practices and Morphological Attributes of Longleaf Pine Bare-Root Stock as Indicators of Early Field Performance; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large study of morphological attributes of longleaf pine nursery stock at the Savannah River site of the various attributes measured, only number of lateral roots and seedling diameters were related to performance. Lateral root pruning in the nursery also improved performance. Both survival and growth during the first two years were strongly correlated with larger stem diameter and larger root system development

  13. Effects of Bifenox, DCPA, and Napropamide on Ectomycorrhizal Development of Conifer Seedlings in Central and Northern Rocky Mountain Nurseries

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service

    1985-01-01

    Postseeding and postgermination treatments with three weed control herbicides (Bifenox, DCPA, Napropamide) at two rates of application caused little reduction of ectomycorrhizal development on 1- and 2-year-old conifer seedlings in Central or Northern Rocky Mountain nurseries. In many cases, herbicide treatment increased ectomycorrhizal development, particularly with DCPA. In general, herbicide treatment effects on ectomycorrhizal development were species and nursery specific.

  14. Climate mediates hypoxic stress on fish diversity and nursery function at the land-sea interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Brent B; Levey, Matthew D; Fountain, Monique C; Carlisle, Aaron B; Chavez, Francisco P; Gleason, Mary G

    2015-06-30

    Coastal ecosystems provide numerous important ecological services, including maintenance of biodiversity and nursery grounds for many fish species of ecological and economic importance. However, human population growth has led to increased pollution, ocean warming, hypoxia, and habitat alteration that threaten ecosystem services. In this study, we used long-term datasets of fish abundance, water quality, and climatic factors to assess the threat of hypoxia and the regulating effects of climate on fish diversity and nursery conditions in Elkhorn Slough, a highly eutrophic estuary in central California (United States), which also serves as a biodiversity hot spot and critical nursery grounds for offshore fisheries in a broader region. We found that hypoxic conditions had strong negative effects on extent of suitable fish habitat, fish species richness, and abundance of the two most common flatfish species, English sole (Parophrys vetulus) and speckled sanddab (Citharichthys stigmaeus). The estuary serves as an important nursery ground for English sole, making this species vulnerable to anthropogenic threats. We determined that estuarine hypoxia was associated with significant declines in English sole nursery habitat, with cascading effects on recruitment to the offshore adult population and fishery, indicating that human land use activities can indirectly affect offshore fisheries. Estuarine hypoxic conditions varied spatially and temporally and were alleviated by strengthening of El Niño conditions through indirect pathways, a consistent result in most estuaries across the northeast Pacific. These results demonstrate that changes to coastal land use and climate can fundamentally alter the diversity and functioning of coastal nurseries and their adjacent ocean ecosystems.

  15. Mycorrhizal synthesis between Pisolithus arhizus and adult clones of Arbutus unedo in vitro and in nursery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Filomena Gomes; Helena Machado; Esteban San Martin; A. Portugal; Jorge M. Canhoto

    2013-01-01

    Arbutoid mycorrhizae were synthesized between adult se-lected clones of Arbutus unedo L. and Pisolithus arhizus. Two micro-propagated clones were tested:AL1, in vitro and C1 (acclimatized plants) in nursery and later in a field trial. In vitro, rooted shoots were trans-ferred to test tubes containing the substrate previously inoculated with mycelium cultured on agar. In the nursery, two inoculation treatments were tested (vegetative inocula or dry sporocarps) and compared to con-trol plants. In the field trial, plants from nursery inoculation treatments were compared and an additional control treatment using seedlings was implemented. Plant height was evaluated 4 months later in the nursery and 20 months later in the field trial. Roots were examined by morpho-logical and histological studies: a) in vitro plantlets one month after inoculation and nine months after acclimatization;and b) 20 months after the field trial was established. Arbutoid mycorrhizae were observed in vitro one month after inoculation, indicating compatibility between A. unedo and P. arhizus. These showed the presence of a mantle, Hartig net, and intracellular hyphal complexes confined to the epidermal root cells. Arbutoid mycorrhizae were also observed nine months after acclimatiza-tion in inoculated and control plants. In order to confirm the identity of mycorrhizae, molecular techniques were used, in previously inoculated in vitro plants, 12 months after acclimatization. Thelephora and Hebeloma mycorrhizae, two types of highly competitive and widespread my-corrhizae on nurseries were identified. In the nursery, dry sporocarp treatment improved plant height after four months. In a field trial (20 months later), plants growth did not show significant differences. By this time, mycorrhized roots with Cenococcum geophilum and other types were identified. These results and their implications on A. unedo breed-ing program are discussed.

  16. Acoustical measurements in ancient Roman theatres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnetani, Andrea; Fausti, Patrizio; Pompoli, Roberto; Prodi, Nicola

    2001-05-01

    The Greek and Roman theatres are among the most precious and spectacular items of cultural heritage in the Mediterranean countries. The theatres are famous not only for their impressive architecture, but also for the acoustic qualities. For this reason it is important to consider these theatres as an acoustical heritage and to study their sound field. Within the activities of the ERATO (identification Evaluation and Revival of the Acoustical heritage of ancient Theatres and Odea) project, acoustical measurements were taken in well-preserved ancient Roman theatres at Aspendos (Turkey) and Jerash (Jordan). Roman theatres have an impressive stage building that forms a back wall in the orchestra area, and it was found that, from the analysis of the acoustical parameters, the reverberation time (e.g., 1.7 s at middle frequencies in the theatre of Aspendos) is quite long compared not only with other open-space theatres but also with closed spaces. Contrary to modern halls the clarity is high and this fact, together with a low sound level in most of the seats, gives the sound field a unique character.

  17. Antikythera Mechanism and the Ancient World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Safronov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this historical review, the opinions of Ancient Greece philosophers, astronomers, and poets such as Thales Milesian, Pythagoras, Plato, Eudoxus, Aristotle, Archimedes, Cicero, Diogenes Laertius, Iamblichus, Plutarch, Homer, and Aratus about the planet position calculations and about the possibility of predictions of natural phenomena are analyzed. The planet positions were predicted before Eudoxus (probably before Philolaus by a spindle of Ananke and after Eudoxus by Antikythera mechanism. Following Pythagoras and Plato, it is established that the regular seismoacoustic observations were performed. In the Ancient World in the Mediterranean area, there was an extensive network of acoustic stations (~10 pcs, which were located in close proximity to the geologic faults. Also, it is shown that the ship that was carrying Antikythera mechanism (A-Ship was built in 244 BC in Syracuse with direct participation of Archimedes and Archias from Corinthian. Later, the A-Ship was a part of the Roman Republic safety system. The grain volumes, which were delivered to Rome city by large grain vessels, and the population of Rome city in the period 74–71 BC were estimated. Planetary calculator might be used for the chronology of the historical events as a backward prediction in addition to present Radiocarbon dating and Dendrochronology methods.

  18. Ventilation in day care centers and sick leave among nursery children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Barbara; Andersen, Z. Jovanovic; Ibfelt, T.;

    2015-01-01

    ventilation in DCCs and sick leave among nursery children. Data on child sick leave within an 11 week period was obtained for 635 children attending 20 DCCs. Ventilation measurements included three proxies of ventilation: air exchange rate (ACR) measured with the decay method, ACR measured...... inverse relationship between the number of sick days and ACR measured with the decay method was found for crude and adjusted analysis, with a 12% decrease in number of sick days per 1 h(-1) increase in ACR measured with the decay method. This study suggests a relationship between sick leave among nursery...

  19. PERFORMATION OF NURSERY STAGE OF Paulownia Sieb.&Zucc. SPECIES AND ORIGINS

    OpenAIRE

    AYAN, Sezgin; GERÇEK, Vildane; ŞAHİN, Ayşegül

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this is to compare of growth performance of some Paulownia Sieb.&Zucc. species and their origins with each other at nursery stage in Trabzon-Of Nursery. Four Paulownia species and sixteen origins of those species have been studied. The seeds of species and the origins have been obtained from China. The hight growth of the seedlings related to the species and origins has been measured at every fifteen days interval after taking the seedlings out of the greenhouse. In addition,...

  20. 幼儿园玩具基本配置研究%On the Basic Configuration of Nursery Toys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高涵

    2015-01-01

    幼儿玩具兼具着培养儿童兴趣及丰富其娱乐项目的双重功用,在幼儿成长阶段起到了至关重要的促进作用。尤其是经济条件普遍改善的今天,幼儿玩具种类不断丰富,其功能逐步完善,有力地推动了幼儿教学工作开展。然而,我国大部分地区幼儿园玩具基本配置情况不是很理想,幼儿玩具重视程度较低,削弱了幼儿玩具应有的功用。因此,针对幼儿园玩具基本配置进行研究,具有重要的时效性及现实意义。%Infant Toys for children of both the culture and the richness of its interest in the dual function of entertainment, the growth stage in early childhood played a crucial role in promoting. General improvement in economic conditions, espe-cially today, infant toys types are continuously enriched, its function gradually improved, a strong impetus to the work carried out early childhood education. However, most of the area nursery toys basic configuration is not ideal, low infant toys em-phasis weakened Infant Toys should function. Therefore, the basic configuration for the nursery toys research has important practical significance and timeliness.

  1. Hedera helix L. and damages in Tlos Ancient City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinç, Z.K.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available There are various plant types in Tlos Ancient City of Fethiye district in the Province of Mugla, a city where different residential ruins of Lycia Civilization starting from Classical Age until Byzantine Period. Tlos is an important city in West-Lycia and is situated right on the control point of Lycia Way. Hedera helix L. is one of the plants living in this area, which attracts the attention as it mostly harms the ancient ruins. One of the most important reasons why Hedera helix L. is growing commonly in this region is the perfect ecological circumstances for the growth of this plant of the location where this ancient city is situated in. Additionally the fact that the ruins of the city are left on their fate, is another perfect circumstance for the Hedera helix L. to grow. Climbing or creeping stems of Hedera helix L. stick easily to the objects it touches and encircle them. Due to this characteristic, the walls of the ancient city are covered by this plant. Nevertheless, Hedera helix L. does not only harm the ancient constructions and natural rocks but also woody plants. The harm caused by dried out or cut Hedera helix L. are more than the harm caused by them when they were untouched. The subject of this study is to prove the shape and level of the harm caused by Hedera helix L. on ancient ruins of Tlos. At the same time, this study will underline the fighting methods against Hedera helix L. by comparing similar studies in other countries. Knowledge collected after this study will offer an insight into the excavation and restoration studies undertaken in all Mediterranean countries.

  2. Models of ancient sound vases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruel, Per V.

    2002-11-01

    Models were made of vases described by Vitruvius in Rome in about the year 70 A.D. and of sound vases (lydpotter) placed in Danish churches from 1100-1300 A.D. Measurements of vase's resonant frequencies and damping (reradiation) verified that the model vases obeyed expected physical rules. It was concluded that the excellent acoustical quality of many ancient Greek and Roman theaters cannot be ascribed to the vases placed under their seats. This study also found that sound vases placed in Nordic churches could not have shortened the reverberation time because there are far too few of them. Moreover, they could not have covered a broad frequency range. It remains a mystery why vases were installed under the seats of ancient Greek theaters and why, 1000 years later, Danes placed vases in their churches.

  3. Mitogenomic analyses from ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paijmans, Johanna L.A.; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Hofreiter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    analyses (whether using modern or ancient DNA) were largely restricted to the analysis of short fragments of the mitochondrial genome. However, due to many technological advances during the past decade, a growing number of studies have explored the power of complete mitochondrial genome sequences...... (mitogenomes). Such studies were initially limited to analyses of extant organisms, but developments in both DNA sequencing technologies and general methodological aspects related to working with degraded DNA have resulted in complete mitogenomes becoming increasingly popular for ancient DNA studies as well....... To date, at least 124 partially or fully assembled mitogenomes from more than 20 species have been obtained, and, given the rapid progress in sequencing technology, this number is likely to dramatically increase in the future. The increased information content offered by analysing full mitogenomes has...

  4. Molecular analysis of ancient caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simón, Marc; Montiel, Rafael; Smerling, Andrea; Solórzano, Eduvigis; Díaz, Nancy; Álvarez-Sandoval, Brenda A; Jiménez-Marín, Andrea R; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2014-09-01

    An 84 base pair sequence of the Streptococcus mutans virulence factor, known as dextranase, has been obtained from 10 individuals from the Bronze Age to the Modern Era in Europe and from before and after the colonization in America. Modern samples show four polymorphic sites that have not been found in the ancient samples studied so far. The nucleotide and haplotype diversity of this region have increased over time, which could be reflecting the footprint of a population expansion. While this segment has apparently evolved according to neutral evolution, we have been able to detect one site that is under positive selection pressure both in present and past populations. This study is a first step to study the evolution of this microorganism, analysed using direct evidence obtained from ancient remains.

  5. ANCIENT BREAD STAMPS FROM JORDAN

    OpenAIRE

    Kakish, Randa

    2014-01-01

    Marking bread was an old practice performed in different parts of the old world. It was done for religious, magical, economic and identification purposes. Bread stamps differ from other groups of stamps. Accordingly, the aim of this article is to identify such stamps, displayed or stored, in a number of Jordanian Archaeological Museums. A col-lection of twelve ancient bread stamps were identified and studied. Two of the stamps were of unknown provenance while the others came from al-Shuneh, D...

  6. Ancient Technology in Contemporary Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, Bruce A.

    1982-01-01

    Archaeologists have shown that ancient man developed the ability to produce cutting blades of an extreme degree of sharpness from volcanic glass. The finest of these prismatic blades were produced in Mesoamerica about 2,500 years ago. The technique of production of these blades was rediscovered 12 years ago by Dr. Don Crabtree, who suggested possible uses for the blades in modern surgery. Blades produced by Dr. Crabtree have been used in experimental microsurgery with excellent results. Anima...

  7. Splendid Arts Fram Ancient Capitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    IT was in the golden autumn in Beijing, when the sky was high and the air clear, that I hurried to Zhongshan Park to witness the display of the songs and dances of the seven Chinese ancient capitals. The flower beds arranged for the celebration of National Day were still there and the colorful blooms looked especially bright in the sunshine. The seven cities which have served as capitals in Chinese history are Beijing,

  8. Psychiatric Thoughts in Ancient India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Abhyankar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry.

  9. 关中地区古代陵墓的类型、地理分布及其影响因素分析%The Type and Geographical Distribution of Ancient Mausoleums in Central Shaanxi Area and an Analysis of the Affecting Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世忠; 杜忠潮

    2012-01-01

    There is a multitude of ancient tombs in central Shaanxi area. In terms of the identity of the deceased, the tombs can be divided into the emperor' s tomb and the co-tomb with the people buried alive as well as tombs of the celebrities of different dynasties. The construction forms of the tombs for ancient emperors in central Shaanxi area are divided into the two types of "the making of a tomb through mound piling" and "the making of a tomb by the mountain". According to the chronological or- der, tombs can be divided into such types as the tombs of the Chinese ancestors, the nobles' tombs pri- or to the Qin dynasty, the tombs of the emperors who had reunited China, and the tombs of the emper- ors who had divided China. The geographical distribution had the characteristics of patchiness, strip line and dotted line. The co-tomb with the people buried alive were attached to the special zone of the emperor' s tomb took on the characteristics of "scattering in terms of general appearances and concen- trating in terms of specific appearances". The tombs of the celebrities of various dynasties featured dot- ted line layout. The factors affecting the choice and spatial distribution of ancient tombs in central Shaanxi area are: firstly the location of the capital; secondly the notion of geomancy, the pursuit of im- perial dignity and magnanimous mettle; thirdly, the ancestral home of the buried; fourthly, the place where historical events took place and where celebrities spent their lives. As for the gorgeous and rich ancient mausoleum culture and emperor' s tomb heritage resource, we should exercise in-depth explora- tion and protect the use and study so that the efficacy of "making the past serve the present" can be brought into full play.%关中地区古代墓葬数量众多,依据葬者的身份,可分为帝王陵与陪葬墓,历代将相名人墓葬等类型。关中古代帝王陵的营造形式有“封土为陵”和“因山为陵”两种,

  10. Analysis of Ancient DNA in Microbial Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgé, Olivier; Bennett, E Andrew; Massilani, Diyendo; Daligault, Julien; Pruvost, Melanie; Geigl, Eva-Maria; Grange, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The development of next-generation sequencing has led to a breakthrough in the analysis of ancient genomes, and the subsequent genomic analyses of the skeletal remains of ancient humans have revolutionized the knowledge of the evolution of our species, including the discovery of a new hominin, and demonstrated admixtures with more distantly related archaic populations such as Neandertals and Denisovans. Moreover, it has also yielded novel insights into the evolution of ancient pathogens. The analysis of ancient microbial genomes allows the study of their recent evolution, presently over the last several millennia. These spectacular results have been attained despite the degradation of DNA after the death of the host, which results in very short DNA molecules that become increasingly damaged, only low quantities of which remain. The low quantity of ancient DNA molecules renders their analysis difficult and prone to contamination with modern DNA molecules, in particular via contamination from the reagents used in DNA purification and downstream analysis steps. Finally, the rare ancient molecules are diluted in environmental DNA originating from the soil microorganisms that colonize bones and teeth. Thus, ancient skeletal remains can share DNA profiles with environmental samples and identifying ancient microbial genomes among the more recent, presently poorly characterized, environmental microbiome is particularly challenging. Here, we describe the methods developed and/or in use in our laboratory to produce reliable and reproducible paleogenomic results from ancient skeletal remains that can be used to identify the presence of ancient microbiota. PMID:26791510

  11. Technology Use in Nursery and Primary Education in Two Different Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno Alastuey, Mª Camino; García Laborda, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    This article studies which and how Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) are used by nursery and primary education in-service teachers as reported by their pre-service teacher trainees after observations in their practicum in two provinces in Spain, Alcalá de Henares-Guadalajara and Navarre. Results indicate that in-service teachers…

  12. Bud Necrosis of Green Ash Nursery Trees is Influenced by Nitrogen Availability and Fertilizer Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine whether nitrogen (N) status of nursery-grown green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica ‘Summit’) trees in the autumn is related to tip die back during the following spring. In 2005, different rates of N from either urea formaldehyde (UF) or a controlled release fertilizer ...

  13. Sleeping pattern of kindergartners and nursery school children: function of daytime nap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Kazuhiko; Sakashita, Yukine

    2002-02-01

    With a questionnaire answered by parents this study investigated the sleeping pattern of children attending kindergartens or nursery schools and the function of an afternoon nap. Sleeping pattern was investigated by a questionnaire with 441 young children (229 boys and 212 girls) attending kindergartens or nursery schools at the ages of 3 to 6 years old. Nighttime sleep did not show any significant change, while daytime naps decreased drastically and almost disappeared by the age of 6. Nursery school children went to bed later at night, so nighttime sleep was shorter than that of kindergartners. They also reported having more 'difficulty to fall asleep', more frequent 'staying-up at late night', less 'not getting enough sleep', worse 'mood at rising', and more 'unwillingness to go to their schools'. To investigate whether afternoon naps, which are routine at Japanese nursery schools, can compensate for sleep insufficiency on the previous night and whether they have the effect of delaying the onset of the subsequent nighttime sleep, we compared sleep duration on the previous night and the sleep onset time between the days with and without an afternoon nap. The afternoon nap appeared to cause delayed sleep onset but was not a result of sleep deficiency. PMID:11883566

  14. Exploring Letters in a Bimodal, Bilingual Nursery School with Deaf and Hearing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersen, Ann-Elise; Simonsen, Eva

    2014-01-01

    For young deaf children a co-enrolment setting with hearing children in nursery school is recognised as a useful provision for inclusive education. The aim of the study reported in this article was to gain knowledge about pathways into literacy for young deaf children in a co-enrolment setting. The questions raised in this article are: How are…

  15. Inoculum sources of Xanthomonas fragariae in strawberry nursery packing houses: presence, viability and transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthomonas fragariae causes strawberry angular leaf spot, an important disease in strawberry nursery production. When plants are dug and harvested in the field, they are transported to a “trim shed” where the leaves are removed and the roots are trimmed with table-mounted, stainless steel blades. M...

  16. Assessment of the Psychosocial Development of Children Attending Nursery Schools in Karen Refugee Camps in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    The Karen, an ethnic minority group in Burma, have experienced a prolonged state of exile in refugee camps in neighboring Thailand because of ethnic conflict in their home country. Nursery schools in the three largest Karen refugee camps aim to promote the psychosocial development of young children by providing a child-centered, creative,…

  17. Substrate water status and evapotranspiration irrigation schedulingin heterogenous container nursery crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Incrocci, L.; Marzialetti, P.; Incrocci, G.; Vita, Di A.; Balendonck, J.; Bibbiani, C.; Spagnol, S.; Pardossi, A.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of implementing different irrigation scheduling meth-ods on heterogeneous container hardy ornamental nursery stocks. Four ornamental shrub specieswere grown in the same irrigation sector during the summer of four consecutive years (2007–2010):Forsythia

  18. Safe Procurement and Production Manual: A systems approach for the production of healthy nursery stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introduction and spread of plant pests and pathogens threatens the long-term health and profitability of the nursery and greenhouse industry. As the global economy has boomed, there has been a dramatic increase in goods moved between countries and continents. These goods can include live plants ...

  19. The patterns of seasonal activity of Ixodes vespertilionis (Acari: Ixodidae) on Rhinolophus hipposideros in nursery colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piksa, Krzysztof; Górz, Andrzej; Nowak-Chmura, Magdalena; Siuda, Krzysztof

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the dynamics of the long-legged bat tick Ixodes vespertilionis infestation on the lesser horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros in 2 nursery colonies roosting in attics. Out of a total of 810 lesser horseshoe bats examined, 217 (26.8%) were found to be infested with a total of 464 I. vespertilionis individuals. The developmental stage most frequently found was the larva, followed by the nymph, and the adult female. Bats were significantly more frequently infested with I. vespertilionis ticks in the period April to May than in other months. In these months, all tick developmental stages were observed. During summer and autumn, only immature developmental stages were recorded, whilst in September and October larvae predominated. Considerable differences in tick load between nursery colonies were observed. The length of seasonal presence on bats, prevalence, and infestation intensity of I. vespertilionis on lesser horseshoe bats were higher in the nursery colony situated in close vicinity of a cave than in the colony situated far from the caves. The results suggest that the pattern of seasonal infestation of ticks on bats roosting in nursery colonies coincides with the seasonal activity of Rh. hipposideros in the caves. The first case of mixed infestation of the lesser horseshoe bat with I. vespertilionis and I. ricinus were also recorded. PMID:24252260

  20. Spatial Distribution of Crown Gall in a Commercial Nursery of Weeping Fig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrobacterium larrymoorei causes tumors on the trunk and branches of weeping fig (Ficus benjamina L.). The extent to which this pathogen is spread through the mother tree planting and transmitted to daughter branches during the process of propagation was studied in a commercial nursery in 2007 and 2...

  1. Gender Associations for Musical Instruments in Nursery Children: The Effect of Sound and Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Nigel; Shibazaki, Kagari

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a study carried out with 105 children, aged between three and four years in three nursery units in London and Surrey, UK. The aim of this study was to explore the level of association which young children have between various musical instruments, musical styles and a particular gender. However, we also aimed to…

  2. Use of Switchgrass as the Primary Potting Component in Nursery Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine bark is the primary potting component for nursery containers in Ohio and other Upper Midwest states. Most pine bark comes from lumber or paper mills in southern states. Due to the recent energy crisis, availability of pine bark has declined while the cost to import pine bark from southern sta...

  3. Comparing digital software to human observation for estimating weed cover in nursery containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers who study weed management in nursery crops often rely on visual ratings to assess weed growth in response to some treatment effect. Visual weed ratings are easy to perform, non-destructive, and do not require any special equipment. However, visual ratings are prone to bias and skewed j...

  4. Comparison of Juglans regia L. bare-root nursery stocks for plantations: morphological characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tani A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Good results in plantations are strictly related to the fitness of the nursery stock. Plant fitness, or quality, depends on inherent genetic characters and on physiological and physical (dimensional, morphological and nutritional characteristics. In arboriculture for wood production the role of stock quality is essential for a prompt expression of plant growth potential. So the necessity to define stock quality standards is widely recognized, though is still discussed how to assess stock cultural value by characteristics easy to measure. First step in such activities is to individuate in the above-ground part of the plantlets some traits related to the root system development. The study was carried out in two public forest nurseries (property of Regione Piemonte on 163 Juglans regia seedlings and transplants produced for wood plantations. In order to evaluate Walnut nursery stock production, different kinds of bare-root seedlings and transplants have been compared. For each kind, shoot and root system dimensional and morphological traits have been investigated after assignment of plants in 3 dimensional (height categories. Relations between shoots and roots traits have been studied to allow a visual evaluation of nursery plants based on data easy to collect. This study is to be considered a preliminary survey in the evaluation of stock quality based on field performance.

  5. Interaccion adulto-nino en la escuela infantil (Adult-Child Interaction in Nursery School).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined teacher-child interactions in 2 nursery schools in Barcelona, Spain, when the children (15 2-year olds and 15 4-year olds) were alone or in a group, observing a group in which they were a member, and not part of a group. For these conditions, compared differences in age, gender, and the forms of verbal and nonverbal communication used.…

  6. Teaching Mathematical Concepts to Nigerian Nursery-School Children Using English as a Foreign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    Describes strategies for developing mathematical language and concepts in nursery school children in Nigeria using English as a second language, including use of sand, water, wooden blocks, and dramatic play in the classroom shop. Suggests that through these methods a verbal foundation is laid for mathematical understanding. (Author/BK)

  7. Overt and Relational Aggression in Russian Nursery-School-Age Children: Parenting Style and Marital Linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Craig H.; Nelson, David A.; Robinson, Clyde C.; Olsen, Susanne Frost; McNeilly-Choque, Mary Kay

    1998-01-01

    Maternal and paternal parenting styles and marital interactions linked to childhood aggressive behavior in Western psychological literature were measured in 207 ethnic Russian families of nursery-school-age children. Results corroborated and extended findings from Western samples. Greater marital conflict (for boys only), greater maternal…

  8. Performance evaluation of a newly developed variable rate sprayer for nursery liner applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experimental variable-rate sprayer designed for liner applications was tested by comparing its spray deposit, coverage, and droplet density inside canopies of six nursery liner varieties with constant-rate applications. Spray samplers, including water sensitive papers (WSP) and nylon screens, wer...

  9. Children’s Exposure to Radon in Nursery and Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Pedro T. B. S.; Nunes, Rafael A. O.; Alvim-Ferraz, Maria C. M.; Martins, Fernando G.; Sousa, Sofia I. V.

    2016-01-01

    The literature proves an evident association between indoor radon exposure and lung cancer, even at low doses. This study brings a new approach to the study of children’s exposure to radon by aiming to evaluate exposure to indoor radon concentrations in nursery and primary schools from two districts in Portugal (Porto and Bragança), considering different influencing factors (occupation patterns, classroom floor level, year of the buildings’ construction and soil composition of the building site), as well as the comparison with IAQ standard values for health protection. Fifteen nursery and primary schools in the Porto and Bragança districts were considered: five nursery schools for infants and twelve for pre-schoolers (seven different buildings), as well as eight primary schools. Radon measurements were performed continuously. The measured concentrations depended on the building occupation, classroom floor level and year of the buildings’ construction. Although they were in general within the Portuguese legislation for IAQ, exceedances to international standards were found. These results point out the need of assessing indoor radon concentrations not only in primary schools, but also in nursery schools, never performed in Portugal before this study. It is important to extend the study to other microenvironments like homes, and in time to estimate the annual effective dose and to assess lifetime health risks. PMID:27043596

  10. Performance of experimental bioreactors developed for removing nitrate from nursery runoff water

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bacterial-based bioreactor containing Kaldness media as a substrate for bacteria to grow on was established at a commercial nursery. Data from approximately 90 sampling events are reported. Results indicate that the system, when properly managed, offers much potential for removing nitrate from s...

  11. Language Development and Social Integration in Bromley-by-Bow Nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Shirley; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes a project being piloted in a nursery school in east London that offers the opportunity for children between 18 months and 3 years of age from multiethnic communities to learn English. The project encourages parent participation. Profiles one girl who is participating in the project, and suggests that the aims of the project are being…

  12. Verticillium wilt in nursery trees: damage thresholds, spatial and temporal aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goud, J.C.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2011-01-01

    Verticillium wilt can cause high losses in tree nurseries. To be able to predict disease and unravel disease dynamics over time and space, the relationship between verticillium wilt and soil inoculum densities of Verticillium dahliae and the nematode Pratylenchus fallax was studied in two 4-year fie

  13. "Row, Row, Row Your Boat": Singing, Identity and Belonging in a Nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niland, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The concept of belonging is widely recognised as a fundamental part of human development and a key element of early childhood curricula. The research presented here explores the role of singing in the development of children's sense of belonging in a day nursery for children aged from six months to two years. The research design incorporated…

  14. Posture estimation for autonomous weeding robots navigation in nursery tree plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khot, Law Ramchandra; Tang, Lie; Blackmore, Simon;

    2005-01-01

    The presented research aims at developing a sensor fusion technique for navigational posture estimation for a skid-steered mobile robot vehicle in nursery tree plantations. RTK-GPS and Fiber Optic Gyroscope sensors were used for determining the position and orientation of the robot vehicle...

  15. COMPARISON OF CERTAIN ABILITIES NEEDED BY WORKERS IN LICENSED NURSERIES AND LICENSED ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE BUSINESSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DILLON, ROY D.

    THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH WORKERS WITH THE JOB TITLES OF GENERAL DIRECTORS, SALESMEN, SUPERVISORS, AND FIELD WORKERS IN LICENSED NURSERIES NEEDED AGRICULTURALLY ORIENTED KNOWLEDGE OF THE SAME KIND AND LEVEL AS WORKERS IN COMPARABLE JOB TITLES IN ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE BUSINESSES. DATA WERE COLLECTED BY PERSONAL…

  16. An investigation into the ancient abortion laws: comparing ancient Persia with ancient Greece and Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Zargaran, Arman; Vatanpour, Azadeh; Abedini, Ehsan; Adhami, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    Since the dawn of medicine, medical rights and ethics have always been one of mankind's concerns. In any civilisation, attention paid to medical laws and ethics depends on the progress of human values and the advancement of medical science. The history of various civilisations teaches that each had its own views on medical ethics, but most had something in common. Ancient civilisations such as Greece, Rome, or Assyria did not consider the foetus to be alive and therefore to have human rights. In contrast, ancient Persians valued the foetus as a living person equal to others. Accordingly, they brought laws against abortion, even in cases of sexual abuse. Furthermore, abortion was considered to be a murder and punishments were meted out to the mother, father, and the person performing it. PMID:24304111

  17. Indoor air quality in urban nurseries at Porto city: Particulate matter assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, P. T. B. S.; Alvim-Ferraz, M. C. M.; Martins, F. G.; Sousa, S. I. V.

    2014-02-01

    Indoor air quality in nurseries is an interesting case of study mainly due to children's high vulnerability to exposure to air pollution (with special attention to younger ones), and because nursery is the public environment where young children spend most of their time. Particulate matter (PM) constitutes one of the air pollutants with greater interest. In fact, it can cause acute effects on children's health, as well as may contribute to the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases like asthma. Thus, the main objectives of this study were: i) to evaluate indoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and PMTotal) on different indoor microenvironments in urban nurseries of Porto city; and ii) to analyse those concentrations according to guidelines and references for indoor air quality and children's health. Indoor PM measurements were performed in several class and lunch rooms in three nurseries on weekdays and weekends. Outdoor PM10 concentrations were also obtained to determine I/O ratios. PM concentrations were often found high in the studied classrooms, especially for the finer fractions, reaching maxima hourly mean concentrations of 145 μg m-3 for PM1 and 158 μg m-3 PM2.5, being often above the limits recommended by WHO, reaching 80% of exceedances for PM2.5, which is concerning in terms of exposure effects on children's health. Mean I/O ratios were always above 1 and most times above 2 showing that indoor sources (re-suspension phenomena due to children's activities, cleaning and cooking) were clearly the main contributors to indoor PM concentrations when compared with the outdoor influence. Though, poor ventilation to outdoors in classrooms affected indoor air quality by increasing the PM accumulation. So, enhancing air renovation rate and performing cleaning activities after the occupancy period could be good practices to reduce PM indoor air concentrations in nurseries and, consequently, to improve children's health and welfare.

  18. The Ancient Greece's roots of Olimpism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubka Sergej Nazarovich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focused on the phenomena of sport in Ancient Greece along with history, traditions, religion, education, culture and art. Economic and political conditions are analysed which promote or hamper development of Olympic Games in Ancient Greece. Exceptional stability of Ancient Olympic games during more than eleven centuries are noted as well as their influence on the life of Greek polices of those days. Hellenistic period needs of individual consideration.

  19. Potential of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) as Fertilizer in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis L Jacq.) Nurseries

    OpenAIRE

    ADEOLUWA, DR OLUGBENGA O.; ADEOYE, PROFESSOR GIDEON O.

    2008-01-01

    Oil palm is one of the major oil crops in the world. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) could serve as an alternative and cheaper organic fertilizer in oil palm farms. This study investigated the value of composts of different forms of EFB for raising oil palm in the nursery. The experiment, which covered the pre-nursery (< 3 months) and nursery stages (3-13 months) used different EFB: cow dung ratios (100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30 and 60:40) as compost as well as cow dung only and mineral fertili...

  20. Ancient DNA from nomads in 2500-year-old archeological sites of Pengyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-Bin; Li, Hong-Jie; Cai, Da-Wei; Li, Chun-Xiang; Zhang, Quan-Chao; Zhu, Hong; Zhou, Hui

    2010-04-01

    Six human remains (dating approximately 2500 years ago) were excavated from Pengyang, China, an area occupied by both ancient nomadic and farming people. The funerary objects found with these remains suggested they were nomads. To further confirm their ancestry, we analyzed both the maternal lineages and paternal lineages of the ancient DNA. From the mitochondrial DNA, six haplotypes were identified as three haplogroups: C, D4 and M10. The haplotype-sharing populations and phylogenetic analyses revealed that these individuals were closely associated with the ancient Xiongnu and modern northern Asians. Single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis of Y chromosomes from four male samples that were typed as haplogroup Q indicated that these people had originated in Siberia. These results show that these ancient people from Pengyang present a close genetic affinity to nomadic people, indicating that northern nomads had reached the Central Plain area of China nearly 2500 years ago.

  1. [Changes of marriage age in ancient China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D

    1991-04-01

    The changes in age of marriage in ancient China can be classified into 3 periods. Around 680 B.C., the government set the age of marriage at 20 for men and at 15 for women. Even though it was written in the works of the Confucian school that men should marry at 30 and women at 20, it was never really followed. The Wei and Jin dynasties provided the longest periods of war and social instability. Large numbers of population died because of war or famine. Because heavy taxes were collected on each member of family, many families did not report marriage or childbirth. In order to encourage childbirth, the government reduced the age of marriage to 15 for men and 13 for women. Administrative and legislative regulation were introduced to force people to marry early, especially women. Incentives were given to families with more women. These policies was enforced due to the imbalance of the sex ratio and reduction of population size. As female infanticides were prevalent because of differential values placed on male and female children, it was difficult for men to find partners to marry. Shortage of women was also the result of the polygamy of the rich and the aristocracy. The imbalance of the sex ratio forced women to marry early. Nevertheless, women getting married too early were not fertile. Infant or child mortality was high among children of young mothers. From the Song to the Ching dynasties, the age of marriage was set at 16 for men and 14 for women. In the ancient times, the population of China was around 60-70 million before the Ching dynasty. Generally speaking, the population size was small. Early marriage was necessary and feasible. Even though fertility in ancient times was high, mortality has high also. Life expectancy ranged form 22 to 35. People needed to marry early and have children early to replace themselves. On the other hand, large land areas and inefficient production tools required a larger labor force. Large population size also represented

  2. The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, James

    1998-01-01

    The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy combines new scholarship with hands-on science to bring readers into direct contact with the work of ancient astronomers. While tracing ideas from ancient Babylon to sixteenth-century Europe, the book places its greatest emphasis on the Greek period, when astronomers developed the geometric and philosophical ideas that have determined the subsequent character of Western astronomy. The author approaches this history through the concrete details of ancient astronomical practice. Carefully organized and generously illustrated, the book can teach reade

  3. From Here I Walked into Ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2011-01-01

    @@ When I was a little girl, I had heard about the eighth world wonder - terra cotta warriors in Qin Emperor Mausoleum.I have been wishing to visit there to see those magnificent scene which were created thousands of years ago.While with my age added, I gradually learned the terra cotta warriors were lust only one of many ancient marks of Xi'an, which once was capital of 13 dynasties in ancient China.Xi'an actually is a carrier of ancient China culture, where I walked from the modern world to the ancient China.

  4. Re-inventing ancient human DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Knapp, Michael; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Hofreiter, M.

    2015-01-01

    For a long time, the analysis of ancient human DNA represented one of the most controversial disciplines in an already controversial field of research. Scepticism in this field was only matched by the long-lasting controversy over the authenticity of ancient pathogen DNA. This ambiguous view on ancient human DNA had a dichotomous root. On the one hand, the interest in ancient human DNA is great because such studies touch on the history and evolution of our own species. On the other hand, beca...

  5. Acoustics of ancient Greek and Roman theaters in use today

    OpenAIRE

    Gade, Anders Christian; Angelakis, Konstantinos

    2006-01-01

    In the Mediteranan area a large number of open, ancient Greek and Roman theatres are still today facing a busy schedule of performances including both classical and contemporary works of dance, drama, concerts, and opera. During the EU funded ``Erato'' project and a subsequent master thesis project, extensive measurement data have been collected from three well-preserved theatres, which represent three different stages of enclosing the audience in an open-air environment: (1) the Epidaurus Th...

  6. Spatially explicit analyses of gastropod biodiversity in ancient Lake Ohrid

    OpenAIRE

    Hauffe, T.; Albrecht, C.; Schreiber, K.; Birkhofer, K.; S. Trajanovski; Wilke, T.

    2010-01-01

    Spatial heterogeneity of biodiversity arises from evolutionary processes, constraints of environmental factors and the interaction of communities. The quality of such spatial analyses of biodiversity is improved by (i) utilizing study areas with well defined physiogeographical boundaries, (ii) limiting the impact of widespread species, and (iii) using taxa with heterogeneous distributions. These conditions are typically met by ecosystems such as oceanic islands or ancient lakes and the...

  7. The Survey of Memphis, capital of ancient Egypt: recent developments

    OpenAIRE

    David Jeffreys

    2008-01-01

    The Egypt Exploration Society has been conducting an archaeological survey of the site of Memphis and its surrounding area since 1981. A summary of the aims and achievements of the project appeared in Archaeology International 1999/2000. In the present article the field director reports on the progress made since then and considers some of the contextual aspects of this survey of the ancient Egyptian capital.

  8. Ancient Ethics and Contemporary Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Gómez Lobo

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine a few doctrines in the history of ancient ethics which can still be considered valuable and even perhaps valid today. Moral motivation for the Stoics and for Socratesis based on self-interest with the further assumption that the moral virtues are the true goods. But the Stoic and Socratic justification strategies are different. Attention is then called to the Protagorean brand ofrelativism underlying contemporary libertarian claims. The paper end swith the suggestion that only a theory of objective human goods can resolve the problem of moral motivation and of the indeterminacy of the harm principie in modern liberalism.

  9. Chinese Ancient Football with Romanticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江凌; 李晓勤

    2004-01-01

    Like other traditional Chinese sports, the ancient Chinese football, which used to be called “cuju”, has some differences from several sports in western countries concerning cultural and hamanist purport as well as metal aspiration, although it was similar with modern football to some extent, such as a leather-made ball with a bladder, rectangle sports ground, referee, goal and certain competitiveness. The author tries to talk about such difference in cultural and humanist purport as well as mental aspiration by making a comparison between “cuju” and modern football.

  10. Ancient Indian Leaps into Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, B S

    2011-01-01

    This book presents contributions of mathematicians covering topics from ancient India, placing them in the broader context of the history of mathematics. Although the translations of some Sanskrit mathematical texts are available in the literature, Indian contributions are rarely presented in major Western historical works. Yet some of the well-known and universally-accepted discoveries from India, including the concept of zero and the decimal representation of numbers, have made lasting contributions to the foundation of modern mathematics. Through a systematic approach, this book examines th

  11. Nursery areas and recruitment variation of Northeast Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Kristensen, Kasper; Van der Kooij, Jeroen;

    2015-01-01

    (LGC) process geostatistical model incorporating spatio-temporal correlations. A statistically significant correlation between the modelled catch rates in adjacent quarters 4 and 1 (Q4 and Q1) demonstrates that bottom-trawl surveys in winter are an appropriate platform for sampling juvenile mackerel...... the correlation between the derived annual recruitment index and recruitment estimated by backcalculation of adult mackerel data. Square root transformation led to the strongest correlation, so this is recommended for further analysis of mackerel abundance. Finally,we provide maps of spatial distributions...

  12. Trophic ecology of Mustelus schmitti (Springer, 1939) in a nursery area of northern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Juan Manuel; Cazorla, Andrea López

    2011-05-01

    Mustelus schmitti is an endangered endemic shark of the southwest Atlantic, and an important economical resource in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. The objective of this study was to describe the trophic ecology of M. schmitti in Anegada Bay, its feeding strategy and diet composition, along with the possible dietary shifts, due to season, sex, ontogeny and the different geographical features of the bay. Our results show that M. schmitti is a carnivorous opportunistic predator, feeding on a variety of benthic invertebrates. The diet presented seasonal and ontogenetic variations, while no differences in diet composition were observed between sexes or the different sampling sites. This species behave as a generalize feeder, with a wide trophic spectrum and a diverse diet.

  13. Water and sustainable land use at the ancient tropical city of Tikal, Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Scarborough, Vernon L.; Dunning, Nicholas P.; Tankersley, Kenneth B.; Carr, Christopher; Weaver, Eric; Grazioso, Liwy; Lane, Brian; Jones, John G.; Buttles, Palma; Valdez, Fred; Lentz, David L.

    2012-01-01

    The access to water and the engineered landscapes accommodating its collection and allocation are pivotal issues for assessing sustainability. Recent mapping, sediment coring, and formal excavation at Tikal, Guatemala, have markedly expanded our understanding of ancient Maya water and land use. Among the landscape and engineering feats identified are the largest ancient dam identified in the Maya area of Central America; the posited manner by which reservoir waters were released; construction...

  14. Exploring the Application of Optical Remote Sensing as a Method to Estimate the Depth of Backwater Nursery Habitats of the Colorado Pikeminnow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuki [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); LaGory, Kirk E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Low-velocity channel-margin habitats serve as important nursery habitats for the endangered Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) in the middle Green River between Jensen and Ouray, Utah. These habitats, known as backwaters, are associated with emergent sand bars, and are shaped and reformed annually by peak flows. A recent synthesis of information on backwater characteristics and the factors that influence inter-annual variability in those backwaters (Grippo et al. 2015) evaluated detailed survey information collected annually since 2003 on a relatively small sample of backwaters, as well as reach-wide evaluations of backwater surface area from aerial and satellite imagery. An approach is needed to bridge the gap between these detailed surveys, which estimate surface area, volume, and depth, and the reach-wide assessment of surface area to enable an assessment of the amount of habitat that meets the minimum depth requirements for suitable habitat.

  15. Agriculture, Nurseries and Ornamentals, DATCP licensed nursery and christmas tree facilities, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Agriculture, Nurseries and Ornamentals dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is...

  16. Agriculture, Nurseries and Ornamentals, DATCP licensed nurseries and christmas tree farms., Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Agriculture, Nurseries and Ornamentals dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is...

  17. Risk Degree Assessment of Ancient Trees and Protective Measures in Eastern Fujian Areas:An Case Study in Minhou County%闽东城乡古树危险度评估及保护措施--以闽侯县为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱志鹏; 傅伟聪; 陈梓茹; 许春如; 丁国昌; 董建文

    2015-01-01

    Objective]The aim of the study was to better protect the ancient trees and to improve their health.[Method]According to the methods of VTA and AHP,the ecological and morpho-logical indicators,pest external performance,trunk and root rot and external environment indica-tors of ancient trees were investigated in Minhou county.[Results]① The ancient trees in this area include 27 families,44 genera and 56 individuals.All of them were mainly evergreen and n-ative trees.The number of national level of 1,2 and 3 were 62,192 and 898,respectively;②The potentially high dangerous indicators were external environmental indicators,ecological indi-cators,and morphological index;The potentially low dangerous indicators were trunk and root rot index and pest external performance indicators;③ The species with the highest risk was Cryp-tomeria,followed by Glyptostrobus ,pensilis etc .[Conclusion]The rise magnitude was different for different ancient trees and appropriate protective measures should be used for protection of dif-ferent trees.%【目的】更好地保护古树资源,提高古树健康等级。【方法】结合 VTA 法和 AHP 法,对闽侯县古树生态指标、形态指标、病虫害表征指标、树内腐朽指标以及外部环境指标进行潜在危险度调查。【结果】①样区古树含27科44属56种,以常绿乡土树种为主,国家1级62株,国家二级182株,国家三级898株;②古树潜在危险值较高的3个指标分别是:外部环境指标、生态指标、形态指标,潜在危险值较低的指标为:树干和根内腐朽指标、病虫害表征指标;③危险度指数最高的树种为柳杉,其次是:水松、榕树等。【结论】不同树种,其潜在危险度各不同,保护过程中应针对不同指标类型,采取相应措施。

  18. [Ancient history of Indian pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Jun; Natsume, Yohko

    2010-01-01

    The study of the ancient history of Indian medicine has recently been revived due to the publication of polyglot translations. However, little is known of ancient Indian pharmacy. Archaeological evidence suggests the Indus people lived a settled life approximately in 2500 B.C. Their cities were enjoying the cleanest and most hygienic daily life with elaborate civic sanitation systems. The whole conception shows a remarkable concern for health. Then, the early Aryans invaded India about 1500 B.C. and the Vedic age started. The Rgveda texts contain the hymns for Soma and those for herbs. The term Ayurveda (i.e., science of life) is found in some old versions of both Ramāyana and Mahābhārata and in the Atharvaveda. Suśruta had the credit of making a breakthrough in the field of surgery. The Ayurveda, a work on internal medicine, gives the following transmission of sages: Brahmā-->Daksa-->Prajāpati-->Aśivinau-->Indra-->Caraka. On the other hand, the Suśruta-samhitā, which deals mainly with surgical medicine, explains it as follows; Indra-->Dhanvantari-->Suśruta Both Caraka and Suśruta were medical doctors as well as pharmacists, so they studied more than 1000 herbs thoroughly. The Ayurveda had been used by his devotees for medical purposes. It eventually spread over Asia with the advanced evolution of Buddhism.

  19. [Ancient history of Indian pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Jun; Natsume, Yohko

    2010-01-01

    The study of the ancient history of Indian medicine has recently been revived due to the publication of polyglot translations. However, little is known of ancient Indian pharmacy. Archaeological evidence suggests the Indus people lived a settled life approximately in 2500 B.C. Their cities were enjoying the cleanest and most hygienic daily life with elaborate civic sanitation systems. The whole conception shows a remarkable concern for health. Then, the early Aryans invaded India about 1500 B.C. and the Vedic age started. The Rgveda texts contain the hymns for Soma and those for herbs. The term Ayurveda (i.e., science of life) is found in some old versions of both Ramāyana and Mahābhārata and in the Atharvaveda. Suśruta had the credit of making a breakthrough in the field of surgery. The Ayurveda, a work on internal medicine, gives the following transmission of sages: Brahmā-->Daksa-->Prajāpati-->Aśivinau-->Indra-->Caraka. On the other hand, the Suśruta-samhitā, which deals mainly with surgical medicine, explains it as follows; Indra-->Dhanvantari-->Suśruta Both Caraka and Suśruta were medical doctors as well as pharmacists, so they studied more than 1000 herbs thoroughly. The Ayurveda had been used by his devotees for medical purposes. It eventually spread over Asia with the advanced evolution of Buddhism. PMID:21032887

  20. Agriculture, Nurseries and Ornamentals, DPH, Published in 2005, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, Massachusetts Emergency Managment Agency.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Agriculture, Nurseries and Ornamentals dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2005....

  1. LEGACY - EOP Acoustic tagging and monitorings of cultured and wild juvenile crimson jobfish (Pristipomoides filamentosus) in a nursery habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Raw data from Vemco receivers that monitored the Kaneohe, Oahu nursery grounds while tagged juvenile snapper were released in 2006 (cultured) and 2007 (wild). Also...

  2. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Ryer: Polychaete worm tubes modify juvenile northern rock sole Lepidopsetta polyxystra depth distribution in Kodiak nurseries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from a study that evaluates whether inter-annual variability in the depth distribution of juvenile northern rock sole on their nursery grounds...

  3. Placoderm Assemblage from the Tetrapod-Bearing Locality of Strud (Belgium, Upper Famennian) Provides Evidence for a Fish Nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Gaël; Daeschler, Edward B.; Dupret, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The placoderm fauna of the upper Famennian tetrapod-bearing locality of Strud, Belgium, includes the antiarch Grossilepis rikiki, the arthrodire groenlandaspidid Turrisaspis strudensis and the phyllolepidid Phyllolepis undulata. Based on morphological and morphometric evidence, the placoderm specimens from Strud are predominantly recognised as immature specimens and this locality as representing a placoderm nursery. The Strud depositional environment corresponds to a channel in an alluvial plain, and the presence of a nursery in such environment could have provided nutrients and protection to the placoderm offspring. This represents one of the earliest pieces of evidence for this sort of habitat partitioning in vertebrate history, with adults living more distantly from the nursery and using the nursery only to spawn or give live birth. PMID:27552196

  4. The Idea of Ancient Greek Philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏雪

    2016-01-01

    As the source of western philosophy, ancient Greek philosophy had a profound influence on western philosophy. Ancient philosophers were hard to reach a consensus on the existence of all the things in the world. They tried to grasp the profound understanding of the world, which is the clue of the history of philosophy.

  5. Attitudes Toward Deviant Sex in Ancient Mesopotamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, Vern L.

    1971-01-01

    The article concludes that the whole question of sexual life in ancient Mesopotamia is difficult to reconstruct and fraught with many uncertainties. Nevertheless, it seems certain that the ancient Mesopotamians had fewer prohibitions against sex than our own civilization, and regarded as acceptable many practices which later societies condemned.…

  6. An ancient rangefinder for teaching surveying methods

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Rangefinders are instruments used for ballistics and for surveying in general. Here we propose a discussion of some of them, ranging from the ancient Rome to the modern methods. Using an ancient roman artefact as a model, we can pre-pare a rangefinder at no cost for teaching surveying methods to students of engineering and military schools

  7. Women--Sex Objects in Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimer, Brian T. P.

    Although it has been said that the women in Ancient Egypt enjoyed a reasonable state of social and professional equality with men, this paper presents an alternate theory--that women were second-class citizens whose physical prowess was secondary to their role as sex objects. It appears that men and women in Ancient Egypt often participated in the…

  8. Effect Of Fertilization And Mycorrhization On Growth And Nutritional Status Of Cranberry (Vaccinium Macrocarpon Ait.) In The Nursery

    OpenAIRE

    Michałojć Zenia; Koter Michał

    2015-01-01

    Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) is a species that is becoming increasingly popular due to the health value and taste qualities of fruits. Studies on cranberry ‘Pilgrim’ were carried out in 2012-2013 in the nursery farm. Plants were grown in containers in open space. The effect of method of fertilization and application of mycorrhizal vaccine on the growth, development and nutritional status of plants during the first two years of cultivation in the nursery was evaluated. Fertilizer cha...

  9. Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit ( Elaeis Guineensis Jacq.) Dengan Menggunakan Media Sekam Padi dan Frekuensi Penyiraman di Main Nursery

    OpenAIRE

    Hermanto

    2014-01-01

    HERMANTO : The Growth of Oil Palm Seedlings (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) by the application of Rice Husk And Frequency Of Watering In The Main Nursery. Supervised by FERRY AZRA T SITEPU and JONATAN GINTING. This research aims to study aimed to determine the growth of oil palm seedlings to rice husk and watering frequency on the main nursery. This research was conducted in Greenhouses in the Faculty of Agriculture, University of North Sumatera, Medan with ± 25 m altitude above sea level in J...

  10. The possibilities of biologically protecting plants against diseases in nurseries, with special consideration of Oomycetes and Fusarium fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Okorski Adam; Oszako Tomasz; Nowakowska Justyna A.; Pszczółkowska Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Achieving high quality propagative material is difficult today due to the limited number of pesticides recommended for use. Simultaneously, EU regulations on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in forest nurseries came into a force, requiring a search for alternative plant protection methods that are safe for humans, animals and the environment. In this paper, we present the possibilities of using bio-fungicides against diseases in forest nurseries, their mechanisms of action, as well as the dir...

  11. Technological Investigations for Improvement of Grapevine Propagation Material Production in Bulgaria. Part II. Testing of Agritechnical Practices in Vine Nursery

    OpenAIRE

    TSVETANOV, Emil; MARINOVA, Neli PRODANOVA –; ENCHEVA, Hrisanta; Dimitrova, Violeta; ILIEV, Anatoli

    2014-01-01

    The study was carried out at the Institute of Viticulture and Enology, Pleven for improvement the technology for the production of grafted rooted vines. The subject of the study included the agritechnical practices: irrigation and irrigation regime in vine nursery, application of herbicides for weed control and fertilizing with organic fertilizers was the subject of the study. In the comparative tested irrigation practices and irrigation regime in the nursery the results were in favour of the...

  12. Mechanisms in ancient Chinese books with illustrations

    CERN Document Server

    Hsiao, Kuo-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a unique approach for studying mechanisms and machines with drawings that were depicted unclearly in ancient Chinese books. The historical, cultural and technical backgrounds of the mechanisms are explained, and various mechanisms described and illustrated in ancient books are introduced. By utilizing the idea for the conceptual design of modern mechanisms, all feasible designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain members and joints that meet the technical standards of the subjects’ time periods are synthesized systematically. Ancient Chinese crossbows (the original crossbow and repeating crossbows), textile mechanisms (silk-reeling mechanism, spinning mechanisms, and looms), and many other artisan's tool mechanisms are used as illustrated examples.  Such an approach provides a logical method for the reconstruction designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain structures. It also provides an innovative direction for researchers to further identify the original structures of mechanisms...

  13. Structural recognition of ancient Chinese ideographic characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ning; Chen Dan

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Chinese characters, typically the ideographic characters on bones and bronze before Shang Dynasty (16th—11th century B.C.), are valuable culture legacy of history. However the recognition of Ancient Chinese characters has been the task of paleography experts for long. With the help of modern computer technique, everyone can expect to be able to recognize the characters and understand the ancient inscriptions. This research is aimed to help people recognize and understand those ancient Chinese characters by combining Chinese paleography theory and computer information processing technology. Based on the analysis of ancient character features, a method for structural character recognition is proposed. The important characteristics of strokes and basic components or radicals used in recognition are introduced in detail. A system was implemented based on above method to show the effectiveness of the method.

  14. The digital in the nursery and kindergarten: create immersive narratives through collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pennazioa Valentina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a research experience (case study on the use of digital technologies for the development of the ability to invent stories for images in a collaborative way, in some nurseries (0-3 years and in some kindergartens in La Spezia. We have involved in the experience: the sections of the older children of the nursery (3 years; the heterogeneous sections of kindergarten, with the aim of presenting different educational activities and technologies (PC, tablet, projector ... - prepared by educators-teachers and researchers - in an immersive environment to enable children to enter into the image and interact with it. The collaborative activities have also predicted the use of i- Theatre, an interactive integrated system for the narrative creation of multimedia stories. During the activities, educators and researchers conducted free observations that aim to bring out possible elements of transferability of the experience and set the second stage of work (model of research-training.

  15. Challenges and opportunities in South Africa’s indigenous plants industry: De Fynne Nursery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Mabaya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available De Fynne Nursery, a black-owned agribusiness, has cemented a unique position in South Africa’s indigenous plants industry against all odds. With an undying passion for the horticulture industry, Jacky Goliath and Elton Jefthas, De Fynne’s cofounders, continue to live the dream that began in their backyard. Today, they sit in their new 22-hectare farm and muse over strategic decisions as they navigate the challenges of doing business in an emerging economy. This case study focuses on opportunities and challenges for De Fynne as it pushes into its next growth phase by looking at the changing competitive landscape, the balance between marketing existing products and innovating new products, and ways to become operationally efficient and profitable in both its nursery and the farm.

  16. Production of camu camu plants with different organic substrates in conventional nursery bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Abanto Rodriguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to verify the initial development of camu camu plants with different organic substrates in conventional nursery bedding microsprinkler irrigation and shade management Chromatine® mesh with 50% red light. We used genetic material from mother plants Germplasm Bank of INIA-camu camu Iquitos, seeds were germinated in decomposed sawdust and kept for a period of 40 days after subculturing was performed with 10 cm in height in different substrates according treatments in nursery beds with dimensions of 1.20 m wide x 10 m long with a depth of 30 cm. After conducting assessments of height (cm and basal diameter (mm for a period of 120 days, it was found that the substrate manure has become the substrate for greater efficiency in plant development camu camu substrate followed by humus worm.

  17. Qualitative and financial evaluation of public and private forest nurseries; Case study of southern Zagros forests, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARYAM FAZLOLLAHI MOHAMMADI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mohammadi MF, Vaezin SMH, Etemad V, Sepahvand A, Shirvani A, Azam S. 2014. Qualitative and financial evaluation of public and private forest nurseries; Case study of southern Zagros forests, Iran. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 152-158. This study has examined the efficiency of two nurseries, private and public divisions, based on qualitative and financial evaluation in the Southern Zagros forests of Iran. To achieve this purpose, we selected two species including pistachio (Pistacia atlantica and poplar (Popolus nigra in one year period. Results of qualitative evaluation showed that all produced seedlings by private nursery significantly had better features than the public one at the significant level of 0.05. Also, the results of financial evaluation showed that cost price of each poplar seedling at private nursery (0.734 $ was 19.6 times less than public one (14.4 $. The interest rate for pistachio seedling in private sector ranges from 1.9 to 2.2 $, while it ranges from 1.5 to 1.9 $ for poplar seedling. Such researches may help to improve management as well as financial and qualitative efficiency, especially in public nurseries. Future researches will be required to document other aspects of private management on nurseries in seedling products.

  18. Cases of Trephination in Ancient Greek Skulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Ζafiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trephination, or trepanning, is considered to be one of the most ancient surgical operations with an especially extensive geographical incidence, both in the New World and in the Old. In Europe, more than 200 finds of trephination have been found, from Scandinavia to the Balkans. The technique of trephination or trepanning covers overall the last 10,000 years and exhibits great versatility and adjustability in the knowledge, technical means, therapeutic needs, prejudices and social standards of each period and of each population group. Hippocrates was the one to classify for the first time the kinds of cranial fractures and define the conditions and circumstances for carrying out a trepanning.Aim: The present research aims to investigate the Greek cranial trephinations on sculls from the collection of the Anthropological Museum of the Medical School of Athens that come from archaeological excavations.Method: Skulls were examined by macroscopic observation with reflective light. Furthermore, radiographic representation of the skulls was used.Results: The anthropological researches and the studies of anthropological skeleton remains that came out during archaeological excavations from different eras and areas have given information about the medical practices in the very important geographic area of Greece and in particular, we referred to cases of Greek trephinations.

  19. Characteristics of Soil Fertility of Buried Ancient Paddy at Chuodun Site in Yangtze River Delta, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jia; HU Zheng-yi; CAO Zhi-hong; YANG Lin-zhang; LIN Xian-gui; DONG Yuan-hua; DING Jin-long; ZHENG Yun-fei

    2006-01-01

    Field investigation and laboratory analysis of 22 ancient paddy soils excavated at Chuodun site, Kunshan City, JiangsuProvince, China were carried out in 2003 to (1) understand the basic characteristics of ancient paddy soils, (2) compare the difference of soil fertility between ancient paddy soils and recent paddy soils, and (3) inquire into mechanisms of the sustainability of paddy soil. The oldest paddy soils at Chuodun site can be dated back to Neolithic age, around 6 000 aBP. These ancient fields were buried in about 1-m deep from the soil surface and their areas ranged from 0.32 to 12.9 m2 with an average of 5.2 m2. The paddy soils with > 5 000 pellets phytolith g-1 soil were termed intensively cultivated paddy soils (ICPS) and those with < 5 000 pellets phytolith g-1 soil were called weakly cultivated soils (WCPS). The contents of organic carbon (OC), and total N in the former were significantly higher than that in the latter. Ancient paddy soils had higher soil pH and C/N, total and available P, and lower contents of OC, DOC, total N, S, Cu, Fe, and available K, S, Fe, Mn, and Cu compared with recent paddy soils, which were attributed to application of chemical and manure fertilizers, pollution and acidification in recent paddy soils. The variation coefficients of OC and other nutrients in ancient paddy soils with higher PI were greater than that in ancient paddy soils with low PI, which indicated that human activities had a great impact on the spatial variability of soil nutrients. The contents of OC, total N, P and S in ancient paddy soils were higher than that in ancient moss of the same age, which indicated that planting rice during Majiabang culture period was beneficial to the accumulation of those life elements.

  20. Bursaphelenchus hofmanni Braasch, 1998 associated with peat growth substrate in hops nurseries in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Cermak, Václav; Vieira, Paulo; Cudejkova, Mária; Gaar, Vladimir; Tomankova, Katerina; Mikuskova, Katerina; Eisenback, Jonh; Mota, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    To date, seven Bursaphelenchus species have been re- ported in surveys of the Czech Republic (Cˇ ermák et al., 2013). However, the occurrence of some species, such as Bursaphelenchus hofmanni Braasch, 1998, is limited to single detections in imported coniferous wood (un- publ. data in Braasch, 2001). During a survey to deter- mine pathogenic agents on hops (Humulus lupulus L.) conducted by State Phytosanitary Administration (CZ) in hops fields and nurseries in 2012, B. hofmanni was found in a...

  1. SUPERFICIAL AND CUTANEOUS MYCOSES AT NURSERIES AND SCHOOLS OF MAHALLAT CITY, CENTRAL PART OF IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    P Kordbacheh; Moghaddami, M.; M.A. Asadi

    1994-01-01

    This study was conducted for detection of common superficial and cutaneous mycoses in nurseries and schools of Mahallat during September 1989 to June 1990. A Total of 9884 individuals (under 18 years of age) were both clinically observed and tested by laboratory. 5.6% were positive to mycotic infections and from those the rate of infection for pityrosporosis, tinea versicolor and dermatophytosis were 42.7%, 12.6% and 1.8% respectively. Trichomycosis axillaries and erythrasma (although their e...

  2. Longevity of Imidacloprid Soil Drench on Citrus Nursery Stock for Sale at Retail Stores in Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Halbert, Susan E.; Manjunath, Keremane L.; Ramadugu, Chandrika; Richard F. Lee

    2014-01-01

    The Florida psyllid testing project (Manjunath et al. 2008, Halbert et al. 2012) showed that about 10% of regulatory samples of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama collected by Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry (FDACS/DPI) inspectors from plants for sale in Florida were positive for Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las). Most of the commercial nurseries that produce the plants do not have psyllids or Las, so the most likely source of contamination is ...

  3. Energy control and energy conservation in day nurseries; Energistyring og energibesparelser i smaeboernsinstitutioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-04-15

    The aim of the project is to develop methods to minimize energy consultants' resource requirements when they give advice to public institutions. A concept has been developed which consists of different decision-levels within local authorities. Furthermore, a proposal of how an organization around energy conserving activities might look. Finally a catalogue of popular energy conservation activities in day nurseries has been made. (BA)

  4. Importance of coordinated P.E. activities during teaching nursery school children to be healthy.

    OpenAIRE

    ULBRICHOVÁ, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    The present work monitors controlled physical activity for children of preschool age both in terms of pre-school and in terms of family environment. The aim is to monitor the current level of physical activity and highlight the fundamental relationship of health education and healthy development of preschool children. Total attendance was 28 children of preschool age. Because of the feedback I have also addressed the 200 participants (nursery school teachers, parents). Based on my findings sh...

  5. Resources and environment driving forces of ancient capital migration in Guanzhong area%历史时期关中地区都城迁移的资源环境驱动力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马蓓蓓; 薛东前; 张雷

    2011-01-01

    Guanzhong area of Shaanxi Province is not only an important birthplace of Chinese civilization, but also is the coring area leading the Northwest's rapid development and implementing the strategy of western development currently. With some relevant conclusions of historical documentation,pollen and soil profile analyses,from the view point of resources and environment foundation evolution,taking climate,water and soil as three major elements,this paper takes systematic analyses of the capital migration history and its resources and environmental driving forces in Cuanzhong area,from the Western Zhou Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty (BC 1059 -705). The goal of this work is to investigate laws and characteristics of man - land relationship evolution when human capacity of exploiting and utilizing natural resources is weak. Then,considering the current tasks and challenges faced by Guanzhong area, this paper proposes some recommendations for its future development. The main conclusions are as follows: (1 .) resource and environment evolution, which is taking water, soil and heat as three major elements, is an important driver for urban migration. Except political reasons, during the period from the Western Zhou Dynasty to the Tang and Song Dynasties,the important cause for capital migration in Cuanzhong area lies in its resources and environment foundation evolution,which is weak inside and lacking strong supply support outside. That is,under the circumstance of climate becoming drought,and land productivity reducing,on the one hand,because of large-scale population concentration and inappropriate resource development behavior,water and soil resources and environment elements in or near Cuanzhong area,such as forests,grasslands,rivers and so on,were all facing intense pressure; on the other hand,reduced precipitation,soil erosion and other factors caused by the interruption of the Weihe River shipping,so capitals in Cuanzhong area lost their stable external material supply

  6. A decision support system for the reading of ancient documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roued-Cunliffe, Henriette

    2011-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis is based in the Humanities discipline of Ancient History and begins by attempting to understand the interpretation process involved in reading ancient documents and how this process can be aided by computer systems such as Decision Support Systems (DSS...... this process in the five areas: remembering complex reasoning, searching huge datasets, international collaboration, publishing editions, and image enhancement. This research contains a large practical element involving the development of a DSS prototype. The prototype is used to illustrate how a DSS...... such as ‘these strokes look like the letter c’ or ‘these five letters must be the word primo’. Furthermore, the thesis demonstrates how technology such as Web Services and XML can be used to make a DSS even more powerful through the development of the APPELLO word search Web Service. Finally, the conclusion...

  7. Cleaning of Ancient Document Images Using Modified Iterative Global Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Venkata Rao

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Ancient document Image processing is an important area attracting many researchers in the recent period. Binarization is the first step while cleaning the document for further processing. Based on the degradation of the original document, either global or local thresholding methods are preferred. Thresholding phenomenon is a simple and practical approach to identify the cluster of pixels that are most likely associated with background information, while separating the object information. In this paper we propose a modified iterative global thresholding approach to separate the clusters of fore ground and background. The relative closeness towards background intensity is computed in each iteration after image equalization. Camera captured images of ancient printed documents, stone carvings and palm leaves are evaluated in the present paper.

  8. Ancient Acupuncture Literature on Apoplexy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yi-zeng; BI Zhen; Xiao Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews twenty-eight Chinese medicine books with complete prescriptions prior to the Qing Dynasty, and analyzes the characteristics of acupoint selection and needling manipulations from the perspective of apoplectic symptoms. It is concluded that,in ancient times, apoplexy is often treated on the basis of its symptoms and a great number of acupoints are employed; hemiplegia is mainly treated by the acupoints of the Large Intestine Meridian and Gallbladder Meridian,with two key acupoints; coma is mainly treated by first-aid acupoints and qi-supplementing acupoints, with seven key acupoints; wry mouth and convulsion are mainly treated by the local acupoints; as for needling manipulations, moxibustion with moxa cones is principally used, while needling is less used.

  9. Ancient and modern environmental DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Ermini, Luca;

    2015-01-01

    DNA obtained from environmental samples such as sediments, ice or water (environmental DNA, eDNA), represents an important source of information on past and present biodiversity. It has revealed an ancient forest in Greenland, extended by several thousand years the survival dates for mainland...... woolly mammoth in Alaska, and pushed back the dates for spruce survival in Scandinavian ice-free refugia during the last glaciation. More recently, eDNA was used to uncover the past 50 000 years of vegetation history in the Arctic, revealing massive vegetation turnover at the Pleistocene...... knowledge of biogeography. However, the approach remains marred by biases related to DNA behaviour in environmental settings, incomplete reference databases and false positive results due to contamination. We provide a review of the field....

  10. Detecting hybridization using ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Nathan K; Shapiro, Beth; Green, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    It is well established that related species hybridize and that this can have varied but significant effects on speciation and environmental adaptation. It should therefore come as no surprise that hybridization is not limited to species that are alive today. In the last several decades, advances in technologies for recovering and sequencing DNA from fossil remains have enabled the assembly of high-coverage genome sequences for a growing diversity of organisms, including many that are extinct. Thanks to the development of new statistical approaches for detecting and quantifying admixture from genomic data, genomes from extinct populations have proven useful both in revealing previously unknown hybridization events and informing the study of hybridization between living organisms. Here, we review some of the key recent statistical innovations for detecting ancient hybridization using genomewide sequence data and discuss how these innovations have revised our understanding of human evolutionary history.

  11. [Being old in ancient Hellas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooff, A J

    1983-08-01

    There is room for a more balanced view of old age among the ancient Greeks than is furnished by De Beauvoir's la Vieillesse and other more or less one-sided publications. The old body was despised by the Greeks of classical times; especially walking with three legs (tripous) was stressed as a mark of old age. The Hippocratic writings show some interest in the infirmities of elderly people. Specific psychic and intellectual qualities were not attributed to senescence: old age brought out good and bad qualities of a person more sharply than before. The share of old people in the population cannot be established with any certainty, but there was always a group of men in their sixties who had specific tasks in society. Old age was not an autonomous theme in art, it was solely accidental. The position of the elderly was challenged occasionally in democratic Athens, but it was never undermined. Old people were never marginated in classical Greece.

  12. Value orientations of students, future nursery-school teachers: Stability or change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Dušanka A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented of investigations on value orientations of students future nursery-school teachers, as manifested by preferences of certain lifestyles. The aim was to examine if there is stability or change in the desirability of some lifestyles in three generations of students of Higher School for Nursery-School Teacher Training. Examinations were carried out on preferences of the following lifestyles: hedonistic, utilitarian altruistic, aesthetic, orientation to power and social standing, cognitive self-realization and Promethean activism. The obtained results indicate a certain stability in student value profile throughout the study period but also certain changes. In the value profile of future nursery-school teachers self-realization emerges consistently in the examined generations as the most desirable and accepted lifestyle. Then, the tendency to gradually decline was found in aesthetic, utilitarian, cognitive, altruistic Promethean, hedonistic and orientation to power and social standing lifestyles of which the last one consistently occurred in three generations as the least desirable lifestyle. Changes were manifested in the increasing desirability of utilitarian lifestyle from the first to the third generation as well as in gradual decline of desirability degree in self realization and aesthetic lifestyles. Also, the trend of increasing agreement between lifestyle students prefer and their current lifestyle was noticeable.

  13. Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua benefits from the availability of seagrass (Zostera marina nursery habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Lilley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua is a species of significant economic and historic importance but infamous for its decline. Apart from overfishing, the causes of this decline and its subsequent lack of recovery remain largely unresolved. Indeed, the degree to which specific habitats are important for this species remains unquantified at the scale of North Atlantic. Here, the literature on the role of eelgrass meadows (Zostera marina as valuable nursery habitat for the Atlantic cod is reviewed and synthesized. Evidence is presented on relative densities of Atlantic cod in shallow water environments and in eelgrass meadows in comparison to alternative habitats. In addition, evidence pertaining to the ’viability gains’ attributed to the use of eelgrass meadows as nursery habitat (growth and survival by juvenile Atlantic cod is analyzed. Although juvenile Atlantic cod use of Z. marina is found to be facultative, when possible, available literatures indicates that they may select Z. marina as a nursery habitat where they are found in high density (average of at least 246 ha−1. From their use of Z. marina habitat the juvenile Atlantic cod receives viability benefits from it, improving their chances of reaching maturation. This paper provides strong evidence that eelgrass meadows are of significant importance to contributing to Atlantic cod stocks.

  14. Influence of nursery microhabitats on the future abundance of a coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Shaun K; Depczynski, Martial; Fulton, Christopher J; Holmes, Thomas H; Radford, Ben T; Tinkler, Paul

    2016-08-17

    Species habitat associations are often complex, making it difficult to assess their influence on populations. Among coral reef fishes, habitat requirements vary among species and with ontogeny, but the relative importance of nursery and adult-preferred habitats on future abundances remain unclear. Moreover, adult populations may be influenced by recruitment of juveniles and assessments of habitat importance should consider relative effects of juvenile abundance. We conducted surveys across 16 sites and 200 km of reef to identify the microhabitat preferences of juveniles, sub-adults and adults of the damselfish Pomacentrus moluccensis Microhabitat preferences at different life-history stages were then combined with 6 years of juvenile abundance and microhabitat availability data to show that the availability of preferred juvenile microhabitat (corymbose corals) at the time of settlement was a strong predictor of future sub-adult and adult abundance. However, the influence of nursery microhabitats on future population size differed spatially and at some locations abundance of juveniles and adult microhabitat (branching corals) were better predictors of local populations. Our results demonstrate that while juvenile microhabitats are important nurseries, the abundance of coral-dependent fishes is not solely dependent on these microhabitats, especially when microhabitats are readily available or following large influxes of juveniles. PMID:27534954

  15. Active Optical Sensors for Tree Stem Detection and Classification in Nurseries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Garrido

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Active optical sensing (LIDAR and light curtain transmission devices mounted on a mobile platform can correctly detect, localize, and classify trees. To conduct an evaluation and comparison of the different sensors, an optical encoder wheel was used for vehicle odometry and provided a measurement of the linear displacement of the prototype vehicle along a row of tree seedlings as a reference for each recorded sensor measurement. The field trials were conducted in a juvenile tree nursery with one-year-old grafted almond trees at Sierra Gold Nurseries, Yuba City, CA, United States. Through these tests and subsequent data processing, each sensor was individually evaluated to characterize their reliability, as well as their advantages and disadvantages for the proposed task. Test results indicated that 95.7% and 99.48% of the trees were successfully detected with the LIDAR and light curtain sensors, respectively. LIDAR correctly classified, between alive or dead tree states at a 93.75% success rate compared to 94.16% for the light curtain sensor. These results can help system designers select the most reliable sensor for the accurate detection and localization of each tree in a nursery, which might allow labor-intensive tasks, such as weeding, to be automated without damaging crops.

  16. Spatial variations in dietary organic matter sources modulate the size and condition of fish juveniles in temperate lagoon nursery sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalas, Arthur; Ferraton, Franck; Paillon, Christelle; Vidy, Guy; Carcaillet, Frédérique; Salen-Picard, Chantal; Le Loc'h, François; Richard, Pierre; Darnaude, Audrey Michèle

    2015-01-01

    Effective conservation of marine fish stocks involves understanding the impact, on population dynamics, of intra-specific variation in nursery habitats use at the juvenile stage. In some regions, an important part of the catching effort is concentrated on a small number of marine species that colonize coastal lagoons during their first year of life. To determine the intra-specific variation in lagoon use by these fish and their potential demographic consequences, we studied diet spatiotemporal variations in the group 0 juveniles of a highly exploited sparid, the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.), during their ∼6 months stay in a NW Mediterranean lagoon (N = 331, SL = 25-198 mm) and traced the origin of the organic matter in their food webs, at two lagoon sites with contrasted continental inputs. This showed that the origin (marine, lagoonal or continental) of the organic matter (OM) available in the water column and the sediment can vary substantially within the same lagoon, in line with local variations in the intensity of marine and continental inputs. The high trophic plasticity of S. aurata allows its juveniles to adapt to resulting differences in prey abundances at each site during their lagoon residency, thereby sustaining high growth irrespective of the area inhabited within the lagoon. However, continental POM incorporation by the juveniles through their diet (of 21-37% on average depending on the site) is proportional to its availability in the environment and could be responsible for the greater fish sizes (of 28 mm SL on average) and body weights (of 40.8 g on average) observed at the site under continental influence in the autumn, when the juveniles are ready to leave the lagoon. This suggests that continental inputs in particulate OM, when present, could significantly enhance fish growth within coastal lagoons, with important consequences on the local population dynamics of the fish species that use them as nurseries. As our results indicate that

  17. Molecular Characterization of Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium commune Isolates from a Conifer Nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jane E; Kim, Mee-Sook; James, Robert L; Dumroese, R Kasten; Klopfenstein, Ned B

    2006-10-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium species can cause severe root disease and damping-off in conifer nurseries. Fusarium inoculum is commonly found in most container and bareroot nurseries on healthy and diseased seedlings, in nursery soils, and on conifer seeds. Isolates of Fusarium spp. can differ in virulence; however, virulence and colony morphology are not correlated. Forty-one isolates of Fusarium spp., morphologically indistinguishable from F. oxysporum, were collected from nursery samples (soils, healthy seedlings, and diseased seedlings). These isolates were characterized by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and DNA sequencing of nuclear rDNA (internal transcribed spacer including 5.8S rDNA), mitochon-drial rDNA (small subunit [mtSSU]), and nuclear translation elongation factor 1-alpha. Each isolate had a unique AFLP phenotype. Out of 121 loci, 111 (92%) were polymorphic; 30 alleles were unique to only highly virulent isolates and 33 alleles were unique to only isolates nonpathogenic on conifers. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses of DNA sequences from all three regions and the combined data set showed that all highly virulent isolates clearly separated into a common clade that contained F. commune, which was recently distinguished from its sister taxon, F. oxysporum. Interestingly, all but one of the nonpathogenic isolates grouped into a common clade and were genetically similar to F. oxysporum. The AFLP cladograms had similar topologies when compared with the DNA-based phylograms. Although all tested isolates were morphologically indistinguishable from F. oxysporum based on currently available monographs, some morphological traits can be plastic and unreliable for identification of Fusarium spp. We consider the highly virulent isolates to be F. commune based on strong genetic evidence. To our knowledge, this is the first reported evidence that shows F. commune is a cause of Fusarium disease (root rot and dampingoff) on Douglas-fir seedlings. Furthermore

  18. Extent of mangrove nursery habitats determines the geographic distribution of a coral reef fish in a South-Pacific archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Paillon

    Full Text Available Understanding the drivers of species' geographic distribution has fundamental implications for the management of biodiversity. For coral reef fishes, mangroves have long been recognized as important nursery habitats sustaining biodiversity in the Western Atlantic but there is still debate about their role in the Indo-Pacific. Here, we combined LA-ICP-MS otolith microchemistry, underwater visual censuses (UVC and mangrove cartography to estimate the importance of mangroves for the Indo-Pacific coral reef fish Lutjanus fulviflamma in the archipelago of New Caledonia. Otolith elemental compositions allowed high discrimination of mangroves and reefs with 83.8% and 98.7% correct classification, respectively. Reefs were characterized by higher concentrations of Rb and Sr and mangroves by higher concentrations of Ba, Cr, Mn and Sn. All adult L. fulviflamma collected on reefs presented a mangrove signature during their juvenile stage with 85% inhabiting mangrove for their entire juvenile life (about 1 year. The analysis of 2942 UVC revealed that the species was absent from isolated islands of the New Caledonian archipelago where mangroves were absent. Furthermore, strong positive correlations existed between the abundance of L. fulviflamma and the area of mangrove (r = 0.84 for occurrence, 0.93 for density and 0.89 for biomass. These results indicate that mangrove forest is an obligatory juvenile habitat for L. fulviflamma in New Caledonia and emphasize the potential importance of mangroves for Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes.

  19. 西安地区出土2000年前人牙三维模型的建立%Establishment of the 3 dimensional models of ancient human teeth which were unearthed in Xi'an area about 2000 years ago

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭绍斌; 邵金陵; 段小红; 段清波; 周涛; 石飒飒; 李琳

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish the 3 dimensional (3D) models of ancient human teeth using modern digital imaging techniques, for reducing the damage during morphological study, and implementing the digitized imaging conservation of ancient human teeth and resource sharing. Method: 517 teeth which were unearthed in Xi'an area about 2000 years ago were scanned using Micro-CT, then they were reconstructed to 3D images and saved by Mimics10.01 software. After 3D reconstruction , 20 teeth were selected randomly from them. The crown lengths, root lengths, mesiodistal diameters and buccol- ingual diameters of the 20 samples and their reconstructed 3D models were compared to verify the accuracy of the 3D models. Result: 517 teeth were reconstructed to 3D models. The models were accurate; it can separate and measure the structures of teeth precisely by software. The relevant parameters between the samples and 3D models were not significantly different (P >0.05) , the error rate was between 0.21 % to 4.99 %. Conclusion: Micro-CT scanning and 3D imaging reconstruction technique is simple and feasible in the digitized imaging conservation methods of ancient human teeth. They can protect the integrity of teeth samples and acquire accurate data.%目的:运用现代影像学技术建立古人类牙标本三维模型,以减少古人类牙形态学研究过程中造成的毁损,并实现古人类牙标本的数字化保存和资源共享.方法:运用Micro-CT对517颗西安地区出土的2000年前人牙进行扫描,采用Mimics10.01软件三维重建和保存.扫描图像全部重建后,从中随机抽取20颗牙,对照标本实物与其相应模型进行牙冠长、根长、近远中径、颊舌径的比较,以验证模型的可靠性和真实性.结果:对517颗牙全部建立了三维模型.模型形态逼真,在软件支持下,可将各组织结构精确分离和测量.通过对标本的实际测量值与三维模型相应测量值的比较,发现两种方法

  20. Notes on photographic depictions of the portraits of Ancient philosophers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savchuk, Valeriy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the research in the area that has just started to take shape nowadays, namely the study of visual images of ancient philosophers, and identifies the ways in which we can clarify the role played by images of ancient philosophers, including the ones produced during their lifetime and the later replicas. I highlight the problem of how the image of particular philosopher might influence reception of his thought and rise the following: could the portraits of a philosopher act like an obstacle for pondering the originality of his ideas? Is there a historical correlation between evolution of a philosopher’s visual image and the changes in perception of his thought? What were the stages of mythologizing certain philosopher? I conclude that portraits of philosophers possess intrinsic language and additional resource for comprehending philosophy of ancient thinkers. Implicit substitution of tridimensional sculptural image for flat photographic one is another important topic of the present article. Two basic interpretations of portraits are distinguished: the first one takes place at the moment of the portrait’s creating, the second – in the process of taking a photograph of the said portrait thus transmitting it into flat image. Eliminating some implicit assumptions allows us to improve methodological base for research on the philosopher’s images. I conclude that portraits of the philosophers shall not be perceived as mere illustration for verbal descriptions, but as important and valuable sources on their own right.

  1. Accounting And Forms Of Accountability In Ancient Civilizations: Mesopotamia And Ancient Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    SALVADOR CARMONA

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify the relevance and implications of ancient accounting practices to the contemporary theorizing of accounting. The paper provides a synthesis of the literature on ancient accounting particularly in relation to issues of human accountability, identifies its major achievements and outlines some of the key challenges facing researchers. We argue that far from being an idiosyncratic research field of marginal interest, research in ancient accounting is a rich an...

  2. Cu-Mn-Fe alloys and Mn-rich amphiboles in ancient copper slags from the Jabal Samran area, Saudi Arabia: With synopsis on chemistry of Fe-Mn(III) oxyhydroxides in alteration zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surour, Adel A.

    2015-01-01

    In the Jabal Samran area (western Saudi Arabia), secondary copper mineralization in a NE-trending shear zone in which the arc metavolcanic host rocks (dacite-rhyodacite) show conjugate fractures and extensive hydrothermal alteration and bleaching. The zones contain frequent Fe-Mn(III) oxyhydroxides (FeOH-MnOH) that resulted from oxidation of pyrite and Mn-bearing silicates. In the bleached part, the groundmass is represented by Fe-bearing interstratified illite-smectite with up to 4.02 wt% FeOt. FeOH-MnOH are pre-weathering phases formed by hydrothermal alteration in a submarine environment prior to uplifting. Five varieties of FeOH are distinguished, four of them are exclusively hydrothermal with ∼20 wt% H2O whereas the fifth contains ∼31-33 wt% H2O and might represent reworking of earlier hydrothermal FeOH phases by weathering. FeOH fills thin fractures in the form of veinlets and crenulated laminae or as a pseudomorph for pyrite, goethite and finally ferrihydrite, and this oxyhydroxide is characterized by positive correlation of Fe2O3 with SiO2 and Al2O3. On the other hand, MOH shows positive correlation between MnO2 and Al2O3 whereas it is negative between Fe2O3 and SiO2. Paratacamite is the most common secondary copper mineral that fills fractures and post-dates FeOH and MnOH. It is believed that Cl- in the structure of paratacamite represents inherited marine storage rather than from surfacial evaporates or meteoric water. The mineralogy of slags suggests a complicated mineral assemblage that includes native Cu prills, synthetic spinifixed Mn-rich amphiboles with 16.73 wt% MnO, brown glass and Ca-Mn-Fe phase close to the olivine structure. EMPA indicate that the some Cu prills have either grey discontinuous boarder zone of S-rich Mn-Cu alloy (with up to 21.95 wt% S and 19.45 wt% Mn) or grey Cu-Mn-Fe alloy (with up to 15.9 wt% Cu, 39. 12 wt% Mn and 61.64 wt% Fe). Mn in the Cu prills is expelled inward as Cu-Mn-Fe alloy inclusions whereas S is expelled

  3. Faience: the ceramic technology of ancient Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Faiences are ancient Egyptian ceramic materials, considered as "high-tech" products. The paper discussed the method by which the faiences were produced and the application of SEM and Raman spectroscopy to their analysis

  4. NIMI TANTRA (Opthalmology of Ancient India)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, C.K.

    1984-01-01

    The art of opthalmology was well developed in ancient India and was known as Nimi Tantra. In this paper the author presents the main features of Nimi Tantra an authoritative treatises written by Nimi, a prominent opthalmologist of his time.

  5. Ancient Magnetic Reversals: Clues to the Geodynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kenneth A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the question posed by some that the earth's magnetic field may reverse. States that rocks magnetized by ancient fields may offer clues to the underlying reversal mechanism in the earth's core. (TW)

  6. Ancient Admixture in Human History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Luo, Yontao; Mallick, Swapan; Rohland, Nadin; Zhan, Yiping; Genschoreck, Teri; Webster, Teresa; Reich, David

    2012-01-01

    Population mixture is an important process in biology. We present a suite of methods for learning about population mixtures, implemented in a software package called ADMIXTOOLS, that support formal tests for whether mixture occurred and make it possible to infer proportions and dates of mixture. We also describe the development of a new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array consisting of 629,433 sites with clearly documented ascertainment that was specifically designed for population genetic analyses and that we genotyped in 934 individuals from 53 diverse populations. To illustrate the methods, we give a number of examples that provide new insights about the history of human admixture. The most striking finding is a clear signal of admixture into northern Europe, with one ancestral population related to present-day Basques and Sardinians and the other related to present-day populations of northeast Asia and the Americas. This likely reflects a history of admixture between Neolithic migrants and the indigenous Mesolithic population of Europe, consistent with recent analyses of ancient bones from Sweden and the sequencing of the genome of the Tyrolean “Iceman.” PMID:22960212

  7. Ancient history of flatfish research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghahn, Rüdiger; Bennema, Floris Pieter

    2013-01-01

    Owing to both their special appearance and behavior flatfish have attracted the special attention of people since ages. The first records of humans having been in touch with flatfish date back to the Stone Age about 15,000 years B.C. Detailed descriptions were already given in the classical antiquity and were taken up 1400 years later in the Renaissance by the first ichthyologists, encyclopédists, and also by practical men. This was more than 200 years before a number of common flatfish species were given their scientific names by Linnaeus in 1758. Besides morphology, remarkable and sometimes amusing naturalistic observations and figures are bequeathed. Ancient history of flatfish research is still a wide and open array. Examples are presented how the yield of information and interpretation from these times increases with interdisciplinary cooperation including archeologists, zoologists, ichthyologists, historians, art historians, fisheries and fishery biologist. The timeline of this contribution ends with the start of modern fishery research at the end of the 19th century in the course of the rapidly increasing exploitation of fish stocks.

  8. Rethinking the Ancient Sulfur Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, David A.; Bradley, Alexander S.; Rose, Catherine V.

    2015-05-01

    The sulfur biogeochemical cycle integrates the metabolic activity of multiple microbial pathways (e.g., sulfate reduction, disproportionation, and sulfide oxidation) along with abiotic reactions and geological processes that cycle sulfur through various reservoirs. The sulfur cycle impacts the global carbon cycle and climate primarily through the remineralization of organic carbon. Over geological timescales, cycling of sulfur is closely tied to the redox state of Earth's exosphere through the burial of oxidized (sulfate) and reduced (sulfide) sulfur species in marine sediments. Biological sulfur cycling is associated with isotopic fractionations that can be used to trace the fluxes through various metabolic pathways. The resulting isotopic data provide insights into sulfur cycling in both modern and ancient environments via isotopic signatures in sedimentary sulfate and sulfide phases. Here, we review the deep-time δ34S record of marine sulfates and sulfides in light of recent advances in understanding how isotopic signatures are generated by microbial activity, how these signatures are encoded in marine sediments, and how they may be altered following deposition. The resulting picture shows a sulfur cycle intimately coupled to ambient carbon cycling, where sulfur isotopic records preserved in sedimentary rocks are critically dependent on sedimentological and geochemical conditions (e.g., iron availability) during deposition.

  9. Surgical history of ancient China: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Louis

    2010-03-01

    In this second part of ancient Chinese surgical history, the practice of bone setting in China began around 3000 years ago. Throughout this period, significant progress was made, some highlights of which are cited. These methods, comparable with Western orthopaedic technique, are still being practised today. In conclusion, the possible reasons for the lack of advancement in operative surgery are discussed, within context of the cultural, social and religious background of ancient China.

  10. Radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, H. [Nagoya Univ., Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    History is a reconstruction of past human activity, evidence of which is remained in the form of documents or relics. For the reconstruction of historic period, the radiocarbon dating of ancient documents provides important information. Although radiocarbon age is converted into calendar age with the calibration curve, the calibrated radiocarbon age is still different from the historical age when the document was written. The difference is known as 'old wood effect' for wooden cultural property. The discrepancy becomes more serious problem for recent sample which requires more accurate age determination. Using Tandetron accelerator mass spectrometer at Nagoya University, we have measured radiocarbon ages of Japanese ancient documents, sutras and printed books written dates of which are clarified from the paleographic standpoint. The purpose is to clarify the relation between calibrated radiocarbon age and historical age of ancient Japanese document by AMS radiocarbon dating. This paper reports 23 radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese documents, sutras and printed books. The calibrated radiocarbon ages are in good agreement with the corresponding historical ages. It was shown by radiocarbon dating of the ancient documents that Japanese paper has little gap by 'old wood effect'; accordingly, ancient Japanese paper is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating of recent historic period. (author)

  11. Use of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) in biological control of intermediate host snails of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in nursery ponds in the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hung, Nguyen M.; Duc, Nguyen V.; Stauffer, Jay R.;

    2013-01-01

    Background: The risks of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) to human health constitute an important problem in Vietnam. The infection of humans with these trematodes, such as small liver trematodes (Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini), intestinal trematodes (Heterophyidae) and others...... is often thought to be linked to fish culture in areas where the habit of eating raw fish is common. Juvenile fish produced in nurseries are often heavily infected with FZT and since fishes are sold to aquaculture facilities for growth, control of FZT in these fishes should be given priority. Controlling...... the first intermediate host (i.e., freshwater gastropods), would be an attractive approach, if feasible. The black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus, is a well-known predator of freshwater snails and is already used successfully for biological control of snails in various parts of the world including Vietnam...

  12. Community-based technology transfer in rural aquaculture: the case of mudcrab Scylla serrata nursery in ponds in Northern Samar, Central Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baticados, Didi B; Agbayani, Renato F; Quinitio, Emilia T

    2014-12-01

    Finding aquaculture development approaches to open up livelihood opportunities for the rural poor and in mainstreaming smallholder fish farmers to reduce poverty remain a challenge. This paper examines the community-based technology transfer mechanism of mudcrab nursery in ponds and its socioeconomic impacts on smallholder mudcrab growers in Northern Samar, Philippines. Results indicated that the technology is a viable enterprise done by a straight culture system method, which is the rearing of crablets from technology adoption hinges on many factors like area ownership, farm distance from household, and market including the type of strategy needed to enhance technology uptake. Collaboration among research and development institutions and local partners is critical in training and empowering rural communities to adopt aquaculture technologies.

  13. Population genetic analysis infers migration pathways of Phytophthora ramorum in US nurseries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica M Goss

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently introduced, exotic plant pathogens may exhibit low genetic diversity and be limited to clonal reproduction. However, rapidly mutating molecular markers such as microsatellites can reveal genetic variation within these populations and be used to model putative migration patterns. Phytophthora ramorum is the exotic pathogen, discovered in the late 1990s, that is responsible for sudden oak death in California forests and ramorum blight of common ornamentals. The nursery trade has moved this pathogen from source populations on the West Coast to locations across the United States, thus risking introduction to other native forests. We examined the genetic diversity of P. ramorum in United States nurseries by microsatellite genotyping 279 isolates collected from 19 states between 2004 and 2007. Of the three known P. ramorum clonal lineages, the most common and genetically diverse lineage in the sample was NA1. Two eastward migration pathways were revealed in the clustering of NA1 isolates into two groups, one containing isolates from Connecticut, Oregon, and Washington and the other isolates from California and the remaining states. This finding is consistent with trace forward analyses conducted by the US Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. At the same time, genetic diversities in several states equaled those observed in California, Oregon, and Washington and two-thirds of multilocus genotypes exhibited limited geographic distributions, indicating that mutation was common during or subsequent to migration. Together, these data suggest that migration, rapid mutation, and genetic drift all play a role in structuring the genetic diversity of P. ramorum in US nurseries. This work demonstrates that fast-evolving genetic markers can be used to examine the evolutionary processes acting on recently introduced pathogens and to infer their putative migration patterns, thus showing promise for the application of

  14. The research of relationship between mothers and their children who continue their nursery class education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Saygı

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Secure attachment relationship between mother and infant is an important start that makes the mother-child relationship healthier over the course of the ensuing years. Mothers play a large role in the development of their children’s social relationships. A healthy mother- child communication helps children develop a healthy personality and have healthy relationship with others. The purpose of this research is to analyse the relationship between mothers and their (5-6-year-old children who continue their nursery class education. This research has been carried out by using relational screening model. The mothers whose children continue their nursery class education at the private and public schools in the Anatolian side of Istanbul, have formed the target population. For that purpose with the cluster sample method; Kadıköy, Ataşehir and Maltepe provinces located in the Anatolian side and the mothers from these provinces whose children continue their education in the nursery class, have formed the sample of this research. A version of “ Child-Parent Relationship Scale ” developed by Robert C. Pianta (1992, adapted into Turkish by Saygı and a personal information form developed by the researchers for the mothers’ descriptive information, have been used as data collection tool in this research. Mothers’ relations with their children have been analyzed in terms of the scale’s sub-dimensions of affiliation and conflict acording to the mother’s age, educational and employment status. Significant differences (p<05 have been observed.

  15. Sandy beach surf zones: An alternative nursery habitat for 0-age Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin Jarrin, J. R.; Miller, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The role of each habitat fish use is of great importance to the dynamics of populations. During their early marine residence, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), an anadromous fish species, mostly inhabit estuaries but also use sandy beach surf zones and the coastal ocean. However, the role of surf zones in the early life history of Chinook salmon is unclear. We hypothesized that surf zones serve as an alternative nursery habitat, defined as a habitat that consistently provides a proportion of a population with foraging and growth rates similar to those experienced in the primary nursery. First, we confirmed that juvenile Chinook salmon cohorts are simultaneously using both habitats by combining field collections with otolith chemical and structural analysis to directly compare size and migration patterns of juveniles collected in two Oregon (USA) estuaries and surf zones during three years. We then compared juvenile catch, diet and growth in estuaries and surf zones. Juveniles were consistently caught in both habitats throughout summer. Catches were significantly higher in estuaries (average ± SD = 34.3 ± 19.7 ind. 100 m-2) than surf zones (1.0 ± 1.5 ind. 100 m-2) and were positively correlated (r = 0.92). Size at capture (103 ± 15 mm fork length, FL), size at marine entry (76 ± 13 mm FL), stomach fullness (2 ± 2% body weight) and growth rates (0.4 ± 0.0 mm day-1) were similar between habitats. Our results suggest that when large numbers of 0-age Chinook salmon inhabit estuaries, juveniles concurrently use surf zones, which serve as an alternative nursery habitat. Therefore, surf zones expand the available rearing habitat for Chinook salmon during early marine residence, a critical period in the life history.

  16. Characterization of Fe-S Minerals influenced by buried ancient woods in the intertidal zone,East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN LinXi; SUN LiGuang; FORTIN Danielle; WANG YuHong; WU ZiJun; YIN XueBin

    2009-01-01

    An ancient wood layer dated at about 5600 cal. a BP by AMS14C dating was discovered in the intertidal zone, East China Sea. Samples affected by ancient woods, including fresh coast bedrock, weathering bedrock, seepage water from coast, seepage water from ancient wood layer, intertidal seawater, fresh water, beach mud, ancient wood barks and ancient peat, were collected for geochemical analysis. The beach mud and the bacteriogenic iron oxides (BIOS) in coastal seepage water were analyzed by min-eralogical and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM)-selected area electron dif-fraction (SAED) analysis. Inorganic sulfur compositions and δ34S of the ancient peat and the beach mud were determined. The results showed that Fe, Mn, S (SO42-) were enriched in the intertidal area at different levels, very likely caused by fermentation of ancient woods. The presence of abundant iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in this intertidal zone was confirmed by HRTEM-SAED observation, and these bacteria were involved in Fe-S cycle to induce extracellular biomineralization. The negative δ34Sv-CDT (-2.9%.) likely indicated the biogenic origin of iron-sulfide minerals in the beach mud at high sulfate reduction rate (SRR). These findings are helpful for under-standing the biogeochemical Fe-S cycle and biomineralization process at high organic matter deposition rate and high SRR in the intertidal zone, estuary, or near shoreline.

  17. Burns treatment in ancient times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pećanac, Marija; Janjić, Zlata; Komarcević, Aleksandar; Pajić, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Misković, Sanja Skeledzija

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques. PMID:23888738

  18. Burns treatment in ancient times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pećanac, Marija; Janjić, Zlata; Komarcević, Aleksandar; Pajić, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Misković, Sanja Skeledzija

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques.

  19. Characteristics of Acupuncture Treatment of Dementia in Ancient Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-gong; GU Jie; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    This paper makes a statistical analysis on the acupuncture treatment of dementia recorded in 93 ancient books. The statistics show that the common acupoints are Shenmen ( HT 7), Shaoshang ( LU 11 ),Dazhong ( KI4), Yinbai ( SP 1 ), Houxi ( SI 3 ), Xinshu (BL 15), Yongquan (KI 1), Jiuwei (CV 15) and Baihui (GV 20); the common meridians are the Heart Meridian, Bladder Meridian and Kidney Meridian; the common areas are palm, medial side of leg, upper back and head; the acupoints of the heart meridian are frequently used, especially those in the distal end;heavy moxibustion functions to open orifices and needling to regulate qi.

  20. 塔北哈拉哈塘地区奥陶系层间改造区岩溶古水文条件分析%Ancient hydrological conditions of the Ordovician transformation zones in the Halahatang area,northern Tarim

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑多明; 张庆玉; 赵宽志; 梁彬; 淡永; 李景瑞

    2015-01-01

    哈拉哈塘地区自北往南可分为潜山岩溶区、层间岩溶顺层改造区、层间岩溶台缘叠加区、层间岩溶斜坡区。层间岩溶-顺层改造区为潜山岩溶区和层间岩溶区过渡区域,文章对前志留纪和良里塔格组岩溶期沉积间断古岩溶水文条件特征进行了详细分析,认为地表河流特征总体表现为自北往南径流,深切河谷决定着局部排泄基准面的深度。在此基础上对地下暗河特征进行刻画,本区地下暗河类型多样,总体表现为流入型和流出型暗河管道系统发育,多为单流入、流出系统,地震反射暗河特征较明显,多为连续或断续串珠强反射,以良里塔格组岩溶期暗河最为发育,且前志留纪岩溶期“断头河”多为部分伏流出口。地下暗河管道附近往往发育大型缝洞体,是目前勘探开发重点研究攻坚对象,因此精确恢复和刻画古岩溶流域水文系统的分布特征,寻找油气藏有利储层是广大岩溶油藏专家所关注的重点。%From north to south,the Halahatang area of northern Tarim can be divided buried hill in karst, interbed karst bedding reform,interbed karst platform-margin overlap,and karst slope zones.Among these,the inter-bed karst-bedding reform zone is the transition area between the buried hill karst and bedding karst zones.This paper presents a detailed analysis on the ancient karst hydrological conditions for sediment discontinuity in the Pre-Silurian and Lianglitage formation karst period.The results suggest that the surface drainages are characterized overall by runoff from north to south and deeply incised valleys that decided the depth of the local discharge datum.There are various kinds of underground rivers,which are of flow in and flow out types as pipeline systems,mostly in single inflows and outflows.On seismic reflection profiles, these rivers can be recognized by continuous or intermittent beaded strong reflections

  1. Spatially explicit analyses of gastropod biodiversity in ancient Lake Ohrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauffe, T.; Albrecht, C.; Schreiber, K.; Birkhofer, K.; Trajanovski, S.; Wilke, T.

    2010-07-01

    Spatial heterogeneity of biodiversity arises from evolutionary processes, constraints of environmental factors and the interaction of communities. The quality of such spatial analyses of biodiversity is improved by (i) utilizing study areas with well defined physiogeographical boundaries, (ii) limiting the impact of widespread species, and (iii) using taxa with heterogeneous distributions. These conditions are typically met by ecosystems such as oceanic islands or ancient lakes and their biota. While research on ancient lakes has contributed significantly to our understanding of evolutionary processes, statistically sound studies of spatial variation of extant biodiversity have been hampered by the frequently vast size of ancient lakes, their limited accessibility, and the lack of infrastructure around them. The small European ancient Lake Ohrid provides a rare opportunity for such a reliable spatial study. The comprehensive horizontal and vertical sampling of a species-rich taxon, the Gastropoda, presented here, revealed interesting patterns of biodiversity, which, in part, have not been shown before for other ancient lakes. In a total of 224 locations throughout the Ohrid Basin, representatives of 68 gastropod species with 50 of them being endemic (=73.5%) could be reported. The spatial distribution of these species shows the following characteristics: (i) within Lake Ohrid, the most frequent species are endemic taxa with a wide depth range, (ii) widespread species (i.e. those occurring throughout the Balkans or beyond) are rare and mainly occur in the upper layer of the lake, (iii) while the total number of species decreases with water depth, the share of endemics increases, (iv) the deeper layers of Lake Ohrid appear to have a higher spatial homogeneity of biodiversity and related environmental factors, (v) biotic interaction due to possible spillover effects may contribute to the establishment of hotspots, and (vi) eco-insularity within the Ohrid Basin occurs

  2. Spatially explicit analysis of gastropod biodiversity in ancient Lake Ohrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauffe, T.; Albrecht, C.; Schreiber, K.; Birkhofer, K.; Trajanovski, S.; Wilke, T.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of spatial analyses of biodiversity is improved by (i) utilizing study areas with well defined physiogeographical boundaries, (ii) limiting the impact of widespread species, and (iii) using taxa with heterogeneous distributions. These conditions are typically met by ecosystems such as oceanic islands or ancient lakes and their biota. While research on ancient lakes has contributed significantly to our understanding of evolutionary processes, statistically sound studies of spatial variation of extant biodiversity have been hampered by the frequently vast size of ancient lakes, their limited accessibility, and the lack of scientific infrastructure. The European ancient Lake Ohrid provides a rare opportunity for such a reliable spatial study. The comprehensive horizontal and vertical sampling of a species-rich taxon, the Gastropoda, presented here, revealed interesting patterns of biodiversity, which, in part, have not been shown before for other ancient lakes. In a total of 284 samples from 224 different locations throughout the Ohrid Basin, 68 gastropod species, with 50 of them (= 73.5%) being endemic, could be reported. The spatial distribution of these species shows the following characteristics: (i) within Lake Ohrid, the most frequent species are endemic taxa with a wide depth range, (ii) widespread species (i.e. those occurring throughout the Balkans or beyond) are rare and mainly occur in the upper layer of the lake, (iii) while the total number of species decreases with water depth, the proportion of endemics increases, and (iv) the deeper layers of Lake Ohrid appear to have a higher spatial homogeneity of biodiversity. Moreover, gastropod communities of Lake Ohrid and its feeder springs are both distinct from each other and from the surrounding waters. The analysis also shows that community similarity of Lake Ohrid is mainly driven by niche processes (e.g. environmental factors), but also by neutral processes (e.g. dispersal limitation and

  3. Spatially explicit analysis of gastropod biodiversity in ancient Lake Ohrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hauffe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of spatial analyses of biodiversity is improved by (i utilizing study areas with well defined physiogeographical boundaries, (ii limiting the impact of widespread species, and (iii using taxa with heterogeneous distributions. These conditions are typically met by ecosystems such as oceanic islands or ancient lakes and their biota. While research on ancient lakes has contributed significantly to our understanding of evolutionary processes, statistically sound studies of spatial variation of extant biodiversity have been hampered by the frequently vast size of ancient lakes, their limited accessibility, and the lack of scientific infrastructure. The European ancient Lake Ohrid provides a rare opportunity for such a reliable spatial study. The comprehensive horizontal and vertical sampling of a species-rich taxon, the Gastropoda, presented here, revealed interesting patterns of biodiversity, which, in part, have not been shown before for other ancient lakes.

    In a total of 284 samples from 224 different locations throughout the Ohrid Basin, 68 gastropod species, with 50 of them (= 73.5% being endemic, could be reported. The spatial distribution of these species shows the following characteristics: (i within Lake Ohrid, the most frequent species are endemic taxa with a wide depth range, (ii widespread species (i.e. those occurring throughout the Balkans or beyond are rare and mainly occur in the upper layer of the lake, (iii while the total number of species decreases with water depth, the proportion of endemics increases, and (iv the deeper layers of Lake Ohrid appear to have a higher spatial homogeneity of biodiversity. Moreover, gastropod communities of Lake Ohrid and its feeder springs are both distinct from each other and from the surrounding waters. The analysis also shows that community similarity of Lake Ohrid is mainly driven by niche processes (e.g. environmental factors, but also by neutral processes (e.g. dispersal

  4. Spatially explicit analyses of gastropod biodiversity in ancient Lake Ohrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hauffe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatial heterogeneity of biodiversity arises from evolutionary processes, constraints of environmental factors and the interaction of communities. The quality of such spatial analyses of biodiversity is improved by (i utilizing study areas with well defined physiogeographical boundaries, (ii limiting the impact of widespread species, and (iii using taxa with heterogeneous distributions. These conditions are typically met by ecosystems such as oceanic islands or ancient lakes and their biota. While research on ancient lakes has contributed significantly to our understanding of evolutionary processes, statistically sound studies of spatial variation of extant biodiversity have been hampered by the frequently vast size of ancient lakes, their limited accessibility, and the lack of infrastructure around them. The small European ancient Lake Ohrid provides a rare opportunity for such a reliable spatial study. The comprehensive horizontal and vertical sampling of a species-rich taxon, the Gastropoda, presented here, revealed interesting patterns of biodiversity, which, in part, have not been shown before for other ancient lakes.

    In a total of 224 locations throughout the Ohrid Basin, representatives of 68 gastropod species with 50 of them being endemic (=73.5% could be reported. The spatial distribution of these species shows the following characteristics:

    (i within Lake Ohrid, the most frequent species are endemic taxa with a wide depth range, (ii widespread species (i.e. those occurring throughout the Balkans or beyond are rare and mainly occur in the upper layer of the lake, (iii while the total number of species decreases with water depth, the share of endemics increases, (iv the deeper layers of Lake Ohrid appear to have a higher spatial homogeneity of biodiversity and related environmental factors, (v biotic interaction due to possible spillover effects may contribute to the establishment of hotspots, and (vi eco

  5. Report on hard red spring wheat varieties grown in cooperative plot and nursery experiments in the spring wheat region in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hard Red Spring Wheat Uniform Regional Nursery (HRSWURN) was planted for the 84th year in 2014. The nursery contained 26 entries submitted by 6 different scientific or industry breeding programs, and 5 checks (Table 1). Trials were conducted as randomized complete blocks with three replicates ex...

  6. The Differential Role of Symptoms of Anxiety and Social Withdrawal in Chinese Children's Dependency on Their Teachers during the Transition to Nursery Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: Based on a short-term longitudinal sample of Chinese children, the present study examined the role of symptoms of anxiety and social withdrawal in dependency on teachers during the transition to nursery care. Children's dependency on their teachers was assessed first at 3 months after nursery entry (Time 1) and then at the end…

  7. Effects of dietary electrolyte balance and molasses in diets with corn-based distiller's dried grains with solubles on growth performance in nursery and finishing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two assays were conducted to determine the effects of dietary electrolyte balance dEB) and molasses in diets with corn-based distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS, Sioux River Ethanol, Hudson, SD) on growth performance of nursery and finishing pigs. For the first experiment, 126 nursery pigs ...

  8. Report on hard red spring wheat varieties grown in cooperative plot and nursery experiments in the spring wheat region in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hard Red Spring Wheat Uniform Regional Nursery (HRSWURN) was planted for the 83rd year in 2013. The nursery contained 29 entries submitted by 7 different scientific or industry breeding programs, and 5 checks (Table 1). Trials were conducted as randomized complete blocks with three replicates ex...

  9. Farmer Tree Nursery as a Catalyst for Developing Sustainable Best Management Land Use Practices in Lake Victoria Catchments Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shisanya, C. A.; Makokha, M. O.; Kimani, S. K.; Kalumuna, M.; Tenge, A.

    Support to farmer nurseries is classified as either hard referring to material inputs (tree seed, water, tools and fencing) or soft (information, training and backstopping advice). Against a background of poor services for smallholder farmers in the Lake Victoria basin, it was hypothesized that a number of support agents operating at the grassroot level together with farmers themselves provide the different support functions needed in the establishment of farmer tree nurseries. Through financial support from Inter-University Council of East Africa coordinated VicReS Project, a collaborative project involving Kenyatta University (Kenya), Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and Mulingano Agricultural Research Institute (Tanzania) has been able to initiate reforestation/afforestation activities in Lake Victoria catchments ecosystems of western Kenya and western Tanzania. Through the initial activities, a total of twenty four farmer groups have been identified in western Kenya and supported through capacity building and supply of basic inputs for tree nursery seed bed preparation and management. The groups have been able to set up tree nurseries and are now managing seed beds with a total of 450,000 agro-forestry seedlings, mainly Grevillea robusta and Casuarina spp. The farmers intend to distribute the seedling among the members for planting on farm boundaries, around homesteads and woodlots within their homesteads and sell the surplus. Preliminary findings show that there is an urgent need to facilitate grassroot level support systems with larger participation from the national extension service for provision of training and backstopping advice. Strengthening the human capital of farmers and service providers emerges as critical in increasing impact. Farmer nurseries are shown to play a number of important and interrelated functions in building natural, human and social capital. Monitoring and evaluating farmer nurseries in catalyzing these three functions

  10. Genetic diversity among ancient Nordic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, Linea; Lynnerup, Niels; Siegismund, Hans R; Kivisild, Toomas; Dissing, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Using established criteria for work with fossil DNA we have analysed mitochondrial DNA from 92 individuals from 18 locations in Denmark ranging in time from the Mesolithic to the Medieval Age. Unequivocal assignment of mtDNA haplotypes was possible for 56 of the ancient individuals; however, the success rate varied substantially between sites; the highest rates were obtained with untouched, freshly excavated material, whereas heavy handling, archeological preservation and storage for many years influenced the ability to obtain authentic endogenic DNA. While the nucleotide diversity at two locations was similar to that among extant Danes, the diversity at four sites was considerably higher. This supports previous observations for ancient Britons. The overall occurrence of haplogroups did not deviate from extant Scandinavians, however, haplogroup I was significantly more frequent among the ancient Danes (average 13%) than among extant Danes and Scandinavians (approximately 2.5%) as well as among other ancient population samples reported. Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type "diluted" by later immigration events. Interestingly, the two Neolithic samples (4,200 YBP, Bell Beaker culture) that were typed were haplogroup U4 and U5a, respectively, and the single Bronze Age sample (3,300-3,500 YBP) was haplogroup U4. These two haplogroups have been associated with the Mesolithic populations of Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, at least for Southern Scandinavia, our findings do not support a possible replacement of a haplogroup U dominated hunter-gatherer population by a more haplogroup diverse Neolithic Culture.

  11. The Ancient Martian Climate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Today Mars is a cold, dry, desert planet. The atmosphere is thin and liquid water is not stable. But there is evidence that very early in its history it was warmer and wetter. Since Mariner 9 first detected fluvial features on its ancient terrains researchers have been trying to understand what climatic conditions could have permitted liquid water to flow on the surface. Though the evidence is compelling, the problem is not yet solved. The main issue is coping with the faint young sun. During the period when warmer conditions prevailed 3.5-3.8 Gy the sun's luminosity was approximately 25% less than it is today. How can we explain the presence of liquid water on the surface of Mars under such conditions? A similar problem exists for Earth, which would have frozen over under a faint sun even though the evidence suggests otherwise. Attempts to solve the "Faint Young Sun Paradox" rely on greenhouse warming from an atmosphere with a different mass and composition than we see today. This is true for both Mars and Earth. However, it is not a straightforward solution. Any greenhouse theory must (a) produce the warming and rainfall needed, (b) have a plausible source for the gases required, (c) be sustainable, and (d) explain how the atmosphere evolved to its present state. These are challenging requirements and judging from the literature they have yet to be met. In this talk I will review the large and growing body of work on the early Mars climate system. I will take a holistic approach that involves many disciplines since our goal is to present an integrated view that touches on each of the requirements listed in the preceding paragraph. I will begin with the observational evidence, which comes from the geology, mineralogy, and isotopic data. Each of the data sets presents a consistent picture of a warmer and wetter past with a thicker atmosphere. How much warmer and wetter and how much thicker is a matter of debate, but conditions then were certainly different than

  12. Nursery production of hatchery-reared milkfish, Chanos chanos in earthen ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia J. Jaspe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To ensure stable supply of milkfish, Chanos chanos fingerlings for stocking in ponds or cageswhere they will be reared until harvestable size, nursery production of hatchery-reared milkfish fry inearthen ponds and fed solely on natural food (periphyton was developed. Trials were conducted using500 m2 earthen ponds during the dry and wet months. The ponds were prepared and added withfertilizers in order to enhance the production of natural food. Hatchery-reared milkfish fry were stockedat densities ranging 20 – 39 fry/m2. At least a month (< 40 days after stocking, the fry reached thefingerling stage (2.59 – 4.63 g with survival rates of 68.6% - 81.0%. There was better productionduring the dry months due to abundant supply of natural food, although it was also possible to obtaingood production during the wet months when pond conditions are favorable. This strategy of rearingmilkfish fry in nursery ponds using natural food could be a viable and inexpensive technique inmaintaining sustainable milkfish aquaculture.

  13. Effects of composted sewage sludge on microbial biomass, activity and pine seedlings in nursery forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selivanovskaya, S Yu; Latypova, V Z

    2006-01-01

    The investigation was carried out in a 2 year experiment to evaluate the benefits and hazards of the use of composted sewage sludge as a restoration agent for the soil of the nursery forest intended for growing Pinus sylvestris seedlings. The grey forest soil (Haplic Greyzem) was amended with compost at the 25, 50, 75, 100, 150 and 175 t ha(-1) application rates on a dry matter basis. The organic matter content increased with the increase in sludge amendment as well as the metal content. However, the concentrations of individual metals were below the current limits established for Russia and European countries. Sludge amendments enhanced the germination and decreased the mortality of the seedlings. The effects were more obvious for the soil with the highest sludge treatment. The beneficial effects on the biomass of seedlings and the height of the shoots as well as on the length of the roots of the pine seedlings were greater in plots with the highest rates of composted sludge. The application of composted sludge to soil was followed by an increase in microbial biomass and to a lesser extent in basal respiration. In the absence of any detrimental effect on microorganisms, this study lends support to using composted sewage sludge as the organo-mineral fertilizer for the soil of nursery forest. PMID:16307873

  14. Practical Application of Electrochemical Nitrate Sensor under Laboratory and Forest Nursery Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, William-Olivier; Lamhamedi, Mohammed S.; Viens, Jeff; Messaddeq, Younès

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of nitrate leaching to ensure greater protection of groundwater quality has become a global issue. The development of new technologies for more accurate dosing of nitrates helps optimize fertilization programs. This paper presents the practical application of a newly developed electrochemical sensor designed for in situ quantification of nitrate. To our knowledge, this paper is the first to report the use of electrochemical impedance to determine nitrate concentrations in growing media under forest nursery conditions. Using impedance measurements, the sensor has been tested in laboratory and compared to colorimetric measurements of the nitrate. The developed sensor has been used in water-saturated growing medium and showed good correlation to certified methods, even in samples obtained over a multi-ion fertilisation season. A linear and significant relationship was observed between the resistance and the concentration of nitrates (R2 = 0.972), for a range of concentrations of nitrates. We also observed stability of the sensor after exposure of one month to the real environmental conditions of the forest nursery. PMID:27483266

  15. Effect of Environment on the Productivity and Physiological Indicator of Nursery Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoan Yin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to determine the effect of rearing environment on the productivity and physiological indicator during the nursery phase of pigs. 14 litters of commercial crossbred pigs (Large White×Landrace Weaned at 35 days of age were reared in their original pen with the weaker eliminated. 7 flatdecks (F and 7 straw enriched pens (S were modified from the farrowing pen. Feed Intake (FI, Average Daily Weight Gain (ADWG and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR was collected and 2 male and 2 female per litter were randomly selected to measure cortisol, Growth Hormone (GH and IgG at the end of the experimental period (70 days of age. Results showed that, for piglets in S, FI of was significantly lower (p<0.05 from 50 days of age and ADWG from 43 to 70 days of age was significantly lower (p<0.001, though GH was significantly higher (p<0.01. But there was no difference in FCR, cortisol and IgG between environments. In conclusion, piglets in S had a higher GH, but poor productivity because of unsuitable feed changing and nursery environment had no effect on cortisol and IgG.

  16. Nursery practices increase seedling performance on nutrient-poor soils in Swietenia humilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basave Villalobos E

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia humilis is a valued tree species for its high-quality wood, among other commercial interests. Attempts to plant the species in southwest Mexico have often failed due to poor quality seedlings combined with low soil fertility and dry environments. Nursery top-pruning and fertilization are practices previously reported to improve seedling quality, and facilitate rapid establishment under poor site conditions. In the present study, the effects of three top-pruning intensities (0%, 25%, and 50%, and two fertilizer regimes (traditional and exponential on several S. humilis seedling morphological and physiological indices were tested in the nursery, and a quality test trial on nutrient-poor soils was conducted. Significant interactions between the above two treatments were not detected. Top pruning at 25% and 50% intensity did not improve S. humilis seedling quality. However, exponential nutrient supply exhibited favorable effects on seedling growth. Results of the quality test trial revealed exponential fertilization promoted satisfactory seedling performance when low nutrient availability was a limiting factor.

  17. [Conscious instead of instinctive behavior: efficient replacement of the mother-child relationship in residential nurseries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, J

    1980-01-01

    When the mother of the human baby must be permanently replaced, a solution must be found which is not based upon the spontaneous behavior of the substitute. The nurse-child relationship in any residential nursery, efficiently replacing the mother-child relationship, differs from that relation in its essential characteristics. The origins, motivation and the elements composing the relationship are different, as well as its future. Any demand on the nurse to assume an attitude similar to the instinctive maternal one is false and dangerous. While intensifying the personal characteristics of care, the nurse should always keep in mind that it is not her own child she is rearing. In spite of her devotion, feelings and affectionate exchanges with the child, she must consciously remain in line with her profession. While showing warmth to all the children in her guard, the residential nursery nurse must control her attachment to prevent the children from becoming objects of her unlimited and uncontrolled emotions. The results of catamnestic studies on former pupils of the Loczy Institute in Budapest seem to prove that the institutional model used protects the child from serious deficiencies, insures good development and organization of the personality and gives him a good basis for relationships with other people. PMID:7349454

  18. Biocontrol of Phytophthora infestans, Fungal Pathogen of Seedling Damping Off Disease in Economic Plant Nursery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Loliam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to control Seedling damping off disease in plants by using antagonistic actinomycetes against the causative fungi. Phytophthora infestans was isolated from the infected tomato plant seedling obtained from an economic plant nursery in Amphoe Pak Chong, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. The chitinolytic Streptomyces rubrolavendulae S4, isolated from termite mounds at the grove of Amphoe Si-Sawat, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand, was proven to be the most effective growth inhibition of fungal pathogens tested on potato dextrose agar. Tomato and chili seedlings that colonized with antagonistic S. rubrolavendulae S4 were grown in P. infestans artificial inoculated peat moss. Percents of noninfested seedling in fungal contaminated peat moss were compared to the controls with uninoculated peat moss. In P. infestans contaminated peat moss, the percents of survival of tomato and chili seedling were significantly increased (0.05. It was clearly demonstrated that S. rubrolavendulae S4 can prevent the tomato and chili seedling damping off disease in economic plant nurseries.

  19. The fish community of a moderately exposed beach on the southwestern Cape coast of South Africa and an assessment of this habitat as a nursery for juvenile fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, B. A.

    1989-03-01

    The ichthyofauna of a moderately exposed surf-zone habitat on the southwestern Cape coast of South Africa was sampled by seine netting monthly for 13 months. Twenty species of fish, 40 306 individuals weighing a total of 211 kg were captured. The number of species and standing crop varied seasonally with higher values occurring during the summer (January-March). The average summer standing stock of 38·6 g m -2 was considerably higher than any previously recorded from a surf-zone habitat and the annual average (10·1 g m -2 was comparable with that in estuaries. Eighteen of the species sampled occurred almost exclusively as juveniles and only two as adults. Four species were present throughout the year, 11 of them seasonally and the remaining five sporadically. Small juveniles (20-35 mm) typically appeared in the surf-zone 2-4 months after they were spawned. These 0+ juveniles remained there for between three months and one year depending on species, before vacating the surf-zone for their adult habitats. A comparison of the abundance of juveniles in the surf-zone with other inshore marine habitats suggested that five species ( Amblyrhynchotes honckenii, Cheilodonichthys capensis, Diplodus sargus, Lithognathus mormyrus and Pomadasys olivaceum) may be entirely, and three species ( Lichia amia, Liza richardsoni and Rhabdosargus globiceps) largely, dependent on the surf-zone as a nursery area. It was concluded that the surf-zone of sandy beaches may be as important as estuaries as a nursery habitat for juvenile fish.

  20. Restoration of European yew (Taxus baccata L. in Mediterranean mountains: importance of seedling nursery fertilization and post-planting light levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan L. Nicolás Peragón

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: We studied the influence of nursery fertilization and post-planting light environment on the growth and survival of out-planted two-year-old yew (Taxus baccata seedlings.Area of study: Post-planting performance was assessed at two sites in the Valsain Forest (Central Mountain Range, Segovia, Spain.Materials and Methods: Seedlings were grown using the same seed-lot, container type and fertirrigation schedule. A soluble fertilizer with two contrasting doses resulting in 239 and 376 mg N per seedling was applied during the whole culture period. Seedlings grown under the highest level of fertilization had greater root collar diameter, height, shoot to root ratio, root and shoot mass, and root growth potential before planting. Post-planting performance was assessed at two sites in the Valsain Forest (Central Mountain Range, Segovia, Spain. In each site, seedlings from both fertilization treatments were planted in three plots with contrasting light environment (full sunlight, and under Pinus sylvestris stands with moderate and deep shade conditions. Survival, diameter and height growth were monitored for six years.Main results: Nursery fertilization did not affect survival, but high fertilization enhanced post-planting growth. Survival was highest under deep shade conditions but growth in this microsite was lower than in higher light sites, revealing a trade-off for survival and growth across light levels.Research highlights: The lower fertilization rate used in this study was suitable to produce seedlings with acceptable quality. Planting under shaded conditions (light availability<30% is recommended to maximize the initial success of yew plantations in Mediterranean mountains.Keywords: Taxus baccata; plant quality; field growth; survival; reforestation.

  1. The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Zwahlen, François; Wang, Yanxin

    2011-08-01

    The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology are summarized and interpreted, along with records of some related matters, like groundwater exploration and utilization, karst springs, water circulation, water conservation and saline-land transformation, mine drainage, and environmental hydrogeology. The report focuses only on the earliest recorded notes, mostly up until the Han Dynasty (206 BC - AD 25). Besides the references cited, the discussion in this report is based mainly on archaeological material, the preserved written classic literature, and some assumptions and/or conclusions that have been handed down in legends to later ages. Although most material relates to ancient China, the lessons learned may have practical significance worldwide. Compared to other contemporary parts of the world, ancient China, without doubt, took the lead in the field of groundwater hydrology. The great achievements and experience of the Chinese ancestors should provide motivation and inspiration for hydrogeologists to carry out their scientific research and exploration passionately and actively.

  2. The Vindolanda Tablets and the Ancient Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Kasper Grønlund

    , a model is outlined which takes into account the different economic behaviours revealed by the tablets and attempts to fit them together into one coherent, economic system, whilst also relating the activities to questions of scale in the ancient economy; moreover, the conclusions drawn in the study......, the aim is to investigate how best to comprehend the economic system attested at Vindolanda and to consider the wider implications for studies of the ancient economy in general. This is accomplished by a three-step approach: first, the nature of the Vindolandan evidence is assessed, and the state...... of research on both studies of the ancient economy and the economy of early Roman Britain is accounted for, so as to highlight the value of the Vindolanda Tablets and lay the ground for the interpretations which follow. Secondly, the economic activities attested by the tablets are analysed in terms of market...

  3. Twins in Ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2016-01-01

    This brief outline associates twins with several aspects of life in Ancient Greece. In Greek mythology twins caused ambivalent reactions and were believed to have ambivalent feelings for each other. Very often, they were viewed as the representatives of the dualistic nature of the universe. Heteropaternal superfecundation, which dominates in ancient myths, explains on one hand, the god-like qualities and, on the other hand, the mortal nature of many twins. An assumption is presented that legends referring to twins might reflect the territorial expansions of Ancient Greeks in Northern Mediterranean, around the Black Sea, in Asia Minor, as well as North East Africa. In conclusion, in Greek antiquity, twins have been used as transitional figures between myth and reality. PMID:26135766

  4. Did the ancient egyptians discover Algol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetsu, L.; Porceddu, S.; Porceddu, S.; Lyytinen, J.; Kajatkari, P.; Markkanen, T.; Toivari-Viitala, J.

    2013-02-01

    Fabritius discovered the first variable star, Mira, in 1596. Holwarda determined the 11 months period of Mira in 1638. Montanari discovered the next variable star, Algol, in 1669. Its period, 2.867 days, was determined by Goodricke (178). Algol was associated with demon-like creatures, "Gorgon" in ancient Greek and "ghoul" in ancient Arab mythology. This indicates that its variability was discovered much before 1669 (Wilk 1996), but this mythological evidence is ambiguous (Davis 1975). For thousands of years, the Ancient Egyptian Scribes (AES) observed stars for timekeeping in a region, where there are nearly 300 clear nights a year. We discovered a significant periodicity of 2.850 days in their calendar for lucky and unlucky days dated to 1224 BC, "the Cairo Calendar". Several astrophysical and astronomical tests supported our conclusion that this was the period of Algol three millennia ago. The "ghoulish habits" of Algol could explain this 0.017 days period increase (Battersby 2012).

  5. PIXE ANALYSIS ON AN ANCIENT SCROLL SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shutthanandan, V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Iuliano, Edward M.; Seales, William B.

    2008-12-01

    For years, scientists have developed several new techniques to read texts of Herculaneum scrolls without destroying them. Recently, the use of a custom built high-resolution CT scanner was proposed to scan and then virtually unroll the scrolls for reading. Identification of any unique chemical signatures in the ancient ink would allow better calibration of the CT scanner to improve the chances of resolving the ink from the burned papyrus background. To support this effort, we carried out one pilot study to see whether the composition of the ink can be obtained from an ancient scroll sample using PIXE technique. PIXE data were collected and analyzed in two different regions of the ancient scroll sample (ink and blank regions). This preliminary work shows that elemental distributions from the ink used in this scroll mainly contained Al, Fe and Ti as well as minor trace amounts of Cr, Cu and Zn.

  6. Palaeoparasitology - Human Parasites in Ancient Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Adauto; Reinhard, Karl; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Parasite finds in ancient material launched a new field of science: palaeoparasitology. Ever since the pioneering studies, parasites were identified in archaeological and palaeontological remains, some preserved for millions of years by fossilization. However, the palaeoparasitological record consists mainly of parasites found specifically in human archaeological material, preserved in ancient occupation sites, from prehistory until closer to 2015. The results include some helminth intestinal parasites still commonly found in 2015, such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms, besides others such as Amoebidae and Giardia intestinalis, as well as viruses, bacteria, fungi and arthropods. These parasites as a whole provide important data on health, diet, climate and living conditions among ancient populations. This chapter describes the principal findings and their importance for knowledge on the origin and dispersal of infectious diseases.

  7. Proof and Pedagogy in Ancient China: Examples from Liu Hui's Commentary on "JIU ZHANG SUAN SHU".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Man-Keung

    1993-01-01

    Illustrates the pedagogical implications embodied in Liu Hui's discussion on the ancient Chinese mathematical classic "JIU ZHANG SUAN SHU" (Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art) with respect to aspects of proof and, more generally, the role of proof in mathematics. Provides examples involving area and volume. (Contains 25 references.) (MDH)

  8. Comparison of modern Mississippi fan with selected ancient fans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmugam, G.; Moiola, R.J.; McPherson, J.G.; O' Connell, S.

    1988-09-01

    A comparison of the modern passive-margin Mississippi fan (DSDP Leg 96) with selected ancient active-margin fans reveals major differences in turbidite facies associations and seismic characteristics of the lower fan area. The lower Mississippi fan is composed of channel (facies B and F) and nonchannel sequences (facies C. and D), whereas lower fan areas of ancient active-margin fans are characterized by nonchannelized, thickening-upward depositional lobes (facies C and D) with sheetlike geometry. An absence of depositional lobes in the lower Mississippi fan is also suggested by a lack of mounded seismic reflections. Continuous and parallel seismic reflections of the lower Mississippi fan may represent sheet sands, but not those of true depositional lobes. In mature passive-margin fans, long, sinuous channels develop as a consequence of low gradients and the transport of sediment with a relatively low sand/mud ratio, and these channels develop lenticular sand bodies. In contrast, channels in active-margin fans are short and commonly braided as a result of high gradients and the transport of sediment with a relatively high sand/mud ratio. Braided channels characteristically develop sheetlike sand bodies.

  9. Ancient neurilemmoma: A rare oral tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Muruganandhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurilemmomas are benign tumors of neural origin composed of Schwann cell proliferation in characteristic patterns. Ancient neurilemmomas are usually longstanding growths that exhibit degenerative features that could be mistaken for malignancy. They are extremely rare in the oral cavity and present in older individuals of long duration. The authors report a case of ancient neurilemmoma in a young patient with short duration of growth. This unique case presented with remarkable histopathological features with respect to vascularity and atypia associated with degenerative change. It is essential to not mistake these features as malignant transformation so as to avoid radical procedures.

  10. Mythological Emblem Glyphs of Ancient Maya Kings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmke, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Heinrich Berlin’s identification of Emblem Glyphs in 1958 has rightly been hailed as one of the major breakthroughs in the decipherment of ancient Maya writing. Although their exact function and meaning was unclear at the time, these are now recognized to serve as exalted regal titles that incorp......Heinrich Berlin’s identification of Emblem Glyphs in 1958 has rightly been hailed as one of the major breakthroughs in the decipherment of ancient Maya writing. Although their exact function and meaning was unclear at the time, these are now recognized to serve as exalted regal titles...

  11. Evolution of medical education in ancient Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanouil Pikoulis; Pavlos Msaouel; Efthimios D Avgerinos; Sofia Anagnostopoulou; Christos Tsigris

    2008-01-01

    @@ The study of ancient Greece is essential for the proper understanding of the evolution of modem Western medicine.An important innovation of classical Greek medicine was the development of a body of medical theory associated with natural philosophy,i.e.a strong secular tradition of free enquiry,or what would now be called "science" (Επιστημη).Medical education rests upon the ancient Greek foundations and its history remains a fascinating topic for modem physicians and medical teachers.

  12. Symmetries in Images on Ancient Seals

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the presence of symmetries in images engraved on ancient seals, in particular on stamp seals. Mainly used to secure the containers from tampering and for owner's identification, these objects appeared during the 5th millennium BC in Mesopotamia. Usually the seals were engraved with simple images, suitable to communicate an immediate information. Rotational symmetries are already displayed by the most ancient stamp seals, whose images reach a quasi-perfect symmetry in their small circular or ovoid spaces. Bilateral symmetries are quite common in Egyptian scarab seals.

  13. A Modern Take on an Ancient Master

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A new English translation of The Analects gives a fresh perspective on Confucius and his philosophy by Zan Jifang Confucius(551-491 B.C.) is generally viewed as ancient China’s foremost thinker.His philosophy is probably best catalogued in The Analects,a record of the sage’s wisdom compiled after his death.This Confucian classic provides a shortcut to understanding Chinese culture. A new English edition of the ancient classic(published by the Foreign Languages Press)

  14. Some Determinations and Findings on Intellectual and Institutional Similarities in the Ancient/Traditional World

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNEŞ, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    There are remarkable intellectual and institutional similarities on numerous subject/area in the ancient/ traditional World. In this context, it is possible to witness and to see such thoughts and intellectuals that resemble to the Ottoman’s state understanding based on justice -too old- both at the East (Iran and India) and at the West (ancient Greek). Besides, it is also known that such institutions similar to the Ottoman’s “timar” and “guild” system were present at different places and tim...

  15. EVALUATION OF 2+0 AGED NURSERY OF THE SCOTCH PINE (Pinus sylvestrisL. RAISED IN KASTAMONU-TASKOPRU FOREST NURSERY AS TO TSI QUALITY CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan DEMİRCİOĞLU

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study; 2+0 aged, bare root, Daday-Koldandere origin of Scotch pine seedlings, produced at Kastamonu–Taşköprü forest nursery, were used. First the morphological characters of the seedlings were determined and the appropriateness to TS 2265/February 1988 were examined. Furthermore, the sensitiveness of quality classification both TSI and newly formed for the mentioned scotch pine seedlings were checked with discriminate analysis. In the conclusion, the average values of the seedling height, the root collar diameter, seedling height / root collar diameter ratio, stem dry weight / root dry weight ratio, dry root percent, quality index of 2+0 aged scotch pine seedlings were determined as 11.62 cm, 2.93 mm, 40.14, 2.34, 30.65 %, 0.32 respectively. In addition, 92.7 % of the seedlings as to the seedling height criterion, 98.7 % of the seedlings as to the root collar diameter criterion, 91.4 % of the seedlings as to the seedling height - root collar diameter criterion, 92.7 % of the seedlings as to the stem dry weight / root dry weight ratio criterion were included in first quality class in respect of TSI quality classification.

  16. Ancient water and sanitation systems - applicability for the contemporary urban developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, T; Roma, E; Foxon, K M; Templeton, M R; Buckley, C A

    2013-01-01

    The idea of implementing ancient water and wastewater technologies in the developing world is a persuasive one, since ancient systems had many features which would constitute sustainable and decentralised water and sanitation (WATSAN) provision in contemporary terminology. Latest figures indicate 2.6 billion people do not use improved sanitation and 1.1 billion practise open defecation, thus there is a huge need for sustainable and cost-effective WATSAN facilities, particularly in cities of the developing world. The objective of this study was to discuss and evaluate the applicability of selected ancient WATSAN systems for the contemporary developing world. Selected WATSAN systems in ancient Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, Egypt, Greece, Rome and the Yucatan peninsula are briefly introduced and then discussed in the context of the developing world. One relevant aspect is that public latrines and baths were not only a part of daily life in ancient Rome but also a focal point for socialising. As such they would appear to represent a model of how to promote use and acceptance of modern community toilets and ablution blocks. Although public or community toilets are not classified as improved sanitation by WHO/UNICEF, this is a debatable premise since examples such as Durban, South Africa, illustrate how community toilets continue to represent a WATSAN solution for urban areas with high population density. Meanwhile, given the need for dry sanitation technologies, toilets based on the production of enriched Terra Preta soil have potential applications in urban and rural agriculture and warrant further investigation.

  17. Ancient water and sanitation systems - applicability for the contemporary urban developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, T; Roma, E; Foxon, K M; Templeton, M R; Buckley, C A

    2013-01-01

    The idea of implementing ancient water and wastewater technologies in the developing world is a persuasive one, since ancient systems had many features which would constitute sustainable and decentralised water and sanitation (WATSAN) provision in contemporary terminology. Latest figures indicate 2.6 billion people do not use improved sanitation and 1.1 billion practise open defecation, thus there is a huge need for sustainable and cost-effective WATSAN facilities, particularly in cities of the developing world. The objective of this study was to discuss and evaluate the applicability of selected ancient WATSAN systems for the contemporary developing world. Selected WATSAN systems in ancient Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, Egypt, Greece, Rome and the Yucatan peninsula are briefly introduced and then discussed in the context of the developing world. One relevant aspect is that public latrines and baths were not only a part of daily life in ancient Rome but also a focal point for socialising. As such they would appear to represent a model of how to promote use and acceptance of modern community toilets and ablution blocks. Although public or community toilets are not classified as improved sanitation by WHO/UNICEF, this is a debatable premise since examples such as Durban, South Africa, illustrate how community toilets continue to represent a WATSAN solution for urban areas with high population density. Meanwhile, given the need for dry sanitation technologies, toilets based on the production of enriched Terra Preta soil have potential applications in urban and rural agriculture and warrant further investigation. PMID:23416582

  18. Records of solar eclipse observations in ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Like ancient people at other places of the world, the ancient Chinese lived in awe of the Sun. As they felt solar eclipses extremely significant events, they closely observed the occurrence of solar eclipse. Ancient astronomers further realized very early that solar eclipses were one of the important astronomical phenomena to revise and improve the ancient calendar. Interestingly, ancient emperors regarded solar eclipses as warnings from heaven that might affect the stability of their throne. Consequently, observing and recording solar eclipses became official, which dated far back to ancient China when numerous relevant descriptions were recorded in historical books. These records contribute substantially to China as an ancient civilization, as well as to the research of the long-term variation of the rotation rate of the Earth during >2000 years before the 17th century. This paper briefly reviews the perception, observations and recording of solar eclipses by ancient Chinese astronomers.

  19. Records of solar eclipse observations in ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN YanBen; QIAO OiYuan

    2009-01-01

    Like ancient people at other places of the world, the ancient Chinese lived in awe of the Sun. As they felt solar eclipses extremely significant events, they closely observed the occurrence of solar eclipse. Ancient astronomers further realized very early that solar eclipses were one of the important astro-nomical phenomena to revise and improve the ancient calendar. Interestingly, ancient emperors re-garded solar eclipses as warnings from heaven that might affect the stability of their throne. Conse-quently, observing and recording solar eclipses became official, which dated far back to ancient China when numerous relevant descriptions were recorded in historical books. These records contribute substantially to China as an ancient civilization, as well as to the research of the long-term variation of the rotation rate of the Earth during >2000 years before the 17th century. This paper briefly reviews the perception, observations and recording of solar eclipses by ancient Chinese astronomers.

  20. Records of solar eclipse observations in ancient China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yanben; Qiao, Qiyuan

    2009-11-01

    Like ancient people at other places of the world, the ancient Chinese lived in awe of the Sun. As they felt solar eclipses extremely significant events, they closely observed the occurrence of solar eclipse. Ancient astronomers further realized very early that solar eclipses were one of the important astronomical phenomena to revise and improve the ancient calendar. Interestingly, ancient emperors regarded solar eclipses as warnings from heaven that might affect the stability of their throne. Consequently, observing and recording solar eclipses became official, which dated far back to ancient China when numerous relevant descriptions were recorded in historical books. These records contribute substantially to China as an ancient civilization, as well as to the research of the long-term variation of the rotation rate of the Earth during >2000 years before the 17th century. This paper briefly reviews the perception, observations and recording of solar eclipses by ancient Chinese astronomers.

  1. Intraosseous neurilemmoma of the mandible: Report of a rare ancient type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Jahanshahi

    2011-01-01

    Intraosseous schwannomas especially ancient ones are rare tumors. Here we present a case of intraosseous ancient schwannoma in the lower jaw of an 11-year-old girl which caused a non-tender expansion. Radiographic examination showed a well-circumscribed, unilocular radiolucent lesion with thin sclerotic borders in the mandibular body and the ramus. Histopathologic examination of the incisional biopsy showed areas of typical Antoni A with verocay bodies and Antoni B that was strongly suggestive of a schwannoma. Complete excision of the lesion was done under general anesthesia. The histopathologic examination confirmed the primary diagnosis and also degenerative changes such as hyalinization and calcification. Based on these findings, the diagnosis of ancient schwannoma was made. No recurrence was observed in the follow-up examination after 3 months.

  2. Water and sustainable land use at the ancient tropical city of Tikal, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Vernon L; Dunning, Nicholas P; Tankersley, Kenneth B; Carr, Christopher; Weaver, Eric; Grazioso, Liwy; Lane, Brian; Jones, John G; Buttles, Palma; Valdez, Fred; Lentz, David L

    2012-07-31

    The access to water and the engineered landscapes accommodating its collection and allocation are pivotal issues for assessing sustainability. Recent mapping, sediment coring, and formal excavation at Tikal, Guatemala, have markedly expanded our understanding of ancient Maya water and land use. Among the landscape and engineering feats identified are the largest ancient dam identified in the Maya area of Central America; the posited manner by which reservoir waters were released; construction of a cofferdam for dredging the largest reservoir at Tikal; the presence of ancient springs linked to the initial colonization of Tikal; the use of sand filtration to cleanse water entering reservoirs; a switching station that facilitated seasonal filling and release; and the deepest rock-cut canal segment in the Maya Lowlands. These engineering achievements were integrated into a system that sustained the urban complex through deep time, and they have implications for sustainable construction and use of water management systems in tropical forest settings worldwide. PMID:22802627

  3. Ancient schwannoma at the olfactory groove mimicking meningioma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Young Jin; Jeong, Hae Woong [Dept. of Radiology, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Schwannomas are benign slow-growing nerve sheath tumors, which can develop in any peripheral or central nerve that contains Schwann cells. Schwannomas located near the olfactory groove are extremely rare and radiological diagnosis can be difficult. Moreover, ancient schwannoma is an uncommon variant, and radiologic findings are rarely reported. Herein, we reported a surgically confirmed case of ancient schwannoma at the olfactory groove in a 44-year-old woman presenting with headache and visual disturbance. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a solid and cystic extra-axial mass located in the subfrontal area mimicking an olfactory groove meningioma. Histopathologic diagnosis of ancient schwannoma was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining for S100, CD56, vimentin, and other markers. Furthermore, we described the clinical manifestations, MRI characteristics, and histopathologic findings of the case, and presented a review of related literature.

  4. Seed Source Significantly Influences Growth Rates and Disease Resistance of Abies Lasiocarpa Grown for Ornamental Nursery Stock and Christmas Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trees from six corkbark fir (Abies lasiocarpa var. arizonica) and 10 subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa var. lasiocarpa) seed sources were grown at the University of Idaho (SREC) and three commercial nurseries in northern Idaho and northeastern Oregon. Post transplant mortality was highest during the f...

  5. Effect of anaerobic soil disinfestation and vermicompost on soilborne phytopathogenic agents under tree-crop nursery conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) is a fumigation-independent management strategy for controlling soilborne pathogens. Walnut nurseries currently employ preplant fumigation to control soilborne phytopathogens and weeds, and may be amenable to use ASD instead. We investigated the potential of ASD a...

  6. Meyer Children's Rehabilitation Institute Teaching Program for Young Children. [Prescriptive Teaching Program for Multiply Handicapped Nursery School Children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCrosse, Edward; And Others

    The prescriptive teaching program for multiply handicapped nursery school children is presented in three manuals: prescriptive teaching, integration of prescriptions into classroom activities; and equipment and materials. Given in the prescriptive teaching manual are directions for assessing a child's strengths and weaknesses in functioning on a…

  7. Children's exposure to indoor air in urban nurseries-part I: CO2 and comfort assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) in nurseries is an emerging case-study. Thus, this study, as the Part I of the larger study “Children's exposure to indoor air in urban nurseries”, aimed to: i) evaluate nurseries’ indoor concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), a global IAQ indicator, in class and lunch rooms; ii) assess indoor comfort parameters–temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH); and iii) analyse them according to guidelines and references for IAQ, comfort and children's health. Indoor continuous measurements were performed. Non-compliances with guidelines were found in comfort parameters, which could cause discomfort situations and also microbial proliferation. Exceedances in CO2 concentrations were also found and they were caused by poor ventilation and high classroom occupation. More efficient ventilation and control of comfort parameters, as well as to reduce occupation by reviewing Portuguese legislation on that matter, would certainly improve IAQ and comfort in nurseries and consequently safeguard children's health. - Highlights: • High occupation and poor ventilation were main determinants of IAQ in nurseries. • T and RH indoor values found in nurseries are likely to cause thermal discomfort. • Building characteristics and an inadequate ventilation determined T and RH values. • High CO2 concentrations found could indicate accumulation of other air pollutants

  8. Grass residues as a sustainable carbon source in application of anaerobic soil disinfestation for control of apple nursery replant disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to assess the efficacy of anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) for control of replant disease in an apple nursery setting. Treatments applied in a field trial conducted at an experimental orchard in Washington State included ASD using orchard grass residues (GR; 20 t ha-1) as ...

  9. Relationship between snail population density and infection status of snails and fish with zoonotic trematodes in Vietnamese carp nurseries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard; Madsen, Henry; Murrell, Kenneth Darwin;

    2012-01-01

    Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are a food safety and health concern in Vietnam. Humans and other final hosts acquire these parasites from eating raw or under-cooked fish with FZT metacercariae. Fish raised in ponds are exposed to cercariae shed by snail hosts that are common in fish farm...... to juvenile fish raised in carp nurseries....

  10. Diet shifts of Caribbean grunts (Haemulidae) and snappers (Lutjanidae) and the relation with nursery-to-coral reef migrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocheret de la Morinière, E.; Pollux, B. J. A.; Nagelkerken, I.; van der Velde, G.

    2003-08-01

    The spatial size distribution of grunts and snappers have previously indicated the separation of juveniles in nursery habitats from the adults on the coral reef. This implies life cycle migrations from nursery habitats (such as seagrass beds and mangroves) to the coral reef. If diet shifts are related to such migrations, then the diets of these fish must change before or around the fish size at which such migrations take place. A wide size range of juveniles of two grunt species ( Haemulon sciurus and Haemulon flavolineatum) and of two snapper species ( Lutjanus apodus and Ocyurus chrysurus) were caught in seagrass beds and mangroves, and their gut contents identified and quantified. Regression analysis between fish size and dietary importance of small crustaceans showed a negative relationship in all four species. Positive relations were found for H. sciurus, L. apodus and O. chrysurus between fish length and the dietary importance of decapods, and for L. apodusand O. chrysurus between fish length and prey fish importance. Critical changes in the fish diets with fish size were examined by application of a Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). The CCA yielded three clusters of size-classes of fishes with similar diets, and application of a Mantel test showed that each of these clusters had significantly different diets, and that each cluster diet was significantly specialised. The size at which a fish species 'switched' from one cluster to another was compared with size-at-maturity data and with the typical size at which these species migrate from the nursery habitats to the coral reef. H. sciurus and H. flavolineatum may be prompted to migrate from the nursery habitats to coral reef habitats because of dietary changes, or because of the development of the gonads. For L. apodus and O. chrysurus, a dietary changeover forms a more likely explanation for nursery-to-reef migrations than does sexual maturation because these species reach maturity at sizes much larger

  11. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James; McLay, Emma;

    2010-01-01

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful...

  12. Fast neutron activation analysis of ancient mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About fifty specimens of ancient Chinese bronze mirror from various dynasties are analysed by fast neutron radiated from neutron generator. The contents of copper, tin and lead in the mirror are listed in this paper. Experimental method and measurement equipment are described too

  13. LD Students and the Ancient Mariner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara L.

    1988-01-01

    Synectics, the making of analogies, was used with learning disabled high school seniors to provide them with a creative process that aids in developing a deeper understanding of literature. After studying Coleridge's "Rime of the Ancient Mariner," the students completed a six-step process and produced a short writing assignment. (VW)

  14. Discovering the Ancient Maya from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, T. L.

    2008-01-01

    The Pet6n region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use of limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

  15. Paragons of Education in Ancient Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    MOTHERS contributed greatly to children’s education in ancient China long before schools took shape. Behind many prominent figures lay greatmothers whose personal example and verbal instruction benefited their children throughout life. There is an old sayingabout the "stern father and compassionate mother."However, you will always

  16. The Roots of Science in Ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Arthur

    1982-01-01

    A 45-year-old research project (culminating in the multivolume "Science and Civilization in China") is examining major scientific innovations in ancient China and attempting to explain why, although the Chinese gained a technological edge in the past, they did not make the forward leap into modern science. (JN)

  17. The Challenges of Qualitatively Coding Ancient Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingerland, Edward; Chudek, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    We respond to several important and valid concerns about our study ("The Prevalence of Folk Dualism in Early China," "Cognitive Science" 35: 997-1007) by Klein and Klein, defending our interpretation of our data. We also argue that, despite the undeniable challenges involved in qualitatively coding texts from ancient cultures, the standard tools…

  18. A probabilistic model of Ancient Egyptian writing

    OpenAIRE

    Nederhof, Mark Jan; Rahman, Fahrurrozi

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates a probabilistic model to describe how signs form words in Ancient Egyptian writing. This applies to both hieroglyphic and hieratic texts. The model uses an intermediate layer of sign functions. Experiments are concerned with finding the most likely sequence of sign functions that relates a given sequence of signs and a given sequence of phonemes. Postprint

  19. [Ancient tattooing from today's point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, K

    1981-06-01

    Both literary and arachaeological evidence indicates that, up to now, ancient tattoos can be traced with certainty in painting only among Thracians. A comparison with modern tattoos reveals differences of motivation and motifs, whereas localization, technique, and removal show similarities. The illustrations demonstrate some tattoos typical for Thracians on Greek vases.

  20. Ancient whole grain gluten-free flatbreads

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA food guide recommends that at least ½ of all the grains eaten should be whole grains. The FDA allows food Health Claim labels for food containing 51% whole gains and 11 g of dietary fiber. This is the only report demonstrating innovative ancient whole grain gluten-free (no yeast or chemical...

  1. Microscopical Examination of Ancient Silver Coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microstructure of three silver coins of the IIId century B.C. from the Illyrian king Monounios, the ancient Greek city of Dyrrachion and of Korkyra was studied with XRF and microscopy. From this investigation it turned out that these coins have different chemical composition and microstructure that imply different minting method

  2. Ancient Pyramids Help Students Learn Math Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Courtney D.; Stump, Amanda M.; Lazaros, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an activity that allows students to use mathematics and critical-thinking skills to emulate processes used by the ancient Egyptians to prepare the site for the Pyramids of Giza. To accomplish this, they use three different methods. First, they create a square using only simple technological tools that were available to the…

  3. An ancient musical instrument returns home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    After 300 years abroad, an ancient Chinese musical instrument returned home with its face lifted and a Japanese name. Originally a one-stringed plucker, the Daisho Modo now features a whole family of electric high-, medium-pitched and bass instruments. With crisp tone and wide range, the Daisho Modo is

  4. Unlocking the Mysteries of Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, Maggie

    1995-01-01

    Describes the work of Egyptologist William Murnane who is recording the ritual scenes and inscriptions of a great columned hall from the days of the pharaohs. The 134 columns, covered with divine imagery and hieroglyphic inscriptions represent an unpublished religious text. Briefly discusses ancient Egyptian culture. Includes several photographs…

  5. Moessbauer effect study of ancient Egyptian pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moessbauer spectroscopy was used in examining ancient Egyptian pottery. From the values of Moessbauer parameters and the differences for the individual samples, conclusions could be drawn as to the temperature of baking and the kind of clay used in various archaeological periods. (A.K.)

  6. Ancient DNA analysis of dental calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyrich, Laura S; Dobney, Keith; Cooper, Alan

    2015-02-01

    Dental calculus (calcified tartar or plaque) is today widespread on modern human teeth around the world. A combination of soft starchy foods, changing acidity of the oral environment, genetic pre-disposition, and the absence of dental hygiene all lead to the build-up of microorganisms and food debris on the tooth crown, which eventually calcifies through a complex process of mineralisation. Millions of oral microbes are trapped and preserved within this mineralised matrix, including pathogens associated with the oral cavity and airways, masticated food debris, and other types of extraneous particles that enter the mouth. As a result, archaeologists and anthropologists are increasingly using ancient human dental calculus to explore broad aspects of past human diet and health. Most recently, high-throughput DNA sequencing of ancient dental calculus has provided valuable insights into the evolution of the oral microbiome and shed new light on the impacts of some of the major biocultural transitions on human health throughout history and prehistory. Here, we provide a brief historical overview of archaeological dental calculus research, and discuss the current approaches to ancient DNA sampling and sequencing. Novel applications of ancient DNA from dental calculus are discussed, highlighting the considerable scope of this new research field for evolutionary biology and modern medicine.

  7. A Roman Dodecahedron as an ancient rangefinder

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Rangefinders are instruments used for ballistics and for surveying in general. I report about some of them, ranging from the ancient Rome to modern methods. In particular, I am discussing the use of Roman Dodecahedra, bronze artifacts of gallo-roman origin, for measuring distance

  8. Precursors of Vocational Psychology in Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Frank; Carson, Andrew D.

    1995-01-01

    Examines philosophical theories produced by two ancient civilizations (Eastern Mediterranean and Chinese) for applications to an applied psychology of work. Includes analysis of Egyptians, Semites, and Greeks, with a special emphasis on Plato. Suggests that many basic elements of vocational psychology were present during the first millennium B.C.…

  9. Mitochondrial phylogenomics of modern and ancient equids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilstrup, Julia T; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Stiller, Mathias;

    2013-01-01

    to calibrate reliable molecular clocks. Additional mitochondrial genome sequence data, including radiocarbon dated ancient equids, will be required before revisiting the exact timing of the lineage radiation leading up to modern equids, which for now were found to have possibly shared a common ancestor as far...

  10. [Ancient tattooing from today's point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, K

    1981-06-01

    Both literary and arachaeological evidence indicates that, up to now, ancient tattoos can be traced with certainty in painting only among Thracians. A comparison with modern tattoos reveals differences of motivation and motifs, whereas localization, technique, and removal show similarities. The illustrations demonstrate some tattoos typical for Thracians on Greek vases. PMID:7021475

  11. Defining Astrology in Ancient and Classical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2015-05-01

    Astrology in the ancient and classical worlds can be partly defined by its role, and partly by the way in which scholars spoke about it. The problem is complicated by the fact that the word is Greek - it has no Babylonian or Egyptian cognates - and even in Greece it was interchangeable with its cousin, 'astronomy'. Yet if we are to understand the role of the sky, stars and planets in culture, debates about the nature of ancient astrology, by both classical and modern scholars, must be taken into account. This talk will consider modern scholars' typologies of ancient astrology, together with ancient debates from Cicero in the 1st century BC, to Plotinus (204/5-270 AD) and Isidore of Seville (c. 560 - 4 April 636). It will consider the implications for our understanding of astronomy's role in culture, and conclude that in the classical period astrology may be best understood through its diversity and allegiance to competing philosophies, and that its functions were therefore similarly varied.

  12. The Ancient Kemetic Roots of Library and Information Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Itibari M.

    This paper argues that the ancient people of Kemet (Egypt), "the black land," built and operated the first major libraries and institutions of higher education in the world. Topics of discussion include the Ancient Egyptians as an African people; a chronology of Ancient Kemet; literature in Kemet; a history of Egyptian Librarianship; the…

  13. Relevance of Vṛkṣāyurveda and other traditional methods for organic production of nursery seedlings of useful plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Geetha; Haridasan, K; Krishnamurthy, Kulithala Viswanathan

    2013-07-01

    Plant propagation is critical to augment the resource and has been the main concern for farmers and planters through history. India has evolved the science of Vṛkṣāyurveda to address the above issue. An effort is made here to review Vṛkṣāyurveda literature related to nursery techniques. Different libraries were visited and relevant review material obtained by hand search and from databases. Interaction with Sanskrit scholars and eminent scientists working in the field of Vṛkṣāyurveda, as well as the efforts of the authors of this paper, helped in the selection of pertinent literature. In the absence of original texts, authentic translations of the publications were referred. A conscious decision was made to limit the search to the fields of seed storage, pretreatment and nutrition of seedlings. To have a comparative account recent trends and literature on nursery technology were also examined. This was supplemented by interviews with traditional organic farmers. Our survey revealed that the time period of the literature pertaining to Vṛkṣāyurveda ranges from BCE 1200 to the present times. The subject has evolved from morphological descriptions and uses of plants, in texts such as Ṛgveda and Atharvaveda, to treatises dedicated solely to the art of growing plants like Kṛṣi-Parāśara and Vṛkṣāyurveda. It is also evident that there were important periods when more works appeared across subjects such as water divining, soil types, seed collection and storage, propagation, germination and sprouting, watering regimen, pest, and disease control. The review revealed that valuable information pertaining to nursery techniques is available in Vṛkṣāyurveda, which can be used in the development of nursery protocol. This will not only help in effective organic nursery management, but also ensure the health and livelihood security of the communities involved and effective waste management.

  14. Relevance of Vṛkṣāyurveda and other traditional methods for organic production of nursery seedlings of useful plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant propagation is critical to augment the resource and has been the main concern for farmers and planters through history. India has evolved the science of Vṛkṣāyurveda to address the above issue. An effort is made here to review Vṛkṣāyurveda literature related to nursery techniques. Different libraries were visited and relevant review material obtained by hand search and from databases. Interaction with Sanskrit scholars and eminent scientists working in the field of Vṛkṣāyurveda, as well as the efforts of the authors of this paper, helped in the selection of pertinent literature. In the absence of original texts, authentic translations of the publications were referred. A conscious decision was made to limit the search to the fields of seed storage, pretreatment and nutrition of seedlings. To have a comparative account recent trends and literature on nursery technology were also examined. This was supplemented by interviews with traditional organic farmers. Our survey revealed that the time period of the literature pertaining to Vṛkṣāyurveda ranges from BCE 1200 to the present times. The subject has evolved from morphological descriptions and uses of plants, in texts such as R.gveda and Atharvaveda, to treatises dedicated solely to the art of growing plants like Kṛṣi-Parāśara and Vṛkṣāyurveda. It is also evident that there were important periods when more works appeared across subjects such as water divining, soil types, seed collection and storage, propagation, germination and sprouting, watering regimen, pest, and disease control. The review revealed that valuable information pertaining to nursery techniques is available in Vṛkṣāyurveda, which can be used in the development of nursery protocol. This will not only help in effective organic nursery management, but also ensure the health and livelihood security of the communities involved and effective waste management.

  15. Quantifying runoff water quality characteristics from nurseries and avocado groves subjected to altered irrigation and fertilizer regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, S. A.; Beighley, R. E.

    2007-12-01

    In agriculture, improper, excessive or poorly timed irrigation and fertilizer applications can result in increased pollutants in runoff and degraded water quality. Specifically, the cultivation of salt sensitive plants and nurseries require significant irrigation and fertilizer that leads to high nutrient leaching. In southern California, a large producer of Avocados and nursery plant, waterways are often subjected to elevated nutrient concentrations, which stress the aquatic ecosystem. In this research, the specific objectives are to determine optimal irrigation and fertilizer application rates for minimizing nutrient and sediment export from avocado groves and nurseries. Altered irrigation and fertilizer application experiments will be implemented and monitored at the San Diego State University's Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve, which contains a 12 ha avocado grove and newly constructed 0.4 ha nursery. The study will last for twelve months, with runoff from natural rainfall or irrigation sampled and analyzed for nutrient concentrations on a monthly basis. The growth rate, leaf nutrient content and plant yield will also be monitored monthly. The nursery site is divided into eight plots (13.5-m x 13.5-m), with each plot containing 1200 plants consisting of four commonly used landscaping varieties in southern California. The avocado grove of the Hass variety is divided into four 1-ha plots. The experimental plots represent combinations of irrigation and fertilization practices with different methods and rates. In all cases, irrigation is fully automated based on soil moisture. To assess the effectiveness of the altered irrigation and fertilizer strategies, runoff water quality and plant yield will be compared to controlled treatments. This research is intended to provide a better understanding of how irrigation and fertilizer management can be used for the long-term reduction of nutrients in the Santa Margarita Watershed, which in turn will lead to improved

  16. Outreach Testing of Ancient Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartin, J. R. S.; Blanco, M. B. M.

    2015-10-01

    fundamental quantity being given by half the difference between solar distances to vertical at winter and summer solstices, with value about 23.5°. Day and year periods greatly differing by about 2 ½ orders of magnitude, 1 day against 365 days, helps students to correctly visualize and interpret the experimental measurements. Since the gnomon serves to observe at night the moon shadow too, students can also determine the inclination of the lunar orbital plane, as about 5 degrees away from the ecliptic, thus explaining why eclipses are infrequent. Independently, earth taking longer between spring and fall equinoxes than from fall to spring (the solar anomaly), as again verified by the students, was explained in ancient Greek science, which posited orbits universally as circles or their combination, by introducing the eccentric circle, with earth placed some distance away from the orbital centre when considering the relative motion of the sun, which would be closer to the earth in winter. In a sense, this can be seen as hint and approximation of the elliptic orbit proposed by Kepler many centuries later. EPSC Abstracts Vol. 10, EPSC2015-40, 2015 European Planetary Science Congress 2015 c Author(s) 2015 EPSC European Planetary Science Congress Secondly, by observing lunar phases and eclipses from the ground, students could also determine, following Aristarchus of Samos in the 3rd century BC, 4 length ratios involving moon and sun distances to earth, and radii of all three, moon, sun, and earth. The angular width of the moon could be first determined with simplest optical devices as about half a degree; this yields the ratio between moon diameter 2RM and distance DM to earth. Next, eclipses of sun prove its angular width, and thus ratio 2RS/DS, similar to the lunar one, though the relatively high lunar orbital eccentricity, 0.055, does result in not quite a full eclipse if at lunar apogee. Further, at a half-moon phase, when the angle sun-moon-earth is a right one, the angle

  17. Outreach Testing of Ancient Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartin, J. R. S.; Blanco, M. B. M.

    2015-10-01

    fundamental quantity being given by half the difference between solar distances to vertical at winter and summer solstices, with value about 23.5°. Day and year periods greatly differing by about 2 ½ orders of magnitude, 1 day against 365 days, helps students to correctly visualize and interpret the experimental measurements. Since the gnomon serves to observe at night the moon shadow too, students can also determine the inclination of the lunar orbital plane, as about 5 degrees away from the ecliptic, thus explaining why eclipses are infrequent. Independently, earth taking longer between spring and fall equinoxes than from fall to spring (the solar anomaly), as again verified by the students, was explained in ancient Greek science, which posited orbits universally as circles or their combination, by introducing the eccentric circle, with earth placed some distance away from the orbital centre when considering the relative motion of the sun, which would be closer to the earth in winter. In a sense, this can be seen as hint and approximation of the elliptic orbit proposed by Kepler many centuries later. EPSC Abstracts Vol. 10, EPSC2015-40, 2015 European Planetary Science Congress 2015 c Author(s) 2015 EPSC European Planetary Science Congress Secondly, by observing lunar phases and eclipses from the ground, students could also determine, following Aristarchus of Samos in the 3rd century BC, 4 length ratios involving moon and sun distances to earth, and radii of all three, moon, sun, and earth. The angular width of the moon could be first determined with simplest optical devices as about half a degree; this yields the ratio between moon diameter 2RM and distance DM to earth. Next, eclipses of sun prove its angular width, and thus ratio 2RS/DS, similar to the lunar one, though the relatively high lunar orbital eccentricity, 0.055, does result in not quite a full eclipse if at lunar apogee. Further, at a half-moon phase, when the angle sun-moon-earth is a right one, the angle

  18. Condition of larval and early juvenile Japanese temperate bass Lateolabrax japonicus related to spatial distribution and feeding in the Chikugo estuarine nursery ground in the Ariake Bay, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Shahidul; Hibino, Manabu; Nakayama, Kouji; Tanaka, Masaru

    2006-02-01

    The present study investigates feeding and condition of larval and juvenile Japanese temperate bass Lateolabrax japonicus in relation to spatial distribution in the Chikugo estuary (Japan). Larvae were collected in a wide area covering the nursery grounds of the species in 2002 and 2003. Food habits of the fish were analysed by examining their gut contents. Fish condition was evaluated by using morphometric (the length-weight relationship and condition factor) and biochemical (the RNA:DNA ratio and other nucleic acid based parameters) indices and growth rates. The nucleic-acid contents in individually frozen larvae and juveniles were quantified by standard fluorometric methods. Two distinct feeding patterns, determined by the distribution of prey copepods, were identified. The first pattern showed dependence on the calanoid copepod Sinocalanus sinensis, which was the single dominant prey in low-saline upper river areas. The second pattern involved a multi-specific dietary habit mainly dominated by Acartia omorii, Oithona davisae, and Paracalanus parvus. As in the gut contents analyses, two different sets of values were observed for RNA, DNA, total protein, growth rates and for all the nucleic acid-based indices: one for the high-saline downstream areas and a second for the low-saline upstream areas, which was significantly higher than the first. The proportion of starving fish was lower upstream than downstream. Values of the allometric coefficient ( b) and the condition factor ( K) obtained from the length-weight relationships increased gradually from the sea to the upper river. Clearly, fish in the upper river had a better condition than those in the lower estuary. RNA:DNA ratios correlated positively with temperature and negatively with salinity. We hypothesise that by migration to the better foraging grounds of the upper estuary (with higher prey biomass, elevated temperature and reduced salinity), the fish reduce early mortality and attain a better condition

  19. 惠州西湖景区古树名木病虫害调查及保护建议%Investigations on the diseases and insect pests of the ancient and famous trees of West Lake scenic area in Huizhou and suggestions for their protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟平生; 汤玉娟; 张颂声

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解广东惠州西湖景区古树名木病虫害发生情况,为西湖景区古树名木养护管理提供参考.[方法]采用普查和抽查相结合的方法,并参考相关文献,对惠州西湖景区内古树名木主要病虫害种类及危害程度进行调查和鉴定.[结果]西湖景区内古树名木共有8科8属9种31棵,病害共12种,其中危害叶片的病害主要有灰斑病、炭疽病、褐斑病、藻斑病、煤污病等,危害树干的病害主要有枝枯病、干腐病;虫害有6目14科19种,其中刺吸性害虫和食叶性害虫主要有榕管蓟马、绵蚧、荔蝽、榕卵痣木虱、天蛾、中国绿刺蛾、棉大卷叶蛾和丽绿刺蛾等,蛀干害虫主要有家白蚁、眉斑楔天牛和云斑天牛等.叶部病害、刺吸性害虫和食叶性害虫对植株的危害较轻,枝枯病、干腐病和家白蚁等对植株的危害较严重.[建议]加强宣传,提高人们对古树名木的保护意识;加强对古树名木的复壮修补及病虫害防治工作;采用科学技术,防控园林植物病虫害.%[Objective]The objective of the current study was to investigate the occurrence of diseases and insect pests of the ancient and famous trees in West Lake scenic area in Huizhou, and to provide reference for their scientific conservation and management. [Method]The main diseases and insect pests in the old trees and the grade of damages caused by them were investigated using methods of general investigation and random inspection and referring to the relevant literatures.[Result]Thirty--one old trees corresponding to 9 species, 8 genus, 8 families were found in West Lake scenic area. Twelve kinds of diseases, identified in these trees, which damaged leaves of old trees were Cercospora Sojina Hara, anthracnose,brown patch, Cephaleuros spp, sooty blotch, while the diseases which damaged stem were branch rot and dry rot. Nineteen species of insects corresponding to 14 families of 6 orders were found in scenic area, of

  20. Genetic diversity among ancient Nordic populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linea Melchior

    Full Text Available Using established criteria for work with fossil DNA we have analysed mitochondrial DNA from 92 individuals from 18 locations in Denmark ranging in time from the Mesolithic to the Medieval Age. Unequivocal assignment of mtDNA haplotypes was possible for 56 of the ancient individuals; however, the success rate varied substantially between sites; the highest rates were obtained with untouched, freshly excavated material, whereas heavy handling, archeological preservation and storage for many years influenced the ability to obtain authentic endogenic DNA. While the nucleotide diversity at two locations was similar to that among extant Danes, the diversity at four sites was considerably higher. This supports previous observations for ancient Britons. The overall occurrence of haplogroups did not deviate from extant Scandinavians, however, haplogroup I was significantly more frequent among the ancient Danes (average 13% than among extant Danes and Scandinavians (approximately 2.5% as well as among other ancient population samples reported. Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type "diluted" by later immigration events. Interestingly, the two Neolithic samples (4,200 YBP, Bell Beaker culture that were typed were haplogroup U4 and U5a, respectively, and the single Bronze Age sample (3,300-3,500 YBP was haplogroup U4. These two haplogroups have been associated with the Mesolithic populations of Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, at least for Southern Scandinavia, our findings do not support a possible replacement of a haplogroup U dominated hunter-gatherer population by a more haplogroup diverse Neolithic Culture.

  1. SUPERFICIAL AND CUTANEOUS MYCOSES AT NURSERIES AND SCHOOLS OF MAHALLAT CITY, CENTRAL PART OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kordbacheh

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for detection of common superficial and cutaneous mycoses in nurseries and schools of Mahallat during September 1989 to June 1990. A Total of 9884 individuals (under 18 years of age were both clinically observed and tested by laboratory. 5.6% were positive to mycotic infections and from those the rate of infection for pityrosporosis, tinea versicolor and dermatophytosis were 42.7%, 12.6% and 1.8% respectively. Trichomycosis axillaries and erythrasma (although their etiologic agents are bacteria were diagnosed with a rate of 42.4% and 0.5% respectively. Superficial mycoses were most common in 12-18 age groups and dermatophytosis was most common in 6-9 age groups.

  2. Overt and relational aggression in Russian nursery-school-age children: parenting style and marital linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, C H; Nelson, D A; Robinson, C C; Olsen, S F; McNeilly-Choque, M K

    1998-07-01

    Maternal and paternal parenting styles and marital interactions linked to childhood aggressive behavior as described in Western psychological literature were measured in an ethnic Russian sample of 207 families of nursery-school-age children. Results corroborated and extended findings from Western samples. Maternal and paternal coercion, lack of responsiveness, and psychological control (for mothers only) were significantly correlated with children's overt aggression with peers. Less responsiveness (for mothers and fathers) and maternal coercion positively correlated with relational aggression. Some of these associations differed for boys versus girls. Marital conflict was also linked to more overt and relational aggression for boys. When entered into the same statistical model, more marital conflict (for boys only), more maternal coercion, and less paternal responsiveness were found to be the most important contributors to overt and relational aggression in younger Russian children. PMID:9681260

  3. Effect of supplementing zinc oxide and biotin with or without carbadox on nursery pig performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, H D; Carlson, M S

    2009-10-01

    A 28-d nursery experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing zinc oxide and biotin with or without a feed-grade antimicrobial agent (carbadox) on nursery pig performance, and plasma and fecal Zn concentrations. One hundred ninety-two crossbred pigs (initial BW = 5.94 +/- 0.03 kg; age = 17 +/- 2 d) were weaned and allotted to 1 of 8 dietary treatments based on BW, sex, and ancestry in a randomized complete block design (3 pigs/pen and 8 replications). Dietary treatments consisted of supplementation of ZnO at 0 or 3,000 mg/kg, d-biotin at 0 or 440 microg/kg, and carbadox at 0 or 55 mg/kg of diets in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Phase 1 (d 0 to 14) and phase 2 (d 14 to 28) nursery diets were fed in meal form. Fecal samples were collected weekly, and blood samples were collected at d 0, 14, and 28 to determine fecal and plasma Zn concentrations, respectively. The basal diet contained 165 mg/kg of Zn as ZnSO(4) and 220 microg/kg biotin as d-biotin. Pigs supplemented with 440 microg/kg of d-biotin, independent of antibiotic and ZnO additions, had greater overall ADG (P = 0.02) than pigs fed no supplemental d-biotin postweaning. Overall ADG, ADFI, and G:F were not affected when pigs were supplemented with 3,000 mg/kg of Zn as ZnO or 55 mg/kg of carbadox. When pigs were fed 55 mg/kg of carbadox without supplemental biotin, plasma Zn concentration was less, whereas when biotin and carbadox were supplemented to nursery pig diets, plasma Zn concentrations did not decrease as with feeding carbadox alone (biotin x carbadox, P pigs fed 3,000 mg/kg of Zn as ZnO and 440 microg/kg of d-biotin had greater fecal Zn concentrations than pigs fed diets with only 3,000 mg/kg of Zn as ZnO (Zn x biotin, P = 0.04). In addition, pigs supplemented with 3,000 mg/kg of Zn as ZnO in combination with carbadox and d-biotin had greater fecal Zn concentrations compared with pigs fed diets containing no additional Zn during wk 2 (Zn x biotin x carbadox, P = 0

  4. Visiting nursery, kindergarten and after-school day care as astronomy for development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Akihiko

    2015-08-01

    One of the frontiers of astronomy for development is astronomy education for young children. Note that it is not too-much-going-ahead education nor education for so-called gifted children. It is for all children in various situations. As an example, I present "Uchu no O-hanashi," a visiting activity which includeds slide show, story telling, and enjoying pictures on large sheets for children. Not only just for young children, but this activity also aims at intercultural understanding. Sometimes guest educator from abroad join the activity. Video letter exchange was successful even though there is a language barrier. For assessment of the activity, I have recorded the voice of children. I will present various examples of written records and their analysis of activites, at nursery, kindergarten, preschool, after-school day care for primary school children, and other sites. I hope exchanging the record will make a worldwide connection among educators for very young children.

  5. Design and Development of RC Railed Robot for Coffee Nursery Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marivic Gatan Dizon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Remote Controlled (RC Railed Robot was designed and developed to transfer polybags from manual operation to an automated logistic system. Gizduino microcontroller was used to read and interpret commands sent and received by the transceivers to the robot and a remote to command instructions to the robot.The project was tested and evaluated at the Coffee Nursery of Cavite State University by determining the speed of the robot, the effectiveness of the remote control and the accuracy of the robot to lift a pallet and place it into an empty space.Results showed that the robot was able to receive and interpret commands provided by the remote control as well as perform the tasks successfully.The most significant recommendation was to use a counterweight at the rear side of the robot to avoid unnecessary derailments of the robot if lifting heavier or greater number of pallets is desired.

  6. Screening of antagonistic bacteria for biological control of nursery wilt of black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anith, K N; Radhakrishnan, N V; Manomohandas, T P

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial antagonists of Phytophthora capsici were isolated from underground shoot portions of rooted cuttings of black pepper. Initially isolates were screened by dual culture on potato dextrose agar and carrot agar. Further, a screening was done on black pepper shoots for supression of lesion caused by the pathogen. Most of the antagonists showed varying levels of antagonism in the dual culture and the shoot assay. Isolate PN-026, showing the highest suppression of lesion development in the shoot assay was found to be the most efficient antagonist in reducing Phytophthora capsici induced nursery wilt of black pepper. This screening involving the host, pathogen, and the antagonist, performed on black pepper shoot (the planting material for this vegetatively propagated crop), could be used as a rapid and reliable method for the isolation of efficient bacterial antagonists of P. capsici.

  7. Effect of Rhizobium and Mycorhiza inoculation on the nursery growth of Acacia and Teline monspessulana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an experiment accomplished in the tree nursery Tisquesusa located in Madrid (Cundinamarca) was evaluated the effect of the inoculation with strains selected of foreign and Indigenous rhizobium and Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi am (Glomus folescutolum) on the growth, nitrogen fixation, and micorrization of Acacia (Acacia decurrens) and Retamo (Teline monspessulana) that they are used In soils recovery by the Corporacion Autonoma Regional de Cundinamarca CAR. The studied species presented positive response to the inoculation with rhizobium; the indigenous strain DQ6-09, isolated in Guatavita (Cundinamarca), presented the better results in Retamo and also in Acacia alone and in mixture with the foreign strain T1881. The inoculation with fungi AM increased the heights, dry weights, phosphorus content and percentage of micorrization in Acacia and Retamo. The double inoculation with fungi ma and rhizobium it did not increase the nitrogen fixing of Acacia while in Retamo was presented a positive effect with the strain DQ6-09

  8. Cadmium stabilization with nursery stocks through transplantation: A new approach to phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Bin [Institute of Environment, Resource, Soil and Fertilizer, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou (China); Liang, Yongchao [Ministry of Agriculture, Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Fu, Qinglin, E-mail: fuql161@yahoo.com.cn [Institute of Environment, Resource, Soil and Fertilizer, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou (China); Ding, Nengfei; Liu, Chen; Lin, Yicheng; Li, Hua; Li, Ningyu [Institute of Environment, Resource, Soil and Fertilizer, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou (China)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cupressus Blue Ice was tolerant to 100 mg kg{sup -1} Cd exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd was mainly stabilized in epidermis other than cortex plus stele of root. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Negligible Cd in transplanted roots was released into bulk soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Usefulness and limitations of the new approach were evaluated. - Abstract: Disposal of heavy metal contaminated biomass after phytoremediation is still unfeasible. This paper presents a viable phyto-extraction approach in which metals in contaminated soils are stabilized by nursery stocks before transplantation for greening. In this respect, two pot-experiments are reported comparing seven nursery stocks species exposed to different Cd levels. The first experiment revealed that Cd was mainly stabilized in the roots of all species studied. Greater amounts of Cd were accumulated in the epidermis than cortex plus stele. Cupressus Blue Ice showed greatest tolerance to the 100 and 200 mg kg{sup -1} Cd stresses. The second experiment additionally evaluated the possible risk of Cd release after transplanting the Cd treated plants into uncontaminated soil. After 120 days of transplantation, the relatively trace amounts of Cd in the roots of Euonymus japonicus, Pittosporum tobira and C. Blue Ice had either been partially transferred into the shoots or released into the soil. The highest Cd concentration increase in bulk soil (0.428 mg kg{sup -1}), however, was much lower than the environmental quality standard for soils of China (1 mg kg{sup -1}). The potential effectiveness of this technique in the use of Cd-contaminated soil and further investigation needed in the field trials were also evaluated.

  9. Bud flush phenology and nursery carryover effect of paper birch provenances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh is an ecologically valuable species with a broad geographic distribution across the North America. Its diversity, versatility and enduring nature make it an ideal candidate for a selective breeding program in this region. However, an understanding of the genecology of this species is fundamental to deploy it successfully. Ten paper birch provenances were collected from British Columbia (BC, Canada and northern Idaho (USA along elevational transects to determine whether observed bud flush phenology was due to genetics and /or environmental variation or their interaction. Seedlings were grown at three different nurseries: University of Idaho (46°44’N, Landing (50°17’N and Little Forestry (54°00’N and planted in a randomized single tree interlocking block design in three common gardens at Sandpoint, ID (48°13’N, Skimikin, BC (50°45’N and Red Rock, BC (53°45’N. Results indicate that variation in the timing of bud flush is a complex interaction among local genetic characteristics and environmental conditions of the growing site. Birch bud flush followed a general geographic trend where provenances at the southern common garden (Sandpoint required less time (Day of Year, DoY and fewer growing degree days (GDD compared to central (Skimikin and northern (Red Rock common gardens. Although there were significant differences in the timing of bud flush among provenances along an elevational gradient, none of the regions showed the expected linear elevational cline, trends were inconsistent. Further, birch bud flush was significantly influenced by nursery displacement effects in the initial year of establishment but disappeared within three years. These results provide an opportunity to characterize bud flush phenology of paper birch and would be useful for improving operational paper birch seed transfer programs in BC.

  10. Potential of Pigeon Creek, San Salvador, Bahamas, as Nursery Habitat for Juvenile Reef Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conboy, Ian Christopher

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This project assessed the significance of Pigeon Creek, San Salvador, Bahamas as a nursery habitat for coral reef fishes. Pigeon Creek’s perimeter is lined with mangrove and limestone bedrock. The bottom is sand or seagrass and ranges in depth from exposed at low tide to a 3-m deep, tide-scoured channel. In June 2006 and January 2007, fish were counted and their maturity was recorded while sampling 112 of 309 possible 50-m transects along the perimeter of the Pigeon Creek. Excluding silversides (Atherinidae, 52% of fish counted, six families each comprised >1% of the total abundance (Scaridae/parrotfishes, 35.3%; Lutjanidae/snappers, 23.9%; Haemulidae/grunts, 21.0%; Gerreidae/mojarras, 8.5%; Pomacentridae/damselfishes, 6.1%; Labridae/wrasses, 2.4%. There were few differences in effort-adjusted counts among habitats (mangrove, bedrock, mixed, sections (north, middle, southwest and seasons (summer 2006 and winter 2007. Red Mangrove (Rhizophora mangle, covering 68% of the perimeter was where 62% of the fish were counted. Snappers, grunts and parrotfishes are important food fishes and significant families in terms of reef ecology around San Salvador. Mangrove was the most important habitat for snappers and grunts; bedrock was most important for parrotfishes. The southwest section was important for snappers, grunts and parrotfishes, the north section for grunts and parrotfishes, and the middle section for snappers. Among the non-silverside fish counted, 91.2% were juveniles. These results suggest that Pigeon Creek is an important nursery for the coral reefs surrounding San Salvador and should be protected from potential disturbances.

  11. Effects of pesticide application on arthropod pests of nursery-grown maples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Julia; Quesada, Carlos; Sadof, Clifford

    2014-04-01

    Insecticides used against potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae), have been reported to cause problems with maple spider mite, Oligonychus aceris (Shimer) (Acarina: Tetranychidae), on nursery-grown 'Red Sunset' red maple and 'Autumn Blaze' Freeman maple. To test this, we conducted two experiments on field-grown trees in nurseries. In the first, the effects of early-season pesticide applications were examined during 2009. The second experiment was conducted in 2010 to compare effects of using threshold levels of one, three, or six leafhoppers per branch to time applications. Pesticide applications reduced abundance and damage by leafhoppers in both cultivars, but increased populations of O. aceris on Autumn Blaze during 2009. In contrast, on Red Sunset, populations of O. aceris did not increase after insecticide applications. In 2010, insecticide applications did not increase abundance of O. aceris on Autumn Blaze because use of treatment thresholds to manage leafhoppers greatly reduced numbers of trees requiring treatment for leafhoppers. Two phytoseiid mites, Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman) and Typhlodromus caudiglans (Schuster), and one stigmaeid, Zetzellia mali (Ewing), were identified as the principal predators of O. aceris on maple leaves. Insecticide applications had no significant effects on the total abundance of predatory mites on either Red Sunset or Autumn Blaze maples in 2009 or 2010. However, populations of predator Z. mali were higher during both years on Red Sunset than on Autumn Blaze. These results suggest that both early-season pesticide use and cultivar can affect the likelihood of secondary outbreaks of spider mites on maples. PMID:24772553

  12. Growth response of Casuarina equisetifolia Forst. rooted stem cuttings to Frankia in nursery and field conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Karthikeyan; K Chandrasekaran; M Geetha; R Kalaiselvi

    2013-11-01

    Casuarina equisetifolia Forst. is a tree crop that provides fuel wood, land reclamation, dune stabilization, and scaffolding for construction, shelter belts, and pulp and paper production. C. equisetifolia fixes atmospheric nitrogen through a symbiotic relationship with Frankia, a soil bacterium of the actinobacteria group. The roots of C. equisetifolia produce root nodules where the bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen, which is an essential nutrient for all plant metabolic activities. However, rooted stem cuttings of elite clones of C. equisetifolia by vegetative propagation is being planted by the farmers of Pondicherry as costeffective method. As the vegetative propagation method uses inert material (vermiculite) for rooting there is no chance for Frankia association. Therefore after planting of these stocks the farmers are applying 150 kg of di-ammonium phosphate (DAP)/acre/year. To overcome this fertilizer usage, the Frankia-inoculated rooted stem cuttings were propagated under nursery conditions and transplanted in the nutrient-deficient soils of Karaikal, Pondicherry (India), in this study. Under nursery experiments the growth and biomass of C. equisetifolia rooted stem cuttings inoculated with Frankia showed 3 times higher growth and biomass than uninoculated control. These stocks were transplanted and monitored for their growth and survival for 1 year in the nutrient-deficient farm land. The results showed that the rooted stem cuttings of C. equisetifolia significantly improved growth in height (8.8 m), stem girth (9.6 cm) and tissue nitrogen content (3.3 mg g−1) than uninoculated controls. The soil nutrient status was also improved due to inoculation of Frankia.

  13. Healthy buildings have existed in China since ancient times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qigao; Feng, Ya; Wang, Gonglu [Chongqing Jianzhu Univ., Chongqing, Sichuan (China)

    1997-09-01

    The historical experience in China of constructing healthy buildings over many centuries merits even more attention today. Using the quadrangle as a basic style, buildings have been constructed in this way from ancient China to the present time. It is a style found in all areas of the country. The buildings in which people lived in ancient China were designed according to the doctrine of wind and water (which in Chinese is called feng shui). Today we would describe this as a philosophy for designing the indoor environment for healthy living. The common properties of such buildings are that of having good indoor air quality and easy maintenance of the indoor climate. This paper describes the optimal performance of quadrangle buildings from the perspective of their environment, illumination by natural lighting, infrared absorption and radiation, noise and indoor air quality, insulation properties and gives a mathematical analysis of these features. While this building style is not unique to China it could be developed more in other countries. It is a healthy style of building which can serve mankind worldwide because of its natural energy saving and adopting more widely it would improve standards in building. (author) 9 figs., 2 tabs., 7 refs.

  14. Reviving Ancient Water Tunnels in the Desert - Digging for Gold?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joshka Wessels

    2005-01-01

    The water shortage in the Middle East is a well-known problem. The introduction of diesel operated pumps for irrigation has caused a severe drop in groundwater levels. At the same time the demand for groundwater is growing to alarming proportions. Alternative ways of groundwater supply and management need to be found to halt social and economical disaster in the future. Why not look at history? Qanats are subterranean tunnels ancient civilizations built to access groundwater. The technique is a sustainable method of groundwater extraction. Throughout the Middle East some settlements still make use of these ancient systems. In the summer of 2000, a community rehabilitation of a qanat was executed with support from the International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA) and international donors. The renovation served as a pilot community intervention within a participatory action research project aimed at evaluating the use of qanats in Syria. In a second stage of the project, the pilot was scaled up to a nation-wide survey of Syrian qanats in 2OO1. This resulted in qanat renovations on other sites executed in 2002 and 2003 with further international support.This paper compares the first pilot renovation with a recent qanat renovation that took place in Qarah,Syria.

  15. TRADITIONAL MARRIAGE CEREMONIES AND ITS ANCIENT CUSTOMS FOR THE PEOPLE OF ESHKEVAR IN GUILAN PROVINCE

    OpenAIRE

    Panahi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Marriage and its customs in Eshkevar have roots in the history of social life of living of people in this mountainous area of Guilan. According to the old living experience in Eshkevar, and, also, as this area was, for decades, far from modern urban culture, its traditions have less been subject to change. Persistence and dedication of the people of this region in the full implementation of traditions relating to marriage and doing them represent their dependency on ancient culture. Since the...

  16. How stable are the 'stable ancient shields'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Giulio; Mattila, Jussi

    2014-05-01

    "Archean cratons are relatively flat, stable regions of the crust that have remained undeformed since the Precambrian, forming the ancient cores of the continents" (King, EPSL, 2005). While this type of statement is supported by a wealth of constraints in the case of episodes of thoroughgoing ductile deformation affecting shield regions of Archean and also Peleoproterozoic age, a growing amount of research indicates that shields are not nearly as structurally stable within the broad field of environmental conditions leading to brittle deformation. In fact, old crystalline basements usually present compelling evidence of long brittle deformation histories, often very complex and challenging to unfold. Recent structural and geochronological studies point to a significant mechanical instability of the shield areas, wherein large volumes of 'stable' rocks actually can become saturated with fractures and brittle faults soon after regional cooling exhumes them to below c. 300-350° C. How cold, rigid and therefore strong shields respond to applied stresses remains, however, still poorly investigated and understood. This in turn precludes a better definition of the shallow rheological properties of large, old crystalline blocks. In particular, we do not yet have good constraints on the mechanisms of mechanical reactivation that control the partial (if not total) accommodation of new deformational episodes by preexisting structures, which remains a key to untangle brittle histories lasting several hundred Myr. In our analysis, we use the Svecofennian Shield (SS) as an example of a supposedly 'stable' region with Archean nucleii and Paleoproterozoic cratonic areas to show how it is possible to unravel the details of brittle histories spanning more than 1.5 Gyr. New structural and geochronological results from Finland are integrated with a review of existing data from Sweden to explore how the effects of far-field stresses are partitioned within a shield, which was growing

  17. Reconstructing Ancient Forms of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Steven A.

    1998-01-01

    Progress in the past three months has occurred in two areas, reconstruction of ancestral proteins and improved understanding of chemical features that are likely to be universal in generic matter regardless of its genesis. Ancestral ribonucleases have been reconstructed, and an example has been developed that shows how physiological function can be assigned to in vitro behaviors observed in biological systems. Sequence data have been collected to permit the reconstruction of src homology 2 domains that underwent radiative divergence at the time of the radiative divergence of chordates. New studies have been completed that show how genetic matter (or its remnants) might be detected on Mars (or other non-terrean locations.) Last, the first in vitro selection experiments have been completed using a nucleoside library carrying positively charged functionality, illustrating the importance of non-standard nucleotides to those attempting to obtain evidence for an "RNA world" as an early episode of life on earth.

  18. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B; Christensen, Torben R;

    2007-01-01

    Recent claims of cultivable ancient bacteria within sealed environments highlight our limited understanding of the mechanisms behind long-term cell survival. It remains unclear how dormancy, a favored explanation for extended cellular persistence, can cope with spontaneous genomic decay over...... geological timescales. There has been no direct evidence in ancient microbes for the most likely mechanism, active DNA repair, or for the metabolic activity necessary to sustain it. In this paper, we couple PCR and enzymatic treatment of DNA with direct respiration measurements to investigate long...... that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability....

  19. Thermal and spectroscopic analysis of ancient potteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is focused on the characterization study of ancient pottery shreds excavated recently from Sembiankandiyur in India. The study is intended to identify the firing temperature, firing conditions and morphology of the ancient pottery samples. The samples were analyzed using FTIR, XRD and TG-DTA. FTIR and XRD studies were used in mineralogical characterization of potteries. The firing temperature and conditions were interpreted by studying the difference in mineral composition in the samples using FTIR and XRD. TG-DTA is considered the complementary technique to elucidate the firing temperature from the thermal characteristic reactions such as dehydration, decomposition and transformations of minerals in the course of controlled firing of the samples. The results showed that all the samples fired in a oxidizing condition and firing temperature also inferred.(authors)

  20. Computed tomography of ancient Egyptian mummies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood-Nash, D C

    1979-12-01

    This first report of the application of computed tomography (CT) to the study of ancient mummies, the desiccated brain of a boy and the body of a young woman within her cartonnage, shows that CT is uniquely suitable for the study of such antiquities, a study that does not necessitate destruction of the mummy or its cartonnage. Exquisite images result that are of great paleoanatomical, paleopathological, and archeological significance.

  1. Parallel OCR for Ancient Greek Critical Editions

    OpenAIRE

    Del Grosso, Angelo; Boschetti, Federico

    2012-01-01

    This project is focused on the parallelization of OCR processes applied to Ancient Greek critical editions. Two experiments have been performed. The first experiment is related to parameters differently tuned on the nodes of the grid, in order to identify the best combination that improves the accuracy of the recognition. The second experiment concerns the application of OCR with the best parameters on sample pages by a divide et impera strategy. Results related to the performances of the par...

  2. Chemistry Progress and Civilization in Ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yu-Qian; RUAN Shu-Xiang; TANG Shan; SHUAI Zhi-Gang

    2011-01-01

    @@ During the 6,000 years of Chinese civilization, chemistry has played an essential role.The bronzed chime bells of the Warring States Period (475-221 BC) unearthed in Hubei Province shows not only the excellence in musical instruments in ancient China, but also the technological advances in metallurgy.Chinese alchemy was not originated from the quest to turn common metals to gold, instead, it was for searching medicines for longevity of human beings, mostly practised by Taoists.

  3. Ancient Egypt in our Cultural Heritage?

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Vasiljević

    2016-01-01

    Inspiration derived from ancient Egypt is usually expressed through the Egyptian motifs in arts and popular culture of the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as through the non-scientific interpretations of the culture, very much based upon the Renaissance ones. The number and variety of material and non-material traces of this fascination are most expressed in the countries where, along with the early support for the institutional development of Egyptology, there existed economically potent ed...

  4. Ancient News: HMGBs are Universal Sentinels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marco E. Bianchi; Barbara Celona

    2010-01-01

    @@ Yanai et al. (2009, Nature 462, 99-103) have shown that high mobility group boxs (HMGBs) are universal sensors of viral nucleic acids, and thus of cell infection. This appears to be an evolutionary ancient mechanism of virus detection, and possibly might be a facet of a more general propensity of HMGBs to act as integrators of signals that pertain to peace and stress, life and death.

  5. Atmospheric-induced variability of hydrological and biogeochemical signatures in the NW Alboran Sea. Consequences for the spawning and nursery habitats of European anchovy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, D.; Catalán, I. A.; Solé, J.; Morales-Nin, B.; Ruiz, J.

    2011-12-01

    The north-western Alboran Sea is a highly dynamic region in which the hydrological processes are mainly controlled by the entrance of the Atlantic Jet (AJ) through the Strait of Gibraltar. The biological patterns of the area are also related to this variability in which atmospheric pressure distributions and wind intensity and direction play major roles. In this work, we studied how changes in atmospheric forcing (from high atmospheric pressure over the Mediterranean to low atmospheric pressure) induced alterations in the physical and biogeochemical environment by re-activating coastal upwelling on the Spanish shore. The nursery area of European anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus) in the NW Alboran Sea, confirmed to be the very coastal band around Malaga Bay, did not show any drastic change in its biogeochemical characteristics, indicating that this coastal region is somewhat isolated from the rest of the basin. Our data also suggests that anchovy distribution is tightly coupled to the presence of microzooplankton rather than mesozooplankton. Finally, we use detailed physical and biological information to evaluate a hydrological-biogeochemical coupled model with a specific hydrological configuration to represent the Alboran basin. This model is able to reproduce the general circulation patterns in the region forced by the AJ movements only including two variable external forcings; atmospheric pressure over the western Mediterranean and realistic wind fields.

  6. The importance of rivers as nursery grounds for 0- and 1-group flounder ( Platichthys flesus L.) in comparison to the Wadden sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstan, M.

    From May 1988 to June 1989 selected areas of the German Wadden Sea, the Ems, Weser, Elbe and Eider estuaries as well as in Elbe tributaries were sampled for 0- and 1-group flounder ( Platichthys flesus L.). Estuarine and Wadden Sea sampling was conducted on board commercial shrimp vessels equipped with beam trawls. The Elbe river system was sampled on board a research boat equipped with a similar 3-m beam trawl. Density indices were calculated for the various areas. To estimate the importance of rivers as nursery areas for flounder, river surface area was compared to the area of tidal flats in the Wadden Sea. In all surveys, there was no relationship between fish densities and tow directions with respect to tide. In the Elbe river system flounder densities were not correlated to substrate types but increased significantly with decreasing salinity. Abundances were always lowestt in polyhaline habitats and increased up to 10-fold in mesohaline estuarine areas. In the limnetic tidal sections of the Elbe river and its tributaries densities increased again by factors of 3 to 10. The succession of 1-group modal lengths from limnetic to polyhaline habitats demonstrated that smaller fish preferred less saline waters. 0-group specimens lagging behind in growth did not leave the limnetic river section in winter. The onset of the spawning migration in November was determined by monitoring the length-frequency distributions throughout the year. The possible sources of bias are discussed and gear efficiency is estimated from literature sources. The contribution of rivers to the 0- and 1-group flounder population on the tidal flats of the Wadden Sea is estimated at about 35.1%.

  7. The ancient story of Bora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, R. R.; Lomabrdi, R.

    2010-09-01

    Every part of the world is characterized by his own climatological peculiarities, and sometimes some restricted areas can be influenced by local, singular, characteristical metereological phenomena. Trieste, capital of the region Friuli Venezia Giulia, and the Karst ( northeastern Italy) are included in this category. Since the old age it has been narrated the "raids" caused by the Bora, strong dry and cold north eastern wind that, with one of his most northern branch, which born in the karstic inland near Postumia (Slovenia), affects the Karst plateau and the Gulf of Trieste. In literature we can find how on September 5th, 394 a.C. the "miraculous wind" Bora has been decisive for the defeat of Arbogaste (West Roman Empire) in the Vipavska valley; he was with his army against the wind in the battle whereas the troops of the Catholic Emperor Teodosio (East Roman Empire) has been able to through their darts further thank to the wind. The fairy tales about "Bora" and "Borino" are part of the local literature since many centuries, whereas in the XX Century we can find images, postcards and books concerning the tempestuous wind of Trieste. When television born, developed a new way to communicate the deeds of Bora thanks to some extreme events occurred among 30s and 50s which contributes to increase his mith. The goal of this work is to retrace the history of Bora in the words of the common people rather than the science in order to understand how his legend has grown during the ages. Now, in the age of internet, a new way of telling the Bora adventures is born.

  8. A Study of Directive Speech Acts Used by Iranian Nursery School Children: The Impact of Context on Children’s Linguistic Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Shohreh Shahpouri Arani

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at finding out the forms and functions of directive speech acts uttered by Persian-speaking children. The writer’s goal is to discover the distinct strategies applied by speakers of nursery school age children regarding three parameters: the choice of form, the negotiation of communicative goals within conversation, and the protection of face. The data collected for this purpose are based on actual school conversational situations that were audio recorded in four nursery schoo...

  9. The evaluation of nutritional status of children by anthropometric measurements attending the day nursery of Cerrahpaşa Medical School Original Article

    OpenAIRE

    Erkan, Tülay; Yalvaç, Sema; Erginöz, Ethem; Çokuğraş, Fügen; Kutlu, Tufan

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To determine the nutritional status of children attending the day nursery by anthropometric measures and to investigate the nutritional status of children who live in families having a certain educational status a socio economic level and social assurance Material and Method: Children who attending the day nursery between November 2004 January 2005 were evaluated for their nutritional status by measuring their weight head circumference thorax circumference superior midarm circumference s...

  10. Comparison of Newborn Hearing Screening in Well-Baby Nursery and NICU: A Study Applied to Reduce Referral Rate in NICU

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Pei-Chun; Chen, Wei-I; Huang, Chih-Ming; Liu, Ching-Ju; Chang, Hsiu-Wen; Lin, Hung-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether newborn hearing screening in a well-baby nursery (WBN) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) nursery: 1) meet three targeted, screening, referral, and diagnostic follow-up rates; 2) compare the average age of diagnosis for infants admitted to the WIN and NICU; and 3) determine prevalence of hearing loss in neonatal population; and 4) try to find a practical newborn hearing screening time algorithm to reduce refer rate in NICU Materials and Methods It examined...

  11. Linking nursery nutritional status and water availability post-planting under intense summer drought: the case of a South American Mediterranean tree species

    OpenAIRE

    Ovalle JF; Arellano EC; Oliet JA; Becerra P; Ginocchio R

    2016-01-01

    Drought-avoidance traits of South American Mediterranean tree species are crucial attributes to be considered in nursery practices aimed at improving the performance of seedlings exposed to intense summer drought in dryland reforestation projects. In this study, we determined the relation between nursery fertilization doses and the development of drought-avoidance traits of the soapbark tree Quillaja saponaria (Mol.) under contrasting watering regimes following post-planting. Seedlings were g...

  12. Moessbauer studies on ancient Chinese pottery of Yangshao Culture Period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleven pieces of ancient Chinese pottery (4770 B.C. - 2960 B.C.) of Yangshao Culture Period collected from the Xi'an area have been studied by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy. The samples were refired up to 11000C in steps of 1000C for 2 h in air. The highest temperature up to which the Moessbauer pattern remains basically unchanged can be identified with the original firing temperature. The result indicates that the firing temperatures for most of the sherds were between 900-10000C. The function of the grit contained in the pottery has been discussed. The crimson and reddish painted materials on the surface of sherds have been studied, respectively. The first appearance of pottery can probably be traced back to an even earlier period. (orig.)

  13. Evaluation of Reproduction and Raising Offspring in a Nursery-Reared SPF Baboon (Papio hamadryas anubis) Colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    BUDDA, MADELINE L.; ELY, JOHN J.; DOAN, SANDRA; CHAVEZ-SUAREZ, MARIA; WHITE, GARY L.; WOLF, ROMAN F.

    2014-01-01

    Baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) of a conventional breeding colony were nursery-reared to create a specific pathogen-free (SPF) baboon breeding program. Because the founding generations were nursery-reared until two years of age, it was suspected that the SPF baboons would exhibit increased reproductive challenges as adults. Mothering behavior was of interest, because SPF females were not exposed to parental role models during the nursery-rearing process. We compared reproductive data from the SPF baboon breeding program during its first 10 years with data from age-matched baboons during the same period from an established, genetically-similar conventional breeding colony. We also evaluated records documenting mother-infant behaviors within the SPF colony. The average age of menarche in SPF females was 3.3 years. The overall live birth rate of both SPF and conventional females was approximately 90%, with no difference in pregnancy outcome between the two colonies. The average age at first conception for SPF females was earlier (4.2 years) than that of the conventional females (4.7 years). In both colonies, primiparous females were more likely to abort than multiparous females. Similarly, primiparous females were more likely to lose their infants to death or human intervention. A mothering score system was developed in the SPF colony to facilitate intervention of poor mother-infant relationships. Records revealed 70% of SPF mothers were able to raise one or more of their infants successfully to at least 180 days of age, which did not differ from conventional mothers. SPF females returned to postpartum estrus 27 days sooner on average than the conventional females, independent of dam age. The nursery-rearing process used for recruitment into the SPF colony therefore did not have an adverse effect on reproduction or rearing offspring. PMID:23440922

  14. Evaluation of Nutrition Knowledge and Perception of Good Food among Nursery School Pupils in Kisumu Municipality-Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Ayieko; J.L. Anyango

    2011-01-01

    Child nutrition is one key factor that determines the outcome of human development and even influences the later quality of one’s life. Knowledge about nutrition and health is gained throughout childhood, yet there is limited research on the nutrition knowledge of nursery school children in Kenya. Much of the research assessing nutrition practices in early childhood programs has focused on the adequacy of foods that are served to children. The objectives of this study were to assess nutrition...

  15. FIRE DESIGN: DIRECT COMPARISON BETWEEN FIRE CURVES. THE CASE STUDY OF A NURSERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lombardi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to fire safety engineering, the present study analyzes fire design settings for simulation of fire in a nursery and proposes to compare simulations developed with a natural fire curve and nominal fire curve. Comparative analysis was developed according to thermo-fluid dynamic parameters that are relevant to the safety of the exposed and for the representative period of the danger flow to the exposed, which are mainly children between 0 and 3 years of age, helpless under ordinary conditions and even more so in case of emergency. Defined conditions of structure and ventilation, Two fire simulations, differentiated by fire curve, have been implemented: First simulation: the parameters have been derived from the simulation of a fire, characterized by analytic function of Heat Release Rate (HRR Second simulation: the HRR function was obtained ex post by making a simulation of natural fire in realistically furnished room by imposing a minimum effective primer. The simulated HRR curve, appropriately linearized, allows to estimate a Likely Fire Curve (LFC. The simulations have been developed for a time of about 15 min, starting from the ignition of fire whereas the flow of the danger is serious for exposed mainly in this first phase of fire. The comparison between the parameters of fire involved the Temperature-Time Curve and HRR-Time Curve of both simulations and the ISO 834 Curve, which is a consolidated benchmark in Fire Safety Engineering (FSE. The nominal curves have been introduced for the purpose of checking whether the structural strength and integrity: the adoption of these curves in the fire safety engineering was made by analogy, on the assumption that the phenomena of major intensity, that these curves represent, ensure a safe approach on the choice of the fire design. The study showed indeed that the analytical curve, adopted in order to verify the structural strength, produces fields of both temperature and toxic concentrations

  16. Temporal stability of otolith elemental fingerprints discriminates among lagoon nursery habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournois, Jennifer; Ferraton, Franck; Velez, Laure; McKenzie, David J.; Aliaume, Catherine; Mercier, Lény; Darnaude, Audrey M.

    2013-10-01

    The chemical composition of fish otoliths reflects that of the water masses that they inhabit. Otolith elemental compositions can, therefore, be used as natural tags to discriminate among habitats. However, for retrospective habitat identification to be valid and reliable for any adult, irrespective of its age, significant differences in environmental conditions, and therefore otolith signatures, must be temporally stable within each habitat, otherwise connectivity studies have to be carried out by matching year-classes to the corresponding annual fingerprints. This study investigated how various different combinations of chemical elements in otoliths could distinguish, over three separate years, between four coastal lagoon habitats used annually as nurseries by gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean). A series of nine elements were measured in otoliths of 301 S. aurata juveniles collected in the four lagoons in 2008, 2010 and 2011. Percentages of correct re-assignment of juveniles to their lagoon of origin were calculated with the Random Forest classification method, considering every possible combination of elements. This revealed both spatial and temporal variations in accuracy of habitat identification, with correct re-assignment to each lagoon ranging from 44 to 99% depending on the year and the lagoon. There were also annual differences in the combination of elements that provided the best discrimination among the lagoons. Despite this, when the data from the three years were pooled, a combination of eight elements (B, Ba, Cu, Li, Mg, Rb, Sr and Y) provided greater than 70% correct re-assignment to each single lagoon, with a multi-annual global accuracy of 79%. When considering the years separately, discrimination accuracy with these elemental fingerprints was above 90% for 2008 and 2010. It decreased to 61% in 2011, when unusually heavy rainfall occurred, which presumably reduced chemical differences among several of the

  17. The use of porcine digestible peptides and their continuity effect in nursery pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, J; Solà-Oriol, D; Guzmán-Pino, S A; Chetrit, C; Borda, E; Pérez, J F

    2016-04-01

    A total of 552 entire male and female nursery pigs were selected to be used in 2 different experiments that aimed to study if milk ingredients can be replaced by highly preferred protein sources (Exp. 1) and if pre- and postnatal exposure of those protein ingredients through the maternal diet may increase pig performance (Exp. 2). In Exp. 1, 240 pigs were separated after weaning (28 d) into 2 groups depending on the presence of lactose in their diets. Pigs ( =120) fed diets with the precence of lactose (lactose +) were given prestarter (0-14 d) and starter (15-33 d) diets with 142 and 50 g/kg of sweet milk whey, respectively; the lactose-free group ( = 120) was offered an isoenergetic diet with 20 g/kg of porcine-digestible peptides (PDP; Palbio 62SP; Bioibérica S.A., Palafolls, Spain) and wheat replacing sweet milk whey. Choice and 1-feeder tests were performed in another group of animals ( = 72) to evaluate the preference and acceptance for both diets. Pigs preferred ( = 0.039) the lactose+ over the lactose-free diet after a 30-min choice test and consumed more ( = 0.001) lactose+ than lactose-free diet in a 1-feeder test. However, no difference ( > 0.467) in performance was observed between groups for the entire nursery period. In Exp. 2, 120 animals were obtained from sows that, during late gestation (14 d) and lactation (28 d), were fed diets containing 20 g/kg of PDP and another 120 animals were obtained from sows fed an isoenergetic diet without PDP inclusion. Placenta samples were collected at farrowing to assess the volatile compounds present in the placental fluid of sows. After weaning, all pigs received a feed containing 20 g/kg of PDP in the prestarter and starter diets. A principal components analysis of the total volatile compounds showed the exclusive presence of sulfur-containing compounds and a higher presence of terpene compounds in the placental fluid of PDP-supplemented sows. In addition, pigs coming from sows fed diets supplemented with PDP

  18. ORGANIZATION AND STRUCTURE OF ACTIVITIES IN THE GROUP OF CHILDREN WITH MODERATE MENTAL UNDERDEVELOPMENT FROM 3 TO 6 YEARS OF AGE AND IN THE EARLY DIAGNOSIS CONSULTING-ROOM OF THE DAMAGED CHILDREN’S DAY NURSERY OF PAZARDJIK-BUGARIJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilijana MALINOVA

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The damaged children’s day nursery of Pazardjik-Bugarija is the result of an initiative taken on, in order to be ensured the necessary conditions for care of damaged children from the region’s area, from 3 to 18 years of age. In the nursery, a consulting room was established for early diagnosis children under risk , from o to 3 years of age.The children at the nursery are divided in four comparatively independent groups, according to their age and degree of damage. Without having the ambition to replace the families, the groups form a kind of “home” with permanent order : a dinning room, a comfortable bathroom, a small kitchen, a living room and a resting room.The adults which are working in teams with the groups, have set themselves the task of education, re-education, or training-according to the abilities of every child-with maximum safety.The organization of assuming responsibility for the children from 3 to 7 years of age begins with making individual plans for every child, which plans are being updated monthly by the whole team that is working with the child concerned ( psychologist, defectologist, supervisor, speech therapist and rehabilitation therapist.The individual plans conforms with the general plan of the group.The education, therapy and training are given to the children trough:A. Education· general education;· specific education;· socialization;· physical activities and leisure time; B. Re-education and Therapy· on psychotherapeutic level;· psychomotor re-education;· re-education of speech;· kinesitherapy;· medical supervision;C. Specialized pedagogical activities used at the nursery, in the group of children with moderate mental underdevelopment, from 3 to 7 years of age

  19. Ancient Cultural Center Building and Materials Research Numismatic Collection Museum--Ancient COINS by Tibetan cultural center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冠利

    2014-01-01

    The quality of the Chinese cultural center is located in the ancient COINS hidden city, the city center in Jinan, convenient transportation, beautiful scenery, poured enough, the surrounding environment culture atmosphere, be helpful for cultural centers in the long run. The building area is about 3500 square meters, the whole building is divided into two layer, a layer of main distribution the exhibition hall, second floor mainly by the studio to form. The designer of the coin reference model, through the deepening, evolution techniques such as the characteristics of Chinese coin will, connotation unity emerges into design, show to buildings. Very good carry the historical culture, also captures the pulse of the times lived.

  20. Synthesis and Validation of a Weatherproof Nursery Design That Eliminates Tropical Evening-Fever Syndrome in Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hippolite O. Amadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal thermal stabilisation can become challenging when uncontrollable factors result in excessive body temperature. Hyperthermia can rapidly slow down baby’s progress and response to treatment. High sunlight intensity in tropical countries such as Nigeria manifests in incessant high neonatal temperatures towards early evenings. The ugly consequences of this neonatal evening-fever syndrome (EFS can only be eradicated by the development of a controlled weatherproof nursery environment. Two laboratories and a ‘control ward’ were applied. Lab-2 was a renovation of an existing room in a manner that could correct an existing nursery. Lab-1 was an entirely new building idea. The laboratories were assessed based on comparative ability to maintain environmental coolness and neonatal thermal stability during hot days. Data collection continued for 12 full calendar months. On average, at evaluated out-wind peak temperature of 43°C (range: 41°C–46°C, the control-ward peak was at 39°C, Lab-2 peak at 36°C, and Lab-1 peak at 33°C. All incubators in the control overheated during the hot periods but there was no overheating in Lab-1. Forty-four (86% of sampled babies were fever-quenched by water sponging 131 times in the control whilst only one baby received same treatment in Lab-1. Nursery designs patterned after Lab-1 can significantly reduce EFS-induced neonatal morbidity.

  1. Designing Strategies for Epidemic Control in a Tree Nursery: the Case of Ash Dieback in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasthi Alonso Chavez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ash dieback is a fungal disease (causal agent Hymenoscyphus fraxineus infecting Common ash (Fraxinus excelsior throughout temperate Europe. The disease was first discovered in the UK in 2012 in a nursery in Southern England, in plants which had been imported from the Netherlands. After sampling other recently planted sites across England, more infected trees were found. Tree trade from outside and across the UK may have facilitated the spread of invasive diseases which threaten the sustainability of forestry business, ecological niches and amenity landscapes. Detecting a disease in a nursery at an early stage and knowing how likely it is for the disease to have spread further in the plant trade network, can help control an epidemic. Here, we test two simple sampling rules that 1 inform monitoring strategies to detect a disease at an early stage, and 2 inform the decision of tracking forward the disease after its detection. We apply these expressions to the case of ash dieback in the UK and test them in different scenarios after disease introduction. Our results are useful to inform policy makers’ decisions on monitoring for the control and spread of tree diseases through the nursery trade.

  2. Coastal versus estuarine nursery grounds: Effect of differential temperature and heat waves on juvenile seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, Catarina; Narciso, Luís; Cabral, Henrique N.; Costa, Maria J.; Rosa, Rui

    2012-08-01

    This study investigates the biological responses of juvenile fish (Dicentrarchus labrax), that live in both coastal and estuarine nurseries, to differential temperatures and summer heat wave events. More specifically, we compared mortality, growth, condition, metabolic response and thermal sensitivity of 0-group juveniles of D. labrax at temperatures that reflect the average summer temperature that they encounter in coastal and estuarine nurseries, and also the temperatures that they endure inside estuaries during heat wave events. The low mortality and peak growth and condition values registered at 24 °C suggest that estuarine average summer temperatures are more beneficial for the juveniles than coastal ones. The estuarine water temperature attained during heat waves resulted in higher mortality, arrested growth, lower condition and a steep increase in metabolism, indicating that this species is probably under thermal stress at 28 °C. Consequently, future predictions of frequent and prolonged heat waves in Southern Europe are expected to induce negative impacts in the biology and metabolic ecology of 0-group seabass juveniles in estuarine nurseries.

  3. Design and development of an ancient Chinese document recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liangrui; Xiu, Pingping; Ding, Xiaoqing

    2003-12-01

    The digitization of ancient Chinese documents presents new challenges to OCR (Optical Character Recognition) research field due to the large character set of ancient Chinese characters, variant font types, and versatile document layout styles, as these documents are historical reflections to the thousands of years of Chinese civilization. After analyzing the general characteristics of ancient Chinese documents, we present a solution for recognition of ancient Chinese documents with regular font-types and layout-styles. Based on the previous work on multilingual OCR in TH-OCR system, we focus on the design and development of two key technologies which include character recognition and page segmentation. Experimental results show that the developed character recognition kernel of 19,635 Chinese characters outperforms our original traditional Chinese recognition kernel; Benchmarked test on printed ancient Chinese books proves that the proposed system is effective for regular ancient Chinese documents.

  4. The Ancient City of Pinqyao:Where the Time Stops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lily Wang

    2011-01-01

    @@ It is a common night in May, I found myself wandering in the Ancient City of Pingyao.If not those neon light, I would even doubt that I had gone back to the ancient times.Located on the eastern banks of the Fen River, and in the southwestern edge of the Taiyuan basin, Pingyao Ancient City is the outstanding example of Chinese Han nationality cities during Ming and Qing Dynasties.

  5. Advances in structural mechanics of Chinese ancient architectures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maohong YU; Yoshiya ODA; Dongping FANG; Junhai ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    Chinese ancient architectures are valuable heritage of ancient culture of China. Many historical building have been preserved up to now. The researches on the structural mechanics of ancient architectures show the different aspects of structure and mechanics. Systematical studies on the structural mechanics of ancient architectures have been carried out at Xi'an Jiaotong University since 1982. It is related with the need of repair of some national preservation relics in Xi'an. These studies include: 1) Ancient wooden structures including three national preservation relics Arrow Tower at North City Gate, City Tower at East City Gate, and Baogao Temple in Ningbao, Zhejiang province. 2) Ancient tall masonry building, the Big Goose Pagoda and Small Goose Pagoda in Xi'an. 3) Mechanical characteristics of ancient soil under foundation and city wall; the influence of caves in and under the ancient City Wall on the stability of the wall. 4) The typical Chinese ancient building at the center of city: the Bell Tower and Drum tower. 5) The behavior of Dou-Gong and Joggle joint of Chinese ancient wooden structure. 6) The mechanical behavior of ancient soils under complex stress state. A new systematical strength theory, the unified strength theory, is used to analyze the stability of ancient city wall in Xi'an and foundation of tall pagoda built in Tang dynasty. These researches also concern differential settlements of Arrow Tower and resistance to earthquake of these historical architecture heritages. Some other studies are also introduced. This paper gives a summary of these researches. Preservation and research are nowadays an essential requirement for the famous monuments, buildings, towers and others. Our society is more and more conscious of this necessity, which involves increasing activities of restoration, and then sometimes also of repair, mechanical strengthening and seismic retrofitting. Many historical buildings have in fact problems of structural strength and

  6. Geography, Writing System and History of Ancient Civilizations

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Pak-Hung

    2013-01-01

    We find an undiscovered effect of geography on the choices of writing system in ancient civilizations that in turn drive their courses of historical evolution. The fates of the ancient civilizations were predetermined by the causation spirals generated by the writing system chosen by their ancient ancestors. Understanding the mechanism can enlighten our present political choices that in turn determine the future course of humankind evolution. It can also inspire us about the clue to build an ...

  7. Unriddling of ancient-medieval culture by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some examples are given for unriddling of ancient-medieval culture by PIXE. Effectiveness of PIXE to analyze art and archaeological objects is also explained. Objects employed here are 1) red, yellow, blue and white pigments painted on sun-dried bricks excavated in Egypt, 2) ancient glass beads used in the Near East, 3) South American mummy hair, 4) ancient slag excavated from Kansai-district, Japan 5) ink used by Galileo Galilei and 6) Renaissance style enameled gold jewelry. (author)

  8. Connecting Philosophy of Ancient Egyptians to Modern Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Aminuddin Hassan; Nurul A.A.K. Anuar; Norhasni Z. Abiddin

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Associating any knowledge from ancient Egyptians to modern civilization and thinking was important and had its own value. The process of understanding knowledge related to ancient Egyptians is actually based on the nature of philosophical thought. Approach: In the discussion of ancient Egypt philosophy, it is important to look at it from the perspectives of the four branches of philosophy; metaphysics, epistemology, axiology and logic. Metaphysics has two elements, which ar...

  9. Study on Prohibitions of Ancient Chinese Costumes in Black Series

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaomeng Qu

    2013-01-01

    China is a historical country with extensive and profound civilization, in which the Chinese Costume has always been a brilliant feature. Black series occupies an important position in the color institution of ancient Chinese Costumes. The prohibition on black series costumes also has a significant meaning in ancient China. By discussing prohibitions related to black series in ancient Chinese costume institution, this paper studied two typical colors used by people of different classes as the...

  10. Emergence of ancient cities in relation to geopolitical circumstances and climate change during late Holocene in northeastern Tibetan Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guanghui; Liu, Honggao; Yang, Yishi; Yang, Ying; Zhou, Aifeng; Wang, Zhongxin; Ren, Xiaoyan; Chen, Fahu

    2016-09-01

    The study of the history of human activities in ancient cities has provided valuable evidences for understanding the evolution of human-land relations during the late Holocene. Numerous ancient cities were discovered through archaeological surveys of the east Qinghai Province, located on the northeastern border of the Tibetan Plateau, China; however, the mystery of when or why these cities were built remains unsolved. As recorded in this paper, we sampled reliable dating materials from 47 ancient cities in the area, determined their ages by radiocarbon dating, and compared the dating results with historical documents and high resolution paleoclimate records to explore the influencing factors for the development of these ancient cities. The 54 radiocarbon dates indicated that most of these cities were built or repaired during the Han Dynasty (202 BC‒AD 220), Tang Dynasty (AD 618‒AD 907), the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (AD 907‒AD 960), the Song dynasty (AD 960‒AD 1279), and the Ming Dynasty (AD 1368‒AD 1644). The radiocarbon dates correspond well with historical records of the area. Our work suggests the ancient cities in east Qinghai Province were likely built primarily for military defense, and may have also have been affected by climate change.

  11. Allelopathic effects of Leucaena leucocephala leaf litter on some forest and agricultural crops grown in nursery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Romel Ahmed; A. T. M. Rafiqul Hoque; Mohammed Kamal Hossain

    2008-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of leaf litter of Leucaena leucocephala on two forest crops Sada koroi (Albizia procera),Ipil ipil (L.leucocephala) and three agricultural crops Falen (Vigna unguiculata),Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and Arhor (Cajanus cajan) in the nursery of the Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences,Chittagong University,Bangladesh,in a Randomized Block Design.Results suggested that leaf litters of L.leucocephala induced inhibitory effects on germination and growth of bioassay.It was also found that the effect depended on concentration of extract and litterfall,type of receptor species.Higher concentration of the materials had the higher effect and vice versa.Growth response of receptor crops varied with the variation of leaf litter application.The study revealed that application of low-dose leaf litter specially litter of 10 g(m-2 had stimulating effect on shoot growth of C.arietinum,V.unguiculata and A.procera.While in all other cases significant inhibitory effect was observed and it was significantly increased with the increase of leaf litter application.However,the trend of inhibition was uneven with treatments.Root growth was found to be more affected than shoot growth.

  12. Growth of Scots Pine and Silver Birch Seedlings on Different Nursery Container Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrettin TILKI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Peat has been the most common growing medium in tree nurseries, either alone or as a component of growing media mixes. However, as a result of increasing costs and decreasing amount of peat, seedling-growers are seeking more local growing medium components. In this study, container seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth were grown in pure peat and peat mixtures containing perlite and zeolite.  Physical parameters (height, shoot diameter, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, total dry weight were measured along with several morphological parameters (sturdiness quotient, height/diameter, shoot/root ratio. The zeolite additive in peat changed some media properties, and significant relation was established between some morphological attributes of seedlings and some medium properties in both species. On average, the seedlings grew best in pure peat, but zeolite additions to peat did not affect some morphological parameters negatively. The results suggest that zeolite has potential to be used as a component of peat based growing medium mixtures, and addition of zeolite to peat container medium in proportions of 10% by volume in Scots pine and up to 20% in silver birch was shown to be a feasible material for growing Scots pine and silver birch seedlings.

  13. Evaluation of the demanded physical effort and posture of workers in forest nursery activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Silva Lopes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the physical effort demanded and the posture of the workers in forest nursery activities and to propose an ergonomic reorganization to improve the security and health levels of workers. The study was carried out with workers of a forestry company located in Parana State, Brazil. The physical effort demanded was evaluation with in a survery of the workers cardiac frequency in different stages of the work using a Polar monitor from Finlandia and work classified in categories as proposed by Apud (1997. To evaluation posture the workers were filmed during the performance of his activities and the data submitted to the software WinOwas of analysis of postures. The results indicated that the work stages considered of higher physical exigency were the substrate preparation and transport of seedlings in polythene bags to vegetation home with cardiac frequency of 120 and 115 bpm and cardiovascular load of 42% and 37%, respectively, with the activities classified as average heavy. The critical posture to workers was at removal substrate in concrete-mixer, due an overload of lumbar column. The seedling production activity showed the necessity of the correction at posture of the workers because in 97% of the total time they stand with the lumbar column curved. It is possible to conclude that the forestry company should take preventive measures to avoid backaches, using educational strategies or changing the operational system.

  14. Assessment of ventilation and indoor air pollutants in nursery and elementary schools in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canha, N; Mandin, C; Ramalho, O; Wyart, G; Ribéron, J; Dassonville, C; Hänninen, O; Almeida, S M; Derbez, M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) and ventilation in French classrooms. Various parameters were measured over one school week, including volatile organic compounds, aldehydes, particulate matter (PM2.5 mass concentration and number concentration), carbon dioxide (CO2 ), air temperature, and relative humidity in 51 classrooms at 17 schools. The ventilation was characterized by several indicators, such as the air exchange rate, ventilation rate (VR), and air stuffiness index (ICONE), that are linked to indoor CO2 concentration. The influences of the season (heating or non-heating), type of school (nursery or elementary), and ventilation on the IAQ were studied. Based on the minimum value of 4.2 l/s per person required by the French legislation for mechanically ventilated classrooms, 91% of the classrooms had insufficient ventilation. The VR was significantly higher in mechanically ventilated classrooms compared with naturally ventilated rooms. The correlations between IAQ and ventilation vary according to the location of the primary source of each pollutant (outdoor vs. indoor), and for an indoor source, whether it is associated with occupant activity or continuous emission. PMID:25955661

  15. Astral magnetic fields—as observed in starforming nurseries, in stars, and in the Solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, Jacques P.

    2003-08-01

    "Cherchez le champ magnétique" is trendy in astronomy. The magnetic field takes the hourglass shape in gravitationally contracting young stellar objects, helically wraps up the jets of protostars, guides particles in stellar coronae, explodes in stellar flares, causes unrest in pulsar quakes and creates planetary aurorae. In stars and pulsars, dipolar dynamo magnetic fields play a dominant rôle in the gas dynamics. In planetary disks, the field is toroidal or archimedean spiral. Remanent magnetism is found in meteorites and asteroids. The astral magnetic fields can reach 10 18 G in magnetars, dwarfing anything we can do on Earth in stable conditions (10 7 G) or in pulsed conditions (10 10 G). Magnetism plays a physical rôle in starforming clouds and its concomittent structures, from stellar nurseries to protostars, down to planets and asteroids. Starting with star-forming clouds (≈10 pc=32 light-years=31×10 16 m), this reviews covers protostellar systems (≈1 cpc), circumstellar space (≈1 mpc), masers, interplanetary space (≈1 μpc), pulsars, stars, planets (≈1 npc), asteroids (˜30 km; ≈1 ppc), and meteorites (≈0.3 m; ≈10 apc).

  16. PID temperature controller in pig nursery: improvements in performance, thermal comfort, and electricity use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Granja Barros, Juliana; Rossi, Luiz Antonio; Sartor, Karina

    2016-08-01

    The use of smarter temperature control technologies in heating systems can optimize the use of electric power and performance of piglets. Two control technologies of a resistive heating system were assessed in a pig nursery: a PID (proportional, integral, and derivative) controller and a thermostat. The systems were evaluated regarding thermal environment, piglet performance, and use of electric power for 99 days. The heating system with PID controller improved the thermal environment conditions and was significantly (P electricity use to produce 1 kg of body weight (2.88 kWh kg(-1)), specific cost (0.75 R$ kg(-1)), weight gain (7.3 kg), daily weight gain (0.21 kg day(-1)), and feed conversion (1.71) than the system with thermostat (3.98 kWh kg(-1); 1.03 R$ kg(-1); 5.2 kg; 0.15 kg day(-1), and 2.62, respectively). The results indicate that the PID-controlled heating system is more efficient in electricity use and provides better conditions for thermal comfort and animal performance than heating with thermostat. PMID:26712531

  17. Estuaries as Nurseries for the Jacks Caranx ignobilis and Caranx melampygus (Carangidae) in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. C.; Parrish, J. D.

    2002-09-01

    Estuaries provide juvenile nursery habitat for many species of fish that inhabit marine environments as adults. In Hawaii, some juvenile Caranx ignobilis and Caranx melampygus occupy estuaries opportunistically before moving to nearshore ocean habitats. This study examined the extent and nature of estuarine habitat available in the lower Hanalei River of Kauai, the relative abundance and distribution of jacks in the estuary, and their diets. Salinity measurements indicated that the upstream extent of saltwater ranged from the mouth to nearly 5 km upriver and was strongly influenced by the variable river discharge. Juvenile jacks between 80 and 310 mm FL were observed on underwater transects over the full range of mixohaline conditions. Hand-operated seine collections produced overall catch rates of ∼0·64 fish/haul for each of these species. The two jacks ate much the same spectrum of food items. C. ignobilis was somewhat more piscivorous than C. melampygus, as determined by measures of frequency of predation and number and bulk of prey. Data for length at age, incorporating daily otolith increment counts from these estuarine juveniles and previous counts from non-estuarine specimens, were fitted to a lifetime von Bertalanffy growth model. The results greatly extended the age range of the model and suggested that growth rates were not much different between estuarine and non-estuarine fish.

  18. PID temperature controller in pig nursery: improvements in performance, thermal comfort, and electricity use

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Granja Barros, Juliana; Rossi, Luiz Antonio; Sartor, Karina

    2016-08-01

    The use of smarter temperature control technologies in heating systems can optimize the use of electric power and performance of piglets. Two control technologies of a resistive heating system were assessed in a pig nursery: a PID (proportional, integral, and derivative) controller and a thermostat. The systems were evaluated regarding thermal environment, piglet performance, and use of electric power for 99 days. The heating system with PID controller improved the thermal environment conditions and was significantly ( P < 0.001) more efficient in terms of electricity use to produce 1 kg of body weight (2.88 kWh kg-1), specific cost (0.75 R kg-1), weight gain (7.3 kg), daily weight gain (0.21 kg day-1), and feed conversion (1.71) than the system with thermostat (3.98 kWh kg-1; 1.03 R kg-1; 5.2 kg; 0.15 kg day-1, and 2.62, respectively). The results indicate that the PID-controlled heating system is more efficient in electricity use and provides better conditions for thermal comfort and animal performance than heating with thermostat.

  19. Monogenoid infection of neonatal and older juvenile lemon sharks, Negaprion brevirostris (Carcharhinidae), in a shark nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Joy M; Frasca, Salvatore; Gruber, Samuel H; Benz, George W

    2013-12-01

    Fifty lemon sharks, Negaprion brevirostris , were captured in a shallow, mangrove-fringed shark nursery at Bimini, Bahamas and examined for the presence of skin-dwelling ectoparasitic monogenoids (Monogenoidea). Sixteen sharks were infected by Dermophthirius nigrellii (Microbothriidae); the youngest host was estimated to be 3- to 4-wk-old. Infection prevalence, mean intensity, and median intensity (0.32, 2.63, and 2.0, respectively, for all sharks) were not significantly different between neonates (estimated ages 3- to 10-wk-old) and non-neonatal juveniles (estimated ages 1- to 4-yr-old), suggesting that soon after parturition lemon sharks acquire infection levels of D. nigrellii matching those of juvenile conspecifics. Monogenoids were only found on the trailing portion of the first and second dorsal fins and upper lobe of the caudal fin. The prevalence of D. nigrellii was highest on the first dorsal fin; however, the mean and median intensities of D. nigrellii were similar between fins in all but 1 case. These results raise important husbandry implications regarding the practice of preferentially seeking neonatal and other small lemon sharks for captivity.

  20. Female feeding regime and polyandry in the nuptially feeding nursery web spider, Pisaura mirabilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Maxwell, Michael R.

    2009-02-01

    We examined the influence of female feeding regime on polyandry in the nuptially feeding nursery web spider (Pisaura mirabilis). In this species, the nuptial gift, a dead prey item wrapped in the male’s silk, is physically separate from the ejaculate. We manipulated female feeding regime (starved or fed) and the presence or absence of a gift with three successive males to test direct-benefits hypotheses (nuptial gift or sperm supply) for the expression of polyandry. The presence of a gift was necessary for copulation, as no male without a gift successfully copulated. Female mating behavior most strongly supports polyandry due to the accumulation of gifted food items (“nuptial gift” direct-benefits hypothesis). Starved females that were presented with a gift accepted significantly more gifts and inseminations than fed females. Most starved females (74%) copulated two or more times, as opposed to only 3% of the fed females. Nearly all of the females that accepted a gift subsequently copulated. The nuptial gift item seems to function as male mating effort and females appear to receive multiple matings as part of a feeding strategy.