WorldWideScience

Sample records for ancient monuments

  1. Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonia, I.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

  2. Where to Draw the Line: Scheduled Ancient Monuments and Historic Landscape Characterisation in Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Davis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers some of the ways that monuments and sites that receive statutory protection (Scheduled Ancient Monuments are recorded in Wales and in particular examines some of the limitations of the current UK legislation designed to protect monuments and sites. It explores the concept of the type-site and considers the implications of using monument or site typologies to classify and characterise the past. The purpose of scheduling is to prevent unwarranted development at defined locations. This makes sense at a site level, but is a nonsense for large areas. It is suggested that in order to protect the historic environment in the 21st century we require an approach that looks beyond the rigid boundaries of defined sites and considers inhabitation of whole landscapes. In particular, this article considers the rolling out of a uniform landscape characterisation process in Wales as a first step for protecting landscapes. Principally the examples used in this article will be drawn from Wales, but the same concerns are likely to be paralleled in England, Scotland and Northern Ireland.

  3. Integrating geomatics and structural investigation in post-earthquake monitoring of ancient monumental Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominici, Donatella; Galeota, Dante; Gregori, Amedeo; Rosciano, Elisa; Alicandro, Maria; Elaiopoulos, Michail

    2014-06-01

    The old city center of L’Aquila is rich in historical buildings of considerable merit. On April 6th 2009 a devastating earthquake caused significant structural damages, affecting especially historical and monumental masonry buildings. The results of a study carried out on a monumental building, former headquarters of the University of L’Aquila (The Camponeschi building, XVI century) are presented in this paper. The building is situated in the heart of the old city center and was seriously damaged by the earthquake. Preliminary visual damage analysis carried out immediately after the quake, clearly evidenced the building’s complexity, raising the need for direct and indirect investigation on the structure. Several non-destructive test methods were then performed in situ to better characterize the masonry typology and the damage distribution, as well. Subsequently, a number of representative control points were identified on the building’s facades to represent, by their motion over time, the evolution of the structural displacements and deformations. In particular, a surveying network consisting of 27 different points was established. A robotic total station mounted on top of a concrete pillar was used for periodically monitoring the surveying control network. Stability of the pillar was checked through a GNSS static survey repeated before any set of measurements. The present study evidences the interesting possibilities of combining geomatics with structural investigation during post-earthquake monitoring of ancient monumental buildings.

  4. 75 FR 36442 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Canyons of the Ancients National Monument...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Ancients National Monument located in Montezuma and Dolores counties in southwest Colorado. The Colorado... 184, Dolores, Colorado 81323. Copies of the ROD/Approved RMP are available for public inspection at: Anasazi Heritage Center, 27501 Highway 184, Dolores, Colorado 81323 Dolores Public Lands Center,...

  5. Analysis of degradation phenomena in ancient, traditional and improved building materials of historical monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, M. O.; Silva, T. P.; Veiga, J. P.

    2008-07-01

    A review is presented on constructive techniques plus materials and the processes involved in degradation phenomena observed in two historical monuments: the Zambujeiro dolmen (Portugal) and the Roman Aqueduct of Carthage (Tunisia). Dolmens are particularly impressive megalithic constructions for the dimensions of granite blocks. At Zambujeiro, the upright stones have undergone a catastrophic evolution after the archaeological exploitation due to accelerated weathering through a process apparently distinct from natural granite decay in nearby outcrops. The biological attack of granite minerals by lichen exudates has emphasized the hazardous character of bromine and more has been learnt about construction techniques, namely, the insertion in the mound of an impermeable clay stratum that hinders water penetration into the dolmen chamber. The characterization of original Roman ashlar blocks, including masonry and the diagnosis of Byzantine and medieval reconstruction testimonies in the Aqueduct of Carthage were the object of a detailed study by X-ray diffraction and synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence. Traditional constructive techniques and local construction materials were studied and successive historical, modern and recent rehabilitations were reappraised.

  6. The Underwater Recovery of Monumental Marble Column Drums from an Ancient Shipwreck at Kızılburun, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Deborah N.

    2016-08-01

    In the first century B.C., a stone carrier sank off the Aegean coast of Turkey at Kızılburun transporting all the elements of a monumental marble column, including a single Doric capital and eight drums. The 60-tonne cargo lay at a depth of 45-48 m and was excavated in its entirety by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology at Texas A&M University between 2005 and 2011. Ongoing research has shown that the Doric column pieces in the Kızılburun cargo originated in the marble quarries on Proconnesus Island in the Sea of Marmara and were very likely heading for the Temple of Apollo at Claros when the ship sank just 50 km short of its destination. The complete recovery of the ship's cargo posed a unique set of methodological challenges involving lifting the multi-tonne marble drums without disturbing the delicate waterlogged wooden hull remains preserved beneath. This report summarizes the solutions developed over five seasons in order to rig, hoist, move, and ultimately raise to the surface eight large ancient marble column drums (as well as all the other marble artifacts in the cargo) from a depth of almost 50 m under water.

  7. Unintentional Monuments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Runa

    2015-01-01

    unleashed more than the sliding of earth and stone as it triggered a fierce dispute between Israeli and Palestinian/Muslim interests. The crux of this crisis is to be found in the temporary bridge. In this short text, I suggest to see the bridge as an 'unintentional monument' as a way to understand...... the presence of historical and political powers in the shaping of space...

  8. Ancient Astronomy in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsamian, Elma S.

    2007-08-01

    The most important discovery, which enriched our knowledge of ancient astronomy in Armenia, was the complex of platforms for astronomical observations on the Small Hill of Metzamor, which may be called an ancient “observatory”. Investigations on that Hill show that the ancient inhabitants of the Armenian Highlands have left us not only pictures of celestial bodies, but a very ancient complex of platforms for observing the sky. Among the ancient monuments in Armenia there is a megalithic monument, probably, being connected with astronomy. 250km South-East of Yerevan there is a structure Zorats Kar (Karahunge) dating back to II millennium B.C. Vertical megaliths many of which are more than two meters high form stone rings resembling ancient stone monuments - henges in Great Britain and Brittany. Medieval observations of comets and novas by data in ancient Armenian manuscripts are found. In the collection of ancient Armenian manuscripts (Matenadaran) in Yerevan there are many manuscripts with information about observations of astronomical events as: solar and lunar eclipses, comets and novas, bolides and meteorites etc. in medieval Armenia.

  9. Usurpation of Monuments

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Usurpation was the practice by some Egyptian rulers of replacing the names of predecessors with their own on monuments such as temple reliefs and royal statuary. Usurpation was often carried out in connection with the damnatio memoriae of pharaohs such as Hatshepsut and Tutankhamen. Ramesses II usurped dozens of monuments of various Middle and New Kingdom predecessors, not to defame them but to promote his own kingship. In the later Ramesside Period, usurpation was again linked to damnatio me...

  10. Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  11. Uus monument Viinis / Mare Mikof

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mikof, Mare, 1941-

    2001-01-01

    25. oktoobril 2000 avati Viinis holokausti monument, mille autor on briti skulptor Rachel Whiteread. Monument kujutab endast valget betoonist ristkülikukujulist pahempidi pööratud siseruumiga raamatukogu

  12. Pages of the phytomorphology history in the monuments of material culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Yu. Barshteyn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It was reviewed Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome sources of plants morphology, plant morphology knowledge in Renaissance age – scientific works of Andrea Cesalpino, Joachim Jungius, Marcello Malpighi and plant morphology formation as the separate branch of science due to Johann Wolfgang von Goethe scientific works and its reflection in the monuments of material culture.

  13. Isolation of five Rubrobacter strains from biodeteriorated monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiz, L.; Miller, A. Z.; Jurado, V.; Akatova, E.; Sanchez-Moral, S.; Gonzalez, J. M.; Dionísio, A.; Macedo, M. F.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.

    2009-01-01

    In the last few years, the microbial colonisation of mural paintings in ancient monuments has been attracting the attention of microbiologists and conservators. The genus Rubrobacter is commonly found in biodeteriorated monuments, where it has been reported to cause rosy discolouration. However, to date, only three species of this genus have been isolated, all from thermophilic environments. In this paper, we studied three monuments: the Servilia and Postumio tombs in the Roman Necropolis of Carmona (Spain), and Vilar de Frades church (Portugal), in search of Rubrobacter strains. In all cases, biodeterioration and the formation of efflorescences were observed, and five Rubrobacter strains were isolated. These isolates showed different physiology and migration in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, suggesting they might represent new species within this genus. The isolates reproduced some biodeterioration processes in the laboratory and revealed their biomediation in crystal formation.

  14. Nanomaterials and preservation mechanisms of architecture monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Rodica-Mariana; Radu, Adrian; Teodorescu, Sofia; Fierǎscu, Irina; Fierǎscu, Radu-Claudiu; Ştirbescu, Raluca-Maria; Dulamǎ, Ioana Daniela; Şuicǎ-Bunghez, Ioana-Raluca; Bucuricǎ, Ioan Alin; Ion, Mihaela-Lucia

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of the chemical composition of the building materials of the monuments may help us to preserve and protect them from the pollution of our cities. The aim of this work is to characterize the materials of the walls from ancient buildings, the decay products that could be appear due to the action of pollution and a new method based on nanomaterials (hydroxyapatite -HAp) for a conservative preservation of the treated walls. Some analytical techniques have been used, as follow: X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive (EDXRF) (for the relative abundance of major, minor and trace elements), FTIR and Raman spectroscopy (for stratigraphic study of cross-sections of multi-layered materials found in wall paintings), Optical microscopy (OM), (for morphology of the wall samples). The nanomaterial suspension HAp applied on the sample surface by spraying, decreased the capillary water uptake, do not modify significantly the color of the samples and induced a reduced mass loss for the treated samples.

  15. Monument avalikule hetkele = Monument to a public moment / raumlaborberlin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Saksamaa arhitektide projekt "Monument avalikule hetkele" tekitas Tallinnas asuva Välisministeeriumi ette massiivne monumendi aluse, mis mõne minuti suitsu välja ajas ja mis seejärel lammutati. Fotokujutist levitati postkaardil

  16. COMPUTER ASSISTED LOOM IN THE REVIVAL OF CONTEMPORARY MONUMENTAL TAPESTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PINTILIE Anca-Aurelia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The art of tapestry has its basics back in time, probably in the decorations of tent, the house of the nomad. Tapestry in its beginnings is the first wall of the nomad’s home and the decorative wall and canopy in the ancient Greek houses as architect Gottfried Semper stated in the nineteen century. The architectural approach is not unusual even in the next centuries. Tapestry becomes popular as a form of monumental art during the Middle Ages when it is used as decorative architectural element, coating the walls of medieval castles. During the next centuries dominated by decadent styles of baroque, rococo, the tapestry will lose its monumental spirit and architectural quality but at the middle of the XXth century a new approach will sustain the revival of the tapestry as monumental art. Later, in the XXIst century, renowned multimedia artists will approach this medium and will use computer assisted looms in ambitious tapestry projects. This technique will allow them to realize complex and exquisite tapestries, sustaining in this way the revival of the tapestry in the contemporary art world. The paper presents the importance of the architectural side of tapestry and the great achievement that computer assisted loom represents for this form of art. The research activity is willing to inform Romanian textile designers about the possibilities to create tapestries on computer assisted looms. The research was made during the initial stage of a doctoral thesis consisting in a documentary study on monumental aspects of contemporary tapestry.

  17. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  18. Ancient "Observatories" - A Relevant Concept?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    It is quite common, when reading popular books on astronomy, to see a place referred to as "the oldest observatory in the world". In addition, numerous books on archaeoastronomy, of various levels of quality, frequently refer to the existence of "prehistoric" or "ancient" observatories when describing or citing monuments that were certainly not built with the primary purpose of observing the skies. Internet sources are also guilty of this practice. In this chapter, the different meanings of the word observatory will be analyzed, looking at how their significances can be easily confused or even interchanged. The proclaimed "ancient observatories" are a typical result of this situation. Finally, the relevance of the concept of the ancient observatory will be evaluated.

  19. Reversing the Past: Monuments for Stillborn Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peelen, J.

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, since the year 2000, over 150 monuments have been established for stillborn children. Drawing on theory-based direct observation of the related death rituals, interviews with the main actors and an analysis of the monuments, this article discusses the role of these monuments in t

  20. The Golden King and the Great Pharaoh King Tut :His Restoration Role of Ancient Egyptian’s Religion (1334BC-1325BC)

    OpenAIRE

    Moussi, Feyrouz

    2016-01-01

    Ancient Egypt is described as a land of mysteries; land of pharaohs and their secrets. No other civilization has captured the imagination of scholars and laypeople alike. Mystery surrounds its origins, its religion and its monumental architecture such as colossal temples and pyramids. The Egyptian pyramids are the most famous of all the ancient monuments, the only remaining wonder of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Many pharaohs who governed at that time were the mos...

  1. Documenting Living Monuments in Indonesia: Methodology for Sustainable Utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryaningsih, F.; Purwestri, N.

    2013-07-01

    The systematic documentation of cultural heritage in Indonesia has been developed after the establishment of Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen (1778) and De Oudheidkundige Dienst (1913) by the Netherlands Indies government. After Indonesian independent, the tasks of cultural heritage documentation take over by The Ministry of Culture (now become The Ministry of Education of Culture) with focus on the ancient and classical heritage, so called dead monument. The needed of comprehensive documentation data regarding cultural heritage become significant issues since the government and private sector pay attention to the preservation of heritage building in the urban site, so called living monument. The archives of original drawing plan many times do not fit with the existing condition, while the conservation plan demands a document such as built drawing plan to work on. The technology, methodology and system to provide such comprehensive document of heritage building and site become important, to produce good conservation plan and heritage building regular maintenance. It means the products will have a sustainable and various utility values. Since 1994, Documentation Centre for Architecture - Indonesia (PDA), has established to meet the needs of a comprehensive data of heritage building (living monuments), to utilized as basic document for conservation planning. Not only provide document of the digital drawing such site plan, plan, elevation, section and details of architecture elements, but also document of historic research, material analysis and completed with diagnosis and mapping of building damages. This manuscript is about PDA field experience, working in this subject issue

  2. Aksumstelen. Et monuments skiftende betydninger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helène Whittaker

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the various meanings associated with the Aksum stela which was taken from Ethiopia to Rome in 1937 and returned in 2005. It discusses its original meaning as a burial monument, its role in Mussolini’s propaganda, and the new meaning it has acquired after having been returned to Ethiopia and Aksum.

  3. Assessment of the DORIS network monumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, J.

    2016-12-01

    Stability of the monumentation is essential for precise positioning applications to minimize velocity uncertainties and noises in the position data. In charge of the DORIS global tracking network deployment since the beginning, IGN, in consultation with CNES, designed three standard monuments compliant with the DORIS system requirements and general geodetic specifications, and suitable for various site configurations: building roofs, concrete pedestals or pillars. This paper describes the monument types in use in the DORIS network according to the current required specifications and provides a comparative assessment of the stability of the monuments over the network based on three methods: a theoretical study of the mechanical behavior of the metallic structures, a misclosure analysis taken during ground surveys and a qualitative approach taking into account different factors. This overview of the network monumentation gives new key numbers following the previous network assessment performed by Fagard (2006). Significant improvements have been made following the continuous efforts to renovate the network monumentation. These results are relevant for the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) goals of measurement stability for the geodetic techniques. Today, two-thirds of the DORIS network monuments are compliant with the standards aiming at stability of 0.1 mm/y. This stability result has been measured for 16 of the 58 stations more than 10 y after its installation while monuments with more than 1 mm antenna tilts are over 10 y old when specifications were less stringent. The grading and scoring grid drawn up for each monument led to the mapping of the stability of the current DORIS network. Finally, we present a number of further actions to monitor the monument stability and provide new elements for the network monumentation assessment, exploring two different approaches: analysis of the time series and direct measurements using devices placed on each monument.

  4. Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Virginia

    This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

  5. Skeletal dysplasia in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2008-12-01

    The ancient Egyptian civilization lasted for over 3000 years and ended in 30 BCE. Many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture, including the existence of skeletal dysplasias, and in particular achondroplasia, are well known through the monuments and records that survived until modern times. The hot and dry climate in Egypt allowed for the preservation of bodies and skeletal anomalies. The oldest dwarf skeleton, the Badarian skeleton (4500 BCE), possibly represents an epiphyseal disorder. Among the remains of dwarfs with achondroplasia from ancient Egypt (2686-2190 BCE), exists a skeleton of a pregnant female, believed to have died during delivery with a baby's remains in situ. British museums have partial skeletons of dwarfs with achondroplasia, humeri probably affected with mucopolysaccharidoses, and a skeleton of a child with osteogenesis imperfecta. Skeletal dysplasia is also found among royal remains. The mummy of the pharaoh Siptah (1342-1197 BCE) shows a deformity of the left leg and foot. A mummified fetus, believed to be the daughter of king Tutankhamun, has scoliosis, spina bifida, and Sprengel deformity. In 2006 I reviewed the previously existing knowledge of dwarfism in ancient Egypt. The purpose of this second historical review is to add to that knowledge with an expanded contribution. The artistic documentation of people with skeletal dysplasia from ancient Egypt is plentiful including hundreds of amulets, statues, and drawing on tomb and temple walls. Examination of artistic reliefs provides a glance of the role of people with skeletal dysplasia and the societal attitudes toward them. Both artistic evidence and moral teachings in ancient Egypt reveal wide integration of individuals with disabilities into the society.

  6. The Crematorium Temple in the Monumental Cemetery in Milan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Boi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Crematorium Temple of Milan, first in Italy and among the first in Europe, has played a key role in the revival of cremation, already used by the ancient classical civilizations, becoming a model soon imitated by other cities. Its construction is due to the generosity of the industrialist Albert Keller who worked to introduce the practice of cremation in Milan as an alternative to burial and as solution to the unrelenting settlement expansion of cemeteries, too close to the cities. In 1876 the crematorium was inaugurated with the first implementation of a design by Carlo Maciachini, author of the Monumental Cemetery where the crematorium is located, presented in grecian Doric style in memory of the purifying rituals of classical ideas.

  7. Ethnicity, National Integrity and Monument in Argal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Bahadur Khattri

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In Nepal, social inclusion, ethnic identity, positive discrimination and proportional representation being burning issues now. Ethnic identity is a vital element of discussion for social inclusion, positive discrimination and proportional representation. Assertion on ethnic identity, seeks recognition from concerned institutions, practices traditions and advocates their ethnic right on socio-economic and political power. These issues are intrinsically linked to national integration. To be sure, very little attention is paid toward ancestral monuments of the past. Monuments vary by their size, pattern, investment, management, and range of dissemination. Local level monuments have little possibility to attract the attention of people of various places and interest, unless they have becomes extraordinary significance. In order to understand monumentality in wider social context, it is very important to look at the village level society. Monument building in Nepal has been linked to culture, history, religion, ethnic identity as well as social system. Argal VDC of Baglung district of Nepal represent with multi-ethnic/caste setting that has high influence over the nature of monument and the rituals performed. In multiethnic setting economic, social, and political activities co-exist, each nourishing the other.Key Words: Ethnicity, Argali Magars, Intra-ethnic relation, Magars, Monuments, National Integrity, NepalDOI = 10.3126/dsaj.v2i0.1359Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.2 pp.101-120

  8. Digital Monument to the Jewish Community in the Netherlands and the Jewish Monument Community : commemoration and meaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faro, L.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    In April 2005, the Digital Monument to the Jewish Community in the Netherlands went online. This monument is an Internet monument dedicated to preserving the memory of more than 100,000 men, women and children, Dutch Jewish victims of the Shoah. As of September 2010, the interactive Jewish Monument

  9. Assessment of air pollutant sources in the deposit on monuments by multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozga, Izabela; Ghedini, Nadia; Giosuè, Chiara; Sabbioni, Cristina; Tittarelli, Francesca; Bonazza, Alessandra

    2014-08-15

    A proper recognition of the pollutant sources in atmospheric deposit is a key problem for any action aiming at reducing their emission, being this an important issue with implications both on human health safeguard and on the cultural heritage conservation in urban sites. This work presents the results of a statistical approach application for the identification of pollutant sources in deposits and damage layers on monuments located in different European sites: Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence (Italy), Cologne Cathedral, Cologne (Germany), Ancient ramparts, Salè (Morocco), National Museum, Cracow (Poland) and National Gallery, Oslo (Norway). For this aim, the surface damage layers on monuments and historical buildings of the selected sites were collected and analyzed, in terms of ionic and elemental composition, through application of ion chromatography and induced coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The achieved results were processed by multivariate analyses such as correlation matrix and principal component analysis in order to identify the possible origin of pollutants affecting the state of conservation of the monuments. This allowed us to assume that in all case studies the traffic emission is the main pollutant source. In the case of Ancient ramparts, Salè (Morocco), and National Gallery, Oslo (Norway), the surfaces are also under influence of marine aerosols. Moreover, concerning the Cologne Cathedral, the strong impact of the pollutants emitted by railway station was also revealed.

  10. EAARL Topography George Washington Birthplace National Monument

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare earth elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model or DEM) of George Washington Birthplace National Monument was produced from remotely-sensed,...

  11. Beauty and ugliness in Olmec monumental sculpture

    OpenAIRE

    Baudez, Claude-François

    2015-01-01

    Beauty and ugliness in Olmec monumental sculpture. Since our Western art tradition has put such a prize on naturalism, we tend to think that other civilizations valued it as much as we did and do. I contend that Olmec monumental art illustrates the opposite, and suggest that the Olmecs most appreciated the anthropomorphic statues that incorporated feline features, and disliked the very naturalistic style of the colossal heads. The latter represented the severed heads of opponents who probably...

  12. Ancient genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen

    2015-01-01

    by increasing the number of sequence reads to billions effectively means that contamination issues that have haunted aDNA research for decades, particularly in human studies, can now be efficiently and confidently quantified. At present, whole genomes have been sequenced from ancient anatomically modern humans......, archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when...

  13. Radioactivity in fossils at the Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C Neal; Kathren, Ronald L; Christensen, Craig

    2008-08-01

    Since 1996, higher than background levels of naturally occurring radioactivity have been documented in both fossil and mineral deposits at Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument in south-central Idaho. Radioactive fossil sites occur primarily within an elevation zone of 900-1000 m above sea level and are most commonly found associated with ancient river channels filled with sand. Fossils found in clay rich deposits do not exhibit discernable levels of radioactivity. Out of 300 randomly selected fossils, approximately three-fourths exhibit detectable levels of natural radioactivity ranging from 1 to 2 orders of magnitude above ambient background levels when surveyed with a portable hand held Geiger-Muller survey instrument. Mineral deposits in geologic strata also show above ambient background levels of radioactivity. Radiochemical lab analysis has documented the presence of numerous natural radioactive isotopes. It is postulated that ancient groundwater transported radioactive elements through sand bodies containing fossils which precipitated out of solution during the fossilization process. The elevated levels of natural radioactivity in fossils may require special precautions to ensure that exposures to personnel from stored or displayed items are kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

  14. Ancient genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen;

    2015-01-01

    , archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when...

  15. Monuments of the Giza Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    The colossal pyramids of the pharaohs Khufu (Cheops), Khafre (Chephren), and Menkaure (Mycerinus) have attracted a huge amount of astronomical interest over the years, both scholarly and popular. Less attention is usually given to the broader context of structures on the Giza Plateau. One of the most notorious ideas connecting the Giza Plateau with astronomy is that the three large pyramids are laid out on the ground so as to reflect the appearance of the three stars of Orion's Belt in the sky. This idea is unsupportable for several reasons but has succeeded in generating huge public interest. Of much greater serious interest is the fact that the three main pyramids were oriented cardinally to extraordinary precision, which raises the questions of why this was important and how it was achieved. Another idea that has attracted serious attention but also some confusion is that the orientations of some narrow shafts within Khufu's pyramid might have been deliberately aligned upon particular stars. The overall layout of monuments on the plateau may certainly have been designed so as to emphasize certain solar phenomena, for symbolic and ideological reasons relating to a dominant sun cult. It is also possible that it formed part of a wider cosmological "master plan" extending to other pyramids and temples up to 20 km distant.

  16. Advances in structural mechanics of Chinese ancient architectures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maohong YU; Yoshiya ODA; Dongping FANG; Junhai ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    Chinese ancient architectures are valuable heritage of ancient culture of China. Many historical building have been preserved up to now. The researches on the structural mechanics of ancient architectures show the different aspects of structure and mechanics. Systematical studies on the structural mechanics of ancient architectures have been carried out at Xi'an Jiaotong University since 1982. It is related with the need of repair of some national preservation relics in Xi'an. These studies include: 1) Ancient wooden structures including three national preservation relics Arrow Tower at North City Gate, City Tower at East City Gate, and Baogao Temple in Ningbao, Zhejiang province. 2) Ancient tall masonry building, the Big Goose Pagoda and Small Goose Pagoda in Xi'an. 3) Mechanical characteristics of ancient soil under foundation and city wall; the influence of caves in and under the ancient City Wall on the stability of the wall. 4) The typical Chinese ancient building at the center of city: the Bell Tower and Drum tower. 5) The behavior of Dou-Gong and Joggle joint of Chinese ancient wooden structure. 6) The mechanical behavior of ancient soils under complex stress state. A new systematical strength theory, the unified strength theory, is used to analyze the stability of ancient city wall in Xi'an and foundation of tall pagoda built in Tang dynasty. These researches also concern differential settlements of Arrow Tower and resistance to earthquake of these historical architecture heritages. Some other studies are also introduced. This paper gives a summary of these researches. Preservation and research are nowadays an essential requirement for the famous monuments, buildings, towers and others. Our society is more and more conscious of this necessity, which involves increasing activities of restoration, and then sometimes also of repair, mechanical strengthening and seismic retrofitting. Many historical buildings have in fact problems of structural strength and

  17. ‘Not Months but Moments’: Ephemerality, Monumentality, and the Pavilion in Ruins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihor Junyk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines a fundamental tension between ephemerality and monumentality in the history of pavilion architecture. Descended from the ancient tent, the pavilion was taken up by European landscape architecture in the eighteenth century. Integrated into an aesthetic of the picturesque, these ephemeral structures were both settings and instruments of a set of fleeting experiences that can be grouped under the category of reverie. However, during the course of the nineteenth century, the pavilion underwent a dramatic change, gradually becoming the monumental representative of the nations that participated at the various expositions and World’s Fairs that took place during that century and the next. Unable to actualize the permanence they were meant to embody, pavilions instead called forth aggressive fantasies of ruin and death. Wary of the deathly aesthetics of monumentality and sublimity, architects working in the last couple decades have returned the pavilion to its original ephemerality. Experimenting with new materials and digital technologies they have created contemporary follies as new spaces for reverie.

  18. Are Birds a Manace to Outdoor Monuments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Vasiliu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary results of laboratory tests on real samples have shown that the uric acid which is found in bird droppings has a negative influence on metals. Results of experiments have confirmed that the damage is significant when considering the cultural heritage, statues or monuments.

  19. Non-destructive testing on historical monuments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heruc, S.

    1997-01-01

    Historic monuments are more than just old buildings or architectural importance. They are a symbol of our cultural indentity and in continuity a part of our heritage, and as such it is generally accepted that they should be maintained for so long as possible and without materially altering the fabri

  20. Ocatilla : del paisaje monumental al monumento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Quesada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Resumen

    Este artículo aborda el campamento Ocatilla, construido en el  desierto de Arizona por Frank Lloyd Wright como una estación  experimental de arquitectura en 1929. Se propone este campamento como un prototipo que tendría dos vectores  temporales por lo que se refiere a una posible genealogía y a un posible desarrollo futuro. Hacía el pasado habría que  rastrearlo en la Casa para la Familia Cristiana propuesta por  Catherine Beecher en 1869, mientras que hacia el futuro podría establecerse un posible epígono en la Burbuja Ambiental de  Reyner Banham y François Dallegret de 1965. El texto explora  las posibilidades de un ideal de arquitectura para el paisaje monumental, perfectamente ejemplarizado en los tres casos, frente a la arquitectura como monumento ante el paisaje, que ejemplificaría Taliesin West, su monumental contrafigura.

    Palabras clave

    campamento, prototipo, paisaje, ambiental, monumental

    Abstract

    This article discusses the Ocatilla camp, built in the Arizona  desert by Frank Lloyd Wright as an experimental architecture in  1929. This camp is proposed as a prototype with two temporary vectors, one would be to a possible genealogy and the other a  possible future development. Going to the past should be traced in the House for the Christian Family by Catherine Beecher proposed in 1869, while that to the future could be made a epigone in the Environmental Bubble of Reyner Banham and of François Dallegret in 1965. The text explores the possibilities of an ideal architecture for the monumental landscape, perfectly  exemplified in the three cases, compared to architecture as a monument to the landscape, which exemplify Taliesin West, his monumental counterpart.

    Key words

    camp, prototype, landscape, environment, monumental

  1. Finite element prediction of seismic response modification of monumental structures utilizing base isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanos, Konstantinos; Anifantis, Nikolaos; Kakavas, Panayiotis

    2015-05-01

    The analysis of the mechanical behavior of ancient structures is an essential engineering task concerning the preservation of architectural heritage. As many monuments of classical antiquity are located in regions of earthquake activity, the safety assessment of these structures, as well as the selection of possible restoration interventions, requires numerical models capable of correctly representing their seismic response. The work presented herein was part of a research project in which a better understanding of the dynamics of classical column-architrave structures was sought by means of numerical techniques. In this paper, the seismic behavior of ancient monumental structures with multi-drum classical columns is investigated. In particular, the column-architrave classical structure under strong ground excitations was represented by a finite element method. This approach simulates the individual rock blocks as distinct rigid blocks interconnected with slidelines and incorporates seismic isolation dampers under the basement of the structure. Sliding and rocking motions of individual stone blocks and drums are modeled utilizing non-linear frictional contact conditions. The seismic isolation is modeled through the application of pad bearings under the basement of the structure. These pads are interpreted by appropriate rubber and steel layers. Time domain analyses were performed, considering the geometric and material non-linear behavior at the joints and the characteristics of pad bearings. The deformation and failure modes of drum columns subject to seismic excitations of various types and intensities were analyzed. The adverse influence of drum imperfections on structural safety was also examined.

  2. Sarmatian Monuments in the Forest-Steppe Interfluve Area Between the Don and the Volga Rivers (Zoning Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berestnev Roman Sergeevich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the zoning of Sarmatian antiquities in the forest-steppe interfluve area between the Don and the Volga rivers. On the basis of the analysis, the authors allocate four areas of burial monuments in the Northern periphery of the Asian Sarmatia (the river in Voronezh, the Middle Don, the Upper Don, the area between the Khoper and the Volga rivers. The stages of the forest-steppe area development by the Sarmatians in the Don River, the Khoper river and the right bank of the Volga river were also studied. The first stage is characterized by the general description of Sarmatian monuments located in the forest-steppe area between the Volga and the Khoper. The authors carry out the detailed review of the distinctive features of the funeral rites and some peculiar details: stratigraphy, structures beneath barrows, forms of burial pits, postures of the deceased, orientation, use of fire, imported and domestic utensils, weapons and ornaments. Archaeological materials are compared with the data of ancient sources (Claudius Ptolemy. The result of the study consists in the comparative analysis of the binding of specific ethnic groups in the allocated areas. The authors attribute the Sarmatians on the Voronezh river with the Gippofagi ancient authors; the Aseyes and the Sakata – with the area of monuments in the forest between the Volga and the Khoper.

  3. 3D VIRTUAL RECONSTRUCTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL MONUMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    3D Virtual Models are the future of the representation of the existing and destroyed architectural heritage. The term reconstruction defines the re-building of a monument to its state at the time of its history chosen for that particular representation. In recent years the evolution of the technology, has contributed significantly in many aspects of the field of cultural heritage preservation and recording. Techniques like digital image processing, digital orthophoto production, terrestrial l...

  4. Milleks monumenti = Why a monument? / Heie Treier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Treier, Heie, 1963-

    2006-01-01

    2006. a. toimunud Jüri Lotmani mälestusmärgi konkursist, Mati Karmini ja Andres Lunge võidutööst. Monumentide positiivseid näiteid: Tubina plats Tartus (Aili Vahtrapuu, Veronika Valk, Louis Dandrel), ideekavandid: Estonia teatri juubelimonument Tallinnas (Tiiu Kirsipuu, Üla Koppel) ja Eesti iseseisvuse monument Pärnus Rüütli platsil (Mart Aas, Kaarel Eelma, Mikk Mutso). Bibl. lk. 73

  5. Touch-free in situ investigation of ancient Egyptian pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uda, M.; Sassa, S.; Taniguchi, K.; Nomura, S.; Yoshimura, S.; Kondo, J.; Iskander, N.; Zaghloul, B.

    Some of the pigments painted on the Funerary Stele of Amenemhat (ca. 2000B.C.) exhibited at the Egyptian Museum, Cairo and on the walls of the Tomb of Userhat (ca. 1450B.C.), a rock-cut tomb in Thebes, Egypt, were investigated in situ using both a convenient home-made hand-held type of X-ray diffractometer and a commercial X-ray fluorescence spectrometer in a complementary way under touch-free conditions. CaCO3.3MgCO3 (huntite) was found in the white-painted parts of these two ancient monuments. An arsenic (As)-bearing phase was detected in the yellow-painted parts of the latter monument. The occurrence of huntite in Egypt has not been reported previously.

  6. Exploring National Parks & Monuments: Students Can Discover National Monuments, National Parks & Natural Wonders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Cynthia Light Brown, author of "Discover National Monuments, National Parks: Natural Wonders," a book that introduces readers ages 8-12 to the history and science behind some of the amazing natural sites in the United States. In this interview, Cynthia Light Brown describes how she became interested in…

  7. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley Site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevalated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching; Treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovery is economically unattractive.

  8. Monumentality on space and cultural democratization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Alves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a reflection on the idea of monumentality in political and religious power, and its reconversion of a democratic society. There are 3+1 types of cultural exhibition space that are analyzed: the traditional palace or the church, which contain great works of classical art, inside of the historic centers; the art galleries associated with market economy, tend to stimulate the city centre area, and the autonomy of the architectural object in the vicinity of the traditional city. Lastly it is referred the case study - Silo Cultural Space - inside the Norteshopping, but arranged in a peripheral form, which is distinguished by an apparent proximity to multiple public.

  9. Threatened coastal monuments at Tranquebar, Tamil Nadu

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; ManiMurali, R.; Jayakumar, S.

    to the archaeological monuments and its culture may provide an accurate date on the sea level or a means of correlation of shoreline over a wider area (Southerland 1983). The shoreline change happens due to coastal erosion and subsidence of land. Coastal erosion... in GIS environment and displayed over the satellite imagery of Google Earth to know the shoreline shift for the period of last 74 years. The vector maps were converted to keyhole markup language (kml) files which can be opened directly in Google Earth...

  10. 36 CFR 7.63 - Dinosaur National Monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dinosaur National Monument. 7.63 Section 7.63 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.63 Dinosaur National Monument. (a)...

  11. 78 FR 72060 - Chimney Rock National Monument Management Plan; San Juan National Forest; Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Chimney Rock National Monument Management Plan; San Juan National...) to establish management direction for the land and resources within Chimney Rock National Monument... establishing Chimney Rock National Monument (the Monument) requires preparation of a management plan....

  12. Cygnus mystery unlocking the ancient secret of life's origins in the cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Author, Andrew Collins

    2012-01-01

    It was a universal belief among ancient civilizations that life came originally from the cosmos, and ultimately would return there after death. The shamanic journey was always to this sky-world - and it appears that it was always located in the direction of the stars of Cygnus - also known as the Northern Cross - accessed either via the Milky Way or an imagined cosmic axis. Andrew Collins demonstrates that this belief is based on an ancient astronomy - around 17,000 years old. All over the world, standing stones, temples and monuments are orientated towards the rising and setting of the stars

  13. EFFECT OF MONUMENTAL AND HISTORICAL MONUMENTS IN THE FORMATION OF CULTURAL TRADITIONS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF PATRIOTIC FEELINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryana Adamovna MALISH

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of monumental and historical monuments on the formation and development of the cultural traditions of patriotic feelings. The purpose of the present work - consider the role of the historical - monumental heritage in the education of youth.Currently underused study materials and the potential of such a resource as monuments of history and art. While it is thanks to them you can solve a range of problems: increased motivation to study the history of his native land; acquisition of new knowledge by students and skills; expansion of professional card adolescents; foster a sense of patriotism and pride for their country and people, etc.Besides the state of the program to implement the gen-eral requirements of the education of youth, it is im-portant to restore the municipal system, including clubs, sections, mugs and so on. We believe that a greater role in this area can play work on the study of historical and monumental heritage of his native land. The effective-ness of the use of monuments due to the fact that stu-dents have the opportunity to come into contact with the history of the region through the study of the history of its kind since the Great Patriotic War has affected almost every family, and therefore, a monument in honor of Fa-therland Defenders are relevant to today's teenagers rela-tives.Invaluable role in patriotic education can play to attract local history materials such as historical and monumen-tal memorials, through which young people can feel a sense of ownership to the story, to acquire new knowledge and skills, to feel pride in their country. For the teacher of historical and monumental memorials are a vivid illustration of the events of the past, tools promot-ing students' motivation to study the history of his native land, the means of patriotic feelings of teenagers.

  14. The building stones of ancient Egypt a gift of its geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Dietrich D.; Klemm, Rosemarie

    2001-08-01

    Building stones and clay-rich Nile mud were ancient Egypt's main raw construction materials. While the mud was easily accessible along the Nile river valley, the immense quantities of the different stone materials used for construction of the famous pyramids, precious temples and tombs needed a systematic quarrying organization, well arranged transport logistics over extreme distances and a high standard of stone masonry. The petrography, occurrence, and main applications of the 11 most popular stone types used in ancient Egypt are described in this contribution. Rough estimates of the scale of this mining activity, based on the volume of many different ancient quarry sites, all over Egypt, reveal that the monuments known today represent only a small fraction of the amount of building stones mined during the long, ancient Egyptian history.

  15. Prairie dog town at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector polygon file showing the prairie dog town at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI). The coordinates for this dataset were collected...

  16. Drain field at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector polygon file showing the drain field that is part of the sewer system utility at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI). The...

  17. Cattleguards at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector point file showing the cattleguards at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI). The coordinates for this dataset were collected using a...

  18. Monitoring Stations at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector point file showing the monitoring stations at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI). The coordinates for this dataset were collected...

  19. Parking Lots at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector polygon file showing the parking lots at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI). The coordinates for this dataset were collected using...

  20. Pullouts at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector point file showing the road pullouts at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI). The coordinates for this dataset were collected using...

  1. Gates at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector point file showing the gates at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI). The coordinates for this dataset were collected using a...

  2. Papaha-naumokua-kea Marine National Monument Digital Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Papaha-naumokua-kea Marine National Monument (NWHI-MNM) was designated by Presidential Proclamation 8031, June 15th 2006. The legal boundaries for the NWHI-MNM...

  3. Parking Areas at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (prkareas)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This polygon dataset locates the parking areas within Cedar Breaks National Monument. The parking areas were digitized from the 2002 Color aerial photographs and the...

  4. Spatial Vegetation Data for Dinosaur National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This polygon feature class represents vegetation communities mapped at Dinosaur National Monument. The polygons were delineated following guidelines set by the...

  5. Memorials (Polygons) at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector polygon file showing the memorials at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI). The coordinates for this dataset were collected using a...

  6. Monitoring Weather Station Fire Rehabilitation Treatments: Hanford Reach National Monument

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Weather Station Fire (July, 2005) burned across 4,918 acres in the Saddle Mountain Unit of the Hanford Reach National Monument, which included parts of the...

  7. Roads at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector line file showing the roads at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI). The coordinates for this dataset were collected using a Trimble...

  8. Spatial Vegetation Data for Wupatki National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the vegetation and land-use geo-spatial database for Wupatki National Monument and surrounding areas. The project is authorized as part of the...

  9. Trails at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector line file showing the trails and paths at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI). The coordinates for this dataset were collected using...

  10. Spatial Vegetation Data for Hovenweep National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This polygon feature class represents vegetation communities mapped at Hovenweep National Monument. The polygons were generated using guidelines set by the USGS-NPS...

  11. EAARL Topography--George Washington Birthplace National Monument 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first surface/bare earth elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the George Washington Birthplace National Monument in Virginia was...

  12. Utilities at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (utilpnt)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents various types of utilities, including water- and power-related utilities, at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah. The utilities were...

  13. Gates at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector point file showing the gates at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI). The coordinates for this dataset were collected using a Trimble...

  14. Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument Natural Resources Science Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Natural Resources Science Plan aims to provide the information to effectively implement the Papahanumokuakea Marine National Monument Management Plan. The...

  15. Rifle Pits at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector polygon file showing the rifle pits used by the 7th Cavalry at the Reno-Benteen Battlefield at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI)....

  16. Accuracy Assessment Points for Wupatki National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This spatial dataset in ESRI Coverage format maps accuracy assessment point locations for the vegetation map at Wupatki National Monument and in the surrounding...

  17. Honeymoon Trail at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (honeytrl)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 1 arc that represents the Honeymoon Trail inside of Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The Honeymoon Trail was...

  18. Footprints of Buildings at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (footprints)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/INFO coverage consisting of 10 polygons representing the buildings' footprints at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah. The footprints were collected...

  19. Transportation Signs at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (trspsign)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains the starting point for the collection of transportation signs at Cedar Breaks National Monument. There are over 400 signs (transportation and...

  20. Designated Overlook Areas at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (ovrareas)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains three polygons that represent areas of designated overlooks at Cedar Breaks National Monument. Note: Point Supreme needs an FMSS number - it...

  1. Service Areas at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (srvcarea)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains service areas at Cedar Breaks National Monument. The service areas were collected by a Trimble GeoXT GPS unit and post processed for...

  2. The Orchard points at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (orchard)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 56 points representing the bubblers of mid-point of planting spots in the orchard at Pipe Spring National Monument,...

  3. Springs at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (allsprgs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 151 points representing spring locations in and surrounding Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah. This data originates...

  4. Roads at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona 2006 (roads)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 30 arcs representing the roads in Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. Twenty-five of the road arcs were collected by a...

  5. Walkways at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_walkways)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 23 arcs representing the walkways (or sidewalks) at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The walkways were collected by...

  6. The Gates at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (gates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 7 points representing gates at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The gates were collected by a Trimble GeoXT GPS...

  7. The Tree Lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (treeline)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 7 arcs representing the tree lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The tree lines were collected by a Trimble...

  8. Sanitation of cultural monuments - Energy conervation. Energetic improvement of buildings listed as monuments; Kulturdenkmale sanieren - Energie sparen. Energetische Verbesserung denkmalgeschuetzter Gebaeude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-08-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on an energetic improvement of buildings listed as monuments. Substantial aspects are designated which absolutely have to be considered in the energetic sanitation. Depending upon plant (solar thermal power or photovoltaics), dimensions and other design (cell type, colour, reflection) solutions can be found which only insignificantly impair the appearance of the architectural monument. Partners for buildings listed as monument are monument protection authorities. The contribution under consideration also presents an overview of public funding programs.

  9. Stones with character : animism, agency and megalithic monuments.

    OpenAIRE

    Scarre, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies of megalithic monuments have shown how they incorporate blocks, sometimes taken from different locations, which link the monuments to features of their local landscapes. The slabs were often left unworked, or only minimally shaped, which would have helped preserved the visual resemblance of the stones to the outcrops or boulder fields from which they were derived. The careful selection of megalithic blocks suggests that they incorporated and materialised memories, powers and as...

  10. Distribution and Diversity of Bacteria and Fungi Colonization in Stone Monuments Analyzed by High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Zhang, Bingjian; He, Zhang; Yang, Xiaoru

    The historical and cultural heritage of Qingxing palace and Lingyin and Kaihua temple, located in Hangzhou of China, include a large number of exquisite Buddhist statues and ancient stone sculptures which date back to the Northern Song (960-1219 A.D.) and Qing dynasties (1636-1912 A.D.) and are considered to be some of the best examples of ancient stone sculpting techniques. They were added to the World Heritage List in 2011 because of their unique craftsmanship and importance to the study of ancient Chinese Buddhist culture. However, biodeterioration of the surface of the ancient Buddhist statues and white marble pillars not only severely impairs their aesthetic value but also alters their material structure and thermo-hygric properties. In this study, high-throughput sequencing was utilized to identify the microbial communities colonizing the stone monuments. The diversity and distribution of the microbial communities in six samples collected from three different environmental conditions with signs of deterioration were analyzed by means of bioinformatics software and diversity indices. In addition, the impact of environmental factors, including temperature, light intensity, air humidity, and the concentration of NO2 and SO2, on the microbial communities' diversity and distribution was evaluated. The results indicate that the presence of predominantly phototrophic microorganisms was correlated with light and humidity, while nitrifying bacteria and Thiobacillus were associated with NO2 and SO2 from air pollution.

  11. Monuments and monumentality: the cosmological model of the world of megaliths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena S. Midgley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Neolithic monuments are physical and conceptual expressions of ideas about the nature of the world inhabited by early north European farmers. This contribution explores the complex symbolism encoded in megalithic architecture, and the socio-ritual interactions within which megaliths offered venues for public gatherings in which individuals participated singly or as members of larger groups. By bringing communities together – be it in thanksgiving, worship or pilgrimage – megaliths bridged the gap between the immediate, quotidian and local realities of life and the anomalous entities of the multi-dimensional universe in which past, present and future were given tangible permanence.

  12. Monuments culturels historiques dans la Plaine Roumaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORINA GRECU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail met en évidence le rôle de la position gé ographique dans le développement des objectifs culturels d’importance touristique et sci entifique locale, régionale ou nationale (les géosites culturels. Dans le développement des géos ites culturels de la Plaine Roumaine plusieurs étapes s’individualisent, avec des caractéristiques spécifiques: a l’étape prédaco-romaine avec les géosites néolithiques ; b l’étape daco-romaine , période dans laquelle des villes sont apparues le long des rivières allochtones (Argedava et du D anube (Turnu Magurele et Zimnicea ; c l’étape médiévale , à laquelle sont particulières les villes avec une spécificité architecturelle (Calafat, Braila et Galati et la capitale, Bucarest, fondée en 1459 ; d l’étape moderne des monuments d’une architecture nouvelle ; e l’étape contemporaine / socialiste (1948-1989 ; f l’étape actuelle (après 1989, caractérisée par un mélange d’architectures avec un impact sur l’évolution du phénomène touristique. La Plaine Roum aine, du à ses caractéristiques physico- géographiques et historiques, réunit une palette la rge de géosites culturels qui pourraient se transformer en vrais objectifs touristiques.

  13. Ancient Marital Rites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Clearly defined rites governing speech and actions dominated both the social and domestic activities of ancient Chinese people. Rites not only dominated the lives of men, but were also prominent in the lives of women.

  14. Ancient Chinese Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    CHINESE people have accu-mulated a great deal ofexperience in architecture,constantly improving building ma-terials and thus creating uniquebuilding styles.The history of ancient Chinesearchitechtural development can be

  15. Spatial Vegetation Data for Canyon De Chelly National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Canyon de Chelly National Monument Vegetation Map Database was developed as a primary product in the Canyon de Chelly National Monument Vegetation...

  16. 32 CFR 553.21 - Monuments and inscriptions at private expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of simple design, dignified, and appropriate to a military cemetery. The name of the person(s) or the... maintenance of or damage of the monument. (b) Where a monument has been erected to an individual interred...

  17. Hanford Reach National Monument: Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Impact Statement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Hanford Reach National Monument for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Monument...

  18. Atlas des monuments historiques classés de Tunisie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Julien

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Le projet de « gestion du patrimoine de Tunisie » s’est déroulé de 1997 à 1998 sur l’ensemble du territoire tunisien. L’objectif était de réaliser un atlas exhaustif des monuments historiques classés de Tunisie. La réalisation s’est déroulée en deux phases : l’atlas des monuments historiques classés de Tunisie identifiant et localisant sur des cartes les monuments, réalisé sous l’autorité du directeur des sites et monuments de Tunisie de l’Institut du Patrimoine à Tunis et une seconde phase d’organisation d’un fichier d’investigation sur le territoire et de développement d’un système d’information géographique réalisé sous la direction du bureau d’études italien Memar.In Tunisia, the Executive for sites and monuments at the national Institute for heritage, took the initiative of preparing an atlas of 1 000 historical monuments recorded before the independence of the country in 1956. The atlas was produced between 1996 and 1998. To begin with, a notice on each site was drawn up, with a distinction made between archaeological sites and historical sites of modern times. After checking in the field, their location was recorded on mapping documents. The files were then integrated into a geographical information system, associating each site with written, photographic and other graphic documents. This work was realised under the technical and scientific direction of the Memar Italian research department.

  19. Image based Monument Recognition using Graph based Visual Saliency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliatakis, Grigorios; Triantafyllidis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an image-based application aiming at simple image classification of well-known monuments in the area of Heraklion, Crete, Greece. This classification takes place by utilizing Graph Based Visual Saliency (GBVS) and employing Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) or Speeded......, the images have been previously processed according to the Graph Based Visual Saliency model in order to keep either SIFT or SURF features corresponding to the actual monuments while the background “noise” is minimized. The application is then able to classify these images, helping the user to better...

  20. The Newest Monument: The Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Studies and the Young Learner, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article features the newest monument, the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial. The memorial on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., honoring Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. will be an engaging landscape experience to convey four fundamental and recurring themes throughout Dr. King's life--democracy, justice, hope, and love. Natural…

  1. Orientation of megalithic monuments in Germany and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, C.; Ferrer, L.

    The Western Group of the Trichterbecherkultur (TRB Culture) built the megalithic monuments in Northwest Germany and The Netherlands. These monuments include different types of megaliths belonging to the TRB-West group, among which the most common are Passage Graves. We have obtained data for 163 monuments in this area in three campaigns. The present study completes two previous communications at SEAC meetings. We consider that the measured sample is largely competed and therefore we attempt a full analysis of the data. We have measured the orientation of the chamber and passages (where possible) for the Passage Graves, and for the so-called Langebetten. The general orientation of the chamber of the Passage Graves is east west, with another concentration of monuments at azimuths around 70 degrees. The passage is always located to the southern or eastern sides of the chamber. Possible astronomical explanations involving the Sun and the Moon are attempted. We find a preference towards lunar orientations. The general orientation of the Langebetten is similar to the Passage Graves although a preference to significant positions of the Sun and Moon is detected. Finally we perform a comparison with data from the literature of other TRB groups and give a tentative explanation for the evolution of the megaliths and their orientation.

  2. Reproducing stone monument photosynthetic-based colonization under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ana Zélia; Laiz, Leonila; Gonzalez, Juan Miguel; Dionísio, Amélia; Macedo, Maria Filomena; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2008-11-01

    In order to understand the biodeterioration process occurring on stone monuments, we analyzed the microbial communities involved in these processes and studied their ability to colonize stones under controlled laboratory experiments. In this study, a natural green biofilm from a limestone monument was cultivated, inoculated on stone probes of the same lithotype and incubated in a laboratory chamber. This incubation system, which exposes stone samples to intermittently sprinkling water, allowed the development of photosynthetic biofilms similar to those occurring on stone monuments. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis was used to evaluate the major microbial components of the laboratory biofilms. Cyanobacteria, green microalgae, bacteria and fungi were identified by DNA-based molecular analysis targeting the 16S and 18S ribosomal RNA genes. The natural green biofilm was mainly composed by the Chlorophyta Chlorella, Stichococcus, and Trebouxia, and by Cyanobacteria belonging to the genera Leptolyngbya and Pleurocapsa. A number of bacteria belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia were identified, as well as fungi from the Ascomycota. The laboratory colonization experiment on stone probes showed a colonization pattern similar to that occurring on stone monuments. The methodology described in this paper allowed to reproduce a colonization equivalent to the natural biodeteriorating process.

  3. Pärnus avati monument süütusele

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Andrus Joonase Pootsi paepäevade raames valminud monument süütusele avati Academia Non Grata teise aastapäeva puhul Lepa kaubamaja ja karja tänava vahelisel alal; autori arvates on hingeline süütus kunstnikule väga tähtis ja Academia Non Grata ainus õppeasutus, kus õpilased seda hoida saavad.

  4. Dentistry in ancient mesopotamia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiburger, E J

    2000-01-01

    Sumer, an empire in ancient Mesopotamia (southern Iraq), is well known as the cradle of our modern civilization and the home of biblical Abraham. An analysis of skeletal remains from cemeteries at the ancient cities of Ur and Kish (circa 2000 B.C.), show a genetically homogeneous, diseased, and short-lived population. These ancient Mesopotamians suffered severe dental attrition (95 percent), periodontal disease (42 percent), and caries (2 percent). Many oral congenital and neoplastic lesions were noted. During this period, the "local dentists" knew only a few modern dental techniques. Skeletal (dental) evidence indicates that the population suffered from chronic malnutrition. Malnutrition was probably caused by famine, which is substantiated in historic cuneiform and biblical writings, geologic strata samples, and analysis of skeletal and forensic dental pathology. These people had modern dentition but relatively poor dental health. The population's lack of malocclusions, caries, and TMJ problems appear to be due to flat plane occlusion.

  5. Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2006-02-15

    Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities.

  6. Pre-Islamic Dry-Stone Monuments of the Central and Western Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Yves

    Saharan dry-stone monuments are important cultural markers: not only do they highlight the boundaries of the areas occupied by different prehistoric populations, but they also reveal information about the rites and beliefs of Holocene Saharan populations. As climate deteriorated in the Middle Holocene, ways of life changed, with indirect impacts on the architecture of the monuments and on the way they were oriented. Tens of thousands of recorded monuments, of various types, allow us to understand what the orientation rules were and how they changed with location. Data compiled for the eleven types of monuments reveal that many monuments of the central Sahara and Tibesti were probably aligned toward the rising sun or moon, that three types of the Atlantic Sahara show instead a random distribution, and that monuments with a pan-Saharan distribution have a complex orientation pattern. A correlation or orientation with key landscape features is likely for three monument types, coexisting with criteria based on lunisolar alignment.

  7. Orientatio ad Sidera (OAS): a comprehensive project for cultural astronomy research in ancient Mediterranean cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio; César González-García, A.; Rodríguez-Antón, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    During the last decade (starting in 2005), the OAS Project has been run, with the support of the Spanish research agencies. Within its framework, research on cultural astronomy has been developed for a series of ancient cultures from the Atlantic Islands to the Arabian Peninsula with the Meditterranean Sea as the pricipal axis of the project. A catalogue of studies has been performed in a set of cultures such as the Megalithic Phenomenon, ancient Egypt, Middle East Bronze and Iron Age civilizations and the Roman World, among many others. In this essay a general scope of the project and a series of most interesting outcomes will be presented. The evolutionary ties of the megalithic monuments of the Iberian Peninsula and elsewhere, the pattern of orientation of Egyptian temples and skyscaping practices within the Hittite, Commagenian or Nabataean cultures, among others, will be shown; finishing in a comprehensive, statistical and comparative study of the orientation patterns of thousands of ancient monuments of the Mediterranean region. Finally, a sketch of our most recent, still ongoing, research on the astronomical and non-astronomical practices used in the planning of cities in the Roman World will be a compelling and promising closing remark of our analysis.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF SHRINE RUINS AND MONUMENTAL TREES OF TLOS ANTIC CITY IN TERMS OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Gürkan KAYA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Religious rituals such as the tradition of visiting shrines and tree cult have been in existence for thousands of years in the different regions of Anatolia. Clear examples of such still- existing rituals are the visits paid to “Türbe” Quarter in Yaka Village of Fethiye District in the Province of Muğla and making wishes and hoping for heals from the holly tree. The data, which has been obtained from the research that has been launched the scope of a TÜBİTAK (The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey Project in 2011 and the study that have been on the drawing of historical ruins and documentations in Türbe Quarter, have been transferred to the Geographic Information Systems. Although the certain date of the historical ruins is not exactly known, it has been thought that the ruins may belong to Menteşoğulları Seigniory of Türkmen Tribes. In the scope of project, the study have also been done to determine the age of 3 Cupressus sempervirens var. horizantalis (cypress that are within the ancient ruins and their environs. The oldest one has been understood to be about 910 years old. As a result, in this study, historical ruins and monumental trees within the boundaries of Tlos Antic City being one of the important settlements in the Lycian Region have been assessed in termsof cultural landscape.

  9. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  10. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  11. Cloning Ancient Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    west of Tiananmen Square in Beijing, in Zhongshan Park, there stand several ancient cypress trees, each more than 1,000 years old. Their leafy crowns are all more than 20 meters high, while four have trunks that are 6 meters in circumference. The most unique of these

  12. Ancient ports of Kalinga

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    The ancient Kingdom of Kalinga mentioned in the Hathigumpha inscription of Kharavela (1st century B.C.) extended from the mouths of the Ganges to the estuary of Godavari river on the East Coast. Ptolemy (100 A.D.) mentions that Paluru (District...

  13. Ancient deforestation revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J Donald

    2011-01-01

    The image of the classical Mediterranean environment of the Greeks and Romans had a formative influence on the art, literature, and historical perception of modern Europe and America. How closely does is this image congruent with the ancient environment as it in reality existed? In particular, how forested was the ancient Mediterranean world, was there deforestation, and if so, what were its effects? The consensus of historians, geographers, and other scholars from the mid-nineteenth century through the first three quarters of the twentieth century was that human activities had depleted the forests to a major extent and caused severe erosion. My research confirmed this general picture. Since then, revisionist historians have questioned these conclusions, maintaining instead that little environmental damage was done to forests and soils in ancient Greco-Roman times. In a reconsideration of the question, this paper looks at recent scientific work providing proxy evidence for the condition of forests at various times in ancient history. I look at three scientific methodologies, namely anthracology, palynology, and computer modeling. Each of these avenues of research offers support for the concept of forest change, both in abundance and species composition, and episodes of deforestation and erosion, and confirms my earlier work.

  14. Printing Ancient Terracotta Warriors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadecki, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    Standing in awe in Xian, China, at the Terra Cotta warrior archaeological site, the author thought of sharing this experience and excitement with her sixth-grade students. She decided to let her students carve patterns of the ancient soldiers to understand their place in Chinese history. They would make block prints and print multiple soldiers on…

  15. Heating Monumental Churches. Indoor Climate and Preservation of Cultural Heritage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellen, H.L.

    2002-12-19

    The main problem in this research encountered was the identification of common patterns and relations between typical church heating systems and their effects on the deterioration of monumental churches. Chapter 2 starts with an introduction to computational simulation tools. Thermal and hygric simulation models are introduced first. A distinction has been made between simplified and more detailed thermal and hygric simulation tools. Fairly accurate tools like WaVo (Wit 2000) were used to identify the building physical behavior of the entire church as a response to interior occupation, heating and exterior climate. Other tools like WUFI, Matlab and FlexPDE were used to determine in more detail the 1D, 2D and 3D thermal, hygric and mechanical behavior of the building materials and the monumental interior. 3D radiant calculations have been performed by Radiance. The model Radiance, originally developed for studies on lighting and lighting systems, was used to perform the direct thermal radiant studies. Fluent, finally, was used for studies on indoor airflows in relation to different heating systems. In chapter 3 tools to identify and investigate the building physical behavior of monumental churches are introduced. This chapter deals with the experimental work, both in situ as in the laboratory. This chapter describes the measurement techniques, used in situ, to determine the building physical behavior of churches. Measurements on air and surface temperature, air and near surface humidity, airflows, ventilation and infiltration are dealt with. Furthermore, experimental laboratory research on parts is described. NMR measurements on moisture content changes of wood, due to changes in air temperature and relative humidity, have been performed. In addition tests on the moisture content related deformation were carried out. Soot production of candles and incense was studied by laboratory experiments. The most important part of this study is the evaluation of different

  16. Hydrologic characteristics of the Agua Fria National Monument, central Arizona, determined from the reconnaissance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, John B.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrologic conditions in the newly created Agua Fria National Monument were characterized on the basis of existing hydrologic and geologic information, and streamflow data collected in May 2002. The study results are intended to support the Bureau of Land Management's future water-resource management responsibilities, including quantification of a Federal reserved water right within the monument. This report presents the study results, identifies data deficiencies, and describes specific approaches for consideration in future studies. Within the Agua Fria National Monument, the Agua Fria River flows generally from north to south, traversing almost the entire 23-mile length of the monument. Streamflow has been measured continuously at a site near the northern boundary of the monument since 1940. Streamflow statistics for this site, and streamflow measurements from other sites along the Agua Fria River, indicate that the river is perennial in the northern part of the monument but generally is intermittent in downstream reaches. The principal controls on streamflow along the river within the monument appear to be geology, the occurrence and distribution of alluvium, inflow at the northern boundary and from tributary canyons, precipitation, and evapotranspiration. At present, (2004) there is no consistent surface-water quality monitoring program being implemented for the monument. Ground-water recharge within the monument likely results from surface-water losses and direct infiltration of precipitation. Wells are most numerous in the Cordes Junction and Black Canyon City areas. Only eight wells are within the monument. Ground-water quality data for wells in the monument area consist of specific-conductance values and fluoride concentrations. During the study, ground-water quality data were available for only one well within the monument. No ground-water monitoring program is currently in place for the monument or surrounding areas.

  17. The stone decay of monuments in relation to atmospheric environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassina, V; Favaro, M; Crivellari, F; Naccari, A

    2001-01-01

    In order to explain why different forms of decay are present on a building facade some samples were taken from different areas of many monuments. Macroscopic observations of the forms of decay were correlated with quantitative analytical data in order to build up a simple model which was able to explain in a general way the decay phenomena. This simplified model was tested on several Venetian monuments and the features visible on stone surfaces correspond to different degree of deterioration. The quantitative analytical data were associated with the different forms of decay, which were defined as white washing, dirt accumulation and dirt washing. The results obtained showed that the features visible on stone surfaces corresponded to different degree of deterioration and the sulphate formation is greatest in the black dendrite-shaped crusts which are generally formed at the interface between the white washing areas and the sheltered ones, which were defined as dirt washing area.

  18. Stone or Sound. Memory and Monuments in Contemporary Public Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Salvatori

    2015-12-01

    This essay tackles the issue whether contemporary monuments can still provide plausible supports for memory, even when they undermine the traditional forms of commemoration and are labeled as “anti-monuments” or “counter-monuments”. A starting point has been detected in the experiences of the 1960s, when the monumental tradition started to loose its essential self-referentiality, and artistic production with memorial aims challenged traditional boundaries and lost its traditional frame characterized by stability, universality and rhetoric. In this period, related theoretical efforts were made to grasp the ongoing change and to understand the relationship between "document" and "monument" and viceversa as connected with the interpretation of history and its manipulation. It was, however, the discussion, developing from the late 1980s and early 1990s about Public art (as an evolution from "site specificity" to art for the public place, and public interest that involved also the status of monuments as technical hybrids extending across disciplines and artifacts, sometimes contingent and perishable, but which nevertheless fulfil both a documentary and an artistic function. Thus, examples of recent relevant exhibitions and specific monuments have been selected that are supposed to be a memorial in relationship with contemporary public art, where collective and individual experiences basically intersect. They are all artworks that implement the criticism of traditional monuments and attempt to provide alternatives involving different audiences and moving between opposites as presence and absence, persistence and temporality materiality and immateriality. And yet, in post-monumental times monuments persist (in sound or stone if they can embody historical contingency. In questo saggio si affronta la nozione di monumento nel mondo contemporaneo a partire dalla domanda se essi possano ancora fungere da supporti plausibili per la memoria anche quando, etichettati come

  19. Neolithic Ground Axe-heads and Monuments in Wessex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Field

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available While central southern England is well known for its extant Neolithic monuments and for the fine artefacts recovered from some of its Bronze Age barrows, Neolithic artefacts from the region have received relatively little attention. This might be considered surprising, as the area not only witnessed some of the earliest investigations into the source of materials, notably the Stonehenge bluestones, but it also harbours some of the earliest dated ground axes in the country. This article examines the occurrence and distribution of ground axes found in Wessex when compared to other artefact types, but, more importantly, comparison with the location of extant monuments allows a rather different view of Wessex to emerge. The article will consider the influence of local resources, of flint mines such as those at Durrington, Easton Down and Porton Down in Wiltshire, and the extent and processes by which axes of non-local materials may have been introduced and dispersed across the landscape.

  20. Preconditioned fully implicit PDE solvers for monument conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Semplice, Matteo

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical models for the description, in a quantitative way, of the damages induced on the monuments by the action of specific pollutants are often systems of nonlinear, possibly degenerate, parabolic equations. Although some the asymptotic properties of the solutions are known, for a short window of time, one needs a numerical approximation scheme in order to have a quantitative forecast at any time of interest. In this paper a fully implicit numerical method is proposed, analyzed and numerically tested for parabolic equations of porous media type and on a systems of two PDEs that models the sulfation of marble in monuments. Due to the nonlinear nature of the underlying mathematical model, the use of a fixed point scheme is required and every step implies the solution of large, locally structured, linear systems. A special effort is devoted to the spectral analysis of the relevant matrices and to the design of appropriate iterative or multi-iterative solvers, with special attention to preconditioned Krylo...

  1. Semiotics of verbal signs and observably literature monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сабрина Ханалиевна Шихалиева

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is considered the case of agglutinative conjugation «Subject * object». Units of agglutinative conjugation identify fragment of substantivized participles in Turkish-Caucasian monument. During the analysis of the fragment it is substantivized dual participles of transitive and intransitive forms. It is possible to actualize the principle of derivation with dual units and additional arguments, mainly in favor of substantivized sacraments of the «New Testament» in the language of the Caspian region

  2. TURKISH MONUMENTS IN ERDEMLİ-GÜZELOLUK VILLAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokman TAY

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, Turkish monuments in Güzeloluk Village of Erdemli County are studied. As a result of the field work one mosque, one school, one fountain, one primary school and school house are found. Mosque, school and fountain belong to Ottoman era, while primary school and school ouse belong to Republic era. Buildings maintain their original forms mostly and reflect their respective times in terms of architecture and decoration.

  3. Ancient human microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J; Lewis, Cecil M

    2015-02-01

    Very recently, we discovered a vast new microbial self: the human microbiome. Our native microbiota interface with our biology and culture to influence our health, behavior, and quality of life, and yet we know very little about their origin, evolution, or ecology. With the advent of industrialization, globalization, and modern sanitation, it is intuitive that we have changed our relationship with microbes, but we have little information about the ancestral state of our microbiome, and we therefore lack a foundation for characterizing this change. High-throughput sequencing has opened up new opportunities in the field of paleomicrobiology, allowing us to investigate the evolution of the complex microbial ecologies that inhabit our bodies. By focusing on recent coprolite and dental calculus research, we explore how emerging research on ancient human microbiomes is changing the way we think about ancient disease and how archaeological studies can contribute to a medical understanding of health and nutrition today.

  4. Comets in ancient India

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Patrick Das

    2014-01-01

    The Indo-aryans of ancient India observed stars and constellations for ascertaining auspicious times for sacrificial rites ordained by vedas. It is but natural that they would have recounted in the vedic texts about comets. In Rigveda ($\\sim $ 1700 - 1500 BC) and Atharvaveda ($\\sim $ 1150 BC), there are references to dhumaketus and ketus, which stand for comets in Sanskrit. Varahamihira in 550 AD and Ballala Sena ($\\sim $ 1100 - 1200 AD) have described a large number of comets recorded by ancient seers such as Parashara, Vriddha Garga, Narada, Garga, etc. In this article, I conjecture that an episode narrated in Mahabharata of a radiant king, Nahusha, ruling the heavens, and later turning into a serpent after he had kicked the seer Agastya (also the star Canopus), is a mythological retelling of a cometary event.

  5. Ambrosia of Ancients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUOJIANYING

    2004-01-01

    IN 196 B.C. a Chinese philosopher observedto his ruler: "A lord's to ppriority is the welfare of his subjects; to the peopie, eating is foremost." Chinese ancients perceived clearly the essentiality of grain cultivation to the survival of the population and country as a whole. This is apparent in the premillennial term for "country" -sheji literally translated as god of land and grain.

  6. Three-Dimensional Recording of Bastion Middleburg Monument Using Terrestrial Laser Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Z.; Lau, C. L.; Yusoff, A. R.

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the use of terrestrial laser scanning for the full three-dimensional (3D) recording of historical monument, known as the Bastion Middleburg. The monument is located in Melaka, Malaysia, and was built by the Dutch in 1660. This monument serves as a major hub for the community when conducting commercial activities in estuaries Malacca and the Dutch build this monument as a control tower or fortress. The monument is located on the banks of the Malacca River was built between Stadhuys or better known as the Red House and Mill Quayside. The breakthrough fort on 25 November 2006 was a result of the National Heritage Department through in-depth research on the old map. The recording process begins with the placement of measuring targets at strategic locations around the monument. Spherical target was used in the point cloud data registration. The scanning process is carried out using a laser scanning system known as a terrestrial scanner Leica C10. This monument was scanned at seven scanning stations located surrounding the monument with medium scanning resolution mode. Images of the monument have also been captured using a digital camera that is setup in the scanner. For the purposes of proper registration process, the entire spherical target was scanned separately using a high scanning resolution mode. The point cloud data was pre-processed using Leica Cyclone software. The pre-processing process starting with the registration of seven scan data set through overlapping spherical targets. The post-process involved in the generation of coloured point cloud model of the monument using third-party software. The orthophoto of the monument was also produced. This research shows that the method of laser scanning provides an excellent solution for recording historical monuments with true scale of and texture.

  7. La pirámide de Akapana: reconsiderando el centro monumental de Tiwanaku

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Akapana Pyramid: Reconsidering Tiwanaku's Monumental CenterThe most visible remains of the Tiwanaku civilization are the monuments found at the site of Tiwanaku. Although the target of extensive excavation and analysis in the last 100 years, there is a serious lack of substantiated information about important aspects such as dating, form, and construction of these monuments. This in turn affects our understanding of the development of this impressive urban ceremonial center. In the follow...

  8. THREE-DIMENSIONAL RECORDING OF BASTION MIDDLEBURG MONUMENT USING TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Majid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the use of terrestrial laser scanning for the full three-dimensional (3D recording of historical monument, known as the Bastion Middleburg. The monument is located in Melaka, Malaysia, and was built by the Dutch in 1660. This monument serves as a major hub for the community when conducting commercial activities in estuaries Malacca and the Dutch build this monument as a control tower or fortress. The monument is located on the banks of the Malacca River was built between Stadhuys or better known as the Red House and Mill Quayside. The breakthrough fort on 25 November 2006 was a result of the National Heritage Department through in-depth research on the old map. The recording process begins with the placement of measuring targets at strategic locations around the monument. Spherical target was used in the point cloud data registration. The scanning process is carried out using a laser scanning system known as a terrestrial scanner Leica C10. This monument was scanned at seven scanning stations located surrounding the monument with medium scanning resolution mode. Images of the monument have also been captured using a digital camera that is setup in the scanner. For the purposes of proper registration process, the entire spherical target was scanned separately using a high scanning resolution mode. The point cloud data was pre-processed using Leica Cyclone software. The pre-processing process starting with the registration of seven scan data set through overlapping spherical targets. The post-process involved in the generation of coloured point cloud model of the monument using third-party software. The orthophoto of the monument was also produced. This research shows that the method of laser scanning provides an excellent solution for recording historical monuments with true scale of and texture.

  9. Suicide in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G

    2014-01-01

    The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say

  10. Ancient aliens on mars

    CERN Document Server

    Bara, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Best-selling author and Secret Space Program researcher Bara brings us this lavishly illustrated volume on alien structures on Mars. Was there once a vast, technologically advanced civilization on Mars, and did it leave evidence of its existence behind for humans to find eons later? Did these advanced extraterrestrial visitors vanish in a solar system wide cataclysm of their own making, only to make their way to Earth and start anew? Was Mars once as lush and green as the Earth, and teeming with life? Did Mars once orbit a missing member of the solar system, a "Super Earth” that vanished in a disaster that devastated life on Earth and Venus and left us only the asteroid belt as evidence of its once grand existence? Did the survivors of this catastrophe leave monuments and temples behind, arranged in a mathematical precision designed to teach us the Secret of a new physics that could lift us back to the stars? Does the planet have an automated defense shield that swallows up robotic probes if they wander int...

  11. A case study and mechanism investigation of typical mortars used on ancient architecture in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Yuyao [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zhang Bingjian [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China)], E-mail: zbj@mail.hz.zj.cn; Liang Xiaolin [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2008-07-10

    Mortars sampled from Dutifulness Monument, where typical ancient China mortar formulas and manufacturing processes were used, were analyzed by starch-iodine test, FTIR, DSC-TG, SEM and XRD methods. Several modeling samples were then made according to historical records of Chinese ancient mortar formulas and analyzed with the same techniques. The modeling formulas also were used to consolidate loose specimens. The results show that sticky rice plays a crucial role in the microstructure and the consolidation properties of lime mortars. A possible mechanism was suggested that biomineralization may occur during the carbonation of calcium hydroxide, where the sticky rice functions as a template and controls the growth of calcium carbonate crystal. The organic-inorganic materials formed based on this mechanism will be more favorable for consolidating the loose samples both in strength improvement and durability.

  12. Dance in Ancient Greek Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Spalva, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The greatness and harmony of ancient Greece has had an impact upon the development of the Western European culture to this day. The ancient Greek culture has influenced contemporary literature genres and systems of philosophy, principles of architecture, sculpture and drama and has formed basis for such sciences as astronomy and mathematics. The art of ancient Greece with its penchant for beauty and clarity has been the example of the humanity’s search for an aesthetic ideal. Despite only bei...

  13. Mathematics in ancient Greece

    CERN Document Server

    Dantzig, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    More than a history of mathematics, this lively book traces mathematical ideas and processes to their sources, stressing the methods used by the masters of the ancient world. Author Tobias Dantzig portrays the human story behind mathematics, showing how flashes of insight in the minds of certain gifted individuals helped mathematics take enormous forward strides. Dantzig demonstrates how the Greeks organized their precursors' melange of geometric maxims into an elegantly abstract deductive system. He also explains the ways in which some of the famous mathematical brainteasers of antiquity led

  14. Ancient concrete works

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    It is commonly believed that the ancient Romans were the first to create and use concrete. This is not true, as we can easily learn from the Latin literature itself. For sure, Romans were able to prepare high-quality hydraulic cements, comparable with the modern Portland cements. In this paper, we will see that the use of concrete is quite older, ranging back to the Homeric times. For instance, it was used for the floors of some courts and galleries of the Mycenaean palace at Tiryns

  15. Climate and Ancient Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Climate, and human responses to it, have a strongly interconnected relationship. This when climate change occurs, the result of either natural or human causes, societies should react and adapt to these. But do they? If so, what is the nature of that change, and are the responses positive...... or negative for the long-term survival of social groups? In this volume, scholars from diverse disciplines including archaeology, geology and climate sciences explore scientific and material evidence for climate changes in the past, their causes, their effects on ancient societies and how those societies...

  16. Megalithic Monument of Abuli, Georgia, and Possible Astronomical Signi cance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jijelava, Badri; Simonia, Irakli

    2016-08-01

    Background/Objectives: In recent years, in purpose of investigation of the artefacts, the ancient culture and religion, based on the astronomy knowledge play significant role. The aim of this work is to identify the orientations of the religious megalithic complexes and their correlation to the celestial luminaries. Methods/Statistical Analysis: We harmonized the archeological data, ethnographical, historical information and restoration of ancient celestial sphere (using special astronomy application), which give us possibility to identify the correlations between the acronychal or helical rising/ set of luminaries and directions of megalithic objects. Very often such connections are stored in a current folklore too. Findings: This technique of investigations give us more clear understanding of ancient universe. Using this method, we can receive latent information about the ancient Gods - Luminaries, clarify current mythology, date of the megalithic complex. Application/Improvements: This method of investigation is an additional instrument for archeological investigations,

  17. Monuments and Memorials: Geoscience and the Historic Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E.; Smith, B. L.

    2009-05-01

    Many communities have a cemetery, war memorial, public sculpture or old historic buildings that are an important part of the historic record of that community. Such monuments celebrate achievements, commemorate people who died serving their country, or a prominent former member of the local community. Monuments and memorials can trace the histiry of settlement within a community. After a number of years researching cemeteries and memorials, primarily in western Canada my research partner, a historian, and I, a geoscience educator,have documented many monuments and memorials that are succumbing to basic weathering processes. Original design choices can be dictated by cost, material availability, access to transportation and emotions. Climate, type of material, construction methods, technology used and long-term maintenance can all have significant impacts on the sustainability of that material record. Over the last five years we have given many lectures and workshops on the nature of cemeteries to family historians, historical societies and classroom educators. These workshops and lectures focus on developing a better ommunity understanding of the fragility of the record. Field trips by students of all ages can contextualize both geology and history. Seeing local monumanets can facilitate the development of a sense of time and place as well as an appreciation of the environmental impacts and the longevity of the record. For the earth science student documentation of the installation enable comparisons of weathering rates of different materials, the effects of local climate or impacts of pollution. Being able to go to a local memorial or cemetery to compare diffrent structures brings a powerful local context to the learning. However we both have concerns that modern techniques that enable the creation of more elaborate memorials are actually setting the stage for more rapid deterioration. I will illustrate a cross section of our reseacrh and the impact it has had on

  18. Exploring Ancient Skies A Survey of Ancient and Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H

    2011-01-01

    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers—events such as the supernova of 1054 A.D., the "lion horoscope," and the Star of Bethlehem. Explori...

  19. Road Investment Design in Areas Protected by the Monuments Conservator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczyk, Artur

    2016-06-01

    Design works on road construction plans for areas protected by conservation require a proper preparation, especially in terms of formality, which has been described in this paper. One has shown the various methods of conduct in the course of obtaining administrative decisions and related difficulties, which are dependent on the form of monument protection and the scope of the proposed building works. One has also raised a question regarding the law on the subject. One has suggested the consolidation of existing regulations and introduced the likely new direction that is currently in preparation.

  20. Gypsum-induced decay in granite monuments in Northwestern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Hermo, B.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common forms of decay in granite monuments is the detachment of the superficial layer of the stone (plaques, plaquettes and scales. Previous studies of granite monuments in the northwest Iberian Peninsula revealed a direct relation between this type of weathering and the presence of calcium sulphate, and a mechanism whereby the salt causes this type of decay was suggested. In the present study, various hypotheses as regards the origin of the gypsum found in granite monuments are proposed. The study involved analysis of the contents of ions soluble in water, the results of X-ray diffraction analyses and the ratios of CaO/SO3 in samples of stone, mortar and deposits collected from different monuments. It was concluded that in most cases the gypsum originated from old paintworks or/and from the joint mortars, although inputs from other sources cannot be discounted, as discussed

    Una de las formas de deterioro más frecuente en los monumentos graníticos es la separación de la capa superficial de la piedra (placas, plaquetas y escamas. En trabajos anteriores centrados en monumentos del noroeste de la Península Ibérica, se constató la relación directa entre esta forma de alteración y la presencia de sulfato de calcio y se propuso el mecanismo a través del cual esta sal provoca este tipo de deterioro. En este trabajo se plantean varias hipótesis acerca del origen del yeso encontrado en monumentos graníticos. Para ello se comparan los contenidos de iones solubilizados en agua, los resultados de difracción de rayos X y las relaciones OCa/SO3 de muestras de piedra, morteros y depósitos recogidas en diferentes monumentos. Se llega a la conclusión de que en la mayor parte de los casos el yeso procede de antiguas pinturas o de revestimientos superficiales y de los morteros de juntas entre sillares, pero no se puede descartar la contribución de otros aportes, los cuales se discuten también en este artículo.

  1. Harnessing the waves: Monuments and ceremonial complexes in Orkney and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    Utilising recent observations by Phillips (2003) on the location of chambered cairns in Orkney in relation to the sea this paper attempts to explain why megalithic monuments cluster in particular locations. In the past, the distribution of cairns has been related to the levels of survival in marginal locations. However, monument locations, from across Scotland, demonstrate that clustering was a feature of monumental distribution in the past. From a maritime perspective it becomes easier to understand these groupings in Orkney as the product of interactions between widely dispersed island communities. Utilising a long-term perspective it is possible to use the relative patterning of monuments of different ages to suggest the changing audiences to whom these monuments were addressed. For example, the clustering of Earlier Neolithic monuments in Orkney, in places that form important linking locales, suggests a role for these monuments involving establishing and maintaining links between island groups within the Orkney archipelago. The location of later Neolithic monumental complexes, on the other hand, suggests the importance of inter-regional maritime contact at precisely the time when such contacts are strikingly evident in the archaeological record. It is argued that a closer integration of our approaches to land and sea is needed if we are to understand the nature of long distance contacts in the past.

  2. The Megalithic Monuments of Ireland and Their Folklore: A Photodocumentary Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbaum, Howard

    A photojournalism project is described in this paper that integrated the disciplines of photography, archaeology, and ethnology in an examination of prehistoric megalithic monuments in Ireland and their folklore. Following an introduction tracing the history of the monuments and pointing to the maintenance in Ireland of a body of oral tradition…

  3. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Powell, Brian F.; Halvorson, William L.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary We summarized inventory and monitoring efforts for plants and vertebrates at Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (NM) in Arizona. We used data from previous research to compile complete species lists for the monument and to assess inventory completeness. There have been 1,031 species of plants and vertebrates observed at the monument. Most of the species on the list are documented by voucher specimens. There are 59 non-native species established in the monument: one mammal, three birds, and 55 non-native plants. Most non-native plant species were first recorded along roads. In each taxon-specific chapter, we highlight areas that contribute disproportionately to species richness or that have unique species for the monument. Of particular importance are Quitobaquito Springs and Pond, which are responsible for the monument having one of the highest number of bird species in the Sonoran Desert Network of parks. Quitobaquito also contains the only fish in the monument, the endangered Quitobaquito pupfish (Cyprinodon eremus). Other important resources for the plants and vertebrates include the xeroriparian washes (e.g., Alamo Canyon) and the Ajo Mountains. Based on the review of past studies, we believe the inventories of vascular plants and vertebrates are nearly complete and that the monument has one of the most complete inventories of any unit in the Sonoran Desert Network.

  4. Choosing Geodetic Monuments Based on Noise in New Zealand GPS Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavan, J.

    2004-12-01

    Geodetic signals of tectonic or volcanological interest recorded by geodetic instrumentation may be degraded or obscured by the presence of noise in the geodetic data. Limiting the noise is therefore important for the detection and interpretation of such signals. One source of noise is random motion occurring within the connection of the geodetic instrument to the ground. In the case of surface instruments such as GPS, the connection to the ground is through a geodetic monument. The motion of this monument, with respect to a representative volume of the Earth's near surface in its vicinity, is termed monument noise. Monument noise results from processes such as soil swelling in response to rainfall, and general rock and soil weathering effects. In this paper we investigate the noise levels within time series of continuous GPS (CGPS) positions collected on concrete pillar monuments in New Zealand. We compare these noise levels with those from drilled, braced monuments in several U.S. CGPS networks. We investigate under what conditions monument noise is the limiting noise source in the CGPS data, and attempt to provide a basis for decisions on what type of monument to deploy under certain scenarios.

  5. Authenticity in ancient DNA studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske

    2006-01-01

    Ancient DNA studies represent a powerful tool that can be used to obtain genetic insights into the past. However, despite the publication of large numbers of apparently successful ancient DNA studies, a number of problems exist with the field that are often ignored. Therefore, questions exist as ...

  6. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliya Gounder Palanichamy

    Full Text Available Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade.

  7. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade.

  8. Characterization of Ancient Tripitaka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Y. X.; Geng, L.; Gong, D. C.

    2015-08-01

    Tripitaka is the world's most comprehensive version of Buddhist sutra. There are limited numbers of Tripitaka currently preserved, most of them present various patterns of degradation. As little is known about the materials and crafts used in Tripitaka, it appeared necessary to identify them, and to further define adapted conservation treatment. In this work, a study concerning the paper source and dyestuff of the Tripitaka from approximate 16th century was carried out using fiber analysis and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The results proved that the papers were mainly made from hemp or bark of mulberry tree, and indigo was used for colorizing the paper. At the end, we provide with suggestions for protecting and restoring the ancient Tripitaka.

  9. An image-based approach to the reconstruction of ancient architectures by extracting and arranging 3D spatial components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Divya Udayan J; HyungSeok KIM; Jee-In KIM

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is the rapid reconstruction of ancient buildings of historical importance using a single image. The key idea of our approach is to reduce the infi nite solutions that might otherwise arise when recovering a 3D geometry from 2D photographs. The main outcome of our research shows that the proposed methodology can be used to reconstruct ancient monuments for use as proxies for digital effects in applications such as tourism, games, and entertainment, which do not require very accurate modeling. In this article, we consider the reconstruction of ancient Mughal architecture including the Taj Mahal. We propose a modeling pipeline that makes an easy reconstruction possible using a single photograph taken from a single view, without the need to create complex point clouds from multiple images or the use of laser scanners. First, an initial model is automatically reconstructed using locally fi tted planar primitives along with their boundary polygons and the adjacency relation among parts of the polygons. This approach is faster and more accurate than creating a model from scratch because the initial reconstruction phase provides a set of structural information together with the adjacency relation, which makes it possible to estimate the approximate depth of the entire structural monument. Next, we use manual extrapolation and editing techniques with modeling software to assemble and adjust different 3D components of the model. Thus, this research opens up the opportunity for the present generation to experience remote sites of architectural and cultural importance through virtual worlds and real-time mobile applications. Variations of a recreated 3D monument to represent an amalgam of various cultures are targeted for future work.

  10. Multidisciplinary studies on ancient sandstone quarries of Western Sardinia (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Silvana Maria; Del Vais, Carla; Naitza, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The ancient coastal quarries of Mediterranean are increasingly considered geosites of multidisciplinary relevance. They are sites of historical-archaeological interest that show ancient techniques of stone extraction; they are significant for cultural heritage conservation and restoration, as sources of the stones used in ancient buildings and monuments; they are sites of geological relevance, as often retain important stratigraphic sections; they are also useful markers of secular changes in the sea level. A multisciplinary study is in progress on the ancient quarries of the Sinis region (western Sardinia island), integrating archaeological, geological, minero-petrographical data. In Sardinia, coastal quarries have been established from Punic and Roman times. Many of them exploited Quaternary sediments along the southern and western coasts of the island. They consist of middle-late Pleistocene marine conglomerates and carbonate sandstones, and of coastal (aeolian) carbonate sandstones. Sandstone blocks of different sizes have been widely used in ancient cities for buildings, defensive works, harbours, etc. Three main areas of stone extraction (San Giovanni di Sinis, Punta Maimoni, Is Arutas) have been so far recognized in the Sinis. GIS-supported mapping and documentation of the sites includes their geology and stratigraphy, the extension and layout of the quarries, and an evaluation of volumes of extracted rocks. Documented archaeological evidences include ancient extraction fronts, spoil heaps, working areas, working traces in the old fronts, transport routes of blocks, and traces of loading facilities. The study is aimed at reconstructing the relationships of the quarries with the urban areas of Sinis, as the ancient Punic-Roman city of Tharros. Consequently, a minero-petrographical characterization (optical microscopy, XRD) is performed on sandstones sampled in each quarry, and in historical buildings in Tharros and other centres of the region (Cabras

  11. The Digital Monument to the Jewish Community in the Netherlands: a meaningful, ritual place for commemoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faro, Laurie M. C.

    2015-04-01

    The Digital Monument to the Jewish Community in the Netherlands went online in 2005. This monument has been dedicated to preserve the memory of "all the men, women and children who were persecuted as Jews during the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands, and did not survive the Shoah". In 2010 the Jewish Monument Community was linked to this virtual monument, this website Community offers the possibility to contribute additional information about individual victims remembered in the Digital Monument. The results of this research show that in comparison with commemoration at a traditional material monument, in particular the individual features of this new concept regarding commemoration are valued. Each individual victim may be commemorated and remembered in a very personal manner by telling who the victim was, and how he or she lived on the eve of deportation. The conclusion is that cyberspace may offer a significant and relevant place for, in this case, commemoration practices. Both Digital Monument and Community offer a meaningful place of commemoration of Dutch victims of the Shoah.

  12. Layout of Ancient Maya Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylesworth, Grant R.

    Although there is little doubt that the ancient Maya of Mesoamerica laid their cities out based, in part, on astronomical considerations, the proliferation of "cosmograms" in contemporary scholarly discourse has complicated matters for the acceptance of rigorous archaeoastronomical research.

  13. Hunting for Ancient Rocky Shores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Markes E.

    1988-01-01

    Promotes the study of ancient rocky shores by showing how they can be recognized and what directions future research may follow. A bibliography of previous research articles, arranged by geologic period, is provided in the appendix to this paper. (CW)

  14. Pre-Islamic Religious Monuments in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, César

    I review data on the orientations of pre-Islamic religious monuments in North Africa dating from the 5th century BC to the 7th century AD and covering most of the present-day Maghreb, from Western Libya to Morocco. A sample of more than 100 Roman temples shows a rather random orientation pattern except for those dedicated to Saturn, which follow a clear relation to the rising sun or moon. This group of temples were built over previous sanctuaries dedicated to the Punic god Baal Hammon. In fact, a sample of genuine Punic sanctuaries presents a similar orientation pattern. I also discuss evidence of remarkable astronomical markers found in several of the temples. Christian churches of this area, among the earliest ones erected in the Mediterranean, also show a clear lunisolar orientation pattern.

  15. X-ray fluorescence in research on Czech cultural monuments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cechak, T.; Gerndt, J.; Kopecka, I.; Musilek, L. E-mail: musilek@fjfi.cvut.cz

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis (RXRFA), as a non-destructive method, relatively simple and allowing measurements to be carried out in situ, is an excellent tool in research on various objects of art. A range of artefacts have been investigated by our laboratory, in part for the purposes of history of art and in part as a basis for restoration works - medieval frescoes in some Czech castles and churches, metal sculptures and objects of applied art, paints and inks of old manuscripts, paintings. Some of these are among the most valuable monuments in the Czech cultural heritage. The contribution of the results of the tests to the investigation of their 'life story' and, in some cases, to their conservation, is not negligible. Later additions and repairs can be recognised, and materials and technologies that are close to their historic counterparts can be used in restoration work.

  16. Debris flow hazard assessment for the Oregon Caves National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friday, John

    1983-01-01

    After experiencing a devastating debris flow in the Oregon Caves National Monument, the National Park Service needs an evaluation of the hazard of additional flows. Soil properties at six random sites were compared with those at the source of the debris flow. Although all sites had soils that could become unstable with sufficient moisture, soil at one site had properties similar to those at the scar and the potential for another flow was confirmed. The report suggests that winter weather conditions be closely monitored and compared to the antecedent conditions prior to the known failure. When the threshold for additional mass wasting is believed imminent, appropriate action can be taken to insure the safety of work personnel and the public. The peak streamflow that preceded the 5,200 cu yds of debris is estimated to have a 0.5 percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year. (USGS)

  17. Carbonatogenesis: microbial contribution to the conservation of monuments and artwork of stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaranjit S. Cameotra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades there has been increasing global concern over the deterioration of historical monuments and stone works of art. It has posed a big challenge for the archaeologist, geobiologists and bioconservators and consequently encouraged the search for developing novel preventive and remedial methodologies for safeguarding these sculptural monuments and stone works of art. Many conventional methods which rely on use of physical and chemical treatments have been applied but none of them have yielded satisfactory results. Recently, bioconservation and consolidation methods employing carbonatogenic microbes have received much attention. These microorganisms can precipitate calcium carbonate and, thereby, confer protection to historic monuments.

  18. Ground-penetrating radar exploration for ancient monuments at the Valley of Mummies -Kilo 6, Bahariya Oasis, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, Fathy A.; Abbas, Abbas M.; Atya, Magdy A.; Hafez, Mahfouz A.

    2009-06-01

    A Valley of Mummies was discovered recently by an Egyptian team at Bahariya Oasis, located about 380 km west of the pyramids. Four tombs were excavated, and inside them were found one hundred and five mummies (105), many of them beautifully gilded. These mummies, many sumptuously decorated with religious scenes, are the very best Roman-Period mummies ever found in Egypt. These remains are around 2000 years old, but they are in remarkable condition. A Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) had proved successful in detecting the cavities in resistive soil in which the mummies were found. The GPR survey conducted near the earlier-discovered tombs at Kilo-6 El-Bahariya to Farafra Oasis road is the focus of this paper. The GPR survey was conducted using the SIR-2000 attached to a 200 MHz monostatic antenna. The two areas to be surveyed were selected by the archaeologists in situ. Area one was 40 m × 40 m and Area two was 30 m × 15 m. A grid pattern survey in one direction; with one-meter profile spacing was done to both areas. In addition, a focusing survey was undertaken over the entire Area one. In addition, twenty long GPR profiles were conducted in an attempt to determine the outer, expected limits of the burial area. After the data acquisition, Reflex software was used for data processing and presentation. The final results of the radar survey: in the form of 2D radar records, time slices and 3D block diagrams; were used to guide the archaeologists during the excavation process. The excavation processes have been completed by the archaeologists, and many tombs and mummies were discovered. It is worthy to mention that, the excavations and location of tombs and cavities matched strongly with the GPR results.

  19. Did the ancient Egyptians migrate to ancient Nigeria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock M. Agai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Literatures concerning the history of West African peoples published from 1900 to 1970 debate�the possible migrations of the Egyptians into West Africa. Writers like Samuel Johnson and�Lucas Olumide believe that the ancient Egyptians penetrated through ancient Nigeria but Leo�Frobenius and Geoffrey Parrinder frowned at this opinion. Using the works of these early�20th century writers of West African history together with a Yoruba legend which teaches�about the origin of their earliest ancestor(s, this researcher investigates the theories that the�ancient Egyptians had contact with the ancient Nigerians and particularly with the Yorubas.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: There is an existing ideology�amongst the Yorubas and other writers of Yoruba history that the original ancestors of�the Yorubas originated in ancient Egypt hence there was migration between Egypt and�Yorubaland. This researcher contends that even if there was migration between Egypt and�Nigeria, such migration did not take place during the predynastic and dynastic period as�speculated by some scholars. The subject is open for further research.

  20. Accuracy Assessment Points for Canyon De Chelly National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Canyon de Chelly National Monument Accuracy Assessment Observation Location executable shapefile (cachaa.exe) was developed as a Geographic Information Systems...

  1. Spatial Vegetation Data for Fossil Butte National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This polygon feature class represents vegetation communities mapped at Fossil Butte National Monument. The polygons were generated using guidelines set by the...

  2. Field Plot Points for Canyon De Chelly National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Canyon de Chelly National Monument Classification Relevé Location executable shapefile (cachplot.exe) was developed as a Geographic Information Systems (GIS)...

  3. Historic District Cultural Landscape Boundary at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (histland)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of one polygon that represents the historic district cultural landscape at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona as surveyed...

  4. Distribution of Exotic Vegetation at Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument, Colorado (Linear Features)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a coverage showing the exotic vegetation distributions within Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument (FLFO). Data was collected using a Trimble Navigation...

  5. Overhead Utility Lines at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (cebr_powerln)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains 49 arcs and 50 nodes representing power lines at Cedar Breaks National Monument. The power lines supply electricity and telephone services to...

  6. True Color Orthophotography for Fossil Butte National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This photo mosaic of Fossil Butte National Monument was created from scanned 9x9s flown in 2004 in conjunction with the Vegetation Mapping Program. The photography...

  7. Spatial Vegetation Data for Fort Union National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — High resolution vegetation polygons mapped by the National Park Service. This detailed vegetation map for Fort Union National Monument is based on the National...

  8. Geodetic Markers at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_geomrkrs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 7 points representing known coordinates on the earth's surface at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. One geodetic...

  9. Spatial Vegetation Data for Craters of Moon National Monument and Preserve Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the vegetation and land-use geo-spatial database for Craters of Moon National Monument and Preserve (CRMO), Idaho and surrounding areas. This...

  10. Spatial Vegetation Data for Booker T. Washington National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile is an vegetation map of Booker T. Washington National Monument, Virginia. It was developed by The Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation,...

  11. Spatial Vegetation Data for George Washington Birthplace National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile is an vegetation map of George Washington Birthplace National Monument, VA. It was developed by The Virginia Department of Conservation and...

  12. Field Plot Points for Booker T. Washington National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile shows the location of vegetation sampling plots used for vegetation classification and mapping at Booker T. Washington National Monument

  13. Field Plot Points for George Washington Birthplace National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile shows the location of vegetation sampling plots used for vegetation classification and mapping at George Washington Birthplace National Monument.

  14. Herpetofauna Inventory Survey Routes for 2001 Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona(pisp_herp01)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile maps the survey routes of the Herp 2001 Inventory crews for Pipe Springs National Monument. The other parks visited were Bryce Canyon, Capitol Reef,...

  15. Herpetofauna Inventory Survey Routes for 2002 Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_herp02)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile maps the survey routes of the Herp 2002 Inventory crews for Pipe Spring National Monument. The other parks visited were Arches, Bryce Canyon, Capitol...

  16. True Color Orthophotography for Timpanogos Cave National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This imagery dataset was used to map the vegetation at Timpanogos Cave National Monument. This data set contains imagery from the National Agricultural Imagery...

  17. Spatial Vegetation Data for Walnut Canyon National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the vegetation and land-use geo-spatial database for Walnut Canyon National Monument and surrounding areas. The project is authorized as part of...

  18. Accuracy Assessment Points for Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the 2008 accuracy assessment points (spatial database) created from the sample points collected at Craters of the Moon National Monument and...

  19. Spatial Vegetation Data for Pipe Spring National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This polygon feature class represents vegetation communities mapped at Pipe Spring National Monument. The polygons were delineated using guidelines set by the...

  20. Field Plot Points for Craters of Moon National Monument and Preserve Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the 2006 vegetation data points (spatial database) created from the sample vegetation plots collected at Craters of Moon National Monument and...

  1. Spatial Vegetation Data for Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the vegetation and land-use geo-spatial database for Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument and surrounding areas. The project is authorized as...

  2. Spatial Vegetation Data for Effigy Mounds National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation spatial database coverage (vegetation map) is a product of the Effigy Mounds National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project, USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping...

  3. Field Plot and Accuracy Assessment Points for Grand Portage National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation point data for Grand Portage National Monument (GRPO) was developed to support two projects associated with the 2006 vegetation map, the collection of...

  4. Color Infrared Orthorectified Photomosaic Leaf-off for Booker T. Washington National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Orthorectified color infrared ERDAS IMAGINE image of Booker T. Washington National Monument. Produced from 10 color infrared photos taken February 19, 2002....

  5. Iron Fence at Last Stand Hill, Little Bighorn National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector polygon file showing the at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI). The coordinates for this dataset were collected using a Trimble GPS...

  6. The boundary of Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_bndry)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 1 polygon representing the park boundary for Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. This GIS dataset is not a legal...

  7. Distribution of Exotic Vegetation at Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument, Colorado (Point Features)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a point coverage showing the exotic vegetation distributions within Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument (FLFO). Data was collected using a Trimble...

  8. Distribution of Exotic Vegetation at Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument, Colorado (Area Features)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a region coverage showing the exotic vegetation distributions within Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument (FLFO). Data was collected using a Trimble...

  9. Maritime Heritage Research, Education, and Management Plan: Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Heritage Resource Management Plan describes past and present maritime research conducted to support the management of Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument...

  10. Utilities:Other:Utilities at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Other:utilpnt_other)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents various types of utilities, not including water- and power-related utilities, at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The utilities...

  11. Nat'l Register: Historic District Boundary at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_histdist)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of one polygon that represents the historic district at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona as listed on the National...

  12. The Rim Trail at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_trail)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 4 arcs representing The Rim Trail at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The Rim Trail was collected by a Trimble...

  13. The Visitor Picnic Area at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pcncarea)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 1 polygon representing the picnic area for visitors at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The picnic area was...

  14. Utilities:Water:Water Tanks at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Water:tanks)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents tanks at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. It consists of 2 polygons representing the Tunnel Spring Division Tank and the 1/2...

  15. Spatial Vegetation Data for Natural Bridges National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This polygon feature class represents vegetation communities mapped at Natural Bridges National Monument. The polygons were generated using guidelines set by the...

  16. Sea and coastline surveys, Katmai National Monument, Alaska, July 1969 through June 26, 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes sea and coastline surveys in Katmai National Monument from July 1969 through June 1971. Objectives of surveys were to determine seas and land...

  17. Utilities:Other:Telephone Lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Other:telephone)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represent telephone lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The utility pipelines were collected by a Trimble GeoXT GPS unit with...

  18. The Flood Control Ditch at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_ditch)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of one arc representing the flood control ditch at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The flood control ditch collected...

  19. Utilities:Power:Underground Powerlines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Power:powerln)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents the powerlines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The utility pipelines were collected by a Trimble GeoXT GPS unit with...

  20. The Springs at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_springs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 5 points representing the springs, natural and man-made, at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The springs were...

  1. Ground-water and related geology of Joshua Tree National Monument, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, J.E.; Bader, J.S.

    1963-01-01

    Joshua Tree National Monument is in a mountainous part of the desert region of southern California. The geographic center of the monument is about 130 miles east of Los Angeles, Calif.; the area Investigated, covering almost 1,000 square miles in area, is included between 115?20' and 116?28' west longitude, and 33?04 ' and 34?07' north latitude.

  2. Reconstruction of ancient conceptual landscapes in the Nile Valley

    CERN Document Server

    Magli, Giulio

    2011-01-01

    Conceptual landscapes in Egypt show a remarkable continuity - for as long as 2000 years - in the use of symbols and in the interplay between natural and man-built features. Directionality, both in the sense of succession of elements and of orientation of single buildings and tombs, plays a key role in governing the landscape in accordance with the idea of "cosmic" order, which was the basis of the temporal power of the pharaoh. Comparing satellite image with local surveys and using simple web-based instruments for tracing visibility lines helps in understanding connections and messages which were meant to be clear and obvious in ancient times but may be lost, or forgotten, today. In particular, the prominent role of astronomical and topographical alignments in the planning of successive monuments comes out at sites like Abydos, Giza, Dahshur and at Western Thebes. The way in which the same symbols and elements were elaborated by the "heretic" pharaoh Akhenaten in planning the landscape of his capital at Amarn...

  3. Neonatal medicine in ancient art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurdakök, Murat

    2010-01-01

    There are a limited number of artistic objects from ancient times with particular importance in neonatal medicine. The best examples are figurines from ancient Egypt of Isis nursing Horus, showing the importance of breastfeeding. The earliest images of the human fetus were made by the Olmecs in Mexico around 1200- 400 BCE. One of the earliest representations of congenital anomalies is a figurine of diencephalic twins thought to be the goddess of Anatolia, dated to around 6500 BCE. In addition to these figurines, three sets of twins in the ancient world have medical importance, and Renaissance artists often used them as a subject for their paintings: "direct suckling animals" (Romulus and Remus), "heteropaternal superfecundation" (mother: Leda, fathers: Zeus, the king of the Olympian gods, and Leda's husband, Tyndareus), and "twin-to-twin transfusion" in monozygotic twins (Jacob and Esau).

  4. Night blindness and ancient remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hajar Al Binali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A.

  5. Tuberculosis in ancient times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Cilliers

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of an array of effective antibiotics, tuberculosis is still very common in developing countries where overcrowding, malnutrition and poor hygienic conditions prevail. Over the past 30 years associated HIV infection has worsened the situation by increasing the infection rate and mortality of tuberculosis. Of those diseases caused by a single organism only HIV causes more deaths internationally than tuberculosis. The tubercle bacillus probably first infected man in Neolithic times, and then via infected cattle, but the causative Mycobacteriacea have been in existence for 300 million years. Droplet infection is the most common way of acquiring tuberculosis, although ingestion (e.g. of infected cows’ milk may occur. Tuberculosis probably originated in Africa. The earliest path gnomonic evidence of human tuberculosis in man was found in osteo-archaeological findings of bone tuberculosis (Pott’s disease of the spine in the skeleton of anEgyptian priest from the 21st Dynasty (approximately 1 000 BC. Suggestive but not conclusiveevidence of tuberculotic lesions had been found in even earlier skeletons from Egypt and Europe. Medical hieroglyphics from ancient Egypt are silent on the disease, which could be tuberculosis,as do early Indian and Chinese writings. The Old Testament refers to the disease schachapeth, translated as phthisis in the Greek Septuagint. Although the Bible is not specific about this condition, tuberculosis is still called schachapeth in modern Hebrew. In pre-Hippocratic Greece Homer did not mention phthisis, a word meaning non-specific wasting of the body. However. Alexander of Tralles (6th century BC seemed to narrow the concept down to a specific disease, and in the Hippocratic Corpus (5th-4th centuries BC phthisis can be recognised as tuberculosis. It was predominantly a respiratory disease commonly seen and considered to be caused by an imbalance of bodily humours. It was commonest in autumn, winter and spring

  6. New precise dates for the ancient and sacred coral pyramidal tombs of Leluh (Kosrae, Micronesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Zoe T; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Wu, Chung-Che; Jiang, Xiuyang; Beardsley, Felicia

    2015-03-01

    Monumental tombs within ancient civilizations worldwide hold precious clues for deciphering the architectural skill, acumen, and industry of prehistoric cultures. Most tombs were constructed from abiotic materials-stone, soil, and/or clay, predominately-and were built to permanently inter royalty or high-status individuals. On the island of Kosrae in the central Pacific, monumental tombs were constructed with scleractinian coral and were confined to the prehistoric island capital of Leluh, where they served as temporary mortuary processing points. Like other prehistoric tombs, the Leluh tombs were dated by association-from the remnants of the temporarily interred. We present new dates for three sacred tombs using high-precision U-Th dates from 24 corals collected directly from the structural materials. The results suggest that the tombs were built about 700 years ago during the 14th century, about three centuries earlier than previously reported. The new dates redefine the peak occupation of Leluh and place its ruling paramountcy at the leading edge of the developing trans-oceanic political hierarchies, as well as the social and economic systems that dominated the civilizations in this part of the world.

  7. Microchemical identification of macael white marble in some spanish monuments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bello, M. A.

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available The white marble from Macael quarries (Almería, Spain has been identified in some monuments of the Southern of Spain; the use of other white marble types has also been confirmed. The microchemical identification has been carried out by means a previously described graphical method (Bello and Martín,1991. Fourteen trace elements have been analyzed from both quarry and building material samples by using atomic absorption and flame emission spectrometry in order to apply the enrichment diagrams for trace elements (EDTE for identification purposes.

    Ha sido confirmado el empleo del mármol blanco procedente de las canteras de Macael (Almería en varios monumentos del Sur de España; también se ha constatado el empleo de otros tipos de mármol blanco. La identificación del mármol de Macael mediante técnicas microquícas ha sido realizada mediante un método gráfico propuesto por los autores (1. Han sido analizados catorce elementos traza en las muestras de cantera y de los edificios mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica y de emisión de llama, al objeto de construir los diagramas de enriquecimiento de elementos traza (EDTE, con fines de identificación.

  8. Mountains, Monuments, and other Matter: Environmental Affects at Manzanar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladino, Jennifer K.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay investigates the natural landscapes and built structures at the Manzanar National Historic Site, the first of ten incarceration camps to open in 1941 and a temporary home for over 11,000 Japanese Americans. Using former incarceree Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston’s writing as a touchstone, my essay foregrounds the environmental features of the (relocation: the extreme desert weather, the mountain vistas, the incarceree-created rock gardens, the reconstructed barracks, guard tower, and barbed wire fence, and the cemetery/monument. I bring together concepts from ecocriticism and from affect theory—particularly Ben Anderson’s “affective atmospheres,” Sianne Ngai’s “tone,” and Sara Ahmed’s characterization of affect as “sticky”—and develop the notion of affective agency to describe the impacts generated by environments and objects at this national memory site. I assess how the visual and written rhetoric at the site addresses what I call an implied tourist, and I show how powerful emotions of shame, anger, grief, and compassion—and sometimes, mixed, even contradictory, affects—are not only represented in visual and written rhetoric but are also, in a sense, communicated by the environment itself. More broadly, I suggest that ecocritical theory brings a useful lens to discussions of public memory, and that affect theory helps account for the less tangible, visceral, experiences visitors have at Manzanar and other fraught historical sites, as well as within our everyday environments.

  9. Soil compaction vulnerability at Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Robert H.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Carmichael, Shinji; Esque, Todd C.

    2014-01-01

    Compaction vulnerability of different types of soils by hikers and vehicles is poorly known, particularly for soils of arid and semiarid regions. Engineering analyses have long shown that poorly sorted soils (for example, sandy loams) compact to high densities, whereas well-sorted soils (for example, eolian sand) do not compact, and high gravel content may reduce compaction. Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (ORPI) in southwestern Arizona, is affected greatly by illicit activities associated with the United States–Mexico border, and has many soils that resource managers consider to be highly vulnerable to compaction. Using geospatial soils data for ORPI, compaction vulnerability was estimated qualitatively based on the amount of gravel and the degree of sorting of sand and finer particles. To test this qualitative assessment, soil samples were collected from 48 sites across all soil map units, and undisturbed bulk densities were measured. A scoring system was used to create a vulnerability index for soils on the basis of particle-size sorting, soil properties derived from Proctor compaction analyses, and the field undisturbed bulk densities. The results of the laboratory analyses indicated that the qualitative assessments of soil compaction vulnerability underestimated the area of high vulnerability soils by 73 percent. The results showed that compaction vulnerability of desert soils, such as those at ORPI, can be quantified using laboratory tests and evaluated using geographic information system analyses, providing a management tool that managers potentially could use to inform decisions about activities that reduce this type of soil disruption in protected areas.

  10. Geologic Map of Wupatki National Monument and Vicinity, Coconino County, Northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, George H.; Priest, Susan S.; Felger, Tracey J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The geologic map of Wupatki National Monument is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, the National Park Service, and the Navajo Nation to provide geologic information for resource management officials of the National Park Service, U.S. Forest Service, Navajo Indian Reservation (herein the Navajo Nation), and visitor information services at Wupatki National Monument, Arizona. Funding for the map was provided in part by the Water Rights Branch of the Water Resources Division of the National Park Service. Field work on the Navajo Nation was conducted under a permit from the Navajo Nation Minerals Department. Any persons wishing to conduct geologic investigations on the Navajo Nation must first apply for, and receive, a permit from the Navajo Nation Minerals Department, P.O. Box 1910, Window Rock, Arizona 86515, telephone (928)-871-6587. Wupatki National Monument lies within the USGS 1:24,000-scale Wupatki NE, Wupatki SE, Wupatki SW, Gray Mountain, East of SP Mountain, and Campbell Francis Wash quadrangles in northern Arizona. The map is bounded approximately by longitudes 111? 16' to 111? 32' 30' W. and latitudes 35? 30' to 35? 37' 40' N. The map area is in Coconino County on the southern part of the Colorado Plateaus geologic province (herein Colorado Plateau). The map area is locally subdivided into three physiographic parts, the Coconino Plateau, the Little Colorado River Valley, and the San Francisco Volcanic Field as defined by Billingsley and others (1997) [fig. 1]. Elevations range from 4,220 ft (1,286 m) at the Little Colorado River near the northeast corner of the map area to about 6,100 ft (1,859 m) at the southwest corner of the map area. The small community of Gray Mountain is about 16 mi (26 km) northwest of Wupatki National Monument Visitor Center, and Flagstaff, Arizona, the nearest metropolitan area, is about 24 mi (38 km) southwest of the Visitor Center (fig. 1). U.S. Highway 89 provides access to the west entrance of

  11. Phylogenetic estimation of timescales using ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molak, Martyna; Lorenzen, Eline; Shapiro, Beth;

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, ancient DNA has increasingly been used for estimating molecular timescales, particularly in studies of substitution rates and demographic histories. Molecular clocks can be calibrated using temporal information from ancient DNA sequences. This information comes from the ages...

  12. Astronomy, Illumination and Heritage: the Arles-Fontvieille megalithic monuments and their implications for archaeoastronomy and world heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletta, Morgan

    2016-10-01

    The Arles-Fontvieille monuments, or hypogées, have long had a special place in megalithic studies. Their unique architecture, blending ``Atlantic'' megalithic construction with subterranean rock-cut architecture more commonly found in the Mediterranean, and their size, especially that of the Grotte de Cordes, place them among the most important monuments in France and Europe (Daniel 1960, Guilaine 1998, Sauzade 1999, Hoskin 2001, Saletta 2014). My discovery and interpretation of seasonal light and shadow hierophanies (Saletta 2011, 2014)) within the Arles-Fontvieille monuments has important implications for identifying astronomically related Outstanding Universal Value for late prehistoric European monuments.

  13. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. Ry

    1997-01-01

    Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification......Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification...

  14. The ancient art of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Allan

    2013-12-01

    Revision of Freud's theory requires a new way of seeking dream meaning. With the idea of elaborative encoding, Sue Llewellyn has provided a method of dream interpretation that takes into account both modern sleep science and the ancient art of memory. Her synthesis is elegant and compelling. But is her hypothesis testable?

  15. Ancient medicine--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Lipozencić, Jasna; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Schachter, Neil; Mucić-Pucić, Branka; Neralić-Meniga, Inja

    2008-01-01

    Different aspects of medicine and/or healing in several societies are presented. In the ancient times as well as today medicine has been closely related to magic, science and religion. Various ancient societies and cultures had developed different views of medicine. It was believed that a human being has two bodies: a visible body that belongs to the earth and an invisible body of heaven. In the earliest prehistoric days, a different kind of medicine was practiced in countries such as Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mesopotamia, India, Tibet, China, and others. In those countries, "medicine people" practiced medicine from the magic to modern physical practices. Medicine was magical and mythological, and diseases were attributed mostly to the supernatural forces. The foundation of modern medicine can be traced back to ancient Greeks. Tibetan culture, for instance, even today, combines spiritual and practical medicine. Chinese medicine developed as a concept of yin and yang, acupuncture and acupressure, and it has even been used in the modern medicine. During medieval Europe, major universities and medical schools were established. In the ancient time, before hospitals had developed, patients were treated mostly in temples.

  16. Ancient and modern environmental DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Ermini, Luca

    2015-01-01

    DNA obtained from environmental samples such as sediments, ice or water (environmental DNA, eDNA), represents an important source of information on past and present biodiversity. It has revealed an ancient forest in Greenland, extended by several thousand years the survival dates for mainland woo...

  17. A Huge Ancient Schwannoma of the Epiglottis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jo Heon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Lim, Sang Chul

    2016-03-01

    Ancient schwannoma of the epiglottis is extremely rare. The authors report the first case of a patient with a huge ancient schwannoma of the epiglottis. Clinicians should consider the possibility that ancient schwannoma may originate in the epiglottis mimicking the other more frequently observed lesions.

  18. A Review of Monumental Past: The Life-histories of Megalithic Monuments in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Fagan

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The megalithic monuments of the Mecklenburg-Vorpommern region of northern Germany are relatively well known from a conventional archaeological perspective, having attracted scientific attention for well over a century. Cornelius Holtorf approaches them from an entirely different viewpoint, in a search for answers to three questions: How were the megaliths of the area socially and culturally meaningful, and how are they meaningful today? Are there cultural memories which helped the megaliths acquire cultural values in later prehistory? Did later prehistoric people in the area connect the megaliths with their ancestors by endowing them with particular interests, concepts, and ideas? The results of his labours appear not in printed form, but as a hypermedia document presented both on a CD-Rom and on the Web. He presented his doctoral dissertation in this format as well (see Internet Archaeology 6, on the grounds that this was an effective way of presenting what he describes as an open-ended inquiry. The author tells us that he will continue to add to the research at intervals and when the urge moves him. One is somewhat at a loss as to how to describe this multimedia presentation, but clearly the author considers it an invitation to explore, a database with freeflowing links to all manner of topics.

  19. Decay of sandstone monuments in Petra (Jordan): Gravity-induced stress as a stabilizing factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Řihošek, Jaroslav; Bruthans, Jiří; Mašín, David; Filippi, Michal; Schweigstillova, Jana

    2016-04-01

    As demonstrated by physical experiments and numerical modeling the gravity-induced stress (stress in further text) in sandstone massive reduces weathering and erosion rate (Bruthans et al. 2014). This finding is in contrast to common view that stress threatens stability of man-made monuments carved to sandstone. Certain low- levels of gravity-induced stress can in fact stabilize and protect these forms against weathering and disintegration. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the effect of the stress on weathering of sandstone monuments at the Petra World Heritage Site in Jordan via field observations, salt weathering experiments, and physical and numerical modeling. Previous studies on weathering of Petra monuments have neglected the impact of stress, but the ubiquitous presence of stress-controlled landforms in Petra suggests that it has a substantial effect on weathering and erosion processes on man-made monuments and natural surfaces. Laboratory salt weathering experiments with cubes of Umm Ishrin sandstone from Petra demonstrated the inverse relationship between stress magnitude and decay rate. Physical modeling with Strelec locked sand from the Czech Republic was used to simulate weathering and decay of Petra monuments. Sharp forms subjected to water erosion decayed to rounded shapes strikingly similar to tombs in Petra subjected to more than 2000 years of weathering and erosion. The physical modeling results enabled visualization of the recession of monument surfaces in high spatial and temporal resolution and indicate that the recession rate of Petra monuments is far from constant both in space and time. Numerical modeling of stress fields confirms the physical modeling results. This novel approach to investigate weathering clearly demonstrates that increased stress decreases the decay rate of Petra monuments. To properly delineate the endangered zones of monuments, the potential damage caused by weathering agents should be combined with stress

  20. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Casa Grande Ruins National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian F.; Albrecht, Eric W.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Halvorson, William L.; Anning, Pamela; Docherty, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary This report summarizes results of the first comprehensive biological inventory of Casa Grande Ruins National Monument (NM) in southern Arizona. Surveys at the monument were part of a larger effort to inventory vascular plants and vertebrates in eight National Park Service units in Arizona and New Mexico. In 2001 and 2002 we surveyed for vascular plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Casa Grande Ruins NM to document the presence, and in some cases relative abundance, of species. By using repeatable study designs and standardized field techniques, which included quantified survey effort, we produced inventories that can serve as the basis for a biological monitoring program. Of the National Park Service units in the region, no other has experienced as much recent ecological change as Casa Grande Ruins NM. Once situated in a large and biologically diverse mesquite bosque near the perennially flowing Gila River, the monument is now a patch of sparse desert vegetation surrounded by urban and commercial development that is rapidly replacing agriculture as the dominant land use in the area. Roads, highways, and canals surround the monument. Development, and its associated impacts, has important implications for the plants and animals that live in the monument. The plant species list is small and the distribution and number of non-native plants appears to be increasing. Terrestrial vertebrates are also being impacted by the changing landscape, which is increasing the isolation of these populations from nearby natural areas and thereby reducing the number of species at the monument. These observations are alarming and are based on our review of previous studies, our research in the monument, and our knowledge of the biogeography and ecology of the Sonoran Desert. Together, these data suggest that the monument has lost a significant portion of its historic complement of species and these changes will likely intensify as

  1. Time and Cosmos: A Zoomorphic Cosmological Monument of Late Antiquity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Sivkov

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The protome of the ram from West Bulgaria is a lunisolar calendar ofparapegmatic type from the period of antiquity (2nd–4th century AC, which imparts encoded calendrical, cosmological and cosmogonic information.On the protome there are marked synodic, sidereal, and draconic months; lunar, solar and draconic years, as well as different time periods – seasons and cycles. One of the images on the protome’s body can be interpreted as an image of the Draco constellation around the fixed point of the North Pole in the centre of the ecliptic. The symbols of seven luminaries – the Sun, the Moon and five planets – which were known at the beginning of the first millennium are alsofeatured on the protome.In the context of the monument, the presence of the astronomical concept of the world axis and the centre of the ecliptic means that the creators of the ram’s protome perceived it as an omphalos, the sacred centre of the world, the zoomorphic model of the world mountain and the world tree. The suggestion is confirmed by the structural particularities of the protome, by the images of mythological characters and by scenes of cosmogonic motifs. The given artefact represents the conceptualisation of the world in a generalised, syncretised and interdisciplinary way through the language of astronomy, mythology and calendaristics.In the period of antiquity, time and space were perceived as a united integer and as an endless divine beginning connected with the universe and its divine essence. The calendar is an attempt to comprehend the phenomenon of an infinite and cyclic time and use it in practice during the terrestrial life.

  2. National Theatre historical monument of Brasilia. Case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Silva, E.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is part of an International Cooperation Agreement for the conservation of historical monuments made of reinforced concrete in Brasilia. This research is based on a routine inspection of the National Theatre of Brasilia, a city recognized by UNESCO in 1987 as world cultural heritage. The structure, entirely made of reinforced concrete, was conceived by architect Oscar Niemeyer, and has a total of 48 m of height and 42,000 m2 of constructed area. After examining the available documentation, the existing damage was then identified and mapped. The concrete shows a good state of conservation, with the exception of some regions of the structure: the damages found were exposed armature, oxidation of armature, infiltration, mold and efflorescence.

    Este trabajo es parte de un Acuerdo de Cooperación Internacional para la conservación de monumentos históricos de hormigón armado en Brasilia. Esta investigación es el resultado de una inspección rutinaria en el Teatro Nacional de Brasilia, ciudad reconocida por la UNESCO, en 1987, como patrimonio cultural de la humanidad. La estructura, toda en hormigón armado, fue concebida por el arquitecto Osear Niemeyer, con un total de 48 m de altura y 42.000 m2 de área construida. Tras investigar la documentación disponible, se procedió a la identificación y al estudio de los daños existentes. El hormigón presenta un buen estado de conservación, salvo en algunas regiones de la estructura: estructura armada expuesta, oxidación de la estructura armada, infiltración, moho y eflorescencia son algunos de los daños que se encontraron.

  3. Monumentalizing and recording the city, a modern contribution to knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vega, Jesusa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available At the turn of the 19th Century the camera obscura was a fundamental machine both in the design of early photographic cameras and in the continuity of ways of seeing. Thus, the groundwork for the advent of photography was laid during the Enlightenment; in terms of the objective —that of fixing an image of the visible world— there was no real break between the 18th and the 19th century. Closely related to the camera obscura was the ‘optique’, also known in England as the Zograscope. An international market for prints was established and the most successful images were views of cities and monuments. Among these prints there were those which depicted Spain.

    En el cambio del siglo, del XVIII al XIX, la cámara oscura se constituyó como una máquina fundamental tanto en lo que respecta al diseño de las primeras cámaras fotográficas como en la continuidad de la manera de ver. En consecuencia, las bases para la recepción de la fotografía se establecieron en el periodo ilustrado, de modo que en el objetivo de fijar la imagen de la cámara oscura no existió ninguna ruptura. Estrechamente relacionado con la cámara oscura estaba el ‘cajón óptico’; se estableció un mercado internacional de estampas y las imágenes de mayor éxito fueron las vistas de ciudades y monumentos. Entre esas estampas se encontraban las que mostraban a España.

  4. Dead bodies matter: gift giving and the unveiling of body donor monuments in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Sophie

    2012-12-01

    Body donors are people who voluntarily donate their entire body, after death, to anatomical science. Based on anthropological fieldwork in the Netherlands this article explores the construction of body donor monuments since 2007. These developments are analyzed by means of gift-giving theories. Body donation is a practice in which the medical and scientific value of the donor bodies has always been praised. Increasingly the fact that the bodies represent real human beings who have mourning relatives has also been acknowledged. This change in attitude has resulted in a desire on the part of anatomical professionals to give back a monument, not only for the donors themselves but also, in particular, for the donors' relatives. The great public interest in the monuments has revealed that many of the bereaved, in the absence of having the physical body of the donor, need a symbolic final resting place for their loved ones.

  5. Application of Data Mining in the Classification of Historical Monument Places

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddu P. Algur

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic development and promotion of a country or region is depends on several facts such as- tourism, industries, transport, technology, GDP etc. The Government of the country is responsible to facilitate the opportunities to develop tourism, technology, transport etc. In view of this, we look into the Department of Tourism to predict and classify the number of tourists visiting historical Indian monuments such as Taj- Mahal, Agra, and Ajanta etc.. The data set is obtained from the Indian Tourist Statistics which contains year wise statistics of visitors to historical monuments places. A survey undertaken every year by the government is preprocessed to fill out the possible missing values, and normalize inconsistent data. Various classification techniques under Decision Tree approach such as- Random Tree, REPTree, Random Forest and J48 algorithms are applied to classify the historical monuments places. Performance evaluation measures of the classification models are analyzed and compared as a step in the process of knowledge discovery.

  6. [Formation of organic acids by fungi isolated from the surface of stone monuments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazanova, K V; Shchiparev, S M; Vlasov, D Iu

    2014-01-01

    Capacity of the fungi isolated from the surface of stone monuments for acid formation was studied in cultures under various carbon sources and cultivation conditions. The composition of organic nutrients was adjusted according to the results of investigation of the surface layers from the monuments in urban environment. The primary soil formed at the surface of the stone monuments under urban conditions was shown to contain a variety of carbon and nitrogen sources and is a rich substrate for fungal growth. Oxalic acid was produced by fungi grown on media with various concentrations of sugars, sugar alcohols, and organic acids. Malic, citric, fumaric, and succinic acids were identified only at elevated carbohydrate concentrations, mostly in liquid cultures. Oxalic acid was the dominant among the acids produced by Aspergillus niger at all experimental setups. Unlike A. niger, the relative content of oxalic acid produced by Penicillium citrinum decreased at high carbohydrate concentrations.

  7. Weathering of Monuments at Jethawanaramaya Complex in North-Central, Sri Lanka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amila Sandaruwan RATNAYAKE; Amarasooriya PITAWALA

    2009-01-01

    Sri Lanka has the richest archaeological sites in Asia. Jethawanarama Complex, one of the valuable sites in the country, is suffering from deterioration due to weathering. Monuments were built mainly from stones (granitic gneiss and marble) and clay bricks. The present study aimed to categorize weathering forms and interpret the recently-developing weathering processes. The growing of lichens on surfaces and the development of saline conditions are the major threats on the survival of monuments other than the typical weathering processes of tropical climates Morinite (NaCa_2Al_2[PO_4)]_2 [F,OH]_5·2H_2O) is identified as a weathering product of monuments and is generated from lichens.

  8. Defoliation of monumental trees in the Nature Reserve “Krajkowo”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Szczerba

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In September 2009 an inventory and evaluation of health condition of monumental trees in the Nature Reserve „Krajkowo” were conducted. 80 of the 109 inventoried trees grew in the riparian forest site. Health condition of the old oaks was more deteriorated as compared with the results obtained in 2006. In 2009 the percentage of the monumental trees classified into degree three increased by 5% (> 60% of defoliation and by 8% in degree two (26-60% of defoliation. The share of trees in class zero (0-10% of defoliation decreased by 17% when compared with the data from 2006. The deterioration of condition might be caused by a reduction of flooding range and duration. Our observations do not allow to exclude that a progressive deterioration of the monumental trees condition has been a long-term trend in the “Krajkowo” reserve.

  9. Ancient DNA from marine mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David; Hofreiter, Michael; Morin, Philip A

    2012-01-01

    such as bone, tooth, baleen, skin, fur, whiskers and scrimshaw using ancient DNA (aDNA) approaches provide an oppor- tunity for investigating such changes over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Here, we review the application of aDNA techniques to the study of marine mammals. Most of the studies have...... focused on detecting changes in genetic diversity following periods of exploitation and environmental change. To date, these studies have shown that even small sample sizes can provide useful information on historical genetic diversity. Ancient DNA has also been used in investigations of changes...... in distribution and range of marine mammal species; we review these studies and discuss the limitations of such ‘presence only’ studies. Combining aDNA data with stable isotopes can provide further insights into changes in ecology and we review past studies and suggest future potential applications. We also...

  10. Mitogenomic analyses from ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paijmans, Johanna L.A.; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Hofreiter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    analyses (whether using modern or ancient DNA) were largely restricted to the analysis of short fragments of the mitochondrial genome. However, due to many technological advances during the past decade, a growing number of studies have explored the power of complete mitochondrial genome sequences...... (mitogenomes). Such studies were initially limited to analyses of extant organisms, but developments in both DNA sequencing technologies and general methodological aspects related to working with degraded DNA have resulted in complete mitogenomes becoming increasingly popular for ancient DNA studies as well....... To date, at least 124 partially or fully assembled mitogenomes from more than 20 species have been obtained, and, given the rapid progress in sequencing technology, this number is likely to dramatically increase in the future. The increased information content offered by analysing full mitogenomes has...

  11. Molecular analysis of ancient caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simón, Marc; Montiel, Rafael; Smerling, Andrea; Solórzano, Eduvigis; Díaz, Nancy; Álvarez-Sandoval, Brenda A; Jiménez-Marín, Andrea R; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2014-09-01

    An 84 base pair sequence of the Streptococcus mutans virulence factor, known as dextranase, has been obtained from 10 individuals from the Bronze Age to the Modern Era in Europe and from before and after the colonization in America. Modern samples show four polymorphic sites that have not been found in the ancient samples studied so far. The nucleotide and haplotype diversity of this region have increased over time, which could be reflecting the footprint of a population expansion. While this segment has apparently evolved according to neutral evolution, we have been able to detect one site that is under positive selection pressure both in present and past populations. This study is a first step to study the evolution of this microorganism, analysed using direct evidence obtained from ancient remains.

  12. Models of ancient sound vases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruel, Per V.

    2002-11-01

    Models were made of vases described by Vitruvius in Rome in about the year 70 A.D. and of sound vases (lydpotter) placed in Danish churches from 1100-1300 A.D. Measurements of vase's resonant frequencies and damping (reradiation) verified that the model vases obeyed expected physical rules. It was concluded that the excellent acoustical quality of many ancient Greek and Roman theaters cannot be ascribed to the vases placed under their seats. This study also found that sound vases placed in Nordic churches could not have shortened the reverberation time because there are far too few of them. Moreover, they could not have covered a broad frequency range. It remains a mystery why vases were installed under the seats of ancient Greek theaters and why, 1000 years later, Danes placed vases in their churches.

  13. 78 FR 12781 - Notice of Availability of the Ironwood Forest National Monument Record of Decision and Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Ironwood Forest National Monument Record of...) for the Ironwood Forest National Monument (IFNM), located in portions of Pima and Pinal counties... protection of the significant cultural, biological, geological, and natural resources. These resources...

  14. 78 FR 77165 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Monument Butte Area Oil...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ..., Federal Register a Notice of Intent to prepare an EIS (75 FR 52362). The Monument Butte Project Area (MBPA... Monument Butte Area Oil and Gas Development Project, Duchesne and Uintah Counties, UT AGENCY: Bureau of... proposal to develop oil and natural gas in Duchesne and Uintah Counties, Utah. This notice announces a...

  15. Splendid Arts Fram Ancient Capitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    IT was in the golden autumn in Beijing, when the sky was high and the air clear, that I hurried to Zhongshan Park to witness the display of the songs and dances of the seven Chinese ancient capitals. The flower beds arranged for the celebration of National Day were still there and the colorful blooms looked especially bright in the sunshine. The seven cities which have served as capitals in Chinese history are Beijing,

  16. Psychiatric Thoughts in Ancient India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Abhyankar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry.

  17. Nanoscience of an ancient pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-McDaniel, Darrah; Barrett, Christopher A; Sharafi, Asma; Salguero, Tina T

    2013-02-06

    We describe monolayer nanosheets of calcium copper tetrasilicate, CaCuSi(4)O(10), which have strong near-IR luminescence and are amenable to solution processing methods. The facile exfoliation of bulk CaCuSi(4)O(10) into nanosheets is especially surprising in view of the long history of this material as the colored component of Egyptian blue, a well-known pigment from ancient times.

  18. Time, Space and Structure in Ancient India

    CERN Document Server

    Kak, Subhash

    2009-01-01

    Textual and archaeological sources are used to provide a synoptic vision of the universe in India. This vision was based on an assumed equivalence of the outer and the inner cosmoses and it is embodied in architecture, music, and art. It provides an archaeoastronomical window on Indian monumental architecture.

  19. Les temples protestants « monuments historiques » en Poitou-Charentes

    OpenAIRE

    Brigitte Montagne; Yannick Comte; Catherine Tijou

    2012-01-01

    La faible représentativité des temples protestants dans la liste des monuments historiques a conduit la conservation régionale des monuments historiques de Poitou-Charentes à proposer la protection des temples les plus représentatifs parmi les 130 que compte la région : 58 en Charente-Maritime, 40 en Deux-Sèvres, 24 en Charente et 8 dans la Vienne. La qualité architecturale, leur place dans l’histoire, l’affectation au culte, l’intégration dans le paysage urbain, la présence de mobilier et la...

  20. EAARL Topography - George Washington Birthplace National Monument 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, John C.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived bare earth (BE) and first surface (FS) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the George Washington Birthplace National Monument in Virginia, acquired on March 26, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL

  1. A place of memory – monument – counter-monument. Artistic strategies of commemoration in Krakow's district of Podgórze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymański, Wojciech

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Krakow's district of Podgórze has witnessed the erection of several works in public space that are concerned with the memory of the place. A monumental piece erected by Witold Cęckiewicz in the 1960s in the former Płaszów Concentration Camp has been joined by contemporary works. It is especially the Ghetto Heroes Square and its direct vicinity that have been addressed by artists and designers who, through their works, i.e. Mateusz Okoński's Purification, Łukasz Skąpski's 10 cubic metres of Krakow's wintertime air, and a structure in the form of multiple chairs by Lewicki and Łatak's studio entered into a dialogue with the paradigm of counter-monumentality and postmemory. For common viewers and casual passers-by, as well as for residents of the district, these works are hardly evocative of recent history, or the events they are meant to commemorate. Do these works, with their consciously taken position on the verge of the visible, that is, on the verge of what can be considered art, fulfil their commemorative role? Can the excess of the invisible change at some point into the visible? These questions offer a starting point not only for the discussion of the above-mentioned works in the context of analogous creations in contemporary art of the last two decades, but also for a wider discussion of monumental and counter-monumental art after the Shoah.

  2. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian F.; Albrecht, Eric W.; Halvorson, William L.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Docherty, Kathleen; Anning, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary This report summarizes the results of the first comprehensive biological inventory of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument (NM) in western New Mexico. This project was part of a larger effort to inventory plants and vertebrates in eight National Park Service units in Arizona and New Mexico. Our surveys address many of the objectives that were set forth in the monument's natural resource management plan almost 20 years ago, but until this effort, those goals were never accomplished. From 2001 to 2003 we surveyed for vascular plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Gila Cliff Dwellings NM to document presence of species within the boundaries of the monument. For all taxonomic groups that we studied, we collected 'incidental' sightings on U.S. Forest Service lands adjacent to the monument, and in a few cases we did formal surveys on those lands. Because we used repeatable study designs and standardized field techniques, these inventories can serve as the first step in a biological monitoring program for Gila Cliff Dwellings NM and surrounding lands. We recorded 552 species at Gila Cliff Dwellings NM and the surrounding lands (Table 1). We found no non-native species of reptiles, birds, or mammals, one non-native amphibian (American bullfrog), and 33 non-native plants. Particularly on lands adjacent to the monument we found that the American bullfrog was very abundant, which is a cause for significant management concern. Species of non-native plants that are of management concern include red brome, bufflegrass, and cheatgrass. For a park unit of its size and geographic location, we found the plant and vertebrate communities to be fairly diverse; for each taxonomic group we found representative species from a wide range of taxonomic orders and/or families. The monument's geographic location, with influences from the Rocky Mountain, Chihuahuan Desert, and Madrean ecological provinces, plays an important role in determining

  3. Dead bodies matter: Gift giving and the unveiling of body donor monuments in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    Body donors are people who voluntarily donate their entire body, after death, to anatomical science. Based on anthropological fieldwork in the Netherlands this article explores the construction of body donor monuments since 2007. These developments are analyzed by means of gift-giving theories. Body

  4. A tree-ring and C-14 chronology of the key Sayan-Altai monuments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaitseva, GI; Vasiliev, SS; Marsadolov, LS; Van der Plicht, J; Sementsov, AA; Dergachev, VA; Lebedeva, LM

    1998-01-01

    We present a radiocarbon chronology of key Sayan-Altai monuments from the Scythian period, based on a statistical analysis of dates produced in the 1980s and now supplemented with new dates. These new C-14 dates were produced for samples from the Tuekta-1 barrows (burial mounds) and were measured bo

  5. William Faulkner’s Monumental Historical Consciousness in The Sound and the Fury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓静

    2012-01-01

      Romanticism and conservatism are two important features of the Southerners and southern culture of America, which results in Wil iam Faulkner’s monumental historical consciousness. This paper analyzes that historical consciousness from the angle of the three groups of characters in Faulkner’s The Sound and the Fury and summarizes its significance.

  6. Marine Protected Areas, Multiple-Agency Management, and Monumental Surprise in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. Kittinger

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Large, regional-scale marine protected areas (MPAs and MPA networks face different challenges in governance systems than locally managed or community-based MPAs. An emerging theme in large-scale MPA management is the prevalence of governance structures that rely on institutional collaboration, presenting new challenges as agencies with differing mandates and cultures work together to implement ecosystem-based management. We analyzed qualitative interview data to investigate multi-level social interactions and institutional responses to the surprise establishment of the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (monument in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI. The governance arrangement for the monument represents a new model in US MPA management, requiring two federal agencies and the State of Hawai‘i to collaboratively manage the NWHI. We elucidate the principal barriers to institutional cotrusteeship, characterize institutional transformations that have occurred among the partner agencies in the transition to collaborative management, and evaluate the governance arrangement for the monument as a model for MPAs. The lessons learned from the NWHI governance arrangement are critical as large-scale MPAs requiring multiple-agency management become a prevalent feature on the global seascape.

  7. 75 FR 23798 - Boundary Revision at George Washington Carver National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... the boundary of George Washington Carver National Monument, Newton County, Missouri, to include..., includes certain adjacent real property situated in Newton County, Missouri legally described as: Thirty... Section 7, Township 26 North, Range 31 West, 5th P.M., Newton County, Missouri. Dated: April 21,...

  8. Landscape of Memory. Commemorative monuments, memorials and public statuary in post-apartheid South-Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marschall, S.

    2010-01-01

    Under the aegis of post-apartheid government, much emphasis has been placed on the transformation and democratisation of the heritage sector in South Africa. The emergent new landscape of memory comprises a host of commemorative monuments, memorials and statues installed since 1994 to create a share

  9. The Missing Link / Monument for the Distribution of Wealth (Johannesburg, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Staal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The artists have a knack for presenting the cruel absurdity latent in representative democracy. For example, siting their work at a monument for democracy that's housed on the premises of a private corporation running both an amusement park and the Apartheid Museum.

  10. Modernist Ruins, Filmic Archaeologies. Jane and Louise Wilson’s 'A Free and Anonymous Monument'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Bruno

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Translation of the text originally published in Bruno, Giuliana. 2007. “Modernist Ruins, Filmic Archaeologies. Jane and Louise Wilson’s A Free and Anonymous Monument.” In Public Intimacy: Architecture and the Visual Arts, 43-86. Cambridge: MIT Press.

  11. Murals as Monuments: Students' Ideas about Depictions of Civilization in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas, Peter; Clark, Penney

    2004-01-01

    Around the world people confront monuments that celebrate historical origins, movements, heroes, and triumphs no longer seen as worthy of celebration. While an analysis of these "lieux de memoire" themselves can reveal historical consciousness, the sites become particularly interesting at the moment when they inspire debate, namely, when people…

  12. Ocmulgee National Monument Visitor Center solar heating and cooling system design review data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-01

    This document has been prepared as a part of the detailed design of the solar heating and cooling system to be installed at the Ocmulgee National Monument Visitor Center. It describes the 50 percent design review data for this site, and discusses the design approaches, system trade studies, subsystem design and development approach, solar collectors, preliminary specifications and other related information.

  13. From Here I Walked into Ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2011-01-01

    @@ When I was a little girl, I had heard about the eighth world wonder - terra cotta warriors in Qin Emperor Mausoleum.I have been wishing to visit there to see those magnificent scene which were created thousands of years ago.While with my age added, I gradually learned the terra cotta warriors were lust only one of many ancient marks of Xi'an, which once was capital of 13 dynasties in ancient China.Xi'an actually is a carrier of ancient China culture, where I walked from the modern world to the ancient China.

  14. Ancient Indian Leaps into Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, B S

    2011-01-01

    This book presents contributions of mathematicians covering topics from ancient India, placing them in the broader context of the history of mathematics. Although the translations of some Sanskrit mathematical texts are available in the literature, Indian contributions are rarely presented in major Western historical works. Yet some of the well-known and universally-accepted discoveries from India, including the concept of zero and the decimal representation of numbers, have made lasting contributions to the foundation of modern mathematics. Through a systematic approach, this book examines th

  15. Chinese Ancient Football with Romanticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江凌; 李晓勤

    2004-01-01

    Like other traditional Chinese sports, the ancient Chinese football, which used to be called “cuju”, has some differences from several sports in western countries concerning cultural and hamanist purport as well as metal aspiration, although it was similar with modern football to some extent, such as a leather-made ball with a bladder, rectangle sports ground, referee, goal and certain competitiveness. The author tries to talk about such difference in cultural and humanist purport as well as mental aspiration by making a comparison between “cuju” and modern football.

  16. New PBO GPS Station Construction: Eastern Region Network Enhancements and Multiple-Monument Stability Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, S. T.; Austin, K. E.; Berglund, H. T.; Blume, F.; Feaux, K.; Mann, D.; Mattioli, G. S.; Walls, C. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network consists of 1100 continuously operating, permanent GPS stations throughout the United States. The majority of this network was constructed using NSF-MREFC funding as part of the EarthScope Project during FY2003-FY2008. Since FY2009, UNAVCO has operated and maintained PBO through a Cooperative Agreement (CA) with NSF. Construction of new, permanent GPS monuments in the PBO network was the result of two change orders to the original PBO O&M CA. Change Order 33 (CO33) allocated funds to construct additional GPS stations at six locations in the Eastern Region of PBO. Three of these locations were designed to replace poorly performing existing GPS monuments in Georgia, Texas and New York. The remaining three new locations were selected to fill in gaps in network coverage in Pennsylvania, Wisconsin and North Dakota. Construction of all six new sites was completed in September 2013. Important scientific goals for CO33 include improvement of the stable North American reference frame, measurement of the vertical signal associated with the Glacial Isostatic Adjustment, and improved constraints on surface deformation and possible earthquakes, which occur in the low-strain tectonic setting of the eastern North American Plate. Change Order 35 (CO35) allocated funds to construct two additional geodetic monuments at five existing PBO stations in order to test and compare the long-term stability of various monument designs under near-identical geologic conditions. Sites were chosen to yield a variety of geographic, hydrologic and geologic conditions, including both fine-grained alluvium and crystalline bedrock. At each location, three different monuments (deep drill braced, short drill braced/driven-braced, mast/pillar) were built with 10 meter spacing, with shared power systems and data telemetry infrastructure. Construction of these multi-monument test locations began in October 2012 and finished in September 2013. See G010- Berglund

  17. Hyperspectral sensors and the conservation of monumental buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camaiti, Mara; Benvenuti, Marco; Chiarantini, Leandro; Costagliola, Pilar; Moretti, Sandro; Paba, Francesca; Pecchioni, Elena; Vettori, Silvia

    2010-05-01

    The continuous control of the conservation state of outdoor materials is a good practice for timely planning conservative interventions and therefore to preserve historical buildings. The monitoring of surfaces composition, in order to characterize compounds of neo-formation and deposition, by traditional diagnostic campaigns, although gives accurate results, is a long and expensive method, and often micro-destructive analyses are required. On the other hand, hyperspectral analysis in the visible and near infrared (VNIR) region is a very common technique for determining the characteristics and properties of soils, air, and water in consideration of its capability to give information in a rapid, simultaneous and not-destructive way. VNIR Hypespectral analysis, which discriminate materials on the basis of their different patterns of absorption at specific wavelengths, are in fact successfully used for identifying minerals and rocks (1), as well as for detecting soil properties including moisture, organic content and salinity (2). Among the existing VNIR techniques (Laboratory Spectroscopy - LS, Portable Spectroscopy - PS and Imaging Spectroscopy - IS), PS and IS can play a crucial role in the characterization of components of exposed stone surfaces. In particular, the Imaging Spectroscopic (remote sensing), which uses sensors placed both on land or airborne, may contribute to the monitoring of large areas in consideration of its ability to produce large areal maps at relatively low costs. In this presentation the application of hyperspectral instruments (mainly PS and IS, not applied before in the field of monumental building diagnostic) to quantify the degradation of carbonate surfaces will be discussed. In particular, considering gypsum as the precursor symptom of damage, many factors which may affect the estimation of gypsum content on the surface will be taken into consideration. Two hyperspectral sensors will be considered: 1) A portable radiometer (ASD

  18. What Matters about the Monument: reconstructing historical classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Bateman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a potential new research resource for looking at the development of archaeological practice longitudinally, from its roots in antiquarianism through to the modern discipline. As a result of a Natural Language Processing (NLP exercise carried out at the Archaeology Data Service (ADS we have a rich dataset comprising frequency counts of place and period names from a corpus of historical archaeological journals. This potentially provides a tool to examine the reflexive nature of the relationship between archaeology and broader society, particularly with regard to what aspects of the past, periods and areas have prominence at various times in the development of the discipline. For example, while it is well recognised that there are strong links between interest in the Roman Empire and the construction of an imperial vision of Britain in the Victorian age, demonstrating this metrically is a laborious and time-consuming activity. Similarly, conclusively identifying bias towards a particular time period or geographic region can be difficult to do with a hundred and fifty years' worth of journals to work with. This can mean that the sometimes subtle, transient notions of what, when and where has been significant in our past can be hard to critique retrospectively. The analysis of what political or social processes lead to a concentration of interest and resources on particular monuments, areas or time periods is similarly problematic. Often the archaeological work that results from these processes becomes the source of a cycle whereby these time periods and places appear to become more important than others simply because they have been investigated and described. This material itself thereby provides the fuel for ongoing dialogue, additional investigation and further publication. At the same time, other areas and time periods assume a secondary importance and come to occupy a peripheral place in the broader narrative of the past

  19. The Places of Memory in a Square of Monuments: Conceptions of Past, Freedom and History at Szabadság Tér

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Thorstensen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I try to approach contemporary Hungarian political culture through an analysis of the history of changing monuments at Szabadság Tér in Budapest. The paper has as its point of origin a protest/irredentist monument facing the present Soviet liberation monument. In order to understand this irredentist monument, I look into the meaning of the earlier irredentist monuments under Horthy and try to see what monuments were torn down under Communism and which ones remained. I further argue that changes in the other monuments also affect the meaning of the others. From this background I enter into a brief interpretation of changes in memory culture in relation to changes in political culture. The conclusions point toward the fact that Hungary is actively pursuing a cleansing of its past in public spaces, and that this process is reflected in an increased acceptance of political authoritarianism.

  20. Working Process Development For Weathering Degree Mapping Of Stone Monument Using Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, C.; Park, H.

    2008-12-01

    Most stone monuments have been weathered on the field with exposure of rain and wind during hundreds or thousands years. Reflectance spectroscopy can be applied to assess weathering degree of those stone monuments composed of granite which is the most general material of stone monument in Korea. Weathering degree was analyzed by using reflected and transmitted electromagnetic energy based on the theory of reflectance spectroscopy on the surface of rock to identify rock forming minerals using their diagnostic spectral absorption features. This method could be used as an improved nondestructive assessment method compared with conventional subjective and qualitative assessment methods. We tested feasibility of this technique for actual granite stone monuments. Granite is generally composed of quartz, feldspars and micas. Feldspars are changed to clay minerals such as kaolinite and illite after weathering process. Biotite of mica produce iron oxides which induce color changes on surface of rocks. The experiments were conducted using field spectrometer FieldSpec®3 of ASD Inc. and the range of measurement was form 350µm to 2500µm wavelength. Spectral reflectance of weathering products at each measuring point was processed by removing delineated convex hull from raw reflectance curves to exclude background effects and to extract quantitative absorption depths which indicate relative distribution degree of weathering products. We produced deterioration map on the surface of the monument by interpolating absorption depth values of each point with consideration of spatial distribution of measurements. For facilitation of practical uses a chain of working process of this method was designed using whole experimental processes.

  1. Foreign Guests in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora Žbontar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xenía was a special relationship between a foreign guest and his host in Ancient Greece. The ritual of hosting a foreigner included an exchange of objects, feasting, and the establishment of friendship between people from different social backgrounds. This relationship implied trust, loyalty, friendship, and mutual aid between the people involved. Goods and services were also exchanged without any form of payment. There were no formal laws governing xenía – it was based entirely on a moral appeal. Mutual appreciation between the host and the guest was established during the ritual, but the host did retain a certain level of superiority over the guest. Xenía was one of the most important institutions in Ancient Greece. It had a lot of features and obligations similar to kinship and marriage. In literary sources the word xénos varies in meaning from “enemy stranger”, “friendly stranger”, “foreigner”, “guest”, “host” to “ritual friend”, and it is often hard to tell which usage is appropriate in a given passage. The paper describes the emphasis on hospitality towards foreigners. It presents an example of a depiction indicating xenía is presented, as well as several objects which were traded during the ritual. The paper also addresses the importance of hospitality in Greek drama in general, especially with examples of violations of the hospitality code.

  2. [Ancient history of Indian pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Jun; Natsume, Yohko

    2010-01-01

    The study of the ancient history of Indian medicine has recently been revived due to the publication of polyglot translations. However, little is known of ancient Indian pharmacy. Archaeological evidence suggests the Indus people lived a settled life approximately in 2500 B.C. Their cities were enjoying the cleanest and most hygienic daily life with elaborate civic sanitation systems. The whole conception shows a remarkable concern for health. Then, the early Aryans invaded India about 1500 B.C. and the Vedic age started. The Rgveda texts contain the hymns for Soma and those for herbs. The term Ayurveda (i.e., science of life) is found in some old versions of both Ramāyana and Mahābhārata and in the Atharvaveda. Suśruta had the credit of making a breakthrough in the field of surgery. The Ayurveda, a work on internal medicine, gives the following transmission of sages: Brahmā-->Daksa-->Prajāpati-->Aśivinau-->Indra-->Caraka. On the other hand, the Suśruta-samhitā, which deals mainly with surgical medicine, explains it as follows; Indra-->Dhanvantari-->Suśruta Both Caraka and Suśruta were medical doctors as well as pharmacists, so they studied more than 1000 herbs thoroughly. The Ayurveda had been used by his devotees for medical purposes. It eventually spread over Asia with the advanced evolution of Buddhism.

  3. The Role of Stone in Neolithic Monumental Art: case studies and methods of representation in Ireland and Brittany

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume Robin; Serge Cassen

    2009-01-01

    In the last few decades, there has been a great deal of interest in the stone used as building material in megalithic monuments. Several studies have been carried out on the location of quarries and on the monumental and symbolic role of stones in various types of architecture (O'Sullivan 1996; 2006; Cooney 2000, 135-8). However, very few works exist on the relationship between the parietal art of these monuments and the materials that carry them (Shee 1973, 164; O'Sullivan 1997, 28). This is...

  4. The monuments of the UNESCO List under threat in the 21rst century: the Project "MONUNESCO-PARIS" (2012-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez, B.; Brimblecombe, P.; Deque, M.; Grossi, C. M.; Ionescu, A.; Lefevre, R. A.

    2012-04-01

    The banks of the River Seine in Paris are inscribed on the UNESCO List of the World Cultural Heritage since 1991 because they are studded with a succession of masterpieces such as Notre- Dame Cathedral, Sainte Chapelle, Louvre, Place de la Concorde, Tour Eiffel, and with prestigious museums: Louvre, Orsay, Quai Branly, Petit Palais…Unfortunately, these banks are crossed by the Pompidou urban motorway, an important and continuous source of atmospheric pollution. The aim of the Project is to evaluate the evolution of the weathering of limestone, glass and stained glass in the centre of Paris in the 21rst century by crossing Climate and Pollution Models with Dose-Response Functions (DRF) for limestone, glass and stained glass and with Climatology of Salt Transitions for limestone. A Lutetian limestone (« Courville Stone ») has been used for the construction and the restoration of the most important monuments (Notre-Dame, Louvre…) and haussmannian buildings in Paris. It has a fine grain, a medium porosity (19%) and contains 90% of CaO. The modern glass of windows and large contemporaneous façades has a Si-Ca-Na composition, it is chemically inert, has a low thermal inertia, a flat surface, no open porosity and no surface roughness, therefore it is very durable. The glass of stained glass windows has a Si-Ca-K composition and it is low durable. Using different climate and pollution scenarios of the 21rst century, the project will evaluate different schemes of material degradations: (i) - Recession of limestone surface; (ii) - Soiling of limestone surface; (iii) - Soiling of modern glass; (iv) - Leaching of ancient stained glass windows; (v) - Deterioration of limestone by salts. The British Hadley Models, the French Météo- France Arpège-Aladin Models and the ENSEMBLES Approach will be crossed with DRF and Climatology of Salts Transitions. An in-the-field inventory (stock at risk) of the surface occupied on the façades by each kind of material (stone

  5. Attitudes Toward Deviant Sex in Ancient Mesopotamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, Vern L.

    1971-01-01

    The article concludes that the whole question of sexual life in ancient Mesopotamia is difficult to reconstruct and fraught with many uncertainties. Nevertheless, it seems certain that the ancient Mesopotamians had fewer prohibitions against sex than our own civilization, and regarded as acceptable many practices which later societies condemned.…

  6. Women--Sex Objects in Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimer, Brian T. P.

    Although it has been said that the women in Ancient Egypt enjoyed a reasonable state of social and professional equality with men, this paper presents an alternate theory--that women were second-class citizens whose physical prowess was secondary to their role as sex objects. It appears that men and women in Ancient Egypt often participated in the…

  7. The Idea of Ancient Greek Philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏雪

    2016-01-01

    As the source of western philosophy, ancient Greek philosophy had a profound influence on western philosophy. Ancient philosophers were hard to reach a consensus on the existence of all the things in the world. They tried to grasp the profound understanding of the world, which is the clue of the history of philosophy.

  8. Study of the mechanical behavior of the fronts of exterior monuments in Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico; Estudio del comportamiento mecanico de fachadas de monumentos exteriores en Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, E.; Martinez, W. [Facultad de Ingenieria Civil, UMSNH, 58070 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Avalos, M. [CCMC-UNAM, 22800 Ensenada, Baja California Norte (Mexico); Castano, V. [UNAM, 76000 Juriquilla, Queretaro (Mexico); Martinez, L. [CCF-UNAM, 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    There are 1,130 architectural ancient monuments in the historic center in Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico built with ignimbrites from the surrounding quarry stones. In some facades is acute the damage. The walls are between 0.50 and 1.50 meters wide, it helps the structure under seismic or accidental loads. The main winds come from the S-SW and their ratio speed (4-20 m/s) does not allow mechanical corrosion (corrosion) but it is able to carry anthropogenic particles (2-25 m), form the burnt of fossil fuels, and they lay on the facades. The damage is observed specially on the facades on the dominant winds and also on the facades located on streets less than 6.0 m wide. The capillary humidity is visible until highs of 2.0 meters on the streets, and it is appreciate the efflorescence crystals and biologic patinas. We performance non destructive tests in situ with the Schmidt hammer to quantify the mechanical resistance on the ignimbrite blocks forming the buildings, in the lowest part of them we took the data because the damage is acute in that wet zone and because in this part could occur the collapse in an extraordinary earthquake. The collected data were compared with the data obtained in ignimbrites blocks taken from the 'healthy' quarry stones. (Author)

  9. From Giza to the Pantheon: astronomy as a key to the architectural projects of the ancient past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magli, Giulio

    2011-06-01

    In many of the ``wonders'' of our past, information about their meaning and scope has been encoded in the form of astronomical alignments to celestial bodies. Therefore, in many cases, understanding the ideas of the ancient architects turns out to be connected with the study of the relationship of their cultures with the sky. This is the aim of archaeoastronomy, a discipline which is a quite efficacious tool in unraveling the original projects of many monuments. This issue is briefly discussed here by means of three examples taken from three completely different cultures and historical periods: the so-called ``air shafts'' of the Great Pyramid, the urban layout of the capital of the Incas, and the design of the Pantheon.

  10. Mechanisms in ancient Chinese books with illustrations

    CERN Document Server

    Hsiao, Kuo-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a unique approach for studying mechanisms and machines with drawings that were depicted unclearly in ancient Chinese books. The historical, cultural and technical backgrounds of the mechanisms are explained, and various mechanisms described and illustrated in ancient books are introduced. By utilizing the idea for the conceptual design of modern mechanisms, all feasible designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain members and joints that meet the technical standards of the subjects’ time periods are synthesized systematically. Ancient Chinese crossbows (the original crossbow and repeating crossbows), textile mechanisms (silk-reeling mechanism, spinning mechanisms, and looms), and many other artisan's tool mechanisms are used as illustrated examples.  Such an approach provides a logical method for the reconstruction designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain structures. It also provides an innovative direction for researchers to further identify the original structures of mechanisms...

  11. Structural recognition of ancient Chinese ideographic characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ning; Chen Dan

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Chinese characters, typically the ideographic characters on bones and bronze before Shang Dynasty (16th—11th century B.C.), are valuable culture legacy of history. However the recognition of Ancient Chinese characters has been the task of paleography experts for long. With the help of modern computer technique, everyone can expect to be able to recognize the characters and understand the ancient inscriptions. This research is aimed to help people recognize and understand those ancient Chinese characters by combining Chinese paleography theory and computer information processing technology. Based on the analysis of ancient character features, a method for structural character recognition is proposed. The important characteristics of strokes and basic components or radicals used in recognition are introduced in detail. A system was implemented based on above method to show the effectiveness of the method.

  12. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 9. A new species of Givira Walker (Cossidae, Hypoptinae) dedicated to Delinda Mix, including a list of species of Cossidae recorded from the Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Eric H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The U.S. National Park Service initiated a 10-year study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico in late 2006. Givira delindae sp. n., discovered in 2007 during the first year of study, is described here. The male and female adult moths and genitalia are illustrated. The name is dedicated to Delinda Mix, mother of Steve Mix. The species of Cossidae recorded from the Monument during the study are listed. PMID:28331399

  13. [Anomalous pregnancies in ancient medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzaniga, Valentina

    2010-01-01

    In ancient Greek medicine female physiology is determined by a particular state of non-steady equilibrium, largely based on pregnancy and lactation, presented as the only balanced and healthy periods in women's life. Nonetheless, pregnancy can be also a pathological moment, in particular referring to specific alterations of its 'normal time' ('seven-months', 'eight-months' and 'ten-months' children). The article analyzes the well-known case of myle, an abnormal pregnancy developing in three and sometimes four years, non resolving in a normal delivery, but often in a dramatic haemorrhagic flux. The author compares Hippocratic and Aristotelic testimonies about myle and abnormal pregnancies with the evidence fournished by the historical-religious recent studies about Hera and her parthenogenetic, monstrous children.

  14. Detecting hybridization using ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Nathan K; Shapiro, Beth; Green, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    It is well established that related species hybridize and that this can have varied but significant effects on speciation and environmental adaptation. It should therefore come as no surprise that hybridization is not limited to species that are alive today. In the last several decades, advances in technologies for recovering and sequencing DNA from fossil remains have enabled the assembly of high-coverage genome sequences for a growing diversity of organisms, including many that are extinct. Thanks to the development of new statistical approaches for detecting and quantifying admixture from genomic data, genomes from extinct populations have proven useful both in revealing previously unknown hybridization events and informing the study of hybridization between living organisms. Here, we review some of the key recent statistical innovations for detecting ancient hybridization using genomewide sequence data and discuss how these innovations have revised our understanding of human evolutionary history.

  15. [Being old in ancient Hellas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooff, A J

    1983-08-01

    There is room for a more balanced view of old age among the ancient Greeks than is furnished by De Beauvoir's la Vieillesse and other more or less one-sided publications. The old body was despised by the Greeks of classical times; especially walking with three legs (tripous) was stressed as a mark of old age. The Hippocratic writings show some interest in the infirmities of elderly people. Specific psychic and intellectual qualities were not attributed to senescence: old age brought out good and bad qualities of a person more sharply than before. The share of old people in the population cannot be established with any certainty, but there was always a group of men in their sixties who had specific tasks in society. Old age was not an autonomous theme in art, it was solely accidental. The position of the elderly was challenged occasionally in democratic Athens, but it was never undermined. Old people were never marginated in classical Greece.

  16. Ancient Acupuncture Literature on Apoplexy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yi-zeng; BI Zhen; Xiao Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews twenty-eight Chinese medicine books with complete prescriptions prior to the Qing Dynasty, and analyzes the characteristics of acupoint selection and needling manipulations from the perspective of apoplectic symptoms. It is concluded that,in ancient times, apoplexy is often treated on the basis of its symptoms and a great number of acupoints are employed; hemiplegia is mainly treated by the acupoints of the Large Intestine Meridian and Gallbladder Meridian,with two key acupoints; coma is mainly treated by first-aid acupoints and qi-supplementing acupoints, with seven key acupoints; wry mouth and convulsion are mainly treated by the local acupoints; as for needling manipulations, moxibustion with moxa cones is principally used, while needling is less used.

  17. Utilities:Water:Sewer Line Nodes at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Water:sewer_node)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents sewer line nodes at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The data were collected using Trimble Global Positioning System (GPS) units...

  18. Utilities: Other Utilities: Fences in and around Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Other:Fences)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is feature class contains lines representing fence line at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The fences were collected by a Trimble GeoXT GPS unit with...

  19. Utilities:Other:The Retaining Wall (non-historic) at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Other:wall)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents the retaining wall (non-historic) at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The wall was collected by a Trimble GeoXT GPS unit with...

  20. Nat'l_Register, ContributingResources, Historic Retaining Wall at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_retainwll)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of one arc representing the historic retaining wall (HS-X2) at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The retaining wall was...

  1. Nat'l_Register, ContributingResources, The Rim Trail at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_qrytrail)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 4 arcs representing the portion of The Rim Trail at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona that occurs within the National...

  2. Utilities:Other:Telephone Nodes at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Other:telephone_node)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represent the nodes of the telephone lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The utility pipelines were collected by a Trimble GeoXT GPS...

  3. Utilities:Power:Underground Powerline Nodes at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Power:powerln)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents the powerline nodes (power line poles) at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The utility powerline nodes were collected by a...

  4. Utilities:Power:Power-Related Utilities at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Power:utilpnt_power)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents power-related utilities at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The utilities were collected using Trimble Global Positioning System...

  5. Utilities:Water:Water Infrastructure Vaults at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Water:vaults)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents vaults associated with the water infrastructure at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The vaults data were collected using Trimble...

  6. Utilities:Water:Spring Water Lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Water:springwtr)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents spring water lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The data were collected using Trimble Global Positioning System (GPS)...

  7. Nat'l_Register, ContributingResources, The Ponds at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_ponds)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 2 polygons representing the ponds at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The ponds were collected by a Trimble GeoXT...

  8. Preserving Different Pasts: The American National Monuments, by Hal Rothman, University of Illinois Press, Urbana and Chicago, 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry A. Barnhart

    1992-11-01

    Full Text Available The national monuments that exist today within our national parks are often perceived as icons of a romantic or even a mythic past Seldom, however, do very personal crusades that were waged to preserve these natural and culture resources intrude upon the public consciousness? Even less frequently are the preservation efforts of the past valued for what they tell us about American culture and how the values of that culture have changed over time. But the archaeological, historic, and natural history sites that comprise our national monuments have layered meanings. Quite apart from their intrinsic value as heritage sites, our effort to preserve perceptions of the past. It is somewhat surprising, therefore, that scholarship on the national monuments proper remained an historiographical backwater. This situation has been rectified, however, with the publication of Hal Rothman's Preserving Different Pasts: The American National Monuments. These national treasurers have at last found an able historian to tell their story.

  9. The Collapse of Ancient Societies by Great Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, A. M.

    2001-12-01

    Although earthquakes have often been associated with inexplicable past societal disasters their impact has thought to be only secondary for two reasons: Inconclusive archaeological interpretation of excavated destruction, and misconceptions about patterns of seismicity. However, new and revised archaeological evidence and a better understanding of the irregularities of the time-space patterns of large earthquakes together suggest that earthquakes (and associated tsunamis) have probably been responsible for some of the great and enigmatic catastrophes in ancient times. The most relevant aspect of seismicity is the episodic time-space clustering of earthquakes such as during the eastern Mediterranean seismic crisis in the second half of the 4th century AD and the seismicity of the north Anatolian fault during our century. During these earthquake clusters, plate boundary rupture by a series of large earthquakes that occur over a period of only 50 to 100 years or so, followed by hundreds or even thousands of years of relative inactivity. The extent of the destruction by such rare but powerful earthquake clusters must have been far greater than similar modern events due to poorer construction and the lack of any earthquake preparedness in ancient times. The destruction by very big earthquakes also made ancient societies so vulnerable because so much of the wealth and power was concentrated and protected by so few. Thus the breaching by an earthquake of the elite's fortified cities must have often led to attacks by (1) external enemies during ongoing wars (e.g., Joshua and Jericho, Arab attack on Herod's Jerusalem in 31 BCE); (2) neighbors during ongoing conflicts (e.g., Mycenea's fall in @1200 BCE, Saul's battle at Michmash @1020 BCE); and (3) uprisings of poor and often enslaved indigenous populations (e.g., Sparta and the Helots @465 BCE, Hattusas @1200 BCE?, Teotihuacan @ 700 AD). When the devastation was by a local earthquake, during a modest conflict, damage was

  10. Geospatial modeling approach to monument construction using Michigan from A.D. 1000-1600 as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howey, Meghan C L; Palace, Michael W; McMichael, Crystal H

    2016-07-01

    Building monuments was one way that past societies reconfigured their landscapes in response to shifting social and ecological factors. Understanding the connections between those factors and monument construction is critical, especially when multiple types of monuments were constructed across the same landscape. Geospatial technologies enable past cultural activities and environmental variables to be examined together at large scales. Many geospatial modeling approaches, however, are not designed for presence-only (occurrence) data, which can be limiting given that many archaeological site records are presence only. We use maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt), which works with presence-only data, to predict the distribution of monuments across large landscapes, and we analyze MaxEnt output to quantify the contributions of spatioenvironmental variables to predicted distributions. We apply our approach to co-occurring Late Precontact (ca. A.D. 1000-1600) monuments in Michigan: (i) mounds and (ii) earthwork enclosures. Many of these features have been destroyed by modern development, and therefore, we conducted archival research to develop our monument occurrence database. We modeled each monument type separately using the same input variables. Analyzing variable contribution to MaxEnt output, we show that mound and enclosure landscape suitability was driven by contrasting variables. Proximity to inland lakes was key to mound placement, and proximity to rivers was key to sacred enclosures. This juxtaposition suggests that mounds met local needs for resource procurement success, whereas enclosures filled broader regional needs for intergroup exchange and shared ritual. Our study shows how MaxEnt can be used to develop sophisticated models of past cultural processes, including monument building, with imperfect, limited, presence-only data.

  11. Creating/Curating Cultural Capital: Monuments and Museums for Post-Apartheid South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Rankin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the first democratic elections in 1994, South Africa has faced the challenge of creating new cultural capital to replace old racist paradigms, and monuments and museums have been deployed as part of this agenda of transformation. Monuments have been inscribed with new meanings, and acquisition and collecting policies have changed at existing museums to embrace a wider definition of culture. In addition, a series of new museums, often with a memorial purpose, has provided opportunities to acknowledge previously marginalized histories, and honor those who opposed apartheid, many of whom died in the Struggle. Lacking extensive collections, these museums have relied on innovative concepts, not only the use of audio-visual materials, but also the metaphoric deployment of sites and the architecture itself, to create affective audience experiences and recount South Africa’s tragic history under apartheid.

  12. The Catholic of Stilo. Survey and analysis of a Byzantine monument.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinella Arena

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Cattolica di Stilo, one of the greatest monu-ments of Calabria, is the most important example of the secular Byzantine influence on this region. The Greek cross inscribed in a square, with its five domes, denounces his connection with an archi-tectural style of oriental origin. Although built in a remote province of the Empire, the Catho-lic is not the expression of a poor art; all poetics typical of Byzantine architecture are manifested with originality. The first paragraph, written by Domenico Mediati, analyzes the geometries and correlates with contemporary buildings (X-XI cen-tury and similar in size and shape. The second paragraph, written by Marinella Arena, highlights the differences of construction compared to the theoretical form. The third paragraph, written by Daniele Colistra, reviews some representations of the monument trying to identify those who most influenced the collective imagination.

  13. gargammel: a sequence simulator for ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Gabriel; Hanghøj, Kristian; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic

    2016-10-29

    Ancient DNA has emerged as a remarkable tool to infer the history of extinct species and past populations. However, many of its characteristics, such as extensive fragmentation, damage and contamination, can influence downstream analyses. To help investigators measure how these could impact their analyses in silico, we have developed gargammel, a package that simulates ancient DNA fragments given a set of known reference genomes. Our package simulates the entire molecular process from post-mortem DNA fragmentation and DNA damage to experimental sequencing errors, and reproduces most common bias observed in ancient DNA datasets.

  14. Integrating radar and laser-based remote sensing techniques for monitoring structural deformation of archaeological monuments

    OpenAIRE

    Tapete D.; Casagli N.; Luzi G.; Fanti R.; Gigli G.; Leva D.

    2013-01-01

    Ground-Based Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (GBInSAR) and Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) were purposely integrated to obtain 3D interferometric radar point clouds to facilitate the spatial interpretation of displacements affecting archaeological monuments. The paper describes the procedure to implement this integrated approach in the real-world situations of surveillance of archaeological and built heritage. Targeted tests were carried out on the case study of the Domus Tiberiana s...

  15. METRIC SURVEY OF THE MONUMENT OF QUEEN ELISENDA'S TOMB IN THE MONASTERY OF PEDRALBES, BARCELONA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Núñez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available When an urban development is planned the cartography of this territory is necessary, in the same way before starting a project to rehabilitate a monument the graphic information about it has to be available. At present, different techniques are available which allow to obtain three-dimensional models with a different accuracy level and runtimes.This paper shows the work carried out to obtain the graphic information and three-dimensional models that are necessary for the rehabilitation project of the tomb of Queen Elisenda in the Monastery of Pedralbes, Barcelona (Spain. This monument has the peculiarity of being symmetrical about the wall separating monastery church and the cloister. To do this, different techniques have been used that allow us to obtain an accurate model and as complete as possible, for the analysis of the construction process of the monument. In order to achieve the complete architectural survey the integration of laser scanning and photogrammetric data, and CAD models has been necessary. Due to the detail of the sculptures and the Queen’s sarcophagus two sensors, with different resolution, range and accuracy, have been used to obtain the laser scanning data. Stereo pairs have been taken to obtain the 3D model of these elements to complete the model and obtain an ortophotography.In this way, a comparative analysis of both techniques has been carried out, in order to decide which one is the suitable for certain application. This investigation has been restricted to the tomb, in the two symmetrical parts of the monument.

  16. Acoustical features of two Mayan monuments at Chichen Itza: Accident or design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubman, David

    2002-11-01

    Chichen Itza dominated the early postclassic Maya world, ca. 900-1200 C.E. Two of its colossal monuments, the Great Ball Court and the temple of Kukulkan, reflect the sophisticated, hybrid culture of a Mexicanized Maya civilization. The architecture seems intended for ceremony and ritual drama. Deducing ritual practices will advance the understanding of a lost civilization, but what took place there is largely unknown. Perhaps acoustical science can add value. Unexpected and unusual acoustical features can be interpreted as intriguing clues or irrelevant accidents. Acoustical advocates believe that, when combined with an understanding of the Maya worldview, acoustical features can provide unique insights into how the Maya designed and used theater spaces. At Chichen Itza's monuments, sound reinforcement features improve rulers and priests ability to address large crowds, and Ball Court whispering galleries permit speech communication over unexpectedly large distances. Handclaps at Kukulkan stimulate chirps that mimic a revered bird (''Kukul''), thus reinforcing cultic beliefs. A ball striking playing field wall stimulates flutter echoes at the Great Ball Court; their strength and duration arguably had dramatic, mythic, and practical significance. Interpretations of the possible mythic, magic, and political significance of sound phenomena at these Maya monuments strongly suggests intentional design.

  17. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Monument Valley, Arizona, US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action(UMTRA) Project site is one of the first site-specific documents developed to achieve ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies information about the Monument Valley site to a regulatory compliance framework that identifies strategies that could be used to meet ground water compliance. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (DOE, 1996). The DOE`s goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. The compliance strategy that emerges in the final version of the SOWP will be evaluated in the site-specific environmental assessment to determine potential environmental impacts and provide stakeholders a forum for review and comment. When the compliance strategy is acceptable, it will be detailed in a remedial action plan that will be subject to review by the state and/or tribe and concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Information for the preparation of this SOWP indicates active remediation is the most likely compliance strategy for the Monument Valley site. Additional data are needed to determine the most effective remediation technology.

  18. Hydrophobicity and carbonation treatment of earthen monuments in humid weather condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Min; ZHANG HuYuan

    2012-01-01

    Water stability of soil is crucial to the durability of earthen monuments,especially those located in the humid weather condition.This paper discusses the selection reason of materials (tung oil and quicklime) for earthen monument treatment,and then validates the applicability of these materials with tests of soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC),aggregate stability test (AST) and scanning electron microscope (SEM).The soil tested was sampled from Da Bao'en temple in Nanjing,Jiangsu province,China.The test results indicate that the carbonation reaction of quicklime offers a favorable environment for the formation of tung oil film.Meanwhile,the regulatory function of tung oil restricts the crystallinity of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and forms fine crystals.Soil treated with both of tung oil and quicklime has good water repellency and aggregate stability without obvious changing in aesthetic appearance.Hydrophobicity and carbonation treatment can be applied prospectively in the conservation of earthen monument located in humid weather condition.

  19. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Monument Valley, Arizona, US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is one of the first site-specific documents developed to achieve ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies information about the Monument Valley site to a regulatory compliance framework that identifies strategies that could be used to meet ground water compliance. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (DOE, 1995). The DOE`s goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. The compliance strategy that emerges in the final version of the SOWP will assess potential environmental impacts and provide stakeholder a forum for review and comment. When the compliance strategy is acceptable, it will be detailed in a remedial action plan that will be subject to review by the state and/or tribe and concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Information available for the preparation of this SOWP indicates active remediation is the most likely compliance strategy for the Monument Valley site. Additional data are needed to determine the most effective remediation technology.

  20. The Work of Art as Monument: Deleuze and the (After- Life of Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Schreel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last chapter of What is Philosophy? Deleuze and Guattari conceptualise the work of art as a paradoxical monument which does not commemorate a past, but rather, preserves itself in the absence of man. The key to understanding this paradox lies in the further determination of the monument as a ‘being of sensations’: a ‘compound’ of ‘percepts’ and ‘affects’, meaning, a composition of invisible forces that populate the world, affect us, and make us become. Art would provoke an encounter with inhuman conditions of life which in daily, pragmatic life are often not given a chance. Yet, why still speak in terms of visibility and invisibility if there is not even an eye to perceive? How to understand a conception of art which refuses to think it in terms of human needs, for example exactly of commemorating the past? Deleuze was well aware of these questions, as the chapter on percept, affect and concept repeatedly re-affirms its radical appeal. In this paper I aim to elucidate this novel understanding of art as unwordly monument. I will do so firstly by looking into its implicit dialogue with the phenomenologists Erwin Straus and Henri Maldiney. Secondly, Theodor W. Adorno's essay 'Valéry Proust Museum' will serve as a ground for formulating what might be called the Deleuzian 'after-life' of art.

  1. La presa y el ninfeo del Sotillo (Alfaro, La Rioja: un conjunto monumental en la vía De Italia in Hispanias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio HERNÁNDEZ VERA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se estudian los restos de una construcción romana localizada junto al río Alhama, en las inmediaciones de la ciudad de Graccurris (Alfaro, La Rioja. La obra fue expoliada ya en época antigua, por lo que apareció incompleta, con buena parte de los materiales arquitectónicos que formaban parte de ella desplazados de su posición original. Los restos en mejor estado de conservación corresponden a una presa construida con grandes sillares de arenisca. A partir de los materiales arquitectónicos aislados respetados por el expolio, se puede restituir un gran conjunto monumental que, además de la presa, contaba con una fuente o ninfeo y un pequeño templo. Se documenta el paso por el sitio de la vía De Italia in Hispanias, ya que apareció también un miliario de Augusto. Tras ser expoliada, la obra fue definitivamente sepultada por un potente estrato de aluvión aportado por una crecida del Alhama. En este estrato la excavación proporcionó material cerámico romano, sin restos de épocas posteriores, lo que permite datar esta inundación hacia finales del siglo II.ABSTRACT: A study is made of Román remains located beside the Alhama River near the city of Gracurris (Alfaro, La Rioja. The site had already been plundered in ancient times so it was incomplete when uncovered, and a large number of the architectural materials had been moved from their original positions. The remains that are in the best state of preservation are those of a dam built of large sandstone blocks. A large monumental group can be restored from the isolated architectural materials left that were not plundered, including a nymphaeum and a small temple, in addition to the dam. It can also be shown that the Román road De Italia in Hispanias went through this site, since an Augustan milestone has also been found. After having been plundered, the site was completely buried by a layer of alluvium brought by a rise in the Alhama River. Román ceramic materials were

  2. Aiding the Interpretation of Ancient Documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roued-Cunliffe, Henriette

    How can Decision Support System (DSS) software aid the interpretation process involved in the reading of ancient documents? This paper discusses the development of a DSS prototype for the reading of ancient texts. In this context the term ‘ancient documents’ is used to describe mainly Greek...... and Latin texts and the term ‘scholars’ is used to describe readers of these documents (e.g. papyrologists, epigraphers, palaeographers). However, the results from this research can be applicable to many other texts ranging from Nordic runes to 18th Century love letters. In order to develop an appropriate...... tool it is important first to comprehend the interpretation process involved in reading ancient documents. This is not a linear process but rather a recursive process where the scholar moves between different levels of reading, such as ‘understanding the meaning of a character’ or ‘understanding...

  3. AN INTERESTING CASE OF ANCIENT SCHWANNOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Schwannoma is a common benign tumour of nerve sheath. Degenerating type of schwannoma is called ancient schwannoma. Ancient schwannomas of scalp are rare and are often misdiagnosed as sebaceous cyst or dermoid cyst. CASE REPORT : We present a thirty two year old male presented with scalp swel ling of eight years duration. X - ray showed no intracranial extension. He underwent excision of the tumour and histopathology was reported as ancient schwannoma. DISCUSSION : Histopathologically , ancient schwannomas charecterised by cellular Antoni type A ar eas and less cellular Antoni type - B areas. 9 th , 7 th , 11 th , 5 th and 4 th cranial nerves are often affected and may be associated with multiple neuro fibramatosis (Von - Recklinghausen’s disease. Impact : Case is presented for its rarity and possible pre - operative misdiagnosis

  4. Ancient Magnetic Reversals: Clues to the Geodynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kenneth A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the question posed by some that the earth's magnetic field may reverse. States that rocks magnetized by ancient fields may offer clues to the underlying reversal mechanism in the earth's core. (TW)

  5. Surgical history of ancient China: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Louis

    2010-03-01

    In this second part of ancient Chinese surgical history, the practice of bone setting in China began around 3000 years ago. Throughout this period, significant progress was made, some highlights of which are cited. These methods, comparable with Western orthopaedic technique, are still being practised today. In conclusion, the possible reasons for the lack of advancement in operative surgery are discussed, within context of the cultural, social and religious background of ancient China.

  6. Radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, H. [Nagoya Univ., Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    History is a reconstruction of past human activity, evidence of which is remained in the form of documents or relics. For the reconstruction of historic period, the radiocarbon dating of ancient documents provides important information. Although radiocarbon age is converted into calendar age with the calibration curve, the calibrated radiocarbon age is still different from the historical age when the document was written. The difference is known as 'old wood effect' for wooden cultural property. The discrepancy becomes more serious problem for recent sample which requires more accurate age determination. Using Tandetron accelerator mass spectrometer at Nagoya University, we have measured radiocarbon ages of Japanese ancient documents, sutras and printed books written dates of which are clarified from the paleographic standpoint. The purpose is to clarify the relation between calibrated radiocarbon age and historical age of ancient Japanese document by AMS radiocarbon dating. This paper reports 23 radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese documents, sutras and printed books. The calibrated radiocarbon ages are in good agreement with the corresponding historical ages. It was shown by radiocarbon dating of the ancient documents that Japanese paper has little gap by 'old wood effect'; accordingly, ancient Japanese paper is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating of recent historic period. (author)

  7. The pyramids of Greece: Ancient meridian observatories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, Efstratios; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijević, Milan S.; Katsiotis, Marco

    Pyramids, "Dragon Houses" ("Drakospita") and megalithic structures in general create always a special interest. We postulate that, as happens with the Drakospita of Euboea, the pyramid-like structures of Argolis (Eastern Peloponnese) were constructed by the Dryops. It is known that, in addition to Euboea and some Cyclades islands, this prehellenic people had also settled in Argolis, where they founded the city of Asine. We also propose that the pyramids of Argolis and in particular the pyramid of Hellinikon village were very likely, besides being a burial monument or guard house, might be served also for astronomical observations.

  8. The Role of Stone in Neolithic Monumental Art: case studies and methods of representation in Ireland and Brittany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Robin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, there has been a great deal of interest in the stone used as building material in megalithic monuments. Several studies have been carried out on the location of quarries and on the monumental and symbolic role of stones in various types of architecture (O'Sullivan 1996; 2006; Cooney 2000, 135-8. However, very few works exist on the relationship between the parietal art of these monuments and the materials that carry them (Shee 1973, 164; O'Sullivan 1997, 28. This is in contrast to work on the Upper Palaeolithic, where there have been several studies exploring the links between paintings and the relief of caves (Clottes 1996. In the case of Neolithic monumental art there are many questions left unanswered; is the stone only a support for the carved motifs? Is its role only practical, without significance? Or did it have a more developed function related to the symbolism of the carvings? In this article, we would like to show through different examples in Ireland and Brittany that the stone did have a role in Neolithic monumental art. Different case studies show that there are relationships between carvings and stone texture, stone colour and stone relief. After the presentation of these case studies we would like to show how three-dimensional modelling can be a relevant tool for this kind of archaeological question.

  9. Non-destructive assessment of the Ancient 'Tholos Acharnon' Tomb building geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Assunçao, Sonia; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Konstantakis, Yiannis; Pérez-Gracia, Vega; Anagnostopoulou, Eirini; Solla, Mercedes; Lorenzo, Henrique

    2014-05-01

    Ancient Greek Monuments are considered glorious buildings that still remain on the modern times. Tombs were specifically built according to the architecture of respective epoch. Hence, the main function was to royal families in Greece and other countries. The lack of systematic preservation could promote the damage of the structure. Therefore, a correct maintenance can diminish the impact of the main causes of pathologies. Schist, limestone and sandstone have been the main geological building materials of the Greek Ancient tombs. In order to preserve several of these monumental tombs, in depth non-destructive evaluation by means of Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is proposed in a scientific mission with partners from Greece and Spain surveying with the 1 GHz and 2.3 GHz antennas. High frequency antennas are able to identify small size cracks or voids. Grandjean et al. [1] used the 300 MHz and 900 MHz antennas, obtaining 2 cm and 5 cm of resolution. Later on, Faize et al. [2] employed a 2.3 GHz antenna to detect anomalies and create a pathological model. The structure of this Mycenaean Tomb (14th - 13th c. BC) is composed by a corridor which is supported by irregular stones and the inner is 8.74 m high and 8.35 m diameter. The surface of the wall is composed by diverse geological materials of irregular shapes that enhance the GPR acquisition difficulty: 1) Passing the GPR antenna in a waved surface may randomly change the directivity of the emission. 2) The roof of the tomb is described by a pseudo-conical form with a decreasing radio for higher levels, with a particular beehive. If the roof of the Tomb is defined by a decreasing radius, innovative processes must be carried out with GPR to non constant radius structures. With GPR, the objective is to define the wall thickness, voids and/or cracks detection as well as other structural heterogeneities. Therefore, the aim is to create a three dimensional model based in the interpolation of the circular profiles. Three

  10. Forests, fields, and the edge of sustainability at the ancient Maya city of Tikal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, David L; Dunning, Nicholas P; Scarborough, Vernon L; Magee, Kevin S; Thompson, Kim M; Weaver, Eric; Carr, Christopher; Terry, Richard E; Islebe, Gerald; Tankersley, Kenneth B; Grazioso Sierra, Liwy; Jones, John G; Buttles, Palma; Valdez, Fred; Ramos Hernandez, Carmen E

    2014-12-30

    Tikal has long been viewed as one of the leading polities of the ancient Maya realm, yet how the city was able to maintain its substantial population in the midst of a tropical forest environment has been a topic of unresolved debate among researchers for decades. We present ecological, paleoethnobotanical, hydraulic, remote sensing, edaphic, and isotopic evidence that reveals how the Late Classic Maya at Tikal practiced intensive forms of agriculture (including irrigation, terrace construction, arboriculture, household gardens, and short fallow swidden) coupled with carefully controlled agroforestry and a complex system of water retention and redistribution. Empirical evidence is presented to demonstrate that this assiduously managed anthropogenic ecosystem of the Classic period Maya was a landscape optimized in a way that provided sustenance to a relatively large population in a preindustrial, low-density urban community. This landscape productivity optimization, however, came with a heavy cost of reduced environmental resiliency and a complete reliance on consistent annual rainfall. Recent speleothem data collected from regional caves showed that persistent episodes of unusually low rainfall were prevalent in the mid-9th century A.D., a time period that coincides strikingly with the abandonment of Tikal and the erection of its last dated monument in A.D. 869. The intensified resource management strategy used at Tikal-already operating at the landscape's carrying capacity-ceased to provide adequate food, fuel, and drinking water for the Late Classic populace in the face of extended periods of drought. As a result, social disorder and abandonment ensued.

  11. The evolution of the zodiac in the context of ancient oriental history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurshtein, Alex A.

    The dates for the second (ca. 2700 B.C. to within 250 years) and the third ecliptical quartets (ca. 1200 B.C. to within 400 years) evaluated earlier are considered in the context of ancient Egyptian history. The origin of the second quartet coincides with the Great Pyramids and the initiation of the Egyptian solar, or so-called "civil" calendar, the first of such a type in the world. The third quartet is concurrent with the solar conversion of Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton) and takes place at the finale of the great Sothic period of 1461 years after the initiation of the solar calendar. It is argued that the Great Pyramids seem to be monuments to the Sun-god built in honor of the Egyptians having reached an understanding of the Sun's track upon the starry background, Akhenaton's conversion being in a direct connection with the original Pyramids' ideology. This paper is the third part of a single investigation. The first two parts "On the Origin of the Zodiacal Constellations" and "Prehistory of Zodiac Dating: Three Strata of Upper Paleolithic Constellations" were published in Vistas in Astronomy in 1993 and 1995.

  12. The Contrivance of New Mud Bricks for Restoring and Preserving the Edfa Ancient Granary - Sohag, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed EL-GOHARY

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A mud brick functions as an element of masonry structures. Being an integral part of a wall mass, it must be understood structurally and chemically. The susceptibility of a mud brick to be affected by decay agents depends on the type of raw materials used, the methods of construction, location, the microclimatic conditions, the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of the mud brick itself. In this research, mineralogical composition and granulometric distribution of ancient mud bricks were studied by using some scientific techniques such as XRD, SEM and electrical mechanical sieves, to determine the main components and characteristics, which will serve as reference for the contrivance of new mud bricks. In addition, special knowledge of the physical properties of historic mud bricks were defined by some scientific techniques to get some information about their properties, such as density, porosity, water absorption and shrinkage. Furthermore, all of those characteristics were studied in two groups of new mud bricks, to determine their properties. Finally, ourresults proved that the 6th category in the 1st group and the 10th category in the 2nd group are the most appropriate types for restoring and preserving the studied monument, due to their good physical properties, morphological appearances and their suitable characteristics.

  13. Evidence for Ancient Mesoamerican Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, R. L.; Garcia, B.

    2001-12-01

    Evidence for past earthquake damage at Mesoamerican ruins is often overlooked because of the invasive effects of tropical vegetation and is usually not considered as a casual factor when restoration and reconstruction of many archaeological sites are undertaken. Yet the proximity of many ruins to zones of seismic activity would argue otherwise. Clues as to the types of damage which should be soughtwere offered in September 1999 when the M = 7.5 Oaxaca earthquake struck the ruins of Monte Alban, Mexico, where archaeological renovations were underway. More than 20 structures were damaged, 5 of them seriously. Damage features noted were walls out of plumb, fractures in walls, floors, basal platforms and tableros, toppling of columns, and deformation, settling and tumbling of walls. A Modified Mercalli Intensity of VII (ground accelerations 18-34 %b) occurred at the site. Within the diffuse landward extension of the Caribbean plate boundary zone M = 7+ earthquakes occur with repeat times of hundreds of years arguing that many Maya sites were subjected to earthquakes. Damage to re-erected and reinforced stelae, walls, and buildings were witnessed at Quirigua, Guatemala, during an expedition underway when then 1976 M = 7.5 Guatemala earthquake on the Motagua fault struck. Excavations also revealed evidence (domestic pttery vessels and skeleton of a child crushed under fallen walls) of an ancient earthquake occurring about the teim of the demise and abandonment of Quirigua in the late 9th century. Striking evidence for sudden earthquake building collapse at the end of the Mayan Classic Period ~A.D. 889 was found at Benque Viejo (Xunantunich), Belize, located 210 north of Quirigua. It is argued that a M = 7.5 to 7.9 earthquake at the end of the Maya Classic period centered in the vicinity of the Chixoy-Polochic and Motagua fault zones cound have produced the contemporaneous earthquake damage to the above sites. As a consequences this earthquake may have accelerated the

  14. Genetic diversity among ancient Nordic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, Linea; Lynnerup, Niels; Siegismund, Hans R; Kivisild, Toomas; Dissing, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Using established criteria for work with fossil DNA we have analysed mitochondrial DNA from 92 individuals from 18 locations in Denmark ranging in time from the Mesolithic to the Medieval Age. Unequivocal assignment of mtDNA haplotypes was possible for 56 of the ancient individuals; however, the success rate varied substantially between sites; the highest rates were obtained with untouched, freshly excavated material, whereas heavy handling, archeological preservation and storage for many years influenced the ability to obtain authentic endogenic DNA. While the nucleotide diversity at two locations was similar to that among extant Danes, the diversity at four sites was considerably higher. This supports previous observations for ancient Britons. The overall occurrence of haplogroups did not deviate from extant Scandinavians, however, haplogroup I was significantly more frequent among the ancient Danes (average 13%) than among extant Danes and Scandinavians (approximately 2.5%) as well as among other ancient population samples reported. Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type "diluted" by later immigration events. Interestingly, the two Neolithic samples (4,200 YBP, Bell Beaker culture) that were typed were haplogroup U4 and U5a, respectively, and the single Bronze Age sample (3,300-3,500 YBP) was haplogroup U4. These two haplogroups have been associated with the Mesolithic populations of Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, at least for Southern Scandinavia, our findings do not support a possible replacement of a haplogroup U dominated hunter-gatherer population by a more haplogroup diverse Neolithic Culture.

  15. Traffic-related immissions and their impact on historic buildings and monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auras, M.; Beer, S.; Bundschuh, P.; Eichhorn, J.; Mach, M.; Scheuvens, D.; Schorling, M.; von Schumann, J.; Snethlage, R.; Weinbruch, S.

    2012-04-01

    Air quality in Germany has improved essentially over the last decades. Because the concentrations of sulfur dioxide were reduced by more than 90% between 1990 and 2007 acid rain no longer seems to play a relevant role in the weathering of natural stone facades of historic buildings. But in the surroundings of urban traffic hot spots high emissions of nitrogen oxides and fine particulate matter (PM10) are observed. Therefore the question arises whether these airborne pollutants bear a potential for future damage of natural stone and other construction materials. In an interdisciplinary research program different approaches were pursued to evaluate the damage potential of today's traffic-induced immissions by exemplarily investigating two German cities, Mainz and Munich. First calculations of average weathering rates for the stones concerned were made using the dose-response functions of the MULTI ASSESS program and the immission data from survey stations at traffic hot spots and at housing areas. Than the distribution of traffic-induced immissions (NO2 and PM10) in the surrounding areas of major traffic pathways was calculated for both cities with the simulation program WINkfz. The resulting maps of mean pollutant concentrations were superimposed to inventory maps of historical monuments to allow the identification of monuments with high pollution loads. Additionally different classes of natural stones were distinguished regarding their chemical reactivity. Two prominent monuments with high traffic-induced pollution loads were selected for small scale simulations of pollutant immissions with the simulation program MISKAM. The dispersion of pollutants to different directions and building heights were calculated and the influence of broadleaf trees in the surrounding of the buildings was evaluated (summer versus winter situation). PM10 measurements were carried out at different building heights of the two buildings. Collection of PM10 dust and single-particle analyses

  16. Les temples protestants « monuments historiques » en Poitou-Charentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Montagne

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La faible représentativité des temples protestants dans la liste des monuments historiques a conduit la conservation régionale des monuments historiques de Poitou-Charentes à proposer la protection des temples les plus représentatifs parmi les 130 que compte la région : 58 en Charente-Maritime, 40 en Deux-Sèvres, 24 en Charente et 8 dans la Vienne. La qualité architecturale, leur place dans l’histoire, l’affectation au culte, l’intégration dans le paysage urbain, la présence de mobilier et la place de l’édifice en tant que lieu de mémoire ont servi de critères d’analyse. L’histoire et l’architecture des temples protégés des XIXe et XXe siècles s’inscrivent dans le contexte particulier et mouvementé de l’implantation du culte protestant dans la région.The examination of the lists of protected historic monuments in the Poitou-Charentes region underlined the poor representation in these lists of Protestant temples. This fact incited the historic monuments service of the region to put forward a more representative selection of the 130 Protestant temples to be found in the region, 58 in the Charente-Maritime department, 40 in the Deux-Sèvres, 24 in Charente and 8 in the Vienne. The criteria adopted to analyse these temples included their architectural qualities, their place in history, their use by the Protestant faiths, their integration into their urban environment, the presence of interesting church furnishings and the possible role of the temple as a place of memory. The history and the architecture of these temples during the 19th and 20th centuries are to be understood in the particular and animated context of the arrival of Protestantism in the region.

  17. Remedial action plan for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-02-01

    This Remedial Action Plan (RAP) has been developed to serve a two-fold purpose. It presents the series of activities which are proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site located near Monument Valley, Arizona It also serves to document the concurrence of both the Navajo Nation and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by DOE and the Navajo Nation and concurrence by NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement.

  18. Rate of change of the Quincy-Monument Peak baseline from a translocation analysis of Lageos laser range data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, A.; Bender, P. L.; Vincent, M. A.; Eanes, R. J.; Watkins, M. M.

    1989-01-01

    Translocation studies of Lageos laser range data from Quincy and Monument Peak in California observed during 1984-1987 suggest that plate tectonic motion across the San Andreas fault system in the direction of the baseline between the two stations is uniform at a rate of -30(+ or - 3) mm/yr. Changes in the components of the baseline vector were inferred from repeat determinations using the solutions from successive 0.5-year intervals. The changes in the vertical and transverse components of the Quincy-Monument Peak baseline are -0.4(+ or - 5) mm/yr and +14(+ or -5) mm/yr, respectively. The vertical component determinations attest to the height stability of the laser ranging method. Lageos measurements made from Quincy and Monument Peak before 1984 are inaccurate enough to limit their usefulness for plate tectonic studies.

  19. Twins in Ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2016-01-01

    This brief outline associates twins with several aspects of life in Ancient Greece. In Greek mythology twins caused ambivalent reactions and were believed to have ambivalent feelings for each other. Very often, they were viewed as the representatives of the dualistic nature of the universe. Heteropaternal superfecundation, which dominates in ancient myths, explains on one hand, the god-like qualities and, on the other hand, the mortal nature of many twins. An assumption is presented that legends referring to twins might reflect the territorial expansions of Ancient Greeks in Northern Mediterranean, around the Black Sea, in Asia Minor, as well as North East Africa. In conclusion, in Greek antiquity, twins have been used as transitional figures between myth and reality.

  20. Genetic diversity among ancient Nordic populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchior, Linea Cecilie; Lynnerup, Niels; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    2010-01-01

    the ancient Danes (average 13%) than among extant Danes and Scandinavians ( approximately 2.5%) as well as among other ancient population samples reported. Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type "diluted" by later immigration events. Interestingly, the two Neolithic...... samples (4,200 YBP, Bell Beaker culture) that were typed were haplogroup U4 and U5a, respectively, and the single Bronze Age sample (3,300-3,500 YBP) was haplogroup U4. These two haplogroups have been associated with the Mesolithic populations of Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, at least...... for Southern Scandinavia, our findings do not support a possible replacement of a haplogroup U dominated hunter-gatherer population by a more haplogroup diverse Neolithic Culture....

  1. The Vindolanda Tablets and the Ancient Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Kasper Grønlund

    , a model is outlined which takes into account the different economic behaviours revealed by the tablets and attempts to fit them together into one coherent, economic system, whilst also relating the activities to questions of scale in the ancient economy; moreover, the conclusions drawn in the study......, the aim is to investigate how best to comprehend the economic system attested at Vindolanda and to consider the wider implications for studies of the ancient economy in general. This is accomplished by a three-step approach: first, the nature of the Vindolandan evidence is assessed, and the state...... of research on both studies of the ancient economy and the economy of early Roman Britain is accounted for, so as to highlight the value of the Vindolanda Tablets and lay the ground for the interpretations which follow. Secondly, the economic activities attested by the tablets are analysed in terms of market...

  2. Palaeoparasitology - Human Parasites in Ancient Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Adauto; Reinhard, Karl; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Parasite finds in ancient material launched a new field of science: palaeoparasitology. Ever since the pioneering studies, parasites were identified in archaeological and palaeontological remains, some preserved for millions of years by fossilization. However, the palaeoparasitological record consists mainly of parasites found specifically in human archaeological material, preserved in ancient occupation sites, from prehistory until closer to 2015. The results include some helminth intestinal parasites still commonly found in 2015, such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms, besides others such as Amoebidae and Giardia intestinalis, as well as viruses, bacteria, fungi and arthropods. These parasites as a whole provide important data on health, diet, climate and living conditions among ancient populations. This chapter describes the principal findings and their importance for knowledge on the origin and dispersal of infectious diseases.

  3. The biochemistry of ancient DNA in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuross, N

    1994-06-15

    The amount of DNA in ancient bone was determined by ethidium bromide staining after the removal of the potent Taq inhibitor, fulvic acid. A complete decalcification and a perfusion protocol were used to recover DNA from bone. A variety of purification techniques including molecular sieve, hydroxyapatite binding and 'Magic' preparations yielded DNA that spanned from 3.4 micrograms/g of bone to below detectable limits. Fulvic acid was shown to interfere with the quantification of DNA derived from ancient human skeletal material one hundred to over seven thousand years old. Scanning UV in the 300 to 230 nm range is a simple and sensitive technique for documenting fulvic acid contamination in ancient bone extracts.

  4. Conservarea şi restaurarea monumentelor istorice: unele obiective şi principii (probleme inginereşti la monumente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian-Constantin Diaconu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Even when large parts of the original substance were lost throughout its existence, the monument should be regarded as a spatial structure, participating to the reality around them. Precepts governing the conservation and rehabilitation of historical monuments have to be applied individually to each monument, according to his personality, his past or future function, conservation status, in the way that the rehabilitation concept results from obligations balance to not harm the monument - Primum non Nocera (Carta de la Veneţia even to act for the future generation’s heritage. Monument to be seen through all the three attributes: FIRMITAS (solid, technical achievement, UTILITAS (functionality, the purpose for which it was made, PULCHRITAS (beauty, aesthetic expression. The historical monument’s components are: the land – cadastral lot, constructions, exterior arrangements, other elements, cultural mobile goods. The actions of historical monuments should consider the following objectives and principles: maintenance, rehabilitation, consolidation, security, social, economic and cultural lifeof the local community. The principles underlying these goals:building’s state expertise from all points of view, the building’sconsolidation solution must not affect the architectural appearance, to maintain authenticity, the level of response and earthquake insurance, as a matter of urgency execution of building works, reversible methods applied in conservation and / or rehabilitation, compatible materials used in conservation and / or rehabilitation, the loads resulting from new building elements should not exceed the capable strength of materials of (blocks of masonry, mortar, etc.., the resulting structure after consolidation should lead to good seismic behavior of the assemble "old structure - new structural elements," reintegration cultural and social, etc.

  5. Pectus excavatum in mummies from ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecinski, Jakub

    2016-12-01

    Pectus excavatum is one of the common congenital anomalies, yet there seems to be a suspicious absence of any cases or descriptions of this deformity from antiquity. This could represent a real change in disease prevalence but is more likely just due to an inadequate reporting in medico-historical literature. The current study reviews reports of computed tomography (CT) scans of 217 ancient Egyptian mummies, revealing 3 presumed cases of this deformity. Therefore, pectus excavatum was in fact present already in ancient times, with prevalence roughly similar to the modern one.

  6. Symmetries in Images on Ancient Seals

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the presence of symmetries in images engraved on ancient seals, in particular on stamp seals. Mainly used to secure the containers from tampering and for owner's identification, these objects appeared during the 5th millennium BC in Mesopotamia. Usually the seals were engraved with simple images, suitable to communicate an immediate information. Rotational symmetries are already displayed by the most ancient stamp seals, whose images reach a quasi-perfect symmetry in their small circular or ovoid spaces. Bilateral symmetries are quite common in Egyptian scarab seals.

  7. Automatic indexing and reformulation of ancient dictionaries

    OpenAIRE

    Belaïd, Abdel; Turcan, Isabelle; Pierrel, Jean-Marie; Belaïd, Yolande; Rangoni, Yves; Hadjamar, Hassen

    2004-01-01

    International audience; This paper is related to automatic indexing and reformu-lation of ancient dictionaries. The objective is to make easy the access to ancient printed documents from XVI to XIX century for a diversified public (historians, scien-tists, librarians, etc.). Since the facsimile mode is insuffi-cient, the aim is to look further for the use of the index-ing based on the formal structure representative of some contents in order to optimize their exploration. Starting from a firs...

  8. Mythological Emblem Glyphs of Ancient Maya Kings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmke, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Heinrich Berlin’s identification of Emblem Glyphs in 1958 has rightly been hailed as one of the major breakthroughs in the decipherment of ancient Maya writing. Although their exact function and meaning was unclear at the time, these are now recognized to serve as exalted regal titles that incorp......Heinrich Berlin’s identification of Emblem Glyphs in 1958 has rightly been hailed as one of the major breakthroughs in the decipherment of ancient Maya writing. Although their exact function and meaning was unclear at the time, these are now recognized to serve as exalted regal titles...

  9. A Modern Take on an Ancient Master

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A new English translation of The Analects gives a fresh perspective on Confucius and his philosophy by Zan Jifang Confucius(551-491 B.C.) is generally viewed as ancient China’s foremost thinker.His philosophy is probably best catalogued in The Analects,a record of the sage’s wisdom compiled after his death.This Confucian classic provides a shortcut to understanding Chinese culture. A new English edition of the ancient classic(published by the Foreign Languages Press)

  10. Evolution of medical education in ancient Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanouil Pikoulis; Pavlos Msaouel; Efthimios D Avgerinos; Sofia Anagnostopoulou; Christos Tsigris

    2008-01-01

    @@ The study of ancient Greece is essential for the proper understanding of the evolution of modem Western medicine.An important innovation of classical Greek medicine was the development of a body of medical theory associated with natural philosophy,i.e.a strong secular tradition of free enquiry,or what would now be called "science" (Επιστημη).Medical education rests upon the ancient Greek foundations and its history remains a fascinating topic for modem physicians and medical teachers.

  11. Decaying of the marble and limestone monuments in the urban environment. Case studies from Saint Petersburg, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Frank-Kamenetskaya

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of a long-lasting research of sulphation process, which causes an essential deterioration of marble and limestone monuments in Saint Petersburg are reported. Based on a variety of field and analytical methods we can show that the decay process forming a gypsum-rich patina depends mainly on the local environment, the moisture accumulation, and is connected with the fissuring and porosity of the rock and the relief of a monument. Three main stages of gypsum-rich patina formation in the presence of microorganisms were revealed.

  12. Constant presence of industrial fly-ash in superficial weathering black crusts of French monuments in compact limestone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ausset, P.; Lefevre, R.; Philippon, J.; Venet, C.

    1994-02-17

    The fly-ash contents of the weathering black-crusts of six French monuments in compact limestone, located in diversely polluted environments, were studied by analytical scanning electron microscopy. They are compared to those from ambient air of one monument and to those sampled in the electrostatic precipitator of two EDF power stations, coal and heavy oil-fired. The various fly-ash populations are comparable in granulometry, morphology and elementary chemical composition. Their role in growth of weathering black crusts cannot be neglected.

  13. An investigation of sulfur concentrations in soils and pine needles in Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladney, E.S.; Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Jones, E.A.; Bell, M.G.; Morgan, J.D.; Stallings, E.A.; Nelson, L.A.; Lundstrom, C. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Bowker, R.G. (Alma Coll., MI (United States). Dept. of Biology)

    1993-03-01

    Sulfur measurements in different age groups of pinon pine needles and adjacent soil samples from ten sampling sites at Bandelier National Monument were determined using combustion elemental analysis and chromatographic techniques. The primary goal was to establish base-line levels for elemental sulfur in the Monument. Sulfur levels in foliage and soils were evaluated using analysis of variance techniques. Foliage sulfur concentrations differed significantly among the 10 sampling sites and among trees within sites; however, needles of different ages did not differ significantly in sulfur content. Average soil concentrations were very low, approximately 12% of the average needle concentrations. Soil sulfur concentrations also differed significantly among the 10 sampling sites and at different depths in the soil. No statistical differences were evident in soils sampled at the four compass points (N,S,E,W) around each tree. These differences imply that large numbers of samples are needed to identify small effects from anthropogenic inputs of sulfur into the system or that the effects must be large relative to the differences among sampling sites and individual trees in order to be detected.

  14. Terrestrial scanning or digital images in inventory of monumental objects? - case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, J. S.; Zawieska, D.

    2014-06-01

    Cultural heritage is the evidence of the past; monumental objects create the important part of the cultural heritage. Selection of a method to be applied depends on many factors, which include: the objectives of inventory, the object's volume, sumptuousness of architectural design, accessibility to the object, required terms and accuracy of works. The paper presents research and experimental works, which have been performed in the course of development of architectural documentation of elements of the external facades and interiors of the Wilanów Palace Museum in Warszawa. Point clouds, acquired from terrestrial laser scanning (Z+F 5003h) and digital images taken with Nikon D3X and Hasselblad H4D cameras were used. Advantages and disadvantages of utilisation of these technologies of measurements have been analysed with consideration of the influence of the structure and reflectance of investigated monumental surfaces on the quality of generation of photogrammetric products. The geometric quality of surfaces obtained from terrestrial laser scanning data and from point clouds resulting from digital images, have been compared.

  15. Macroscopical morphology of accelerated deterioration of same petreous materials in Andalusian-Spain monuments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcalde, M.

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Several lithotypes used in diverse Andalusian monuments have undergone laboratory experiments of salt crystallization and within controlled environments. The indicators of deterioration that appear are justified from the point of view of the type of experiment and the lithotype, and compared with those found in the monuments. The capillarity with forced ventilation experiment, with an original and simple design, is of special signification. With wich the typical desquamations in the marbles of the Cathedral of Cádiz are reproduced.

    Varios litotipos utilizados en diversos monumentos andaluces han sido sometidos a experiencias de laboratorio de cristalización de sales y en atmósferas controladas. Los indicadores de alteración que aparecen son justificados desde el punto de vista del tipo de experiencia y del litotipo, y comparados con aquéllos encontrados en los monumentos. De especial significación es la experiencia de capilaridad con ventilación forzada, de diseño sencillo y original, con la que se reproducen las tipleas descamaciones de los mármoles de la Catedral de Cádiz.

  16. Records of solar eclipse observations in ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Like ancient people at other places of the world, the ancient Chinese lived in awe of the Sun. As they felt solar eclipses extremely significant events, they closely observed the occurrence of solar eclipse. Ancient astronomers further realized very early that solar eclipses were one of the important astronomical phenomena to revise and improve the ancient calendar. Interestingly, ancient emperors regarded solar eclipses as warnings from heaven that might affect the stability of their throne. Consequently, observing and recording solar eclipses became official, which dated far back to ancient China when numerous relevant descriptions were recorded in historical books. These records contribute substantially to China as an ancient civilization, as well as to the research of the long-term variation of the rotation rate of the Earth during >2000 years before the 17th century. This paper briefly reviews the perception, observations and recording of solar eclipses by ancient Chinese astronomers.

  17. Records of solar eclipse observations in ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN YanBen; QIAO OiYuan

    2009-01-01

    Like ancient people at other places of the world, the ancient Chinese lived in awe of the Sun. As they felt solar eclipses extremely significant events, they closely observed the occurrence of solar eclipse. Ancient astronomers further realized very early that solar eclipses were one of the important astro-nomical phenomena to revise and improve the ancient calendar. Interestingly, ancient emperors re-garded solar eclipses as warnings from heaven that might affect the stability of their throne. Conse-quently, observing and recording solar eclipses became official, which dated far back to ancient China when numerous relevant descriptions were recorded in historical books. These records contribute substantially to China as an ancient civilization, as well as to the research of the long-term variation of the rotation rate of the Earth during >2000 years before the 17th century. This paper briefly reviews the perception, observations and recording of solar eclipses by ancient Chinese astronomers.

  18. Monumentalizing Landscape: from present perceptions to the original meanings of Galician Megalithism (NW Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criado Boado, Felipe

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of Landscape as social construction implies considering its economic and territorial dimensions, as much as its symbolic ones. A major topic in such kind of studies is to reconstruct the ways as natural and social space was perceived by past societies. We ought approach the project of building an Archaeology of Perception. One of the aims of such research programme would be to evaluate the effect of natural and artificial landscape features on past human observers. This paper will argue that a possible strategy for studying these dimensions of past landscapes could be based on the systematic analysis of visual features of the prehistoric monuments and in the characterization of the escenic effects and vistas related to them. A detailed analysis of the pattern of location of megalithic monuments, of their visibility and visibilization conditions, allow us to recognize certain regularities what display an intentional will to remark on the existence of the monument and provoke dramatic artificial effects. In such way we could approach a phenomenology of prehistoric perception without falling in mere subjetive solutions. This study is based in a systematic review of the megalithic monuments from Sierra de Barbanza (NW Iberia. Its final scope is proposing theoretical and methodological standpoints to approach these phenomena, but as well producing a case-study to reconstruct monumental strategies to shape cultural landscapes in Neolithic Europe and observe the diacrony (ie, continuities and changes of these traditions.

    El estudio del paisaje como construcción social implica considerar sus dimensiones económicas, territoriales y simbólicas. Sería importante reconstruir cómo fue percibido el espacio natural y social, para lo que se debería construir una Arqueología de la Percepción que tendría entre sus objetivos evaluar el efecto de los rasgos naturales y artificiales del paisaje sobre sus observadores pretéritos. Aquí se

  19. Dialogue Genre Texts in Ancient Greek Prose: Linguostylistic Aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Gita Bērziņa

    2011-01-01

    Dialogue Genre Texts in Ancient Greek Prose: Linguostylistic Aspect Doctoral thesis deals with the study of essential linguistic features of the Ancient Greek dialogue as an important ancient prose genre. The goal of the thesis is to disclose the specific linguistic characteristics of the genre of Ancient Greek dialogue on the basis of comparative analysis of the linguistic structure (on all levels as well as in style) of the texts of three most prominent authors (Plato, Xenoph...

  20. Fire usage and ancient hominin detoxification genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, Jac M.M.J.G.; Alink, Gerrit M.; Scherjon, Fulco; MacDonald, Katharine; Smith, Alison C.; Nijveen, Harm; Roebroeks, Wil

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the defence capacity of ancient hominins against toxic substances may contribute importantly to the reconstruction of their niche, including their diets and use of fire. Fire usage implies frequent exposure to hazardous compounds from smoke and heated food, known to affect general heal

  1. Discovering the Ancient Maya from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, T. L.

    2008-01-01

    The Pet6n region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use of limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

  2. Ancient Human Parasites in Ethnic Chinese Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hui-Yuan; Mitchell, Piers D.

    2016-01-01

    Whilst archaeological evidence for many aspects of life in ancient China is well studied, there has been much less interest in ancient infectious diseases, such as intestinal parasites in past Chinese populations. Here, we bring together evidence from mummies, ancient latrines, and pelvic soil from burials, dating from the Neolithic Period to the Qing Dynasty, in order to better understand the health of the past inhabitants of China and the diseases endemic in the region. Seven species of intestinal parasite have been identified, namely roundworm, whipworm, Chinese liver fluke, oriental schistosome, pinworm, Taenia sp. tapeworm, and the intestinal fluke Fasciolopsis buski. It was found that in the past, roundworm, whipworm, and Chinese liver fluke appear to have been much more common than the other species. While roundworm and whipworm remained common into the late 20th century, Chinese liver fluke seems to have undergone a marked decline in its prevalence over time. The iconic transport route known as the Silk Road has been shown to have acted as a vector for the transmission of ancient diseases, highlighted by the discovery of Chinese liver fluke in a 2,000 year-old relay station in northwest China, 1,500 km outside its endemic range. PMID:27853113

  3. Ancient bronze disks, decorations and calendars

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it was published that some ancient bronze disks could had been calendars, that is, that their decorations had this function. Here I am discussing an example, the disk of the Trundholm Sun Chariot, proposing a new interpretation of it, giving a calendar of 360 days. Some geometric diagrams concerning the decoration layout are also proposed.

  4. Ancient DNA analysis of dental calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyrich, Laura S; Dobney, Keith; Cooper, Alan

    2015-02-01

    Dental calculus (calcified tartar or plaque) is today widespread on modern human teeth around the world. A combination of soft starchy foods, changing acidity of the oral environment, genetic pre-disposition, and the absence of dental hygiene all lead to the build-up of microorganisms and food debris on the tooth crown, which eventually calcifies through a complex process of mineralisation. Millions of oral microbes are trapped and preserved within this mineralised matrix, including pathogens associated with the oral cavity and airways, masticated food debris, and other types of extraneous particles that enter the mouth. As a result, archaeologists and anthropologists are increasingly using ancient human dental calculus to explore broad aspects of past human diet and health. Most recently, high-throughput DNA sequencing of ancient dental calculus has provided valuable insights into the evolution of the oral microbiome and shed new light on the impacts of some of the major biocultural transitions on human health throughout history and prehistory. Here, we provide a brief historical overview of archaeological dental calculus research, and discuss the current approaches to ancient DNA sampling and sequencing. Novel applications of ancient DNA from dental calculus are discussed, highlighting the considerable scope of this new research field for evolutionary biology and modern medicine.

  5. Tapping Ancient Roots: Plaited Paper Baskets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Jane

    2011-01-01

    With ancient roots, basket making has been practiced since the earliest civilizations, and according to textile experts, probably pre-dates pottery. This is partly conjecture since few baskets remain. It is through evidence found in clay impressions that the earliest baskets reveal themselves. Basically, basketry construction is like flat weaving.…

  6. Ancient Pyramids Help Students Learn Math Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Courtney D.; Stump, Amanda M.; Lazaros, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an activity that allows students to use mathematics and critical-thinking skills to emulate processes used by the ancient Egyptians to prepare the site for the Pyramids of Giza. To accomplish this, they use three different methods. First, they create a square using only simple technological tools that were available to the…

  7. Defining Astrology in Ancient and Classical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2015-05-01

    Astrology in the ancient and classical worlds can be partly defined by its role, and partly by the way in which scholars spoke about it. The problem is complicated by the fact that the word is Greek - it has no Babylonian or Egyptian cognates - and even in Greece it was interchangeable with its cousin, 'astronomy'. Yet if we are to understand the role of the sky, stars and planets in culture, debates about the nature of ancient astrology, by both classical and modern scholars, must be taken into account. This talk will consider modern scholars' typologies of ancient astrology, together with ancient debates from Cicero in the 1st century BC, to Plotinus (204/5-270 AD) and Isidore of Seville (c. 560 - 4 April 636). It will consider the implications for our understanding of astronomy's role in culture, and conclude that in the classical period astrology may be best understood through its diversity and allegiance to competing philosophies, and that its functions were therefore similarly varied.

  8. Ancient whole grain gluten-free flatbreads

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA food guide recommends that at least ½ of all the grains eaten should be whole grains. The FDA allows food Health Claim labels for food containing 51% whole gains and 11 g of dietary fiber. This is the only report demonstrating innovative ancient whole grain gluten-free (no yeast or chemical...

  9. An ancient musical instrument returns home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    After 300 years abroad, an ancient Chinese musical instrument returned home with its face lifted and a Japanese name. Originally a one-stringed plucker, the Daisho Modo now features a whole family of electric high-, medium-pitched and bass instruments. With crisp tone and wide range, the Daisho Modo is

  10. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James Seymour; McLay, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful...

  11. The Study of Women in Ancient Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovich, M. James

    1982-01-01

    Presents ideas for teaching about the roles of women in ancient Greek and Roman societies for undergraduate history and sociology classes. The discussion covers the roots of misogyny in Western culture, parallels between mythologies and sociocultural patterns, and the legal status of women in antiquity. (AM)

  12. [Ancient tattooing from today's point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, K

    1981-06-01

    Both literary and arachaeological evidence indicates that, up to now, ancient tattoos can be traced with certainty in painting only among Thracians. A comparison with modern tattoos reveals differences of motivation and motifs, whereas localization, technique, and removal show similarities. The illustrations demonstrate some tattoos typical for Thracians on Greek vases.

  13. Case report 872. "Ancient" schwannoma (degenerated neurilemoma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, E; Sapan, M R; McHeffey-Atkinson, B; Naidich, J B; Arlen, M

    1994-10-01

    A case of an ancient schwannoma was presented. The rare occurrence of this tumor has resulted in only a few reported cases with descriptions of its features on imaging. Our patient's tumor, like one previously reported case, demonstrated calcification on the plain film - a finding not associated with other histologic types of schwannomas. Angiography revealed the tumor to be hypervascular. Evaluation by MRI demonstrated a lobulated, encapsulated soft tissue mass containing several cystic areas that corresponded histologically to areas of necrosis. Hypertrophied blood vessels were seen in the periphery of the tumoral mass. Too few ancient schwannomas have been reported to conclude whether or not radiographic evidence of soft tissue calcification is characteristic of this histologically distinctive subtype of schwannoma. However, since calcification is seen histologically as part of the degenerating process, its presence on plain films could be a feature of this tumor. Furthermore, the presence of cystic areas on MRI is not surprising given the pathological changes that occur in this tumor. We suggest that a diagnosis of ancient schwannoma be considered when a patient presents with a hypervascular soft tissue mass containing amorphous calcification on plain films and cystic areas on MRI. Despite the nonspecificity of these imaging findings, this point is relevant because each of these features suggests the presence of a malignant mass. Awareness of the possibility of a benign ancient schwannoma could obviate unnecessary radical surgery.

  14. Communication Arts in the Ancient World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelock, Eric A., Ed.; Hershbell, Jackson P., Ed.

    Intended for both classicists and nonclassicists, this volume explores the beginnings of literacy in ancient Greece and Rome and examines the effects of written communication on these cultures. The nine articles, written by classical scholars and educators in the field of communication, discuss the following: the superiority of the alphabet over…

  15. Paragons of Education in Ancient Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    MOTHERS contributed greatly to children’s education in ancient China long before schools took shape. Behind many prominent figures lay greatmothers whose personal example and verbal instruction benefited their children throughout life. There is an old sayingabout the "stern father and compassionate mother."However, you will always

  16. The Roots of Science in Ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Arthur

    1982-01-01

    A 45-year-old research project (culminating in the multivolume "Science and Civilization in China") is examining major scientific innovations in ancient China and attempting to explain why, although the Chinese gained a technological edge in the past, they did not make the forward leap into modern science. (JN)

  17. The Challenges of Qualitatively Coding Ancient Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingerland, Edward; Chudek, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    We respond to several important and valid concerns about our study ("The Prevalence of Folk Dualism in Early China," "Cognitive Science" 35: 997-1007) by Klein and Klein, defending our interpretation of our data. We also argue that, despite the undeniable challenges involved in qualitatively coding texts from ancient cultures, the standard tools…

  18. Mitochondrial phylogenomics of modern and ancient equids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilstrup, Julia T; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Stiller, Mathias;

    2013-01-01

    to calibrate reliable molecular clocks. Additional mitochondrial genome sequence data, including radiocarbon dated ancient equids, will be required before revisiting the exact timing of the lineage radiation leading up to modern equids, which for now were found to have possibly shared a common ancestor as far...

  19. Genomic correlates of atherosclerosis in ancient humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Albert; Wann, L Samuel; Thompson, Randall C; Keller, Andreas; Maixner, Frank; Allam, Adel H; Finch, Caleb E; Frohlich, Bruno; Kaplan, Hillard; Lombardi, Guido P; Sutherland, M Linda; Sutherland, James D; Watson, Lucia; Cox, Samantha L; Miyamoto, Michael I; Narula, Jagat; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Thomas, Gregory S; Krause, Johannes

    2014-06-01

    Paleogenetics offers a unique opportunity to study human evolution, population dynamics, and disease evolution in situ. Although histologic and computed x-ray tomographic investigations of ancient mummies have clearly shown that atherosclerosis has been present in humans for more than 5,000 years, limited data are available on the presence of genetic predisposition for cardiovascular disease in ancient human populations. In a previous whole-genome study of the Tyrolean Iceman, a 5,300-year-old glacier mummy from the Alps, an increased risk for coronary heart disease was detected. The Iceman's genome revealed several single nucleotide polymorphisms that are linked with cardiovascular disease in genome-wide association studies. Future genetic studies of ancient humans from various geographic origins and time periods have the potential to provide more insights into the presence and possible changes of genetic risk factors in our ancestors. The study of ancient humans and a better understanding of the interaction between environmental and genetic influences on the development of heart diseases may lead to a more effective prevention and treatment of the most common cause of death in the modern world.

  20. The Ancient stellar population of Leo A.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saha, Abhijit; Fiorentino, Giuliana; Tolstoy, Eline; Cole, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The primary goal of our proposal is the characterisation of the oldest stellar populations in Leo A using the properties of ancient RR Lyrae variable stars as tracers. Well known and long established correlations exist between the periods and luminosities of RR Lyrae variable stars and their ages an

  1. Ancient Egyptian Medicine: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Adu-Gyamfi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our present day knowledge in the area of medicine in Ancient Egypt has been severally sourced from medical papyri several of which have been deduced and analyzed by different scholars. For educational purposes it is always imperative to consult different literature or sources in the teaching of ancient Egypt and medicine in particular. To avoid subjectivity the author has found the need to re-engage the efforts made by several scholars in adducing evidences from medical papyri. In the quest to re-engage the efforts of earlier writers and commentaries on the medical papyri, we are afforded the opportunity to be informed about the need to ask further questions to enable us to construct or reconstruct both past and modern views on ancient Egyptian medical knowledge. It is this vocation the author sought to pursue in the interim, through a preliminary review, to highlight, comment and reinvigorate in the reader or researcher the need for a continuous engagement of some pertinent documentary sources on Ancient Egyptian medical knowledge for educational and research purposes. The study is based on qualitative review of published literature. The selection of those articles as sources was based on the focus of the review, in order to purposively select and comment on articles that were published based either on information from a medical papyrus or focused on medical specialization among the ancient Egyptians as well as ancient Egyptian knowledge on diseases and medicine. It was found that the Egyptians developed relatively sophisticated medical practices covering significant medical fields such as herbal medicine, gynecology and obstetrics, anatomy and physiology, mummification and even the preliminary form of surgery. These practices, perhaps, were developed as remedies for the prevailing diseases and the accidents that might have occurred during the construction of their giant pyramids. It must be stated that they were not without flaws. Also, the

  2. Study on the Ancient Star Map Carved on the Stone in DPR Korea: Present Status and Prospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, George; Kim, Kyong Chol; Jong, Sok; Ji, Kwang Nam

    2015-08-01

    Korean Dolmens are the most distinctive and impressive megalithic monuments in Korean history. It has been known that Korean dolmens are typical funerary monuments of the New Stone Age and Bronze Age.We have searched and analyzed some Korean dolmens in astronomical aspects. Korean dolmen consists of two foundation stones, two dammed stones and one cover stone. Two foundation stones were put up on both sides and two small stones were dammed right and left so as to make a room for grave. Then tens of ton stone was covered on them. For example, one of the cover stones of Korean dolmens is 6.3m in length, 4m in width and 70cm in thickness. And the height of this dolmen is about 1.75m.More than twenty thousand dolmens are scattered around the Korean peninsula. Especially the Taedong River basin including Pyongyang that was a capital of Ancient Korea is the birthplace and centre of dolmens in our country, where about fourteen thousand dolmens are distributed. This region is of the highest density in terms of the distribution of dolmen and has every different kind of dolmens. Korean dolmen was very popular from BC.3000 to BC.2000 and began to disappear in the late BC.2000.It is interesting that we have found dolmens with star map on the cover stone. We found two hundred dolmens with various star atlas-like patterns of cup-marks. We analyzed the star maps on the cover stones of some dolmens and identified the constellations such as Big Dipper, Aquila, Cygnus, Draco and so on.It is thought that ancestor carved stars in the sky at that time on the cover stone of Korean dolmens, archaeological stone tombs. We also consider that Korean Dolmen is one of the oldest stone monuments relative to astronomy.We assume that there are many unidentified dolmens with star map on the cover stone and also many unexcavated dolmens in northern part of Korean peninsula yet, which are expected to arouse the great interest of astronomers and archaeologists.

  3. The Ancient Kemetic Roots of Library and Information Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Itibari M.

    This paper argues that the ancient people of Kemet (Egypt), "the black land," built and operated the first major libraries and institutions of higher education in the world. Topics of discussion include the Ancient Egyptians as an African people; a chronology of Ancient Kemet; literature in Kemet; a history of Egyptian Librarianship; the…

  4. Deep sequencing of RNA from ancient maize kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fordyce, Sarah Louise; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen; Rasmussen, Morten;

    2013-01-01

    The characterization of biomolecules from ancient samples can shed otherwise unobtainable insights into the past. Despite the fundamental role of transcriptomal change in evolution, the potential of ancient RNA remains unexploited - perhaps due to dogma associated with the fragility of RNA. We...... maize kernels. The results suggest that ancient seed transcriptomics may offer a powerful new tool with which to study plant domestication....

  5. Genetic diversity among ancient Nordic populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linea Melchior

    Full Text Available Using established criteria for work with fossil DNA we have analysed mitochondrial DNA from 92 individuals from 18 locations in Denmark ranging in time from the Mesolithic to the Medieval Age. Unequivocal assignment of mtDNA haplotypes was possible for 56 of the ancient individuals; however, the success rate varied substantially between sites; the highest rates were obtained with untouched, freshly excavated material, whereas heavy handling, archeological preservation and storage for many years influenced the ability to obtain authentic endogenic DNA. While the nucleotide diversity at two locations was similar to that among extant Danes, the diversity at four sites was considerably higher. This supports previous observations for ancient Britons. The overall occurrence of haplogroups did not deviate from extant Scandinavians, however, haplogroup I was significantly more frequent among the ancient Danes (average 13% than among extant Danes and Scandinavians (approximately 2.5% as well as among other ancient population samples reported. Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type "diluted" by later immigration events. Interestingly, the two Neolithic samples (4,200 YBP, Bell Beaker culture that were typed were haplogroup U4 and U5a, respectively, and the single Bronze Age sample (3,300-3,500 YBP was haplogroup U4. These two haplogroups have been associated with the Mesolithic populations of Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, at least for Southern Scandinavia, our findings do not support a possible replacement of a haplogroup U dominated hunter-gatherer population by a more haplogroup diverse Neolithic Culture.

  6. Ancient Egypt in our Cultural Heritage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Vasiljević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Inspiration derived from ancient Egypt is usually expressed through the Egyptian motifs in arts and popular culture of the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as through the non-scientific interpretations of the culture, very much based upon the Renaissance ones. The number and variety of material and non-material traces of this fascination are most expressed in the countries where, along with the early support for the institutional development of Egyptology, there existed economically potent educated middle classes (Western and Central Europe, USA, but may also be traced elsewhere. The public fascination by ancient Egypt has not ceased by the times of foundation of Egyptology, marked by the decipherment of the hieroglyphic script in 1822. Until the end of the 20th century Egyptologists have rarely dealt with the prelude to their discipline, limiting their interest to the critical approach to ancient sources and to noting the attempts to interpret the hieroglyphic script and the function of pyramids. However, the rising importance of the reception studies in other disciplines raised the interest of Egyptologists for the "fascination of Egypt", thus changing the status of various modes of expressing "Egyptomania" – they have thus become a part of the cultural heritage, registered, documented, preserved and studied. The research of this kind is only beginning in Serbia. The line of inquiry enhances the knowledge of the scope, manifestations and roles of the interest in Egypt, not limited by the national or political borders. On the other hand, the existence of the cultural heritage similar to the wider European view of ancient Egypt – short remarks by Jerotej Račanin, Kandor by Atanasije Stojković, the usage of architectural motifs derived from Egypt, the emergence of small private collections, to mention several early examples – all show that the research into the reception of ancient Egypt may contribute to the knowledge about the history

  7. Ancient and Medieval Cosmology in Armenian Highland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, Sona V.; Mickaelian, Areg M.

    2016-12-01

    Humankind has always sought to recognize the nature of various sky related phenomena and tried to give them explanations. It is especially vivid in ancient cultures, many of which are related to the Middle East. The purpose of this study is to identify ancient Armenian's pantheistic and cosmological perceptions, world view, notions and beliefs. By this study we answer the question "How did the Universe work in Ancient Armenian Highland?" The paper focuses on the structure of the Universe and many phenomena of nature that have always had major influence on ancient Armenians thinking. Here we weave together astronomy, anthropology and mythology of Armenia, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions. The initial review of the study covers Moses of Khoren, Yeznik of Koghb, Anania Shirakatsi and other 5th-7th centuries historians' and scientists' records about the Universe related superstitious beliefs and cosmological understanding. By discussing and comparing Universe structure in various regional traditions, myths, folk songs and phraseological units we very often came across "seven worlds", "seven earths" and "seven layers" concepts. We draw parallels between scientific and mythological Earth and Heaven and thus find similar number of layers on both of the ancient and modern thinking. In the article we also give some details about the tripartite structure of the Universe and how these parts are connected with axis. This axis is either a column or a Cosmic Tree (Kenatz Tsar). In Armenian culture the preliminary meanings of the Kenatz Tsar are more vivid in folk songs (Jan gyulums), plays, epic, and so on, which was subsequently mixed with religious and spiritual views. We conclude that the perception of the Universe structure and celestial objects had a significant impact on culture and worldview of the people of the Armenian Highland; particularly it was one of the bases of the regional cultural diversity.

  8. Conservation and Management of Archaeological Monuments and Sites in Greece and Turkey: A Value-Based Approach to Anastylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalliopi Vacharopoulou

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Heritage management and monument conservation play a significant role in the preservation of archaeological heritage. Anastylosis, a process with a long history in the Mediterranean region, is discussed with relevance to current debates concentrating on concepts of value-based approaches. Examination of the diverse values that may be attributed to monuments provides an insight into the evolution of ideas in heritage management, conservation and restoration practices. In the current theoretical framework the concept of values, as attributed by all stakeholders, and its application when preserving archaeological heritage, are constantly debated. The participation of stakeholders in the process of value identification is considered fundamental by heritage management experts. This paper presents the findings of a survey conducted to collect the opinions of anastylosis and restoration professionals, with reference to case studies on a number of monuments subjected to anastylosis in Greece and Turkey, highlighting the importance of assessing values in order to establish the appropriate type and extent of intervention. The paper concludes that a value-based approach to decision-making and planning for anastylosis, or any other form of architectural conservation, is crucial for preserving monuments in a way that satisfies those who want to experience and benefit from heritage.

  9. Monumentalizing Disaster and Wreak-Construction: A Case Study of Haiti to Rethink the Privatization of Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasay, Engin; Delavan, Garrett

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a theoretical effort to support but complicate critiques of disaster capitalism and neoliberal strategies to profit from public education. We put into conversation a discursive analysis following Michel Foucault and a spatial analysis following Henri Lefebvre that focus on monumentalized disasters. We argue that neoliberalism carries…

  10. Monuments on the horizon : the formation of the barrow landscape throughout the 3rd and 2nd millennium BC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bourgeois, Quentin Philippe Jean

    2013-01-01

    Barrows, as burial markers, are ubiquitous throughout North-Western Europe. In some regions dense concentrations of monuments form peculiar configurations such as long alignments while in others they are spread out extensively, dotting vast areas with hundreds of mounds. These vast barrow landscapes

  11. 75 FR 21034 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Agua Fria National Monument and Bradshaw...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Agua Fria National... Agua Fria National Monument and Bradshaw-Harquahala Planning Area, located in central Arizona. The... occupied or used portions of the planning area during prehistoric or historic times. The Agua Fria...

  12. Weathering of the black limestone of historical monuments (Ljubljana, Slovenia): Oxygen and sulfur isotope composition of sulfate salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramar, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.kramar@rescen.si [Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia, Conservation Centre, Restoration Centre, Poljanska 40, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mirtic, Breda [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Geology, Askerceva 12, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Knoeller, Kay [UFZ Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Isotope Hydrology, Theodor-Lieser-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Rogan-Smuc, Nastja [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Geology, Askerceva 12, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > Weathering of the black limestone on historical monuments. > Oxygen and sulfur isotope composition of sulfate salts (outdoors and indoors). > A data exhibit more scattered {delta}{sup 34}S values with respect to {delta}{sup 18}O values. - Abstract: The black limestone widely used in Slovenian monuments, particularly in the baroque architecture, is deteriorating extensively due to salt crystallization. Samples of soluble salts from two important historical monuments (in Ljubljana, Slovenia) were investigated in terms of their mineral and isotopic (S and O) compositions. Results revealed the presence of gypsum and soluble salts of the MgSO{sub 4}.nH{sub 2}O series, such as starkeyite (MgSO{sub 4}.4H{sub 2}O), pentahydrite (MgSO{sub 4}.5H{sub 2}O) and hexahydrite (MgSO{sub 4}.6H{sub 2}O). Whereas black crusts and subflorescences consisted of gypsum, efflorescences appeared to be an assemblage of gypsum and MgSO{sub 4} hydrates. Sample {delta}{sup 18}O{sub sulfate} values varied from -1.9 per mille to +5.5 per mille vs. V-SMOW and {delta}{sup 34}S{sub sulfate} values from -19.8 per mille to +3.2 per mille vs. V-CDT. The respective isotopic composition of analysed outdoor and indoor monument samples indicated different sources of contamination.

  13. 3 CFR 8335 - Proclamation 8335 of January 6, 2009. Establishment of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., recreational, and traditional indigenous fishing shall be managed as a sustainable activity consistent with... monument-related scientific exploration and research, tourism, and recreational and economic activities and... proclamation, and the extent to which such recreational fishing shall be managed as a sustainable...

  14. April 2009 Abruzzo earthquake. Multisensor approach for the seismic rehabilitation of monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, Nicola; Cifani, Giandomenico; Gabellone, Francesco; Geraldi, Edoardo; Gizzi, Fabrizio T.; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Liberatore, Domenico; Piscitelli, Sabatino; Pignatti, Stefano; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    The widespread presence of movable and immoveable high cultural value assets make crucial the necessity of their protection, especially in order to mitigate the vulnerability to extreme environmental events, such as the seismic one. The latter represents the environmental risk factor which affect more than other environmental events the cultural heritage because of the big concentration of monuments and archaeological resources in several seismogenetic areas of the Mediterranean Basin, Middle East, South and Central America. Protecting monumental heritage, historical centres and archaeological sites from the effects of devastating earthquakes has been the focus of scientific and engineering endeavour for more than 50 years. Each earthquake not only provides additional information from the seismological point of view but it also stimulates effort to develop new and more advanced operative intervention strategies for the ready protection and restoration of damaged artefacts and structures of cultural value. Focusing our attention of Italian earthquakes, if the 1993 Umbria and Marche earthquake favoured a re-thinking of some repairing and rehabilitation techniques based on the use of reinforced concrete, the last earthquake occurred in Abruzzo on april 2009 allowed to improve the techniques for ready intervention and the procedures of evaluation of the seismic damage of churches and palaces. In such context, a significant effort has been undertaken in the experiencing of integrated approaches based on the use of different sensors and methods for the imaging of subsurface geological structures, the characterization of the mechanical behaviour of structures and the analysis of the state of decay of stone materials and frescoes. This papers deals with the results obtained by means of a multisensor approach performed to support effective and compatible interventions of restoration on a medieval architectural complex near L'Aquila. In particular, the following diagnostic

  15. Monitoring of atmospheric pollutants passive sampling for the protection of historic buildings and monuments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Santis, F.; Fino, A.; Vazzana, C.; Allegrini, I. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto Inquinamento Atmosferico, Rome (Italy)

    2001-12-01

    When considering the various possibilities to assess the effects of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} on historic buildings and monuments, a distinction can be made according to the completeness of the scope of the assessment itself. A first approach can be limited to gathering data as they become available through the official bodies established under air quality legislation. This approach is based on a single point measurement where a general purpose monitoring station is located, often quite far from the monument to protect and often without investigating local and temporal variations. A more comprehensive assessment should include a generalisation that covers the territory. This can be made on the basis of the knowledge of the spatial distribution of concentrations and the knowledge of the causes of air pollution. Passive samplers allow the measurement of air quality in numerous sites and to assess the pollutant spatial distribution over a large area with a high resolution. As an application of the method, the spatial distribution of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} in the city of Siracusa, Sicily, Italy, has been studied to identify areas of high deposition fluxes in relation to the protection of buildings and monuments of the historic centre. [Italian] E' noto che gli inquinanti presenti in aria, tra questi in particolare l'SO{sub 2} e l'NO{sub 2}, sono causa di danno sui monumenti e sulle opere d'arte. La valutazione dell'impatto di questi due inquinanti viene solitamente effettuata sulla base del monitoraggio eseguito secondo la legislazione vigente ma spesso lontano dal monumento da proteggere. Cio', evidentemente, non consente di valutare correttamente il grado di rischio al quale un monumento e' esposto poiche' non fornisce informazioni sulle variazioni spaziali e temporali dei due inquinanti in prossimita' del monumento stesso. Allo scopo di raccogliere quindi informazioni complete sulla distribuzione degli inquinanti, e

  16. Monuments devoted to artists in public spaces around museums: A nineteenth-century strategy to enhance the urban space of art districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorente, J. Pedro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Monuments to kings or military heroes have always been positioned in main squares and avenues, whilst those erected to famous cultural figures were a novelty introduced in the Enlightenment and Romanticism, placing busts or sitting monuments to writers or musicians in secluded gardens and in the surroundings of libraries, theatres, etc. During the nineteenth century, monuments to artists became also a common feature in many cities, where a most likely emplacement for them was in front of some art museum. In a way, they were a complement to the ornaments of such building, usually decorated with portraits and inscriptions glorifying great artists; but the monument to Murillo erected in 1863 by public subscription in Seville's Plaza del Museo was also an urban milestone, catching the attention of promenading public passing along a lateral street. Later, the monuments erected in the piazzas around the Prado Museum in Madrid, or in gardens outside the Louvre, became a popular prototype, emulated in many other cities up to the early 20th century. Their role as interfaces between public spaces and museum sites would thereafter be taken over by other kinds of artistic landmarks: not monuments to artists, but monumental artworks, often owned by the museum itself, thus bringing part of its collection outside, as a welcome starter to prospective cultural consumers.

  17. McNary Dam, Ice Harbor Dam, and Lower Monumental Dam Smolt Monitoring Program; 1996 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillson, Todd; Lind, Sharon; Price, William (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    1997-07-01

    The Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW) assumed responsibility for the Smolt Monitoring Program at McNary Dam on the Columbia River in 1990 and at the new juvenile collection facility at Lower Monumental Dam on the Snake River in 1993. In 1996, Smolt Monitoring Program activities also began at the new juvenile collection facility located at Ice Harbor Dam. This report summarizes the 1996 Smolt Monitoring work at all three sites. The work at Ice Harbor consisted of Gas Bubble Trauma (GBT) monitoring only. In general, the 1996 passage season at both the McNary and Lower Monumental sites can be characterized by reduced passage of juveniles through the collection systems due to elevated river flows and spill, and low (<1%) overall facility mortality rates most likely resulting from cooler water temperatures. In accordance with the National Marine Fisheries Service recommendations (NMFS, 1995) all spring migrants were bypassed at McNary Dam in 1996. Mechanical problems within the McNary collection system resulted in collection and sampling activities being delayed until April 18 at this site, while sampling and collection began on the scheduled starting date of April 1 at Lower Monumental Dam. Monitoring operations were conducted through December 14 at McNary Dam and through October 28 at Lower Monumental Dam. An ongoing transportation evaluation summer migrant marking program was conducted at McNary Dam in 1996 by the NMFS. This necessitated the sampling of 394,211 additional fish beyond the recommended sampling guidelines. All total, 509,237 and 31,219 juvenile salmonids were anesthetized and individually counted, examined for scale loss, injuries, and brands by WDFW Smolt Monitoring personnel in 1996 at McNary Dam and Lower Monumental Dam, respectively.

  18. Comparison of nitrate attenuation characterization methods at the Uranium mill tailing site in Monument Valley, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Kenneth C.; Jordan, Fiona L.; Glenn, Edward P.; Jody Waugh, W.; Brusseau, Mark L.

    2009-11-01

    SummarySeveral methods for characterizing the occurrence and rate of nitrate attenuation were tested at a field site near Monument Valley, Arizona. Spatial and temporal nitrate concentration data collected from a transect of monitoring wells located along the plume centerline were analyzed to evaluate the overall rates of natural attenuation. The occurrence and rate of denitrification was evaluated through microcosm experiments, nitrogen isotopic fractionation analysis, and solute-transport modeling. First-order denitrification-rate coefficients calculated with each method were comparable. In addition, the composite natural attenuation rate coefficient was similar to the denitrification-rate coefficients, which suggests that microbially induced decay primarily controls nitrate attenuation at the site. This

  19. Reducing visitor noise levels at Muir Woods National Monument using experimental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, David W; Peter, Newman; Manning, Robert E; Fristrup, Kurt M

    2011-03-01

    Noise impacts resources and visitor experience in many protected natural areas, and visitors can be the dominant source of noise. This experimental study tested the efficacy and acceptability of signs asking visitors to be quiet at Muir Woods National Monument, California. Signs declaring a "quiet zone" (at the park's Cathedral Grove) or a "quiet day" (throughout the park) were posted on a randomized schedule that included control days (no signs). Visitor surveys were conducted to measure the cognitive and behavioral responses of visitors to the signs and test the acceptability of these management practices to visitors. Visitors were highly supportive of these management practices and reported that they consciously limited the amount of noise they produced. Sound level measurements showed substantial decreases on days when signs were posted.

  20. Conservation of the Sapsaree (Canis familiaris), a Korean Natural Monument, using somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Goo; Hong, SoGun; Kang, JungTaek; Park, JungEun; Oh, HyunJu; Park, ChanKyu; Ha, JiHong; Kim, DaeYong; Kim, MinKyu; Lee, ByeongChun

    2009-09-01

    A recent emerging technology, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), has been considered for conserving threatened or endangered species. Sapsaree is a native breed in Korea and has been designated as a Natural Monument. The aim of this study was to produce a Sapsaree by SCNT for breed conservation. Donor fibroblasts from a 9-year-old male Sapsaree were placed into the perivitelline spaces of enucleated in vivo matured oocytes and fused electrically. A total of 309 cloned embryos were transferred into the oviducts of 15 naturally synchronized recipients. Two recipients were diagnosed as pregnant, and each delivered one cloned puppy, both of which weighed 530 g. Overall, this study demonstrated that an endangered canine breed can be conserved by SCNT.

  1. Geologic map of Colorado National Monument and adjacent areas, Mesa County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert B.; Harding, Anne E.; Hood, William C.; Cole, Rex D.; Livaccari, Richard F.; Johnson, James B.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Dickerson, Robert P.

    2001-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping in the Colorado National Monument Quadrangle and adjacent areas, in support of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of and data for the stratigraphy, structure, geologic hazards in the area from the Colorado River in Grand Valley onto the Uncompahgre Plateau. The plateau drops abruptly along northwest-trending structures toward the northeast 800 m to the Redlands area and the Colorado River in Grand Valley. In addition to common alluvial and colluvial deposits, surficial deposits include Holocene and late Pleistocene charcoal-bearing valley-fill deposits, late to middle Pleistocene river-gravel terrace deposits, Holocene to middle Pleistocene younger, intermediate, and old fan-alluvium deposits, late to middle Pleistocene local gravel deposits, Holocene to late Pleistocene rock-fall deposits, Holocene to middle Pleistocene young and old landslide deposits, Holocene to late Pleistocene sheetwash deposits and eolian deposits, and Holocene Cienga-type deposits. Only the lowest part of the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale is exposed in the map area near the Colorado River. The Upper and Lower? Cretaceous Dakota Formation and the Lower Cretaceous Burro Canyon Formation form resistant dipslopes in the Grand Valley and a prominent ridge on the plateau. Less resistant strata of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation consisting of the Brushy Basin, Salt Wash, and Tidwell Members form slopes on the plateau and low areas below the mountain front of the plateau. The Middle Jurassic Wanakah Formation nomenclature replaces the previously used Summerville Formation. Because an upper part of the Middle Jurassic Entrada Formation is not obviously correlated with strata found elsewhere, it is therefore not formally named; however, the lower rounded cliff former Slickrock Member is clearly present. The Lower Jurassic silica-cemented Kayenta Formation forms the cap rock for the Lower

  2. A Raman, IR and XRD analysis of the deterioration on historical monuments: Case study from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrooumov, Mikhail

    2009-08-01

    Raman, infrared and XRD analysis have been applied to the examination of deterioration on historical monuments (Morelia, Mexico). Forty-three samples pyroclastic volcanic rocks (ignimbrites) have been studied, all originating from two ex-convents San Francisco and San Agustin, which were the first architectonic complexes in the city of Morelia. Several new mineral neoformation such as sulfates, carbonates, halides, and phosphates were identified in these samples with spectrometric and XRD technique. The observed Raman and infrared spectra are reported and some mineral compound assignments in unaltered and deteriorated volcanic rocks have been made. This survey is the first Raman and infrared spectrometric examination of the environmental mineralogy in Mexico under conditions of urban weathering that are characterized mainly by one secondary alteration formations of low scale.

  3. AMS radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese sutras

    CERN Document Server

    Oda, H; Nakamura, T; Fujita, K

    2000-01-01

    Radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese sutras whose historical ages were known paleographically were measured by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Calibrated radiocarbon ages of five samples were consistent with the corresponding historical ages; the 'old wood effect' is negligible for ancient Japanese sutras. Japanese paper has been made from fresh branches grown within a few years and the interval from trimming off the branches to writing sutra on the paper is within one year. The good agreement between the calibrated radiocarbon ages and the historical ages is supported by such characteristics of Japanese paper. It is indicated in this study that Japanese sutra is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating in the historic period because of little gap by 'old wood effect'.

  4. Paleo-Environmental Reconstruction Using Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Winther

    The aim of this thesis has been to investigate and expand the methodology and applicability for using ancient DNA deposited in lake sediments to detect and determine its genetic sources for paleo-environmental reconstruction. The aim was furthermore to put this tool into an applicable context...... solving other scientifically interesting questions. Still in its childhood, ancient environmental DNA research has a large potential for still developing, improving and discovering its possibilities and limitations in different environments and for identifying various organisms, both in terms...... of the sampling methods and strategies (taphonomic processes), the more fundamental molecular methodologies (e.g. extraction and sequencing) and eventually the bioinformatic processing. In the enclosed studies we have tried to take some principal steps towards improving this, firstly by reviewing previous...

  5. Human evolution: a tale from ancient genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, Bastien; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic

    2017-02-05

    The field of human ancient DNA (aDNA) has moved from mitochondrial sequencing that suffered from contamination and provided limited biological insights, to become a fully genomic discipline that is changing our conception of human history. Recent successes include the sequencing of extinct hominins, and true population genomic studies of Bronze Age populations. Among the emerging areas of aDNA research, the analysis of past epigenomes is set to provide more new insights into human adaptation and disease susceptibility through time. Starting as a mere curiosity, ancient human genetics has become a major player in the understanding of our evolutionary history.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evo-devo in the genomics era, and the origins of morphological diversity'.

  6. Lipids of aquatic sediments, recent and ancient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglinton, G.; Hajibrahim, S. K.; Maxwell, J. R.; Quirke, J. M. E.; Shaw, G. J.; Volkman, J. K.; Wardroper, A. M. K.

    1979-01-01

    Computerized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is now an essential tool in the analysis of the complex mixtures of lipids (geolipids) encountered in aquatic sediments, both 'recent' (less than 1 million years old) and ancient. The application of MS, and particularly GC-MS, has been instrumental in the rapid development of organic geochemistry and environmental organic chemistry in recent years. The techniques used have resulted in the identification of numerous compounds of a variety of types in sediments. Most attention has been concentrated on molecules of limited size, mainly below 500 molecular mass, and of limited functionality, for examples, hydrocarbons, fatty acids and alcohols. Examples from recent studies (at Bristol) of contemporary, 'recent' and ancient sediments are presented and discussed.

  7. Putative ancient microorganisms from amber nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Crespo, Patricia; Blasco, Lucía; Poza, Margarita; Villa, Tomás G

    2007-06-01

    Evolutionary microbiology studies based on the isolation of ancient DNA and/or microbial samples are scarce due to the difficulty of finding well preserved biological specimens. However, amber is a fossil resin with natural preserving properties for microbial cells and DNA. The visualization by transmission electron microscopy of different microorganism-like specimens found in amber nuggets from both the Miocene and the Cretaceous periods was accompanied by studies of ancient DNA obtained from the nuggets. After the design of specific primers based on the present sequences of both genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the ancestral AGP2 sequence from the Miocene, as well as the 18S rRNA from the Cretaceous, were amplified.

  8. Rangifer and man: An ancient relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Gordon

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A long-term relationship between Rangifer and humans is documented in three case studies: the Canadian Barrenlands (8000 years ago to Historic period, Ice-Age France (11 000-19 000 years ago and Mesolithic Russia (7000¬10 000 years ago. Ancient human and herd migration occurred in all areas, based upon Rangifer remains and seasonal variations in tools along reconstructed migration routes, with few if any hunting camps outside the routes. An April peak of ancient human births is inferred from the historic record where we see births occurring nine months after peak nutritional states in herds and people. The origin of reindeer domestication and breeding in Eurasia is discussed.

  9. Segmentation of Ancient Telugu Text Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao A.V

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OCR of ancient document images remains a challenging task till date. Scanning process itself introduces deformation of document images. Cleaning process of these document images will result in information loss. Segmentation contributes an invariance process in OCR. Complex scripts, like derivatives of Brahmi, encounter many problems in the segmentation process. Segmentation of meaningful units, (instead of isolated patterns, revealed interesting trends. A segmentation technique for the ancient Telugu document image into meaningful units is proposed. The topological features of the meaningful units within the script line are adopted as a basis, while segmenting the text line. Horizontal profile pattern is convolved with Gaussian kernel. The statistical properties of meaningful units are explored by extensively analyzing the geometrical patterns of the meaningful unit. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm involving segmentation process is found to be 73.5% for the case of uncleaned document images.

  10. Characterization of aerobic bacterial and fungal microbiota on surfaces of historic Scottish monuments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suihko, Maija-Liisa; Alakomi, Hanna-Leena; Gorbushina, Anna; Fortune, Irene; Marquardt, Jürgen; Saarela, Maria

    2007-09-01

    Twenty samples were taken from the inner or outer surfaces of stone monuments of six historic Scottish buildings and ruins. Biofilms developing on mineral substrates were analysed by in situ scanning electron microscopy and cultivation. Various methods were used to characterize the isolates including automated ribotyping, RAPD and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria, and stereomicroscopy and sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) for fungi. Most samples contained microbes between 10(5) and 10(7)cfug(-1) substrate. Actinobacteria belonging to the genus Streptomyces (17 samples/5 monuments) or Arthrobacter (12/3) and Pseudomonas (9/3) were frequently detected. Most streptomycetes were in terms of their 16S rRNA gene sequence most closely related to S. microflavus (10/3) or to the undescribed species S. "vulgaris" (8/3). Indoor and outdoor biofilms exhibited significant differences in their microbiota, as shown by both microscopy and isolation studies. Pigmented coccoid Arthrobacter species were typical for the outdoor samples, whereas Pseudomonas species were common in the indoor samples. Based on the low phylogenetic relationship to a known species (type strain), potential novel pigmented bacterial species belonging to the genera Arthrobacter, Brevundimonas, Cryseobacterium, Deinococcus and Dyadobacter were detected from the outdoor samples and to Pseudomonas from the indoor samples. Hyaline fungal species of Acremonium (10/4) mainly occurred in indoor samples, whereas pigmented species of Cladosporium (8/3), Penicillium (6/3) and Phialophora (6/2) were found outdoors. Using in situ microscopy diatom algae were also detected.

  11. Water availability and flood hazards in the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Frank J.; Oster, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    The rock formations of the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument area are aquifers that can be expected to yield less than 10 gallons of water per minute to wells. The most permeable of the geologic units is the alluvium that occurs at low elevations along the John Day River and most of the smaller streams. Wells in the alluvial deposits can be expected to yield adequate water supplies for recreational areas; also, wells completed in the underlying bedrock at depths ranging from 50 to 200 feet could yield as much as 10 gallons per minute. Pumping tests on two unused wells indicated yields of 8 gallons per minute and 2 gallons per minute. Nine of the ten springs measured in and near the monument area in late August of 1978 were flowing 0.2 to 30 gallons per minute. Only the Cant Ranch spring and the Johnny Kirk Spring near the Sheep Rock unit had flows exceeding 6 gallons per minute. Chemical analyses of selected constituents of the ground water indicated generally low concentrations of dissolved minerals. Although cloudbursts in the Painted Hills unit could generate a flood wave on the valley floors, flood danger can be reduced by locating recreational sites on high ground. The campground in Indian Canyon of the Clarno unit is vulnerable to cloudburst flooding. About 80 percent of the proposed campground on the John Day River in the Sheep Rock unit is above the estimated level of 1-percent chance flood (100-year flood) of the river. The 1-percent chance flood would extend about 120 feet from the riverbank into the upstream end of the campground. (USGS).

  12. Beyond the Theatre of Military Operations: the Monuments of the Crimean War in Simferopol and Bakhchisaray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay A. Syedin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the events that took place on the Crimean peninsula during the Eastern War (1853-1856 beyond the main battle fields. The author describes overall picture of what was happening in the Crimean cities on the background of heroic defense of Sevastopol, names cities which experienced invasion and tells about the consequences of their occupation. The article mainly focuses on Simferopol and Bakhchisaray as the front-line cities that played a significant role in defense of Sevastopol and experienced all the consequences of military actions on the Crimean peninsula. The author names the famous participants of the Crimean War whose lives were closely connected with those cities, and tells about historical monuments related to the events of those years. The aforementioned participants include the famous writers L. N. Tolstoy and N. V. Berg, who spent significant amount of time in those cities during the war. Another personality that draws the author’s close attention is N.I. Pirogov, a surgeon whose professional activity on the peninsula at that time was tightly connected with Simferopol. The article also tells about active participants of military operations – generals P.A. Vrevskiy and P.V. Veimarn who lost their lives during the battle at the Chornaya river and were buried in Bakhchisaray. The author believes that knowledge of events that were happening on the entire territory of the Crimean peninsula substantially improves our understanding of the scale of the Crimean War, reveals the drama of the War and its impact on nations, cities and individuals – whether well-known to us or not – and provides additional material for patriotic education. The article describes in detail the work on preservation of memorials of the Crimean War and promotes the attitude of care towards the monuments located all over the Crimean peninsula.

  13. Trace element quantification of lead based roof sheets of historical monuments by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syvilay, D., E-mail: delphine.syvilay@culture.gouv.fr [LRMH USR 3224, 29 rue de Paris, 77420 Champs-sur-Marne (France); Texier, A. [LRMH USR 3224, 29 rue de Paris, 77420 Champs-sur-Marne (France); Arles, A.; Gratuze, B. [IRAMAT, 3D, rue de la Férollerie, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Wilkie-Chancellier, N.; Martinez, L.; Serfaty, S. [SATIE, UMR CNRS 8029, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, ENS Cachan, 95000 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); Detalle, V. [LRMH USR 3224, 29 rue de Paris, 77420 Champs-sur-Marne (France)

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify the different periods of construction or restoration of the lead roof of a historic monument. Trace elements in a lead matrix can be a signature of the metallurgical processes, allowing identification of a specific time period for the production of the lead used to build the roof. The ability of LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) to detect such trace elements in a lead matrix is therefore explored and checked by comparing its results with LA-ICP-MS as a reference method (Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry). Concentrations of 263 samples were compared between LIBS and LA-ICP-MS data and their correlation was evaluated. Another way to compare their results is also suggested by combining PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and GIS (Geographic Information System). As a result statistical mappings were created, highlighting metallurgical groups of samples across the roof of the building. This innovative approach links concentration and spatial location resulting in an easily interpretable graphical presentation of the data. The results of both spectrometry methods lead to similar conclusions with distinctive areas of different lead compositions and by extension different lead dating across the roof. But since LIBS is portable we can conclude that it is a suitable and reliable instrument for in-situ applications on historic monuments. - Highlights: • Quantification of trace elements (Ag, Bi, Cu and Sn) in a lead matrix by LIBS and LA-ICP-MS • Low limit of detection for Ag, Bi, Cu and Sn by using LIBS portable instrumentation • Set up a specific data processing combining PCA and GIS for cultural heritage application • Comparison of LIBS and LA-ICP-MS results with 263 samples • 488 samples analyzed by LIBS.

  14. The ancient Greeks present: Rational Trigonometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wildberger, N J

    2008-01-01

    Pythagoras' theorem, the area of a triangle as one half the base times the height, and Heron's formula are amongst the most important and useful results of ancient Greek geometry. Here we look at all three in a new and improved light, using quadrance not distance. This leads to a simpler and more elegant trigonometry, in which angle is replaced by spread, and which extends to arbitrary fields and more general quadratic forms.

  15. Computed tomography of ancient Egyptian mummies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood-Nash, D C

    1979-12-01

    This first report of the application of computed tomography (CT) to the study of ancient mummies, the desiccated brain of a boy and the body of a young woman within her cartonnage, shows that CT is uniquely suitable for the study of such antiquities, a study that does not necessitate destruction of the mummy or its cartonnage. Exquisite images result that are of great paleoanatomical, paleopathological, and archeological significance.

  16. Volatile and Isotopic Imprints of Ancient Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Conrad, Pamela G.

    2015-01-01

    The science investigations enabled by Curiosity rover's instruments focus on identifying and exploring the habitability of the Martian environment. Measurements of noble gases, organic and inorganic compounds, and the isotopes of light elements permit the study of the physical and chemical processes that have transformed Mars throughout its history. Samples of the atmosphere, volatiles released from soils, and rocks from the floor of Gale Crater have provided a wealth of new data and a window into conditions on ancient Mars.

  17. Chemistry Progress and Civilization in Ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yu-Qian; RUAN Shu-Xiang; TANG Shan; SHUAI Zhi-Gang

    2011-01-01

    @@ During the 6,000 years of Chinese civilization, chemistry has played an essential role.The bronzed chime bells of the Warring States Period (475-221 BC) unearthed in Hubei Province shows not only the excellence in musical instruments in ancient China, but also the technological advances in metallurgy.Chinese alchemy was not originated from the quest to turn common metals to gold, instead, it was for searching medicines for longevity of human beings, mostly practised by Taoists.

  18. Ancient News: HMGBs are Universal Sentinels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marco E. Bianchi; Barbara Celona

    2010-01-01

    @@ Yanai et al. (2009, Nature 462, 99-103) have shown that high mobility group boxs (HMGBs) are universal sensors of viral nucleic acids, and thus of cell infection. This appears to be an evolutionary ancient mechanism of virus detection, and possibly might be a facet of a more general propensity of HMGBs to act as integrators of signals that pertain to peace and stress, life and death.

  19. 2000 Year-old ancient equids: an ancient-DNA lesson from pompeii remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bernardo, Giovanni; Del Gaudio, Stefania; Galderisi, Umberto; Cipollaro, Marilena

    2004-11-15

    Ancient DNA extracted from 2000 year-old equine bones was examined in order to amplify mitochondrial and nuclear DNA fragments. A specific equine satellite-type sequence representing 3.7%-11% of the entire equine genome, proved to be a suitable target to address the question of the presence of aDNA in ancient bones. The PCR strategy designed to investigate this specific target also allowed us to calculate the molecular weight of amplifiable DNA fragments. Sequencing of a 370 bp DNA fragment of mitochondrial control region allowed the comparison of ancient DNA sequences with those of modern horses to assess their genetic relationship. The 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene was also examined to unravel the post-mortem base modification feature and to test the status of Pompeian equids taxon on the basis of a Mae III restriction site polymorphism.

  20. Reconstructing Ancient History-- Historiographical Review of the Ancient History of Korea, 1950s-2000s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Xu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The ancient history of Korea has been one of the most controversial and difficult phases to incorporate into an East Asian history survey class, not only because there are indeed quite a number of contested issues, but also because very few updated materials are available in English. This essay aims to provide a comprehensive and critical overview of research on the topic of Korean ancient history in the past six decades (mainly in South Korea, so that the ancient history of Korea can be understood first within the broader frame of East Asian history, and then in relation to the intellectual and ideological evolution which has significantly impacted historical interpretations in South Korea.

  1. Occurrence and distribution of trace elements in snow, streams, and streambed sediments, Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska, 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.

    2004-01-01

    Cape Krusenstern National Monument is located in Northwest Alaska. In 1985, an exchange of lands and interests in lands between the Northwest Alaska Native Association and the United States resulted in a 100-year transportation system easement for 19,747 acres in the monument. A road was then constructed along the easement from the Red Dog Mine, a large zinc concentrate producer and located northeast of the monument, through the monument to the coast and a port facility. Each year approximately 1.3 million tonnes of zinc and lead concentrate are transported from the Red Dog Mine via this access road. Concern about the possible deposition of cadmium, lead, zinc and other trace elements in the monument was the basis of a cooperative project with the National Park Service. Concentrations of dissolved cadmium, dissolved lead, and dissolved zinc from 28 snow samples from a 28 mile by 16 mile grid were below drinking water standards. In the particulate phase, approximately 25 percent of the samples analyzed for these trace elements were higher than the typical range found in Alaska soils. Boxplots of concentrations of these trace elements, both in the dissolved and particulate phase, indicate higher concentrations north of the access road, most likely due to the prevailing southeast wind. The waters of four streams sampled in Cape Krusenstern National Monument are classified as calcium bicarbonate. Trace-element concentrations from these streams were below drinking water standards. Median concentrations of 39 trace elements from streambed sediments collected from 29 sites are similar to the median concentrations of trace elements from the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment database. Statistical differences were noted between trace-element concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc at sites along the access road and sites north and south of the access road; concentrations along the access road being higher than north or south of the road. When

  2. El azaroso paso del Rubicón de la restauración monumental en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Grassot, Lluís

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available The monument restoration in Spain is passing through a delicate moment after going through one of the most complex periods which started after the process of social recovery leading to democracy. Some political, cultural and professional circumstances of the decade of the 80s, made our monuments go from oblivion to playing a not always sensible leading role. Today, when some facets of that situation have been overcome, the fruits of its positive aspects can be collected (the retrieval of the "creative attitude" towards the project, the appreciation of the monument as historical document, the acceptance of the necessary interprofessional collaboration. Nevertheless, some chronic vices are still being suffered from (the arrogant attitudes of the professionals, the low efficiency level of one part of the Administration, the obsolete legislation, the difficulties in training. The author expresses his hope that, in the context of an obvious "new mentality" towards our heritage of monuments, the economic crisis will favour the consolidation of a "conservation culture" parallel to the renewed and indispensable culture of restoration.

    La disciplina de la restauración monumental vive en España un momento delicado después de atravesar uno de los períodos más complejos iniciados tras el proceso de recuperación de la normalidad democrática. Algunas circunstancias políticas, culturales y profesionales de la década de los 80, hicieron que nuestros monumentos pasaran del olvido a un protagonismo no siempre sensato. Hoy, superadas algunas facetas de aquella coyuntura, se recogen los frutos de sus aspectos positivos (la recuperación de la "actitud creativa" frente al proyecto, la valoración del monumento como documento histórico, la afirmación de la necesaria colaboración interprofesional, pero continúan sufriéndose algunos vicios crónicos (las actitudes profesionales arrogantes, el inmovilismo de una parte de la Administración, la

  3. Nat'l_Register, NonContributingResources, The Retaining Walls at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_walls_cultural)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 4 arcs representing the retaining walls (non-historic) at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The walls were collected...

  4. Bathymetry of NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (Inshore), St. John, US Virgin Islands 2005, 1M Grid, UTM 20 NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Grid with 1 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of an inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument,...

  5. Utilities:Other:The Flagpole in front of the Visitor Center at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Other:flagpole)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This file geodatabase feature class consists of one point that representing the flagpole in front of the Visitor Center at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona....

  6. LiDAR, geophysical and field surveys at Ancient Epomanduodurum site and its surrounding country (Doubs, Eastern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplaige, Clement; Bossuet, Gilles; Thivet, Matthieu

    2010-05-01

    Integrated geophysical studies were carried out over several years, at Mandeure-Mathay (Franche-Comté Region, Eastern France) for the archaeological evaluation of ancient Epomanduodurum. The site is of major scientific interest to understand the territorial structure of earlier agglomerations in Eastern Gaul at the end of the Iron Age and during the Roman period. As regards its size, urban equipment, monuments and function, the ancient town is considered rating second behind the civitas capital of Sequani, Besançon-Vesontio. It is located in the Doubs valley, where the plain of Alsace opens into the marches of Burgundy, in a traffic zone between the Vosges and the Jura. This location allows transit between the Rhône valley and the Rhein plain, through the Saône and Doubs valleys. This geographical situation was a significant factor in the creation of the late Iron Age settlement, later to turn into a major Gallo-roman town. The whole site of the Ancient town includes urban centre and two artisan suburbs. The buried ruins stretch on more than 500 hectares outside and inside a meander of the Doubs River. From the beginning of the survey, in 2001, high resolution and non invasive geophysical methods (magnetic mapping and Automatic Restivity Profiling (ARP) were performed on large scale, both on the terrace and in the floodplain). Excavations associated to geophysical prospection allow to produce a general plan of the Gallo roman structures and to reconstruct the settlement evolution. While human occupation on open land is certified by a lot of indications, on the contrary, the forest-covered zones on table-land appear as less documented areas. The explanation is that some of the classic methods (such as aerial reconnaissance and field walking) are less efficient in the archaeological prospection of table-lands and hills, naturally marked by omnipresent forest. In our new research program (LIEPPEC and PCR Mandeure, 2008-2010), it appears necessary to better

  7. Multitemporal High-Resolution Satellite Images for the Study and Monitoring of an Ancient Mesopotamian City and its Surrounding Landscape: The Case of Ur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Di Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns the use of multitemporal high-resolution satellite images for the study of the ancient city of Ur, in southern Mesopotamia, inaccessible to scholars from 2003. The acquired dataset is composed by two Gambit KH-7 (1966 and one Corona KH-4B (1968 declassified spy space photos and by few images taken by the recent satellites for civilian use QuickBird-2 (2002, 2004, 2007, Ikonos-2 (2008, and WorldView-1 (2008. The processing of all these images and the integration with ASTER and SRTM DEMs allowed the acquisition of new data about the topographical layout of the city and its monuments and ancient roads; the georeferencing of all archaeological remains and traces visible on the images allowed the upgrade of the archaeological map of Ur. The research also provided important data concerning the reconstruction of the surrounding landscape, where a lot of traces of old channels and riverbeds of the Euphrates were identified in areas much modified and altered during the last decades by urbanization and agricultural works. Moreover, the multitemporal images allowed the monitoring of the conservation of the archaeological area, particularly before and after second Gulf War.

  8. The Ancient City of Pinqyao:Where the Time Stops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lily Wang

    2011-01-01

    @@ It is a common night in May, I found myself wandering in the Ancient City of Pingyao.If not those neon light, I would even doubt that I had gone back to the ancient times.Located on the eastern banks of the Fen River, and in the southwestern edge of the Taiyuan basin, Pingyao Ancient City is the outstanding example of Chinese Han nationality cities during Ming and Qing Dynasties.

  9. Programa Angelópolis en la zona monumental de la ciudad de Puebla, México

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Durante la gestión gubernamental 1993-1999 se aplicó en la ciudad de Puebla, México, el Programa Regional de Desarrollo Angelópolis, que establece acciones específicas para la zona monumental de esta ciudad declarada por la UNESCO Patrimonio de la Humanidad en 1987. La aplicación del Programa Angelópolis en el Centro Histórico, a través del Proyecto del Paseo del Río de San Francisco, constituyó una acción enérgica que ha modificado de manera trascendental la zona monumental de la ciudad de P...

  10. Tenement House “Under The Golden Crown” In Wrocław - Renovation Of The Peculiar Monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirschke Krystyna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the many historic buildings in Wroclaw, there is a property address Rynek 29 - Oławska 2, that in 1970 entered in the register of monuments as “a department store, earlier tenement house called “Under the Golden Crown”. In the fact it was built in 1961 and it is neither a historical building nor department store. It is, spectacular example of creative retrospective, in the post-war reconstruction of Wroclaw. It has relict of medieval and Renaissance architecture, but the aboveground parts have a skeleton structure of commercial buildings from the early 20th century. In recent years, there is a problem with renovating such buildings. Recognition of these monuments has become a requirement now. Because only in this way in the future, in the course of modernization works, you will be able to avoid bad decisions and unforeseen situations.

  11. Measuring change over time: the use of geotagged photographs to evaluate the weathering of monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehne, E.

    2012-04-01

    Evaluating the condition of weathered stone surfaces on a monument, building or sculpture requires information on how those surfaces have evolved. In a number of cases, the documentation related to a site or object is either not readily available or has been lost (due to war, fire, etc.). Exploring the use of geotagged photographs to supplement the evaluation of surface changes to monuments was tested using two sites: the Mausoleum at the Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens in San Marino, California and the Duomo in Florence, Italy. Increasingly, photographs are being geo-located or geotagged, either automatically via GPS/WiFi or manually. Geolocation tags increase the value of a photograph to researchers by providing the geographic location where the image was taken, often along with the date and time the photograph was acquired. Estimates of the number of geolocated photographs posted to the Internet include 148 million on Flickr.com (as of June 3, 2011) increasing to 172 million as of January 15, 2012. On Panarimo.com five million geolocated images were archived as of October 2007. Tools such as auto-geotag and PhotoOverlay are making it easier for users to locate and exactly position existing photographs and historic photographs on sites such as Google Earth (PhotoOverlays are images that are directly embedded in the Google Earth's landscape). 42 photo sharing websites are listed currently on Wikipedia, with seven having Alexa rankings of less than 200, indicating the popularity of photo sharing and the vast nature of this resource. Preliminary results from the Huntington and the Duomo indicate that geolocated images are indeed a useful tool for aiding in understanding stone weathering patterns and changes over time. However, greater software support and new tools are needed to enable researchers to search, organize and analyze groups of photographs from a single geolocation. Such software would have obvious uses beyond the conservation

  12. Mapping the Ancient Maya Landscape from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Tom

    2003-01-01

    This project uses new satellite and airborne imagery in combination with remote sensing, GIS, and GPS technology to understand the dynamics of how the Maya successfully interacted with their karst topographic landscape for several centuries in the northern Peten region of Guatemala. The ancient Maya attained one of the greatest population densities in human history in the tropical forest of the Peten, Guatemala, and it was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared for unknown reasons around AD 800. How the Maya were able to successfully manage water and feed this dense population is not known at this time. However, a recent NASA-funded project was the first to investigate large seasonal swamps (bajos) that make up 40 percent of the landscape. Through the use of remote sensing, ancient Maya features such as cities, roadways, canals and water reservoirs have been detected and verified through ground reconnaissance. The results of this research cast new light on the adaptation of the ancient Maya to their environment. Micro-environmental variation within the wetlands was elucidated and the different vegetational associations identified in the satellite imagery. More than 70 new archeological sites within and at the edges of the bajo were mapped and tested. Modification of the landscape by the Maya in the form of dams and reservoirs in the Holmul River and its tributaries and possible drainage canals in bajos was demonstrated. The recent acquisition of one-meter IKONOS imagery and high resolution STAR-3i radar imagery (2.5m backscatter/ 10m DEM), opens new possibilities for understanding how a civilization was able to survive for centuries upon a karst topographic landscape and their human-induced effects upon the local climate. This understanding is critical for the current population that is presently experiencing rapid population growth and destroying the landscape through non-traditional farming and grazing techniques

  13. [Bow legged adjectives in ancient literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Frantisek; Steger, Florian

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of capturing the medical entity called 'curved legs' in a terminologically exact way. In so doing, it refers to the long-lasting process of differentiation of exact nuances of meaning in Ancient Greek and Latin. In the chronological perusal of ancient Greek literature, it becomes evident that the various adjectives employed are often vague when looking at non-medical literature. By contrast, in the Hippocratic corpus these terms are for the first time annotated with explanations intended to lead to a more precise understanding of the described deformity. Further attempts of differentiation can be found in the writings of Galen, who not only distinguishes between outward and inward curvatures, but also between deformities of the thigh and lower leg as well as between pathological and natural curvatures. Latin literature also provides a series of adjectives that were initially often used in the meaning of 'curved' but it was not until Celsus that these were differentiated with respect to the type and direction of the curvature. When comparing Greek and Latin adjectives, it turns out that though the Latin term blaesus can be traced back etymologically to the Greek word beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta, the meaning of beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta does not fully correspond to that of the Latin word. It is not before the later common transliteration of Greek words that this adjective took on the meaning of beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta; however, this was finally lost again. In summary, the article concludes that exact word meanings in ancient literature are often unclear and precise ascriptions of meanings are inconsistent. In the case of "curved legs," this has led to misunderstandings regarding the respective types and directions of the curvature.

  14. Study of Monumental Heritage Traditional Moroccan for a Valorization and Conservation of Collective Memory Development for Socio-Eco-Sustainable Tourism-case Kasbah Chellah, Rabat

    Science.gov (United States)

    belhaj, siham; Bahi, Lahcen; Akhssas, Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    Rabat imperial city and capital of Morocco in 2012 was named a World Heritage Site by Unesco for its value,location and heritage significance of several historic sites it contains, which dating back to the 8th century by Chellah example. Chellah is an important historical site economically, culturally and archaeologically .This site is a result of a combination between the Muslim Arab past and the Western modernism, it not only contains the remains of ancient civilizations Phoenician, Carthaginian and Roman but its walls and gates illustrate various lifestyles and multiples legends, the architecture of this site has inspired many writers and painters during all the centuries. Chellah Attracts more and more tourists from milliers of different origins and of different ages, it is ultimate touristiclandmark-forsaken-, it Suffers of ruthless effect of nature (physicals-chemicals degradations) and human and urban development. The authorities aware of the historical, cultural, social, economic heritage of this site, and Demanded Decided to valorize, Rehabilitate and restore the Kasbah Chellah. But given the complexity of the action of "safeguard" the site is still drowning in the economic constraints(size of the site and diversity of its components and architecture, priority, state of the financial markets), legal,social, technical (lack of data, the problem of integration of research centers in the proposed rehabilitation of historic sites in degradation old method, misdiagnosis) and also in the maze to find an integrated restoration policy that takes into account all aspects of rehabilitated the historical monuments. The objective of this project is to develop a clear vision of actually situation by enumeration of problems of degradation that knows the site of Chellah, to sew a multidimensional table of issues facing the current project of rehabilitation the site in question, to raise awareness stakeholders on the need for networking of all energies and all knowledge

  15. Effect of the acid rain in the constituent material of the Mayan Mexican monuments; Efecto de la lluvia acida en el material constituyente de los monuments mayas mexicanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo Alvarez, H; Soto Ayala, R; Sosa Echeverria, R; Sanchez Alvarez, P [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-10-15

    Actually, acid rain is considered as a potential problem that affects materials and ecosystems. The effect on monuments, made mainly from limestone, has been studied for long time. In this work, a sample of limestone from Tulum, Qintana Roo, was studied. The following parameters were measured: density, porosity and percentage of water adsorption. Also, the sample was irrigated with acid rain prepared in the laboratory (pH = 4.6), based in the chemical composition of 56 rain samples from Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo, in 1994 and 1995. The results obtained show that acid rain is neutralized by calcium carbonate from the limestone. The high calcium concentrations in the effluent, show that limestone is dissolved by acid rain. Superficial recession was 4.4 {mu}m/year under experimental conditions used. [Spanish] Actualmente la lluvia acida se ha convertido en un problema potencial que afecta en mayor o menor grado a materiales y a los ecosistemas. El efecto que causa la lluvia acida en monumentos construidos fundamentalmente de roca caliza, ha sido objeto de muchas investigaciones realizadas, prioritariamente, por paises que poseen estructuras, cuyo material de construccion es caliza. En este trabajo de investigacion se estudio una muestra de roca caliza proveniente de los monumentos mayas de Tulum, Quintana Roo. Se determinaron los parametros de densidad, porosidad y porcentaje de adsorcion de agua. Asimismo, se efectuo la irrigacion de la muestra con lluvia acida (pH aprox.4.6), preparada en el laboratorio con base en la composicion quimica que se determino en 56 muestras de agua de lluvia provenientes de Puerto Morelos, punto cercano a los monumentos de Tulum, Quintana Roo, durante los anos 1994 y 1995. Los resultados permiten concluir que la lluvia acida sufre un proceso de naturalizacion con el carbonato de calcio de la roca caliza. Las altas concentraciones de calcio en el efluente, mostraron que la roca caliza sufrio una disolucion con la lluvia acida. La

  16. Le monument naturel dans le mythe de l’Ouest chez Washington Irving, Mark Twain et Walt Whitman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Louis-Dimitrov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cet article s’intéresse à la fonction de l’image du monument naturel dans les représentations de l’Ouest au xixe siècle, et plus particulièrement dans trois récits de voyages, A Tour on the Prairies de Washington Irving, Roughing It de Mark Twain et Specimen Days de Walt Whitman. Icône des vieilles nations européennes, le monument est paradoxalement omniprésent dans les représentations de l’espace sauvage et y fait figure de paradigme structurant. Il s’agit d’analyser conjointement les enjeux esthétiques et politiques de sa transposition sur le sol américain. On montrera ainsi comment ce motif autour duquel se construit le paysage de l’Ouest se fait aussi incarnation de la démocratie américaine et, simultanément, principe d’écriture.This article deals with the image of the natural monument and considers its function in 19th-century representations of the West, especially in three travel narratives—A Tour on the Prairies by Washington Irving, Roughing It by Mark Twain and Specimen Days by Walt Whitman. An emblem of the old European nations, the monument is paradoxically omnipresent in the representations of the Western wilderness and appears as a structuring paradigm. The purpose of this reflexion is to analyse jointly the aesthetic and political implications of its transposition onto the American soil. Indeed, this motive on which the construction of the Western landscape is based also appears as the embodiment of American democracy while defining a writing principle.

  17. Dance Poem presents Ancient Northwestern Settings and Folle Customs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    WEST of the Yang Pass, a dance poem created and performed by the Lanzhou Song and Dance Troupe, presents the audience with a picture of ancient times and folk customs on the Loess Plateau in Northwestern China. It depicts our ancestors’ staunch will to live, and their pioneering spirit, as well as the splendid traditional culture. The dance poem includes 11 sections: "Prelude," "Ancient Road," "Desert," "Camel Station," "Crescent Moon Spring," "Ancient Castle," "Temple Oil Lamps," "Mogao Grottoes," "Red Willows," "Market," "Ancient Battle Fields," and "Fields." West of the Yang Pass is a dance without particular characters or coherent plot. A group

  18. The Ancient Maya Landscape from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, T.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The Peten, once inhabited by a population of several million before the collapse of the ancient Maya in the 10th and 11th centuries, is being repopulated toward its former demographic peak. Environmental dynamics, however, impose severe constraints to further development. Current practices in subsistence, commercial agriculture, and cattle raising are causing rapid deforestation resulting in the destruction of environmental and archeological resources. The use of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology is a cost-effective methodology for addressing issues in Maya archeology as well as monitoring the environmental impacts being experienced by the current population.

  19. Conserved intron positions in ancient protein modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Roos Albert DG

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The timing of the origin of introns is of crucial importance for an understanding of early genome architecture. The Exon theory of genes proposed a role for introns in the formation of multi-exon proteins by exon shuffling and predicts the presence of conserved splice sites in ancient genes. In this study, large-scale analysis of potential conserved splice sites was performed using an intron-exon database (ExInt derived from GenBank. Results A set of conserved intron positions was found by matching identical splice sites sequences from distantly-related eukaryotic kingdoms. Most amino acid sequences with conserved introns were homologous to consensus sequences of functional domains from conserved proteins including kinases, phosphatases, small GTPases, transporters and matrix proteins. These included ancient proteins that originated before the eukaryote-prokaryote split, for instance the catalytic domain of protein phosphatase 2A where a total of eleven conserved introns were found. Using an experimental setup in which the relation between a splice site and the ancientness of its surrounding sequence could be studied, it was found that the presence of an intron was positively correlated to the ancientness of its surrounding sequence. Intron phase conservation was linked to the conservation of the gene sequence and not to the splice site sequence itself. However, no apparent differences in phase distribution were found between introns in conserved versus non-conserved sequences. Conclusion The data confirm an origin of introns deep in the eukaryotic branch and is in concordance with the presence of introns in the first functional protein modules in an 'Exon theory of genes' scenario. A model is proposed in which shuffling of primordial short exonic sequences led to the formation of the first functional protein modules, in line with hypotheses that see the formation of introns integral to the origins of genome evolution

  20. Extinct 244Pu in Ancient Zircons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Grenville; Harrison, T. Mark; Holland, Greg; Mojzsis, Stephen J.; Gilmour, Jamie

    2004-10-01

    We have found evidence, in the form of fissiogenic xenon isotopes, for in situ decay of 244Pu in individual 4.1- to 4.2-billion-year-old zircons from the Jack Hills region of Western Australia. Because of its short half-life, 82 million years, 244Pu was extinct within 600 million years of Earth's formation. Detrital zircons are the only known relics to have survived from this period, and a study of their Pu geochemistry will allow us to date ancient metamorphic events and determine the terrestrial Pu/U ratio for comparison with the solar ratio.

  1. Archaeological sites as indicators of ancient shorelines

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    -Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Archaeological Sites as Indicators of Ancient Shorelines K H Vora, A. S. Gnur. Sundaresh and S. Tripati National Institute of Oceanogr-aplzy, Dona Paula, Goa Ernail: vora@nio.org Abstract During the late... Coastal areas of the continents have been the focal points of the emergence of the civilization. For in- stance, the Indian Ocean witnessed the rise of 3 major the Bronze Age Civilizations around it during the mid- Holocene period. Ocean has played...

  2. The Charm of An Ancient Southern City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    AN artistic narrow bridge winds into a place of pavilions, terraces and open halls, all under the pleasant shade of green trees. This is Mist-Water Pavilion Park in Gantang Lake in the city of Jiujiang, Jiangxi Province. When you stand here in the quiet and elegant historic garden and look out over the water on all four sides, you can’t help but think of the ancient war that took place on this very spot 1,700 years ago. During the Three Kingdoms Period (220-280), this was

  3. The astronomical orientation of ancient Greek temples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt, Alun M

    2009-11-19

    Despite its appearing to be a simple question to answer, there has been no consensus as to whether or not the alignments of ancient Greek temples reflect astronomical intentions. Here I present the results of a survey of archaic and classical Greek temples in Sicily and compare them with temples in Greece. Using a binomial test I show strong evidence that there is a preference for solar orientations. I then speculate that differences in alignment patterns between Sicily and Greece reflect differing pressures in the expression of ethnic identity.

  4. Surgical history of ancient China: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Louis

    2009-12-01

    Although surgery was an accepted and quite proficient craft very early on in Chinese history, it has deteriorated through the ages. Despite the fact that anaesthetic agents in major surgery were employed during the third century, Chinese surgery is conspicuous by its stagnation. Reverence for the dead, filial piety, abhorrence of shedding blood and other conservative attitudes make it impossible for any accurate knowledge of the human anatomy and physiology, without which surgery cannot progress. This article surveys some highlights in the history of surgery in ancient China and examines the factors responsible for its decline. The second concluding part deals with orthopaedics.

  5. Human Nature Evil in Ancient Western Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张茜

    2015-01-01

    Whether man is good or evil by nature is a constant topic tophilosophers and writers. Is a man born virtuous or evil? What onearth is human nature? Is the origin of human nature kind or wicked?People have been debating over this topic for centuries. Theseseemingly simple questions have perplexed those Great Minds forthousands of years in European countries and are the constant themesof literary works as well. The problem of human nature is the deepestof the issues regarding human beings which have long been underdiscussion since ancient time.

  6. PIXE analysis of ancient Chinese Changsha porcelain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, E.K.; Yu, Y.C.; Wang, C.W.; Liu, T.Y.; Wu, C.M.; Chen, K.M.; Lin, S.S

    1999-04-02

    In this work, proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method was applied for the analysis of ancient Chinese Changsha porcelain produced in the Tang dynasty (AD 618-907). A collection of glazed potsherds was obtained in the complex of the famous kiln site at Tongguan, Changsha city, Hunan province. Studies of elemental composition were carried out on ten selected Changsha potsherds. Minor and trace elements such as Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Rb, Sr, and Zr in the material of the porcelain glaze were determined. Variation of these elements from sample to sample was investigated. Details of results are presented and discussed.

  7. Origin of Chinese ancient glasses——study on the earliest Chinese ancient glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Fuxi; CHENG Huansheng; LI Qinghui

    2006-01-01

    The earliest Chinese ancient glasses before the West Han Dynasty (200 BC) from different regions are studied. The glass samples were unearthed from Hunan, Hubei, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Guangdong and Xinjiang of China. The chemical composition of these glasses samples is analyzed by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) method and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). It is shown that the glass chemical compositions belong to barium-lead silicate BaO-PbO-SiO2, potash soda lime silicate K2O (Na2O)-CaO-SiO2 (K2O/Na2O>1), soda potash lime silicate Na2O (K2O)-CaO-SiO2 (K2O/Na2O<1) and potash silicate K2O-SiO2 glass systems, respectively. The origins of the earliest Chinese ancient glasses are discussed from the archaeological and historical points of view. These four types of Chinese ancient glasses were all made in Chinese territory using local raw materials. The glass preparation technology was related to the Chinese ancient bronze metallurgy and proto-porcelain glaze technology. The glass technology relationship between the East and the West is analyzed at the same time.

  8. Megaliths as land-marks. Chronicle of the territorial role of the megalithic monuments through written sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinón-Torres, Marcos

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Megalithic monuments have played dijferent roles throughout History. One of them has a spatial function, i.e. as landmarks. The aim of this paper has been to collect and analyse every written reference concerning Galician megaliths operating as landmarks between the 6th and 19th centuries AD. On this basis, the evolution of this social-territorial function of the monuments through time is reconstructed, and an interpretative hypothesis for this phenomenon is proposed. Finally, the importance of reviewing written sources as a methodology for archaeological survey and for studies of the topographic settings of monuments is emphasised.

    A lo largo de la Historia, los monumentos megalíticos han desempeñado, entre otras, una función espacial, como marcos de territorio. Para este artículo se recogen y analizan las referencias escritas a megalitos gallegos funcionando como marcadores o identificadores espaciales, entre los siglos VI y XIX d.C. A partir de este registro de fuentes se reconstruye la evolución de este papel social-territorial de los monumentos en las distintas épocas. Se plantea un modelo interpretativo para este fenómeno, y se valora la revisión de fuentes escritas como metodología para la prospección arqueológica y para los estudios de emplazamiento de megalitos.

  9. “Tomar” e “Zona Monumental de Ajuda Belem”. Dois projectos de salvaguardia, dois casos de estudo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Maria Augusto de Sousa Rosa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Prosseguindo os propósitos deste Il Seminário internacional “Conservazione del Património Arquitectónico e Urbano”, onde irão ser confrontadas as experiências realizadas em Itália e Portugal no âmbito da conservação do património arquitectónico e urbano, são apresentados dois casos de estudo, objectivando a salvaguarda dos centros históricos, realizados em duas cidades portuguesas - Tomar (Centro Histórico e Lisboa (Zona Monumental Ajuda-Belém. Os dois Planos então realizados – Tomar, em 1996, e zona monumental Ajuda-Belém, em 2004 – ambos recorrendo a suporte informático, evidenciam na “decalage” de 8 anos, a importância dos avanços tecnológicos e informáticos, patente no projecto mais recente (Zona Monumental Ajuda - Belém, quer na aquisição e processamento de dados, quer ainda na consulta dos mesmos, processos que se têm revelado valiosíssimos para a conservação e salvaguarda do património arquitectónico, urbano e ambiental desta zona da cidade de Lisboa.

  10. Antikythera Mechanism and the Ancient World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Safronov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this historical review, the opinions of Ancient Greece philosophers, astronomers, and poets such as Thales Milesian, Pythagoras, Plato, Eudoxus, Aristotle, Archimedes, Cicero, Diogenes Laertius, Iamblichus, Plutarch, Homer, and Aratus about the planet position calculations and about the possibility of predictions of natural phenomena are analyzed. The planet positions were predicted before Eudoxus (probably before Philolaus by a spindle of Ananke and after Eudoxus by Antikythera mechanism. Following Pythagoras and Plato, it is established that the regular seismoacoustic observations were performed. In the Ancient World in the Mediterranean area, there was an extensive network of acoustic stations (~10 pcs, which were located in close proximity to the geologic faults. Also, it is shown that the ship that was carrying Antikythera mechanism (A-Ship was built in 244 BC in Syracuse with direct participation of Archimedes and Archias from Corinthian. Later, the A-Ship was a part of the Roman Republic safety system. The grain volumes, which were delivered to Rome city by large grain vessels, and the population of Rome city in the period 74–71 BC were estimated. Planetary calculator might be used for the chronology of the historical events as a backward prediction in addition to present Radiocarbon dating and Dendrochronology methods.

  11. Acoustical measurements in ancient Roman theatres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnetani, Andrea; Fausti, Patrizio; Pompoli, Roberto; Prodi, Nicola

    2001-05-01

    The Greek and Roman theatres are among the most precious and spectacular items of cultural heritage in the Mediterranean countries. The theatres are famous not only for their impressive architecture, but also for the acoustic qualities. For this reason it is important to consider these theatres as an acoustical heritage and to study their sound field. Within the activities of the ERATO (identification Evaluation and Revival of the Acoustical heritage of ancient Theatres and Odea) project, acoustical measurements were taken in well-preserved ancient Roman theatres at Aspendos (Turkey) and Jerash (Jordan). Roman theatres have an impressive stage building that forms a back wall in the orchestra area, and it was found that, from the analysis of the acoustical parameters, the reverberation time (e.g., 1.7 s at middle frequencies in the theatre of Aspendos) is quite long compared not only with other open-space theatres but also with closed spaces. Contrary to modern halls the clarity is high and this fact, together with a low sound level in most of the seats, gives the sound field a unique character.

  12. Ancient and Medieval Earth in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.

    2015-07-01

    Humankind has always sought to recognize the nature of various sky related phenomena and tried to give them explanations. The purpose of this study is to identify ancient Armenians' pantheistic and cosmological perceptions, world view, notions and beliefs related to the Earth. The paper focuses on the structure of the Earth and many other phenomena of nature that have always been on a major influence on ancient Armenians thinking. In this paper we have compared the term Earth in 31 languages. By discussing and comparing Universe structure in various regional traditions, myths, folk songs and phraseological units we very often came across to "Seven Heavens" (Seven heavens is a part of religious cosmology found in many major religions such as Islam, Judaism, Hinduism and Christianity (namely Catholicism) and "Seven Earths". Armenians in their turn divided Earth and Heavens into seven layers. And in science too, both the Earth and the Heavens have 7 layers. The Seven Heavens refer to the layers of our atmosphere. The Seven Earths refer to the layers of the Earth (from core to crust), as well as seven continents. We conclude that the perception of celestial objects varies from culture to culture and preastronomy had a significant impact on humankind, particularly on cultural diversities.

  13. Intrasite motions and monument instabilities at Medicina ITRF co-location site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, Pierguido; Abbondanza, Claudio; Legrand, Juliette; Bruyninx, Carine; Vittuari, Luca; Ray, Jim

    2013-03-01

    We process the total-station surveys performed at the ITRF co-location site Medicina (Northern Italy) over the decade (2001-2010) with the purpose of determining the extent of local intrasite motions and relating them to local geophysical processes, the geological setting and the design of the ground pillars. In addition, continuous observations acquired by two co-located GPS stations (MEDI and MSEL separated by ≈27 m) are analysed and their relative motion is cross-checked with the total-station results. The local ground control network extends over a small area (<100 × 100 m) but the results demonstrate significant anisotropic deformations with rates up to 1.6 mm a-1, primarily horizontal, a value comparable to intraplate tectonic deformations. The results derived from GPS and total-station observations are consistent and point to the presence of horizontal intrasite motions over very short distances possibly associated with varying environmental conditions in a very unfavourable local geological setting and unsuitable monument design, these latter being crucial aspects of the realization and maintenance of global permanent geodetic networks and the global terrestrial reference frame.

  14. Disruption rates for one vulnerable soil in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Robert H.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Sturm, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Rates of soil disruption from hikers and vehicle traffic are poorly known, particularly for arid landscapes. We conducted an experiment in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (ORPI) in western Arizona, USA, on an air-dry very fine sandy loam that is considered to be vulnerable to disruption. We created variable-pass tracks using hikers, an all-terrain vehicle (ATV), and a four-wheel drive vehicle (4WD) and measured changes in cross-track topography, penetration depth, and bulk density. Hikers (one pass = 5 hikers) increased bulk density and altered penetration depth but caused minimal surface disruption up to 100 passes; a minimum of 10 passes were required to overcome surface strength of this dry soil. Both ATV and 4WD traffic significantly disrupted the soil with one pass, creating deep ruts with increasing passes that rendered the 4WD trail impassable after 20 passes. Despite considerable soil loosening (dilation), bulk density increased in the vehicle trails, and lateral displacement created berms of loosened soil. This soil type, when dry, can sustain up to 10 passes of hikers but only one vehicle pass before significant soil disruption occurs; greater disruption is expected when soils are wet. Bulk density increased logarithmically with applied pressure from hikers, ATV, and 4WD.

  15. Grouting of Multiple Leaf-Masonry Walls: Application on Some Islamic Historical Monuments in Cairo, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed HEMEDA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Present study summarizes an overview on the available experimental and practical data and results from laboratory testing (ungrouted and grouted three leaf masonry wallettes in compression and in diagonal compression. On the basis of the experimental results, (A the structural behavior of the multiple leaf-masonry walls studied in details (b the parameters that affect the behavior of ungrouted masonry are detected and commented upon, and (c the behavior of grouted masonry studied in details. Particularly attention to be paid to large walls whose construction may comprise different kinds of materials. Such walls include cavity walls; rubble filled masonry walls and veneered brick walls which have poor quality core. Not only may the interior of the wall be less capable of carrying load but movement of the core material may also be a source of new stresses. As the experimental results show that the key parameter for the improvement of the mechanical properties of masonry is not the compressive strength of the injected grout, emphasis is given to ternary, as well as to hydraulic lime based grouts: those materials are expected to ensure durable interventions, they lead to a significant enhancement of the mechanical properties of masonry. On the basis of the experimental data on wallettes, as well as based on recent data from tests on grouted cylinders made of filling materials, simple formulae are drived, allowing for the strength of masonry to be calculated, and scientifically interventions processes and techniques had been applied to selected historical monuments in Cairo.

  16. Vertebrate paleontology, stratigraphy, and paleohydrology of Tule Springs Fossil Beds National Monument, Nevada (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Kathleen; Pigati, Jeffery S.; Scott, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Tule Springs Fossil Beds National Monument (TUSK) preserves 22,650 acres of the upper Las Vegas Wash in the northern Las Vegas Valley (Nevada, USA). TUSK is home to extensive and stratigraphically complex groundwater discharge (GWD) deposits, called the Las Vegas Formation, which represent springs and desert wetlands that covered much of the valley during the late Quaternary. The GWD deposits record hydrologic changes that occurred here in a dynamic and temporally congruent response to abrupt climatic oscillations over the last ~300 ka (thousands of years). The deposits also entomb the Tule Springs Local Fauna (TSLF), one of the most significant late Pleistocene (Rancholabrean) vertebrate assemblages in the American Southwest. The TSLF is both prolific and diverse, and includes a large mammal assemblage dominated by Mammuthus columbi and Camelops hesternus. Two (and possibly three) distinct species of Equus, two species of Bison, Panthera atrox, Smilodon fatalis, Canis dirus, Megalonyx jeffersonii, and Nothrotheriops shastensis are also present, and newly recognized faunal components include micromammals, amphibians, snakes, and birds. Invertebrates, plant macrofossils, and pollen also occur in the deposits and provide important and complementary paleoenvironmental information. This field compendium highlights the faunal assemblage in the classic stratigraphic sequences of the Las Vegas Formation within TUSK, emphasizes the significant hydrologic changes that occurred in the area during the recent geologic past, and examines the subsequent and repeated effect of rapid climate change on the local desert wetland ecosystem.

  17. BETWEEN MUSEUM, MONUMENT AND MEMORIAL: DANIEL LIBESKIND’S JEWISH MUSEUM IN BERLIN (1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Pješivac

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main hypothesis of this paper is that Libeskind’s Jewish Museum in Berlin is moving between museum, monument and memorial, that is, that this musuem is ‘place of memory’ (lieu de mémoire. Using Pierre Nora’s concept lieu de mémoire as the starting point of this study and redefining this concept through the language of architecture, the main aim of this paper is to explore this architectural object in the frames of cultural studies. The central foci of this paper are not thus artistic (productional, technical, stylist, etc. prob-lems as specifics of autonomous world of arts, but prob-lems of locating architecture within culture and repre-senting procedures of culture within architecture. Through aesthetics of architecture this paper explores problems of representation and construction of cultural mechanism, relations between culture and power, rep-resentation and construction of Jewish ethnical identity. As cultural studies is a heterogeneous field, this paper connects the following: theory of reception, narratology, cultural anthropology, curator practices, ethnology, and finally theory of performativity

  18. Generating Co-Management at Kasha Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinel, Sandra Lee; Pecos, Jacob

    2012-03-01

    Collaborative planning theory and co-management paradigms promise conflict prevention and the incorporation of indigenous knowledge into plans. Critics argue that without devolved power to culturally legitimate institutions, indigenous perspectives are marginalized. Co-management practice in North America is largely limited to treaty-protected fish and wildlife because federal agencies cannot devolve land management authority. This paper explores why the Pueblo de Cochiti, a federally recognized American Indian Tribe, and the U.S. Bureau of Land Management sustained an rare joint management agreement for the Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument in New Mexico despite a history of conflict over federal control of customary tribal lands that discouraged the Pueblo from working with federal agencies. Based on the participant interviews and documents, the case suggests that clear agreements, management attitudes, and the direct representation of indigenous forms of government helped achieve presumed co-management benefits. However, parties enter these agreements strategically. We should study, not assume, participant goals in collaborative processes and co-management institutions and pay special attention to the opportunities and constraints of federal laws and institutional culture for collaborative resource management with tribal and local communities.

  19. Les Monuments funéraires et l'histoire du Sultanat de Pasai à Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick van der Meij

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Book review: Claude Guillot & Ludvik Kalus, Les Monuments funeraires et l'histoire du Sultanat de Pasai a Sumatra, Avec une contribution de Marie-Odette Scalliet. Paris: Cahier d'Archipel 37, 2008, ISBN 978-2-910513-53-5/ISSN 0244-5301, 402 pp.The book gives an exhaustive typology of the various forms of the gravestones and their variations and uses clear photographs to illustrate the various types. Six types have been identified of which one, the ogival style was imported into the area from Cambay, Gujarat, India. The six types are ogival, accolade, accolade with wings, decorated with spirals, pyramidal, and others, all with subdivisions. The book continues with the languages used in the inscriptions on the stones. Although at the time Malay already functioned as the lingua franca in the area, the language used on the stones is predominantly Arabic. The various texts used in the inscriptions are subsequently divided into epitaphs, containing the name of the deceased often elaborated with extensive soubriquets. The epithets for males and females are usually the same but for women a more extensive number of labels is used such as 'the chaste', 'the virtuous', 'the pure' and so on. In addition, genealogies, eulogies, and dates of death and interment are provided.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v17i1.471

  20. Preconditioned implicit PDE solvers for degenerate parabolic equations with applications to monument conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Semplice, Matteo; Serra-Capizzano, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    We are interested in the mathematical models for the description, in a quantitative way, of the damages induced on the monuments by the action of specific pollutants. A quantitative knowledge of such a degradation is of great importance in precise scheduling of cleaning or deeper restoration works. The analytical study of the solution of the considered models has been conducted and validated by the group of Natalini in Rome. The latter reveals important and partly unexpected features of the time evolution of the damages, but only in an asymptotic sense, that is for large times. However, for a short window of time, we need to couple such a study with a numerical approximation scheme in order to have a quantitative forecast at any time of interest. The novel contribution of this paper relies in the proposal of a fully implicit numerical method, in its convergence/stability analysis, and in the study of the related computational cost. In fact, due to the nonlinear nature of the underlying mathematical model, the...

  1. Community hygiene problems and environmental protection measures in the area of natural monument "Zvezdara forest"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžić Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Community hygiene conditions and equipment represent significant indicators of the quality management of green areas. As a space of exceptional importance for protection of forest complex and biodiversity in an urban environment, Zvezdara forest is placed under protection as a natural monument by an act of the Assembly of the City of Belgrade, where measures of environmental protection and preservation of this area, as one of the most important green areas in this part of the city, are also defined (wind protection role, enrichment of the air with oxygen, thermoregulation, etc., but as well as a space for sports, recreation, picnics. This research presents the community hygiene problems (“illegal landfills”, lack of garbage cans, hydrants, public toilets and drinking fountains, etc. and environmental issues (“wild” construction, landslides, etc.. The aim of this research is the recommendations of environmental protection measures and removal of community hygiene and environmental issues, presented in the final part of this research paper, which could be used in the future during preparation of planning documents, in order to achieve better environmental management in the area of Zvezdara forest. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176008

  2. Preliminary Study on Controlling Black Fungi Dwelling on Stone Monuments by Using a Microwave Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Adriana CUZMAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Microcolonial black fungi have their natural ecological niche on rocks and walls of hypogean environments, playing an important role in the deterioration of materials and aesthetical alteration of monumental stones and mortars. Three black fungi (Sarcinomyces sp., Pithomyces sp. and Scolecobasidium sp. have been isolated from cultural assets of historical interest. These fungal strains have been used to test the microwave heating method as a new control methodology for eradicating the fungal biological growth on cultural stone artifacts. This methodology is based on a 2.45 GHz microwave electromagnetic radiation, generated by a new apparatus with an appropriate applicator. The first results showed the best dose of 65°C for three minutes, for all the investigated fungal strains. This methodology is very promising because is safety for the operator and the environment, and can be easily applied on site. The use of this method to kill biodeteriogens can avoid the application of chemicals formulates potentially dangerous for substrates and environment.

  3. Arsenic accumulation in lichens of Mandav monuments, Dhar district, Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Rajesh; Upreti, D K; Dwivedi, S K

    2009-12-01

    Total arsenic in four different growth forms of lichens growing on old monuments in the city of Mandav, Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh, India was analyzed. Among the different growth forms, foliose lichens were found to accumulate higher amounts of arsenic followed by leprose form. The squamulose and crustose form accumulates the lower concentration of arsenic and ranged between 0.46 +/- 0.03 and 20.99 +/- 0.58 mircog g(-1) dry weight, while the foliose and leprose lichens have ranges from 10.98-51.95 and 28.63-51.20 mircog g(-1) dry weight, respectively. The substrate having high arsenic ranges also exhibit higher ranges of arsenic on lichens growing on them. The cyanolichens exhibit higher concentration of arsenic than the green photobiont-containing squamulose form. The higher concentration of arsenic was found at site having past mining activities. LSD (1%) shows significant difference for As concentration in lichens thallus between the selected sites and species both.

  4. Generating co-management at Kasha Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument, New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinel, Sandra Lee; Pecos, Jacob

    2012-03-01

    Collaborative planning theory and co-management paradigms promise conflict prevention and the incorporation of indigenous knowledge into plans. Critics argue that without devolved power to culturally legitimate institutions, indigenous perspectives are marginalized. Co-management practice in North America is largely limited to treaty-protected fish and wildlife because federal agencies cannot devolve land management authority. This paper explores why the Pueblo de Cochiti, a federally recognized American Indian Tribe, and the U.S. Bureau of Land Management sustained an rare joint management agreement for the Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument in New Mexico despite a history of conflict over federal control of customary tribal lands that discouraged the Pueblo from working with federal agencies. Based on the participant interviews and documents, the case suggests that clear agreements, management attitudes, and the direct representation of indigenous forms of government helped achieve presumed co-management benefits. However, parties enter these agreements strategically. We should study, not assume, participant goals in collaborative processes and co-management institutions and pay special attention to the opportunities and constraints of federal laws and institutional culture for collaborative resource management with tribal and local communities.

  5. Rock fall simulation at Timpanogos Cave National Monument, American Fork Canyon, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, Edwin L.; Dart, Richard L.; Reichenbach, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Rock fall from limestone cliffs at Timpanogos Cave National Monument in American Fork Canyon east of Provo, Utah, is a common occurrence. The cave is located in limestone cliffs high on the southern side of the canyon. One fatality in 1933 led to the construction of rock fall shelters at the cave entrance and exit in 1976. Numerous rock fall incidents, including a near miss in 2000 in the vicinity of the trail below the cave exit, have led to a decision to extend the shelter at the cave exit to protect visitors from these ongoing rock fall events initiating from cliffs immediately above the cave exit. Three-dimensional rock fall simulations from sources at the top of these cliffs have provided data from which to assess the spatial frequencies and velocities of rock falls from the cliffs and to constrain the design of protective measures to reduce the rock fall hazard. Results from the rock fall simulations are consistent with the spatial patterns of rock fall impacts that have been observed at the cave exit site.

  6. Geomaterials and architecture of the medieval monuments of Sardinia (Italy): petrophysical investigations on their construction materials and documentation on the architectonic aspects using digital technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbu, Stefano; Verdiani, Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    The Sardinia Island is in the core area of the Mediterranean Sea. Its position has made it the crossing point of many cultural and political events, but at the same time its isolation has favoured the manifestation of specific and unique Cultural Heritage phenomena. The network of several medieval monuments (i.e., Romanesque churches) disseminated all around the island clearly shows how an architectural language can be declined according to site specific materials and specific artistical and practical choices, always preserving its original logic and grammar. On the bases of different architectural characteristics and petrophysical features of their lithology, a significant number of churches have been chosen from the different medieval geographical-political areas of the Sardinia named (at that time) "Giudicati". Each of these churches were surveyed using the following methods: photography, 3D Laser Scanner for the whole interior and exterior parts (using a Leica HDS 6000 and a Cam/2 Faro Photon units), photogrammetry (using high resolution Nikon D700 and D800e) of a selected set of the extern surface of significant altered samples (aimed to the production of high quality and highly detailed 3D digital models), direct sampling of representative rocks and ancient mortars for geochemical and minero-petrographic analysis using optical polarized microscope, electronic microscopy (SEM), X-Ray fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray diffractometry (XRD). The physical-mechanical properties (real and bulk densities, open and closed porosity, water absorption and saturation, vapour permeability, flexion and compression strengths, etc.) of various geomaterials are determined with helium picnometry, microscopic image analysis, gas-permeability thermostatic chamber, oil-hydraulic press machine, Point Load Test (PLT), abrasimeter. For each church, when there was the occasion, some specific case study has been developed, matching the information about the materials and the specific events

  7. Study on the structures and illumination characteristics of Chinese ancient oil lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiqiang; Zhan, Qingxuan

    2006-01-01

    Chinese ancient firelight lighting had a long history in which developed technologies were applied. The paper concerns itself with a study of Chinese ancient firelight lighting lamps, including the structures and illuminating characteristics of ancient oil lamps.

  8. Jin Quan Museum Gives New Life to Ancient Coins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangJing

    2003-01-01

    The saying goes that ""ancient coins are living history"". The rusty ancient coins that appeared in China's 5,000 years of history, such as seashells, Bu Bi (spade-shaped money), Dao Bi (knife-shaped money), Banliang coins from Qin Dynasty and Wuzhu coins from Han Dynasty, are all the reflections of the China's splendid traditions in politics,

  9. An Ancient Inca Tax and Metallurgy in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of ancient Inca tax rulers and other metallurgical objects in Peru show that the ancient civilizations of the country smelted metals. The analysis shows that the smelters in Peru switched from the production of copper to silver after a tax was imposed on them by the Inca rulers.

  10. Deep sequencing of RNA from ancient maize kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fordyce, Sarah Louise; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen; Rasmussen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The characterization of biomolecules from ancient samples can shed otherwise unobtainable insights into the past. Despite the fundamental role of transcriptomal change in evolution, the potential of ancient RNA remains unexploited - perhaps due to dogma associated with the fragility of RNA. We hy...

  11. Exploring Ancient Skies An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H

    2005-01-01

    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers - events such as the supernova of 1054, the 'lion horoscope' or the 'Star of Bethlehem.' Exploring An...

  12. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of ancient Sampula population in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The archaeological site of Sampula cemetery was located about 14 km to the southwest of the Luo County in Xinjiang Khotan, China, belonging to the ancient Yutian kingdom. 14C analysis showed that this cemetery was used from 217 B.C. to 283 A.D.Ancient DNA was analyzed by 364 bp of the mitochondrial DNA hypervariable region Ⅰ (mtDNA HVR-Ⅰ), and by six restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) sites of mtDNA coding region. We successfully extracted and sequenced intact stretches of maternally inherited mtDNA from 13 out of 16 ancient Sampula samples. The analysis of mtDNA haplogroup distribution showed that the ancient Sampula was a complex population with both European and Asian characteristics. Median joining network of U3 sub-haplogroup and multi-dimensional scaling analysis all showed that the ancient Sampula had maternal relationship with Ossetian and Iranian.

  13. [Changes of marriage age in ancient China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D

    1991-04-01

    The changes in age of marriage in ancient China can be classified into 3 periods. Around 680 B.C., the government set the age of marriage at 20 for men and at 15 for women. Even though it was written in the works of the Confucian school that men should marry at 30 and women at 20, it was never really followed. The Wei and Jin dynasties provided the longest periods of war and social instability. Large numbers of population died because of war or famine. Because heavy taxes were collected on each member of family, many families did not report marriage or childbirth. In order to encourage childbirth, the government reduced the age of marriage to 15 for men and 13 for women. Administrative and legislative regulation were introduced to force people to marry early, especially women. Incentives were given to families with more women. These policies was enforced due to the imbalance of the sex ratio and reduction of population size. As female infanticides were prevalent because of differential values placed on male and female children, it was difficult for men to find partners to marry. Shortage of women was also the result of the polygamy of the rich and the aristocracy. The imbalance of the sex ratio forced women to marry early. Nevertheless, women getting married too early were not fertile. Infant or child mortality was high among children of young mothers. From the Song to the Ching dynasties, the age of marriage was set at 16 for men and 14 for women. In the ancient times, the population of China was around 60-70 million before the Ching dynasty. Generally speaking, the population size was small. Early marriage was necessary and feasible. Even though fertility in ancient times was high, mortality has high also. Life expectancy ranged form 22 to 35. People needed to marry early and have children early to replace themselves. On the other hand, large land areas and inefficient production tools required a larger labor force. Large population size also represented

  14. Mapping The Ancient Maya Landscape From Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Tom; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Peten region of northern Guatemala is one of the last places on earth where major archeological sites remain to be discovered. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper and IKONOS satellite and airborne Star3-I radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as cities, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. The use of bajos for farming has been a source of debate within the professional community for many years. But the recent detection and verification of cultural features within the bajo system by our research team are providing conclusive evidence that the ancient Maya had adapted well to wetland environments from the earliest times and utilized them until the time of the Maya collapse. The use of the bajos for farming is also an important resource for the future of the current inhabitants who are experiencing rapid population growth. Remote sensing imagery is also demonstrating that in the Preclassic period (600 BC- AD 250), the Maya had already achieved a high organizational level as evidenced by the construction of massive temples and an elaborate inter-connecting roadway system. Although they experienced several setbacks such as droughts and hurricanes, the Maya nevertheless managed the delicate forest ecosystem successfully for several centuries. However, around AD 800, something happened to the Maya to cause their rapid decline and eventual disappearance from the region. The evidence indicates that at this time there was increased climatic dryness, extensive deforestation, overpopulation, and widespread warfare. This raises a question that

  15. Cosmologies of the ancient Mediterranean world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Fitzgerald

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cosmology is concerned with the order of the universe and seeks to provide an account, not only of that order, but also of the mind or reason behind it. In antiquity, the cosmos was usually understood religiously, such that the cosmologies of the ancient Mediterranean world were either religious in nature or constituted a reaction to a religiously conceived understanding of the structures of the universe. The oldest form in which ancient cosmologies occur is myth, which, owing to its elasticity as a form, enabled them to be appropriated, adapted and used by different groups. In addition, different cosmologies co-existed within the same ancient culture, each having an authoritative status. This article provides an introductory overview of these cosmological myths and argues that a comparative approach is the most fruitful way to study them. Emphasis is given to certain prominent cosmological topics, including theogony (the genesis of the divine or the relationship of the divine to the cosmos, cosmogony (the genesis of the cosmos, and anthropogony (the origin of humans within the cosmos. Although these myths vary greatly in terms of content and how they envision the origin of the cosmos, many of them depict death as part of the structure of the universe.Kosmologie het te doen met die orde van die heelal en wil rekenskap gee van hierdie orde en ook van die bewussyn daaragter. In die antieke tyd is die kosmos gewoonlik godsdienstig verstaan, met die gevolg dat die kosmologieë van die antieke Mediterreense wêreld óf ’n godsdienstige aard gehad het óf bestaan het uit ’n reaksie op ’n godsdienstig-geskepte begrip van die strukture van die heelal. Mites was die oudste vorm waarin antieke kosmologieë voorkom wat vanweë hulle plooibaarheid dit bewerk het dat hierdie kosmologieë deur verskillende groepe toegeëien, aangepas en gebruik kon word. Hierbenewens het verskillende kosmologieë in die antieke kultuur langs mekaar bestaan – elkeen

  16. The Case of the Missing Ancient Fungal Polyploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Matthew A; Ganley, Austen R D; Gabaldón, Toni; Cox, Murray P

    2016-12-01

    Polyploidy-the increase in the number of whole chromosome sets-is an important evolutionary force in eukaryotes. Polyploidy is well recognized throughout the evolutionary history of plants and animals, where several ancient events have been hypothesized to be drivers of major evolutionary radiations. However, fungi provide a striking contrast: while numerous recent polyploids have been documented, ancient fungal polyploidy is virtually unknown. We present a survey of known fungal polyploids that confirms the absence of ancient fungal polyploidy events. Three hypotheses may explain this finding. First, ancient fungal polyploids are indeed rare, with unique aspects of fungal biology providing similar benefits without genome duplication. Second, fungal polyploids are not successful in the long term, leading to few extant species derived from ancient polyploidy events. Third, ancient fungal polyploids are difficult to detect, causing the real contribution of polyploidy to fungal evolution to be underappreciated. We consider each of these hypotheses in turn and propose that failure to detect ancient events is the most likely reason for the lack of observed ancient fungal polyploids. We examine whether existing data can provide evidence for previously unrecognized ancient fungal polyploidy events but discover that current resources are too limited. We contend that establishing whether unrecognized ancient fungal polyploidy events exist is important to ascertain whether polyploidy has played a key role in the evolution of the extensive complexity and diversity observed in fungi today and, thus, whether polyploidy is a driver of evolutionary diversifications across eukaryotes. Therefore, we conclude by suggesting ways to test the hypothesis that there are unrecognized polyploidy events in the deep evolutionary history of the fungi.

  17. Legacy of the Ancient World: An Educational Guide. Understanding Ancient Culture through Art at the Tampa Museum of Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, R. Lynn

    Among the many contributions made by Ancient Greeks and Romans to contemporary life, are those which influence art, architecture, literature, philosophy, mathematics and science, theater, athletics, religion, and the founding of democracy. The Tampa Museum of Art's classical collection offers a unique opportunity to learn about Ancient Greeks and…

  18. Ancient Forests and the Tree-Ring Reconstruction of Past Climate (Ancient Forests and Dendroclimatology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahle, David (Tree-Ring Laboratory, University of Arkansas)

    2003-02-12

    The original presettlement forests of North America have been dramatically altered, but thousands of unmolested ancient forests survive on remote or noncommercial terrain, including dry-site eastern hardwoods such as chestnut oak and post oak, the pinyon-juniper woodlands of the semiarid West, oak woodlands of California and in northeast Mexico, and the boreal forests of Canada and Alaska. Long tree-ring chronologies derived from these ancient forest remnants provide irreplaceable archives of environmental variability which are crucial for evaluating present and future change. Temperature sensitive tree -ring chronologies from cold treeline environments place 20th century warming into long historical perspective, and moisture sensitive tree-ring chronologies provide analogs to the decadal moisture regimes of the 20th century. These tree-ring data suggests that the 16th century megadrought was the most severe-sustained drought to impact North America in 1500 years, and had huge environmental and social impacts at the dawn of European settlement.

  19. Ancient engineers' inventions precursors of the present

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Cesare

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the inventions and designs of ancient engineers who are the precursors of the present. The period ranges mainly from 300 B.C. to 1600 A.D. with several exceptions. Many of the oldest inventions are documented by archaeological finds, often very little known, mainly from Pompeii, Herculaneum and Stabiae and reveal a surprising modernity in their conception. Most of the inventions presented in the first four parts of the book were conceived up to the late Roman Empire and may be considered as milestones, each in their respective field. The fifth part concentrates on more recent centuries. The sixth part deals with some building construction techniques. Generally, for each of the presented inventions, three elements of research and reference are provided: written documents (the classics), iconic references (coins, bas-reliefs, etc.) and archaeological findings. The authors did not write this book for engineers only; hence they describe all the devices without assuming wide technical knowledge...

  20. Damage and repair of ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, David; Willerslev, Eske; Hansen, Anders

    2005-01-01

    , and extensive degradation. In the course of this review, we will discuss the current aDNA literature describing the importance of aDNA studies as they relate to important biological questions and the difficulties associated with extracting useful information from highly degraded and damaged substrates derived......Under certain conditions small amounts of DNA can survive for long periods of time and can be used as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) substrates for the study of phylogenetic relationships and population genetics of extinct plants and animals, including hominids. Because of extensive DNA...... degradation, these studies are limited to species that lived within the past 10(4)-10(5) years (Late Pleistocene), although DNA sequences from 10(6) years have been reported. Ancient DNA (aDNA) has been used to study phylogenetic relationships of protists, fungi, algae, plants, and higher eukaryotes...

  1. Were the ancient Romans art forgers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Casemen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A popularly held tenet in the historical record on art is that the practice of forgery began in ancient Rome, where sculptures made by craftsmen of the day were passed off as classical Greek antiquities. However, revisionist scholars in recent decades have challenged this perspective. One line of criticism denies that forgery was present in Rome, asserting that the evidence for it has been misunderstood. A softer line suggests that while the traditional view overstates the case, there is still reason to accept that the culture of Rome harbored art forgery. This article assesses the competing claims in light of literary references by Roman authors, physical evidence including inscriptions on sculptures, the phenomenon of Corinthian bronze, the nature of Roman copying, social and economic conditions necessary for art forgery to arise, and what art forgery consists of by definition.

  2. Confocal Terahertz Imaging of Ancient Manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammini, Mariano; Bonsi, Claudia; Ciano, Chiara; Giliberti, Valeria; Pontecorvo, Emanuele; Italia, Paola; DelRe, Eugenio; Ortolani, Michele

    2016-11-01

    Terahertz imaging has the potential to identify and decipher portions of ancient manuscripts, which may be unreadable at infrared and visible wavelengths. We use a scanning confocal terahertz microscope to scan a medieval parchment with music notes and pentagrams written with different inks. The microscope is based on a continuous-wave solid-state source at 0.3 THz, emitting in the free space with a horn antenna, and a high numerical-aperture ellipsoidal reflector. We present terahertz images with diffraction-limited lateral resolution of approximately 0.5 mm, where the different inks all give similar high contrast. Symbols written on the "verso" side of the parchment, barely glimpsed in the near-infrared photograph, leave a clear imprint in the terahertz images. Artifacts due to imperfect flatness of the parchment are also briefly discussed.

  3. The Ancient Evolutionary History of Polyomaviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Buck

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyomaviruses are a family of DNA tumor viruses that are known to infect mammals and birds. To investigate the deeper evolutionary history of the family, we used a combination of viral metagenomics, bioinformatics, and structural modeling approaches to identify and characterize polyomavirus sequences associated with fish and arthropods. Analyses drawing upon the divergent new sequences indicate that polyomaviruses have been gradually co-evolving with their animal hosts for at least half a billion years. Phylogenetic analyses of individual polyomavirus genes suggest that some modern polyomavirus species arose after ancient recombination events involving distantly related polyomavirus lineages. The improved evolutionary model provides a useful platform for developing a more accurate taxonomic classification system for the viral family Polyomaviridae.

  4. Optical spectroscopy of ancient paper and textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missori, M.

    2016-03-01

    Ancient paper and textiles represent a striking example of optically inhomogenous materials whose optical responses are strongly governed by scattering effects. In order to recover the absorption coefficient from non-invasive and non-destructive reflectance measurements a specific approach based on Kubelka-Munk two-flux theory must be applied. In this way quantitative chemical information, such as chromophores concentration, can be obtained, as well as quantitative spectra of additional substances such as pigments or dyes. Results on a folio of the Codex on the Flight of Birds by Leonardo da Vinci and a linen cloth dated back to 1653 and called the Shroud of Arquata, a copy of the Shroud of Turin, will be presented.

  5. Ancient Maya astronomical tables from Xultun, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturno, William A; Stuart, David; Aveni, Anthony F; Rossi, Franco

    2012-05-11

    Maya astronomical tables are recognized in bark-paper books from the Late Postclassic period (1300 to 1521 C.E.), but Classic period (200 to 900 C.E.) precursors have not been found. In 2011, a small painted room was excavated at the extensive ancient Maya ruins of Xultun, Guatemala, dating to the early 9th century C.E. The walls and ceiling of the room are painted with several human figures. Two walls also display a large number of delicate black, red, and incised hieroglyphs. Many of these hieroglyphs are calendrical in nature and relate astronomical computations, including at least two tables concerning the movement of the Moon, and perhaps Mars and Venus. These apparently represent early astronomical tables and may shed light on the later books.

  6. Coal and cremation in ancient Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William E.

    2004-01-01

    After my visit to the adobe-walled archaeological site of Chan Chan, near Trujillo in northern Peru in the summer of 2000 (Geotimes, August 2003), my guide asked if I would like to see the metallurgical furnaces used by the Chimú, ancient residents and master metalsmiths of the region. Chan Chan was the capital of the Chimú Empire (A.D. 1100-1400) and the largest pre-Columbian city in the Americas. These furnaces, my guide explained, were where Andean gold, silver and copper ores were smelted and fabricated into jewelry, masks and plates sought by the Spaniards. We left the main part of the complex, followed a dusty trail, and arrived at a site marked by fresh-looking, redbrown, clinker-like debris.

  7. Study of ancient pottery from Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, J.; Rausz, J.; Gajdošová, M.; Fusek, G.; Sitek, J.; Hucl, M.

    1990-07-01

    Ancient pottery samples collected from south-west Slovakia were studied through subjective observation and by Mössbauer spectroscopy. This method is convenient for determining the provenance and the manufacture of pottery. Transformations, induced by firing the clay and characterized by Mössbauer spectroscopy, give valuable information regarding the manufacture as, for instance, the final temperature of firing in it. The relative abundance of Fe2+ and Fe3+ determines the atmosphere used to fire a pottery. It has been found that the determination of the firing atmosphere obtained through the subjective observation is in good agreement with that obtained using Mössbauer spectroscopy. An unfired and fired clay was also investigated.

  8. Evidence of Ancient Blisters in Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows scoriaceous rocks (rocks containing holes or cavities) on the ground, as well as a transition from rocky terrain (foreground) to smoother terrain (background). Spirit is heading toward the smoother terrain on its way to the 'Columbia Hills.' The holes in some of the rocks may have resulted from 'blisters' formed by water vapor as it escaped lava. This indicates that the rocks were chilled atop an ancient lava flow. Porous rocks such as these, now appearing in abundance, have not been seen since early in the mission. Scientists believe they may have been covered by crater ejecta. This image was taken on sol 110 (April 24, 2004) at a region dubbed 'site 35.'

  9. Recognition of dementia in ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Lu-Ning; Tian, Jin-Zhou

    2012-12-01

    A search of previous records in the literatures was done to summarize the opinions for dementia in ancient China. The earliest description of dementia was traced in the Yellow emperor's internal classic, a book written 2000 years ago. Hua Tuo (AD 140-208) in Han Dynasty first denominated "dementia" in the book, Hua Tuo Shen Yi Mi Zhuan. The pathogenesis of dementia could be generalized as the insufficiency of Qi, a flowing energy; the stagnation of phlegm, a harmful liquid substance in the body; and the blood stasis, which were also regarded as therapeutic targets. Therefore, we can conclude that dementia has been recognized and investigated in traditional Chinese medicine, which is definitely before the industrial civilization era.

  10. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B; Christensen, Torben R

    2007-01-01

    Recent claims of cultivable ancient bacteria within sealed environments highlight our limited understanding of the mechanisms behind long-term cell survival. It remains unclear how dormancy, a favored explanation for extended cellular persistence, can cope with spontaneous genomic decay over......-term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence of bacterial survival in samples up to half a million years in age, making this the oldest independently authenticated DNA to date obtained from viable cells. Additionally, we find strong evidence...... that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability....

  11. Homosexuality in ancient and modern Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Gwan; Hahn, Sook-Ja

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines Korean views on the subject of male homosexuality. Using historical and contemporary sources, it seeks to explain elements of new cultural openness towards homosexuality in modern Korea. Korean people's understanding and knowledge of male homosexuality is ambiguous and limited. In the absence of knowledge and open communication, most Korean people imagine that male homosexuality is an abnormal and impure modern phenomenon. Prejudice and confusion lead most Korean male homosexuals to be estranged from their families, religious communities and non-homosexual peers. Moreover, they are often viewed as the 'carriers' of AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). The purpose of this paper is to examine current Korean perspectives on male homosexuality by exploring both the ancient history of the practice of male homosexuality and current thinking about homosexual life among Koreans, which has played an important part in the formation of contemporary attitudes toward homosexuality.

  12. [Medicine in ancient Mesopotamia - part 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins E Silva, J

    2010-01-01

    The second part embraces exclusively the main characteristics of the medicine in Ancient Mesopotamia, in its main facets: concept of disease, healers and practice. The disease was considered a divine punishment or resultant from a malign influence. Insofar, the medicine began by being preventive, by the use of appropriate amulets or by offerings or sacrifices intending to pacify those malign forces. The treatment of the generality of the diseases privileged the expulsion of those spirits and malign influences from the patient body, purifying it, which was done by the specific intervention of a approximately shipu (clergymanexorcist); not having results, the treatment was continued by the asû (practical healer) that appealed to a group of physical manipulations, limited surgical acts and the administration or application of prescriptions, resultants of the mixture of organic and inorganic substances. In case of failing, the patients (as well as common healthy individuals or rule leaders) could fall back upon a priest diviner (bârû) that, by examination of the organs of an animal especially sacrificed for, would give a final decision about the disease or the future. Besides this more occult facet, nourished in religious faiths and in the magic, the medicine of Ancient Mesopotamia included rational knowledge, certainly as the result of systematic patients observation and semiotic interpretation. From those observations and knowledge referred to the Sumerian period, carefully logged, refined and transmitted to the following generations, it was built a valuable group of texts with the description of symptoms, signs, diagnosis and prognostic of the most common diseases, still identifiable in the present.

  13. Numerical study of turbulent flow over complex aeolian dune fields: the White Sands National Monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William; Chamecki, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The structure and dynamics of fully developed turbulent flows responding to aeolian dune fields are studied using large-eddy simulation with an immersed boundary method. An aspect of particular importance in these flows is the downwind migration of coherent motions associated with Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities that originate at the dune crests. These instabilities are responsible for enhanced downward transport of high-momentum fluid via the so-called turbulent sweep mechanism. However, the presence of such structures and their role in determining the bulk characteristics of fully developed dune field sublayer aerodynamics have received relatively limited attention. Moreover, many existing studies address mostly symmetric or mildly asymmetric dune forms. The White Sands National Monument is a field of aeolian gypsum sand dunes located in the Tularosa Basin in southern New Mexico. Aeolian processes at the site result in a complex, anisotropic dune field. In the dune field sublayer, the flow statistics resemble a mixing layer: At approximately the dune crest height, vertical profiles of streamwise velocity exhibit an inflection and turbulent Reynolds stresses are maximum; below this, the streamwise and vertical velocity fluctuations are positively and negatively skewed, respectively. We evaluate the spatial structure of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities present in the dune field sublayer (shear length L(s) and vortex spacing Λ(x)) and show that Λ(x)=m(dune)L(s), where m(dune)≈7.2 in the different sections considered (for turbulent mixing layers, 7

  14. Buried late holocene paleosols of the nienshants cultural-historical monument in St. Petersburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusakov, A. V.; Nikonov, A. A.; Savelieva, L. A.; Pinakhina, D. V.

    2013-01-01

    Buried Late Holocene paleosols of the Nienshants historical monument at the junction of the Neva and Okhta rivers (St. Petersburg) have been studied. These soils developed from estuary deposits of the Littorina basin with abundant artifacts of the Neolithic and Early Iron ages (7-2 ka BP). The soil cover of the area consists of the mature dark-humus profile-gleyed soils on elevated elements of the mesotopography (3.0-3.5 a.s.l.) and dark-humus gley soils in the local depressions (2.0-2.6 m a.s.l.). The soils are characterized by the low to moderate content of humus of the fulvate-humate type. The beginning of humus formation in the dark-humus gley soil on the slope facing the Neva River is estimated at about 2600 yrs ago; for the darkhumus profile-gleyed soils of the studied paleocatena, at about 2000 and 1780 yrs ago; and for the darkhumus gley soil, at about 1440 years ago. Judging from the spore-pollen spectra, the development of these soils took place in the Subatlantic period under birch and pine-birch forests with the admixture of spruce and alder trees. The gleyed horizons of the buried soil at the depth of 1.6-1.2 m on the Neva-facing slope date back to the Late Subboreal period (2500-2600 yrs ago), when pine-birch-spruce forests were widespread in the area. The new data contribute to our knowledge of the environmental conditions during the Neolithic and Iron ages.

  15. Integration of Jeddah Historical BIM and 3D GIS for Documentation and Restoration of Historical Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, A.; Yaagoubi, R.; Boehm, J.

    2015-08-01

    This work outlines a new approach for the integration of 3D Building Information Modelling and the 3D Geographic Information System (GIS) to provide semantically rich models, and to get the benefits from both systems to help document and analyse cultural heritage sites. Our proposed framework is based on the Jeddah Historical Building Information Modelling process (JHBIM). This JHBIM consists of a Hijazi Architectural Objects Library (HAOL) that supports higher level of details (LoD) while decreasing the time of modelling. The Hijazi Architectural Objects Library has been modelled based on the Islamic historical manuscripts and Hijazi architectural pattern books. Moreover, the HAOL is implemented using BIM software called Autodesk Revit. However, it is known that this BIM environment still has some limitations with the non-standard architectural objects. Hence, we propose to integrate the developed 3D JHBIM with 3D GIS for more advanced analysis. To do so, the JHBIM database is exported and semantically enriched with non-architectural information that is necessary for restoration and preservation of historical monuments. After that, this database is integrated with the 3D Model in the 3D GIS solution. At the end of this paper, we'll illustrate our proposed framework by applying it to a Historical Building called Nasif Historical House in Jeddah. First of all, this building is scanned by the use of a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and Close Range Photogrammetry. Then, the 3D JHBIM based on the HOAL is designed on Revit Platform. Finally, this model is integrated to a 3D GIS solution through Autodesk InfraWorks. The shown analysis presented in this research highlights the importance of such integration especially for operational decisions and sharing the historical knowledge about Jeddah Historical City. Furthermore, one of the historical buildings in Old Jeddah, Nasif Historical House, was chosen as a test case for the project.

  16. Metal exposure and effects in voles and small birds near a mining haul road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Mora, Miguel A.; May, Thomas W.; Phalen, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Voles and small passerine birds were live-captured near the Delong Mountain Regional Transportation System (DMTS) haul road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument in northwest Alaska to assess metals exposure and sub-lethal biological effects. Similar numbers of animals were captured from a reference site in southern Cape Krusenstern National Monument for comparison. Histopathological examination of selected organs, and analysis of cadmium, lead, and zinc concentrations in liver and blood samples were performed. Voles and small birds captured from near the haul road had about 20 times greater blood and liver lead concentrations and about three times greater cadmium concentrations when compared to those from the reference site, but there were no differences in zinc tissue concentrations. One vole had moderate metastatic mineralization of kidney tissue, otherwise we observed no abnormalities in internal organs or DNA damage in the blood of any of the animals. The affected vole also had the greatest liver and blood Cd concentration, indicating that the lesion might have been caused by Cd exposure. Blood and liver lead concentrations in animals captured near the haul road were below concentrations that have been associated with adverse biological effects in other studies; however, subtle effects resulting from lead exposure, such as the suppression of the activity of certain enzymes, cannot be ruled out for some individual animals. Results from our 2006 reconnaissance-level study indicate that overall, voles and small birds obtained from near the DMTS road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument were not adversely affected by metals exposure; however, because of the small sample size and other uncertainties, continued monitoring of lead and cadmium in terrestrial habitats near the DMTS road is advised.

  17. The «discorso per immagini» of Superstudio: from Continuous Monument to Supersurface, 1968-1971

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Lampariello

    2016-06-01

    With a Christmas card from 1968 in the form of a poster, Superstudio inaugurated the production of photomontages which were to bring fame to the group. It is, however, for the competition dedicated to the theme of Architecture and Freedom, launched in 1969 by the Tri-National Biennial of Graz, that photomontage became the preferred graphical tool for the construction of a «discorso per immagini» for Superstudio, a narrative in which project descriptions and traditional forms of architectural representation are replaced by images representing enigmatic volumes, seemingly devoid of function and open to multiple interpretations. Compared to similar and contemporary images produced, amonst others, by Archigram and Yona Friedman, the photomontages of Superstudio do not intend to give veracity to futuristic urban and territorial visions. The impenetrable volumes, designed beyond any program or structural logic, are an expression of absolute rationality and order which Superstudio has been searching for its founding to ward off the crisis and to ward for uncertainty of contemporary era. Graphic techniques used by the group for their representations evolved over the years, and were adapted to achieve different effects, all still oriented to building a strong environmental realism, as far away as possible from comic and surprising effects. Through the «discorso per immagini» the theory of the group became eloquent: after having imagined a new form of land occupation designed as a monumental infinite linear structure that crosses cities and virgin landscapes – the Continuous Monument – Superstudio staged the dissolution of conventional boundaries of architecture, to move towards its «non-physical» re-foundation. After all, the «happy death of architecture should not frighten anybody: we have been preparing for long, increasingly distancing ourselves from the physicality of the construction», as revealed by one of the members of the group in 1971. Key words

  18. Educational use of 3D models and photogrammetry content: the Europeana space project for Cypriot UNESCO monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannides, M.; Chatzigrigoriou, P.; Bokolas, V.; Nikolakopoulou, V.; Athanasiou, V.

    2016-08-01

    Digital heritage data are now more accessible through crowdsourcing platforms, social media and blogs. At the same time, evolving technology on 3D modelling, laser scanning and 3D reconstruction is constantly upgrading and multiplying the information that we can use from heritage digitalisation. The question of reusing the information in different aspects rises. Educators and students are potential users of the digital content; developing for them an adaptable environment for applications and services is our challenge. One of the main objective of the EU Europeana Space project is the development of a holistic approach for educating people (grown ups and kids) on Monuments that are listed at UNESCO world heritage list, in Cyprus. The challenge was the use of Europeana Data (Pictures and the 3D objects) in a way that the information on the platform would be comprehensible by the users. Most of the data have little metadata information and they lack history and cultural value description (semantics). The proposed model ction is based on the cross cultural approach which responds to the multicultural features of present era but at the same time to the contemporary pedagogical and methodological directions. The system uses all innovative digital heritage resources, in order to help the user, in a UX friendly way, to learn about the different phases of the monument, the history, the pathology state, the architectural value and the conservation stage. The result is a responsive platform, accessible through smart devices and desktop computers, (in the frame of "Bring Your Own Device" a.k.a. BYOD) where every Monument is a different course and every course is addressed to different age groups (from elementary level to adults' vocational training).

  19. Retroperitoneal ancient schwannoma: Review of clinico-radiological features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loke, T.K.L.; Lo, K.K.L.; Lo, J.; Chan, J.C.S. [United Christian Hospital, Kwun Tong, (Hong Kong). Department of Diagnostics Radiology; Yuen, N.W.F. [United Christian Hospital, Kwun Tong, (Hong Kong). Department of Histopathology

    1998-05-01

    A case is reported here of an ancient schwannoma in the retroperitoneum. The findings of abdominal ultrasound and CT in a patient with a retroperitoneal ancient schwannoma are presented, and the clinical and radiological features of this unusual tumour are reviewed. The presence of a large, well-delineated complex cystic mass in the deep soft tissues should raise the possibility of an ancient schwannoma. It is important to recognize these tumours as benign with excellent prognosis so as to avoid unnecessary radical surgery. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 12 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Change of ancient hydrology net in Northeast China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui QU; Yu CHU; Fenglong ZHANG; Fuli QI; Xiangkui YANG

    2006-01-01

    Comparing with lithofacies palaeogeography of several great plains, the authors analyzed four great plains in Quaternary diastrophism, the sedimentary facies, sedimentary environment and their evolution from the independent embryonic and river system of ancient Heilongjiang finally to the Halar highland, Songnen Plain, Sanjiang Plain, the Xingkai Lake Plain and various river systems, collected the unification outside the system of Heilongjiang River to release into the sea, south ancient Xialiao River finally piracy Dongliao River, Xialiao River had released into the sea the ancient water law vicissitude and the evolved rule.

  1. A survey of macromycete diversity at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Bandelier National Monument, and Los Alamos County; A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarmie, N.; Rogers, F.J. [Mycology Associates, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The authors have completed a 5-year survey (1991--1995) of macromycetes found in Los Alamos County, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Bandelier National Monument. The authors have compiled a database of 1,048 collections, their characteristics, and identifications. The database represents 123 (98%) genera and 175 (73%) species reliably identified. Issues of habitat loss, species extinction, and ecological relationships are addressed, and comparisons with other surveys are made. With this baseline information and modeling of this baseline data, one can begin to understand more about the fungal flora of the area.

  2. Silsesquioxane-based hybrid nanocomposites with methacrylate units containing titania and/or silver nanoparticles as antibacterial/antifungal coatings for monumental stones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aflori, Magdalena [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Grigore Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania); Simionescu, Bogdana [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Grigore Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania); “Costin D. Nenitescu” Centre of Organic Chemistry, 202B Splaiul Independentei, 7114 Bucharest (Romania); Bordianu, Irina-Elena; Sacarescu, Liviu; Varganici, Cristian-Dragos; Doroftei, Florica; Nicolescu, Alina [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Grigore Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania); Olaru, Mihaela, E-mail: olaruma@icmpp.ro [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Grigore Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania)

    2013-11-20

    Highlights: • Synthesis of nanocomposites with noble metals having high antibacterial efficiency. • Silver nanoparticles antibacterial activity for monumental stone conservation. • A high antibacterial activity while assuring good stone protection. -- Abstract: The present paper reports on the evaluation of two silsesquioxane-based hybrid nanocomposites with methacrylate units containing titania and/or silver nanoparticles aimed as antibacterial coatings for monumental stones. Sol–gel reaction of titanium isopropoxide and/or 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate, in the presence of silver nitrate and a primary amine surfactant, yielded new types of hybrid nanocomposites with high antibacterial/antifungal efficacy. Different polymer behaviours regarding a frequently used monumental stone originating from Romania were evidenced through Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) technique. Conclusions regarding the stones acid-resistant character and lower influence of salt weathering on its durability, as well as a better protective coating containing titania units were revealed.

  3. [Medicine in ancient Mesopotamia--part 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins E Silva, J

    2009-01-01

    The present work summarizes the more elucidating aspects on the foundations and the practice of the medicine in Antique Mesopotamia, since the invention of the writing, more than 5000 thousand years ago, and the beginning of our era. The first part of the article includes a brief perspective about the political and social evolution that characterized those archaic civilizations, as well as the inventions and knowledge further used by the following Humanity's generations. Most of what is known on the subject, as well as the history and political-social events that occurred in the region during that remote epoch, resulted of the laborious decoding of about half a million small clay plates or fragments with text engravings in cuneiform characters that were discovered since the middle of the XIX century in the ruins of the main cities of the Babylonian and Assyrian empires. The second part embraces exclusively the main characteristics of the medicine in Ancient Mesopotamia, in its main facets: concept of disease, healers and practice. The disease was considered a divine punishment or resultant from a malign influence. In that base, the medicine began by being preventive, by the use of appropriate amulets, or by offerings or sacrifices intending to pacify those malign forces. The treatment of the generality of the diseases privileged the expulsion of those spirits and malign influences from the patient body, purifying it, which was done by the specific intervention of an ãshipu (clergyman-exorcist); not having results, the treatment was continued by the asû (practical healer) that appealed to a group of physical manipulations, limited surgical acts and the administration or application of prescriptions, resultants of the mixture of organic and inorganic substances. In case of failing, the patients (as well as individuals or rein leaders) could fall back upon a priest diviner (bârû) who, by examination of the organs of an animal especially sacrificed for the effect

  4. Non-destructive sampling of ancient insect DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Philip Francis; Elias, Scott; Gilbert, Tom

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A major challenge for ancient DNA (aDNA) studies on insect remains is that sampling procedures involve at least partial destruction of the specimens. A recent extraction protocol reveals the possibility of obtaining DNA from past insect remains without causing visual morphological...... of 77-204 base pairs (-bp) in size using species-specific and general insect primers. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The applied non-destructive DNA extraction method shows promising potential on insect museum specimens of historical age as far back as AD 1820, but less so on the ancient permafrost...... damage. We test the applicability of this protocol on historic museum beetle specimens dating back to AD 1820 and on ancient beetle chitin remains from permafrost (permanently frozen soil) dating back more than 47,000 years. Finally, we test the possibility of obtaining ancient insect DNA directly from...

  5. Ancient and modern women in the "Woman's World".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Isobel

    2009-01-01

    Under the editorship of Oscar Wilde, the "Woman's World" exemplified the popular dissemination of Hellenism through periodical culture. Addressing topics such as marriage, politics, and education in relation to the lives of women in the ancient world, the magazine offered an unfamiliar version of the reception of ancient Greece and Rome in late-Victorian aestheticism, one that was accessible to a wide readership because it was often based on images rather than texts. The classical scholar Jane Ellen Harrison addressed herself to this audience of women readers, discussing the similarities between modern collegiate life and the "woman's world" that enabled Sappho to flourish in ancient Greece. The "Woman's World" thus questions gender stereotypes by juxtaposing ancient and modern women, implicitly endorsing varied models of womanhood.

  6. Non-destructive sampling of ancient insect DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Philip Francis; Elias, Scott; Gilbert, Tom;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A major challenge for ancient DNA (aDNA) studies on insect remains is that sampling procedures involve at least partial destruction of the specimens. A recent extraction protocol reveals the possibility of obtaining DNA from past insect remains without causing visual morphological...... damage. We test the applicability of this protocol on historic museum beetle specimens dating back to AD 1820 and on ancient beetle chitin remains from permafrost (permanently frozen soil) dating back more than 47,000 years. Finally, we test the possibility of obtaining ancient insect DNA directly from...... of 77-204 base pairs (-bp) in size using species-specific and general insect primers. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The applied non-destructive DNA extraction method shows promising potential on insect museum specimens of historical age as far back as AD 1820, but less so on the ancient permafrost...

  7. Next Generation Sequencing of Ancient DNA: Requirements, Strategies and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Knapp

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The invention of next-generation-sequencing has revolutionized almost all fields of genetics, but few have profited from it as much as the field of ancient DNA research. From its beginnings as an interesting but rather marginal discipline, ancient DNA research is now on its way into the centre of evolutionary biology. In less than a year from its invention next-generation-sequencing had increased the amount of DNA sequence data available from extinct organisms by several orders of magnitude. Ancient DNA  research is now not only adding a temporal aspect to evolutionary studies and allowing for the observation of evolution in real time, it also provides important data to help understand the origins of our own species. Here we review progress that has been made in next-generation-sequencing of ancient DNA over the past five years and evaluate sequencing strategies and future directions.

  8. Deep sequencing of RNA from ancient maize kernels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Fordyce

    Full Text Available The characterization of biomolecules from ancient samples can shed otherwise unobtainable insights into the past. Despite the fundamental role of transcriptomal change in evolution, the potential of ancient RNA remains unexploited - perhaps due to dogma associated with the fragility of RNA. We hypothesize that seeds offer a plausible refuge for long-term RNA survival, due to the fundamental role of RNA during seed germination. Using RNA-Seq on cDNA synthesized from nucleic acid extracts, we validate this hypothesis through demonstration of partial transcriptomal recovery from two sources of ancient maize kernels. The results suggest that ancient seed transcriptomics may offer a powerful new tool with which to study plant domestication.

  9. Ancestry of modern Europeans: contributions of ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacan, Marie; Keyser, Christine; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

    2013-07-01

    Understanding the peopling history of Europe is crucial to comprehend the origins of modern populations. Of course, the analysis of current genetic data offers several explanations about human migration patterns which occurred on this continent, but it fails to explain precisely the impact of each demographic event. In this context, direct access to the DNA of ancient specimens allows the overcoming of recent demographic phenomena, which probably highly modified the constitution of the current European gene pool. In recent years, several DNA studies have been successfully conducted from ancient human remains thanks to the improvement of molecular techniques. They have brought new fundamental information on the peopling of Europe and allowed us to refine our understanding of European prehistory. In this review, we will detail all the ancient DNA studies performed to date on ancient European DNA from the Middle Paleolithic to the beginning of the protohistoric period.

  10. Deep Sequencing of RNA from Ancient Maize Kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Cappellini, Enrico; Romero-Navarro, J. Alberto; Wales, Nathan; Alquezar-Planas, David E.; Penfield, Steven; Brown, Terence A.; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe; Montiel, Rafael; Jørgensen, Tina; Odegaard, Nancy; Jacobs, Michael; Arriaza, Bernardo; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Willerslev, Eske; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    The characterization of biomolecules from ancient samples can shed otherwise unobtainable insights into the past. Despite the fundamental role of transcriptomal change in evolution, the potential of ancient RNA remains unexploited – perhaps due to dogma associated with the fragility of RNA. We hypothesize that seeds offer a plausible refuge for long-term RNA survival, due to the fundamental role of RNA during seed germination. Using RNA-Seq on cDNA synthesized from nucleic acid extracts, we validate this hypothesis through demonstration of partial transcriptomal recovery from two sources of ancient maize kernels. The results suggest that ancient seed transcriptomics may offer a powerful new tool with which to study plant domestication. PMID:23326310

  11. Anticancer activity of botanical compounds in ancient fermented beverages (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, P E; Christofidou-Solomidou, M; Wang, W; Dukes, F; Davidson, T; El-Deiry, W S

    2010-07-01

    Humans around the globe probably discovered natural remedies against disease and cancer by trial and error over the millennia. Biomolecular archaeological analyses of ancient organics, especially plants dissolved or decocted as fermented beverages, have begun to reveal the preliterate histories of traditional pharmacopeias, which often date back thousands of years earlier than ancient textual, ethnohistorical, and ethnological evidence. In this new approach to drug discovery, two case studies from ancient Egypt and China illustrate how ancient medicines can be reconstructed from chemical and archaeological data and their active compounds delimited for testing their anticancer and other medicinal effects. Specifically, isoscopoletin from Artemisia argyi, artemisinin from Artemisia annua, and the latter's more easily assimilated semi-synthetic derivative, artesunate, showed the greatest activity in vitro against lung and colon cancers. In vivo tests of these compounds previously unscreened against lung and pancreatic cancers are planned for the future.

  12. Mycorrhizal symbiosis: ancient signalling mechanisms co-opted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, R.; Vleeshouwers, V.G.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Mycorrhizal root endosymbiosis is an ancient property of land plants. Two parallel studies now provide novel insight into the mechanism driving this interaction and how it is used by other filamentous microbes like pathogenic oomycetes.

  13. Cases of Trephination in Ancient Greek Skulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Ζafiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trephination, or trepanning, is considered to be one of the most ancient surgical operations with an especially extensive geographical incidence, both in the New World and in the Old. In Europe, more than 200 finds of trephination have been found, from Scandinavia to the Balkans. The technique of trephination or trepanning covers overall the last 10,000 years and exhibits great versatility and adjustability in the knowledge, technical means, therapeutic needs, prejudices and social standards of each period and of each population group. Hippocrates was the one to classify for the first time the kinds of cranial fractures and define the conditions and circumstances for carrying out a trepanning.Aim: The present research aims to investigate the Greek cranial trephinations on sculls from the collection of the Anthropological Museum of the Medical School of Athens that come from archaeological excavations.Method: Skulls were examined by macroscopic observation with reflective light. Furthermore, radiographic representation of the skulls was used.Results: The anthropological researches and the studies of anthropological skeleton remains that came out during archaeological excavations from different eras and areas have given information about the medical practices in the very important geographic area of Greece and in particular, we referred to cases of Greek trephinations.

  14. Studing cranial vault modifications in ancient Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiesler, Vera

    2012-01-01

    The artificial modification of infant cranial vaults through massages or by means of constriction and compression devices constitutes a readily visible, permanent body modification that has been employed cross-culturally to express identity, ethnicity, beauty, status and gender. For those ancient societies that staged head shaping, these cultural correlates may be ascertained by examining cranial shapes together with other data sets from the archaeological record. Studies of skulls modified for cultural reasons also provide important clues for understanding principles in neural growth and physiopathological variation in cranial expansion. This paper focuses on head shaping techniques in Mesoamerica, where the practice was deeply rooted and widespread before the European conquest. It provides a comprehensive review of the Mesoamericanistic research on shaping techniques, implements and taxonomies. An up-dated, interdisciplinary examination of the physiological implications and the cultural meanings of artificially produced head shapes in different times and culture areas within Mesoamerica leads to a discussion of the scope, caveats, and future directions involved in this kind of research in the region and beyond.

  15. Clinical anatomy as practiced by ancient Egyptians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Marios; Hanna, Michael; Alsaiegh, Nada; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2011-05-01

    Egypt is famously known for its Nile and pyramids, yet not many people know that Egypt made possible the origin of the anatomical sciences. Several ancient papyri guide us through the Egyptians' exploration of the human body and how they applied anatomical knowledge to clinical medicine to the best of their knowledge. It is through records, such as the Edwin Smith, Ebers, and Kahun papyri and other literature detailing the work of the Egyptian embalmers, physicians, and Greek anatomists, that we are able to take a glimpse into the evolution of the anatomical sciences from 3000 B.C. to 250 B.C. It is through the Egyptian embalmer that we were able to learn of some of the first interactions with human organs and their detailed observation. The Egyptian physician's knowledge, being transcribed into the Ebers and Edwin Smith papyri, enabled future physicians to seek reference to common ailments for diagnosing and treating a variety of conditions ranging from head injuries to procedures, such as trans-sphenoidal surgery. In Alexandria, Herophilus, and Erasistratus made substantial contributions to the anatomical sciences by beginning the practice of human dissection. For instance, Herophilus described the anatomy of the heart valves along with Erasistratus who demonstrated how blood was prevented from flowing retrograde under normal conditions. Hence, from various records, we are able to unravel how Egypt paved the road for study of the anatomical sciences.

  16. complex multiplication, ancient Indian mathematics ” Vedas”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashri K. Bhongade

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For designing of comple x nu mber multiplier basic idea is adopted from designing of multiplier. An ancient Indian mathematics “Vedas” is used for designing the multiplier unit. The reare 16 sutra in Vedas, from that the Urdhva Tiryak b-hyam sutra (method was selected for implimentation complex multiplication and basically Urdhva Tiryakbhyam sutra appli-cable to all cases of multip licat ion. Any multi-bit mu ltip licat ion can be reduced down to single bit mult iplication and addition by using Urdhva Tiryakbhyam sutra is performed by vertically and crosswise. The partial products and sums are generated in single step which reduces the carry propagation fro m LSB to MSB by using these formulas. In th is paper simu lation result for4bit complex no. multiplication using Booth‟s algorithm and using Vedic sutra are illustrated. The imp le mentation of the Vedic mathe matics and their application to the comple x mu lt iplier was checked parameter like propagation delay.

  17. Ancient solar wind in lunar microbreccias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemens, M. H.; Clayton, R. N.

    1980-03-01

    Possible components of the ancient solar wind, particularly the N-15/N-14 ratio, are investigated on the basis of lunar microbreccia studies. Nitrogen contents and isotope ratios were determined for Apollo 11 and 15 microbreccia samples by means of vacuum pyrolysis techniques. The Apollo 11 soil breccias, which had been closed to the addition of recent solar wind due to their compaction, are found to contain the lowest N-15/N-14 ratios yet reported for the solar wind, extending the range of variation of the ratio to between a delta N-15 of -190% in the past to +120% at present. Nitrogen isotope analysis of the Apollo 15 drill core, which had undergone two episodes of solar wind exposure, also support the secular variation in the N-15 content of the solar wind, which is attributed to spallation reactions in the sun. The formation of the breccias at the Apollo 11 and 15 sites is discussed on the basis of the observed nitrogen systematics, and differences between N-15 and Ne-21 cosmic ray exposure ages implied are attributed to the diffusive loss of neon from lunar soils.

  18. Ancient Archways and Ancestral Halls in Shexian County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    SHEXIAN, located in the southern foothills of Huangshan Mountain in Anhui Province, is an ancient county which was once the seat of Huizhou Prefecture. The area is also known as the birthplace of Anhui merchants. With a long history, favorable geographic position and a unique culture created mainly by those rich Anhui merchants, Shexian has retained a large number of cultural relics, especially ancient archways,

  19. Design of a High Speed Multiplier (Ancient Vedic Mathematics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sridevi, Anirudh Palakurthi, Akhila Sadhula, Hafsa Mahreen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an area efficient multiplier architecture is presented. The architecture is based on Ancient algorithms of the Vedas, propounded in the Vedic Mathematics scripture of Sri Bharati Krishna Tirthaji Maharaja. The multiplication algorithm used here is called Nikhilam Navatascaramam Dasatah. The multiplier based on the ancient technique is compared with the modern multiplier to highlight the speed and power superiority of the Vedic Multipliers.

  20. A brief history of corneal transplantation: From ancient to modern

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra X Crawford; Patel, Dipika V.; Charles NJ McGhee

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights many of the fundamental concepts and events in the development of corneal transplantation - from ancient times to modern. Tales of eye, limb, and even heart transplantation appear in ancient and medieval texts; however, in the scientific sense, the original concepts of corneal surgery date back to the Greek physician Galen (130-200 AD). Although proposals to provide improved corneal clarity by surgical interventions, including keratoprostheses, were better developed by ...