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Sample records for ancient medical knowledge

  1. [Books and medical knowledge in the ancient world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Guglielmo

    2002-01-01

    Books have been used by medici in Antiquity - different kind of books for different kind of medici. Galen is the best example of a medicus with a strong interest not only in theoretical medicine, but also in a material crafting of the books, as well as in the making of the text. But he is an exception. Books in late Antiquity came in two different formats: the codex and the rotulus. The former was to be the one to survive: by the late IV century A.D., rotuli - difficult to handle and to read - had virtually disappeared. Codices were diffused in medical milieux, as well as in other milieux where culture was popularized (e.g. Christianity), probably because they were more user-friendly and manageable even for a non-cultivated public. Codices were used for practical purposes and for practical therapeutics, and allowed the reader to write on margins, thus enhancing their practical usefulness. On the contrary, books had a scanty use for didactic purposes, learning from the voice of the magister being the privileged form of transmission.

  2. The Antikythera mechanism: A remnant of the ancient knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, B.; Garcia, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    We tend to believe that in ancient times the scientific knowledge were scarce and sometimes arises something in history which exceeds our expectations and denies it. This is the case of the protagonist of this article, the Antikythera mechanism, an instrument that has allowed us to better understand those prodigious minds of our ancestors. (Author)

  3. Sun-Earth Day 2005: Ancient Observatories: Timeless Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J. R.; Cline, T.; Lewis, E.; Hawkins, I.; Odenwald, S.; Mayo, L.

    2005-05-01

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum (SECEF) annually promotes an event called Sun-Earth Day. For Sun-Earth Day 2005 SECEF has selected a theme called "Ancient Observatories: Timeless Knowledge. This year's Sun-Earth Day theme is your ticket to a fascinating journey through time as we explore centuries of sun watching by a great variety of cultures. From ancient solar motion tracking to modern solar activity monitoring the Sun has always occupied an important spot in mankind's quest to understand the Universe. Sun-Earth Day events usually are centered on the spring equinox around March 21, but this year there has already been a webcast from the San Francisco Exploratorium and the Native American ruins at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico on the day of winter solstice 2004. There will be another webcast on March 20 live from Chichen Itza, Mexico highlighting the solar alignment that makes a serpent appear on one of the ancient pyramids. The website http://sunearthday.nasa.gov has been developed to provide the necessary resources and opportunities for participation by scientists and educators in giving school or general public programs about Sun-Earth Day. The goal is to involve as much of the student population and the public in this event as possible and to help them understand the importance of the Sun for ancient and modern peoples. Through engaging activities available on the website, classrooms and museums can create their own event or participate in one of the opportunities we make available. Scientists, educators, amateur astronomers, and museums are invited to register on the website to receive a free packet of materials about Sun-Earth Day for use in making presentations or programs about the event. Past and future Sun-Earth Days will be discussed as well.

  4. An Application of the Cosmologic Concepts and Astronomical Symbols in the Ancient Medical Science and Astrology Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikichyan, H. V.

    2015-07-01

    Employing the cosmologic concepts and astronomical symbols, the features of the ancient subjective approach of the achievement or perception of the knowledge and its systematic delivery ways are presented. In particular, the ancient systems of the natural medical science and the art of astrology are discussed, whereas the relations of the five cosmological elements, three dynamical agents, nine luminaries and twelve zodiac signs are applied. It is pointed out some misunderstandings encountered in the contemporary interpretation on the evaluation of ancient systems of the knowledge.

  5. "At times these ancient facts seem to lie before me like a patient on a hospital bed'--retrospective diagnosis and ancient medical history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leven, K H

    2004-01-01

    Research in ancient medical history, Greek and Roman as well as Mesopotamian and Egyptian, is usually done by philologically trained scholars; the ability to read texts in their original language is fundamental (though not sufficient) for any substantial work. There is, however, in such works the notion that something may be missing in fully understanding medicine of a certain time and culture. Does a medical historian of ancient medicine need, in addition to his philological and historical skills, a medical education? And in what way is a 'medical approach' to ancient medicine useful? Is it possible to stand at the bedside of a Hippocratic patient as a clinician or reconstruct the 'pathocoenosis', as Mirko D. Grmek (+ 2000) coined it, of ancient Greece? The present paper outlines the problem of applying present medical knowledge to ancient sources and touches on the topic of primary perception of disease and illness. An important aspect is that disease entities change in their socio-cultural setting. Examples ranging from the supposed Lupus erythematodes of the Assyrian king Esarhaddon to cases in the Hippocratic Epidemiae and plague descriptions of Greek authors illustrate the problem of retrospective diagnosis.

  6. The history of parkinsonism: descriptions in ancient Indian medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovallath, Sujith; Deepa, P

    2013-05-01

    The clinical syndrome of parkinsonism was identified in ancient India even before the period of Christ and was treated methodically. The earliest reference to bradykinesia dates to 600 bc. Evidences prove that as early as 300 bc, Charaka proposed a coherent picture of parkinsonism by describing tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and gait disturbances as its components. The scenario was further developed by Madhava, Vagbhata, and Dalhana all through history. The 15th-century classic "Bhasava rajyam" introduced the term kampavata, which may be regarded as an ayurvedic analogue of parkinsonism. The pathogenesis of kampavata centered on the concept of imbalance in the vata factor, which controls psychomotor activities. The essential element in therapy was the administration of powdered seed of Mucuna pruriens, or atmagupta, which as per reports, contains 4%-6% of levodopa. In addition to proving the existence and identification of parkinsonism in ancient India, the study points to the significance of ancient Indian Sanskrit works in medical history. Copyright © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  7. Ancient Athenian Democratic Knowledge and Citizenship: Connectivity and Intercultural Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundara, Jagdish S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the implications that ancient Athens had for modern representative democracies and the links that can be made to the philosophical principles that form the essence of intercultural education. Such an exploration shows that modern democratic societies have ignored many key aspects of the important legacy left to us by these…

  8. A phytochemical analysis of some ancient narcotics, with comparative notes on some South African folk medical practices / Marlene van den Berg

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Berg, Marlene

    2008-01-01

    Ancient medicine is a fast-growing field of research at international level, but since successful research implies both medical (or pharmaceutical) knowledge and the ability to read Latin and Greek, only one classicist in South Africa has published on the topic in co-operation with a medical doctor. Although the professional and scholarly literature on ancient Greek and Roman medicine has proliferated in the last few decades, few studies have appeared that focus on narcotics and analgesic...

  9. Medical practice in the ancient Asclepeion in Kos island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironidou-Tzouveleki, Maria; Tzitzis, Panagiotis M

    2014-01-01

    Asclepius was called "a great doctor for every disease". Asclepius was born in Trikala, Thessaly, in the middle of Greece, where the first Asclepeion was established. Patients coming to the Asclepeia were first taking cleaning baths and then entered the main Asclepeion, where they were examined by priests-therapists and were accommodated in certain areas-rooms of the Asclepeion. Inscriptions found in marble plaques describe treatment of some diseases and the sum of money paid for every treatment. These were the first medical records and fees in ancient Greece. Patients were considered as a unique psychosomatic entity. Patients followed many instructions in order to relax and rest, submitted daily baths, exercises, massages, entertainment attending theatrical or poetic or athletic races, reading special books, promenades, special diets or were kept fasting and were instructed to take many kinds of medicine per os, suppositories, ointments, eye drops etc. The main diseases treated in the Asclepeia were: chronic neuropsychological disorders, skin diseases and chronic lung diseases. Other diseases gynaecological, ophthalmic and surgical were also treated. Today, like in the ancient Asclepeia, the psychology of patients is important and certain preparatory drugs are administered before the actual main treatment of surgery or of some psychic disorders. In Aalborg, Denmark, a large prototype medical university hospital, is scheduled to be built in an area of 350acres within the next 15 years. The psychosomatic dogma and principals of a "green building" will be well respected. The Asclepeion of the island of Kos, where as we know Hippocrates was born, was built on the 5th century B.C. and functioned till the 4th century A.D. and had three floors. The Asclepeion had many dedications, of which many parts of the human body in marble: an ear, a damaged penis and two breasts. Surgical tools were also found and are now exhibited in the Dion Museum. After the 4th century A.D. the

  10. Terminological Analysis of the Corpus of Ancient Greek Medical Writings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Čengić

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Selected writings of Corpus Hippocraticum, the oldest extant body of medical texts which were written in the period between the 5th and the 4th century BC, were subject of linguistic research based on discourse analysis. From this aspect, Hippocratic texts are treated as representatives of one of the first professional jargons of western civilization. The emphasis is placed on the formal levels of linguistic description in order to establish formal peculiarities of the Hippocratic discourse. Approach to formal characteristics of Hippocratic discourse stresses some wider contextual elements like interactions between philosophy and medicine, elements of orally established society, spread of literacy, creation of domain of public communication and influence of its rules to different aspects of communication in ancient Greece. The formal linguistic features of the   Hippocratic discourse are classified into groups of dialect features, terminological differentiation, rhetoric techniques and strategies, structural characteristics, presence of author and audience, syntactical peculiarities and elements of the context. Terminological differentiation in Hippocratic discourse is a very important level of formal description because it is considered to be one of the hallmarks of a professional discourse. It refers to the existence of a specific subset in the linguistic system which includes specially created technical terms. Hippocratic discourse shows different degrees of technical differentiation. The formalisation of the presence of author and audience is considered to be an essential element of a technical discourse as well. It is considered to be a later element which entered the technical discourse under the influence of sophistic rhetoric and rules of public communication (doctrine of persuasive communication. Approach to the  dimension of  context includes analysis of all the utterances which  relate to various aspects of wider social context

  11. ANCIENT ROME WORLDWIDE LINKS: SHARING KNOWLEDGE TO PRESERVE THE ROOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Paolini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the collaboration agreement between the SAPIENZA, S.D.R.A. Department and the "Collectivité territoriale de Corse, secteur Archéologie", this project tried to set, accomplished on the archaeological site of the ancient roman city of Aléria, a complex program of selected dataset structured for many different uses and fruitions. As for any kind of survey, the initial project definition, described in this paper, constitutes the most delicate part of the work, in this instance a certain additional significance it has to be given to it, cause of the multiple interests focalized on the Aléria site, where a new digging season is expected after a sixty years long interruption. The process can be synthesized as follows: various surveying technologies were applied on the site, as 3D Laser scanning, Topography, and GPS; Dense Stereo Matching was accomplished on a sample object there excavated and actually exposed in the local Carcopino Museum, while Computational Photography techniques were realized on an object exposed in Rome in the Etruscan Museum of "Villa Giulia" as the other twin found and exposed in Aléria, to be a purpose for future collaborations. A GIS and WEBGIS workflow followed, using a specific application in its latest version, thus collecting all of the actual and previous documents, providing to build up a complete 3D geo-database with a space and time referenced 3D Web scene to share in the GIS online Cloud Platform. These applied procedures aim to spread the complex results, articulated in different sets on the social media world.

  12. [Norwegian physicians' knowledge of Latin medical terminology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindekleiv, Haakon

    2005-12-15

    It is well established that medical terminology is firmly based in Latin and Greek. However, teaching in Latin and medical terminology is not adequate in the medical education in Norway. A questionnaire on medical practitioners' knowledge of medical Latin was handed out among doctors participating in further education at the University of Tromsø, spring 2005. The questionnaire was divided into three parts: knowledge of Latin medical words, Latin names on diseases, and grammar (Latin word endings). The response rate was 102/121 (84 %).; 102 doctors participated, including 51 general practitioners. The understanding of Latin medical words was generally good. 70 % (71/102) of the doctors had less than three errors. The knowledge of Latin names for diseases was also quite good, with 73 % (74/102) having less than three errors. However, there were many grave mistakes. The ability to give correct word endings in plural nominative and singular genitive was almost absent; 85 % (87/102) made four or more errors. Although Norwegian medical practitioners have a certain degree of skills in medical Latin, their knowledge is not sufficient. Marginal knowledge of important medical terms may complicate communication between doctors. A compulsory minimum of training in medical nomenclature should be a part of the curriculum in medical schools.

  13. Knowledge and awareness of medical doctors, medical students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Various studies have reported poor awareness and knowledge of dentistry in the Nigerian population. There is, however, paucity of information assessing the knowledge and awareness of medical doctors/students and nurses about dentistry. The present study is aimed at determining the knowledge and ...

  14. Awareness and Knowledge of Ergonomics Among Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This cross‑sectional descriptive study aimed at assessing the level of awareness and knowledge of the science of ergonomics among Medical Laboratory Scientists in Benin City, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A total of 106 medical laboratory scientists comprising 64 and 42 in public and private laboratories, ...

  15. Recognizing tacit knowledge in medical epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Stephen G

    2006-01-01

    The evidence-based medicine movement advocates basing all medical decisions on certain types of quantitative research data and has stimulated protracted controversy and debate since its inception. Evidence-based medicine presupposes an inaccurate and deficient view of medical knowledge. Michael Polanyi's theory of tacit knowledge both explains this deficiency and suggests remedies for it. Polanyi shows how all explicit human knowledge depends on a wealth of tacit knowledge which accrues from experience and is essential for problem solving. Edmund Pellegrino's classic treatment of clinical judgment is examined, and a Polanyian critique of this position demonstrates that tacit knowledge is necessary for understanding how clinical judgment and medical decisions involve persons. An adequate medical epistemology requires much more qualitative research relevant to the clinical encounter and medical decision making than is currently being done. This research is necessary for preventing an uncritical application of evidence-based medicine by health care managers that erodes good clinical practice. Polanyi's epistemology shows the need for this work and provides the structural core for building an adequate and robust medical epistemology that moves beyond evidence-based medicine.

  16. HIGHER SPIRITUAL AND SELF-REGULATIVE CAPACITIES IN ANCIENT KNOWLEDGE SYSTEM - BUDDHISM (APPROACH OF HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G V Ozhiganova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of research on higher spiritual and self-regulative capacities in the context of ancient oriental system of knowledge is expressed. The historical and psychological methods of studying ancient knowledge are described. The methods of the history of psychology, proposed by the author, are used: such as the method of revealing scientific knowledge reserves, aimed at restoring and practical mastering the psychological heritage of ancient times, as well as the experimental method, involving the verification of psychological facts, phenomena and laws described in ancient texts, with the help of modern scientific research methods (observation, experiment, statistical data. Meditative practices and philosophical concepts of Buddhism are considered from the standpoint of modern psychology. The ancient Buddhist meditative practices “Contemplation of the mind”, linked to the concept of “mindfulness” is described. It is concluded that the concept of the mind is the key in the Buddhist system of knowledge. The understanding of the mind in the ancient Buddhist doctrine is compared with a modern interpretation of the concept of “mind” in psychological science, as well as its content is revealed due to psychological terms “higher self-regulative capacities” and “moral-value aspect of spiritual capacities”. It is revealed that in the Buddhist system of knowledge there can be seen close links between higher self-regulative capacities and moral-value aspect of spiritual capacities. The results of empirical studies of the ancient meditative practices and their positive impact on self-regulation of the modern people are submitted.

  17. Knowledge of medical ethics among Nigerian medical doctors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The questionnaire, apart from the bio‑data, also sought information on undergraduate and postgraduate training in medical ethics, knowledge about the principles of biomedical ethics and the ethical dilemmas encountered in daily medical practice. Results: One hundred and ninety (190) respondents returned the filled ...

  18. Concept graphics: a language for medical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, B; Kaltenbach, M; Zanazaka, J; Echave, V

    1992-01-01

    This paper makes a case for Concept Graphics, a novel form of medical knowledge representation. Concept Graphics are assemblies of icons each of which has a precise meaning. Individual icons are metaphors of the object or process they represent. Concept Graphics are analogs of pathological situations, their symptoms, signs and other relevant components necessary for a diagnosis. We propose three principal areas of application for Concept Graphics: medical education, medical records management and research based on medical records. Our earlier work in medical education showed a clear advantage in using Concept Graphics in parallel with text of equivalent information content, over text alone. A Concept Graphics based intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) is being developed. In the area of medical records management we are developing a system for the rapid identification of relevant records based on rapid visual screening. The Concept Graphics based system can reveal properties common to specific groups of records. As such the graphics are a research tool.

  19. The rise and decline of character: humoral psychology in ancient and early modern medical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Jacques

    2009-07-01

    Humoralism, the view that the human body is composed of a limited number of elementary fluids, is one of the most characteristic aspects of ancient medicine. The psychological dimension of humoral theory in the ancient world has thus far received a relatively small amount of scholarly attention. Medical psychology in the ancient world can only be correctly understood by relating it to psychological thought in other fields, such as ethics and rhetoric. The concept that ties these various domains together is character (êthos), which involves a view of human beings focused on clearly distinguishable psychological types that can be recognized on the basis of external signs. Psychological ideas based on humoral theory remained influential well into the early modern period. Yet, in 17th-century medicine and philosophy, humoral physiology and psychology started to lose ground to other theoretical perspectives on the mind and its relation to the body. This decline of humoralist medical psychology can be related to a broader reorientation of psychological thought in which the traditional concept of character lost its central position. Instead of the focus on types and stable character traits, a perspective emerged that was primarily concerned with individuality and transient passions.

  20. [Clinical application regularity of Fengfu (GV 16) acupoint: research on ancient Chinese medical literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jia-Ying; Liu, Yun; Xi, Shu-Han; Xu, Neng-Gui

    2015-04-01

    To sum up the application regularity of Fengfu (GV 16) acupoint in clinical practice through studying the ancient literature from the early stage of the Qin Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty. Chinese ancient medical literature relevant to Fengfu (GV 16) was searched to establish a database containing information of clinical indications of GV 16, supplementary acupoints, relevant needling techniques, moxibustion methods, etc. A total of 277 articles about Fengfu (GV 16) for 61 types of clinical disorders or diseases involving internal medicine, surgery, paediatrics, five sense organs, etc. were obtained from 2,200 ancient Chinese medical books. Fengfu (GV 16) alone was most frequently used for treatment of disorders caused by exogenous factors, such as common cold, neck pain, headache, epilepsy, mania, dizziness, throat dumb, leg-foot problems, etc. , with the auxiliary acupoint being Fengchi (GB 20). In addition, 147 articles relevant to needling and moxibustion stimulation of GV 16 (7 types of methods) were found. Fengfu (GV 16) is mainly used for local problems in the human body, and also for problems occurred along the meridian trace, aiming at the pathogenesis. When employed, GV 16 is often stimulated by acupuncture needle.

  1. Knowledge Management within the Medical University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauzina, Svetlana Ye; Tikhonova, Tatiana A; Karpenko, Dmitriy S; Bogopolskiy, Gennady A; Zarubina, Tatiana V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work is studying the possibilities of ontological engineering in managing of medical knowledge. And also practical implementation of knowledge management system (KMS) in medical university. The educational process model is established that allows analyzing learning results within time scale. Glossary sub-system has been developed; ontologies of educational disciplines are constructed; environment for setup and solution of situational cases is established; ontological approach to assess competencies is developed. The possibilities of the system for solving situation tasks have been described. The approach to the evaluation of competence has been developed.

  2. Awareness and Knowledge of Ergonomics Among Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of 106 medical laboratory scientists comprising 64 and 42 in public and private laboratories, respectively, were ... were obtained from the study participants using a questionnaire and subsequently analyzed with the ... Knowledge of risk factors for the development of musculoskeletal disorders was reported by. 8 of 27 ...

  3. The Antikythera mechanism: A remnant of the ancient knowledge; El mecanismo de Antikythera: un retazo del conocimiento antiguo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, B.; Garcia, J. M.

    2015-07-01

    We tend to believe that in ancient times the scientific knowledge were scarce and sometimes arises something in history which exceeds our expectations and denies it. This is the case of the protagonist of this article, the Antikythera mechanism, an instrument that has allowed us to better understand those prodigious minds of our ancestors. (Author)

  4. Historical perspective on the medical use of cannabis for epilepsy: Ancient times to the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Daniel; Sirven, Joseph I

    2017-05-01

    There has been a dramatic surge in the interest of utilizing cannabis for epilepsy treatment in the US. Yet, access to cannabis for research and therapy is mired in conflicting regulatory policies and shifting public opinion. Understanding the current state of affairs in the medical cannabis debate requires an examination of the history of medical cannabis use. From ancient Chinese pharmacopeias to the current Phase III trials of pharmaceutical grade cannabidiol, this review covers the time span of cannabis use for epilepsy therapy so as to better assess the issues surrounding the modern medical opinion of cannabis use. This article is part of a Special Issue titled Cannabinoids and Epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. How Knowledge of Ancient Egyptian Women Can Influence Today's Gender Role: Does History Matter in Gender Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Radwa; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Moftah, Marie Z; Karim, Ahmed A

    2016-01-01

    A gender role is a set of societal norms dictating what types of behaviors are considered desirable or appropriate for a person based on their sex. However, socially constructed gender roles can lead to equal rights between genders but also to severe disadvantages and discrimination with a remarkable variety between different countries. Based on social indicators and gender statistics, "women in the Arab region are on average more disadvantaged economically, politically, and socially than women in other regions." According to Banduras' social learning theory, we argue that profound knowledge of the historical contributions of Ancient Egyptian female pioneers in science, arts, and even in ruling Egypt as Pharaohs can improve today's gender role in Egypt and Middle Eastern countries. Therefore, this article provides an elaborate review of the gender role of women in Ancient Egypt, outlining their prominence, influence, and admiration in ancient societies, and discusses the possible psychological impact of this knowledge on today's gender role. We suggest that future empirical research should investigate how enhancing the knowledge of women from Ancient Egypt can improve today's gender role in Egypt and the Middle East. Bandura's social learning theory is outlined as a possible framework for future research.

  6. How Knowledge of Ancient Egyptian Women Can Influence Today’s Gender Role: Does History Matter in Gender Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Radwa; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Moftah, Marie Z.; Karim, Ahmed A.

    2017-01-01

    A gender role is a set of societal norms dictating what types of behaviors are considered desirable or appropriate for a person based on their sex. However, socially constructed gender roles can lead to equal rights between genders but also to severe disadvantages and discrimination with a remarkable variety between different countries. Based on social indicators and gender statistics, “women in the Arab region are on average more disadvantaged economically, politically, and socially than women in other regions.” According to Banduras’ social learning theory, we argue that profound knowledge of the historical contributions of Ancient Egyptian female pioneers in science, arts, and even in ruling Egypt as Pharaohs can improve today’s gender role in Egypt and Middle Eastern countries. Therefore, this article provides an elaborate review of the gender role of women in Ancient Egypt, outlining their prominence, influence, and admiration in ancient societies, and discusses the possible psychological impact of this knowledge on today’s gender role. We suggest that future empirical research should investigate how enhancing the knowledge of women from Ancient Egypt can improve today’s gender role in Egypt and the Middle East. Bandura’s social learning theory is outlined as a possible framework for future research. PMID:28105022

  7. Searching the seat of the soul in Ancient Greek and Byzantine medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykouras, Eleftherios; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Ploumpidis, Demetrios N

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this paper was to examine the ancient and medieval concepts about the seat of the mental functions, as exposed in Greek texts from Antiquity to Byzantine times. The review of the philosophical and medical literature from the original ancient Greek language from the Homeric epics to the Holy Fathers of Christianity, as the problem of the seat of the soul remained without a certain answer through the centuries. Primitive concepts attributed great significance to the soul and dictated cannibal behaviours for the possession and eating of the defeated enemy's heart. Mental functions, such as thinking, feeling and mainly those related to affective manifestations, were attributed to the heart and to some other internal organs (liver, diaphragm) from the times of Greek mythology. Philosophy and empirical medicine had underestimated the brain probably because it is a 'silent' organ, contrary to the palpitating heart, with its obvious participations in the emotional reactions. The role of the brain as the mental organ and the seat of emotions has been gradually recognized. The permanent question of the seat of the soul had been for many centuries a critical dispute and the contribution of Greek philosophical and medical thought was decisive for the contemporary transformation of the whole concept.

  8. Basic knowledge of epilepsy among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiamkao, Siriporn; Tiamkao, Somsak; Auevitchayapat, Narong; Arunpongpaisal, Suwanna; Chaiyakum, Aporanee; Jitpimolmard, Suthipun; Phuttharak, Warinthorn; Phunikhom, Kutcharin; Saengsuwan M, Jiamjit; Vannaprasaht, Suda

    2007-11-01

    The medical students' knowledge about basic medical neuroscience in the preclinical level may be fragmented and incomplete. Evaluate the knowledge of students prior to a lecture on epilepsy in clinical level. One hundred ten fourth-year medical students' knowledge was accessed by a self-administered questionnaire. The presented results revealed that 91.8% of respondents knew that epilepsy arose from a transient dysfunction in the brain. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCs) were the most common type (91.5%) they knew and absence seizures were the least common type (33.6%) they knew. All of them knew that eating pork and punishment of gods did not cause epilepsy. However 50% thought that genetics was a cause and 80.3% did not know that stroke and sleep deprivation (92.7%) cause epilepsy. About treatment and prognosis, only 28.2% of respondents thought epilepsy can be cured and patients should take antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for seizure free 2-5 years (48.2%), life long (33.6%). They knew that the patients should be prohibited from driving (80%), working on machinery (74.5%), and (27.3%) avoid drinking. However, they knew that the patients could marry (100%), get pregnant (98.2%), and lactate (91.9%). Regarding the first aid management, 50.9% of them recommended that placing a piece of wood between the teeth during a seizure and perform chest compressions (20.0%). Means knowledge scores is about 60%, the highest score is the definition of epilepsy (90.2%) and the lowest is type of seizure (43%). The findings indicated that lecturers should review aspects ofpathophysiology and emphasize on type of seizure, cause, consequences, and prognosis including first-aid management.

  9. Miracles and the limits of medical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempsey, William E

    2002-01-01

    In considering whether medical miracles occur, the limits of epistemology bring us to confront our metaphysical worldview of medicine and nature in general. This raises epistemological questions of a higher order. David Hume's understanding of miracles as violations of the laws of nature assumes that nature is completely regular, whereas doctrines such as C. S. Peirce's "tychism" hold that there is an element of absolute chance in the workings of the universe. Process philosophy gives yet another view of the working of nature. Physicians have no epistemological grounds for declaring any cure to be miraculous. Miracles are theological (or philosophical) entities, and not medical entities. All physicians can do is to determine whether or not a cure is scientifically inexplicable according to the current epistemological standards of medical science. As these standards change, what is currently unexplainable may become explainable. However, we can also come to realize that our current explanations are in fact unsatisfactory. Our justifications of knowledge claims about miracles will depend on our views about determinism and indeterminism. If the universe is not a deterministic one, we should be open to the possibility of encountering what appear to us as sui generis events. These would not be violations of immutable laws of nature, but manifestations of the true workings of nature, and certainly causes for wonder.

  10. [Steri's graffiti of Palermo and medical knowledges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Renato; Salerno, Alfredo

    2007-01-01

    The graffiti left by prisoners in the Inquisition gaols of Palermo's represent a testimony of the historical period between 1600 to 1793. In that period, by order of the viceroy Caracciolo, all the testimonies were removed at the same time in which the Inquisition court was suppressed. In this work the historical subdivision between sacred and profane themes is analyzed with the purpose to study human body in an anthropological key as a language in condition of limited freedom and under torture. Many of the profane graffiti are devoted to medical knowledge suggesting that doctors were involved in the activities of this religious court likewise happened in civil courts. Giovanni Filippo Ingrassia, the well-known proto-medical physician of the kingdom, in his treatise, wrote in 1578 and entitled Methodus dandi relationes ... reports many examples of the role of medical doctors in attesting fitness to torture of inquired people or the necessity of graduating torture when they were hill or in a morbid conditions.

  11. Handling of medical knowledge in sport: Athletes' medical opinions, information seeking behaviours and knowledge sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbing, Kim-Kristin; Thiel, Ansgar

    2016-01-01

    Medical care in sport comprises a variety of treatments, from scientifically proven biomedicine to complementary and alternative medicine. Information and knowledge about these diverse treatment options is spread by different sources. Thus, athletes encounter information of varying content, quality and background. This exploratory pilot study addresses athletes' medical opinions, their health-related information seeking behaviour and the knowledge sources they utilise. Questionnaires were used to examine n = 110 German athletes (n(male) = 69, n(female) = 41; mean(age) = 24.28 ± 4.97 years) at high performance levels (national team and/or European championship and/or World championship n = 22; first national league and/or German championship n = 51, second national league and/or State championship n = 37) from various Olympic sports. A cluster analysis regarding the athletes' attitudes towards sport medicine exhibited four different types of athletes: 'the autonomous athlete', 'the open-minded athlete', 'the functionalistic athlete' and 'the conservative athlete'. In general, our findings show that the most used and trusted information sources are physicians and physiotherapists. However, medical information is trusted the most if it is experience- and field-tested, and comes from the athletes' sport-specific network. Our findings also suggest that professional medical knowledge management in competitive sport is needed.

  12. Knowledge of ancient Hindu surgeons on Hirschsprung disease: evidence from Sushruta Samhita of circa 1200-600 BC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveenthiran, Venkatachalam

    2011-11-01

    Congenital megacolon is eponymously named after Harold Hirschsprung, who accurately described the clinical features in 1886. Recent research revealed that this condition is perhaps well known for centuries before him. This article is intended to examine if ancient Hindu surgeons knew about congenital megacolon. Sushruta Samhita is an ancient tome of Ayurvedic surgery compiled by Sushruta (circa 1200-600 bc). Passages of interest were identified by browsing the authentic English translation of the compendium. Accuracy of translation was verified by comparing to the original Sanskrit verses with the help of a Sanskrit scholar. A condition called Baddha Gudodaram, described in the Samhita, closely resembles Hirschsprung disease. There are indications that ancient Indians even deciphered the etiology as defective vayu alias vata (nerves). Although the ailment was considered incurable, a palliative operation has been discussed. Descriptive details of the operation match with that of sigmoid colostomy. Evidence from Sushruta Samhita indicates that Hindu surgeons of prehistoric India probably had considerable knowledge about Hirschsprung disease. Further research, corroborating other sources of evidence, is required to confirm this claim. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Knowledge of medication abortion among adolescent medicine providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Mandy S; Makino, Kevin K; Phelps, Rachael

    2012-04-01

    Adolescents are at high risk for unintended pregnancy and abortion. The purpose of this study was to understand whether providers caring for adolescents have the knowledge to counsel accurately on medication abortion, a suitable option for many teenagers seeking to terminate a pregnancy. Using an online questionnaire, a survey related to medication abortion was administered to U.S. providers in the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. We conducted χ(2) analyses to evaluate the knowledge of medication abortion by reported adolescent medicine fellowship training, and to compare responses to specific knowledge questions by medication abortion counseling. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between providers' self-assessed and actual knowledge using ANOVA. We surveyed 797 providers, with a 54% response rate. Almost 25% of respondents incorrectly believed that medication abortion was not very safe, 40% misidentified that it was abortion are rare. Those who counseled on medication abortion had more accurate information in all knowledge categories, except for expected outcomes. Medication abortion knowledge did not differ by adolescent medicine fellowship completion. Only 32% of respondents had very good knowledge, and self-assessed knowledge minimally predicted actual knowledge (r(2) = .08). Knowledge regarding medication abortion safety, effectiveness, expected outcomes, and complications is suboptimal even among adolescent medicine fellowship trained physicians, and self-assessment poorly predicts actual knowledge. To ensure pregnant teenagers receive accurate counseling on all options, adolescent medicine providers need better education on medication abortion. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of Restraint in the Psychiatric Setting: Knowledge of Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of Restraint in the Psychiatric Setting: Knowledge of Medical Staff in a Nigerian Psychiatric Hospital. ... no training in the use of restraint. Conclusion: Respondents' knowledge on some aspects of restraint was poor and this may be due to lack of training. Keywords: restraint, psychiatric ward, knowledge, medical staff ...

  15. The rise and decline of character: humoral psychology in ancient and early modern medical theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.

    2009-01-01

    Humoralism, the view that the human body is composed of a limited number of elementary fluids, is one of the most characteristic aspects of ancient medicine. The psychological dimension of humoral theory in the ancient world has thus far received a relatively small amount of scholarly attention.

  16. Urology and the scientific method in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordetsky, Jennifer; O'Brien, Jeanne

    2009-03-01

    To examine the practice of urology in ancient Egypt using various sources, including the Edwin Smith and Ebers Papyri. The sources of knowledge of ancient Egyptian medicine include medical papyri, paleopathology, art, and hieroglyphic carvings. A brief overview of the medical system in ancient Egypt was completed, in addition to an examination of the training and specialization of the physician in the ancient world. Urologic diseases treated in ancient Egypt and some of the first documented urologic surgeries are presented. Finally, we studied the role of the physician-priest and the intertwined use of religion and magic in ancient Egyptian medicine. The same medical conditions urologists treat in the office today were methodically documented thousands of years ago. Medical papyri show evidence that the ancient Egyptians practiced medicine using a scientific method based on the clinical observation of disease. This has been exemplified by the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, a collection of surgical cases that gives a diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis for each ailment, and the discovery of medical specialization in ancient Egypt, giving us perhaps the world's first urologists. Intertwined with the scientific method was also the rich mysticism and religion of ancient Egypt, which were integral components of the healing process. We present an overview of the practice of urology in ancient Egypt, in terms of both pharmacologic and surgical intervention, as well as with a look into the religion of medicine practiced at that time.

  17. Preventing Medication Error Based on Knowledge Management Against Adverse Event

    OpenAIRE

    Hastuti, Apriyani Puji; Nursalam, Nursalam; Triharini, Mira

    2017-01-01

    Introductions: Medication error is one of many types of errors that could decrease the quality and safety of healthcare. Increasing number of adverse events (AE) reflects the number of medication errors. This study aimed to develop a model of medication error prevention based on knowledge management. This model is expected to improve knowledge and skill of nurses to prevent medication error which is characterized by the decrease of adverse events (AE). Methods: This study consisted of two sta...

  18. Patient Medication Knowledge Governing Adherence to Asthma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty six (26) (39.0%) of patients used “preventer” medication, that is medication that prevents asthmatic attack on those who frequently suffer from asthma, and 5 (7%) never used it. Participants offered a number of reasons explaining their non-adherence, the most common 24 (58.5%) were those who forgot to take ...

  19. Patient Medication Knowledge Governing Adherence to Asthma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samuel Olaleye

    (39.0%) of patients used “preventer” medication, that is medication that prevents asthmatic attack on those who frequently suffer from asthma, and 5 ..... terminology, incidence and conceptualisation. Facilitating treatment adherence. New York: Plenum Pr.pp. 19–39. Pain MCF. (2003) Delivering inhaled asthma therapy. Aust.

  20. An Idea of a Computer Knowledge Bank on Medical Diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Chernyakhovskaya, Mery; Kleschev, Alexander; Moskalenko, Filip

    2008-01-01

    The paper is a description of information and software content of a computer knowledge bank on medical diagnostics. The classes of its users and the tasks which they can solve are described. The information content of the bank contains three ontologies: an ontology of observations in the field of medical diagnostics, an ontology of knowledge base (diseases) in medical diagnostics and an ontology of case records, and also it contains three classes of information resources for e...

  1. Computer knowledge amongst clinical year medical students in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the computer knowledge and desires of clinical year medical students at one of the oldest and largest medical schools in Nigeria. Design: A survey using validated structured questionnaires. Setting: Medical school of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. Subjects: Two hundred and thirty seven clinical ...

  2. on The Knowledge and Attitudes of Medical Students Towards ECT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is limited literature on attitude and knowledge of medical students towards ECT from Asian and African countries.[11-14] A prior study from India reported less favorable attitudes among medical students towards ECT. The undergraduate medical curriculum in India has been criticized for inadequately preparing ...

  3. Medical students and interns' knowledge about and attitude towards homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwari, G; Mistry, K; Soni, A; Parikh, N; Gandhi, H

    2015-01-01

    Medical professionals' attitude towards homosexuals affects health care offered to such patients with a different sexual orientation. There is absence of literature that explores the attitudes of Indian medical students or physicians towards homosexuality. This study aimed to evaluate Indian medical students and interns' knowledge about homosexuality and attitude towards homosexuals. After IEC approval and written informed consent, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a purposive sample of undergraduate medical students and interns studying in one Indian medical college. The response rate was 80.5%. Only completely and validly filled responses (N = 244) were analyzed. The participants filled the Sex Education and Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire (SEKHQ) and the Attitudes towards Homosexuals Questionnaire (AHQ). SEKHQ consisted of 32 statements with response chosen from 'true', 'false', or 'don't know'. AHQ consisted of 20 statements scorable on a 5-point Likert scale. Multiple linear regression was used to find the predictors of knowledge and attitude. Medical students and interns had inadequate knowledge about homosexuality, although they endorsed a neutral stance insofar as their attitude towards homosexuals is concerned. Females had more positive attitudes towards homosexuals. Knowledge emerged as the most significant predictor of attitude; those having higher knowledge had more positive attitudes. Enhancing knowledge of medical students by incorporation of homosexuality related health issues in the curriculum could help reduce prejudice towards the sexual minority and thus impact their future clinical practice.

  4. Medical students and interns′ knowledge about and attitude towards homosexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Banwari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Rationale: Medical professionals′ attitude towards homosexuals affects health care offered to such patients with a different sexual orientation. There is absence of literature that explores the attitudes of Indian medical students or physicians towards homosexuality. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate Indian medical students and interns′ knowledge about homosexuality and attitude towards homosexuals. Materials and Methods: After IEC approval and written informed consent, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a purposive sample of undergraduate medical students and interns studying in one Indian medical college. The response rate was 80.5%. Only completely and validly filled responses (N = 244 were analyzed. The participants filled the Sex Education and Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire (SEKHQ and the Attitudes towards Homosexuals Questionnaire (AHQ. SEKHQ consisted of 32 statements with response chosen from ′true′, ′false′, or ′don′t know′. AHQ consisted of 20 statements scorable on a 5-point Likert scale. Multiple linear regression was used to find the predictors of knowledge and attitude. Results: Medical students and interns had inadequate knowledge about homosexuality, although they endorsed a neutral stance insofar as their attitude towards homosexuals is concerned. Females had more positive attitudes towards homosexuals. Knowledge emerged as the most significant predictor of attitude; those having higher knowledge had more positive attitudes. Conclusion: Enhancing knowledge of medical students by incorporation of homosexuality related health issues in the curriculum could help reduce prejudice towards the sexual minority and thus impact their future clinical practice.

  5. Medical students and interns’ knowledge about and attitude towards homosexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwari, G; Mistry, K; Soni, A; Parikh, N; Gandhi, H

    2015-01-01

    Background and Rationale: Medical professionals’ attitude towards homosexuals affects health care offered to such patients with a different sexual orientation. There is absence of literature that explores the attitudes of Indian medical students or physicians towards homosexuality. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate Indian medical students and interns’ knowledge about homosexuality and attitude towards homosexuals. Materials and Methods: After IEC approval and written informed consent, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a purposive sample of undergraduate medical students and interns studying in one Indian medical college. The response rate was 80.5%. Only completely and validly filled responses (N = 244) were analyzed. The participants filled the Sex Education and Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire (SEKHQ) and the Attitudes towards Homosexuals Questionnaire (AHQ). SEKHQ consisted of 32 statements with response chosen from ‘true’, ‘false’, or ‘don’t know’. AHQ consisted of 20 statements scorable on a 5-point Likert scale. Multiple linear regression was used to find the predictors of knowledge and attitude. Results: Medical students and interns had inadequate knowledge about homosexuality, although they endorsed a neutral stance insofar as their attitude towards homosexuals is concerned. Females had more positive attitudes towards homosexuals. Knowledge emerged as the most significant predictor of attitude; those having higher knowledge had more positive attitudes. Conclusion: Enhancing knowledge of medical students by incorporation of homosexuality related health issues in the curriculum could help reduce prejudice towards the sexual minority and thus impact their future clinical practice. PMID:25766341

  6. Pharmacy Students’ Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Medical Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine pharmacy students’ knowledge of and attitudes toward medical marijuana and to determine if pharmacy students need additional education on the topic. Methods. Pharmacy students were asked to complete a survey on medical marijuana that assessed their knowledge of, medical uses of, adverse effects with, and attitudes toward medical marijuana through 23 Likert-scale questions. Results. Three hundred eleven students completed the survey. Fifty-eight percent of the students felt that medical marijuana should be legalized in all states. However, the majority of students did not feel comfortable answering consumers’ questions regarding efficacy, safety, or drug interactions related to the substance. Accurate responses for diseases or conditions for permitted medical marijuana use was low, with only cancer (91%) and glaucoma (57%) identified by more than half the students. Conclusion. With an increasing number of states adopting medical marijuana use, pharmacy schools need to evaluate the adequacy of medical marijuana education in their curriculum. PMID:26430272

  7. In the light of science our ancient quest for knowledge and the measure of modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolaides, Demetris

    2014-01-01

    The birth of science in ancient Greece had a historical impact that is still being felt today. Physicist Demetris Nicolaides examines the epochal shift in thinking that led pre-Socratic philosophers of the sixth and fifth centuries BCE to abandon the prevailing mythologies of the age and, for the first time, to analyze the natural world in terms of impersonal, rationally understood principles. He argues not only that their conceptual breakthroughs anticipated much of later science but that scientists of the twenty-first century are still grappling with the fundamental problems raised twenty-five hundred years ago. Looking at the vast sweep of human history, the author delves into the factors that led to the birth of science: urbanization, the role of religion, and in Greece a progressive intellectual curiosity that was unafraid to question tradition. Why did the first scientific approach to understanding the world take place in Greece? The author makes a convincing case that, aside from factors of geography...

  8. Critical gaps in the medical knowledge base of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Dennis; Drabkin, Anne; Krantz, Mori J; Mascolo, Margherita; Rosen, Elissa; Sachs, Katherine; Welles, Christine; Mehler, Philip S

    2018-04-21

    Eating disorders are unique in that they inherently have much medical comorbidity both as a part of restricting-type eating disorders and those characterized by purging behaviors. Over the last three decades, remarkable progress has been made in the understanding and treatment of the medical complications of eating disorders. Yet, unfortunately, there is much research that is sorely needed to bridge the gap between current medical knowledge and more effective and evidence-based medical treatment knowledge. These gaps exist in many different clinical areas including cardiology, electrolytes, gastrointestinal and bone disease. In this paper, we discuss some of the knowledge gap areas, which if bridged would help develop more effective medical intervention for this population of patients.

  9. Knowledge Is Power for Medical Assistants: Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence As Predictors of Vocational Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehring, Anne; Schroeders, Ulrich; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    Medical education research has focused almost entirely on the education of future physicians. In comparison, findings on other health-related occupations, such as medical assistants, are scarce. With the current study, we wanted to examine the knowledge-is-power hypothesis in a real life educational setting and add to the sparse literature on medical assistants. Acquisition of vocational knowledge in vocational education and training (VET) was examined for medical assistant students ( n = 448). Differences in domain-specific vocational knowledge were predicted by crystallized and fluid intelligence in the course of VET. A multiple matrix design with 3 year-specific booklets was used for the vocational knowledge tests of the medical assistants. The unique and joint contributions of the predictors were investigated with structural equation modeling. Crystallized intelligence emerged as the strongest predictor of vocational knowledge at every stage of VET, while fluid intelligence only showed weak effects. The present results support the knowledge-is-power hypothesis, even in a broad and more naturalistic setting. This emphasizes the relevance of general knowledge for occupations, such as medical assistants, which are more focused on learning hands-on skills than the acquisition of academic knowledge.

  10. Assessing the knowledge and perceptions of medical students from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Health science students are key players in implementing the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). Knowledge and understanding at university level is essential to achieve the goals by 2015. The primary objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and perceptions of fifth-year medical students at ...

  11. Knowledge, Attitude and Uptake among Female Medical and Dental

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adedamla

    need to assess the knowledge, attitude and uptake of HPV vaccination among female medical and dental students. ..... after sexual debut. The practice of HPV vaccination was observed to increase with increasing knowledge however the association was not statistically ... Malaysia and South West Nigeria which showed.

  12. South African medical students' perceptions and knowledge about ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Education of medical students has been identified by the World Health Organization as an important aspect of antibiotic resistance (ABR) containment. Surveys from high-income countries consistently reveal that medical students recognise the importance of antibiotic prescribing knowledge, but feel ...

  13. Intubation and mechanical ventilation: knowledge of medical officers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linda van Deventer

    2014-08-20

    Aug 20, 2014 ... Intubation and mechanical ventilation: knowledge of medical officers at a South African secondary hospital. 184. Thirty-two medical officers (72.4%) could not identify the appropriate initial tidal volume per kg of ideal body weight for a patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Seventeen ...

  14. Validation of core medical knowledge by postgraduates and specialists.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koens, F.; Rademakers, J.J.; Cate, O.T.J. ten

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Curriculum constructors and teachers must decide on the content and level of objectives and materials included in the medical curriculum. At University Medical Centre Utrecht it was decided to test relatively detailed knowledge at a regular level in study blocks and to design a progress

  15. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of General Medical Practitioners In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    This study aims to access the knowledge, attitude and practice of general medical practitioner in Port. Harcourt toward the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Methods: A questionnaire survey was carried out on two hundred and twenty four private medical practitioners in. Port Harcourt. Data management was ...

  16. Medication Administration: Measuring Associate Degree Nursing Student Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    The American Nurse Association's (ANA) provisions outline the commitment expected of nurses to protect the community from harm. Medication administration coincides with patient safety as a compelling obligation in nursing practice. The study's purpose was to examine retention of medication safety knowledge among first year nursing students, after…

  17. Knowledge and attitudes of students in a caribbean medical school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIDS) is seen as one of the most devastating infection/disease known to have attacked the human population. This study is aimed at assessing the level of knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions of the medical students in a Caribbean Medical ...

  18. [Different uses of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (buckwheat) in Japan and China: what ancient medical documents reveal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Nami; Marui, Eiji

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate that buckwheat has been recognized, both in Japan and China, as a crop that is useful in many ways: as an agricultural crop, and for the healing powers and properties that, according to traditional Chinese medicine, it has. A comparative study of ancient documents pertaining to medicine in these countries has made it clear that this is the case. Buckwheat, however, has been used quite differently in each country. As is shown in some ancient Chinese documents pertaining to medicine, China has treated buckwheat primarily as a medicine for clinical use rather than as an edible crop. Nowadays, buckwheat is eaten only in some regions of China. Although it came to Japan from China as a medicine, in Japan buckwheat gradually became a popular food crop. It has become an important component of traditional Japanese cuisine thanks in part to government support and the strong demand that developed in Japanese society.

  19. Should knowledge of classical dance be essential for medical practitioners?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shovana T Narayan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The medical field is constantly throwing challenges, leading to considerable stress for its practitioners. Medical practitioners are expected to be professional, have up-to-date knowledge and expertise, and the ability to withstand fatigue. Through it all they are expected to remain motivated, respectful and humane, patient and kind, and confident and sensitive. The author demonstrates how learning dance can stimulate creativity, increase motivation and bolster social intelligence in medical practitioners.

  20. Oral and Written Communication and Transmission of Knowledge in Ancient Judaism and Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hezser

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the contexts of oral communication and the use of written messages in Josephus’ writings, the New Testament, and rabbinic literature, and discusses the possible reasons for using orality or writing in the respective Jewish and Christian contexts in antiquity. It is argued that an individual’s social power depended on his position within the communication network and his ability to control and manipulate the dissemination of knowledge among his co-religionists. Mobility was an important means of creating these networks and the most mobile rabbis would have been the most well-connected.

  1. Ancient Egyptian Medicine: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Adu-Gyamfi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our present day knowledge in the area of medicine in Ancient Egypt has been severally sourced from medical papyri several of which have been deduced and analyzed by different scholars. For educational purposes it is always imperative to consult different literature or sources in the teaching of ancient Egypt and medicine in particular. To avoid subjectivity the author has found the need to re-engage the efforts made by several scholars in adducing evidences from medical papyri. In the quest to re-engage the efforts of earlier writers and commentaries on the medical papyri, we are afforded the opportunity to be informed about the need to ask further questions to enable us to construct or reconstruct both past and modern views on ancient Egyptian medical knowledge. It is this vocation the author sought to pursue in the interim, through a preliminary review, to highlight, comment and reinvigorate in the reader or researcher the need for a continuous engagement of some pertinent documentary sources on Ancient Egyptian medical knowledge for educational and research purposes. The study is based on qualitative review of published literature. The selection of those articles as sources was based on the focus of the review, in order to purposively select and comment on articles that were published based either on information from a medical papyrus or focused on medical specialization among the ancient Egyptians as well as ancient Egyptian knowledge on diseases and medicine. It was found that the Egyptians developed relatively sophisticated medical practices covering significant medical fields such as herbal medicine, gynecology and obstetrics, anatomy and physiology, mummification and even the preliminary form of surgery. These practices, perhaps, were developed as remedies for the prevailing diseases and the accidents that might have occurred during the construction of their giant pyramids. It must be stated that they were not without flaws. Also, the

  2. Toxoplasmosis - Awareness and knowledge among medical doctors in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efunshile, Akinwale Michael; Elikwu, Charles John; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite causing high disease burden worldwide. A One Health approach is needed to understand, prevent, and control toxoplasmosis, while knowledge gaps in the One Health aspects have been identified among medical professionals in earlier studies. As a One Health collaboration between veterinary and medical fields, we surveyed the knowledge on toxoplasmosis among medical doctors in Nigeria. The knowledge questions, which the participants answered without consulting literature and colleagues, covered epidemiological One Health aspects as well as clinical interspecialty aspects of T. gondii infections. Altogether 522 medical doctors from four tertiary hospitals completed the questionnaire. The mean number of correct answers in the knowledge questions was 7.5, and 8.4% of the participants selected at least 12 of the 17 correct answers. The proportion of medical doctors scoring such a high score was significantly higher among those who reported having seen a case of clinical toxoplasmosis than in those who did not. While 62% of the medical doctors participating in our study knew that cats can shed T. gondii in their feces, 36% incorrectly suggested that humans could do that too. That T. gondii infection can be meatborne was known by 69%, but that it can be also waterborne only by 28% of the medical doctors participating in our study. Most of the medical doctors, 78%, knew that clinical toxoplasmosis may involve the central nervous system, while only 37% answered that it can involve the eyes. Our results suggested knowledge gaps, which need to be addressed in Continuous Medical Education. The identified gaps included both intersectoral One Health aspects and interspecialty aspects: For prevention and management of toxoplasmosis, knowing the main transmission routes and that the parasite can affect several organs is relevant.

  3. Tacit knowledge and visual expertise in medical diagnostic reasoning: implications for medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg Engel, Peter Johan

    2008-01-01

    focused on the specialty of intern medicine, while specialties with other skills, i.e. perceptive skills within pathology and radiology, have been ignored. AIMS: To show that the concept of tacit knowledge is important in medical education-at all levels and in medical diagnostic reasoning. METHODS......: Describing how tacit knowledge according to Michael Polany, is experienced and expressed in day-to-day life, it is shown that there is a tacit dimension to all knowledge. Reviewing recent literature on medical diagnostic reasoning, it is shown that tacit knowledge is recognized in connection with concepts...... such as "non-analytical reasoning" and "dual process of reasoning." CONCLUSION: It is important that educators are trained in how explicit and implicit knowledge is attained and that tacit knowledge is included in educational programmes of all medical specialties....

  4. The influence of the king on medical practice in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, P B

    1989-01-01

    Rulers in ancient Mesopotamia were interested in their own health and, by the second millenium B.C., medicine was extended to the population, but not to the conquered people. Physicians were very few and under patronage and control of the king; they were a cast lower than priests and considered as skilled technicians, with a great influence. Surgeons and veterinary surgeons were also encouraged, but kings promulgated laws to reward and penalise surgeons for damage or trauma or failure to effect a cure of the patients, heritage of the lex talionis.

  5. Medical Students' Knowledge about Alcohol and Drug Problems: Results of the Medical Council of Canada Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Meldon; Midmer, Deana; Wilson, Lynn; Borsoi, Diane

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine knowledge of a national sample of medical students about substance withdrawal, screening and early intervention, medical and psychiatric complications of addiction, and treatment options. Methods: Based on learning objectives developed by medical faculty, twenty-two questions on addictions were included in the 1998 Canadian…

  6. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  7. Portuguese Medical Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Lucas; Gato, Jorge; Esteves, Manuel

    2016-11-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people still face discrimination in healthcare environments and physicians often report lack of knowledge on this population's specific healthcare needs. In fact, recommendations have been put forward to include lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender health in medical curricula. This study aimed to explore factors associated with medical students' knowledge and attitudes towards homosexuality in different years of the medical course. An anonymous online-based questionnaire was sent to all medical students enrolled at the Faculty of Medicine - University of Porto, Portugal, in December 2015. The questionnaire included socio-demographic questions, the Multidimensional Scale of Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men (27 items) and a Homosexuality Knowledge Questionnaire (17 items). Descriptive statistics, ANOVAs, Chi-square tests and Pearson's correlations were used in the analysis. A total of 489 completed responses was analyzed. Male gender, religiosity and absence of lesbian, gay or bisexual friends were associated with more negative attitudes towards homosexuality. Attitudinal scores did not correlate with advanced years in medical course or contact with lesbian, gay or bisexual patients. Students aiming to pursue technique-oriented specialties presented higher scores in the 'Modern Heterosexism' subscale than students seeking patient-oriented specialties. Although advanced years in medical course correlated significantly with higher knowledge scores, items related with lesbian, gay or bisexual health showed the lowest percentage of correct answers. There seems to be a lack of exploration of medical students' personal attitudes towards lesbians and gay men, and also a lack of knowledge on lesbian, gay or bisexual specific healthcare needs. This study highlights the importance of inclusive undergraduate curriculum development in order to foster quality healthcare.

  8. Medical ethical knowledge and moral attitudes among physicians in Bavaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandrowski, Jana; Schuster, Tibor; Strube, Wolfgang; Steger, Florian

    2012-02-01

    Everyday clinical practice requires knowledge of medical ethics and the taking of moral positions. We investigated the ethical knowledge and attitudes of a representative sample of physicians with regard to end-of-life decisions, euthanasia, and the physician-patient relationship. 192 physicians (96 women, 96 men; mean age 50) in a random sample of Bavarian physicians completed our structured questionnaire. Data were collected from September to November 2010. There was much uncertainty among the respondents about the relevant knowledge for end-of-life decisions and the implementation of existing guidelines and laws on euthanasia and advance directives. Attitudes to ethical questions were found to be correlated with the length of time the physicians had been in practice. Physicians' personal values and moral attitudes play a major role in clinical decision-making. We used a questionnaire to examine physicians' opinions about end-of-life issues and to determine the factors that might influence them. We found their knowledge of medical ethics to be inadequate. Competence in medical ethics needs to be strengthened by more ethical teaching in medical school, specialty training, and continuing medical education.

  9. Nutrition Practice and Knowledge of First-Year Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Perlstein

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare the knowledge of Australian dietary recommendations to the dietary practices of first-year medical students. Design. Over a period of four years, anonymous online surveys were completed by medical students attending a first-year nutrition lecture. Background. There is little information on the nutritional knowledge and dietary practices of medical students. Setting. First-year postgraduate university medical students, Geelong, Victoria, Australia. Participants. Between the years 2012 and 2016, 32%–61% of first-year students completed the survey. Phenomenon of Interest. Student’s knowledge of dietary guidelines and related practices. Analysis. The frequency of response was assessed across the different year cohorts using descriptive statistics. Results. Between 59% and 93% of first-year students correctly identified the recommended daily servings for fruit, and between 61% and 84% knew the vegetable recommendations. In contrast only 40%–46% met the guidelines for fruit and 12%–19% met the guidelines for vegetables. Conclusions and Implications. Discrepancies between students’ nutrition knowledge and behavior can provide learning opportunities. With low rates of fruit and vegetable consumption in medical students, increased awareness of links between nutrition and health, together with encouragement to make behavioral changes, may increase the skills of graduates to support patients in improving dietary intake.

  10. Can a smartphone app improve medical trainees' knowledge of antibiotics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fralick, Michael; Haj, Reem; Hirpara, Dhruvin; Wong, Karen; Muller, Matthew; Matukas, Larissa; Bartlett, John; Leung, Elizabeth; Taggart, Linda

    2017-11-30

    To determine whether a smartphone app, containing local bacterial resistance patterns (antibiogram) and treatment guidelines, improved knowledge of prescribing antimicrobials among medical trainees. We conducted a prospective, controlled, pre-post study of medical trainees with access to a smartphone app (app group) containing our hospital's antibiogram and treatment guidelines compared to those without access (control group). Participants completed a survey which included a knowledge assessment test (score range, 0 [lowest possible score] to 12 [highest possible score]) at the start of the study and four weeks later. The primary outcome was change in mean knowledge assessment test scores between week 0 and week 4. Change in knowledge assessment test scores in the app group were compared to the difference in scores in the control group using multivariable linear regression. Sixty-two residents and senior medical students participated in the study. In a multivariable analysis controlling for sex and prior knowledge, app use was associated with a 1.1 point (95% CI: 0.10, 2.1) [β = 1.08, t(1) = 2.08, p = 0.04]  higher change in knowledge score compared to the change in knowledge scores in the control group. Among those in the app group, 88% found it easy to navigate, 85% found it useful, and about one- quarter used it daily. An antibiogram and treatment algorithm app increased knowledge of prescribing antimicrobials in the context of local antibiotic resistance patterns. These findings reinforce the notion that smartphone apps can be a useful and innovative means of delivering medical education.

  11. Knowledge, attitudes, and practice of medical students regarding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medical students represent a population that is at high‑risk group for acquiring and spreading hepatitis B infection (HBV). Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes among male student regarding occupational risks of HBV infection. Subjects and Methods: During March 2013, ...

  12. [Knowledge and perception of medical students about infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Márta; Cserepes, Réka Eszter; Bugán, Antal

    2015-01-18

    The effectiveness of fertility treatments is influenced by the health care professionals' knowledge regarding infertility as well as their empathy. The aim of the study was to examine infertility-related knowledge and perceptions of emotional and mind/body consequences of infertility among medical students. A questionnaire design was used. Data were obtained from 112 medical university students (76 women, 36 men) who participated involuntary and compensation-free. Medical students' knowledge concerning infertility proved to be incomplete and ambiguous. Subjects underestimated the presence of mind/body and emotional symptoms caused by infertility in men particularly, and overestimated some emotional concerns in women, e.g. sadness. Medical students have gaps in their subject-specific knowledge, so that they need more (even practical) information regarding infertility during their studies. Students' conceptions about emotional and physical consequences of infertility are distorted by stereotypes. The risk of these biases is that it could make it difficult to perceive patients in a non-distorted way, especially infertile male patients.

  13. Nutritional status, knowledge and food habits of medical students: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: A cross sectional study was carried out on a randomly selected sample of 340 medical students of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. Methods: Anthropometric measurements were taken; nutritional knowledge as well as the food habits were assessed using a well validated semistructured self-reported ...

  14. Evaluating Clinical Knowledge across Years of Medical Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Mazzuca, Steven A

    1981-01-01

    The evolution of clinical knowledge about the management of a common chronic disease was determined by applying analysis of variance and multiple discriminant analysis to responses on two patient management problems by groups of junior medical students and internal medicine residents. The applying analysis of variance and multiple discriminant…

  15. Junior medical students' knowledge about and attitudes towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a safe and effective treatment modality with a long history of use in psychiatry, it remains controversial owing to misconceptions and negative attitudes among the public and medical profession. The aim of this study was to explore the state of knowledge and attitudes ...

  16. Leadership, Medication Administration, and Knowledge Retention: A Quality Improvement Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treister, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    A leadership and quality improvement project was undertaken in order to assist undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students in knowledge retention for medication administration during their senior semester in nursing school. Specific changes in curriculum were implemented to assist these undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students at a suburban…

  17. Knowledge, perception and practice of medication use review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medication use review (MUR) is an emerging concept in medicine management that has recorded success in many developed countries. Purpose: To evaluate knowledge, perception and practice of MUR among community pharmacists (CP) in southwestern Nigeria. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried ...

  18. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Private Medical Practitioners in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Private Medical Practitioners in Calabar towards Post-Abortion Care. ... The major reasons given by some of the doctors for not terminating unwanted pregnancies were religious, moral and ethical considerations rather than respect for the Nigerian abortion law. Only 18.2% of the doctors ...

  19. Knowledge, attitude and use of alternative medical therapy amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alternate medicine which has a long history has been relegated to the background by the evolution of modern medicine. In recent times, however, alternative medical therapy has been growing in popularity and getting increasing attention and interest. This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and use by urban dwellers ...

  20. Knowledge of Medical House Officers about Dental Specialties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Some patients with oral diseases present initially to a general medical practitioner who is expected to refer the patients to the appropriate dental specialist for management. Thus they are expected to have a good knowledge of the different specialties in dentistry. This study was designed to determine the ...

  1. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice of Medical Students Regarding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medical students represent a population that is at high‑risk group for acquiring and spreading hepatitis B infection (HBV). Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes among male student regarding occupational risks of HBV infection. Subjects and Methods: During March 2013, ...

  2. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of residents in medical research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Research activity is an important component of postgraduate training in medical institutions. However, only a few residents of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital were able to publish research papers. Lack of funding and time, poor infrastructure, belief about research, and inadequate research knowledge and ...

  3. Medication Administration and Knowledge Retention in Baccalaureate Nursing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Treister

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A quality improvement project was undertaken in order to assist the undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students in knowledge retention for medication administration during their senior semester in nursing school. Two specific changes in curriculum were implemented in order to assist these undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students at a suburban private university in New York. Simulation and the incorporation of competency by rubrics were implemented in the spring semester of junior year, which led to an increased knowledge retention during the fall semester of the senior year. This article discusses the advantages and challenges of using technology, how change occurred in the junior year semester and the effects it had on the senior nursing student's retention of medication administration knowledge.

  4. Factors Associated with Medical Knowledge Acquisition During Internal Medicine Residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeger, Scott L.; Kolars, Joseph C.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Knowledge acquisition is a goal of residency and is measurable by in-training exams. Little is known about factors associated with medical knowledge acquisition. OBJECTIVE To examine associations of learning habits on medical knowledge acquisition. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS Cohort study of all 195 residents who took the Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (IM-ITE) 421 times over 4 years while enrolled in the Internal Medicine Residency, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. MEASUREMENTS Score (percent questions correct) on the IM-ITE adjusted for variables known or hypothesized to be associated with score using a random effects model. RESULTS When adjusting for demographic, training, and prior achievement variables, yearly advancement within residency was associated with an IM-ITE score increase of 5.1% per year (95%CI 4.1%, 6.2%; p < .001). In the year before examination, comparable increases in IM-ITE score were associated with attendance at two curricular conferences per week, score increase of 3.9% (95%CI 2.1%, 5.7%; p < .001), or self-directed reading of an electronic knowledge resource 20 minutes each day, score increase of 4.5% (95%CI 1.2%, 7.8%; p = .008). Other factors significantly associated with IM-ITE performance included: age at start of residency, score decrease per year of increasing age, −0.2% (95%CI −0.36%, −0.042%; p = .01), and graduation from a US medical school, score decrease compared to international medical school graduation, −3.4% (95%CI −6.5%, −0.36%; p = .03). CONCLUSIONS Conference attendance and self-directed reading of an electronic knowledge resource had statistically and educationally significant independent associations with knowledge acquisition that were comparable to the benefit of a year in residency training. PMID:17468889

  5. Tacit knowledge and visual expertise in medical diagnostic reasoning: implications for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiberg Engel, Peter Johan

    2008-01-01

    Much education--especially at the university level--has been criticized for having primarily dealt with explicit knowledge, i.e. those aspects of mental activities, which are verbal and conscious. Furthermore, research in medical diagnostic reasoning has been criticized for having focused on the specialty of intern medicine, while specialties with other skills, i.e. perceptive skills within pathology and radiology, have been ignored. To show that the concept of tacit knowledge is important in medical education-at all levels and in medical diagnostic reasoning. Describing how tacit knowledge according to Michael Polany, is experienced and expressed in day-to-day life, it is shown that there is a tacit dimension to all knowledge. Reviewing recent literature on medical diagnostic reasoning, it is shown that tacit knowledge is recognized in connection with concepts such as "non-analytical reasoning" and "dual process of reasoning." It is important that educators are trained in how explicit and implicit knowledge is attained and that tacit knowledge is included in educational programmes of all medical specialties.

  6. Pharmacotherapeutics knowledge of some nonemergency and emergency conditions among medical undergraduates in an Indian medical college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sarfaraz Alam; Siddiqui, Nazeem Ishrat

    2016-01-01

    To assess pharmacotherapeutics (PT) knowledge of second professional medical undergraduates. It is a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. The questionnaire was designed to objectively assess the current level of knowledge of PT acquired by the second MBBS students in a medical college in India. Thirty Type-A multiple choice questions (MCQs) related with the PT of common and important medical conditions and some emergency conditions were administered to 125 participants. Grading of knowledge was also done as poor, average, and good both subjectively and objectively. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze responses. Association of PT knowledge with respect to mode of admission in a medical college was analyzed with Chi-square test. MCQs related with PT of nonemergency conditions were responded correctly by 9.8-77.7% of participants. MCQs related with PT of some emergency conditions were responded correctly by 17-66.1% of participants. No statistically significant association was observed in PT knowledge with respect to mode of admission. Gross deficiency in the PT knowledge can potentially and adversely affect future rational prescribing skills. PT knowledge about common medical conditions should be emphasized during undergraduate training program.

  7. Physician Knowledge of Radiation Exposure and Risk in Medical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Jason B; Goldstein, Noah; Lind, Kimberly E; Elder, Deirdre; Dodd, Gerald D; Borgstede, James P

    2018-01-01

    Medical imaging is an increasingly important source of radiation exposure for the general population, and there are risks associated with such exposure; however, recent studies have demonstrated poor understanding of medical radiation among various groups of health care providers. This study had two aims: (1) analyze physicians' knowledge of radiation exposure and risk in diagnostic imaging across multiple specialties and levels of training, and (2) assess the effectiveness of a brief educational presentation on improving physicians' knowledge. From 2014 to 2016, 232 health care providers from multiple departments participated in an educational presentation and pre- and postpresentation tests evaluating knowledge of radiation exposure and risk at a large academic institution. Knowledge of radiation exposure and risk was relatively low on the prepresentation test, including particularly poor understanding of different imaging modalities, with 26% of participants unable to correctly identify which modalities expose patients to ionizing radiation. Test scores significantly increased after the educational presentation. Radiologists had higher prepresentation test scores than other specialties, and therefore less opportunity for improvement, but also demonstrated improvement in radiation safety knowledge after education. Aside from radiology, there was no significant difference in initial knowledge of radiation exposure and risk among the other specialties. Providers' knowledge of radiation exposure and risk was low at baseline but significantly increased after a brief educational presentation. Efforts to educate ordering providers about radiation exposure and risk are needed to ensure that providers are appropriately weighing the risks and benefits of medical imaging and to ensure high-quality, patient-centered care. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Patient Safety in Medical Education: Students' Perceptions, Knowledge and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabilou, Bahram; Feizi, Aram; Seyedin, Hesam

    2015-01-01

    Patient safety is a new and challenging discipline in the Iranian health care industry. Among the challenges for patient safety improvement, education of medical and paramedical students is intimidating. The present study was designed to assess students' perceptions of patient safety, and their knowledge and attitudes to patient safety education. This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 2012 at Urmia University of Medical Sciences, West Azerbaijan province, Iran. 134 students studying medicine, nursing, and midwifery were recruited through census for the study. A questionnaire was used for collecting data, which were then analyzed through SPSS statistical software (version 16.0), using Chi-square test, Spearman correlation coefficient, F and LSD tests. A total of 121 questionnaires were completed, and 50% of the students demonstrated good knowledge about patient safety. The relationships between students' attitudes to patient safety and years of study, sex and course were significant (0.003, 0.001 and 0.017, respectively). F and LSD tests indicated that regarding the difference between the mean scores of perceptions of patient safety and attitudes to patient safety education, there was a significant difference among medical and nursing/midwifery students. Little knowledge of students regarding patient safety indicates the inefficiency of informal education to fill the gap; therefore, it is recommended to consider patient safety in the curriculums of all medical and paramedical sciences and formulate better policies for patient safety.

  9. Patient Safety in Medical Education: Students' Perceptions, Knowledge and Attitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Nabilou

    Full Text Available Patient safety is a new and challenging discipline in the Iranian health care industry. Among the challenges for patient safety improvement, education of medical and paramedical students is intimidating. The present study was designed to assess students' perceptions of patient safety, and their knowledge and attitudes to patient safety education. This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 2012 at Urmia University of Medical Sciences, West Azerbaijan province, Iran. 134 students studying medicine, nursing, and midwifery were recruited through census for the study. A questionnaire was used for collecting data, which were then analyzed through SPSS statistical software (version 16.0, using Chi-square test, Spearman correlation coefficient, F and LSD tests. A total of 121 questionnaires were completed, and 50% of the students demonstrated good knowledge about patient safety. The relationships between students' attitudes to patient safety and years of study, sex and course were significant (0.003, 0.001 and 0.017, respectively. F and LSD tests indicated that regarding the difference between the mean scores of perceptions of patient safety and attitudes to patient safety education, there was a significant difference among medical and nursing/midwifery students. Little knowledge of students regarding patient safety indicates the inefficiency of informal education to fill the gap; therefore, it is recommended to consider patient safety in the curriculums of all medical and paramedical sciences and formulate better policies for patient safety.

  10. [About Itching and scabies. Pruritus in medical history--from ancient world to the French revolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshaar, E; König, A; Diepgen, T L; Eckart, W U

    2008-12-01

    Pruritus (itching) as a disease state and especially as a disease symptom has been object of medical and scientific descriptions and examinations in all epochs since the antiquity and in different cultural periods. Antiquity was dominated by observations and descriptions but during the course of medical history and particularly since the establishment of dermatology, more and more emphasis has been placed on classification and etiologic research.

  11. Year 1 medical undergraduates' knowledge of and attitudes to medical error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flin, Rhona; Patey, Rona; Jackson, Jeanette; Mearns, Kathryn; Dissanayaka, Upul

    2009-12-01

    To improve patient safety, medical students should be taught about human error and the factors influencing adverse events. The optimal evaluation of new curricula for patient safety requires tools for baseline measurement of medical students' attitudes and knowledge. The aim of the study was to design and evaluate a questionnaire for measuring the attitudes of Year 1 medical students to patient safety and medical error. A questionnaire entitled 'Medical Students' Patient Safety Questionnaire (Year 1)' was designed to assess Year 1 medical students' attitudes and anticipated behaviours relating to medical error and patient safety. This was administered to two cohorts of Year 1 medical students in a UK medical school during 2008 (n = 296) and the data subjected to psychometric analyses. Medical students' attitudes to good patient safety practices were generally positive, but the students had little knowledge of how to report errors and were unsure about what to do if a colleague made an error or if a patient indicated that an error had been made. On the five scales of the questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha values ranged from 0.59 (Attitudes to patient safety scale) to 0.88 (Knowledge of error and patient safety scale) and three scales showed internal consistencies below the recommended value of 0.70. Exploratory factor analysis showed that the five factors explain 51.7% of variance. With some minor item trimming and re-allocation, the Medical Students' Patient Safety Questionnaire (Year 1) can function as an instrument with which to assess the attitudes of new medical students to patient safety and medical error. To assess the suitability of the instrument beyond the UK would require additional work.

  12. Semantic Health Knowledge Graph: Semantic Integration of Heterogeneous Medical Knowledge and Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longxiang Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the explosion of healthcare information, there has been a tremendous amount of heterogeneous textual medical knowledge (TMK, which plays an essential role in healthcare information systems. Existing works for integrating and utilizing the TMK mainly focus on straightforward connections establishment and pay less attention to make computers interpret and retrieve knowledge correctly and quickly. In this paper, we explore a novel model to organize and integrate the TMK into conceptual graphs. We then employ a framework to automatically retrieve knowledge in knowledge graphs with a high precision. In order to perform reasonable inference on knowledge graphs, we propose a contextual inference pruning algorithm to achieve efficient chain inference. Our algorithm achieves a better inference result with precision and recall of 92% and 96%, respectively, which can avoid most of the meaningless inferences. In addition, we implement two prototypes and provide services, and the results show our approach is practical and effective.

  13. [Knowledge and attitudes of medical students on decriminalized induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero-Roa, Eliana M; Ochoa-Vera, Miguel E

    2015-12-01

    Objective To explore if the academic exposure to legal abortion affects the knowledge and attitudes of medical students. Method To asses this relationship, both qualitative and quantitative approaches were performed. We analyzed a medical student cohort enrolled in gynecology and obstetrics at two accredited universities in Bucaramanga, Colombia during the second half of 2011. Students were invited to participate in two anonymous surveys. One survey was conducted in the first three weeks of the semester, and the second was done in the last three weeks. A quantitative approach was taken by a group interview of two random groups of participants. One group was composed of medical students of gynecology and obstetrics (fourth year of medicine), and the other group was composed of medical students in their last year (internal medical students). Results The items pregnancy with risk to the mother´s life, or affected by a non-viable fetal malformation, or result of rape were recognized and accepted. 46% of the participants changed their attitude about legal abortion at the end of the semester. Three out of every four participants changed their attitude to accept the decriminalized conditions, while one out of every four people had the opposite change of opinion. Medical student´s don´t believe that general practitioners are trained to advice patients in these cases. Conclusions Educating and training general practitioners in issues related to legal abortion may decrease the risk of inadequate medical assessment in cases of legal abortion.

  14. Medication Administration and Knowledge Retention in Baccalaureate Nursing Students

    OpenAIRE

    Pamela Treister; Donna Darcy

    2016-01-01

    A quality improvement project was undertaken in order to assist the undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students in knowledge retention for medication administration during their senior semester in nursing school. Two specific changes in curriculum were implemented in order to assist these undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students at a suburban private university in New York. Simulation and the incorporation of competency by rubrics were implemented in the spring semester of junior year, w...

  15. Knowledge representation and indexing using the unified medical language system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baclawski, K; Cigna, J; Kokar, M M; Mager, P; Indurkhya, B

    2000-01-01

    Ontologies and semantic frameworks can be used to improve the accuracy and expressiveness of natural language processing for the purpose of extracting meaning from technical documents. This is especially true when a rich ontology such as the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) is available. This paper reports on some tools being developed to make this possible and on some experience with a user interface based on ontologies and semantic networks that allows for interactive knowledge exploration.

  16. Hippocrates, Galen, and the uses of trepanation in the ancient classical world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missios, Symeon

    2007-01-01

    Trepanation is the process by which a hole is drilled into the skull, exposing the intracranial contents for either medical or mystical purposes. It represents one of the oldest surgical procedures, and its practice was widespread in many ancient cultures and several parts of the world. Trepanation was used in ancient Greece and Rome, as described in several ancient texts. Hippocrates and Galen are two of the most prominent ancient Greek medical writers, and their works have influenced the evolution of medicine and neurosurgery across the centuries. The purpose of this paper is to examine Hippocrates' and Galen's written accounts of the technique and use of trepanation in the ancient Greek and Roman world. Examination of those records reveals the ancient knowledge of neurological anatomy, physiology, and therapeutics, and illustrates the state and evolution of neurosurgery in the classical world.

  17. Knowledge and ethical perception regarding organ donation among medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine the knowledge and ethical perception regarding organ donation amongst medical students in Karachi- Pakistan. Methods Data of this cross sectional study was collected by self administered questionnaire from MBBS students of Ziauddin University from 2010 to 2011. Sample size of 158 (83 First years and 75 Fourth years) were selected by convenient sampling and those students who were present and gave consent were included in the study. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results A total of 158 participants from Ziauddin Medical University filled out the questionnaire out of which 83(52.5%) were first years and 75(47.5%) were fourth year medical students. Mean age of sample was 20 ± 1.7. Majority of students were aware about organ donation with print and electronic media as the main source of information. 81.6% agreed that it was ethically correct to donate an organ. In the students’ opinion, most commonly donated organs and tissues were kidney, cornea, blood and platelet. Ideal candidates for donating organ were parents (81%). Regarding list of options for preference to receive an organ, most of the students agreed on young age group patients and persons with family. Willingness to donate was significantly associated with knowledge of allowance of organ donation in religion (P=0.000). Conclusion Both 1st year and 4th year students are aware of Organ Donation, but there is a significant lack of knowledge regarding the topic. PMID:24070261

  18. A web-based knowledge management system integrating Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine for relational medical diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Hernandez, Maria C; Lai-Yuen, Susana K; Piegl, Les A; Zhang, Xiao

    2016-10-26

    This article presents the design of a web-based knowledge management system as a training and research tool for the exploration of key relationships between Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine, in order to facilitate relational medical diagnosis integrating these mainstream healing modalities. The main goal of this system is to facilitate decision-making processes, while developing skills and creating new medical knowledge. Traditional Chinese Medicine can be considered as an ancient relational knowledge-based approach, focusing on balancing interrelated human functions to reach a healthy state. Western Medicine focuses on specialties and body systems and has achieved advanced methods to evaluate the impact of a health disorder on the body functions. Identifying key relationships between Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine opens new approaches for health care practices and can increase the understanding of human medical conditions. Our knowledge management system was designed from initial datasets of symptoms, known diagnosis and treatments, collected from both medicines. The datasets were subjected to process-oriented analysis, hierarchical knowledge representation and relational database interconnection. Web technology was implemented to develop a user-friendly interface, for easy navigation, training and research. Our system was prototyped with a case study on chronic prostatitis. This trial presented the system's capability for users to learn the correlation approach, connecting knowledge in Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine by querying the database, mapping validated medical information, accessing complementary information from official sites, and creating new knowledge as part of the learning process. By addressing the challenging tasks of data acquisition and modeling, organization, storage and transfer, the proposed web-based knowledge management system is presented as a tool for users in medical training and research to explore, learn and

  19. Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Organ Donation among Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharambe Vaishaly K.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. All over the world people on organ transplant waiting lists die due to shortage of donor organs. The success of organ donation program needs education of the population regarding organ donation for which healthcare professionals are most suitable. The present study was taken up to assess the knowledge and attitude of 1st, 2nd and 3rd year medical students about organ donation. Methods. A specially designed self-administered questionnaire was distributed amongst all willing 1st, 2nd and 3rd year medical students at our Medical College and later analyzed statistically. Results. A total of 157, 145 and 92 students from each year of medical education respectively gave their consent for participation in the study. Awareness regarding organ donation was found to be 98.7-100%, 69.4% claimed television as their source of information regarding organ donation and 46.7% stated that it is possible for patient to recover from brain death. The awareness regarding eye, liver, heart and kidney donations was found to be 92.4%, 87%, 87% and 97.8%, respectively. 87% of medical students were aware of need for legal supervision, and awareness regarding the existing laws was found to be 57.6%. Conclusion. Medical students had a high level of awareness and a positive attitude towards organ donation. However, knowledge regarding “brain-death”, organs and tissues donated, legislation and ethical issues was poor. A teaching intervention designed to specifically address these issues could help increase the confidence of the health-care professionals and may result finally in increased organ procurement rates.

  20. Knowledge and awareness of medical doctors, medical students and nurses about dentistry in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyetola, Elijah Olufemi; Oyewole, Taiwo; Adedigba, Micheal; Aregbesola, Stephen Tunde; Umezudike, Kehinde; Adewale, Adedotun

    2016-01-01

    Various studies have reported poor awareness and knowledge of dentistry in the Nigerian population. There is, however, paucity of information assessing the knowledge and awareness of medical doctors/students and nurses about dentistry. The present study is aimed at determining the knowledge and awareness of medical doctors/students and nurses about dentistry. Self-administered questionnaires were randomly distributed among medical doctors/students, and nurses of Obafemi Awolowo Teaching Hospitals' Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Information collected using the questionnaire included participants' biodata, questions evaluating dental awareness, knowledge of systemic and oral health connections as well as referral practices. The data analysis was done with STATA version 11 software. A total of 300 questionnaires were randomly distributed among doctors/students and nurses, 206 were returned (response rate of 69%). Of the returned questionnaires, 129(63%) were males and 77(37%) were females. There were 42 medical doctors, 49 nurses and 115 medical students. The mean age of the participants was 26.7 years (SD 5.2). Majority (99.5%) was aware of dental profession, but 92% had never referred patients for dental consultation. One third (31%) of medical doctors believed that Ludwig angina was a cardiac disease. A large proportion of the respondents (61%) see no need for routine dental visit while 27% would want to visit the dentist only when they had a dental complaint. Although a large percentage of the participants claimed to be aware of dentistry, our findings revealed low level of knowledge and attitude to Dentistry. Efforts should be made towards closing this knowledge gap to achieve efficient oral health.

  1. Do citizens have minimum medical knowledge? A survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steurer-Stey Claudia

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experts defined a "minimum medical knowledge" (MMK that people need for understanding typical signs and/or risk factors of four relevant clinical conditions: myocardial infarction, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and HIV/AIDS. We tested to what degree Swiss adult citizens satisfy this criterion for MMK and whether people with medical experience have acquired better knowledge than those without. Methods Questionnaire interview in a Swiss urban area with 185 Swiss citizens (median age 29 years, interquartile range 23 to 49, 52% male. We obtained context information on age, gender, highest educational level, (paramedical background and specific health experience with one of the conditions in the social surrounding. We calculated the proportion of MMK and examined whether citizens with medical background (personal or professional would perform better compared to other groups. Results No single citizen reached the full MMK (100%. The mean MMK was as low as 32% and the range was 0 -72%. Surprisingly, multivariable analysis showed that participants with a university degree (n = 84; β (95% CI +3.7% MMK (0.4–7.1 p = 0.03, (paramedical background (n = 34; +6.2% MMK (2.0–10.4, p = 0.004 and personal illness experience (n = 96; +4.9% MMK (1.5–8.2, p = 0.004 had only a moderately higher MMK than those without, while age and sex had no effect on the level of MMK. Interaction between university degree and clinical experience (personal or professional showed no effect suggesting that higher education lacks synergistic effect. Conclusion This sample of Swiss citizens did not know more than a third of the MMK. We found little difference within groups with medical experience (personal or professional, suggesting that there is a consistent and dramatic lack of knowledge in the general public about the typical signs and risk factors of relevant clinical conditions.

  2. An encoding methodology for medical knowledge using SNOMED CT ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaker El-Sappagh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge-Intensive Case Based Reasoning (KI-CBR systems mainly depend on ontology. Using ontology as domain knowledge supports the implementation of semantically-intelligent case retrieval algorithms. The case-based knowledge must be encoded with the same concepts of the domain ontology. Standard medical ontologies, such as SNOMED CT (SCT, can play the role of domain ontology to enhance case representation and retrieval. This study has three stages. First, we propose an encoding methodology using SCT. Second, this methodology is used to encode the case-based knowledge. Third, all the used SCT concepts are collected in a reference set, and an OWL2 ontology of 550 pre-coordinated concepts is proposed. A diabetes diagnosis is chosen as a case study of our proposed framework. SCT is used to provide a pre-coordination concept coverage of ∼75% for diabetes diagnosis terms. Whereas, the uncovered concepts in SCT are proposed. The resulting OWL2 ontology will be used as domain knowledge representation in diabetes diagnosis CBR systems. The proposed framework is tested by using 60 real cases.

  3. Ancient Astronomy in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsamian, Elma S.

    2007-08-01

    The most important discovery, which enriched our knowledge of ancient astronomy in Armenia, was the complex of platforms for astronomical observations on the Small Hill of Metzamor, which may be called an ancient “observatory”. Investigations on that Hill show that the ancient inhabitants of the Armenian Highlands have left us not only pictures of celestial bodies, but a very ancient complex of platforms for observing the sky. Among the ancient monuments in Armenia there is a megalithic monument, probably, being connected with astronomy. 250km South-East of Yerevan there is a structure Zorats Kar (Karahunge) dating back to II millennium B.C. Vertical megaliths many of which are more than two meters high form stone rings resembling ancient stone monuments - henges in Great Britain and Brittany. Medieval observations of comets and novas by data in ancient Armenian manuscripts are found. In the collection of ancient Armenian manuscripts (Matenadaran) in Yerevan there are many manuscripts with information about observations of astronomical events as: solar and lunar eclipses, comets and novas, bolides and meteorites etc. in medieval Armenia.

  4. Reproduction concepts and practices in ancient Egypt mirrored by modern medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimov-Kochman, Ronit; Sciaky-Tamir, Yael; Hurwitz, Arye

    2005-11-01

    The treasured ancient papyri provide a glimpse into understanding of common concepts and practices in ancient Egypt. The Kahun gynecological papyrus and other texts unveil the traditions of reproduction, conception and delivery. This article addresses the rationale of beliefs and practices of that era. Frequently, the reason for common traditions exercised at the time is based on medical knowledge of female anatomy and physiology during pregnancy. Surprisingly some of the remedies commonly used in ancient Egypt were recently explored and found intriguing. This paper was aimed to look at the reflection of archaic practices and concepts of ancient Egypt by the modern mirror of evidence-based medicine.

  5. Relationship between orthodox and traditional medical practitioners in the transmission of traditional medical knowledge in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekannbi, Janet O

    2018-01-18

    The problem of incomplete transmission of traditional medical knowledge to the younger generation is of concern to information professionals especially in developing countries where most rural communities depend on traditional medicine for primary health care. The purpose of this study was to investigate the collaboration between orthodox and traditional medical practitioners as well as the implication of the collaboration for transmission of traditional medical knowledge in Nigeria. Eighteen communities were purposively selected from six states in south-western Nigeria. Snowball technique was used in selecting 110 traditional medical practitioners. Three key informant interviews and two focus group discussion sessions were conducted in each state. Data were analysed thematically. Results showed the existence of a low level of collaboration mainly in the form of patient referrals which were not performed officially and mostly one sided. This was attributed to the negative perception of traditional medicine by orthodox practitioners and the failure of government to give traditional medicine its due recognition. This was reportedly responsible for the lack of interest by children of traditional medical practitioners to acquire traditional medical knowledge. The study recommends inclusion of traditional medicine in the health policy and educational curriculum from the basic level. © 2018 Health Libraries Group.

  6. Attitude, Knowledge and Skill of Medical Students Toward E-Learning Kerman University Of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okhovati M

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available  Aims: According to the development of e-learning and its high efficiency on the development of Iran’s universities, level of knowledge and the attitude of the students to this modern method of education and indeed students’ skills in using it needed to be assessed to improve the quality and quantity of universities’ education. This study aimed to determine the attitude, knowledge and skill of medical students toward e-learning at Kerman University of Medical Sciences.  Instrument & Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study that was performed in 2013, 196 students of Kerman University of Medical Sciences were selected using proportional stratified sampling method. The research instrument was a valid and reliable questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient, ANOVA and independent T tests by SPSS 19 software.  Findings: The level of knowledge and skill of the students toward e-learning was “moderate” and their attitude was “high”. There were significant relationships between knowledge and skill (p=0.001 r=0.82 and also knowledge and attitude (p=0.001 r=0.37 but there was no significant relationship between skill and attitude (p=0.35 r=0.82. The scores of knowledge and skill were significantly different according to sex, but attitude had no significant difference with sex.  Conclusion: Kerman University of Medical Sciences’ students have a positive attitude to e-learning but according to their moderate knowledge and skills, performing this method of learning is not welcomed in this university.

  7. Adolescents' knowledge of medical terminology and family health history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, J L; Phillips, S M; Vullo, K; Kang, G; Slomka, L

    1992-01-01

    Compared 309 youths ages 11 to 15 years and their parents with respect to their comprehension of terms for seven common medical disorders: heart attack, stroke, atherosclerosis, ulcer, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer. For two thirds of the adolescent sample, accuracy of reporting of these disorders among the parents and grandparents was assessed. Results indicated considerable variation among disorders with respect to both comprehension of terms and accuracy of family health history. Adolescents' age was a major predictor of knowledge of medical terms (r = .41). Age was not related to accuracy of family health information. Consonant with this finding, adolescents' level of accuracy regarding family health history was generally similar to that of previous adult samples, suggesting that family health information is acquired and retained at an early age. Adolescents were more accurate concerning parents' compared with grandparents' history of hypertension.

  8. [P.A.I.S., a personal medical information system. A comprehensive medical knowledge base].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münch, E

    1994-06-01

    The electronic medical knowledge data base DOPIS is a compliation of knowledge from various special fields of medicine. Using uniform nomenclature, the data are presented on demand as they would be in a book chapter. Concise updates can be performed at low cost. The primary structure of the concept is the division of medical knowledge into data banks on diagnosis, literature, medication and pharmacology, as well as so-called electronic textbooks. All data banks and electronic textbooks are connected associatively. Visual information is obtained via the image data bank connected to the diagnosis data bank and the electronic books. Moreover, DOPIS has an integrated patient findings system, as well as an image processing and archiving system with research values enabling research functions. The diagnosis and literature data banks can be modified by the user or author, or fed with their own data (a so-called Expert System Shell). For authors from special fields working on the project, an extra Medical Electronic Publishing System has been developed and made available for the electronic textbooks. The model for the knowledge data base has been developed in the field of ENT, the programme implemented and initially ENT data have been stored.

  9. Pharmacy students’ knowledge and attitudes regarding cannabis for medical purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Marina S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With the growing trend for legalization of cannabis and its derivatives in Serbia, pharmacists are likely to be consulted on the safety, efficacy, and drug-drug or drug-disease interactions of medical cannabis. Thus, the aim of our study was to assess pharmacy students’ knowledge and attitude toward medical cannabis use in Serbia to determine if additional education is needed. Subjects and methods: In the study students from the final year of the study program of integrated academic studies of pharmacy at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire regarding their knowledge and attitudes on the use of cannabis and its derivatives in medical purposes. After giving their written informed consent, they were instructed by the researchers on how to complete the questionnaire. All questionnaires were administered between August 1, 2017 and August 15, 2017. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee of the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad; a total of 80 questionnaires were distributed. The questionnaire consisted of 3 groups of statements on which they should mark level of their agreement related to students’ knowledge about the use of cannabis and its derivatives in therapeutical purposes, potential negative effects, dispensing in a pharmacy and legalization of cannabis and its derivatives in medical purposes. Results: Although 91.2% of the respondents agreed that cannabis and its derivatives could potentially have therapeutical effects, much lower percentage of respondents (51.3% were familiar with possible therapeutical effects of cannabis. The same percentage of respondents learned about therapeutical effects of cannabis from sources other than school. About third (31.3% of our respondents thought that the use of cannabis and its derivatives in therapeutical purposes could cause their abuse and the similar percentage of respondents (33.8% thought that issuing cannabis and

  10. Medication communication through documentation in medical wards: knowledge and power relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Manias, Elizabeth; Gerdtz, Marie

    2014-09-01

    Health professionals communicate with each other about medication information using different forms of documentation. This article explores knowledge and power relations surrounding medication information exchanged through documentation among nurses, doctors and pharmacists. Ethnographic fieldwork was conducted in 2010 in two medical wards of a metropolitan hospital in Australia. Data collection methods included participant observations, field interviews, video-recordings, document retrieval and video reflexive focus groups. A critical discourse analytic framework was used to guide data analysis. The written medication chart was the main means of communicating medication decisions from doctors to nurses as compared to verbal communication. Nurses positioned themselves as auditors of the medication chart and scrutinised medical prescribing to maintain the discourse of patient safety. Pharmacists utilised the discourse of scientific judgement to guide their decision-making on the necessity of verbal communication with nurses and doctors. Targeted interdisciplinary meetings involving nurses, doctors and pharmacists should be organised in ward settings to discuss the importance of having documented medication information conveyed verbally across different disciplines. Health professionals should be encouraged to proactively seek out each other to relay changes in medication regimens and treatment goals. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A multi-agent intelligent environment for medical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicari, Rosa M; Flores, Cecilia D; Silvestre, André M; Seixas, Louise J; Ladeira, Marcelo; Coelho, Helder

    2003-03-01

    AMPLIA is a multi-agent intelligent learning environment designed to support training of diagnostic reasoning and modelling of domains with complex and uncertain knowledge. AMPLIA focuses on the medical area. It is a system that deals with uncertainty under the Bayesian network approach, where learner-modelling tasks will consist of creating a Bayesian network for a problem the system will present. The construction of a network involves qualitative and quantitative aspects. The qualitative part concerns the network topology, that is, causal relations among the domain variables. After it is ready, the quantitative part is specified. It is composed of the distribution of conditional probability of the variables represented. A negotiation process (managed by an intelligent MediatorAgent) will treat the differences of topology and probability distribution between the model the learner built and the one built-in in the system. That negotiation process occurs between the agents that represent the expert knowledge domain (DomainAgent) and the agent that represents the learner knowledge (LearnerAgent).

  12. Knowledge, attitude and practice of medical students towards self medication at Ain Shams University, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ezz, N F A; Ez-Elarab, H S

    2011-12-01

    Self medication is usually defined as intake of any type of drugs for treating oneself without professional supervision to relieve an illness or a condition. Self medication is an issue with serious global implications. In this study it was aimed to determine the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of self medication by the near coming physicians. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of randomly selected medical students from Ain Shams University. Data was collected using self administered questionnaire. Verbal consent was ensured before applying the questionnaire. The Chi square was performed using SPSS 16 to identify associations and differences. The sample consisted of 300 students 67% females and 33% male students. Prevalence of self medication was 55%. Out of which 58.8%, 54.4%, 87.2%, 12%, 28% took antibiotic, vitamins, analgesics, sedatives, herbal products respectively without physician prescription. As regards the personal behavior towards following any prescription 14.4% always followed properly the prescription compared to 63.3% always discontinued the drug on feeling improvement, and 13.6% always repeated the prescription without seeking medical advice. Also 60% said that they increased the dose without medical advice. As regards the reported side effects 4.8%, 1.6%, 12% as a result of interaction between drugs, increase dose without medical advice and early stopping of treatment respectively. Self medication by medical students is an important issue to be avoided and need to be added to the curriculum of undergraduate students and raise the community awareness about these hazards and drawbacks.

  13. Leveraging medical taxonomies to improve knowledge management within online communities of practice: The knowledge maps system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Samuel Alan; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2017-05-01

    Online communities of practice contain a wealth of information, stored in the free text of shared communications between community members. The Knowledge Maps (KMaps) system is designed to facilitate Knowledge Translation in online communities through multi-level analyses of the shared messages of these communications. Using state-of-the-art semantic mapping technologies (Metamap) the contents of the messages shared within an online community are mapped to terms from the MeSH medical lexicon, providing a multi-level topic-specific summary of the knowledge being shared within the community. Using the inherent hierarchical structure of the lexicon important insights can be found within the community. The KMaps system was applied to two medical mailing lists, the PPML (archives from 2009-02 to 2013-02) and SURGINET (archives from 2012-01 to 2013-04), identifying 27,924 and 50,597 medical terms respectively. KMaps identified content areas where both communities found interest, specifically around Diseases, 22% and 24% of the total terms, while also identifying field-specific areas that were more popular: SURGINET expressed an interest in Anatomy (14% vs 4%) while the PPML was more interested in Drugs (19% vs 9%). At the level of the individual KMaps identified 6 PPML users and 9 SURGINET users that had noticeably more contributions to the community than their peers, and investigated their personal areas of interest. The KMaps system provides valuable insights into the structure of both communities, identifying topics of interest/shared content areas and defining content-profiles for individual community members. The system provides a valuable addition to the online KT process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Virginia

    This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

  15. Ancient mitogenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Simon Y. W.; Gilbert, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome has been the traditional focus of most research into ancient DNA, owing to its high copy number and population-level variability. Despite this long-standing interest in mitochondrial DNA, it was only in 2001 that the first complete ancient mitogenomic sequences were obtai...

  16. Knowledge and practices among medical abortion seekers in southeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinma, Echendu Dolly; Adinma, Joseph Ifeanyi Brian-D; Iwuoha, Chima; Akiode, Akinsewa; Oji, Ejike; Okoh, Matthew

    2012-03-01

    Nigeria has restrictive abortion laws; unsafe abortion and its complications are major public health challenges. Access to reproductive health services in Nigeria, including medical abortion, is poor. We determined the socio-demographic characteristics, patterns of abortion practices, and experiences of medical abortions among abortion seekers in southeastern Nigeria. We carried out a descriptive, cross sectional survey of 100 consecutive medical abortion seekers in southeastern Nigeria. Subjects had a mean age of 23.5 + 4.4 years. Fifty-five percent of respondents were students. Sixty-four percent had a secondary educational level, 33% had a tertiary education level and 3% had a primary educational level. Fifty-eight percent of subjects were ages 18-20 years at coitarche; 25% had one or more previous deliveries and 49% had a previous termination of pregnancy. Forty-eight percent had used drugs for pregnancy terminations. Drugs used for termination included quinine combined with other drugs in 8%; gynaecosid alone in 6%, gynaecosid combined with other drugs in 6% menstrogen combined with other drugs in 6% and an unclassified drug in 14%. Thirty-three percent of subjects purchased their abortion drugs in a pharmacy. Three percent, 2%, and 0% of subjects had a knowledge of misoprostol, mifepristone and methotrexate, respectively. One percent of respondents had used misoprostol. We detected serious information gaps regarding abortion and poor access to reproductive health services. There is a need for policies and program to bridge this gap, and a need for revision of the present Nigerian abortion law.

  17. Evolution of the knowledge of electricity and electrotherapeutics with special reference to X-rays and cancer. Part 1. Ancient Greeks to Luigi Galvani

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould, R. F.; Aronowitz, J. N.

    2006-01-01

    We present a chronological review of the growth points in the knowledge of electricity, especially as applied to medicine. Commencing with the ancient Greeks and ending with cancer electrotherapeutics at the turn of the 20 t h century, our history is arranged in chronological order by years of the investigators. William Gilbert (1540-1603) initiated the era of scientific investigation, followed by advances in later centuries by Otto von Guericke (1602-1686), Abbe Nollet (1700-1770), Luigi Galvani (1737-1798), Alessandro Volta ( 1745-1827), Michael Faraday (1791-1867) and Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) among others. Although electrotherapy was infrequently used to treatment malignancy, it was to make a major contribution to cancer therapy because the experience gained in electrotherapeutics paved the way for the rapid adoption of diagnostic and therapeutic radiology. Within a year of rontge's discovery, more than a thousand books, pamphlets and papers about X-rays were published. (author)

  18. Private medical providers' knowledge and practices concerning medical abortion in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonofua, Friday E; Hammed, Afolabi; Abass, Tajudeen; Mairiga, Abdulkarim Garba; Mohammed, Abubakar Bako; Adewale, Adeniyi; Garba, Danjuma

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the knowledge and practices regarding medical abortion and postabortion care in northern Nigeria among private physicians--the principal providers of such services in the area--122 doctors operating separate clinics in five states--Bauchi, Borno, Kaduna, Niger, and Taraba--were interviewed by means of a structured questionnaire. The results showed that 22 percent of the doctors reported that they terminate unwanted pregnancies, whereas nearly all reported that they manage complications of unsafe abortion. Manual vacuum aspiration and dilatation and curettage performed singly or in combination were the most common methods of abortion and postabortion care reported by the doctors. Only one doctor reported exclusive use of medical abortion in the first trimester, and three reported its exclusive use in the second trimester. Only 35 percent of the doctors listed misoprostol as a drug that they knew could be used for abortion and postabortion care, and only 12 percent listed mifepristone. By contrast, 49 percent listed inappropriate or dangerous drugs for use in abortion provision in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. We conclude that private practitioners in northern Nigeria have limited knowledge of medical abortion and postabortion care, and that a capacity-building program on the subject should be instituted for them.

  19. A study to assess the knowledge and practice on bio-medical waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The proper handling and disposal of bio-medical waste is very imperative. Unfortunately, laxity and lack of adequate knowledge and practice on bio-medical waste disposal leads to staid health and environment apprehension. Aim: To assess the knowledge and practice on bio-medical waste management ...

  20. Dimensionality reduction for knowledge discovery in medical claims database: application to antidepressant medication utilization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Samuel H; Wulsin, Lawson R; Li, Hua; Guo, Jeff

    2009-02-01

    Data mining, through its capacity to discover knowledge embedded in large databases to improve organizational decision-making, has the potential to contribute to efficiencies and cost savings in the increasingly costly healthcare industry. One important aspect of the methods of mining medical databases includes reducing dimensionality through feature selection. Traditionally feature selection is accomplished through stepwise regression, which tends to produce an unnecessarily high number of "significant" variables. This paper applies a filter-based feature selection method using inconsistency rate measure and discretization, to a medical claims database to predict the adequacy of duration of antidepressant medication utilization. Compared to traditional stepwise logistic regression, which selected seven variables from a total of nine potential explanatory variables to characterize patients with inadequate antidepressant medication utilization, the filter-based method selected two variables (age and number of claims) to achieve a similar prediction accuracy. This comparison suggests it may be feasible and efficient to apply the filter-based feature selection method to reduce the dimensionality of healthcare databases.

  1. Knowledge and practice of healthy lifestyle and dietary habits in medical and non-medical students of Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajwani, Rubina A; Shoukat, Sana; Raza, Rushna; Shiekh, Muhammad Muhyeuddin; Rashid, Quratulain; Siddique, Momin Saulat; Panju, Sukaina; Raza, Hasan; Chaudhry, Sophia; Kadir, Masood

    2009-09-01

    To objectively compare the differences in knowledge and practices regarding healthy lifestyle among medical and non-medical students of Karachi along with assessment of any perceived barriers. This cross-sectional study included 350 students between ages 17-24 years from 6 private universities of Karachi--three medical and three non-medical Institutions. A self-reported questionnaire was employed to assess attitude and barriers to healthy practices among the simple random selection of students. On a 10-point scale, the average knowledge score of students on general and clinical nutritional knowledge was 5.7 +/- 1.51 and 4.4 +/- 1.77, respectively and the difference was statistically significant (p lifestyle score (85-point scale) among medical (41.3) and non medical students (40.8) was not significant (p = 0.646). There was no difference between the perception of medical and non-medical students regarding 'work-related stress' in their life. 'Lack of time' was cited as the most important reason for skipping meals and as a barrier to exercising regularly among both groups. The knowledge, attitudes and practices of medical students in Karachi suggest that superior knowledge about healthy lifestyle does not necessarily result into better practices.

  2. The influence of medical education level on the Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum medical students' knowledge concerning oral hormonal contraceptive pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Karina; Pityński, Kazimierz; Banaś, Tomasz; Bubel, Magdalena; Kałwa, Maria; Jamroga, Joanna; Knysak, Magdalena; Kusior, Magdalena; Truszkiewicz, Katarzyna; Oleksy, Piotr

    In December 2014 the authors carried out a research among Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum medical students in a form of a questionnaire which consisted of two parts: personal information and multiple choice test concerning student's knowledge on OCPs. It showed that the level of medical education, defined as the year of study, increases student's knowledge about oral hormonal contraceptive pills. New program of study introduced from academic year 2012/2013 gives students wider knowledge on OCPs at earlier stage of education. Factors as female sex, usage of OCPs by student or his partner, positive attitude towards recommending OCPs to future patients show positive correlation with student's knowledge.

  3. Effect of mental health nurses' beliefs and knowledge of medication on their use of strategies to improve medication adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drori, Tal; Guetta, Hava; Ben Natan, Merav; Polakevich, Yaakov

    2014-08-01

    Despite the proven efficiency of medication for mental illness, research indicates low patient adherence to medication. Nonetheless, only few studies have directly examined the relationship between nurse beliefs and knowledge, and their use of strategies to improve patient adherence to psychiatric medication. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify nurses' views, beliefs about, and knowledge of psychiatric medication affect their inclination to implement various strategies to improve patient adherence. One hundred nurses working at an Israeli psychiatric hospital participated in the study. Self-completed questionnaires were distributed. The research findings showed that nurses' levels of knowledge of psychiatric medication were moderate, but their beliefs of taking psychiatric medication were positive. The findings also showed that the higher the nurses' age and seniority, as well as their positive beliefs about taking medication, the higher their probability of implementing strategies to improve patient adherence to medication. Additionally, there was a positive correlation between positive beliefs about the nursing staff on taking medication and the staff's utilization of strategies to improve patient adherence to medication. The current study shows that nurses' traits and beliefs affect their use of strategies promoting mental health patient adherence to medication and the enhancement of these strategies. © 2014 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  4. Semantics-based plausible reasoning to extend the knowledge coverage of medical knowledge bases for improved clinical decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadhassanzadeh, Hossein; Van Woensel, William; Abidi, Samina Raza; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2017-01-01

    Capturing complete medical knowledge is challenging-often due to incomplete patient Electronic Health Records (EHR), but also because of valuable, tacit medical knowledge hidden away in physicians' experiences. To extend the coverage of incomplete medical knowledge-based systems beyond their deductive closure, and thus enhance their decision-support capabilities, we argue that innovative, multi-strategy reasoning approaches should be applied. In particular, plausible reasoning mechanisms apply patterns from human thought processes, such as generalization, similarity and interpolation, based on attributional, hierarchical, and relational knowledge. Plausible reasoning mechanisms include inductive reasoning , which generalizes the commonalities among the data to induce new rules, and analogical reasoning , which is guided by data similarities to infer new facts. By further leveraging rich, biomedical Semantic Web ontologies to represent medical knowledge, both known and tentative, we increase the accuracy and expressivity of plausible reasoning, and cope with issues such as data heterogeneity, inconsistency and interoperability. In this paper, we present a Semantic Web-based, multi-strategy reasoning approach, which integrates deductive and plausible reasoning and exploits Semantic Web technology to solve complex clinical decision support queries. We evaluated our system using a real-world medical dataset of patients with hepatitis, from which we randomly removed different percentages of data (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) to reflect scenarios with increasing amounts of incomplete medical knowledge. To increase the reliability of the results, we generated 5 independent datasets for each percentage of missing values, which resulted in 20 experimental datasets (in addition to the original dataset). The results show that plausibly inferred knowledge extends the coverage of the knowledge base by, on average, 2%, 7%, 12%, and 16% for datasets with, respectively, 5%, 10%, 15

  5. Knowledge of First Aid Skills Among Students of a Medical College ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The adequate knowledge required for handling an emergency without hospital setting at the site of the accident or emergency may not be sufficient as most medical schools do not have formal first aid training in the teaching curriculum. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the level of knowledge of medical ...

  6. Knowledge regarding palliative care amongst medical and dental postgraduate students of medical university in western Maharashtra, India

    OpenAIRE

    Purushottam A Giri; Deepak B Phalke

    2014-01-01

    Background: Palliative care is a relatively new field of medicine. The goal of palliative care is not to cure, but to provide comfort and maintain the highest possible quality of life for as long as life remains. However, there is a paucity of studies on knowledge among postgraduate students from medical and dental disciplines. Objectives: The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge about palliative care amongst postgraduate students of Medical University in Western Maharashtra. M...

  7. Knowledge of medical students on National Health Care System: A French multicentric survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feral-Pierssens, A-L; Jannot, A-S

    2017-09-01

    Education on national health care policy and costs is part of our medical curriculum explaining how our health care system works. Our aim was to measure French medical students' knowledge about national health care funding, costs and access and explore association with their educational and personal background. We developed a web-based survey exploring knowledge on national health care funding, access and costs through 19 items and measured success score as the number of correct answers. We also collected students' characteristics and public health training. The survey was sent to undergraduate medical students and residents from five medical universities between July and November 2015. A total of 1195 students from 5 medical universities responded to the survey. Most students underestimated the total amount of annual medical expenses, hospitalization costs and the proportion of the general population not benefiting from a complementary insurance. The knowledge score was not associated with medical education level. Three students' characteristics were significantly associated with a better knowledge score: male gender, older age, and underprivileged status. Medical students have important gaps in knowledge regarding national health care funding, coverage and costs. This knowledge was not associated with medical education level but with some of the students' personal characteristics. All these results are of great concern and should lead us to discussion and reflection about medical and public health training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Knowledge of medical students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences regarding plagiarism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hadi Gharedaghi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The core concept of plagiarism is defined as the use of other people's ideas or words without proper acknowledgement. Herein, we used a questionnaire to assess the knowledge of students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement. The questionnaire comprised 8 questions. The first six questions of the questionnaire were translations of exercises of a book about academic writing and were concerning plagiarism in preparing articles. Questions number 7 and 8 (which were concerning plagiarism in preparing Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows and copyright infringement, respectively were developed by the authors of the present study. The validity of the questionnaire was approved by five experts in the field of epidemiology and biostatistics. A pilot study consisting of a test and retest was carried to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. The sampling method was stratified random sampling, and the questionnaire was handed out to 74 interns of TUMS during July and August 2011. 14.9% of the students correctly answered the first six questions. 44.6% of the students were adequately familiar with proper referencing in Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows. 16.2% of the students understood what constitutes copyright infringement. The number of correctly answered questions by the students was directly proportionate to the number of their published articles. Knowledge of students of TUMS regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement is quite poor. Courses with specific focus on plagiarism and copyright infringement might help in this regard.

  9. Knowledge of medical students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences regarding plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharedaghi, Mohammad Hadi; Nourijelyani, Keramat; Salehi Sadaghiani, Mohammad; Yousefzadeh-Fard, Yashar; Gharedaghi, Azadeh; Javadian, Pouya; Morteza, Afsaneh; Andrabi, Yasir; Nedjat, Saharnaz

    2013-07-13

    The core concept of plagiarism is defined as the use of other people's ideas or words without proper acknowledgement. Herein, we used a questionnaire to assess the knowledge of students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement. The questionnaire comprised 8 questions. The first six questions of the questionnaire were translations of exercises of a book about academic writing and were concerning plagiarism in preparing articles. Questions number 7 and 8 (which were concerning plagiarism in preparing Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows and copyright infringement, respectively) were developed by the authors of the present study. The validity of the questionnaire was approved by five experts in the field of epidemiology and biostatistics. A pilot study consisting of a test and retest was carried to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. The sampling method was stratified random sampling, and the questionnaire was handed out to 74 interns of TUMS during July and August 2011. 14.9% of the students correctly answered the first six questions. 44.6% of the students were adequately familiar with proper referencing in Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows. 16.2% of the students understood what constitutes copyright infringement. The number of correctly answered questions by the students was directly proportionate to the number of their published articles. Knowledge of students of TUMS regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement is quite poor. Courses with specific focus on plagiarism and copyright infringement might help in this regard.

  10. Medicalization in psychiatry: the medical model, descriptive diagnosis, and lost knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedler, Mark J

    2016-06-01

    Medicalization was the theme of the 29th European Conference on Philosophy of Medicine and Health Care that included a panel session on the DSM and mental health. Philosophical critiques of the medical model in psychiatry suffer from endemic assumptions that fail to acknowledge the real world challenges of psychiatric nosology. The descriptive model of classification of the DSM 3-5 serves a valid purpose in the absence of known etiologies for the majority of psychiatric conditions. However, a consequence of the "atheoretical" approach of the DSM is rampant epistemological confusion, a shortcoming that can be ameliorated by importing perspectives from the work of Jaspers and McHugh. Finally, contemporary psychiatry's over-reliance on neuroscience and pharmacotherapy has led to a reductionist agenda that is antagonistic to the inherently pluralistic nature of psychiatry.  As a result,  the field has suffered a loss of knowledge that may be difficult to recover.

  11. Ancient genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a revolution in ancient DNA (aDNA) research. Although the field's focus was previously limited to mitochondrial DNA and a few nuclear markers, whole genome sequences from the deep past can now be retrieved. This breakthrough is tightly connected to the massive sequen...

  12. Agnihotra Yajna: A Prototype of South Asian Traditional Medical Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Raveendran Nair

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study conceptualizes the principle of agnihotra yajna. The perusal of ancient and modern literature reveals that the functioning of the human body is impossible without maintaining an energetic continuum driven by sunlight. The seven major chakras existing over the spinal cord help to maintain this energetic continuum. Agnihotra yajna is proposed to balance the chakra system as a whole by minimizing entropy. Offerings of natural elements to fire lit in a copper pyramid during agnihotra liberate various volatile compounds having potent pharmacological actions. Attempts were made to enhance the efficacy of fumes by incorporating two to three pieces of coconut endosperm and “navadhanya” (nine grains to the conventional fire oblations. This investigation clearly demonstrates that the purpose behind the practice of agnihotra yajna is “letting incessant flow of energy (LIFE” through our meridian lines and acupuncture points. The volatile organic compounds in smoke were analyzed using the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method, and the results are discussed.

  13. Knowledge, attitude and behaviour regarding dietary salt intake among medical students in Angola

    OpenAIRE

    Magalh?es, Pedro; Sanhangala, Edgar JR; Dombele, Isildro M; Ulundo, Henrique SN; Capingana, Daniel P; Silva, Am?lcar BT

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Levels of salt consumption and its awareness among medical students in Angola remain insufficiently studied. This study determined salt intake and assessed medical students? knowledge, attitude and behaviour regarding salt consumption. Methods Were collected 24-hour urine samples from a random sample of 123 undergraduate medical students aged 17?43 years who were studying at the University of Agostinho Neto in Luanda. Their knowledge, attitude and behaviour regarding dietar...

  14. Improving Knowledge and Attitudes towards Depression: a controlled trial among Chinese medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Rong, Ye; Glozier, Nick; Luscombe, Georgina M; Davenport, Tracey A; Huang, Yueqin; Hickie, Ian B

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Establishing an evidence-based method of improving knowledge and attitudes concerning depression has been identified as a priority in Chinese medical education. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a self-directed learning strategy as a part of student-centred education improved knowledge of and attitudes towards depression among Chinese medical students. Methods A controlled trial in which 205 medical students were allocated to one of two groups: didactic te...

  15. Knowledge network for medical technology management in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licona, Fabiola Martínez; Leehan, Joaquín Azpiroz; Méndez, Miguel Cadena; Yuriar, Salvador Duarte; Salazar, Raúl Molina; Gilmore, Amador Terán

    2009-10-01

    The role of biomedical engineers (BMEs) has changed widely over the years, from managing a group of technicians to the planning of large installations and the management of medical technology countrywide. As the technology has advanced, the competence of BMEs has been challenged because it is no longer possible to be an expert in every component of the technology involved in running a hospital. Our approach has been to form a network of professionals that are experts in different fields related to medical technology, where work is coordinated to provide high quality services at the planning and execution stages of projects related to medical technology. A study of the procedures involved in the procurement of medical technology has been carried out over the years. These experiences have been compared with several case studies where the approach to problem solving in this area has been multidisciplinary. Planning and execution phases of projects involving medical technology management have been identified. After several instances of collaboration among experts from different fields, a network for management of healthcare technology has been formed at our institution that incorporates the experience from different departments that were dealing separately with projects involving medical technology. This network has led us to propose this approach to solve medical technology management projects, where the strengths of each subgroup complement each other. This structure will lead to a more integrated approach to healthcare technology management and will ensure higher quality solutions.

  16. Second Flexner Century: The Democratization of Medical Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald S. Weinstein MD, FCAP, FATA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting in 1910, the “Flexner Revolution” in medical education catalyzed the transformation of the US medical education enterprise from a proprietary medical school dominated system into a university-based medical school system. In the 21st century, what we refer to as the “Second Flexner Century” shifts focus from the education of medical students to the education of the general population in the “4 health literacies.” Compared with the remarkable success of the first Flexner Revolution, retrofitting medical science education into the US general population today, starting with K-12 students, is a more daunting task. The stakes are high. The emergence of the patient-centered medical home as a health-care delivery model and the revelation that medical errors are the third leading cause of adult deaths in the United States are drivers of population education reform. In this century, patients will be expected to assume far greater responsibility for their own health care as full members of health-care teams. For us, this process began in the run-up to the “Second Flexner Century” with the creation and testing of a general pathology course, repurposed as a series of “gateway” courses on mechanisms of diseases, suitable for introduction at multiple insertion points in the US education continuum. In this article, we describe nomenclature for these gateway courses and a “top–down” strategy for creating pathology coursework for nonmedical students. Finally, we list opportunities for academic pathology departments to engage in a national “Democratization of Medical Knowledge” initiative.

  17. The acquisition of tacit knowledge in medical education: learning by doing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, P J; Steinert, Y; Meagher, T; Schuwirth, L; Tabatabai, D; McLeod, A H

    2006-02-01

    This study was designed to assess medical school teachers' tacit knowledge of basic pedagogic principles and to explore the specific character of the knowledge base. We developed a 50-item, multiple-choice question test based on important pedagogic principles, and classified all questions as requiring either declarative or procedural knowledge. A total of 72 medical teachers representing 5 different groups of clinicians and educators agreed to sit the test. Teachers in all 5 groups performed well on the test of tacit pedagogic knowledge but those with advanced education degrees, or local recognition as experts, performed best. All test takers performed best on questions requiring procedural knowledge. Medical teachers possess tacit knowledge of basic pedagogic principles. Superior test performance on questions requiring procedural knowledge is consistent with their working in a clinical environment characterised by repeated procedural activities.

  18. A comparison of medical and pharmacy students' knowledge and skills of pharmacology and pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Carolina J P W; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; de Wildt, Dick J; Custers, Eugene J F M; Ten Cate, Olle Th J; Hazen, Ankie C M; Jansen, Paul A F

    2014-10-01

    Pharmacotherapy might be improved if future pharmacists and physicians receive a joint educational programme in pharmacology and pharmacotherapeutics. This study investigated whether there are differences in the pharmacology and pharmacotherapy knowledge and skills of pharmacy and medical students after their undergraduate training. Differences could serve as a starting point from which to develop joint interdisciplinary educational programmes for better prescribing. In a cross-sectional design, the knowledge and skills of advanced pharmacy and medical students were assessed, using a standardized test with three domains (basic pharmacology knowledge, clinical or applied pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills) and eight subdomains (pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, interactions and side-effects, Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification groups, prescribing, prescribing for special groups, drug information, regulations and laws, prescription writing). Four hundred and fifty-one medical and 151 pharmacy students were included between August 2010 and July 2012. The response rate was 81%. Pharmacy students had better knowledge of basic pharmacology than medical students (77.0% vs. 68.2% correct answers; P pharmacology (73.8% vs. 72.2%, P = 0.124, δ = 0.15). Pharmacy students have better knowledge of basic pharmacology, but not of the application of pharmacology knowledge, than medical students, whereas medical students are better at writing prescriptions. Professional differences in knowledge and skills therefore might well stem from their undergraduate education. Knowledge of these differences could be harnessed to develop a joint interdisciplinary education for both students and professionals. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  19. Prior knowledge regularization in statistical medical image tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crimi, Alessandro; Sporring, Jon; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2009-01-01

    for regularizing thecovariance matrix using prior knowledge. Our method is evaluated forreconstructing and modeling vertebra and cartilage shapes from a lowerdimensional representation and a conditional model. For these centralproblems, the proposed methodology outperforms the traditional MLEmethod...

  20. Histological Knowledge as a Predictor of Medical Students' Performance in Diagnostic Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivala, Markus; Lehtinen, Erno; Helle, Laura; Kronqvist, Pauliina; Paranko, Jorma; Säljö, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, the role and extent of the basic sciences in medical curricula have been challenged by research on clinical expertise, clinical teachers, and medical students, as well as by the development and diversification of the medical curricula themselves. The aim of this study was to examine how prior knowledge of basic histology and…

  1. [The application of forensic medical knowledge for the reconstruction of historical events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, A V; Molin, Yu A; Gorshkov, A N; Smolyanitsky, A G; Mazurova, E A; Vorontsov, G A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to summarize the results of many year investigations on the application of forensic medical methods and experience for the reconstruction of historical events including identification of the ancient Russian saints' hallows and statesmen's remains, elucidation of the genuine causes of death of the members of the Russian Imperial House of Romanovs based on the recently discovered archival materials, restoration of the character of the injuries suffered by Aleksander II, M.I. Kutuzov, P. Demidov, G. Gapon., and G. Rasputin, the attribution A.S. Pushkin's memorial belongings based on the biological traces, and the like.

  2. MO-DE-BRA-05: Developing Effective Medical Physics Knowledge Structures: Models and Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprawls, P

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Develop a method and supporting online resources to be used by medical physics educators for teaching medical imaging professionals and trainees so they develop highly-effective physics knowledge structures that can contribute to improved diagnostic image quality on a global basis. Methods: The different types of mental knowledge structures were analyzed and modeled with respect to both the learning and teaching process for their development and the functions or tasks that can be performed with the knowledge. While symbolic verbal and mathematical knowledge structures are very important in medical physics for many purposes, the tasks of applying physics in clinical imaging--especially to optimize image quality and diagnostic accuracy--requires a sensory conceptual knowledge structure, specifically, an interconnected network of visually based concepts. This type of knowledge supports tasks such as analysis, evaluation, problem solving, interacting, and creating solutions. Traditional educational methods including lectures, online modules, and many texts are serial procedures and limited with respect to developing interconnected conceptual networks. A method consisting of the synergistic combination of on-site medical physics teachers and the online resource, CONET (Concept network developer), has been developed and made available for the topic Radiographic Image Quality. This was selected as the inaugural topic, others to follow, because it can be used by medical physicists teaching the large population of medical imaging professionals, such as radiology residents, who can apply the knowledge. Results: Tutorials for medical physics educators on developing effective knowledge structures are being presented and published and CONET is available with open access for all to use. Conclusion: An adjunct to traditional medical physics educational methods with the added focus on sensory concept development provides opportunities for medical physics teachers to share

  3. MO-DE-BRA-05: Developing Effective Medical Physics Knowledge Structures: Models and Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprawls, P [Sprawls Educational Foundation, Montreat, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Develop a method and supporting online resources to be used by medical physics educators for teaching medical imaging professionals and trainees so they develop highly-effective physics knowledge structures that can contribute to improved diagnostic image quality on a global basis. Methods: The different types of mental knowledge structures were analyzed and modeled with respect to both the learning and teaching process for their development and the functions or tasks that can be performed with the knowledge. While symbolic verbal and mathematical knowledge structures are very important in medical physics for many purposes, the tasks of applying physics in clinical imaging--especially to optimize image quality and diagnostic accuracy--requires a sensory conceptual knowledge structure, specifically, an interconnected network of visually based concepts. This type of knowledge supports tasks such as analysis, evaluation, problem solving, interacting, and creating solutions. Traditional educational methods including lectures, online modules, and many texts are serial procedures and limited with respect to developing interconnected conceptual networks. A method consisting of the synergistic combination of on-site medical physics teachers and the online resource, CONET (Concept network developer), has been developed and made available for the topic Radiographic Image Quality. This was selected as the inaugural topic, others to follow, because it can be used by medical physicists teaching the large population of medical imaging professionals, such as radiology residents, who can apply the knowledge. Results: Tutorials for medical physics educators on developing effective knowledge structures are being presented and published and CONET is available with open access for all to use. Conclusion: An adjunct to traditional medical physics educational methods with the added focus on sensory concept development provides opportunities for medical physics teachers to share

  4. [My personal idea on acupuncture and moxibustion (acu-moxibustion) literature of the Republic of China not recorded in the General Catalog of the Ancient Chinese Medical Books].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kewei; Wang, Zhaohui; Li, Naiqi; Li, Pengliu

    2015-11-01

    In addition to the collected books in the General Catalog of Ancient Chinese Medical Books, there are lots of acu-moxibustion literature of the Republic of China period scattered among the people which are not carried in this Catalog, some of them are rare and precious ones. In 1933, the first issue of Acu-moxibustion Journal was published and became the first professional Journal of acupuncture and moxibustion in China, 35 issues were published at that time, with many monographs on acu-moxibustion carried in its "special column". Meanwhile, other acupuncturists from different regions also established acu-moxibustion associations or schools and edited all kinds of acupuncture moxibustion teaching materials in order to develop acu-moxibustion education. In a word, the acu-moxibustion literature of the Republic of China were not only rich in forms and contents, but also combined with regional characteristics. Therefore, it should be pay more attention on that field and do further study.

  5. RADIOLOGY EDUCATION: A PILOT STUDY TO ASSESS KNOWLEDGE OF MEDICAL STUDENTS REGARDING IMAGING IN TRAUMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Saad; Saeed, Muhammad Anwar; Shah, Noreen; Nadeem, Naila

    2015-01-01

    Trauma remains one of the most frequent presentations in emergency departments. Imaging has established role in setting of acute trauma with ability to identify potentially fatal conditions. Adequate knowledge of health professionals regarding trauma imaging is vital for improved healthcare. In this work we try to assess knowledge of medical students regarding imaging in trauma as well as identify most effective way of imparting radiology education. This cross-sectional pilot study was conducted at Aga Khan University Medical College & Khyber Girls Medical College, to assess knowledge of medical students regarding imaging protocols practiced in initial management of trauma patients. Only 40 & 20% respectively were able to identify radiographs included in trauma series. Very few had knowledge of correct indication for Focused abdominal sonography in trauma. Clinical radiology rotation was reported as best way of learning radiology. Change in curricula & restructuring of clinical radiology rotation structure is needed to improve knowledge regarding Trauma imaging.

  6. A preliminary study to understand tacit knowledge and visual routines of medical experts through gaze tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Blake; Shyu, Chi-Ren

    2010-11-13

    Many decisions made by medical experts are based on scans from advanced imaging technologies. Interpreting a medical image is a trained, systematic procedure and an excellent target for identifying potential visual routines through image informatics. These visual routines derived from experts contain many clues about visual knowledge and its representation. This study uses an inexpensive webcam-based gaze tracking method to collect data from multiple technologists' survey of medical and non-medical images. Through computational analysis of the results, we expect to provide insight into the behaviors and properties related to medical visual routines. Discovering the visual processes associated with medical images will help us recognize and understand the tacit knowledge gained from extensive experience with medical imagery. These expert routines could potentially be used to reduce medical error, train new experts, and provide an understanding of the human visual system in medicine.

  7. Medical students and AIDS: knowledge, attitudes and implications for education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, D R; Grossman, L S; Klamen, D L

    1999-02-01

    Second year medical students at a large midwestern university were surveyed about their attitudes regarding AIDS. Results indicated: (1) students with homosexual and/or HIV-positive friends were significantly more tolerant toward AIDS patients, (2) over half the students believed that treating AIDS patients may be hazardous and that their education had not prepared them to treat these patients safely, (3) one-third believed they had the right to refuse to treat AIDS patients, and (4) AIDS-phobia was significantly associated with homophobia. These data suggest that medical educators may need to help students overcome AIDS-phobia before some students will be able to incorporate instruction about AIDS since AIDS-phobia may inhibit this learning. Didactic instruction must be coupled with modeling by educators of non-prejudicial attitudes and strict adherence to medical professionalism.

  8. The knowledge desired by emergency medical service managers of their ambulance clinicians - A modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Mats; Fagerberg, Ingegerd; Wahlberg, Anna Carin

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the types of knowledge that Swedish Emergency Medical Service (EMS) managers considered desirable in their Ambulance Clinicians. Emergency medical service managers are responsible for organisational tasking and in this are dependent on the knowledge possessed by their ambulance clinicians. It would therefore be of value to explore EMS managers' approach to this knowledge. A modified Delphi method in three rounds. In total thirty-six EMS managers participated, and twenty-four finished all three rounds. They were encouraged to rate each sub-category, and the ten with the highest mean were interdependently ranked in the final round. Five categories and twenty-six sub-categories emerged in the first round, covering knowledge related to; contextual aspects, medical and holistic assessments, formal education and organisational issues. Eventually, the sub-category 'Knowledge to assess the patient's situation from a holistic perspective' was the highest ranked, followed by 'Medical knowledge to assess and care for different diseases' and 'Knowledge to be able to care for critically ill patients'. Taken together the knowledge areas address essentially medical care, contextual aspects and nursing. The boundaries between these can sometimes be seen as elusive, calling for ambulance clinicians to balance these areas of knowledge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Knowledge: a possible tool in shaping medical professionals' attitudes towards homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunjić-Kostić, Bojana; Pantović, Maja; Vuković, Vuk; Randjelović, Dunja; Totić-Poznanović, Sanja; Damjanović, Aleksandar; Jašović-Gašić, Miroslava; Ivković, Maja

    2012-06-01

    The attitudes of medical professionals towards homosexuals can influence their willingness to provide these individuals with medical help. The study evaluated the medical professionals' knowledge about homosexuality and their attitudes towards it. The sample consisted of 177 participants (physicians n=79 and students n=98). The study respondents anonymously completed three questionnaires (socio-demographic questionnaire, the questionnaire on knowledge, and the questionnaire on attitudes towards homosexuals). Male and religious participants showed a lower level of knowledge and a greater tendency to stigmatize. Furthermore, the subjects who knew more about homosexuality tended to hold less stigmatizing attitude. Age group, specialty (psychiatry, gynecology, internal medicine and surgery), and student's/physician's status had no effect on stigmatization. The study showed that the final year students/ residents had more knowledge than the second year students/specialists did. Knowledge had significant negative predictive effect on attitudes in the analyzed predictive model. To our knowledge, this has been the first study in Serbia and Eastern Europe, which provides information on knowledge and attitudes of health professionals towards homosexuality. We would like to point out the degree of knowledge on homosexuality as a possible, but not exclusive tool in shaping the attitudes towards homosexuals and reducing stigmatization. However, regardless of the personal attitude, knowledge and variable acceptance of the homosexuals' rights, medical professionals' main task is to resist discriminative behavior and provide professional medical help to both homosexual and heterosexual patients.

  10. Trepanation in Ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobert, Leah; Binello, Emanuela

    2017-05-01

    Trepanation, the process of making a burr hole in the skull to access the brain, is an ancient form of a primitive craniotomy. There is widespread evidence of contributions made to this practice by ancient civilizations in Europe, Africa, and South America, where archaeologists have unearthed thousands of trepanned skulls dating back to the Neolithic period. Little is known about trepanation in China, and it is commonly believed that the Chinese used only traditional Chinese medicine and nonsurgical methods for treating brain injuries. However, a thorough analysis of the available archeological and literary evidence reveals that trepanation was widely practiced throughout China thousands of years ago. A significant number of trepanned Chinese skulls have been unearthed showing signs of healing and suggesting that patients survived after surgery. Trepanation was likely performed for therapeutic and spiritual reasons. Medical and historical works from Chinese literature contain descriptions of primitive neurosurgical procedures, including stories of surgeons, such as the legendary Hua Tuo, and surgical techniques used for the treatment of brain pathologies. The lack of translation of Chinese reports into the English language and the lack of publications on this topic in the English language may have contributed to the misconception that ancient China was devoid of trepanation. This article summarizes the available evidence attesting to the performance of successful primitive cranial surgery in ancient China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Validation of a Crowdsourcing Methodology for Developing a Knowledge Base of Related Problem-Medication Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, A B; Wright, A; Krousel-Wood, M; Thomas, E J; McCoy, J A; Sittig, D F

    2015-01-01

    Clinical knowledge bases of problem-medication pairs are necessary for many informatics solutions that improve patient safety, such as clinical summarization. However, developing these knowledge bases can be challenging. We sought to validate a previously developed crowdsourcing approach for generating a knowledge base of problem-medication pairs in a large, non-university health care system with a widely used, commercially available electronic health record. We first retrieved medications and problems entered in the electronic health record by clinicians during routine care during a six month study period. Following the previously published approach, we calculated the link frequency and link ratio for each pair then identified a threshold cutoff for estimated problem-medication pair appropriateness through clinician review; problem-medication pairs meeting the threshold were included in the resulting knowledge base. We selected 50 medications and their gold standard indications to compare the resulting knowledge base to the pilot knowledge base developed previously and determine its recall and precision. The resulting knowledge base contained 26,912 pairs, had a recall of 62.3% and a precision of 87.5%, and outperformed the pilot knowledge base containing 11,167 pairs from the previous study, which had a recall of 46.9% and a precision of 83.3%. We validated the crowdsourcing approach for generating a knowledge base of problem-medication pairs in a large non-university health care system with a widely used, commercially available electronic health record, indicating that the approach may be generalizable across healthcare settings and clinical systems. Further research is necessary to better evaluate the knowledge, to compare crowdsourcing with other approaches, and to evaluate if incorporating the knowledge into electronic health records improves patient outcomes.

  12. [Knowledge of nurses about medication doses at pediatric urgency departament].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Márquez, Gloria; Martínez-Serrano, Ana; Míguez-Navarro, Concepción; López-Mirón, Juan Antonio; Espartosa-Larrayad, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Errors in drug administration are the second cause of errors in hospitalized patients. Children are a high risk group. Besides, pressure in care interventions at emergency department leads to increase incidence errors. Determining nurses' knowledge about the most common drug doses at pediatric urgency department. Descriptive transversal study. We collected data from nurses of 14 pediatric emergency departments of Madrid. With an "ad hoc" questionnaire we collected the following data during five days in January of 2014: demographic, knowledge of responsibility in administration and doses of drugs. Global descriptive analysis was made and it was stratified by hospital and work experience. The answer rate was 114 (34.9%). Only 80 (70.8%) of nurses confirm doses before their administration; 20 (18.6%) think that a wrong prescription that they administer is not their responsibility. There is a high knowledge in the group with more than five years of work experience, except for sedative-analgesic drugs (p<0.05). The average score obtained was 3.8 of 10 (1.99). Nurses' knowledge about drug doses is low. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Self-Monitoring and Its Relationship to Medical Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Meghan M.; Regehr, Glenn; Wood, Timothy J.; Eva, Kevin W.

    2012-01-01

    In the domain of self-assessment, researchers have begun to draw distinctions between summative self-assessment activities (i.e., making an overall judgment of one's ability in a particular domain) and self-monitoring processes (i.e., an "in the moment" awareness of whether one has the necessary knowledge or skills to address a specific…

  14. Knowledge and use of emergency contraception by medical doctors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-09

    Dec 9, 2013 ... recommend that in‑service training should focus more on EC to improve the quality of their knowledge and attitude towards it. ... [1] In. Nigeria, unintended intercourse is the primary cause of unwanted pregnancies, and majority end in abortion with fatalities.[2‑4] Estimates shows that about 610,000 abortions.

  15. knowledge, attitudes, and practices of private medical practitioners

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-02-01

    Feb 1, 2003 ... (RIT) Medical Officer-in-Charge, National Leprosy and Tuberculosis Program, P.O. Box 5542, Eldoret, Kenya and W. Odero, MD, PhD, Associate ..... got the free drugs. Table 1 shows the factors that the doctors felt would raise the suspicion of TB in a child or an adult. Very few doctors knew that failure to ...

  16. The knowledge and skills gap of medical practitioners delivering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method The competencies of medical practitioners working in 27 district hospitals were explored by using a self-administered questionnaire containing a competency rating of proxy markers. The data were analysed using the SAS statistical package. Variables were examined for statistically significant differences. Results

  17. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of residents in medical research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    practice and barriers to medical research at School of. Medicine, Addis Ababa University arose from recognition of this lack. Methods. Study Design: This is a ... This study was conducted at a time when the College started to make research undertaking a compulsory requirement in all graduate programs. Only very few ...

  18. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of private medical practitioners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is the main town in the north Rift Valley with such infrastructure as roads, international airport, and banks. Subjects: Private medical practitioners in Eldoret. Results:Fifty three out of 70 private doctors were interviewed. Of these 84.9% were male. Only 5.7% knew that sputum for AAFBs is collected on spot, early morning, ...

  19. Nigerian Clinical Level Medical Students' Knowledge of Dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicians provide some form of care for patients with dental problems which range from screening, emergency cares, referral to alleviation of pain symptoms in general medical practice, pediatric, and accident and emergency (A and E) department,[1-5]. Prevention of oral diseases is expected to be effective if the.

  20. How to Retrieve Knowledge from Medical Texts Effectively

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolesa, Petr; Antolík, Ján; Ďurovec, Ján

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2005), s. 1-6 ISSN 1727-1983. [EMBEC'05. European Medical and Biomedical Conference /3./. Prague, 20.11.2005-25.11.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET200300413 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : information extraction * natural language processing * machine learning Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  1. Preservice School Personnel's Knowledge of Stimulant Medication and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindiprolu, Sekhar S.

    2014-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed disorders among children today. Stimulants are commonly prescribed to children with ADHD to improve attention span and decrease distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Given the increased use of stimulant medication, school personnel need to be aware of…

  2. Medical student knowledge of global health problems: obstetric fistulas in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust-Wright, Caroline E; Shobeiri, S Abbas; Curry, Christine L; Quiroz, Lieschen H; Nihira, Mikio A

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate medical students in the United States at several medical schools regarding their knowledge of the global health burden of obstetric fistulas. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 schools across the United States over a period of 6 months. The survey was composed of 18 questions on epidemiology, pathology, and treatment of fistulas. It was a web-based module accessed through an emailed link. It was sent to 5,103 medical students' email addresses at the 8 institutions once a week for 4 weeks. SPSS paired student t tests was used for statistical analysis. Of the 1,089 students from 8 medical schools that initially began the survey, 965 completed this voluntary and anonymous survey, with a 21% response rate and 19% completion rate. Overall the students averaged 11/18 (60.7%) correct on this survey. The knowledge of obstetric fistula improved, but not significantly, with increasing level of medical school education, with first-year medical students achieving 10/18 (55%) correct and senior medical students achieving 12/18 (67%) correct (p = 0.1). U.S. medical students' knowledge of obstetric fistulas in developing countries does not increase significantly over 4 years of medical school education. While this condition presents largely in the developing world, given rapid globalization as well as increased international health experiences for U.S.-trained health professionals,further effort should be placed in improving medical student knowledge of this devastating condition.

  3. Knowledge regarding palliative care amongst medical and dental postgraduate students of medical university in western Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purushottam A Giri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Palliative care is a relatively new field of medicine. The goal of palliative care is not to cure, but to provide comfort and maintain the highest possible quality of life for as long as life remains. However, there is a paucity of studies on knowledge among postgraduate students from medical and dental disciplines. Objectives: The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge about palliative care amongst postgraduate students of Medical University in Western Maharashtra. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst a total of 178 postgraduate students which includes 112 medical and 66 dental disciplines of Medical University in Western Maharashtra during the period of June-August 2013. Data was analyzed in the form of percentage and proportions and Chi-square test was applied whenever necessary. Results: In the present study, 42.1% students didn′t know the concept of ′autonomy′ in palliative care, while 107 (60.1% of students believed that most preferable route of administration in palliative care for treating chronic cases is oral. Among medical students 41.6% had shown overall good level of knowledge, while only 16.6% of dental students showed overall good level of knowledge. There was a significant difference found in the level of knowledge among the postgraduates between two disciplines. Conclusion: The study revealed the inadequacy in knowledge amongst postgraduate students of both disciplines; however knowledge level of dental was poor as compared to medical students. There is need to introduce palliative care in postgraduate curriculum of all health professional education.

  4. Text mining for traditional Chinese medical knowledge discovery: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuezhong; Peng, Yonghong; Liu, Baoyan

    2010-08-01

    Extracting meaningful information and knowledge from free text is the subject of considerable research interest in the machine learning and data mining fields. Text data mining (or text mining) has become one of the most active research sub-fields in data mining. Significant developments in the area of biomedical text mining during the past years have demonstrated its great promise for supporting scientists in developing novel hypotheses and new knowledge from the biomedical literature. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) provides a distinct methodology with which to view human life. It is one of the most complete and distinguished traditional medicines with a history of several thousand years of studying and practicing the diagnosis and treatment of human disease. It has been shown that the TCM knowledge obtained from clinical practice has become a significant complementary source of information for modern biomedical sciences. TCM literature obtained from the historical period and from modern clinical studies has recently been transformed into digital data in the form of relational databases or text documents, which provide an effective platform for information sharing and retrieval. This motivates and facilitates research and development into knowledge discovery approaches and to modernize TCM. In order to contribute to this still growing field, this paper presents (1) a comparative introduction to TCM and modern biomedicine, (2) a survey of the related information sources of TCM, (3) a review and discussion of the state of the art and the development of text mining techniques with applications to TCM, (4) a discussion of the research issues around TCM text mining and its future directions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Antibiotic knowledge and self-medication practices in a developing country: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamhour, Antoun; El-Kheir, Ammar; Salameh, Pascale; Hanna, Pierre Abi; Mansour, Hanine

    2017-04-01

    Self-medication is identified by the World Health Organization as a major factor leading to antibiotics overuse, misuse and resistance. This study's objectives were to evaluate the knowledge and self-medication with antibiotics in a sample of the population of Lebanon. This study surveyed a sample of adults (over 18 years of age) residing in 2 major cities in Lebanon about their knowledge and self-medication with antibiotics. Health care professionals were excluded from the study. Four hundred questionnaires were completed. Of the responders, 72% were between 18 and 45 years of age with an overall 86% having completed at least high school. For their knowledge about antibiotics, 61% thought that antibiotics should be taken for common cold and 83% knew that misuse of antibiotics could result in microbial resistance. Self-medication significantly correlated with a lower educational level (P = .036). Those with lower knowledge about antibiotics stopped antibiotics at the inappropriate time (P = .002). Socioeconomic status, gender and age did not correlate with self-medication. Self-medication was associated with a person's educational level and knowledge of antibiotics. Awareness campaigns and enforcing medication dispensing laws are needed in to avoid self-medication with antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Urology in ancient India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakti Das

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland.

  7. A comparison of medical and pharmacy students' knowledge and skills of pharmacology and pharmacotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, Carolina J P W; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; de Wildt, Dick J; Custers, Eugene J F M; Ten Cate, Olle Th J; Hazen, Ankie C M; Jansen, Paul A F

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Pharmacotherapy might be improved if future pharmacists and physicians receive a joint educational programme in pharmacology and pharmacotherapeutics. This study investigated whether there are differences in the pharmacology and pharmacotherapy knowledge and skills of pharmacy and medical

  8. Assessing knowledge and attitudes towards addictions in medical residents of a general hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Barral, Carmen; Eiroa-Orosa, Francisco Jose; Navarro-Marfisis, Maria Cecilia; Roncero, Carlos; Casas, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Addiction treatment training has been recognized to be an essential part of the curriculum in psychiatry and general medicine. Our objective in this study was to measure the knowledge and attitudes towards addictions among medical residents of a general hospital in Catalonia, Spain.\\ud \\ud Method\\ud Within a sample of medical residents, we administered a questionnaire based on previous literature including attitudes towards patients with drug use problems, evaluation of knowledge and beliefs ...

  9. Impact of a brief addiction medicine training experience on knowledge self-assessment among medical learners

    OpenAIRE

    Klimas, Jan; Ahamad, Keith; Fairgrieve, Kit; McLean, Mark; et al.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Implementation of evidence-based approaches to the treatment of various substance use disorders is needed to tackle the existing epidemic of substance use and related harms. Most clinicians, however, lack knowledge and practical experience with these approaches. Given this deficit, the authors examined the impact of an inpatient elective in addiction medicine amongst medical trainees on addiction-related knowledge and medical management. Methods: Trainees who completed an elective...

  10. Current Dental Health Knowledge of Selected Army Medical Service Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-01-01

    that emmau adreowra- Lmies and 0imntblo.e 1 .m -Iates mit be present in the meuth beobe any s@I & a anitial elaA lss lesion eemld be Obeerved...has been found to be most effective as an anti- cariogenic substance? a. single application of silver nitrate to the tooth surfaces b. oral penicillin...medication has been found to be most effective as an a~nti- cariogenic substance? a. single application of silver nitrate to the tooth surfaces b. oral

  11. Knowledge Syntheses in Medical Education: Demystifying Scoping Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Aliki; Lubarsky, Stuart; Durning, Steven J; Young, Meredith E

    2017-02-01

    An unprecedented rise in health professions education (HPE) research has led to increasing attention and interest in knowledge syntheses. There are many different types of knowledge syntheses in common use, including systematic reviews, meta-ethnography, rapid reviews, narrative reviews, and realist reviews. In this Perspective, the authors examine the nature, purpose, value, and appropriate use of one particular method: scoping reviews. Scoping reviews are iterative and flexible and can serve multiple main purposes: to examine the extent, range, and nature of research activity in a given field; to determine the value and appropriateness of undertaking a full systematic review; to summarize and disseminate research findings; and to identify research gaps in the existing literature. Despite the advantages of this methodology, there are concerns that it is a less rigorous and defensible means to synthesize HPE literature. Drawing from published research and from their collective experience with this methodology, the authors present a brief description of scoping reviews, explore the advantages and disadvantages of scoping reviews in the context of HPE, and offer lessons learned and suggestions for colleagues who are considering conducting scoping reviews. Examples of published scoping reviews are provided to illustrate the steps involved in the methodology.

  12. Medical students'self-medication practice and knowledge of over-the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Self-medication and inappropriate use of antibiotics and antimalarials has contributed to the spread of resistant strains of organisms worldwide including Nigeria. th Methods: This study of 5 year medical students used a 44- item questionnaire to assess their use of medications without a prescription order and ...

  13. Emergency contraception: Knowledge and attitude toward its use among medical students of a medical college in North-West India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Kumar Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Emergency contraception (EC is use of drug or device to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse. Unlike other regular methods of contraception which are taken prior to the sexual act, EC is used after the unprotected sex. Aim: To assess the knowledge and attitude toward use of emergency contraceptives among medical students. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted among all the medical students in the Government Medical College in North-West India. Subjects and Methods: A questionnaire seeking information on knowledge and attitude of undergraduate medical students was administered over a period of 4 weeks in the month of February and March 2014. Statistical Analysis: The data were entered in MS excel and expressed using percentages. Chi-square test was used as a test of statistical significance. Results: About 61.6% (247/401 of the participants were aware about the timing of use of EC. Audio visual media (76.6%; 307/401 was the most common source of information for of these medical students. Conclusions: The lack of appropriate in-depth knowledge of EC among future health care professional should alarm the medical teaching system as EC is the only method that can be used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex or contraceptive accident.

  14. Medical and Psychology Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Aging and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Rachel J.; Zweig, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    The current study surveys medical and doctoral psychology students (N = 100) from an urban northeastern university regarding knowledge and attitudes toward elderly sexuality and aging using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale, and measures of interest in gerontology, academic/clinical exposure to aging and…

  15. Does the patients′ educational level and previous counseling affect their medication knowledge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmalik M Alkatheri

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The education level of the patient and previous counseling are positively linked to medication knowledge. Knowledge of the medications′ side effects proved to be the most difficult task for the participants in this study, requiring the highest level of education, and was improved by previous counseling.

  16. Child maltreatment between knowledge, attitude and beliefs among Saudi pediatricians, pediatric residency trainees and medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yossef Alnasser, MBBS

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Saudi medical students, pediatrics trainees and pediatricians have good basic knowledge, positive attitude and willingness to learn more to provide a safe environment for children in Saudi Arabia. However, knowledge in regards to reporting child maltreatment is a major observed defect. Still, further education and training are needed to combat CAN in Saudi Arabia.

  17. Knowledge and attitudes of final year medical students to first aid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was a descriptive cross-sectional study aimed at assessing the knowledge of final year medical students at the University of Benin regarding emergency management of traumatic tooth avulsion. Data collected were information on demographics, knowledge and practice regarding emergency management of traumatic ...

  18. Multiple choice exams of medical knowledge with open books and web access? A validity study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Simonsen, Eivind Ortind; Knudsen, Ulla Breth

    2015-01-01

    Background: Open book tests have been suggested to lower test anxiety and promote deeper learning strategies. In the Aarhus University medical program, ¼ of the curriculum assess students’ medical knowledge with ‘open book, open web’ (OBOW) multiple choice examinations. We found little existing...

  19. BRCA testing of breast cancer patients: medical specialists' referral patterns, knowledge and attitudes to genetic testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Riel, E.; Wárlám-Rodenhuis, C. C.; Verhoef, S.; Rutgers, E. J. T. H.; Ausems, M. G. E. M.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores knowledge about hereditary breast cancer, attitudes about BRCA testing and referral pattern to a family cancer clinic among medical specialists. A total of 92 questionnaires were completed by surgeons (38), medical oncologists (29), radiation oncologists (13) and radiologists

  20. Medical students' knowledge and attitudes toward organ donation: results of a Dutch survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figueroa, C. A.; Mesfum, E. T.; Acton, N. T.; Kunst, A. E.

    2013-01-01

    In the Netherlands, as in many other countries, a paucity of research exists on the attitudes and intentions of medical students toward organ donation. These students are of interest for the effect that increasing medical knowledge might have on the willingness to register as a donor. To examine

  1. Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  2. Medication knowledge, certainty, and risk of errors in health care: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Inger

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medication errors are often involved in reported adverse events. Drug therapy, prescribed by physicians, is mostly carried out by nurses, who are expected to master all aspects of medication. Research has revealed the need for improved knowledge in drug dose calculation, and medication knowledge as a whole is poorly investigated. The purpose of this survey was to study registered nurses' medication knowledge, certainty and estimated risk of errors, and to explore factors associated with good results. Methods Nurses from hospitals and primary health care establishments were invited to carry out a multiple-choice test in pharmacology, drug management and drug dose calculations (score range 0-14. Self-estimated certainty in each answer was recorded, graded from 0 = very uncertain to 3 = very certain. Background characteristics and sense of coping were recorded. Risk of error was estimated by combining knowledge and certainty scores. The results are presented as mean (±SD. Results Two-hundred and three registered nurses participated (including 16 males, aged 42.0 (9.3 years with a working experience of 12.4 (9.2 years. Knowledge scores in pharmacology, drug management and drug dose calculations were 10.3 (1.6, 7.5 (1.6, and 11.2 (2.0, respectively, and certainty scores were 1.8 (0.4, 1.9 (0.5, and 2.0 (0.6, respectively. Fifteen percent of the total answers showed a high risk of error, with 25% in drug management. Independent factors associated with high medication knowledge were working in hospitals (p Conclusions Medication knowledge was found to be unsatisfactory among practicing nurses, with a significant risk for medication errors. The study revealed a need to improve the nurses' basic knowledge, especially when referring to drug management.

  3. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Regarding HPV Vaccination Among Medical and Para Medical in Students, India a Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarnapriya, K; Kavitha, D; Reddy, Gopireddy Murali Mohan

    2015-01-01

    High risk human papilloma virus (HPV) types 16 and 18 have been proven as central causes of cervical cancer and safety and immunogenicity of HPV vaccines are sufficiently established. Knowledge and practices of HPV vaccination among medical and paramedical students is vital as these may strongly determine intention to recommend vaccination to others in the future. The present study was therefore undertaken to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination among medical and paramedical students and to analyze factors influencing them. The present cross sectional study, conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital in south India, included undergraduate students aged 18 years and above, belonging to medical, dental and nursing streams, after informed written consent. Out of 957 participants, only 430 (44.9%) displayed good knowledge and only 65 (6.8%) had received HPV vaccination. Among the unvaccinated, 433 (48.54%), were not willing to take the vaccine. Concerns regarding the efficacy (30.5%), safety (26.1%) and cost of the vaccine (21.7%) were responsible for this. Age, gender, family history of malignancy and mother's education had no influence on knowledge. Compared to medical students, nursing students had better knowledge (OR-1.49, 95% CI 0.96 to 2.3, p = 0.072) and students of dentistry had poor knowledge (OR-0.50 95% CI 0.36 to 0.70, p vaccination among medical and paramedical students in India is poor. Targeted health education interventions may have huge positive impact not only on the acceptance of vaccination among them, but also on their intention to recommend the vaccine in future.

  4. An assessment of Pakistani pharmacy and medical students’ knowledge of black box warnings

    OpenAIRE

    Murtaza,G.; Khan,S.A.; Murtaza (Junior),G.; Javed,K.; Akram,F.; Hamid,A.A.; Hussain,I.

    2014-01-01

    Food and Drug Administration delivers the black box warnings (BBW) which should appear on the leaflets of medicines for patient awareness and the prescription of drugs indicating its highly fatal adverse effects to human body. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of Pakistani pharmacy and medical students about BBW. A questionnaire containing contents about BBW was given to the 1st, 2nd and 3rd professional year pharmacy and medical students from different pharmacy and medical in...

  5. A European perspective on medical tourism: the need for a knowledge base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Percivil; Lunt, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, medical tourism, whereby individuals choose to travel across national borders or overseas to receive treatments, has been increasingly recognized in the United States and Asia. This article highlights the emergence of medical tourism in the European context. It examines the drivers for such developments and situates medical tourism within the broader context of health globalization and forms of patient mobility in the European Union. In outlining the developments of medical tourism in Europe, the authors distinguish between two types of medical tourist: the citizen and the consumer. The discussion explores the need for greater empirical research on medical tourism in Europe and argues that such research will contribute toward knowledge of patient mobility and the broader theorization of medical tourism. The authors make suggestions about the content of this research agenda, including understanding the development of medical tourist markets, the nature of choice, equity implications, the role of brokers and intermediaries, and general issues for health management.

  6. Patient Knowledge and Rationality of Self-medication in Three Pharmacies of Panyabungan City, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Harahap, Nur Aini; Khairunnisa, Khairunnisa; Tanuwijaya, Juanita

    2017-01-01

    Self-medication is a part of community effort to preserve their health. In practice, the self-medication can be a source of drug related problem because of lack of knowledge about drugs and their use. The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge and rationality of medicinal use self-medication. This study was using survey cross-sectional method. Total respondents (n=342) were involved this study of three pharmacies. Respondents were 18-60 years old and selected by consecutive...

  7. Balint work and the creation of medical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, John

    2018-01-01

    Michael Balint's pioneering work in primary care was not simply the application of psychodynamic theory to the complex problems and relationships encountered by clinicians. Rather, Balint's work was part of a wider conversation in Western epistemology that had already begun to break down the enlightenment rationalist agenda. Since the time of Descartes, we sought to find certain truth through decontextualizing and abstracting problems, and through separation of the observer from the thing observed, with a focus on finding universal timeless laws that could be generalized. By the mid-1950s, it was clear that this agenda was insufficient to answer important questions about what it means to be human and to live a healthy and happy life. Balint's experiment was a return to a method of knowledge creation that is case based, narrative, local, timely, particular, and especially considers specific contexts for finding solutions to problems. For current healthcare reform efforts to be effective, we must include Balint's focus on the context of the doctor, patient, and their relationship, as well as development of practical wisdom (i.e. Aristotelian phronesis) that we know in medicine as professional judgment. The case study method of the Balint group is one of the few and best formal methods to teach and practice this way of knowing.

  8. Medical Students' Knowledge of Fertility Awareness-Based Methods of Family Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danis, Peter G; Kurz, Sally A; Covert, Laura M

    2017-01-01

    Traditional medical school curricula have not addressed fertility awareness-based methods (FABMs) of family planning. The objective of this study was to assess (1) 3-year medical students' knowledge of FABMs of family planning, (2) their confidence in utilizing that knowledge in patient care, and (3) to implement focused education on FABMs to improve knowledge and confidence. Third-year medical students at one institution in the United States were given a 10-question assessment at the beginning of their OB-GYN rotation. Two lectures about FABMs and their clinical applications were given during the rotation. Students were given the same questions at the end of the rotation. Each questionnaire consisted of eight questions to assess a student's knowledge of FABMs and two questions to assess the student's confidence in sharing and utilizing that information in a clinical setting. McNemar's test was used to analyze the data. Two hundred seventy-seven students completed a pretest questionnaire and 196 students completed the posttest questionnaire. Medical knowledge improved from an initial test score of 38.99% to final test score of 53.57% ( p  family planning. This study shows that brief, focused education can increase medical students' knowledge of and confidence with FABMs of family planning.

  9. Patient knowledge and rationality of self-medication in three pharmacies of Panyabungan City, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Aini Harahap

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-medication is a part of community effort to preserve their health. In practice, the self-medication can be a source of drug related problem because of lack of knowledge about drugs and their use. The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge and rationality of medicinal use self-medication. This study was using survey cross-sectional method. Total respondents (n=342 were involved this study of three pharmacies. Respondents were 18-60 years old and selected by consecutive sampling method. Data was collected by using a validated questionnaire. Data were analyzed by Chi-square test and Fisher test using Statistical Product and Servicer Solution (SPSS version 17. The research showed that level knowledge of patients 20.5 % were good, 41.8% were medium, and 37.7% were low. Drug use self-medication was 59.4% rational and 40.6% irrational used. Based the result of Chi-square and Fisher test, educated and jobs can influence the level of knowledge, meanwhile rationality of self-medication use was not influenced by sociodemographic factor. Based on the research results obtained that majority level knowledge of patient was good classified. Irrational drug use on self medication reached 40.6%.

  10. Medical students' knowledge and attitudes toward organ donation: results of a Dutch survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, C A; Mesfum, E T; Acton, N T; Kunst, A E

    2013-01-01

    In the Netherlands, as in many other countries, a paucity of research exists on the attitudes and intentions of medical students toward organ donation. These students are of interest for the effect that increasing medical knowledge might have on the willingness to register as a donor. To examine which factors determine medical students' willingness to register as donors. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among medical students at the University of Amsterdam. Our questionnaire included questions on actual donor registration, motives, knowledge, and attitudes toward donation. To assess which factors were related to self-reported donor registration status, we conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses. We received 506 questionnaires (response rate at least 84%). The majority of respondents (80%) intended to donate organs, while 59% were registered. Self-reported medical knowledge and positive attitudes on donation were independently associated with registering as a donor. A rising study year was associated with registering as a donor; this could be explained by increasing medical knowledge and changing attitudes. The results of our study suggest that willingness to register as a donor increases with a rising level of knowledge on organ donation up to some minimal level. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Collaborative work and medical talk: opportunities for learning through knowledge sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Line Lundvoll; Ludvigsen, Sten R

    2010-01-01

    Teleconsultations provide new opportunities for learning in medical settings. This study explores the conditions under which learning among physicians takes place. The empirical context is 47 real-time video conferences carried out to examine collaborative work and the medical talk involved. Sixteen of the observations were consultations wherein general practitioners (GPs) and specialists shared knowledge with the purpose of solving a medical problem related to a patient under treatment. In this exploratory study, the learning opportunities are seen as what medical practitioners with different types of expertise achieve through interaction while working with patients over periods of time. The analysis of medical talk in consultations shows that collaborative work among GPs and specialists creates a shared understanding of the patient's clinical history and treatment trajectory. As knowledge is demanded and attributed and gaps of knowledge become shared, consultations create a work tool that expands the medical work and talk. Collaborative work in and between different levels of the health care service expands knowledge, creates opportunities for learning in everyday settings, and improves the quality of knowledge distribution in the health care system.

  12. Knowledge of and attitudes toward electroconvulsive therapy among medical students, psychology students, and the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aki, Ozlem Erden; Ak, Sertac; Sonmez, Yunus Emre; Demir, Basaran

    2013-03-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is safe and effective for the treatment of various psychiatric disorders. Despite being a well-known treatment method among health care professionals, lay people generally have a negative opinion of ECT. The present study aimed to examine knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT among medical students, psychology students, and the general public. Psychology students were included because they are among the important groups in mental health care in Turkey. A Likert-type questionnaire was administered to fifth-year medical students (n = 28), master of science and doctor of philosophy clinical psychology students (n = 35), and a sample of the general public (n = 26). The questionnaire included questions about the general principles of and indications for ECT, and sources of knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT. The medical students were the most knowledgeable about ECT, as expected. The medical students also had a more positive attitude toward ECT than the other 2 groups. More psychology students had negative attitudes on some aspects than general public sample, despite being more knowledgeable. Medical school theoretical and practical training in ECT played an important role in increasing the level of knowledge of and decreasing the prevalence of negative attitudes toward ECT among the medical students; similar training for psychology students is required to achieve similar results.

  13. Testing a teaching appointment and geragogy-based approach to medication knowledge at discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Sharon; Buck, Gail; Goldstein, Debora; Largaespada, Elena; Logan, Lauren; Stebbins, Diane; Halvorsen, Lisa; Kalman-Yearout, Kris

    2010-01-01

    Limited research is available on how best to provide discharge teaching for rehabilitation patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods for providing education to increase patient knowledge about discharge medications. Using a convenience sample of patients and family members, a randomized, experimental study design was conducted to compare three methods for teaching about discharge medications (geragogy format plus scheduled time for teaching; geragogy format alone; standard teaching method). No differences were found in knowledge between the three teaching methods, but family members had significantly lower confidence levels before the teaching sessions than patients; patients' confidence levels increased after education (p = .002). Although the teaching method did not affect medication knowledge, family members (though not patients) experienced significant increases in confidence levels for administering discharge medications after the education.

  14. How does the knowledge environment shape procurement practices for orthopaedic medical devices in Mexico?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingg, Myriam; Wyss, Kaspar; Durán-Arenas, Luis

    2016-07-08

    In organisational theory there is an assumption that knowledge is used effectively in healthcare systems that perform well. Actors in healthcare systems focus on managing knowledge of clinical processes like, for example, clinical decision-making to improve patient care. We know little about connecting that knowledge to administrative processes like high-risk medical device procurement. We analysed knowledge-related factors that influence procurement and clinical procedures for orthopaedic medical devices in Mexico. We based our qualitative study on 48 semi-structured interviews with various stakeholders in Mexico: orthopaedic specialists, government officials, and social security system managers or administrators. We took a knowledge-management related perspective (i) to analyse factors of managing knowledge of clinical procedures, (ii) to assess the role of this knowledge and in relation to procurement of orthopaedic medical devices, and (iii) to determine how to improve the situation. The results of this study are primarily relevant for Mexico but may also give impulsion to other health systems with highly standardized procurement practices. We found that knowledge of clinical procedures in orthopaedics is generated inconsistently and not always efficiently managed. Its support for procuring orthopaedic medical devices is insufficient. Identified deficiencies: leaders who lack guidance and direction and thus use knowledge poorly; failure to share knowledge; insufficiently defined formal structures and processes for collecting information and making it available to actors of health system; lack of strategies to benefit from synergies created by information and knowledge exchange. Many factors are related directly or indirectly to technological aspects, which are insufficiently developed. The content of this manuscript is novel as it analyses knowledge-related factors that influence procurement of orthopaedic medical devices in Mexico. Based on our results we

  15. ['How Much Sex do Medical Studies Need?' - A Survey of the Knowledge and Interest in Sexual Medicine of Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Daniel; Driemeyer, Wiebke; Nieder, Timo Ole; Scherbaum, Norbert; Briken, Peer

    2014-12-01

    Background: Because of the increasing need for medical care of problems concerning human sexuality, the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) in 2010 suggested to include sexual medicine in the current curricula of medical studies. Based on the ISSM's suggestions sexual medicine should be taught on a multidisciplinary basis throughout the whole study process. Furthermore, health care providers have repeatedly indicated that they have lacking knowledge concerning sexual medicine and patients have criticized that their health care providers only infrequently address their sexuality. Methods: 404 medical students from 2 German university medical centers answered an online questionnaire assessing the quality of sexual medicine education. The students were asked about their interest in and their knowledge about different issues concerning human sexuality in the following 4 domains: Sexual development, Sexual behavior, Sexual physiology and psychology, Sexual medicine and therapy of sexual disorders. Results: The great majority of students were interested in education about sexual medicine within medical studies, whereby most students were of the opinion that sexual medicine should be included in the already existing subjects. Furthermore, students mostly evaluated the current quality of sexual medicine education as insufficient and more than half of the students thought that they do not have enough knowledge about human sexuality for their future profession as medical health care providers. On average the students correctly answered 50% of the knowledge questions, however they showed some knowledge gaps especially in the domains of sexual development and sexual physiology and psychology. Discussion: The results of the present study suggest that medical students have lacking knowledge concerning important parts of human sexuality but at the same time express great interest in the field. Therefore, in Germany more structured educational programs in sexual

  16. Gross anatomy examination performances in relation to medical students' knowledge of classical latin and greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Shiby; Moxham, Bernard John

    2018-02-03

    The ability of medical students to acquire anatomical and medical terminologies could be influenced by their knowledge of classical Greek and Latin. In a previous study (Stephens and Moxham , Clin. Anat. 29:696at. ), it was reported that, while newly recruited medical students have a very favorable attitude toward the need to understand these classical languages, final year students see no benefit. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that, regardless of attitude, students in the initial stages of their medical education perform better at both summative and formative anatomy examinations if they have prior knowledge of Greek and Latin. First year medical students at Cardiff University who had been involved in the previous study concerning attitudes toward the relevance of the classical languages to medical education were evaluated in terms of their examination results in anatomy. Two hundred and twenty-seven students responded to a questionnaire (83% of the class) that categorized students into their linguistic knowledge and skills and their performances in formative and summative examinations were analyzed. For medical students with prior knowledge of classical Greek and Latin performed better in both summative and formative anatomy examinations. The results are therefore consistent with our hypothesis. Clin. Anat., 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Attitudes, knowledge, and actions with regard to organ donation among Hong Kong medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Christina K Y; Ng, Carol W K; Li, Jacky Y C; Sum, Kevin C Y; Man, Adams H Y; Chan, Sunny P C; Cheung, Joyce Y M; Yu, Kris P T; Tang, Bruce Y H; Lee, Pamela P W

    2008-08-01

    To study attitudes, knowledge, and actions of local medical students with regard to organ donation and self-perceived confidence and competence in approaching potential organ donors. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. Medical students, years 1-5. Knowledge on various aspects of organ donation was assessed, and students' self-evaluated competence and confidence about counselling for organ donation was evaluated. Factors influencing attitudes and actions were determined. The response rate was 94% (655/694). A majority (85%) had a 'positive' attitude, but only a small proportion (23%) had signed the organ donation card. Inconvenience and lack of knowledge about organ donor registration, and concerns about premature termination of medical treatment accounted for such discrepancies. Socio-cultural factors such as the traditional Chinese belief in preservation of an intact body after death, unease discussing death-related issues, and family objections to organ donation were significantly associated with a 'negative' attitude. Knowledge and action increased with medical education yet only a small proportion of medical students felt competent and confident in counselling patients on organ donation. The medical curriculum should increase medical students' awareness of the organ shortage problem. The donor registration system should be made more convenient and public education is recommended to correct misconceptions.

  18. Attitudes to Organ Donation and Knowledge of Donation and Transplantation among University of Auckland Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Harbour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims • To explore organ donation and transplantation knowledge and attitudes among medical students at the University of Auckland. • To understand students' perception of the extent of training received prior to and during the medical program. Method A validated web-based questionnaire consisting of 42 questions in five categories was anonymously administered to all enrolled medical students at the Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, in September 2012. Results In all, 419 out of 989 (42% Year 2–6 students responded. A total of 99.3% of medical students supported organ donation, but knowledge was limited (mean score 7.54/15±2.26. A total of 38% of students reported having participated in organ donation learning. A total of 96% of students believed that organ donation information should be available in primary care settings. A total of 69% of students reported that if a patient asked a question about organ donation that they did not know the answer to, they also would not know where to source the correct information from. Conclusion This study demonstrates that although medical students support organ donation, they lack the knowledge required to facilitate informative discussions with patients. Enhanced organ donation education in medical programs may enable students to develop skills and knowledge allowing them to better discuss donation with patients.

  19. Ancient Bedforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    18 August 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows groupings of large ripple-like windblown bedforms on the floor of a large crater (larger than the image shown here) in Sinus Sabaeus, south of Schiaparelli Basin. These ripple-like features are much larger than typical wind ripples on Earth, but smaller than typical sand dunes on either planet. Like most of the other ripple-like bedforms in Sinus Sabaeus, they are probably ancient and no longer mobile. Dark streaks on the substrate between the bedforms were formed by passing dust devils. This image is located near 13.0oS, 343.7oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across and sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  20. Do medical students have the knowledge needed to maximize organ donation rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardell, Trevor; Hunter, Duncan J W; Kent, William D T; Jain, Minto K

    2003-12-01

    The chronic shortage of organs for donation could be improved by increasing the numbers of potential and actual donors. Physicians can play a key role in solving this problem but may miss opportunities because they lack knowledge about organ donation to answer questions or concerns. Education of physicians early in their careers may lead to better procurement rates for donor organs. We carried out a study at Queen's University in Kingston, Ont., to determine whether medical students have sufficient knowledge of topics shown to affect organ donation rates. Medical students from years 1-4 completed a self-administered questionnaire. Section 1 tested general knowledge about organ donation; section 2 tested the students' ability to identify potential donors; and section 3 dealt with the approach to the potential donor's family. Univariate predictors of mean test scores were assessed using the t-test. Of 322 medical students who received the questionnaire, 260 (81%) responded. The mean age of the students was 25 years and 54% were men. The mean knowledge score was 6.7 out of a possible score of 14. Third-year students had the best knowledge scores (7.6), followed by fourth- (7.4), second- (6.6) and first-year students (5.7). Teaching about organ donation and a student's comfort with approaching a family for organ donation were also predictive of higher knowledge scores. There was no correlation between knowledge score and age, gender or whether the student was carrying a signed donor card. Knowledge scores were low in all 3 sections. Thirty-six percent of students did not know that brain death means that the patient is dead rather than in a coma. Half the medical students believed that people of certain religious groups should not be approached about organ donation. Medical students possess limited knowledge about organ donation topics important for maximizing procurement rates. A teaching intervention designed to target these shortcomings may be beneficial.

  1. OBSERVED DEFICIENCIES IN MEDICAL STUDENT KNOWLEDGE OF TRANSGENDER AND INTERSEX HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jennifer J; Gardner, Ivy H; Walker, Jacob A; Safer, Joshua D

    2017-08-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) patients face many well-documented disparities in care which among transgender and intersex people can often be traced to providers' lack of knowledge. We administered surveys to examine the self-assessed knowledge and attitudes of all medical students at Boston University regarding different LGBTI subpopulations. Survey questions were based on a Likert scale from 1 to 5; analysis was conducted with Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Overall there was a response rate of 24%, with the number of responses varying by class. Three of the 4 surveyed classes reported lower knowledge about transgender health than LGB health. Every class reported significantly lower knowledge of intersex health in comparison to LGB. Comfort with transgender or with intersex patients was lower than with LGB patients for all surveyed classes. Students across all self-identified groups (LGBTI, ally, not an ally) reported significantly lower average responses for knowledge and comfort regarding transgender or intersex health in comparison to that of LGB. Students in their preclinical years reported lower levels of knowledge in comparison with students in their clinical years. Students who identified as LGBTI reported significantly higher knowledge and comfort with only LGB and transgender health when compared with students who didn't identify as LGBTI. Respondents more frequently requested additional learning opportunities in transgender and intersex health than in LGB health. Self-reported knowledge of transgender and intersex health lags behind knowledge of LGB health, though these deficits appear partially responsive to targeted educational intervention. BUSM = Boston University School of Medicine LGB = lesbian, gay, and bisexual LGBT = lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender LGBTI = lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex M1 = first-year medical student class M2 = second-year medical student class M3 = third-year medical student

  2. German medical students' interest in and knowledge about human sexuality in 1972 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Daniel; Jopt, Konstantin; Nieder, Timo O; Briken, Peer

    2014-08-01

    During the 1970s, a growing number of medical schools began to recognize the importance of medical education concerning human sexuality. Currently, most medical schools provide at least some instruction in human sexuality. In light of this development, the present study aimed to compare the interest in and knowledge about human sexuality of medical students from two different time periods. The answers to a self-constructed questionnaire of 236 students in 1972 were compared with those of 259 students in 2012. Students were asked whether they were interested in education regarding human sexuality and which specific topics they felt should be included in the medical curriculum. The students' knowledge in the following domains was assessed: sexual development, sexual behavior, sexual physiology and psychology, and sexual medicine. The two cohorts were compared with regard to those specific sexuality-related topics in which the students were most and least interested in. Furthermore, the number of correct responses to the knowledge questions was compared. While in 1972, 99.2% of the students were interested in medical education about human sexuality, in 2012, 80.3% showed an interest. The connection of disorders from different medical disciplines with sexuality was rated as most interesting by both the students from 1972 and 2012. Medical students from 2012 gave 50.3% correct answers to the knowledge questions, whereas students from 1972 correctly answered 46.3% of the questions. Although interest in education concerning human sexuality has decreased, the majority of students view it as an important topic. Nevertheless, medical students still lack knowledge about important aspects of human sexuality (e.g., psychosexual development and relative safety of different contraceptives). Therefore, more time should be dedicated to education concerning human sexuality and its cultural, societal, and health aspects in particular. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  3. Doctors' attitudes about prescribing and knowledge of the costs of common medications.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGuire, C

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Compliance with medical therapy may be compromised because of the affordability of medications. Inadequate physician knowledge of drug costs may unwittingly contribute to this problem. METHODS: We measured attitudes about prescribing and knowledge of medication costs by written survey of medical and surgical non consultant hospital doctors and consultants in two University teaching hospitals (n = 102). Sixty-eight percent felt the cost of medicines was an important consideration in the prescribing decision, however, 88% often felt unaware of the actual costs. Only 33% had easy access to drug cost data, and only 3% had been formally educated about drug costs. Doctors\\' estimates of the cost of a supply of ten commonly used medications were accurate in only 12% of cases, too low for 50%, and too high for 38%. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions are needed to educate doctors about drug costs and provide them with reliable, easily accessible cost information in real-world practice.

  4. Knowledge brokers, companions, and navigators: a qualitative examination of informal caregivers' roles in medical tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Victoria; Crooks, Valorie A; Snyder, Jeremy; Turner, Leigh

    2013-12-01

    Many studies examining the phenomena of medical tourism have identified health equity issues associated with this global health services practice. However, there is a notable lack of attention in this existing research to the informal care provided by the friends and family members who typically accompany medical tourists abroad. To date, researchers have not examined the care roles filled by informal caregivers travelling with medical tourists. In this article, we fill this gap by examining these informal caregivers and the roles they take on towards supporting medical tourists' health and wellbeing. We conducted 21 interviews with International Patient Coordinators (IPCs) working at medical tourism hospitals across ten countries. IPCs work closely with informal caregivers as providers of non-medical personal assistance, and can therefore offer broad insight on caregiver roles. The interviews were coded and analyzed thematically. Three roles emerged: knowledge broker, companion, and navigator. As knowledge brokers, caregivers facilitate the transfer of information between the medical tourist and formal health care providers as well as other staff members at medical tourism facilities. The companion role involves providing medical tourists with physical and emotional care. Meanwhile, responsibilities associated with handling documents and coordinating often complex journeys are part of the navigation role. This is the first study to examine informal caregiving roles in medical tourism. Many of the roles identified are similar to those of conventional informal caregivers while others are specific to the transnational context. We conclude that these roles make informal caregivers an integral part of the larger phenomenon of medical tourism. We further contend that examining the roles taken on by a heretofore-unconsidered medical tourism stakeholder group sheds valuable insight into how this industry operates and that such knowledge is necessary in order to respond to

  5. Knowledge brokers, companions, and navigators: a qualitative examination of informal caregivers’ roles in medical tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many studies examining the phenomena of medical tourism have identified health equity issues associated with this global health services practice. However, there is a notable lack of attention in this existing research to the informal care provided by the friends and family members who typically accompany medical tourists abroad. To date, researchers have not examined the care roles filled by informal caregivers travelling with medical tourists. In this article, we fill this gap by examining these informal caregivers and the roles they take on towards supporting medical tourists’ health and wellbeing. Methods We conducted 21 interviews with International Patient Coordinators (IPCs) working at medical tourism hospitals across ten countries. IPCs work closely with informal caregivers as providers of non-medical personal assistance, and can therefore offer broad insight on caregiver roles. The interviews were coded and analyzed thematically. Results Three roles emerged: knowledge broker, companion, and navigator. As knowledge brokers, caregivers facilitate the transfer of information between the medical tourist and formal health care providers as well as other staff members at medical tourism facilities. The companion role involves providing medical tourists with physical and emotional care. Meanwhile, responsibilities associated with handling documents and coordinating often complex journeys are part of the navigation role. Conclusions This is the first study to examine informal caregiving roles in medical tourism. Many of the roles identified are similar to those of conventional informal caregivers while others are specific to the transnational context. We conclude that these roles make informal caregivers an integral part of the larger phenomenon of medical tourism. We further contend that examining the roles taken on by a heretofore-unconsidered medical tourism stakeholder group sheds valuable insight into how this industry operates and that such

  6. Knowledge of palliative care among medical interns in a tertiary health institution in Northwestern Nigeria

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    Daniel Chukwunyere Nnadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Palliative care is the proactive care which seeks to maximize quality of life for people and families facing life-threatening illnesses. Objectives: To ascertain the existing knowledge of palliative care among medical interns and determine the effect of a structured educational intervention on improvement of their knowledge levels. Subjects and Methods: This is a quasi-experimental, interventional study with a one group pre- and post-test design involving medical interns rotating through the various departments of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto. The study population was chosen by convenience sampling method. The interns completed a pre- and a post-test assessment following a structured educational intervention for the evaluation of knowledge of palliative care. Knowledge was evaluated by a self-administered structured questionnaire. Results: A total number of 49 medical interns were recruited, among whom were 41 males and 8 females. Their ages ranged from 21 to 36 years with a mean of 27.7 (standard deviation 2.14 years. In the pretest, 11/49 (22.5% of the respondents had poor knowledge level of palliative care; however, in the postintervention, only 2/49 (4.1% of the respondents had poor knowledge. Similarly, good knowledge levels appreciated from 9/49 (18.4% to 14/49 (28.6% while very good knowledge increased from 10/49 (20.4% to 19/49 (38.8%. This effect was statistically significant (Chi-square test 11.655 df = 3, P = 0.009. Conclusion: There is poor knowledge of palliative care among the interns due to ignorance. Following an educational intervention, the knowledge levels appreciated significantly. Palliative care should be part of the medical curriculum.

  7. Longitudinal retention of anatomical knowledge in second-year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doomernik, Denise E; van Goor, Harry; Kooloos, Jan G M; Ten Broek, Richard P

    2017-06-01

    The Radboud University Medical Center has a problem-based, learner-oriented, horizontally, and vertically integrated medical curriculum. Anatomists and clinicians have noticed students' decreasing anatomical knowledge and the disability to apply knowledge in diagnostic reasoning and problem solving. In a longitudinal cohort, the retention of anatomical knowledge gained during the first year of medical school among second-year medical students was assessed. In May 2011, 346 medical students applied for the second-year gastro-intestinal (GI) tract course. The students were asked to participate in a reexamination of a selection of anatomical questions of an examination from October 2009. The examination consisted of a clinical anatomy case scenario and two computed tomography (CT) images of thorax and abdomen in an extended matching format. A total of 165 students were included for analysis. In 2011, students scored significantly lower for the anatomy examination compared to 2009 with a decline in overall examination score of 14.7% (±11.7%). Decrease in knowledge was higher in the radiological questions, compared to the clinical anatomy cases 17.5% (±13.6%) vs. 7.9% (±10.0%), respectively, d = 5.17. In both years, male students scored slightly better compared to female students, and decline of knowledge seems somewhat lower in male students (13.1% (±11.1%) vs. 15.5% (±12.0%), respectively), d = -0.21. Anatomical knowledge in the problem-oriented horizontal and vertical integrated medical curriculum, declined by approximately 15% 1.5 year after the initial anatomy course. The loss of knowledge in the present study is relative small compared to previous studies. Anat Sci Educ 10: 242-248. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  8. [Sexuality in Ancient Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androutsos, G; Marketos, S

    1994-10-01

    The present article explores the sexuality in ancient Egypt. In particular in this article are presented the ways of concubinage (marriage, concubinage, adultery), the incest, loves of the pharaohs and of the common people, the freedom of choice in garments, the status of the hetairas and of the whores, the sexual perversions (male and female homosexuality, necrophilia, sodomism, bestiality, rape, masturbation, exhibitionism), the operations of the genitals (circumcision, excision, castration) and finally the level of knowledge in gynaecology, fertility, contraception and obstetrics that even today demands our admiration.

  9. Brucellosis: Community, medical and veterinary workers’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices in Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Muloki Nabirye

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed at determining the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the community, medical and veterinary workers regarding brucellosis. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at selected health facilities in Apac, Gulu, Lira, and Pader districts of Northern Uganda using a standardized questionnaire. A total of 251 patients testing positive for brucellosis using the Brucella plate agglutination test, 59 medical and 29 veterinary workers were studied. Chi-square test at 95% confidence level was used to analyze data. Results: Only 8% patients, 15.3% medical, and 21.4% veterinary workers were knowledgeable on transmission methods and symptoms for brucellosis and knowledge differed according to the level of education among patients (p=0.001, medical (p=0.001, and veterinary workers (p=0.012. Over 80% patients, medical and veterinary workers had a positive attitude. Only 8% patients, 13.6% medical, and 7.1% veterinary workers had good practices regarding brucellosis control. Conclusion: Poor knowledge, poor practices, and positive attitude provide an opportunity for health education and policy formulation for the control of brucellosis. The prevalence studies of human and animal brucellosis are recommended to determine the magnitude of the problem.

  10. High-fidelity medical simulation training improves medical students' knowledge and confidence levels in septic shock resuscitation

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    Vattanavanit V

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Veerapong Vattanavanit, Jarernporn Kawla-ied, Rungsun Bhurayanontachai Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand Background: Septic shock resuscitation bundles have poor compliance worldwide partly due to a lack of knowledge and clinical skills. High-fidelity simulation-based training is a new teaching technology in our faculty which may improve the performance of medical students in the resuscitation process. However, since the efficacy of this training method in our institute is limited, we organized an extra class for this evaluation.Purpose: The aim was to evaluate the effect on medical students’ knowledge and confidence levels after the high-fidelity medical simulation training in septic shock management.Methods: A retrospective study was performed in sixth year medical students during an internal medicine rotation between November 2015 and March 2016. The simulation class was a 2-hour session of a septic shock management scenario and post-training debriefing. Knowledge assessment was determined by a five-question pre-test and post-test examination. At the end of the class, the students completed their confidence evaluation questionnaire.Results: Of the 79 medical students, the mean percentage score ± standard deviation (SD of the post-test examination was statistically significantly higher than the pre-test (66.83%±19.7% vs 47.59%±19.7%, p<0.001. In addition, the student mean percentage confidence level ± SD in management of septic shock was significantly better after the simulation class (68.10%±12.2% vs 51.64%±13.1%, p<0.001. They also strongly suggested applying this simulation class to the current curriculum.Conclusion: High-fidelity medical simulation improved the students’ knowledge and confidence in septic shock resuscitation. This simulation class should be included in the curriculum of the sixth year medical students

  11. Patient knowledge and pulmonary medication adherence in adult patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin AH

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ann Hsu-An Lin,1 Jennifer G Kendrick,2,3 Pearce G Wilcox,4,5 Bradley S Quon4,51Faculty of Medicine, 2Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, 3Department of Pharmacy, Children’s and Women’s Health Centre of British Columbia, 4Department of Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, 5Centre for Heart Lung Innovation, St Paul’s Hospital, Vancouver, BC, CanadaBackground and objectives: Patient knowledge of lung function (ie, forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1]% predicted and the intended benefits of their prescribed pulmonary medications might play an important role in medication adherence, but this relationship has not been examined previously in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF.Methods: All patients diagnosed with CF and without prior lung transplantation were invited to complete knowledge and self-reported medication adherence questionnaires during routine outpatient visits to the Adult CF Clinic, St Paul’s Hospital, Vancouver, Canada from June 2013 to August 2014.Results: A total of 142 out of 167 (85% consecutive adults attending CF clinic completed patient knowledge and medication adherence survey questionnaires. Sixty-four percent of the patients recalled their last FEV1% predicted value within 5%, and 70% knew the intended benefits of all their prescribed medications. Self-reported adherence rates were highest for inhaled antibiotics (81%, azithromycin (87%, and dornase alpha (76% and lowest for hypertonic saline (47%. Individuals who knew their FEV1% predicted value within 5% were more likely to self-report adherence to dornase alpha (84% vs 62%, P=0.06 and inhaled antibiotics (88% vs 64%, P=0.06 compared to those who did not, but these associations were not statistically significant. There were no significant associations observed between patient knowledge of intended medication benefits and self-reported medication adherence.Conclusion: Contrary to our hypothesis

  12. Oral Cancer Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices: A Survey of Undergraduate Medical Students in Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotedar, Vikas; Fotedar, Shailee; Gupta, Manish; Manchanda, Kavita; Sharma, Mukesh

    2015-08-01

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer among Indian males and the third most common cancer among Indian females. Early detection of oral cancers makes them more amenable to treatment and allows the greatest chance of cure. Lack of awareness among the health care providers is the most significant factor in delaying diagnosis and treatment of oral cancer. So the aim of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of oral cancer among undergraduate medical students in Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, India. A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among 186 undergraduate medical students between the third to fifth years in Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla. The questionnaire consisted of 15 questions, five each on knowledge, attitudes and practices. The data were analysed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16. Test used were t-test, Chi-square and ANOVA. The response rate of the study was 96.5%. The mean knowledge percent of the sample was good. Mean knowledge percent was higher in females than males. Higher percentage of students in 5(th) year (internship) had excellent knowledge. The knowledge and practices about risk factors was not satisfactory. One hundred and twenty four (66.6%) of the subjects disagreed/strongly disagreed that their knowledge regarding the prevention and detection of oral cancer is current adequate. One hundred and seventy six and (94.6%) agreed/strongly agreed that there is need for additional training/information regarding oral cancer. It can be concluded that though the mean knowledge of the population was good but the knowledge and practices about risk factors had to be reinforced among these students so that they can help the patients in tobacco and alcohol cessation and contribute in prevention of oral cancers.

  13. Evaluating the impact of emergency medicine education on medical interns' knowledge scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzalimoghaddam, Mohammad; Hoseinidavarani, Hosein; Hossein-nejad, Hooman

    2011-10-01

    Emergency medicine is a young specialty in Iran. Since 2005, a 4-week rotation has been allocated to emergency medicine instruction for all medical interns during their medical internship in Tehran University of Medical Sciences. In this study, we have evaluated the impact of emergency medicine rotation on medical interns' knowledge in the field of emergency medicine. From October 2005 to May 2006, 10 medical interns of emergency medicine rotation were randomly enrolled in this study each month. They were administered a pretest assessing their emergency medicine knowledge. Then, they attended a theoretical and practical course. Finally, they were reassessed by a post-test similar to the pretest. There were 98 medical interns, including 53 male (54.08%) and 45 female (45.91%) participants. The mean of participants' age was 25.50 (±1.47) years. Their internship duration spanned from 1 to 18 months, with a mean of 5.40 (±4.71) months. The difference between participants' pretest and post-test scores was statistically significant (Pknowledge in the field of emergency medicine; and their sex, passed medical blocks and the duration of internship do not affect this knowledge. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  14. Plagiarism and the medical fraternity: a study of knowledge and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Bushra; Jafarey, Aamir M; Moazam, Farhat

    2010-04-01

    To assess knowledge and perceptions of plagiarism in medical students and faculty of private and public medical colleges in Karachi. A questionnaire based study was conducted on groups of 4th year medical students and medical faculty members. Group A consisted of medical students while group B comprised faculty members. The questionnaire contained 19 questions that assessed knowledge and attitudes of the respondents regarding various aspects of plagiarism. The total number of medical students (Group A) studied was 114 while the faculty number (Group B) was 82. Nineteen percent Group A and 22% of Group B displayed the correct knowledge about referencing materials from the internet or other sources. Seventeen percent of respondents in Group A and 16% in Group B had correct information about the use of quotation marks when incorporating verbatim phrases from external sources. Regarding Power Point presentations, 53% of respondents from Group A and 57% from Group B knew the appropriate requirements. There was a statistically significant difference among the two groups regarding the issue of self plagiarism, with 63% of respondents in Group A and 88% in Group B demonstrating correct understanding. Both groups showed a general lack of understanding regarding copyright rules and 18% of Group A and 23% of respondents in Group B knew the correct responses. Eighteen percent of respondents in Group A and 27% in Group B claimed to have never indulged in this practice. There is a general lack of information regarding plagiarism among medical students and faculty members.

  15. Making a case for abortion curriculum reform: a knowledge-assessment survey of undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cessford, Tara A; Norman, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that medical schools offer insufficient training to equip students with the knowledge and skills necessary to counsel patients about abortion and to become abortion providers. We conducted a knowledge-assessment survey of medical students before (second-year students) and after (fourth-year students) teaching related to abortion to evaluate the effectiveness of the undergraduate abortion curriculum. Undergraduate medical students answered a knowledge-assessment survey about abortion epidemiology, practice guidelines, abortion methods and procedures, and student readiness to provide abortions. One hundred and twenty six of 266 second-year students (47%) and 67 of 170 fourth-year students (39%) completed the survey. Fourth-year medical students scored higher on average than second-year students (P Abortion epidemiology was the weakest area of performance for all students. Most medical students would either provide an abortion (37% of fourth-year students, 38% of second-year students) or refer to a provider (36% of fourth-year students and 34% of second-year students). There was no significant relationship between overall scores and student readiness to provide abortions. Medical students in both second and fourth year demonstrated a limited understanding of abortion. Most future physicians participating in this study indicated they would be willing to provide abortions. Curriculum reform to improve abortion training in undergraduate medical programs is essential to provide students with necessary learning opportunities and to ensure safe and effective reproductive health care for women.

  16. Assessment of patient knowledge of diabetic goals, self-reported medication adherence, and goal attainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitley HP

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medication adherence is an integral aspect of disease state management for patients with chronic illnesses, including diabetes mellitus. It has been hypothesized that patients with diabetes who have poor medication adherence may have less knowledge of overall therapeutic goals and may be less likely to attain these goals. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess self-reported medication adherence, knowledge of therapeutic goals (hemoglobin A1C [A1C], low density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] and blood pressure [BP], and goal attainment in adult patients with diabetes. Methods: A survey was created to assess medication adherence, knowledge of therapeutic goals, and goal attainment for adult patients with diabetes followed at an internal medicine or a family medicine clinic. Surveys were self-administered prior to office visits. Additional data were collected from the electronic medical record. Statistical analysis was performed. Results: A total of 149 patients were enrolled. Knowledge of therapeutic goals was reported by 14%, 34%, and 18% of survived patients for LDL-C, BP, and A1C, respectively. Forty-six percent, 37%, and 40% of patients achieved LDL-C, BP, and A1C goals, respectively. Low prescribing of cholesterol-lowering medications was an interesting secondary finding; 36% of patients not at LDL-C goal had not been prescribed a medication targeted to lower cholesterol. Forty-eight percent of patients were medication non-adherent; most frequently reported reasons for non-adherence were forgot (34% and too expensive (14%. Patients at A1C goal were more adherent than patients not at goal (p=0.025. Conclusion: The majority did not reach goals and were unknowledgeable of goals; however, most were provided prescriptions to treat these parameters. Goal parameters should be revisited often amongst multidisciplinary team members with frequent and open communications. Additionally, it is imperative that practitioners discuss

  17. Physicians' knowledge and opinions about medication abortion in four Latin American and Caribbean region countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Henry; Abuabara, Katrina; Ellertson, Charlotte

    2004-08-01

    To examine physicians' knowledge and attitudes in regard to medication abortion, we conducted focus-group discussions with general practice physicians and obstetrician-gynecologists in Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Puerto Rico. Physicians were familiar with the practice of several types of medication and surgical abortion methods. Medication abortion with misoprostol is most common among women of higher socioeconomic status and is prescribed by physicians, pharmacists or self-administered. Conflicting opinions regarding safety, efficacy, cost, potential for self-medication and acceptability emerged; some participants expressed hope that medical abortion would reduce the risks associated with unsafe abortion, while others contended that drug distribution and self-medication without proper counseling could be problematic. Participants noted a lack of reliable sources of information for both providers and women, and expressed interest in strategic dissemination of information.

  18. Medical students' knowledge and attitude towards complementary and alternative medicine – A survey in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Paul Kwame Ameade

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Interest, use of and research into Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM; 補充與替代醫學 bǔ chōng yǔ tì dài yī xué is on the increase in recent times even in developed countries. It may therefore be appropriate if medical students who would become future physicians possess adequate knowledge and better attitude towards CAMS. This study assessed medical students' knowledge of, attitude towards, and usage of CAM as well as their opinion about integrating CAMs into the medical curriculum. In a cross-sectional study, 203 medical students in 2nd, 3rd and 4th year classes completed a questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS 18 and GraphPad 5.01. Association between different variables was tested. The overall mean knowledge score was 19.6%. Students in higher years of study were significantly more knowledgeable in CAMs (p = 0.0006. The best known CAM was herbal medicine (63.6%, with relatives and friends being their main source of information. Students' attitude towards CAM was good (75.1% with majority (71.5% favouring introduction of CAM into the medical curriculum; preferably at the preclinical level (67.5%. Year of study, gender and locality where student grew up did not significantly affect attitude towards CAM use. Up to 117 (59.0% of the students had ever used CAM especially herbal medicine. Although students in this study were deficient in knowledge on CAMs, their attitude and usage was good. Herbal medicine was the best known and used CAM. Majority of the students believed knowledge on CAM would be beneficial to their practice hence, desirous of its introduction into their medical curriculum.

  19. Melanoma and medical education: knowledge and sun safety practices amongst medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolina Smith

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Melanoma has become a public health problem; however, with proper education and the use of sun safety techniques, most cases can be prevented. The purpose of this study is to determine if medical students have safer sun practices than the general population. Material and Methods: An online survey was sent to all students enrolled in the three medical schools in the Kansas City metropolitan area. Surveys were sent to 1200 medical students with a 39.25% response rate (n=471. Results: Most of the student population (n=436; 92.6% indicated that over the past year they had used one or more forms of sun protection. Of the respondents, 60.7% (n=286 indicated they had, to this point in their medical training, been educated counseling patients about the risk factors for prevention of skin cancer. Respondents who indicated that they had been educated on the steps/procedures of a complete skin exam were significantly more likely to indicate they had used sun protective equipment in the past year (P=.024. Conclusions: The general population is in need of dermatologic education on the basic risk factors of skin cancer as well as ways to prevent skin cancer. As education increases in the general population one would anticipate that these individuals would engage in safe sun practices as seen in the medical student community.

  20. Junior medical students’ knowledge about and attitudes towards electroconvulsive therapy in a South African setting

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    Matthew B. Mausling

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is a safe and effective treatment modality with a long history of use in psychiatry, it remains controversial owing to misconceptions and negative attitudes among the public and medical profession. The aim of this study was to explore the state of knowledge and attitudes towards ECT among a sample of South African medical students. Method: Prior to their theoretical psychiatry module, 131 second-year medical students responded to an anonymous online survey designed to assess the source and extent of their ECT knowledge as well as their attitude towards ECT and psychiatry in general. Results: The Internet (46.6% and TV and/or movies (30.5% were the principal sources of knowledge of ECT while ‘professional publication’ was the least common (0%. The students’ attitudes towards psychiatry were generally positive and nearly one-third (29.8% would consider specialising in the field. Overall, perception towards ECT was mixed, with many respondents approving of its use albeit only as a last resort. Notably, low ECT knowledge scores were associated with more negative attitudes towards this treatment modality and a lower perception of psychiatry as a medical speciality. Conclusion: The findings indicate that for these students, media is the main source of ECT knowledge. While they are generally knowledgeable about ECT, they still harbour some misconceptions and negative attitudes about the treatment. Knowledge appears able to amend these attitudes, thus underlining the importance of integrating accurate information about ECT into the preclinical medical curriculum rather than leaving it to mass media to forge warped perceptions and attitudes for these future clinicians.

  1. [Living in abundance in the ancient and modern worlds from a medical and cultural-historical point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, D P

    2014-06-01

    Comparative investigations centre on attitudes of demand and consumption in ethnic groups living in affluence, beginning with the first pre-Christian century in the Roman Empire on the one hand and in Western countries in the post-industrial age of hight-tech in times of far advanced globalization on the other. In this context medical, psycho-social and socio-economical aspects will be treated considering ideal and cultural breaks. Renowned Roman and Greek historians, physicians and philosophers are vouching as witnesses of the times for developments in the antique world with their literary works, in excerpts and verbatim. Obviously general moral decay is a side effect of any affluence. Even in the antiquitiy the "ideology of renewal" proclaimed by the Emperor Augustus died away mostly in emptiness just as do the appeals for improving one's state of health for surviving directed to all citizens in our time. With the rise of Rome as a world power general relative affluence was widespread to such an extent that diseases caused by affluence have occured as mass phenomena. The old Roman virtues of temperance and frugality turned into greed and addiction to pleasure. In this way the Roman people under the banner of affluence degenerated into a society of leisure time, consumption, fun and throwaway mentality. The decline of the Empire was predetermined. The promise of affluence which modern Europe is addicted to is demanding its price following the principle of causality. "How the pictures resemble each other!"

  2. Reproductive and sexual health issues: knowledge, opinion and attitude of medical graduates from Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanam, Majidah; Perveen, Sajida; Mirza, Sadiq

    2011-07-01

    To asses the knowledge, opinion and attitude of medical graduates regarding selected reproductive tract infections, diagnosis of sexual dysfunction, identification of sexual abuse and other sexual health issues in Fatima Baqai Hospital Gadap Town. A cross sectional study conducted from January 2009 to July 2009 in Fatima Baqai Hospital Karachi. An anonymous, self administrated structured questionnaire was completed by medical graduates. Formal/informal interviews were also arranged. The questionnaire and interviews addressed socio-demographic features, reproductive problems knowledge, attitudes and experience of those medical graduates. Descriptive statistics were analyzed by SPSS version 11. A total of 50 medical graduates participate in the study. Of the total nearly half scored less than 50% in the knowledge section. Attitude and practices assessment suggested a tendency to be judgmental, gender/rights discriminatory and with little provision for enabling clients to make their own decision, so essential for quality sexual health provision. The level of reproductive and sexual health knowledge among the participant medical graduates were lower than expected. Attitudes and opinions indicate judgmental approach and indicating lack of experience of training in dealing with sexuality issues.

  3. Knowledge, attitudes and management skills of medical practitioners regarding weight management

    OpenAIRE

    Vangile B. Mkhatshwa; Gboyega A. Ogunbanjo; Langalibalele H. Mabuza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obesity have become a global problem. Health professionals are poorly prepared in weight management, which has an effect on their attitudes and management skills with regard to overweight and obese patients.Aim and setting: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and management skills of medical practitioners regarding weight management at Odi District Hospital, Gauteng Province, South Africa.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 48 medical practitioners at Od...

  4. Effectiveness of an Educational Intervention on Medical Students' Knowledge About and Attitude Towards Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Susan; Simiyon, Manjula; Vedachalam, Ahalya

    2016-04-01

    This study was done to determine the effectiveness of a lecture and exposure to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) followed by interaction with patient, on medical students' knowledge about and attitude towards electroconvulsive therapy. A questionnaire was administered to second year medical students to determine their baseline knowledge about and attitude towards electroconvulsive therapy. Following this, they underwent two educational interventions, a lecture on ECT and exposure to the procedure and interaction with the patient and relative, and their knowledge and attitude were reassessed after each intervention using the same questionnaire. Eighty-one students completed all the three assessments. Students' knowledge about ECT at baseline was minimal (mean 3.58 out of 12). Their knowledge increased significantly after the lecture (mean 10.3), and there was further increase following exposure to the procedure and subsequent interaction with the patient and relative (mean 11.1). At baseline, students had an overall negative attitude towards ECT. There was significant improvement on all attitude items following the lecture. Exposure to the procedure resulted in further improvement in attitude regarding whether ECT is a cruel treatment and has to be used as a last resort. Exposure to ECT in lecture and clinical scenarios followed by interaction with the patient should be included in the undergraduate medical curriculum to improve students' knowledge and attitude about this safe, effective, and potentially lifesaving treatment modality.

  5. [Vaccine Preventable Diseases: Knowledge, Attitudes and Vaccination Status of Medical Students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, S; Roggendorf, H; Wicker, S

    2017-05-01

    Study Objective: Health-care workers (HCW) have an increased risk of acquiring infectious diseases and constitute a risk of transmission to their patients. Medical students working as HCW should therefore have the same immunity against vaccine preventable diseases as HCW. The aim of the study was to assess medical students' knowledge and attitudes towards occupationally indicated vaccinations as well as their vaccination status. Methods: Questionnaires were anonymously answered by medical students of the fourth preclinical semester at the Goethe-University Frankfurt. Results and Conclusion: Despite a high acceptance among medical students concerning vaccinations in general, the knowledge and vaccination status of the students should be improved. For instance, only 46.4% of the medical students knew that there is a general recommendation for HCW to receive the influenza vaccination and only 76.8% of the students stated to have received 2 measles vaccinations. Overall, 2/3 of the students were "very much in favour of vaccinations" or "completely in favour of vaccinations" and estimated the probability for unvaccinated HCW to acquire an occupationally associated infectious disease to be "quite high" or "very high". Having observed a positive attitude among medical students towards vaccinations, it should be possible to reach high vaccination coverage amongst students by offering them occupationally indicated vaccinations. Further knowledge concerning vaccine preventable diseases and the occupation-related increased risk for infectious diseases should be offered, as well. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. The role of Ibn Sina (Avicenna)'s medical poem in the transmission of medical knowledge to medieval Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Halim, Rabie El-Said

    2014-01-01

    The Medical Poem (“Al-Urjuzah Fi Al-Tibb”) of Ibn Sina (Avicenna, 980-1037), is the subject of this primary-source study evaluating its scientific value, poetics and pedagogical significance as well as assessing its role in the transmission of medical knowledge to Medieval Europe. In addition to one original manuscript and two modern editions, the English translation by Krueger was also studied. Ibn Sina's poem on medicine consisting of meticulously classified 1326 verses, can be considered as a poetic summary of his encyclopedic textbook: The Canon of Medicine; hence its popularity in the East then the West as a tool in the process of transmitting medical knowledge from master to student. Since first translated by Gerard of Cremona (1114-1187) in the middle of the 12th century, the Latinized poem was frequently published in Medieval Europe either independently or combined with the Latinized Canon of Medicine or with the Articella; the famous collection of Greco-Roman and Latinized Arabian medical treatises in use in the universities of Salerno, Montpelier, Bologna and Paris up to the 17th century. The study of the Krueger's English edition revealed few places where the full meanings of the original Arabic text were not conveyed. A list of those places is given together with the suggested corrections. PMID:24669114

  7. The role of Ibn Sina (Avicenna)'s medical poem in the transmission of medical knowledge to medieval Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Halim, Rabie El-Said

    2014-01-01

    The Medical Poem ("Al-Urjuzah Fi Al-Tibb") of Ibn Sina (Avicenna, 980-1037), is the subject of this primary-source study evaluating its scientific value, poetics and pedagogical significance as well as assessing its role in the transmission of medical knowledge to Medieval Europe. In addition to one original manuscript and two modern editions, the English translation by Krueger was also studied. Ibn Sina's poem on medicine consisting of meticulously classified 1326 verses, can be considered as a poetic summary of his encyclopedic textbook: The Canon of Medicine; hence its popularity in the East then the West as a tool in the process of transmitting medical knowledge from master to student. Since first translated by Gerard of Cremona (1114-1187) in the middle of the 12(th) century, the Latinized poem was frequently published in Medieval Europe either independently or combined with the Latinized Canon of Medicine or with the Articella; the famous collection of Greco-Roman and Latinized Arabian medical treatises in use in the universities of Salerno, Montpelier, Bologna and Paris up to the 17(th) century. The study of the Krueger's English edition revealed few places where the full meanings of the original Arabic text were not conveyed. A list of those places is given together with the suggested corrections.

  8. Knowledge and Attitude about HIV/AIDS among medical students in a private medical college in coastal Karnataka

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    Sanjay Kini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The understanding of HIV/AIDS by MBBS students and their attitudes towards managing a retropositive patient will impact their practice in future. OBJECTIVES: To study the knowledge and attitude about HIV/AIDS among medical students and to analyse change in knowledge levels based on year of study of MBBS. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted in a private medical college in Karnataka among 610 MBBS students. Aspects regarding general and clinical knowledge of HIV/AIDS, attitude towards HIV infected patients were dealt with. RESULTS: An increasing trend in the knowledge from 1st to 4th year was seen in the following aspects: knowledge regarding vertical transmission (78% to 93.3%, transmission through breast feeding (31.9% to 85.3%, tuberculosis as the most common opportunistic infection in HIV/AIDS (26.9% to 70%, correct time of initiation of post exposure prophylaxis (5% to 46.7%, facility for getting HIV test done confidentially (0.6% to 42.7%. An increasing trend in the negative attitude towards HIV patients was seen from 1st to 4th year when it came to right to refuse surgical treatment to HIV patient (40% to 56% and an increasing trend in the favourable response towards HIV patients were seen from 1st year to 4th year when it came to their opinion whether HIV patients can be kept in general ward (57.5% to 78%. CONCLUSION: From the above study we conclude that the knowledge level on HIV/AIDS improved based on year of study. Discriminatory attitude towards HIV patients still persisted among students of all the years.

  9. Knowledge and Attitude about HIV/AIDS among medical students in a private medical college in coastal Karnataka

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    Sanjay Kini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The understanding of HIV/AIDS by MBBS students and their attitudes towards managing a retropositive patient will impact their practice in future. OBJECTIVES To study the knowledge and attitude about HIV/AIDS among medical students and to analyse change in knowledge levels based on year of study of MBBS. METHODOLOGY A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted in a private medical college in Karnataka among 610 MBBS students. Aspects regarding general and clinical knowledge of HIV/AIDS, attitude towards HIV infected patients were dealt with. RESULTS An increasing trend in the knowledge from 1st to 4th year was seen in the following aspects: knowledge regarding vertical transmission (78% to 93.3%, transmission through breast feeding (31.9% to 85.3%, tuberculosis as the most common opportunistic infection in HIV/AIDS (26.9% to 70%, correct time of initiation of post exposure prophylaxis (5% to 46.7%, facility for getting HIV test done confidentially (0.6% to 42.7%. An increasing trend in the negative attitude towards HIV patients was seen from 1st to 4th year when it came to right to refuse surgical treatment to HIV patient (40% to 56% and an increasing trend in the favourable response towards HIV patients were seen from 1st year to 4th year when it came to their opinion whether HIV patients can be kept in general ward (57.5% to 78%. CONCLUSION From the above study we conclude that the knowledge level on HIV/AIDS improved based on year of study. Discriminatory attitude towards HIV patients still persisted among students of all the years.

  10. Knowledge and attitude on sex among medical students of a Malaysian university: a comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidi, Hatta; Loh, Sit Fong; Mahadevan, Raynuha; Puteh, Sharifah Ezat Wan; Musa, Ramli; Wong, Chia Yee; Hadi, Ammar Amsyar Abdul; Sa'aid, Siti Hajara; Amali, Zulfahmi; Abidin, Murnira; Das, Srijit; Saharom, Mohamed Hatta; Zakaria, Hazli

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between clinical/socio-demographic factors with knowledge and attitude on sex among medical students of the National University of Malaysia (UKM). A cross-sectional study assessing 452 students using a self-administered questionnaire of knowledge and attitude was performed and had a response rate of 80%. The majority of respondents were Malays (56%), females (57.5%), lived in urban areas (66.4%), had a median family income of RM3000 and perceived themselves as moderately religious (60%). The overall score on knowledge about sex was 21.7 of 35 (a higher score indicates better knowledge about sex). It was noted that 73.2% of students felt that they did not receive adequate training in medical school to deal with patients' sexuality and sexual problems, while 51.5% felt uncomfortable talking to patients about these issues. Students in the clinical year were more knowledgeable than those in pre-clinical years (22.67 versus 20.71, P knowledge on sex (>22 marks [median score]). The students' attitude on sex was considered conservative as the majority of them disagreed on premarital sex, masturbation, abortion, homosexuality and oral sex. Gender and religiosity have a large influence on attitudes on controversial sexual issues, whereas clinical status plays a small role. Knowledge on sex among UKM medical students is inadequate and their attitudes on sex are considered conservative. Integration of sexual medicine and health modules in the medical curriculum is crucial for students to more effectively address patients' sexual problems and promote non-judgmental attitudes towards patients. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Medical Students’ Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Female Sex Workers and Their Occupational Risk Factors

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    Jenna T. Nakagawa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The tendency for female sex workers to seek health care is highly influenced by physician attitudes and behavior. By identifying medical students' attitudes toward female sex workers and assessing their knowledge of barriers to seeking care, we can focus medical training and advocacy efforts to increase access to care and improve public health outcomes. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, medical students from various countries were invited to participate in an online survey with close-ended questions and Likert scale statements. Responses were quantified and knowledge and attitude scores were assigned based on knowledge of barriers to seeking care and agreement with positive and negative attitude statements. Results: A total of 292 medical students from 56 countries completed the survey, of whom 98.3% agreed that it will be their job to provide treatment to patients regardless of occupation. Self-identified religious students conveyed more negative attitudes toward female sex workers compared to those who did not identify themselves as religious (p<0.001. Students intending to practice in countries where prostitution is legal conveyed more positive attitudes compared to those intending to practice in countries where prostitution is illegal (p<0.001. Conclusion: Medical students largely agreed on the importance of providing care to female sex workers as a vulnerable group. In addition to addressing knowledge gaps in medical education, more localized studies are needed to understand the religious and legal influences on attitudes toward female sex workers. Such information can help focus the efforts in both medical education and communication training to achieve the desired behavioral impacts, reconciling the future generations of health care providers with the needs of female sex workers.

  12. Medication-indication knowledge bases: a systematic review and critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmasian, Hojjat; Tran, Tran H; Chase, Herbert S; Friedman, Carol

    2015-11-01

    Medication-indication information is a key part of the information needed for providing decision support for and promoting appropriate use of medications. However, this information is not readily available to end users, and a lot of the resources only contain this information in unstructured form (free text). A number of public knowledge bases (KBs) containing structured medication-indication information have been developed over the years, but a direct comparison of these resources has not yet been conducted. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify all medication-indication KBs and critically appraised these resources in terms of their scope as well as their support for complex indication information. We identified 7 KBs containing medication-indication data. They notably differed from each other in terms of their scope, coverage for on- or off-label indications, source of information, and choice of terminologies for representing the knowledge. The majority of KBs had issues with granularity of the indications as well as with representing duration of therapy, primary choice of treatment, and comedications or comorbidities. This is the first study directly comparing public KBs of medication indications. We identified several gaps in the existing resources, which can motivate future research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. An investigation into the ancient abortion laws: comparing ancient Persia with ancient Greece and Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Zargaran, Arman; Vatanpour, Azadeh; Abedini, Ehsan; Adhami, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    Since the dawn of medicine, medical rights and ethics have always been one of mankind's concerns. In any civilisation, attention paid to medical laws and ethics depends on the progress of human values and the advancement of medical science. The history of various civilisations teaches that each had its own views on medical ethics, but most had something in common. Ancient civilisations such as Greece, Rome, or Assyria did not consider the foetus to be alive and therefore to have human rights. In contrast, ancient Persians valued the foetus as a living person equal to others. Accordingly, they brought laws against abortion, even in cases of sexual abuse. Furthermore, abortion was considered to be a murder and punishments were meted out to the mother, father, and the person performing it.

  14. Cancer and cardiovascular diseases nutrition knowledge and dietary intake of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana Kendel; Kresić, Greta; Zezelj, Sandra Pavicić; Mićović, Vladimir; Nadarević, Vesna Stefanac

    2011-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine medical students' knowledge regarding the association between dietary factors and the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases and to investigate if this knowledge has an impact on their dietary intakes. Three hundred and ninety medical students (males and females) were included in a study and grouped according to their daily fibre and fat intakes. For diet-disease knowledge, questions from the General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire for Adults were used and dietary assessment was done with Food Frequency Questionnaire. The obtained results showed that the students' diet-disease knowledge was generally inadequate. Higher level of diet-disease knowledge was among those with high dietary fibre intake, with slightly better scores for dietary factors and risk for cardiovascular diseases than the risk for cancer. Better diet-disease knowledge positively correlated with higher intake of fish (p = 0.027, p = 0.001) and vegetables (p = 0.019, p = 0.001) in high fibre groups of both gender, and in females additionally with fruit intake (p = 0.038, p = 0.007). A higher dietary fibre intake among studied students seems to be a factor that ensures lower obesity rates, lower intake of energy and lower consumption of coffee, sweets and alcoholic drinks. On the basis of the results of this study, it is clear that medical schools should provide in their nutrition programs the opportunity for students to learn about their own dietary and lifestyle behaviours, in order to more knowledgably and convincingly counsel their future patients.

  15. Increased knowledge of thalassemia promotes early carrier status examination among medical students

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    Julius Broto Dewanto

    2016-04-01

    A higher thalassemia knowledge score causes medical students to be willing to undergo thalassemia carrier status examination at an earlier point in timing. A well-organized educational program focusing on thalassemia and early screening in young adults may enhance the thalassemia prevention program.

  16. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF CONTACT LENS USERS AMONG MEDICAL COLLEGE STUDENTS IN BANGALORE

    OpenAIRE

    Sujatha; Pandu

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The use of contact lens (CL) for the correction of refractive errors, cosmetic use and their usage as a therapeutic modality for corneal pathologies has increased many fold over the years. The present study was conducted with the aim to find the knowledge , attitude and pattern of CL use amongst medical college student...

  17. Development of cognitive processing and judgments of knowledge in medical students : Analysis of progress test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecilio-Fernandes, Dario; Kerdijk, Wouter; Jaarsma, A. D. (Debbie) C.; Tio, Rene A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Beside acquiring knowledge, medical students should also develop the ability to apply and reflect on it, requiring higher-order cognitive processing. Ideally, students should have reached higher-order cognitive processing when they enter the clinical program. Whether this is the case, is

  18. Preserving traditional medical knowledge through modes of transmission: A post-positivist enquiry

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    Janet Adekannbi

    2014-11-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the role which the mode of transmission plays in the preservation of traditional medical knowledge. Method: A post-positivist methodology was adopted. A purposive sampling technique was used to select three communities from each of the six states in South-Western Nigeria. The snowball technique was used in selecting 228 traditional medical practitioners, whilst convenience sampling was adopted in selecting 529 apprentices and 120 children who were not learning the profession. A questionnaire with a five-point Likert scale, key-informant interviews and focus-group discussions were used to collect data. The quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics whilst qualitative data was analysed thematically. Results: The dominant mode of knowledge transmission was found to be oblique (66.5% whilst vertical transmission (29.3% and horizontal transmission (4.2% occurred much less. Conclusion: Traditional medical knowledge is at risk of being lost in the study area because most of the apprentices were children from other parents, whereas most traditional medical practitioners preferred to transmit knowledge only to their children.

  19. Breast-feeding knowledge and attitudes of medical students at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the knowledge of and attitudes to breastfeeding among preclinical medical students of the Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. Methods: Data collection was aided by a pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire from a cross-section of 280 randomly selected students. Results: Two hundred ...

  20. Physician Assisted Suicide: Knowledge and Views of Fifth-Year Medical Students in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildmann, Jan; Herrmann, Eva; Burchardi, Nicole; Schwantes, Ulrich; Vollmann, Jochen

    2006-01-01

    Suicide and assisted suicide are not criminal acts in Germany. However, attempting suicide may create a legal duty for physicians to try to save a patient's life. This study presents data on medical students' legal knowledge and ethical views regarding physician assisted suicide (PAS). The majority of 85 respondents held PAS to be illegal. More…

  1. A required third-year medical student palliative care curriculum impacts knowledge and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Laura J; Thompson, Britta M; Gill, Anne C

    2012-07-01

    Despite broad support for palliative and end-of-life care training in medical schools, required clinical palliative care and end-of-life experiences are rare. In this study, we assess the impact of a required palliative care educational intervention on medical students' palliative care pain knowledge and end-of-life attitudes. In this wait-list control crossover design, third-year medical students from two sequential classes (n=157) completed a palliative care workshop at the beginning of a required year-long course. Students then completed a patient experience, online pain management module, and reflective essay in either the first or second half of the course. Fifteen validated multiple choice palliative care pain management items and the Thanatophobia Scale (7 items) were administered to measure knowledge and attitudes for all students at baseline, 5.5 months, and 11 months. Multivariate repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine differences between groups and across time. Analysis found statistically significant increases in knowledge and improvements in attitudes (ppalliative care curriculum can yield improvements in medical student knowledge and attitudes. However, expansion of the experiential component and palliative care skills training and assessment are needed for students to have more meaningful outcomes and to ultimately contribute to better patient outcomes.

  2. Wilderness First Aid Training as a Tool for Improving Basic Medical Knowledge in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katona, Lindsay B; Douglas, William S; Lena, Sean R; Ratner, Kyle G; Crothers, Daniel; Zondervan, Robert L; Radis, Charles D

    2015-12-01

    The challenges presented by traumatic injuries in low-resource communities are especially relevant in South Sudan. This study was conducted to assess whether a 3-day wilderness first aid (WFA) training course taught in South Sudan improved first aid knowledge. Stonehearth Open Learning Opportunities (SOLO) Schools designed the course to teach people with limited medical knowledge to use materials from their environment to provide life-saving care in the event of an emergency. A pre-test/post-test study design was used to assess first aid knowledge of 46 community members in Kit, South Sudan, according to a protocol approved by the University of New England Institutional Review Board. The course and assessments were administered in English and translated in real-time to Acholi and Arabic, the two primary languages spoken in the Kit region. Descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, and correlation analyses were conducted. Results included a statistically significant improvement in first aid knowledge after the 3-day training course: t(38)=3.94; Pfirst of its kind in South Sudan, provides evidence that a WFA training course in South Sudan is efficacious. These findings suggest that similar training opportunities could be used in other parts of the world to improve basic medical knowledge in communities with limited access to medical resources and varying levels of education and professional experiences.

  3. KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES RELATED TO HIV/AIDS AMONG MEDICAL AND ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES STUDENTS

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    Abhimanyu Singh Chauhan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: India estimates third highest number of HIV infections in the world, with about 2.4 million people currently living with HIV/AIDS. Adequately trained and sensitized healthcare professionals can play a vital role in combating this epidemic. Limited studies have explored knowledge and attitudes of medical students relating to HIV/AIDS, particularly in the eastern part of India. Methods: The present cross sectional study explored knowledge and attitudes of first year MBBS, BDS & BPT students of Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS, Bhubaneswar, Odisha on HIV/AIDS using a self-administered questionnaire. Data thus collected were analyzedand relevant statistics were calculated. Knowledge and attitude scores were determined and analysis of variance (ANOVA test was used to examine the equality between the groups. Results: All students scored low on the overall knowledge scale (<10/15. Specifically, knowledgewas low on modes of transmission and treatment. Attitudinal scores in the areas of precautions and need for training on HIV was low for all the three streams.The willingness to treat HIV/AIDS patient was found to be high amongst study participants. Conclusion: There is a need and scope to provide correct and detailed information on HIV/AIDS for new entrants in medical and allied health sciences to help them acquire adequate knowledge and develop appropriate attitudes towards HIV/AIDS.

  4. Knowledge of common pediatric cancers among medical students in northeast Brazil

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    Cynthia de Araújo Barros

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent decades, early diagnosis of childhood cancer has taken an important place on the international agenda. The authors of this study evaluated a group of medical students in Recife, Brazil, regarding knowledge and practices related to early diagnosis of common childhood cancers. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a sample of 82 medical students, from a total of 86 eligible subjects. Data were collected using self-completed questionnaires. Subgroups were defined according to knowledge of the theme and students' perceptions of their own skills and interest in learning. RESULTS: 74.4% of the sample demonstrated a minimum level of knowledge. The group without minimum knowledge or self-perceived competence to identify suspected cases (23.3% was in the worst position to perform early diagnosis. All subjects expressed interest in learning more about this topic. CONCLUSIONS: Despite acceptable levels of knowledge among these medical students, the definition of central aspects of the teaching and learning processes would be useful for training physicians with the skills for diagnosing and treating pediatric cancers

  5. Assessing the Knowledge and Attitudes of Medical Students and Graduates about Clinical Governance

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    Rana Gholamzadeh nikjoo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : In order to implement clinical governance successfully, it should be perceived positively and there must be a positive attitude towards it. The current policy of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education about clinical governance requires assessing the knowledge and attitudes of medical students to identify their educational needs and the necessary steps needed to be taken in educational planning, designing and modification of the courses. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of medical students and graduates about clinical governance in 1391. Materials and Methods : This is a descriptive–analytic study. This research was conducted on 159 students from different medical fields simple random sampling method. For data collecting, a researcher-made questionnaire was used which its validity was confirmed by using content validity and construct validity. To determine the reliability of the questionnaire, internal consistency and Cronbach's Alpha were used for field of knowledge (0.78 and attitude (0.68. For data analysis, SPSS version 11.5 software was applied using exploratory factor analysis method. Results : 64% of the participants were female and 36% were male. 71% of the participants were in the health care management field and 29% from other medical fields. Mean and standard deviation of knowledge and attitude scores were 64.2 ± 5.8 and 13.06 ± 3.02 respectively. Comparing the students' and graduates’ knowledge and attitudes with their educational level showed no significant correlation. (P> 0.05 Although, there was a significant correlation between educational level and attitude (P = 0.001. In higher levels of education, students' attitude towards clinical governance reduced. Conclusion : The knowledge of medical students and graduates was estimated average to high about clinical governance but their attitude was very poor. This reflects negative views of medical students despite the

  6. Using medical knowledge sources on handheld computers--a qualitative study among junior doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, Christian; Wårdh, Inger; Strender, Lars-Erik; Nilsson, Gunnar

    2007-09-01

    The emergence of mobile computing could have an impact on how junior doctors learn. To exploit this opportunity it is essential to understand their information seeking process. To explore junior doctors' experiences of using medical knowledge sources on handheld computers. Interviews with five Swedish junior doctors. A qualitative manifest content analysis of a focus group interview followed by a qualitative latent content analysis of two individual interviews. A focus group interview showed that users were satisfied with access to handheld medical knowledge sources, but there was concern about contents, reliability and device dependency. Four categories emerged from individual interviews: (1) A feeling of uncertainty about using handheld technology in medical care; (2) A sense of security that handhelds can provide; (3) A need for contents to be personalized; (4) A degree of adaptability to make the handheld a versatile information tool. A theme was established to link the four categories together, as expressed in the Conclusion section. Junior doctors' experiences of using medical knowledge sources on handheld computers shed light on the need to decrease uncertainty about clinical decisions during medical internship, and to find ways to influence the level of self-confidence in the junior doctor's process of decision-making.

  7. [Gender-specific Aspects of Knowledge and Gender Sensitivity in Medical Education - An Inventory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghaus, D; Becker, J C; Kappes, K; Heue, M; Kindler-Röhrborn, A; Pfleiderer, B

    2016-06-01

    Gender competence is an essential prerequisite for individualized patient care. The aim of this study is to survey the level of knowledge and attitudes towards gender-related aspects at 2 German medical schools. An online questionnaire was used to collect data on gender competence in medicine including biological basics of sex differences, clinical aspects, socio-cultural factors as well as questions regarding gender role concepts. In total 1 671 students, 330 basic scientists, 413 physicians and 53 professors from the German Medical Schools Münster and Duisburg-Essen took part in the survey. The level of knowledge on gender-specific aspects in medicine is unsatisfactory at both medical schools. The average of correct answers on gender-related questions of all groups is less than 55%. Looking at gender sensitivity the existence and importance of gender disparities in medicine is agreed upon by the majority of participants. However, most of them regard only the patients' but not the physician's sex as relevant. The study reveals a lack of knowledge and the necessity for improvement: the integration of gender-specific aspects into medical routine is an important step towards a truly individualized medical care. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Medical and psychology students' knowledge of and attitudes towards mindfulness as a clinical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Stephen P; Hassed, Craig S; Gear, Jacqui L

    2012-01-01

    Mindfulness is a technique for training people to pay full attention and to fully accept the reality of what they are paying attention to. The clinical efficacy of mindfulness has been increasingly demonstrated during the last two decades. Very little research, however, has been undertaken on health professionals' and students of health professions' knowledge of and attitudes towards mindfulness. These may affect the current and future level of use of a technique that offers important clinical advantages. We aimed to compare knowledge of and attitudes towards mindfulness of medical students without exposure to it in their training with psychology students without exposure and with medical students with exposure to mindfulness in their training. A total of 91 medical students from Monash University, 49 medical students from Deakin University, and 31 psychology students from Deakin University were given a questionnaire that elicited quantitative and qualitative responses about level of knowledge of mindfulness and willingness to administer or recommend it to their future patients. Psychology students without exposure to mindfulness in their training have a greater knowledge of it and are more likely to administer it or recommend it than are medical students without exposure to it in their training. Medical students with exposure to mindfulness in their course have a greater knowledge of it and are more likely to administer it or recommend it than are medical students without exposure. Knowledge of mindfulness is positively correlated with students' willingness to use or recommend it. Possible implications of the findings of this study are that if future doctors are routinely instructed in mindfulness as a clinical intervention they may be more likely to form a more positive attitude towards it, that is more consistent with that of nonmedical health professions such as psychologists, and that they therefore may be more likely to administer it or refer its use. The

  9. A study of EMR-based medical knowledge network and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao; Jiang, Jingchi; Xu, Zhiming; Guan, Yi

    2017-05-01

    Electronic medical records (EMRs) contain an amount of medical knowledge which can be used for clinical decision support. We attempt to integrate this medical knowledge into a complex network, and then implement a diagnosis model based on this network. The dataset of our study contains 992 records which are uniformly sampled from different departments of the hospital. In order to integrate the knowledge of these records, an EMR-based medical knowledge network (EMKN) is constructed. This network takes medical entities as nodes, and co-occurrence relationships between the two entities as edges. Selected properties of this network are analyzed. To make use of this network, a basic diagnosis model is implemented. Seven hundred records are randomly selected to re-construct the network, and the remaining 292 records are used as test records. The vector space model is applied to illustrate the relationships between diseases and symptoms. Because there may exist more than one actual disease in a record, the recall rate of the first ten results, and the average precision are adopted as evaluation measures. Compared with a random network of the same size, this network has a similar average length but a much higher clustering coefficient. Additionally, it can be observed that there are direct correlations between the community structure and the real department classes in the hospital. For the diagnosis model, the vector space model using disease as a base obtains the best result. At least one accurate disease can be obtained in 73.27% of the records in the first ten results. We constructed an EMR-based medical knowledge network by extracting the medical entities. This network has the small-world and scale-free properties. Moreover, the community structure showed that entities in the same department have a tendency to be self-aggregated. Based on this network, a diagnosis model was proposed. This model uses only the symptoms as inputs and is not restricted to a specific

  10. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice between Medical and Non-Medical Sciences Students about Food Labeling

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    Aida Malek Mahdavi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the significant role of consumers’ awareness about food labels in making healthy food choices, this study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and prac-tice of university students about food labeling.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 332 students aged 18-25 yr in five different academic ma-jors (including Nutrition, Public Health, Health Services Administration, Paramedical and En-gineering were asked to complete an approved questionnaire contained fifteen questions. The chi-square test was applied to examine the differences across various major groups.Results: 89.2% of the students believed that food labels had effect on nutritional awareness. 77.4% were agreed with the usefulness of the food labels and 79.2% did not feel that nutrition claims on food label were truthful. For 84% of students, the expiry date and storage conditions information were the most important informational cues to appear on the food labels. From 47.6% of students who reported the use of nutrition facts label in their often or always shopping; only 32.3% used the information on labels to fit the food into their daily diet. Surprisingly, fatty acids were the least noteworthy items (1.9% on nutrition facts labels. Regarding students’ major, there was significant difference in their knowledge, attitude and practice about truth of the nutri-tion claims, using food labels and importance of health claims (P<0.05.Conclusion: Food labels were more useful tools for students and had an effect on their nutri-tional awareness. Designing and implementation of the educational programs in order to increase the level of knowledge about food labels is suggested.

  11. Social media, FOAMed in medical education and knowledge sharing: Local experiences with international perspective

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    Arif Alper Cevik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Social media, through the Internet and other web-based technologies, have become a means of communication and knowledge-sharing. In this article, we provide details about the social media traffic of various scientific activities, the organizations of which we have played an active role in. We also provide information in our native language through our FOAMed website, which has been published for about 30 months, with us acting as editors. We are comparing these local and limited ventures with examples from the world and aim to remind that social media sources play a very important role in sharing knowledge in medical training and encouraging local initiatives, like ours, with limited resources. Keywords: Medical education, Social media, FOAMed, Knowledge sharing

  12. Today's medical knowledge. Evolution of data exchange between tradition and globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparo, Francesco; Francesco, Paparo; Giovannetti, Filippo; Filippo, Giovannetti; Caratelli, Roberto; Roberto, Caratelli; Cascone, Piero; Piero, Cascone

    2006-05-01

    The authors historically review bibliographic research concepts and define globalization in time. Moreover, recent free online data exchange is important in terms of medical progress, scientific updating and patient-care improving. In the author's opinion, data globalization is favoring medical knowledge flow even more. The concept of a traditional library has radically changed over time, gradually missing their pivotal role in research activity. To date, the birth of the Internet and its sudden development has given a great boost to the spread of worldwide information, quickly and cheaply. Nevertheless, besides the advantages, the Internet also hides misleading risks. In this paper, the professional Medline source is compared to common Internet sources. The authors state that Internet sources have a great importance in the spread of medical knowledge. They conclude, however, that the risk of too much available information could lead to a decrease in quality.

  13. Knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning self-medication with antibiotics among university students in western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Bing; Zhou, Zhongliang; Xu, Guiping; Yang, Dingkun; Wu, Lina; Shen, Qian; Jiang, Minghuan; Wang, Xiao; Zhao, Guilan; Yang, Shimin; Fang, Yu

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and behaviours of university students on the use of antibiotics. A knowledge-attitude-practice questionnaire was developed and distributed to undergraduate students of Xi'an Jiaotong University, comprising 18 schools/colleges in Shaanxi Province, western China. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were applied to identify risk factors associated with self-medication with antibiotics. Of the 731 respondents (response rate = 73.1%), 294 (40.2%) had self-medicated with antibiotics in the past 6 months. Most of the antibiotics (59.2%) for self-medication were purchased without prescription in retail pharmacies. The median score of students' knowledge about antibiotics was 4 (IQR: 3-6) of a maximum possible score of 10. Students had moderately accurate beliefs towards antibiotics. More than half of the students (56.5%) were storing antibiotics frequently. During self-medication, 16.7% of students claimed to have experienced adverse reactions, and 30.6% had used antibiotics to prevent common colds. The majority preferred to use broad-spectrum antibiotics, and nearly half preferred intravenous antibiotics. Over 44% of students had changed antibiotic dosage, and 36.5% had switched to another antibiotic during the treatment course. Logistic regression analysis identified college and home town as independent risk factors for self-medication with antibiotics (P < 0.01). Undergraduate students had inadequate knowledge, moderately accurate beliefs and inappropriate practices concerning antibiotics, and a high rate of self-medication. This highlights the need for focused educational intervention and stricter governmental regulation concerning antibiotic use and sale in retail pharmacies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Knowledge and attitude of final - year medical students in Germany towards palliative care - an interinstitutional questionnaire-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Martin; Schmiedel, Sven; Nauck, Friedemann; Alt-Epping, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background To care for terminally ill and dying patients requires a thorough medical education, encompassing skills, knowledge, and attitudes in the field of palliative care. Undergraduate medical students in Germany will receive mandatory teaching in palliative care in the near future driven by recent changes in the Medical Licensure Act. Before new curricula can be implemented, the knowledge of medical students with respect to palliative care, their confidence to handle palliative ...

  15. Diabetes mellitus treatment-Related medical knowledge among health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahla, Leena; Vasudev, Rahul; Chitturi, Chandrika; Rodriguez, Cindy; Paul, Namrata

    To compare the knowledge of physicians, residents and medical students in diagnosis, use of insulin and oral medication in management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) working in different healthcare specialties. A cross sectional survey of faculty, residents and medical students of different subspecialties in a single center was conducted. Questionnaire consisting of 20 questions was used. These questions were designed to assess knowledge about diagnosis, nomenclature of different insulin/oral medications and management of DM. There were 4 answers to every question with only one correct answer based on ADA guidelines and most recent literature. The overall percentage correctly answered questions was ∼74% for IM faculty, 64% for EM faculty, 71% for IM residents, 60% for FM residents, 56% for EM residents and 59% for students. Questions based on knowledge of insulin nomenclature and characteristics were answered correctly 74% of the time by IM faculty, 62% by EM faculty, 66% by IM residents, 69% by FM residents, 45% by EM residents and 49% by medical students. Questions on the use of insulin and inpatient DM management were answered correctly 66% for IM faculty, 54% for EM faculty, 66% for IM residents, 46% for FM residents, 55% for EM Residents, and 44% medical students. Questions based on oral medications and DM diagnosis were answered correctly by 81% for IM faculty, 73% for EM faculty, 78% for IM Resident, 76% FM Resident, 64% for EM residents and 79% for students. This study demonstrates the need for focused educational initiatives required in all subspecialties involved in management of diabetes mellitus for safe and efficient management of diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Determining Knowledge of Students in Tehran University and Tehran University of Medical Sciences About ECSTASY Tablets

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    G. Khoshe Mehri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Nowadays, addiction is considered one of the greatest social and economical and health problems. Undoubtedly, The Ecstasy have between some juveniles and youths. This study was performed to understand the knowledge about the Ecstasy tablets. Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study 200 students from Tehran universities and universities of medical sciences. Data collecting tool was a structured questionnaire containing 14 questions. Data was analyzed using chi square. Results: It was revealed that only 44 students had high, 55 student had moderate and 101 students had weak knowledge about Ecstasy. There was no significant relationship between knowledge score and variable such as gender, place of residence. Also, there was a significant correlations between age, marriage position , occupation and college about the Ecstasy . Conclusion: That in order to increase the knowledge leveling the students about Ecstasy, mass medias like television, newspapers, radio and university sittings.

  17. Knowledge, attitudes and practices on cervical cancer screening among the medical workers of Mulago Hospital, Uganda

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    Weiderpass Elisabete

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is the commonest cancer of women in Uganda. Over 80% of women diagnosed in Mulago national referral and teaching hospital, the biggest hospital in Uganda, have advanced disease. Pap smear screening, on opportunistic rather than systematic basis, is offered free in the gynaecological outpatients clinic and the postnatal/family planning clinics. Medical students in the third and final clerkships are expected to learn the techniques of screening. Objectives of this study were to describe knowledge on cervical cancer, attitudes and practices towards cervical cancer screening among the medical workers of Mulago hospital. Methods In a descriptive cross-sectional study, a weighted sample of 310 medical workers including nurses, doctors and final year medical students were interviewed using a self-administered questionnaire. We measured knowledge about cervical cancer: (risk factors, eligibility for screening and screening techniques, attitudes towards cervical cancer screening and practices regarding screening. Results Response rate was 92% (285. Of these, 93% considered cancer of the cervix a public health problem and knowledge about Pap smear was 83% among respondents. Less than 40% knew risk factors for cervical cancer, eligibility for and screening interval. Of the female respondents, 65% didn't feel susceptible to cervical cancer and 81% had never been screened. Of the male respondents, only 26% had partners who had ever been screened. Only 14% of the final year medical students felt skilled enough to use a vaginal speculum and 87% had never performed a pap smear. Conclusion Despite knowledge of the gravity of cervical cancer and prevention by screening using a Pap smear, attitudes and practices towards screening were negative. The medical workers who should be responsible for opportunistic screening of women they care for are not keen on getting screened themselves. There is need to explain/understand the cause

  18. Measurement of patients' knowledge of their medication in community pharmacies in Portugal

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    Joaquín Salmerón Rubio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this article is to determine patients' knowledge about the medication they take. For this purpose, a cross-sectional, observational and descriptive study was conducted. Knowledge was measured by a valid and reliable questionnaire (CPM-PT-PT, given to the patients attending community pharmacies participating in the study, who had prescriptions for one or more drugs in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area. Knowledge was assessed in four dimensions: therapeutic objective, process of use, safety and maintenance of the medications that the patient takes. Thirty-five pharmacies participated, and 633 valid patients were obtained. Fully 82.5% (95% CI: 79.3% -85.3% were uninformed about the nature of the drug they use. In all items, there was a high percentage of patients with incorrect knowledge, with emphasis on precautions (44.7%. The dimension that the patients were least aware of was "drug safety" (1.9%. Eight out of 10 patients in the population do not know what drug they use. The highest lack of correct information was with respect to the "safety" of the medication.

  19. Medical student self-efficacy, knowledge and communication in adolescent medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Jennifer L; Pasold, Tracie L; Boateng, Beatrice A; Hense, Devon J

    2014-08-20

    To evaluate student self-efficacy, knowledge and communication with teen issues and learning activities. Data were collected during the 8-week pediatric rotation for third-year medical students at a local children's hospital. Students completed a self-efficacy instrument at the beginning and end of the rotation; knowledge and communication skills were evaluated during standardized patient cases as part of the objective structured clinical examination. Self-efficacy, knowledge and communication frequencies were described with descriptive statistics; differences between groups were also evaluated utilizing two-sample t-tests. Self-efficacy levels of both groups increased by the end of the pediatric rotation, but students in the two-lecture group displayed significantly higher self-efficacy in confidentiality with adolescents (t(35)=-2.543, p=0.02); interviewing adolescents, assessing risk, sexually transmitted infection risk and prevention counseling, contraception counseling were higher with marginal significance. No significant differences were found between groups for communication; assessing sexually transmitted infection risk was marginally significant for knowledge application during the clinical exam. Medical student self-efficacy appears to change over time with effects from different learning methods; this higher self-efficacy may increase future comfort and willingness to work with this high-risk, high-needs group throughout a medical career.

  20. Knowledge and attitude towards patient safety among a group of undergraduate medical students in saudi arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaramhy, Hamdi; Al-Shobaili, Hani; El-Hadary, Kamal; Dandash, Khadiga

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to measure knowledge and attitude of undergraduate medical students towards patient safety concepts, and to detect variation by the mode of learning. A cross sectional study administrated an anonymous questionnaire to a random sample of 150 medical students graduated from two national medical schools, one follow the traditional lecture based learning (LBL) and the other applies innovative learning strategy (ILS). Students' self-ratings of knowledge level and attitude towards patient safety in relation to the mode of learning were measured. The study was conducted in April 2010. More than half of the participants (52.7%) self-rated their general knowledge on patient safety on good level compared to 27.3% for the specific knowledge issues score. Most participants (60.7%) agreed the importance of patient safety. The majority agreed to support peers who make unintentional errors and not to blame them for their own mistake (76.0 and 80.7% respectively). Less than half (44.7%) of the participants agreed the patients' role in error prevention and 47.3% agreed error disclosure to the patient. ILS participants were significantly more recognizable of the patient safety issues: problem solving (Ptowards patient safety issues. Basic relevant educational interventions with focus on deficient issues are recommended.

  1. Attitudes towards and knowledge about homosexuality among medical students in Zagreb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabovac, Igor; Abramović, Marija; Komlenović, Gordana; Milosević, Milan; Mustajbegović, Jadranka

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether students in their fifth and sixth years of medical school in Zagreb have homophobic attitudes and assess their knowledge about homosexuality. A survey was conducted among fifth and sixth year medical students during the 2009/2010 academic year. The survey consisted of general demographic data, two validated questionnaires--"Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire" and "Heterosexual Attitudes towards Homosexuality Scale"--and questions about personal experiences created for this study. The mean knowledge scores were X = 14.8 out of 20. Furthermore, gender differences in attitudes were observed, indicating less negative attitudes among the female participants. The regression model was significant (ANOVA: Sum of Squares = 38.065; df = 17, Mean Square= 2239, F = 10.6; p homosexuality score were female gender (beta= -0.14, p = 0.015), sixth year of study (beta = -0.16, p = 0.009) and more knowledge about homosexuality (beta = -0.48, p < 0.001). Negative attitudes are present among the students; therefore, educational efforts should be included in the curricula of medical schools to diminish the negative perceptions of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community.

  2. Science and Library in the Ancient Age

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    Hasan Sacit Keseroğlu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Science assumes its contemporary identity as a result of the stages of magic, religion and reason. The religious stage starts with the invention of writing and this stage leaves its place to reason with Thales in Ancient Greece. Knowledge eludes from religious beliefs. Ways to reach accurate, reliable and realistic knowledge are sought, along with the answer for what knowledge is. Therefore, beginning of the science is taken into consideration together with science and philosophy. The purpose of this study is to approach knowledge and science of the ancient age in Mesopotamia, Egypt and Ancient Greece in general terms and to determine the relationship between the knowledge produced in those places and libraries established. The hypothesis has been determined as “Egypt and Mesopotamia at the starting point of the history of science and science, and libraries in Ancient Greece have developed parallelly to each other.” The scope of the study has been limited to Mesopotamia, Egypt and Ancient Greece; and Ancient Greece has been explained, with descriptive method, in the frame of the topics of Ionia, Athens, Hellenistic Period and Rome. Many archives and libraries have been established in the ancient age. The difference between an archive and a library has been mentioned first, and then, various libraries have been introduced such as Nineveh in Mesopotamia, Alexandria in Ancient Greece and many others in Egypt. It has been clearly distinguished that there had been a very tight relationship between knowledge production and library, especially with the Library of Alexandria.

  3. The Effective Contributing Factors in Knowledge Sharing and Knowledge Transfer among Academic Staff at Tehran University of Medical Sciences: A Qualitative Study

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    Narges Ghodsian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge transfer is known as a core process in knowledge management. Its decent and influential function in organizations would result in regeneration and innovation of knowledge.Due to this importance, the most recent research in knowledge management has been inclined toward knowledge transfer concept. We aimed to investigate the most influencing contributing factors in knowledge transfer and knowledge sharing within the faculty members at Tehran University of Medical Sciences.Method: This investigation has been conducted with a qualitative approach using grounded theory. Data were collected using semi- structured interview with 17 faculty members of ten distinct departments of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The data has been transcribed and analyzed.Results: By carefully analyzing the interviews from 272 preliminary open codes after sequential analogies and induction, 54 concepts have been extracted that were categorized into one of eleven classes constituting the effective items and factors in knowledge transfer among faculty members,respectively. These categories could be placed into , non-communication factors and communication factors. The non-communication factors were knowledge actors (professors, organization (university, the knowledge, and surroundings. The communication factors are the factors that are formed in the dual relationships between the relevant factors.Conclusion: A decent knowledge flow in working groups and collaborative societies of faculty members within a department or through different university departments would lead to a better research and education management. This could also bring about some advantages: the research in each department falls in a well-defined, pre-missioned channel, avoiding scattered research works, and enhancing the training and research. The awareness of university senior managers about influencing contributing factors of knowledge transfer and their functions provide a

  4. Measuring medical students' attitudes and knowledge about geriatrics and gerontology in Brazilian medical students: A comparison of instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Alessandra Lg; da S Ezequiel, Oscarina; Moreira-Almeida, Alexander; Lucchetti, Giancarlo

    2018-04-14

    To compare instruments available for evaluating attitudes and knowledge about geriatrics and gerontology. This cross-sectional study investigated 83 third-year Brazilian medical students (with exposure to geriatrics and gerontology) and 75 incoming students (with no exposure to this content). We used the University of California at Los Angeles Geriatrics Attitudes Scale, Palmore's Facts on Aging Quiz, modified Maxwell-Sullivan Attitude Survey, Aging Semantic Differential Scale and an instrument assessing their cognitive knowledge in geriatrics. The instruments investigated had moderate-to-high correlations when evaluating similar constructs, had satisfactory or borderline internal consistency for the most part (Cronbach's α: 0.62-0.94) and were capable of discriminating between students exposed or not to practical and theoretical content. Our findings reinforce previous studies that these scales are capable of differentiating students who have or have not had exposure/intervention and, in general, seem to be assessing different constructs. © 2018 AJA Inc.

  5. Exposure and Knowledge of Sharps Injuries among Medical Students in Seven States of Mexico

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    Adrián Camacho-Ortiz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical students are vulnerable to accidental exposure to blood-borne pathogens when performing clinical activities. Knowle­dge of both the prevalence of exposure and necessary reporting procedures is important to minimize the risk of harm to medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey of medical students from 19 universities from seven states in Mexico was utilized to determine the prevalence of needle stick injuries amongst medical students and the associated reporting procedures. Results: We included 312 res­pondents; of these, 52.24% were men and 47.76% were women, with a mean age of 23.19 years (SD ± 2.11 years. Nearly all of them (94.23% were medical students doing clerkships in public hospitals. Mean knowledge score of blood-borne pathogens was 3.6 (SD ± 1.16 on a scale of 0-10 designed specifically for this study. Thirty-five per cent of the respondents had sustained a needle stick injury at some point during their medical school training, and 33.97% reported some type of mucocutaneous exposure. Overall, the non-reporting rate of needle stick injury was 48.34%. Approximately 25% of the respondents were not familiar with reporting procedures in the event of a needle stick injury or mucocutaneous exposure; 61.50% had received information from their hospital about the standard protocol to follow after a blood or body fluid exposure. Conclusion: In this Mexican population of medical students, there is a high risk of suffering needle stick injuries during medical training. Furthermore, knowledge regarding prevention, evaluation, and reporting of needle stick injuries is suboptimal.

  6. Knowledge of causes, clinical features and diagnosis of common zoonoses among medical practitioners in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Kunda; Kazwala, Rudovic; Mfinanga, Godfrey S

    2008-01-01

    Background Many factors have been mentioned as contributing to under-diagnosis and under-reporting of zoonotic diseases particularly in the sub-Sahara African region. These include poor disease surveillance coverage, poor diagnostic capacity, the geographical distribution of those most affected and lack of clear strategies to address the plight of zoonotic diseases. The current study investigates the knowledge of medical practitioners of zoonotic diseases as a potential contributing factor to their under-diagnosis and hence under-reporting. Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. Semi-structured open-ended questionnaire was administered to medical practitioners to establish the knowledge of anthrax, rabies, brucellosis, trypanosomiasis, echinococcosis and bovine tuberculosis in selected health facilities within urban and rural settings in Tanzania between April and May 2005. Frequency data were analyzed using likelihood ratio chi-square in Minitab version 14 to compare practitioners' knowledge of transmission, clinical features and diagnosis of the zoonoses in the two settings. For each analysis, likelihood ratio chi-square p-value of less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. Fisher's exact test was used where expected results were less than five. Results Medical practitioners in rural health facilities had poor knowledge of transmission of sleeping sickness and clinical features of anthrax and rabies in humans compared to their urban counterparts. In both areas the practitioners had poor knowledge of how echinococcosis is transmitted to humans, clinical features of echinococcosis in humans, and diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in humans. Conclusion Knowledge of medical practitioners of zoonotic diseases could be a contributing factor to their under-diagnosis and under-reporting in Tanzania. Refresher courses on zoonotic diseases should be conducted particularly to practitioners in rural areas. More emphasis should be put on zoonotic

  7. Radiation safety knowledge of medical center radiology technologists in southern Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su Wen-Chuan; Huang Ying-Fong; Chen Cheng-Chung; Chang Pao-Shu [Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan (China)

    2000-05-01

    People who live in Taiwan are getting more and more afraid of radiation. Sometimes the phobia results from distorted knowledge. Radiology technologists, in one hand, are more well-educated in radiation and, in the other hand, have more chance to expose to radiation when they are operating radiation producing medical instruments in their daily life. So we are interested in whether they have enough knowledge to protect themselves. We pick up the radiology technology board examination to make the questionnaire for this study. The population is the radiology technologists who work at department of diagnostic radiology, of radiation therapy and nuclear medicine in medical centers. Statistics is then used to see the relationship between knowledge and the factors including gender, age and career period. Based on statistics, we find out that there is significant correlation between the knowledge with age or education level. Elder or lower education level ones has worse knowledge. Continued education may be highly recommended for radiology technologists to avoid occupational radiation injury. (author)

  8. Comparison of Knowledge of Medical and Paramedical Intern about of CPR, 2015

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    Nastoor Bekhradian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Every day a number of people from the heart stops beating for most of them that this early cessation of heartbeat. With operations of CPR in 4 to 6 minutes of cardiopulmonary arrest and before the onset of brain death can be established circulation and survival for patients with the death of 2 to 4 folds. The aim of this study was to Comparison of knowledge of medical and paramedical intern about of CPCR, 2015. This descriptive analytical and sampling method was census. Restore their data using a standard questionnaire with Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.82 .Spss20 data using statistical software analysis and descriptive statistics and Chi-square test was used. The mean score of 3/6 students that showed poor knowledge of students participating in the study. The lowest score of zero and the highest score was 12. Was found between gender and level of knowledge (p=0/05. Between education and the knowledge of the relationship was not statistically significant (p=0/764. The knowledge of medical and paramedical students groups scheduled for next semester as part of the treatment system personnel are working poor and require special attention in order to provide guidelines for planning authorities to increase the awareness of students.

  9. Knowledge and Attitude of Medical Nurses toward Oral Health and Oral Health Care of Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Suzana; Saddki, Norkhafizah; Yusoff, Azizah

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the knowledge and attitudes of medical nurses regarding oral health and oral health care of pregnant women. This cross sectional study of 133 nurses in the district of Tumpat, Kelantan (Malaysia) used self-administered questionnaires. Most nurses knew that dental plaque is associated with periodontal disease (97.7%). However, most nurses erroneously believed that tooth decay (86.5%) and excessive sugar consumption (87.2%) led to periodontal disease. About half of the nurses knew about the relationship between periodontal disease of pregnant women and low birth weight (43.6%) and preterm birth (48.9%). Many nurses had the misconception that the developing foetus draws calcium from the mothers' teeth (78.2%). Most nurses had good attitudes toward improving their oral health knowledge (97.0%) and agreed they should help to deliver oral health education to pregnant women (94.0%). Age, length of service as a nurse, and length of service in antenatal care had no effect on the scores for the nurses' knowledge and attitude regarding oral health and oral health care of pregnant women. Medical nurses had limited knowledge about oral health of pregnant women and had some misunderstandings about oral health, although they had good attitudes. Age, length of service as a nurse, and length service in antenatal care had no effect on the knowledge and attitude scores of the nurses.

  10. Epistemology, culture, justice and power: non-bioscientific knowledge for medical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuper, Ayelet; Veinot, Paula; Leavitt, Jennifer; Levitt, Sarah; Li, Amanda; Goguen, Jeannette; Schreiber, Martin; Richardson, Lisa; Whitehead, Cynthia R

    2017-02-01

    While medical curricula were traditionally almost entirely comprised of bioscientific knowledge, widely accepted competency frameworks now make clear that physicians must be competent in far more than biomedical knowledge and technical skills. For example, of the influential CanMEDS roles, six are conceptually based in the social sciences and humanities (SSH). Educators frequently express uncertainty about what to teach in this area. This study concretely identifies the knowledge beyond bioscience needed to support the training of physicians competent in the six non-Medical Expert CanMEDS roles. We interviewed 58 non-clinician university faculty members with doctorates in over 20 SSH disciplines. We abstracted our transcripts (meaning condensation, direct quotations) resulting in approximately 300 pages of data which we coded using top-down (by CanMEDS role) and bottom-up (thematically) approaches and analysed within a critical constructivist framework. Participants and clinicians with SSH PhDs member-checked and refined our results. Twelve interrelated themes were evident in the data. An understanding of epistemology, including the constructed nature of social knowledge, was seen as the foundational theme without which the others could not be taught or understood. Our findings highlighted three anchoring themes (Justice, Power, Culture), all of which link to eight more specific themes concerning future physicians' relationships to the world and the self. All 12 themes were cross-cutting, in that each related to all six non-Medical Expert CanMEDS roles. The data also provided many concrete examples of potential curricular content. There is a definable body of SSH knowledge that forms the academic underpinning for important physician competencies and is outside the experience of most medical educators. Curricular change incorporating such content is necessary if we are to strengthen the non-Medical Expert physician competencies. Our findings, particularly our cross

  11. Evaluating knowledge retention of third-year medical students taught with an innovative pharmacology program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rodolfo; Campos-Sepulveda, Efrain; Vidrio, Horacio; Contreras, Eusebio; Valenzuela, Fermin

    2002-06-01

    To explore the degree of retention of pharmacologic knowledge of third-year medical students taught in a new pharmacology teaching program. In 1997, the authors administered a retention test consisting of 100 multiple-choice questions, each with only one correct answer, to 457 third-year medical students at the National University of Mexico. Students were not told in advance about this diagnostic evaluation, which was given eight months after they completed the second-year pharmacology course. As a comparison, the authors also analyzed the results obtained by the same students in the three partial examinations taken during the second-year pharmacology course. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov procedure and Wilcoxon and chi-square tests were used to analyze data. The distribution of scores obtained in the partial exams well approximated a symmetrical bell-shaped curve, and the mean score was 59.9%. In contrast, in the retention test the distribution was negatively skewed, the mean score (69.8%) was significantly higher (p <.001), and the curve was clearly displaced to the right of that corresponding to the partial exams. The percentage of students obtaining at least a passing score (60%) was considerably higher for the retention test (82.5 versus 51.9). These findings, indicating that medical students taught in a new pharmacology program developed adequate basic pharmacologic knowledge, should encourage other medical schools to formally evaluate their teaching programs and continue efforts to improve pharmacologic education of medical students.

  12. Obstetrician-gynecologists' knowledge of and attitudes toward medical abortion in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestler, Edgar

    2012-02-01

    To characterize the legal and clinical knowledge of Guatemalan obstetrician-gynecologists (OB/GYNs) regarding medical abortion and to determine factors associated with approval of its use for specific indications. A trained interviewer administered a multiple-choice survey to 172 private-practice OB/GYNs across Guatemala. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses characterized medical abortion opinion and knowledge, and logistic regression identified influential factors. 73% of OB/GYNs knew that abortion is legally permitted when the woman's life is at risk. Although 92% knew that misoprostol can be used to induce abortion, only 35% knew the WHO-recommended dosage. Only 25% knew of mifepristone. Compared with older OB/GYNs, those under 40 years of age were 7 times more likely, and 40-49 year olds were twice as likely to approve of medical abortion for fetal death and severe eclampsia with fetal death, respectively. Current indications for abortion under Guatemalan law, as well as OB/GYN practices and beliefs regarding medical abortion, are hindering women's access to safe medical abortion and, therefore, potential reductions in maternal morbidity and mortality. Future research should aim to identify whether and why Guatemalan OB/GYNs are unfamiliar with these drugs, prefer to use other methods, or are completely against abortion. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Social media, FOAMed in medical education and knowledge sharing: Local experiences with international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Arif Alper; Aksel, Gokhan; Akoglu, Haldun; Eroglu, Serkan Emre; Dogan, Nurettin Ozgur; Altunci, Yusuf Ali

    2016-09-01

    Social media, through the Internet and other web-based technologies, have become a means of communication and knowledge-sharing. In this article, we provide details about the social media traffic of various scientific activities, the organizations of which we have played an active role in. We also provide information in our native language through our FOAMed website, which has been published for about 30 months, with us acting as editors. We are comparing these local and limited ventures with examples from the world and aim to remind that social media sources play a very important role in sharing knowledge in medical training and encouraging local initiatives, like ours, with limited resources.

  14. Knowledge and attitudes towards complementary and alternative medicine among medical students in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akan Hulya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective This study aims to examine knowledge and attitudes towards Complementary and Alternative Medicine among medical students in Turkey, and find out whether they want to be trained in Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between October and December 2010 among medical students. Data were collected from a total of seven medical schools. Findings The study included 943 medical students. The most well known methods among the students were herbal treatment (81.2 %, acupuncture (80.8 %, hypnosis (78.8 %, body-based practices including massage (77 % and meditation (65.2 %, respectively. Acupuncture, aromatherapy, herbal treatment and meditation were better known among female participants compared to males (p  Conclusions Majority of the medical students were familiar with the CAM methods widely used in Turkey, while most of them had positive attitudes towards CAM as well as willingness to receive training on the subject, and they were likely to recommend CAM methods to their patients in their future professional lives. With its gradual scientific development and increasing popularity, there appears a need for a coordinated policy in integrating CAM into the medical curriculum, by taking expectations of and feedback from medical students into consideration in setting educational standards.

  15. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  16. Knowledge about Ultraviolet Radiation Hazards and Tanning Behavior of Cosmetology and Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuba, Ewelina Bogumiła; Francuzik, Wojciech; Malicki, Przemysław; Osmola-Mańkowska, Agnieszka; Jenerowicz, Dorota

    2016-04-01

    Dear Editor, Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a well-known physical hazard responsible for photoaging, photoallergic, and phototoxic reactions as well as carcinogenesis, including life-threatening melanomas (1,2). Overexposure to both natural and artificial UV radiation is a public health concern. 30% of cancers diagnosed worldwide are skin cancers. Approximately three million non-melanoma skin cancers and 132 000 new cases of melanomas are diagnosed globally each year (3). Sunburns, especially in childhood, are a very important risk factor for melanomas. Several studies demonstrated a positive association between sunbed use and an increased incidence of malignant melanoma (4). Current medical and cosmetology students will soon be knowledge providers about the risks of excessive exposure to UV radiation and prophylaxis of its consequences. Our aim was to evaluate their knowledge about the side effects of ultraviolet radiation and tanning behaviors. Details on the knowledge and habits of students were obtained during classes at the Poznan University of Medical Sciences. With approval from the Institutional Bioethical Committee, a 41-question anonymous survey was conducted in the spring of 2012 among 190 medical (1-6 year) and cosmetology students (1-5 year). The mean age of the study group was 22.3 years (standard deviation (SD) = 2.4 years), range 19-28 years. The survey was composed of closed and open-ended questions prepared by the authors. The first part of the form included demographic data: gender, age, degree course, and school year. The students were also asked about their reaction to sunlight, sunburns in childhood, and personal and family history of skin cancers or dysplastic nevus syndrome. The factual section of the survey contained questions evaluating responder knowledge about sunbeds and risk of UV radiation as well as their personal tanning habits. The open-ended questions asked responders to provide definitions of: skin phototype, sun protection factor

  17. Role of Social Knowledge Networking technology in facilitating meaningful use of Electronic Health Record medication reconciliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangachari, Pavani

    2016-06-01

    Despite the federal policy impetus towards EHR Medication Reconciliation, hospital adherence has lagged for one chief reason; low physician engagement, which in turn emanates from lack of consensus in regard to which physician is responsible for managing a patient's medication list, and the importance of medication reconciliation as a tool for improving patient safety and quality of care. The Technology-in-Practice (TIP) framework stresses the role of human action in enacting structures of technology use or "technologies-in-practice." Applying the TIP framework to the EHR Medication Reconciliation context, helps frame the problem as one of low physician engagement in performing EHR Medication Reconciliation, translating to limited-use-EHR-in-practice. Concurrently, the problem suggests a hierarchical network structure, reflecting limited communication among hospital administrators and clinical providers on the importance of EHR Medication Reconciliation in improving patient safety. Integrating the TIP literature with the more recent knowledge-in-Practice (KIP) literature suggests that EHR-in-practice could be transformed from "limited use" to "meaningful use" through the use of Social Knowledge Networking (SKN) Technology to create new social network structures, and enable engagement, learning, and practice change. Correspondingly, the objectives of this paper are to: 1) Conduct a narrative review of the literature on "technology use," to understand how technologies-in-practice may be transformed from limited use to meaningful use; 2) Conduct a narrative review of the literature on "organizational change implementation," to understand how changes in technology use could be successfully implemented and sustained in a healthcare organizational context; and 3) Apply lessons learned from the narrative literature reviews to identify strategies for the meaningful use and successful implementation of EHR Medication Reconciliation technology.

  18. Exploring staff diabetes medication knowledge and practices in regional residential care: triangulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellard, Sally Jane; Rasmussen, Bodil; Savage, Sally; Dunning, Trisha

    2013-07-01

    This study is drawn from a larger project that aimed to identify the staffing and organisational factors influencing the quality of diabetes care for older people living in residential care in regional Victoria, Australia. The focus of the current study is on medication management for residents with diabetes. With a continuous rise in diabetes in the population, there is an associated increase in the prevalence of diabetes in aged care residential settings. However, there is little specific guidance on how to manage diabetes in older people living in institutional settings who experience multiple concurrent chronic conditions. A triangulation strategy consisting of three phases. A one-shot cross-sectional survey (n = 68) focus group interviews and a case file audit (n = 20). Data were collected between May 2009-January 2010. Staff knowledge of diabetes and its contemporary medication management was found to be suboptimal. Challenges to managing residents with diabetes included limited time, resident characteristics and communication systems. Additionally, the variability in medical support available to residents and a high level of polypharmacy added to the complexity of medication management of resident. The current study suggests administering medicine to residents in aged care settings is difficult and has potentially serious medical, professional and economic consequences. Limitations to staff knowledge of contemporary diabetes care and medications potentially place residents with diabetes at risk of receiving less than optimal diabetes care. Providing evidence-based guidelines about diabetes care in residential care settings is essential to achieve acceptable outcomes and increase the quality of life for residents in public aged care. Continuing education programs in diabetes care specifically related to medication must be provided to all health professionals and encompass scope of practice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A survey of medical students to assess their exposure to and knowledge of renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weale Andrew R

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within the field of renal transplantation there is a lack of qualified and trainee surgeons and a shortage of donated organs. Any steps to tackle these issues should, in part, be aimed at future doctors. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to final year students at a single medical school in the UK to assess their exposure to and knowledge of renal transplantation. Results Although 46% of responding students had examined a transplant recipient, only 14% had ever witnessed the surgery. Worryingly, 9% of students believed that xenotransplantation commonly occurs in the UK and 35% were unable to name a single drug that a recipient may need to take. Conclusions This survey demonstrates a lack of exposure to, and knowledge of, the field of renal transplantation. Recommendations to address the problems with the recruitment of surgeons and donation of organs, by targeting medical students are made.

  20. Knowledge, attitude and perception of medical and dental undergraduates about antimicrobial stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kopal; Jain, Pushpawati; Sharma, Amit

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the current knowledge, attitude, and perception (KAP) of the future prescribers about antimicrobial (AM) education so that the identified lacunae in the training curriculum can be effectively addressed. A questionnaire-based survey was carried out in the 2(nd) year students of medical and the dental undergraduate (UG) courses at a tertiary care teaching center in Jaipur. Each respondent completed the given questionnaire independently in the allocated time. A scoring system was used to rate the KAP of the respondents as poor, average, or good. Statistically significant differences were found in the KAP of the medical and dental future prescribers (P = 0.0086, 0.0002, and <0.0001 for the KAP, respectively). The attitude of the UG students towards AM education is good, but the deficiencies in the knowledge and perception need to be improved further. Suitable interventions to address these lacunae must be planned.

  1. Developing Knowledge Representation in Emergency Medical Assistance by Using Semantic Web Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manica, Heloise; Rocha, Cristiano C.; Todesco, José Leomar; Dantas, M. A. R.

    In this research, a knowledge-based architecture for a mobile emergency medical assistance system is presented. It is based on the France SAMU model and dopts the ontology and mobile computing approaches. The contribution is characterized for providing routines and medical protocol specifications for specialists through the use of their natural language, collecting elements from this language to develop an ontology domain, and using a semantic cache for an enhanced utilization of mobile devices. A prototype of the proposal was implemented in order to support specialists during a day-to-day basis considering knowledge engineering aided by mobile computing techniques. These differentiated characteristics have proved to be successfully at early experiments utilizing the implemented prototype.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE, PRACTICE AND ATTITUDE ON MENSTRUAL HYGIENE AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS IN A TEACHING HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Divya.G ⃰, Naveena. R , Pavithra. B , Sri Kiruthika.K , Ashwini. V , Vinoth Kumar.S, Revinselvan. P

    2017-01-01

    Menstruation is a monthly occurring physiological process among women when she enters adolescence. Menstruation requires certain requirement and facilities, lacking of which restricts their health and self confidence. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of menstrual hygiene among medical students. A pre formed Self-developed, pre-validated questionnaire was used. The protocol and purpose of the study was explained to students and requested to complete...

  3. Knowledge, Attitude and Perception of Medical Students Regarding Community-oriented Research

    OpenAIRE

    Anindo Majumdar, Ganesh Kumar S, Gautam Roy

    2015-01-01

    "Objective: Objective of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and perception of medical students regarding community-oriented research. Method: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among all 5th semester MBBS students of a teaching hospital in Puducherry. A field-based community-oriented research project was carried out by the students as a part of their routine block posting. At the end of the posting, a self-administered questionnaire was administered to the student...

  4. Pharmacy workers? knowledge and provision of medication for termination of pregnancy in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Reiss, Kate; Footman, Katharine; Akora, Vitalis; Liambila, Wilson; Ngo, Thoai D

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess pharmacy workers? knowledge and provision of abortion information and methods in Kenya. Methods In 2013 we interviewed 235 pharmacy workers in Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu about the medical abortion services they provide. We also used mystery clients, who made 401 visits to pharmacies to collect first-hand information on abortion practices. Results The majority (87.5%) of pharmacy workers had heard of misoprostol but only 39.2% had heard of mifepristone. We found that pharm...

  5. Knowledge and attitudes towards tuberculosis in non medical students University of Belgrade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolovic, Milos; Pesut, Dragica; Bulajic, Milica; Simic, Marija

    2012-01-01

    Population's knowledge on tuberculosis (TB) is crucial in early seeking of medical care. Delay in diagnosis for any reason contributes to advanced forms and TB transmission in the community. Knowledge about TB in general population of Serbia is poor, including vulnerable groups. to assess knowledge about TB in a group of non medical students in University of Belgrade, their attitudes towards TB patients, sources of medical information they use or desire. Observational, questionnaire based study. University students of the Faculty of Organizational Science and Faculty of Geography completed the 27-item questionnaires voluntarily and anonymously. The questions related to TB etiology, way of transmission, risk factors and the source of health information students preffer. Statistical analysis was performed. All the participants (69 students aged 20 +/- 0.777 years, 69.7% male, 30.3% female) previously heard about TB, mostly describing it as pulmonary disease. Only 22 (31.88%) selected bacillus as the only cause of TB, and 20% selected answer "I do not know". TB is curable (95%). One third does not know about TB symptoms and 45/69 (65%) think that TB is an infectious disease. Majority (78.3%) would pay visit to TB patient, 1/2 with fear of infection that is in positive correlation with knowledge on infectiousness (p=0.041). Television is the most common used source of health information. Students have the greatest confidence in doctors' information. Students' knowledge on TB is inadequate, especially on its cause and way of transmission. More effort is needed in university students' health education.

  6. An attempt to assess knowledge about tobacco dependence among students at the Medical University in Wroclaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik-Koncewicz, Kinga; Zatoński, Tomasz; Połtyn-Zaradna, Katarzyna; Zatońska, Katarzyna; Cedzyńska, Magdalena; Przewoźniak, Krzysztof; Wojtyła, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is still one of the greatest, avoidable, singular causes of death. Although students of medical faculties are expected to have solid knowledge about smoking hazards, a significant number of them still smoke. The aim of the study was to assess knowledge on tobacco dependence in a sample of students at the Medical University in Wroclaw. Between 2009-2011, non-compulsory lectures on the diagnosis and treatment of tobacco dependence were provided for 3(rd) to 6(th) year students of medicine at the Medical University in Wroclaw (170 students). The questionnaire contained 10 questions about smoking-related diseases and medicines used in tobacco dependence treatment. 21% of students smoked cigarettes and 79% were never smokers. 36% of the study group was exposed to passive smoking at the university. Nearly 80% of survey respondents agreed with the statement that cigarette smoking can lead to psychological addiction as strong as drug addiction, but more than 12% of the respondents perceived smoking just as a strong habit. Only 6 out of 10 surveyed students recognised tobacco dependence as an illness classified in an international classification of diseases and health problems (ICD-10). The correct amount of the chemical substances to be found in tobacco smoke was known by 67.1% of all surveyed students. The vast majority of the surveyed students indicated correctly 2 brands of nicotine replacement therapy, but none of them could name even one chemical and corresponding trade name of the pharmaceutical with central effect. The level of knowledge about the diagnosis and treatment of tobacco dependence among the students of the Medical Faculty in Wroclaw Medical University is low, and requires improvement through educational activities at both facultative and compulsory study level. Special attention should be paid to pharmaceutical treatment of the tobacco dependence syndrome.

  7. Features of effective medical knowledge resources to support point of care learning: a focus group study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Cook

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Health care professionals access various information sources to quickly answer questions that arise in clinical practice. The features that favorably influence the selection and use of knowledge resources remain unclear. We sought to better understand how clinicians select among the various knowledge resources available to them, and from this to derive a model for an effective knowledge resource. METHODS: We conducted 11 focus groups at an academic medical center and outlying community sites. We included a purposive sample of 50 primary care and subspecialist internal medicine and family medicine physicians. We transcribed focus group discussions and analyzed these using a constant comparative approach to inductively identify features that influence the selection of knowledge resources. RESULTS: We identified nine features that influence users' selection of knowledge resources, namely efficiency (with sub-features of comprehensiveness, searchability, and brevity, integration with clinical workflow, credibility, user familiarity, capacity to identify a human expert, reflection of local care processes, optimization for the clinical question (e.g., diagnosis, treatment options, drug side effect, currency, and ability to support patient education. No single existing resource exemplifies all of these features. CONCLUSION: The influential features identified in this study will inform the development of knowledge resources, and could serve as a framework for future research in this field.

  8. Exploring stigma: medical knowledge and the stigmatisation of parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, David

    2009-11-01

    This paper analyses 12 parent interviews to investigate the stigmatisation of parents of children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Drawing on poststructural accounts of the relationship between knowledge and subjectivity, the stigma concept is critically interrogated in order to address previous individualistic constructions of stigmatisation and to place stigma within the power dynamics of social control. The results of the study indicate that a child's diagnosis with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is critical for parents to resist stigmatisation. Parents experienced considerable enacted stigma, but successfully resisted felt stigma by deploying medical knowledge to articulate unspoiled subject positions. The institutionalisation of medical knowledge within the autism community was critical to this process. Resistance to enacted stigma was successful to the degree that medical constructions of deviance deployed by parents were accepted by others, notably those in power within institutions. It is concluded that poststructural accounts of subjectivity and social control provide a useful way of conceptualising stigmatisation. An acceptance of the painful nature of stigma as lived experience co-exists with an emphasis on the constantly negotiated nature of embodied subjectivity as a contingent social process to illustrate the conditions for active resistance to stigmatisation.

  9. The perception and knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Željko; Sonicki, Zdenko; Tedeschi-Reiner, Eugenia

    2012-06-01

    To assess perceptions, knowledge, and awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among medical students (freshmen and graduating students). A descriptive cross-sectional survey based on an anonymous self-administered questionnaire was conducted in 2008 on 443 medical students - 228 freshmen on their enrollment day and 214 students on the day of their final exam at the University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Croatia. The perception and knowledge of some CVD risk factors, eg, dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, and metabolic syndrome as well as of lipid-lowering therapy important for CVD prevention was significantly better among graduating students but was still not sufficient. Only 66% of graduating students reported that they would prescribe lipid-lowering therapy to high risk patients. Disappointingly, many graduating students were smoking (30.4%) and had low-awareness of obesity as an important CVD risk factor. These results suggest an urgent need to improve medical students' knowledge of obesity and low physical activity as important CVD risk factors and of the methods for increasing low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and for smoking cessation. All this provides a rationale for modifying the university core curriculum to include more information concerning these issues.

  10. Perspectives on palliative care in Lebanon: knowledge, attitudes, and practices of medical and nursing specialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Saad Huijer, Huda; Dimassi, Hani; Abboud, Sarah

    2009-09-01

    Our objective was to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of physicians and nurses on Palliative Care (PC) in Lebanon, across specialties. We performed a cross-sectional descriptive survey using a self-administered questionnaire; the total number of completed and returned questionnaires was 868, giving a 23% response rate, including 74.31% nurses (645) and 25.69% physicians (223). Significant differences were found between medical and surgical nurses and physicians concerning their perceptions of patients' and families' outbursts, concerns, and questions. Knowledge scores were statistically associated with practice scores and degree. Practice scores were positively associated with continuing education in PC, exposure to terminally ill patients, and knowledge and attitude scores. Acute critical care and oncology were found to have lower practice scores than other specialties. Formal education in palliative care and development of palliative care services are very much needed in Lebanon to provide holistic care to terminally ill patients.

  11. Model-based formalization of medical knowledge for context-aware assistance in laparoscopic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katić, Darko; Wekerle, Anna-Laura; Gärtner, Fabian; Kenngott, Hannes G.; Müller-Stich, Beat P.; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Speidel, Stefanie

    2014-03-01

    The increase of technological complexity in surgery has created a need for novel man-machine interaction techniques. Specifically, context-aware systems which automatically adapt themselves to the current circumstances in the OR have great potential in this regard. To create such systems, models of surgical procedures are vital, as they allow analyzing the current situation and assessing the context. For this purpose, we have developed a Surgical Process Model based on Description Logics. It incorporates general medical background knowledge as well as intraoperatively observed situational knowledge. The representation consists of three parts: the Background Knowledge Model, the Preoperative Process Model and the Integrated Intraoperative Process Model. All models depend on each other and create a concise view on the surgery. As a proof of concept, we applied the system to a specific intervention, the laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy.

  12. Third-year medical students' knowledge of privacy and security issues concerning mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Elizabeth C; Allgood, Kacy L; Larue, Elizabeth M

    2012-01-01

    The use of mobile devices are ubiquitous in medical-care professional settings, but information on privacy and security concerns of mobile devices for medical students is scarce. To gain baseline information about third-year medical students' mobile device use and knowledge of privacy and security issues concerning mobile devices. We surveyed 67 third-year medical students at a Midwestern university on their use of mobile devices and knowledge of how to protect information available through mobile devices. Students were also presented with clinical scenarios to rate their level of concern in regards to privacy and security of information. The most used features of mobile devices were: voice-to-voice (100%), text messaging (SMS) (94%), Internet (76.9%), and email (69.3%). For locking of one's personal mobile phone, 54.1% never physically lock their phone, and 58% never electronically lock their personal PDA. Scenarios considering definitely privacy concerns include emailing patient information intact (66.7%), and posting de-identified information on YouTube (45.2%) or Facebook (42.2%). As the ease of sharing data increases with the use of mobile devices, students need more education and training on possible privacy and security risks posed with mobile devices.

  13. Knowledge, attitude and behaviour regarding dietary salt intake among medical students in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Pedro; Sanhangala, Edgar J R; Dombele, Isildro M; Ulundo, Henrique S N; Capingana, Daniel P; Silva, Amílcar B T

    2015-01-01

    Levels of salt consumption and its awareness among medical students in Angola remain insufficiently studied. This study determined salt intake and assessed medical students' knowledge, attitude and behaviour regarding salt consumption. Were collected 24-hour urine samples from a random sample of 123 undergraduate medical students aged 17-43 years who were studying at the University of Agostinho Neto in Luanda. Their knowledge, attitude and behaviour regarding dietary salt were surveyed. Socio-demographic, clinical and anthropometric data were collected. Average salt intake was 14.2 ± 5.1 g/day, without significant difference between genders (p = 0.221). In total, 96.7% consumed over 5 g/day, but only 6.5% of participants were aware of their excessive salt intake. The majority knew about salt-related health consequences and 45.5% reported they controlled their salt intake. This study indicated a high salt intake and inadequate behaviour regarding dietary salt consumption among medical students studying at the University of Agostinho Neto. This highlights the need for nutritional education to improve their dietary habits and future role in counselling.

  14. Pursuit of medical knowledge: Charles Donovan (1863-1951) on kala-azar in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Achintya Kumar

    2008-05-01

    Kala-azar was a lethal disease in colonial India. Charles Donovan of the Indian Medical Service (IMS) in Madras discovered the parasite independently in 1903 while William Boog Leishman was carrying out his research in Great Britain. Donovan's discovery ended the confusion prevalent over the anomalous and puzzling cases of malarial fevers in India and proved they were not related to malaria. This added to the promotion of medical knowledge, initiated further research and created enthusiasm among medical scientists throughout the world. Donovan was the first person to see the kala-azar parasite in the peripheral blood and thus provided a clue to the carriage and transmission of the kala-azar parasite by the insect through peripheral blood. Donovan's research on kala-azar also convinced the government of its utility and the need for further investigation; he fell victim to professional rivalry.

  15. Knowledge and risk perception of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer among non-medical university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osazuwa-Peters, Nosayaba; Tutlam, Nhial T

    2016-01-28

    To assess non-medical university students' knowledge and perceived risk of developing oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among non-medical students of a private Midwestern university in the United States in May 2012. Questionnaire assessed demographic information and contained 21 previously validated questions regarding knowledge and perceived risk of developing oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. Knowledge scale was categorized into low and high. Risk level was estimated based on smoking, drinking, and sexual habits. Bivariate associations between continuous and categorical variables were assessed using Pearson correlation and Chi-square tests, respectively. The response rate was 87% (100 out of 115 students approached). Eighty-one percent (81%) had low oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer knowledge; and only 2% perceived that their oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer risk was high. Risk perception was negatively correlated with age at sexual debut, r (64) = -0.26, p = 0.037; one-way ANOVA showed a marginally significant association between risk perception and number of sexual partners, F(4, 60) = 2.48, p = 0.05. There was no significant association between knowledge and perception of risk; however, oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer knowledge was significantly associated with frequency of prevention of STDs (p perception is low among this student population. Since oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer incidence is increasingly shifting towards younger adults, interventions must be tailored to this group in order to improve prevention and control.

  16. [Knowledge of physical and rehabilitation medicine among physicians and medical students in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tederko, Piotr; Krasuski, Marek; Nyka, Izabella; Denes, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) since 1959 has been a basic medical specialty in Poland. Recently PRM is practiced by around 1,12% of professionally active physicians in Poland. Due to specificity and unfavorable health care regulations PRM may be inadequately perceived by the medical profession in Poland. Evaluation of basic knowledge of PRM in PRM trainees, non-PRM specialists and medical students in Poland. 500 respondents (225 non-PRM specialists--NPRMS, 61 PRM trainees--PRMT and 214 medical students who accomplished undergraduate education in PRM--MS) underwent testing with an anonymous questionnaire elaborated at Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary and modified at Medical University of Warsaw, Poland. SELECTED RESULTS: 404 (80,8%) respondents (88.3% MS; 68.9% NPRMS and 98.3% PRMT) perceived PRM as a basic medical specialty. 49.1% of MS, 47.1% of NPRMS and 73.4% of PRMT noticed the leading role of a PRM physician in comprehensive rehabilitation of persons with exemplary disabilities. 408 (81.6%) participants (77.6% MS, 82.2% NPRMS and 93.4% PRMT) knew who was eligible to refer a patient to PRM physician. Rate of disabled persons in Poland was properly reported by 330 (66%) participants (63.1% MS; 69.3% NPRMS and 63.9% PRMT). Correct definition of disability was given by 256 (51.2%) respondents (65%) MS, 33.8% NPRMS and 67.2% PRMT), whereas 200 (40%) participants (43.5% MS; 31.1% NPRMS and 60.7% PRMT were familiar with the definition of PRM. Poor knowledge of PRM role in health care system among MS and NPRMS and Low awareness of cardinal PRM issues among PRMT reflects inadequate undergraduate and postgraduate education in PRM, disadvantageous healthcare system solutions and misleading information in mass media in Poland. Education on PRM role in a contemporary healthcare should be urgently improved.

  17. Improving medical student toxicology knowledge and self-confidence using mannequin simulation.

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    Halm, Brunhild M; Lee, Meta T; Franke, Adrian A

    2010-01-01

    Learning medicine without placing patients at increased risk of complications is of utmost importance in the medical profession. High-fidelity patient simulators can potentially achieve this and are therefore increasingly used in the training of medical students. Preclinical medical students have minimal exposure to clinical rotations and commonly feel anxious and apprehensive when starting their clinical years. The objective of this pilot study was to determine if toxicology knowledge and confidence of preclinical second-year medical students could be augmented with simulation training. We designed and implemented a simulation exercise for second-year medical students to enhance learning of Basic Life Support, toxidromes, and management of a semiconscious overdose victim. Groups of 5-6 students were tasked to identify abnormal findings, order tests, and initiate treatment on a mannequin. Faculty observers provided video-assisted feedback immediately afterwards. On-line pre- and posttests were completed in the simulation lab before and after the exercise. This simulation exercise, completed by 52 students, increased test scores on average from 60% to 71% compared to a pre-test. Among the topics tested, students scored worst in identifying normal/abnormal vital signs. Mean confidence increased from 2.0 to 2.6 using a 5-point Likert scale (1-very low to 5-very high). This study suggests that simulation exercises for second-year medical students may be a valuable tool to increase knowledge and student self-confidence at a key transition period prior to beginning clerkship experiences. Further research is needed to prove long-term educational benefits of simulation interventions in the preclinical setting.

  18. Knowledge and level of awareness of renal transplantation among medical students in Nigeria

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    Augustine O Takure

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Augustine O Takure1, Sylvester O Alikah2, Vincent C Onuora31Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria; 2Department of Pediatrics, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria; 3Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Igbinedion University, Okada, Benin, NigeriaBackground: Although renal transplantation has been available since 2000 in Nigeria at St Nicholas Hospital, Lagos, only 134 procedures have been performed as of March 2010. This may be related to the level of knowledge of medical practitioners in the Nigerian communities. Our medical students come from different communities, and assessing their level of awareness may contribute to better utilization of the available resources for renal transplantation in our country. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and level of awareness of renal transplantation among medical students in a potential university transplant center.Methods: A 10-item questionnaire was administered to fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-year medical students at Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria. The data obtained were analyzed using standard simple statistical tools in Microsoft Excel Office 2007.Results: The level of participation of respondents was 69.6%; mean age was 26.2 (range 21–45 years. Seventy percent of the respondents were males. The majority of the respondents had obtained information on renal transplantation from school lectures, electronic media, and the Internet. Many were also aware of the indications, pretransplant evaluation, and renal transplant complications. Only five (3.2% knew of the four existing renal transplant centers in Nigeria. In total, 79.1% knew of living donors, while 11.4% knew of cadaveric donors. One hundred and three respondents (65.2% were aware of open surgery for recipient transplantation, while 125 (79.1% knew of open or laparoscopic procedures for donor nephrectomy.Conclusion: The medical students

  19. Recognition and Knowledge of Medications with Black Box Warnings Among Pediatricians and Emergency Physicians.

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    Smollin, Craig Geoffrey; Fu, Jonathan; Levin, Ross

    2016-06-01

    "Boxed warnings" (BW), sometimes referred to as "black box warnings," are the most serious level of warning provided by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). We aimed to assess physician awareness and knowledge of BW, and to gain a better understanding of where physicians obtain information about serious adverse drug reactions for commonly prescribed medications. A cross-sectional survey instrument was administered to emergency medicine (EM) and pediatrician (Peds) attending and resident physicians. The main outcome measures were physician performance in identifying medications with and without black box warnings and the content of the warnings. The survey response rate was 81/198 (41 %). Respondents correctly identified medications with BW only 36.3 % of the time, but were able to correctly identify medications without such warnings 83.8 % of the time. Attending physicians were better able to identify medications with or without BW when compared with residents (p < 0.05). Among residents, there was a statistically significant increase in the ability to identify medications with or without BW with increasing year of training (p < 0.01). Correct identification of the content of BW was low in both groups (13.3 %). Only 19/50 (37 %) EM physicians and 16/31 (52 %) Peds reported that they consider BW when prescribing medications. 23/81 (29 %) respondents indicated that they did not stay current or had no method of staying current with black box information. EM and Peds attending and resident physicians at a single institution had limited ability to identify medications containing BW or the content of such warnings. A significant number reported that they did not stay current or had no consistent method for staying current with BW.

  20. Medical Students’ Knowledge of Indications for Imaging Modalities and Cost Analysis of Incorrect Requests, Shiraz, Iran 2011-2012

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    Parisa Islami Parkoohi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging has a remarkable role in the practice of clinical medicine. This study intends to evaluate the knowledge of indications of five common medical imaging modalities and estimation of the imposed cost of their non-indicated requests among medical students who attend Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. We conducted across-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire to assess the knowledge of indications of a number of medical imaging modalities among 270 medical students during their externship or internship periods. Knowledge scoring was performed according to a descriptive international grade conversion (fail to excellent using Iranian academic grading (0 to 20. In addition, we estimated the cost for incorrect selection of those modalities according to public and private tariffs in US dollars. The participation and response rate was 200/270 (74%. The mean knowledge score was fair for all modalities. Similar scores were excellent for X-ray, acceptable for Doppler ultrasonography, and fair for ultrasonography, CT scan and MRI. The total cost for non-indicated requests of those modalities equaled $104303 (public tariff and $205581 (private tariff. Medical students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences lacked favorable knowledge about indications for common medical imaging modalities. The results of this study have shown a significant cost for non-indicated requests of medical imaging. Of note, the present radiology curriculum is in need of a major revision with regards to evidence-based radiology and health economy concerns.

  1. Medical students' knowledge of indications for imaging modalities and cost analysis of incorrect requests, shiraz, iran 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami Parkoohi, Parisa; Jalli, Reza; Danaei, Mina; Khajavian, Shiva; Askarian, Mehrdad

    2014-05-01

    Medical imaging has a remarkable role in the practice of clinical medicine. This study intends to evaluate the knowledge of indications of five common medical imaging modalities and estimation of the imposed cost of their non-indicated requests among medical students who attend Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. We conducted across-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire to assess the knowledge of indications of a number of medical imaging modalities among 270 medical students during their externship or internship periods. Knowledge scoring was performed according to a descriptive international grade conversion (fail to excellent) using Iranian academic grading (0 to 20). In addition, we estimated the cost for incorrect selection of those modalities according to public and private tariffs in US dollars. The participation and response rate was 200/270 (74%). The mean knowledge score was fair for all modalities. Similar scores were excellent for X-ray, acceptable for Doppler ultrasonography, and fair for ultrasonography, CT scan and MRI. The total cost for non-indicated requests of those modalities equaled $104303 (public tariff) and $205581 (private tariff). Medical students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences lacked favorable knowledge about indications for common medical imaging modalities. The results of this study have shown a significant cost for non-indicated requests of medical imaging. Of note, the present radiology curriculum is in need of a major revision with regards to evidence-based radiology and health economy concerns.

  2. Ancient medicine--a review.

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    Zuskin, Eugenija; Lipozencić, Jasna; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Schachter, Neil; Mucić-Pucić, Branka; Neralić-Meniga, Inja

    2008-01-01

    Different aspects of medicine and/or healing in several societies are presented. In the ancient times as well as today medicine has been closely related to magic, science and religion. Various ancient societies and cultures had developed different views of medicine. It was believed that a human being has two bodies: a visible body that belongs to the earth and an invisible body of heaven. In the earliest prehistoric days, a different kind of medicine was practiced in countries such as Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mesopotamia, India, Tibet, China, and others. In those countries, "medicine people" practiced medicine from the magic to modern physical practices. Medicine was magical and mythological, and diseases were attributed mostly to the supernatural forces. The foundation of modern medicine can be traced back to ancient Greeks. Tibetan culture, for instance, even today, combines spiritual and practical medicine. Chinese medicine developed as a concept of yin and yang, acupuncture and acupressure, and it has even been used in the modern medicine. During medieval Europe, major universities and medical schools were established. In the ancient time, before hospitals had developed, patients were treated mostly in temples.

  3. Human Papilloma Virus and HPV vaccine knowledge among Mustafa Kemal University Medical Students

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    Raziye Keskin Kurt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human papilloma virus (HPV is regarded as the main cause in the etiology of cervical cancer. The purpose of our study is to assess the knowledge of medical students about HPV vaccine and to evaluate their opinion on this subject.   Material and Method: The study population consisted of 488 medical students. The survey was composed of questions intended   to obtain information about transmission route of HPV, types of HPV, role of HPV in cervical cancer, whether HPV is treatable or not, which types of HPV the HPV vaccine prevents, the age groups HPV vaccine is administered, the opinions on HPV vaccine and sufficiency of public health, whether female students have underwent vaccination and if not what their drawbacks are.   Results: Mean age of the students participating in the study was 21±4 and 58 % of the patients were female. Out of 448 medical students, 60% of them did not know that HPV was a sexually transmitted disease. Only 55% students knew about the association of HPV with cervical cancer and 52% participants stated that HPV vaccine could not be preventive against cervical cancer. None of female students had been immunized and 67% of female students did not consider getting immunized. Among those who did not consider getting immunized, 70% said they had worries about the safety of the vaccine. Conclusion: Our study results revealed that the knowledge of medical students about HPV is satisfactory, however their knowledge about HPV vaccine, immunization status and desire to be immunized were little.

  4. Information system technologies' role in augmenting dermatologists' knowledge of prescription medication costs.

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    DeMarco, Sebastian S; Paul, Ravi; Kilpatrick, Russell J

    2015-12-01

    Despite the recent rising costs of once affordable dermatologic prescription medications, a survey measuring dermatologists' attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of the cost of drugs they commonly prescribe has not been conducted. Awareness of drug costs is hindered by a lack of access to data about the prices of medicines. No surveys of physicians have addressed this issue by proposing new information system technologies that augment prescription medication price transparency and measuring how receptive physicians are to using these novel solutions in their daily clinical practice. Our research aims to investigate these topics with a survey of physicians in dermatology. Members of the North Carolina Dermatology Association were contacted through their electronic mailing list and asked to take an online survey. The survey asked several questions about dermatologists' attitudes and beliefs about drug costs. To measure their knowledge of prescription medications, the National Average Drug Acquisition Cost was used as an authoritative price that was compared to the survey takers' price estimates of drugs commonly used in dermatology. Physicians' willingness to use four distinct information system technologies that increase drug price transparency was also assessed. Dermatologists believe drug costs are an important factor in patient care and believe access to price information would allow them to provide a higher quality of care. Dermatologists' knowledge of the costs of medicines they commonly prescribe is poor, but they want to utilize information system technologies that increase access to drug pricing information. There is an unmet demand for information system technologies which increase price transparency of medications in dermatology. Physicians and IT professionals have the opportunity to create novel information systems that can be utilized to help guide cost conscious clinical decision making. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. (ETHNO-)MEDICAL ETHICS IN GLOBALIZING CHINA: TRACING LOCAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION OF BIOMEDICINE.

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    Micollier, Evelyne

    2015-12-01

    Encounters between several bodies of therapeutic knowledge have led to a restructuring of the entire health system, including a transformation in medical ethics. Defining "new ethics" with both Chinese and international characteristics, is part of the ongoing knowledge production process: plural health ideas, practices and medical sciences develop within the broader framework of social and economic transition. Such transition simultaneously reveals and encourages China's influence and position in an era of globalization including in the technical and knowledge production domains. Re-alignments in medical ethics in Reform China (post-1979) highlight a rather under-explored aspect of medical plurality enabling these ethics to be used as an analytical lens to provide information about social and political issues. In this article, two sets of ethical principles, one from Late Imperial China (Late Ming Era), the other from post-Mao China (1980s), are detailed and analysed. They were selected as case-studies mainly because they reflected at the time of their emergence an on-going radical change in society in the realm of health and medicine. Therefore both sets unveil the process of legitimizing a "Chinese medicine" in a context of epistemological shift: such a process takes various conceptual and practicalforms framed along the lines of the current dominant ideological system and constrained by socio-economic and political factors. Finally, issues relative to research ethics, bioethics and the New Health Reform guidelines raised in the 2000s, which represents also a significant historical turn for China, are discussed. Drawn from the overall discussion throughout the text, several concluding remarks contribute to advocate for "win-win" encounters--from the East to the West and from the South to the South, and for more implementable transnational/global ethics designing.

  6. Development and validation of the diabetes knowledge assessment test for use in medical rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Douglas L; French, Brian F; Davis, April D; Towle, Linda A

    2015-01-01

    To develop and validate the diabetes knowledge assessment test (DKAT), an assessment designed to measure diabetes knowledge of medical rehabilitation patients with or without diabetes. Content validity methods were used to develop the DKAT, which was administered to rehabilitation patients to examine psychometric properties. Subjects were 75 inpatients (56% with diabetes; 45% male), and 75 outpatients (49% with diabetes; 69% male). The initial DKAT consisted of 49 items, which was reduced to 32 items based on psychometric criteria. Point-biserial item discrimination indices ranged from 0.26 to 0.61. Item difficulty indices ranged from 27 to 96%. Cronbach's alpha was 0.82. Known groups construct validity comparisons revealed that patients with diabetes obtained significantly higher DKAT scores than patients without diabetes (p = 0.01), supporting construct validity. Scores did not differ significantly by gender, educational attainment, age, or outpatient versus inpatient (all p > 0.05), further supporting construct validity. Confirmatory factor analysis identified two factors: "Complications" and "Risks-Symptoms-Management". Findings support claims that DKAT scores are valid and reliable for diabetes knowledge assessment across a range of rehabilitation conditions. It is appropriate for use with persons with or without diabetes engaging in rehabilitation services as an inpatient or outpatient. Medical rehabilitation patients represent an important population in which to assess core diabetes knowledge due to the extremely high prevalence of diabetes. We were unable to identify instruments with validity evidence aimed at assessing diabetes knowledge in rehabilitation populations, therefore undertook development of the DKAT. The DKAT represents a psychometrically promising assessment that can inform individuals at risk with the signs and symptoms of diabetes, as well as behavioral actions to reduce risk. The DKAT can also be used to identify those with a

  7. Medical ethical standards in dermatology: an analytical study of knowledge, attitudes and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, W Z; Abdel Hay, R M; El Lawindi, M I

    2015-01-01

    Dermatology practice has not been ethically justified at all times. The objective of the study was to find out dermatologists' knowledge about medical ethics, their attitudes towards regulatory measures and their practices, and to study the different factors influencing the knowledge, the attitude and the practices of dermatologists. This is a cross-sectional comparative study conducted among 214 dermatologists, from five Academic Universities and from participants in two conferences. A 54 items structured anonymous questionnaire was designed to describe the demographical characteristics of the study group as well as their knowledge, attitude and practices regarding the medical ethics standards in clinical and research settings. Five scoring indices were estimated regarding knowledge, attitude and practice. Inferential statistics were used to test differences between groups as indicated. The Student's t-test and analysis of variance were carried out for quantitative variables. The chi-squared test was conducted for qualitative variables. The results were considered statistically significant at a P > 0.05. Analysis of the possible factors having impact on the overall scores revealed that the highest knowledge scores were among dermatologists who practice in an academic setting plus an additional place; however, this difference was statistically non-significant (P = 0.060). Female dermatologists showed a higher attitude score compared to males (P = 0.028). The highest significant attitude score (P = 0.019) regarding clinical practice was recorded among those practicing cosmetic dermatology. The different studied groups of dermatologists revealed a significant impact on the attitude score (P = 0.049), and the evidence-practice score (P dermatology research. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  8. Health rights knowledge among medical school students at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amoudi, Samia M; Al-Harbi, Abdullah A; Al-Sayegh, Nasser Y; Eldeek, Basem S; Kafy, Souzan M; Al-Ahwal, Mahmoud S; Bondagji, Nabeel S

    2017-01-01

    Health care is a basic human right, and Saudi Arabia affirms these rights for all its citizens. To assess the knowledge of medical students regarding health rights in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz University (KAU) from September 2015 through November 2015. A questionnaire written in English collected demographic data and included questions about reproductive health care and health rights of women and patients with cancer, senility, or special needs. Of the 267 participants, 184 (68.9%) were female, and 252 (94.4%) were Saudi. Regarding consent, 87 (32.6%) and 113 (42.3%) participants believed a female patient required the consent of a male guardian to receive medical treatment or surgery, respectively, in Saudi Arabia, and only 106 (39.7%) knew that a female patient could provide consent for a caesarean section. Sixty-six (24.7%) believed that abortion is never allowed in Islam. Only 93 (34.8%) were aware that acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients had health rights, about half (144, 53.9%) knew that cancer patients have a right to full information, and most (181, 67.8%) believed that a patient had the right to withhold health information from his/her family. Approximately half were aware that cancer patients have the right to free medical treatment (138, 51.7%) or that health rights applied to special needs patients (137, 51.3%) and senile patients (122, 45.7%). The knowledge of KAU medical students regarding health rights of certain patient populations highlights the importance of health rights education in medical school.

  9. Non-redundant association rules between diseases and medications: an automated method for knowledge base construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séverac, François; Sauleau, Erik A; Meyer, Nicolas; Lefèvre, Hassina; Nisand, Gabriel; Jay, Nicolas

    2015-04-15

    The widespread use of electronic health records (EHRs) has generated massive clinical data storage. Association rules mining is a feasible technique to convert this large amount of data into usable knowledge for clinical decision making, research or billing. We present a data driven method to create a knowledge base linking medications to pathological conditions through their therapeutic indications from elements within the EHRs. Association rules were created from the data of patients hospitalised between May 2012 and May 2013 in the department of Cardiology at the University Hospital of Strasbourg. Medications were extracted from the medication list, and the pathological conditions were extracted from the discharge summaries using a natural language processing tool. Association rules were generated along with different interestingness measures: chi square, lift, conviction, dependency, novelty and satisfaction. All medication-disease pairs were compared to the Summary of Product Characteristics, which is the gold standard. A score based on the other interestingness measures was created to filter the best rules, and the indices were calculated for the different interestingness measures. After the evaluation against the gold standard, a list of accurate association rules was successfully retrieved. Dependency represents the best recall (0.76). Our score exhibited higher exactness (0.84) and precision (0.27) than all of the others interestingness measures. Further reductions in noise produced by this method must be performed to improve the classification precision. Association rules mining using the unstructured elements of the EHR is a feasible technique to identify clinically accurate associations between medications and pathological conditions.

  10. Knowledge, attitudes and management skills of medical practitioners regarding weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkhatshwa, Vangile B; Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A; Mabuza, Langalibalele H

    2016-11-29

    Overweight and obesity have become a global problem. Health professionals are poorly prepared in weight management, which has an effect on their attitudes and management skills with regard to overweight and obese patients.Aim and setting: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and management skills of medical practitioners regarding weight management at Odi District Hospital, Gauteng Province, South Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 48 medical practitioners at Odi Hospital between 01 October and 31 October 2013. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess their knowledge, attitudes and management skills in weight management. The SPSS® statistical software (Version 22) was used for data analysis. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. Fifty medical practitioners were recruited, 48 consented to participate and 28 (58.3%) were male. Their categories were community service doctors (3), medical officers (21), registrars (22) and others (2). Thirty-seven (77.1%) never received training in weight management (p < 0.001). Thirty-two (66.7%) regarded weight management as not confined to a dietician (p < 0.001) and 27 (56.2%) regarded weight management as usually unsuccessful (p = 0.004). Forty-seven (97.9%) provided lifestyle modifications and 43 (89.6%) involved the patient's family in weight management (p < 0.001). More non-registrars [14 (77.8%)] than registrars [8 (38.1%)] measured the body mass index (BMI) routinely (p = 0.013). Few medical practitioners received training in weight management. They regarded weight management as usually unsuccessful and lacked confidence in the same owing to lack of training. They provided lifestyle modifications and involved the patient's family in weight management. Non-registrars measured the BMI routinely. There is a need for training in weight management at undergraduate and post-graduate levels.

  11. Health rights knowledge among medical school students at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

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    Samia M Al-Amoudi

    Full Text Available Health care is a basic human right, and Saudi Arabia affirms these rights for all its citizens.To assess the knowledge of medical students regarding health rights in Saudi Arabia.This cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz University (KAU from September 2015 through November 2015. A questionnaire written in English collected demographic data and included questions about reproductive health care and health rights of women and patients with cancer, senility, or special needs.Of the 267 participants, 184 (68.9% were female, and 252 (94.4% were Saudi. Regarding consent, 87 (32.6% and 113 (42.3% participants believed a female patient required the consent of a male guardian to receive medical treatment or surgery, respectively, in Saudi Arabia, and only 106 (39.7% knew that a female patient could provide consent for a caesarean section. Sixty-six (24.7% believed that abortion is never allowed in Islam. Only 93 (34.8% were aware that acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV patients had health rights, about half (144, 53.9% knew that cancer patients have a right to full information, and most (181, 67.8% believed that a patient had the right to withhold health information from his/her family. Approximately half were aware that cancer patients have the right to free medical treatment (138, 51.7% or that health rights applied to special needs patients (137, 51.3% and senile patients (122, 45.7%.The knowledge of KAU medical students regarding health rights of certain patient populations highlights the importance of health rights education in medical school.

  12. Knowledge, attitude and practice of tobacco smoking by medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    Al-Haqwi Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco consumption is associated with considerable negative impact on health. Health professionals, including future doctors, should have a leading role in combating smoking in the community. Objectives: The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence of smoking among medical students of newly established medical colleges in Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia, as well as to assess students′ attitude, practice and their knowledge on the risk factors of tobacco consumption. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study of students from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was carried out. The questionnaire used was anonymous, self-administered and developed mainly from Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. Results: A total of 215 students participated in this study. Forty students (19% indicated that they smoke tobacco at the time of the study. All of them were males, which raise the prevalence among male students to 24%. Tobacco smoking was practiced by males more than females (P value < 0.0001 and by senior more than junior students (< 0.0001. About 94% of the study sample indicated that smoking could cause serious illnesses. About 90% of the students indicated that they would advice their patients to quit smoking in the future and 88% thought that smoking should be banned in public areas. Forty-four students (20% thought that smoking has some beneficial effects, mainly as a coping strategy for stress alleviation. Conclusion: Despite good knowledge about the hazards of tobacco consumption, about 25% of the medical students in this study continue to smoke. The main reported reasons should be addressed urgently by policy-makers. Special efforts should be taken to educate medical students on the effective strategies in managing stress during their study as they thought that tobacco smoking could be used as a coping strategy to face such a stress.

  13. Dysmenorrhea in Siriraj medical students; prevalence, quality of life, and knowledge of management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanmahasamut, Prasong; Chawengsettakul, Suphang

    2012-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of dysmenorrhea, effect on daily activity, academic activities, quality of life, and knowledge of management in Siriraj medical students. A cross-sectional descriptive study at the Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand that included 552 female medical students who were asked to complete two questionnaires. The first questionnaire (32 items) included demographic data, menstrual pattern, severity of dysmenorrhea, pain score, impact of dysmenorrhea on daily and academic activities, the method and knowledge of medications to treat dysmenorrhea. The second questionnaire was Short Form (SF)-36 questionnaires used to evaluate the health-related quality of life. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was 77.7%. The prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe dysmenorrhea was 35.3%, 39.3%, and 3.1% respectively. Age of menarche, duration of menses, and the family history of dysmenorrhea were significantly different between two groups. Students who had moderate to severe dysmenorrhea reported the negative impact on daily and academic activities. The scores of SF-36 in moderate and severe group was significantly lower than the mild group (p students has high prevalence and it has negative effects on daily activities, academic activities, and quality of life. Most of the subjects know that mefenamic acid and/or paracetamol can relief dysmenorrhea. Dysmenorrhea is a significant public health problem.

  14. ATTITUDE AND KNOWLEDGE OF MEDICAL STUDENTS ON PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF FORENSIC MEDICINE

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    Nihal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explored medical students’ knowledge and attitude on the medico - legal autopsy demonstrations which formed part of their training in Forensic Medicine. 300 students of 2010, 2011 and 2012 batch of college were obtained by asking them to answer a questionnaire on the subject. The students were asked to respond anonymously to a questionnaire which dealt with their views on the autopsy practice, the knowledge of the procedure, attitude and perception towards medico legal autopsy. In present study majority of the students were aware of the situations where medico legal postmortem examination is mandatory as per Indian law and taking out of viscera for chemical analysis and histo - pathological examination for the purpose of medico - legal autopsy. 96% of the students agreed that autopsy is necessary in medical education. 37.95% of the students were very uncomfortable on the first exposure to postmortem examination. This study showed that medical students appreciate the medico - legal autopsy demonstration as a learning experience.

  15. Health Care Professionals’ Knowledge and Attitudes About Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Legal Aspects of Medical Services

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    Akpak Yaşam Kemal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to investigate healthcare professionals’ (HCPs general level of knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases, their attitudes towards these patients and legal aspects of medical services. Materials and Methods: This was a multi-centered study. The participants were given 28 questions that mainly asked their level of knowledge on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs patients, their attitudes towards such patients, and their legal as well as ethical views on them. Results: A total of 234 HCPs, 124 (53% female and 110 (47% male, participated in the study. The majority of married HCPs have reported monogamy as the most reliable protection method, whereas single participants have marked "condoms." The most commonly known STD has been reported as AIDS in all groups. Even though HCPs find it medically unethical not to offer a medical intervention to patients with STDs, more than one-third of the participants believe that HCPs should have the right not to do so. Conclusion: It has been concluded that HCPs need further education on STDs. Nevertheless, such high level of care and attention on HCPs’ part does not necessarily decrease their need for proper medico legal regulations on such issues.

  16. An approach to medical knowledge sharing in a hospital information system using MCLink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Akiko; Inoue, Ryusuke; Nakayama, Masaharu; Kasahara, Shin; Maeda, Yukihiro; Umesato, Yoshimasa; Kondo, Yoshiaki

    2013-08-01

    Clinicians often need access to electronic information resources that answer questions that occur in daily clinical practice. This information generally comes from publicly available resources. However, clinicians also need knowledge on institution-specific information (e.g., institution-specific guidelines, choice of drug, choice of laboratory test, information on adverse events, and advice from professional colleagues). This information needs to be available in real time. This study characterizes these needs in order to build a prototype hospital information system (HIS) that can help clinicians get timely answers to questions. We previously designed medical knowledge units called Medical Cells (MCs). We developed a portal server of MCs that can create and store medical information such as institution-specific information. We then developed a prototype HIS that embeds MCs as links (MCLink); these links are based on specific terms (e.g., drug, laboratory test, and disease). This prototype HIS presents clinicians with institution-specific information. The HIS clients (e.g., clinicians, nurses, pharmacists, and laboratory technicians) can also create an MCLink in the HIS using the portal server in the hospital. The prototype HIS allowed efficient sharing and use of institution-specific information to clinicians at the point of care. This study included institution-specific information resources and advice from professional colleagues, both of which might have an important role in supporting good clinical decision making.

  17. Managing proposals and evaluations of updates to medical knowledge: theory and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselma, Luca; Bottrighi, Alessio; Montani, Stefania; Terenziani, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    The process of keeping up-to-date the medical knowledge stored in relational databases is of paramount importance. Since quality and reliability of medical knowledge are essential, in many cases physicians' proposals of updates must undergo experts' evaluation before possibly becoming effective. However, until now no theoretical framework has been provided in order to cope with this phenomenon in a principled and non-ad hoc way. Indeed, such a framework is important not only in the medical domain, but in all Wikipedia-like contexts in which evaluation of update proposals is required. In this paper we propose GPVM (General Proposal Vetting Model), a general model to cope with update proposal⧹evaluation in relational databases. GPVM extends the current theory of temporal relational databases and, in particular, BCDM - Bitemporal Conceptual Data Model - "consensus" model, providing a new data model, new operations to propose and accept⧹reject updates, and new algebraic operators to query proposals. The properties of GPVM are also studied. In particular, GPVM is a consistent extension of BCDM and it is reducible to it. These properties ensure consistency with most relational temporal database frameworks, facilitating implementation on top of current frameworks and interoperability with previous approaches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Entomology in translation: interpreting French medical entomological knowledge in colonial Mali.

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    Giles-Vernick, T

    2008-12-01

    This essay examines how knowledge and practices around entomology and parasitology travelled and the consequences of their mobility. In exploring three anti-malaria campaigns in French Soudan before 1960, it argues that the history of medical entomology's travels entailed multiple temporal, spatial, social translations that African medical personnel, intellectuals, healers, and farmers in French Soudan reinterpreted, appropriated, and sometimes wholly rejected. This essay also focuses on "erroneous" translations, detailing how and why middle class medical personnel and intellectuals interpreted and reformulated farmers' and healers' diagnostic categories that may or may not be malaria. Anti-mosquito and antilarval interventions, and more generally anti-malaria interventions, influenced how African colonial subjects and health workers understood certain vectors and of certain maladies. These understandings, in turn, shaped the consequences of subsequent public health measures. Histories of translated parasitological and entomological knowledge and etiologies of illness have critical implications for contemporary malaria control efforts: interventions to reduce malaria transmission through various kinds of entomological controls that require active participation of local populations cannot be effective if all participants cannot agree upon what is being controlled or prevented.

  19. An active learning curriculum improves fellows' knowledge and faculty teaching skills: a medical student perspective

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    Ahmad M

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mubariz Ahmad, Nourah AlHennawi, Maaham AhmedManchester Medical School, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UKWe read with great interest the article by Inra et al1 which discusses the benefits of using an active learning curriculum to improve faculty teaching skills and help fellows retain more knowledge compared to traditional teaching methods. As current medical students, we can vouch for the effectiveness of this approach in improving the way material can be taught, hence would like to offer our perspective on this.  Authors’ replyJennifer A Inra,1,2 Stephen Pelletier,2 Navin L Kumar,1,2 Edward L Barnes,3,4 Helen M Shields1,21Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endoscopy, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, 2Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 3Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 4University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USAWe appreciate the thoughtful comments received from Ahmed et al regarding our article “An active learning curriculum improves fellows’ knowledge and faculty teaching”.1 The educational literature supports the recommendation that the optimal timing for a lecture is 10-15 minutes, as a student’s attention may wander or wane after that time.2 This ideal time limit stems from a paperby Hartley in 1978, which recommends this optimal time frame.3View the original paper by Inra and colleagues  

  20. Improving student knowledge in medication management through an advanced pharmacy practice experience.

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    Childress, Bc; Bosler, Julie N; Beck, Morgan

    2013-06-01

    To assess the impact of an advanced pharmacy practice rotation on student therapeutic knowledge, confidence in performing medication therapy management (MTM), and ability to use MTM documentation platforms. Pretest/post-test quasi-experiment. This study was conducted at the InterNational Center for Advanced Pharmacy Services (INCAPS), a licensed pharmacy that provides MTM services to geriatric patients in Louisville, Kentucky. This research evaluated 37 advanced pharmacy practice students who participated in the five-week learning rotation at INCAPS between October 1, 2011, and June 30, 2012. Thirty-seven students were tested before (pretest) beginning the rotation. During the rotation, students performed daily MTM consultations and participated in weekly topic discussions pertaining to relevant areas of chronic disease management and geriatric pharmacotherapy. Following the five-week rotation, a post-test was administered to these 37 students to analyze the changes in their knowledge. The primary outcome measure was the test score for the assessment of chronic disease management and geriatric pharmacotherapy. Compared with baseline, post-test scores showed a statistically significant improvement in the areas that were assessed-osteoporosis, hypertension, diabetes, asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and inappropriate medication use in the elderly. A post-rotation survey also reflected positive improvements in student confidence when performing MTM consults for geriatric patients. The five-week MTM-focused rotation at INCAPS with weekly topic discussions and daily MTM consults showed a positive impact on students' ability to manage medication therapy for chronically ill and geriatric patients.

  1. Knowledge of the Guarani language in medical students at a university hospital in Paraguay.

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    Jiménez, Hassel Jimmy; Delgadillo, Lorena; Campuzano de Rolon, Ana; Jiménez, Diana; de Samudio, Angélica; Agüero, Adriana; Radice, César; Jiménez-Britez, Gustavo

    2018-04-10

    Paraguay is a bilingual country and knowledge of the guarani language is an important communication tool for the doctor- patient relationship. To determine the degree of and the factors that influence the knowledge of the Guaraní language in medical students at a University Hospital in Paraguay. Observational, cross-sectional, analytical study in which an anonymous questionnaire was applied to the final year medical students of a University Hospital of Paraguay. The baseline characteristics of the medical students and their degree of knowledge of the Guarani language were described. The association between the characteristics of the students and the degree of knowledge of the Guarani language was evaluated with the Chi square association test and the logistic regression model. We included 264 students in the survey. Eighty two percent come from the capital, 72% made their pre-university studies in the capital; 92% studied Guaraní in primary and secondary education; 67.9% do not interpret Guarani correctly; 8.5% understand and express themselves totally in Guaraní. Of these, 86% refer to have the greater learning of the language in their home; 75.2% of respondents believe that primary and secondary education did not help in learning the language. The degree of knowledge of the language (speaks and understands the Guarani language correctly) varies according to: the origin of the student, the inland regions or the capital (31.25% vs. 2.5%, adjusted OR = 0.24, 95% confidence interval: 0.06 to 0.92, p = 0.003); the location of primary and secondary school: inland versus capital (25.6% vs. 1%, adjusted OR: 0.08, 95% confidence interval: 0.01 to 0.53, p = 0.009). The degree of knowledge of the Guaraní language of the students is lower compared to the general population; those who best understand and express themselves were born or studied in the interior of the country. The majority considers that primary and secondary education contribute little in the learning of

  2. Multi-model-based interactive authoring environment for creating shareable medical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Taqdir; Hussain, Maqbool; Ali Khan, Wajahat; Afzal, Muhammad; Hussain, Jamil; Ali, Rahman; Hassan, Waseem; Jamshed, Arif; Kang, Byeong Ho; Lee, Sungyoung

    2017-10-01

    Technologically integrated healthcare environments can be realized if physicians are encouraged to use smart systems for the creation and sharing of knowledge used in clinical decision support systems (CDSS). While CDSSs are heading toward smart environments, they lack support for abstraction of technology-oriented knowledge from physicians. Therefore, abstraction in the form of a user-friendly and flexible authoring environment is required in order for physicians to create shareable and interoperable knowledge for CDSS workflows. Our proposed system provides a user-friendly authoring environment to create Arden Syntax MLM (Medical Logic Module) as shareable knowledge rules for intelligent decision-making by CDSS. Existing systems are not physician friendly and lack interoperability and shareability of knowledge. In this paper, we proposed Intelligent-Knowledge Authoring Tool (I-KAT), a knowledge authoring environment that overcomes the above mentioned limitations. Shareability is achieved by creating a knowledge base from MLMs using Arden Syntax. Interoperability is enhanced using standard data models and terminologies. However, creation of shareable and interoperable knowledge using Arden Syntax without abstraction increases complexity, which ultimately makes it difficult for physicians to use the authoring environment. Therefore, physician friendliness is provided by abstraction at the application layer to reduce complexity. This abstraction is regulated by mappings created between legacy system concepts, which are modeled as domain clinical model (DCM) and decision support standards such as virtual medical record (vMR) and Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine - Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT). We represent these mappings with a semantic reconciliation model (SRM). The objective of the study is the creation of shareable and interoperable knowledge using a user-friendly and flexible I-KAT. Therefore we evaluated our system using completeness and user satisfaction

  3. Development of traditional Chinese medicine clinical data warehouse for medical knowledge discovery and decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuezhong; Chen, Shibo; Liu, Baoyan; Zhang, Runsun; Wang, Yinghui; Li, Ping; Guo, Yufeng; Zhang, Hua; Gao, Zhuye; Yan, Xiufeng

    2010-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a scientific discipline, which develops the related theories from the long-term clinical practices. The large-scale clinical data are the core empirical knowledge source for TCM research. This paper introduces a clinical data warehouse (CDW) system, which incorporates the structured electronic medical record (SEMR) data for medical knowledge discovery and TCM clinical decision support (CDS). We have developed the clinical reference information model (RIM) and physical data model to manage the various information entities and their relationships in TCM clinical data. An extraction-transformation-loading (ETL) tool is implemented to integrate and normalize the clinical data from different operational data sources. The CDW includes online analytical processing (OLAP) and complex network analysis (CNA) components to explore the various clinical relationships. Furthermore, the data mining and CNA methods are used to discover the valuable clinical knowledge from the data. The CDW has integrated 20,000 TCM inpatient data and 20,000 outpatient data, which contains manifestations (e.g. symptoms, physical examinations and laboratory test results), diagnoses and prescriptions as the main information components. We propose a practical solution to accomplish the large-scale clinical data integration and preprocessing tasks. Meanwhile, we have developed over 400 OLAP reports to enable the multidimensional analysis of clinical data and the case-based CDS. We have successfully conducted several interesting data mining applications. Particularly, we use various classification methods, namely support vector machine, decision tree and Bayesian network, to discover the knowledge of syndrome differentiation. Furthermore, we have applied association rule and CNA to extract the useful acupuncture point and herb combination patterns from the clinical prescriptions. A CDW system consisting of TCM clinical RIM, ETL, OLAP and data mining as the core

  4. Knowledge of adverse drug reaction reporting in first year postgraduate doctors in a medical college

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    Upadhyaya P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Prerna Upadhyaya,1 Vikas Seth,2 Vijay V Moghe,1 Monika Sharma,1 Mushtaq Ahmed11Department of Pharmacology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College, Sitapura, Jaipur, Rajasthan, 2Department of Pharmacology, Hind Institute of Medical Sciences, Safedabad, Barabanki, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, IndiaIntroduction: Poor reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs by doctors is a major hindrance to successful pharmacovigilance. The present study was designed to assess first-year residents’ knowledge of ADR reporting.Methods: First-year postgraduate doctors at a private medical college completed a structured questionnaire. The responses were analyzed by nonparametric methods.Results: All doctors were aware of the term “adverse drug reactions.” Fifty percent of the doctors reported being taught about ADR reporting during their undergraduate teaching, and 50% had witnessed ADRs in their internship training. Ten percent of patients suffering an ADR observed and reported by doctors required prolonged hospitalization for treatment as a result. Only 40% of interns reported the ADRs that they observed, while 60% did not report them. Twenty-eight percent reported ADRs to the head of the department, 8% to an ADR monitoring committee, and 4% to the pharmacovigilance center. Eighty-six percent of the doctors surveyed felt that a good knowledge of undergraduate clinical pharmacology therapeutics would have improved the level of ADR reporting.Conclusion: The knowledge of first-year doctors regarding ADR reporting is quite poor. There is a dire need to incorporate ADR reporting into undergraduate teaching, and to reinforce this during internships and periodically thereafter.Keywords: ADR reporting, pharmacovigilance, first-year postgraduate doctors

  5. A Spanish-language patient safety questionnaire to measure medical and nursing students' attitudes and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, José J; Navarro, Isabel M; Guilabert, Mercedes; Poblete, Rodrigo; Franco, Astolfo L; Jiménez, Pilar; Aquino, Margarita; Fernández-Trujillo, Francisco J; Lorenzo, Susana; Vitaller, Julián; de Valle, Yohana Díaz; Aibar, Carlos; Aranaz, Jesús M; De Pedro, José A

    2015-08-01

    To design and validate a questionnaire for assessing attitudes and knowledge about patient safety using a sample of medical and nursing students undergoing clinical training in Spain and four countries in Latin America. In this cross-sectional study, a literature review was carried out and total of 786 medical and nursing students were surveyed at eight universities from five countries (Chile, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Spain) to develop and refine a Spanish-language questionnaire on knowledge and attitudes about patient safety. The scope of the questionnaire was based on five dimensions (factors) presented in studies related to patient safety culture found in PubMed and Scopus. Based on the five factors, 25 reactive items were developed. Composite reliability indexes and Cronbach's alpha statistics were estimated for each factor, and confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess validity. After a pilot test, the questionnaire was refined using confirmatory models, maximum-likelihood estimation, and the variance-covariance matrix (as input). Multiple linear regression models were used to confirm external validity, considering variables related to patient safety culture as dependent variables and the five factors as independent variables. The final instrument was a structured five-point Likert self-administered survey (the "Latino Student Patient Safety Questionnaire") consisting of 21 items grouped into five factors. Compound reliability indexes (Cronbach's alpha statistic) calculated for the five factors were about 0.7 or higher. The results of the multiple linear regression analyses indicated good model fit (goodness-of-fit index: 0.9). Item-total correlations were higher than 0.3 in all cases. The convergent-discriminant validity was adequate. The questionnaire designed and validated in this study assesses nursing and medical students' attitudes and knowledge about patient safety. This instrument could be used to indirectly evaluate whether or

  6. Self-assessment of managerial knowledge and skills of medical doctors in primary health care

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    Aida Pilav

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this paper was to evaluate the managerial knowledge and skills of mid-level managers – medical doctors in Medical center of the Canton Sarajevo.Methods: A cross-sectional study of the mid-level managers in the Medical center of the Canton Sarajevo was conducted using an originally developed questionnaire for self-assessment of managerial knowledge and skills. The respondents answered each of the questions using a 5-point Likert scale. Apart from the quantitative section, the respondents could present their observations concerning the educational needs in the health care system.Results: Almost 40% of the respondents said that the process of assessing health care needs is not conducted. No statistical significance was observed in the responses according to the length of service in a managerial position. In total, 41% of the respondents were not sure whether a plan exists, even though the development of these plans should be a principal managerial responsibility in the quality management. Managers who were longer in the position reported no plans for corrective actions. This result was in contrast with the answers obtained from the managers who were in the position for a shorter period. In addition, 91% of the respondents said that they regularly discuss problems with their employees.Conclusions: Self- assessment and assessment of managerial competencies should be regular activities in a health care organization, in order to monitor the knowledge and skills, as well as to make the development plans. The results of this study could serve as the basis for planning and developing the health management education in the Canton Sarajevo.

  7. A Cross Sectional Study on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice related to Human Papillomavirus Vaccination for Cervical Cancer Prevention between Medical and Non-Medical Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Pui Woo Angela; Lam, Pak Lun; Chan, Tsz Kin; Chau, Kei Wai; Hsu, Mei Lam; Lim, Yat Man; Lo, Chun Hin; Siu, Lincoln; Tang, Hiu Fung; Tong, Ann Marie Jing Man; Yeung, Wai Lok

    2017-06-25

    Background: One of the most important aetiologies of cervical cancer is Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection. While vaccination is an effective way in preventing high risk HPV infection, HPV vaccine uptake rate in Hong Kong has been low. Considering the proven effectiveness of HPV vaccination and the low vaccination uptake rate in Hong Kong, this study was conducted to compare the knowledge, attitude and practice towards HPV vaccination for cervical cancer prevention between medical and non-medical students in the University of Hong Kong. Methods: A total of 420 full time undergraduates from the University of Hong Kong were recruited and evaluated. Questionnaires covering demographics, sexual risk profile, knowledge, attitude and practice towards HPV vaccination were applied, with the Chi-square test analysis. Results: Medical students had more comprehensive knowledge than their non-medical counterparts on HPV vaccination, including the carcinogenicity of HPV (PHong Kong, especially those in senior years, had more comprehensive knowledge and positive attitudes towards HPV vaccination than non-medical students. Yet, there was no significant difference in the practice of HPV vaccination between medical and non-medical students. In addition to medical education, other factors such as health beliefs, risk perception and financial considerations, may have a role in determining HPV vaccination for cervical cancer prevention. Creative Commons Attribution License

  8. A development environment for knowledge-based medical applications on the World-Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, A; Bellazzi, R; Lanzola, G; Stefanelli, M

    1998-11-01

    The World-Wide Web (WWW) is increasingly being used as a platform to develop distributed applications, particularly in contexts, such as medical ones, where high usability and availability are required. In this paper we propose a methodology for the development of knowledge-based medical applications on the web, based on the use of an explicit domain ontology to automatically generate parts of the system. We describe a development environment, centred on the LISPWEB Common Lisp HTTP server, that supports this methodology, and we show how it facilitates the creation of complex web-based applications, by overcoming the limitations that normally affect the adequacy of the web for this purpose. Finally, we present an outline of a system for the management of diabetic patients built using the LISPWEB environment.

  9. The Impact of Pediatric Palliative Care Education on Medical Students’ Knowledge and Attitudes

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    Aleksandra Korzeniewska-Eksterowicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Most undergraduate palliative care curricula omit pediatric palliative care (PPC issues. Aim of the study was to evaluate the pilot education programme. Methods. All 391 students of Faculty of Medicine (FM and 59 students of Division of Nursing (DN were included in anonymous questionnaire study. Respondents were tested on their knowledge and attitude towards PPC issues before and at the end of the programme and were expected to evaluate the programme at the end. Results. For final analysis, authors qualified 375 double forms filled in correctly (320 FM and 55 DN. Before the programme, students’ knowledge assessed on 0–100-point scale was low (FM: median: 43.35 points; 25%–75%: (40p–53.3p; DN: 26.7p; 13.3p–46.7p, and, in addition, there were differences (P<0.001 between both faculties. Upon completion of the programme, significant increase of the level of knowledge in both faculties was noted (FM: 80p; 73.3–100; DN: 80p; 66.7p–80p. Participation in the programme changed declared attitudes towards some aspects of withholding of special procedures, euthanasia, and abortion. Both groups of students positively evaluated the programme. Conclusions. This study identifies medical students' limited knowledge of PPC. Educational intervention changes students' attitudes to the specific end-of-life issues. There is a need for palliative care curricula evaluation.

  10. Residents' and Fellows' Knowledge and Attitudes About Eating Disorders at an Academic Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristen; Accurso, Erin C; Kinasz, Kathryn R; Le Grange, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    This study examined physician residents' and fellows' knowledge of eating disorders and their attitudes toward patients with eating disorders. Eighty physicians across disciplines completed a survey. The response rate for this survey across disciplines was 64.5 %. Participants demonstrated limited knowledge of eating disorders and reported minimal comfort levels treating patients with eating disorders. Psychiatry discipline (p = 0.002), eating disorder experience (p = 0.010), and having ≥4 eating disorder-continuing medical education credits (p = 0.037) predicted better knowledge of anorexia nervosa but not bulimia nervosa. Psychiatry residents (p = 0.041), and those who had treated at least one eating disorder patient (p = 0.006), reported significantly greater comfort treating patients with eating disorders. These results suggest that residents and fellows from this sample may benefit from training to increase awareness and confidence necessary to treat patients with eating disorders. Sufficient knowledge and comfort are critical since physicians are often the first health care provider to have contact with patients who have undiagnosed eating disorders.

  11. Medical students' learning from patient-led teaching: experiential versus biomedical knowledge.

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    Henriksen, Ann-Helen; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how medical students perceive the experience of learning from patient instructors (patients with rheumatism who teach health professionals and students) in the context of coupled faculty-led and patient-led teaching session. This was an explorative study with a qualitative approach based on focus group interviews. Analysis was based on a prior developed model of the characteristics of learning from patient instructors. The authors used this model as sensitizing concepts for the analysis of data while at the same time being open to new insights by constant comparison of old and new findings. Results showed a negotiation both between and within the students of the importance of patients' experiential knowledge versus scientific biomedical knowledge. On one hand students appreciated the experiential learning environment offered in the PI-led sessions representing a patient-centred approach, and acknowledged the importance of the PIs' individual perspectives and experiential knowledge. On the other hand, representing the scientific biomedical perspective and traditional step-by step teaching, students expressed unfamiliarity with the unstructured experiential learning and scepticism regarding the credibility of the patients' knowledge. This study contributes to the understanding of the complexity of involving patients as teachers in healthcare education and initiates a discussion on how to complement faculty-led teaching with patient-led teaching involving varying degrees of patient autonomy in the planning and delivering of the teaching.

  12. Knowledge, Attitudes and Proposals of Medical Students Concerning Transplantations in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardavessis, Theodore; Xenophontos, Pantelis; Haidich, Anna-Bettina; Kiritsi, Maria; Vayionas, Malamatenia Arvanitidou

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: In Greece, there is limited research on issues related to organ donation. We aimed to study the attitudes, knowledge, and actions of local medical students regard to organ donation and transplantations of tissues and organs in Greece. Methods: This cross-sectional questionnaire based survey was done in Laboratory of Hygiene and Social Medicine, School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece on medical students in years 1 to 6. In a sample of 600 medical students, a special anonymous questionnaire, which included data as sex, age, and semester of studies, as well as questions regarding certain aspects of transplantation, was distributed. 558 valid questionnaires were completed (men 52.3% and women 47.7%). Results: The vast majority of the sample (93.6%) were in favor of transplantations whereas 32 (5.7%) of the students claimed to be organ donors. 78.9% claimed ignorance of the existing legislation concerning transplantations and organ donation in our country. 81.2% believed that the voting of law, which would consider all Greek organ donors after death will cause strong reactions. As the main causes, responsible for the shortage of transplants in our country were stated to be the inadequate public information, Greek mentality, and the lack of organized transplant centers. Public information through Media, a lifelong free health check-up for organ donors and activation of voluntary organizations that promote organ donation were proposed as the most important actions that could increase organ donation and transplantations in Greece. Conclusions: The need for further informative actions stressing the importance of organ donations appears to be the only way to increase transplantations in our country and towards this direction medical students could also be activated. A new medical curriculum should increase medical students′ awareness of the organ shortage problem. Public education is recommended to correct misconceptions. PMID:21811659

  13. Knowledge, attitudes and proposals of medical students concerning transplantations in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardavessis, Theodore; Xenophontos, Pantelis; Haidich, Anna-Bettina; Kiritsi, Maria; Vayionas, Malamatenia Arvanitidou

    2011-07-01

    In Greece, there is limited research on issues related to organ donation. We aimed to study the attitudes, knowledge, and actions of local medical students regard to organ donation and transplantations of tissues and organs in Greece. This cross-sectional questionnaire based survey was done in Laboratory of Hygiene and Social Medicine, School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece on medical students in years 1 to 6. In a sample of 600 medical students, a special anonymous questionnaire, which included data as sex, age, and semester of studies, as well as questions regarding certain aspects of transplantation, was distributed. 558 valid questionnaires were completed (men 52.3% and women 47.7%). The vast majority of the sample (93.6%) were in favor of transplantations whereas 32 (5.7%) of the students claimed to be organ donors. 78.9% claimed ignorance of the existing legislation concerning transplantations and organ donation in our country. 81.2% believed that the voting of law, which would consider all Greek organ donors after death will cause strong reactions. As the main causes, responsible for the shortage of transplants in our country were stated to be the inadequate public information, Greek mentality, and the lack of organized transplant centers. Public information through Media, a lifelong free health check-up for organ donors and activation of voluntary organizations that promote organ donation were proposed as the most important actions that could increase organ donation and transplantations in Greece. The need for further informative actions stressing the importance of organ donations appears to be the only way to increase transplantations in our country and towards this direction medical students could also be activated. A new medical curriculum should increase medical students' awareness of the organ shortage problem. Public education is recommended to correct misconceptions.

  14. [Considerations concerning medical knowledge inherited in Mexico from 19th century: the diabetes mellitus case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Alba-García, Javier Eduardo; Salcedo-Rocha, Ana Leticia; Milke-Najar, María Eugenia; Alonso-Reynoso, Carlos; García de Alba-Verduzco, Javier Eugenio

    2017-01-01

    In Mexico, as in the entire Western world, during the 19th century and the beginnings of the 20th century, medical knowledge developed in a remarkable way and the case of diabetes mellitus was not the exception. This situation, which arose on the basis of the antique paradigm, and which in turn was overthrown by the positivism as the emergent paradigm (with its clinical and anatomical, as well as physiopathological and etiopathological viewpoints), was reflected during the 19th the century through its actors and the communications that opened the access of Mexican medicine to the modernity.

  15. Knowledge and attitude of final - year medical students in Germany towards palliative care - an interinstitutional questionnaire-based study

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    Weber Martin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To care for terminally ill and dying patients requires a thorough medical education, encompassing skills, knowledge, and attitudes in the field of palliative care. Undergraduate medical students in Germany will receive mandatory teaching in palliative care in the near future driven by recent changes in the Medical Licensure Act. Before new curricula can be implemented, the knowledge of medical students with respect to palliative care, their confidence to handle palliative care situations correctly, their therapeutic attitude, and their subjective assessment about previous teaching practices have to be better understood. Method We designed a composite, three-step questionnaire (self estimation of confidence, knowledge questions, and opinion on the actual and future medical curriculum conducted online of final - year medical students at two universities in Germany. Results From a total of 318 enrolled students, 101 responded and described limited confidence in dealing with specific palliative care issues, except for pain therapy. With regard to questions examining their knowledge base in palliative care, only one third of the students (33% answered more than half of the questions correctly. Only a small percentage of students stated they had gained sufficient knowledge and experience in palliative care during their studies, and the vast majority supported the introduction of palliative care as a mandatory part of the undergraduate curriculum. Conclusion This study identifies medical students' limited confidence and knowledge base in palliative care in 2 German universities, and underlines the importance of providing a mandatory palliative care curriculum.

  16. A Survey of Knowledge About and Perceived Barriers to Prostate Cancer Screening Among Medical Staff

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    Akbarizadeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men and the second leading cause of deaths from cancer. Results of previous studies indicate the effectiveness of screening and early detection in reducing mortality from this disease. Objectives The purpose of this study was to survey the knowledge about prostate cancer and perceived barriers to prostate cancer screening among medical staff of two universities in Ahvaz, Iran. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed on 120 employees over 40 years old at Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences and Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, who were selected by using simple random sampling. The data collection tool was a researcher-created questionnaire based on the study of texts and other studies. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software and through analytical methods including descriptive and inferential statistics. Results The most common barriers to screening for prostate cancer were a lack of knowledge about where to go for tests and how screening tests are done (70.8%, a lack of emphasis on screening tests (59.1%, and a fear of thinking about the disease (50%. Results showed that there was no significant relationship between doing the serum antigen test and having knowledge regarding prostate cancer. But there was a significant association between prostate cancer screening and perceived barriers (P = 0.001. Conclusions Results showed that whereas knowledge by itself cannot guarantee men’s participation in prostate cancer screenings, perceived barriers can play an important role in discouraging men from cancer screening participation. Therefore, designing programs to address these barriers is very important.

  17. Basic life support: knowledge and attitude of medical/paramedical professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshana, Shrestha; Kh, Batajoo; Rm, Piryani; Mw, Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Basic life support (BLS), a key component of the chain of survival decreases the arrest - cardiopulmonary resuscitation interval and increases the rate of hospital discharge. The study aimed to explore the knowledge of and attitude towards basic life support (BLS) among medical/paramedical professionals. An observational study was conducted by assessing response to self prepared questionnaire consisting of the demographic information of the medical/paramedical staff, their personnel experience/attitude and knowledge of BLS based on the 2005 BLS Guidelines of European Resuscitation Council. After excluding incomplete questionnaires, the data from 121 responders (27 clinical faculty members, 21 dental and basic sciences faculty members, 29 house officers and 44 nurses and health assistants) were analyzed. Only 9 (7.4%) of the 121 responders answered ≥11, 53 (43%) answered 7-10, and 58 (48%) answered basic sciences faculty members attained a least mean score of 4.52 ±2.13 (P<0.001). Those who had received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training within 5 years obtained a highest mean score of 8.62±2.49, whereas those who had the training more than 5 years back or no training obtained a mean score of 5.54±2.38 and 6.1±2.29 respectively (P=0.001). Those who were involved in resuscitation frequently had a higher median score of 8 in comparison to those who were seldom involved or not involved at all (P<0.001). The average health personnel in our hospital lack adequate knowledge in CPR/BLS. Training and experience can enhance knowledge of CPR of these personnel. Thus standard of CPR/BLS training and assessment are recommended at our hospital.

  18. Spreading knowledge in medical informatics: the contribution of the hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Bernaldo de Quiros, F; Luna, D; Otero, P; Baum, A; Borbolla, D

    2009-01-01

    Medical Informatics (MI) is an emerging discipline with a high need of trained and skillful professionals. To describe the educational experience of the Department of Health Informatics of the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires. A descriptive study of the development of the Medical Informatics Residency Program (MIRP) and the e-learning courses related to medical informatics. A four-year MIRP with 15 rotations was started in 2000, and was awarded national educational accreditation. Eight residents have been fully trained and their main academic contributions are shown in this study. The e-learning courses related to medical informatics (Healthcare Management, Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Information Retrieval, Computer Literacy started, 10x10 Spanish version and HL7 introductory course) started in 2006 and were followed by more than 2266 students from all over the world, with an increase trend in foreign students. These educational activities have produced skilled human resources for the development and maintenance of the health informatics projects at our Hospital. In parallel, the number of students trained by e-learning continues to increase, demonstrating the worldwide need of knowledge in this field.

  19. [Physicians, books and medical knowledge in Norway around the year 1700].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Gina

    2009-12-17

    Development of medicine in the early modern period (1500-1800) formed the basis for modern medicine, in that iatrochemical and mechanistic perceptions of the human body gradually became more influential. Several different medical theories prevailed and were tested in parallel, and perceptual changes developed over time. Few studies have looked into the knowledge universe that Norwegian doctors were part of in this period. I have examined book collections owned by the physicians Jacob Woldenberg, Georg Blumenthal and Paul Dons, in order to discern how physicians practicing in Norway around 1700 responded to this particular situation of "complexity". In general, these book collections covered antique medical theories and more recent debates within the medical profession at the time. Most of the books are from Germany and the Netherlands, which means the three doctors were part of firstly a German and secondly a Dutch medical tradition. The article is based on the authors' doctoral thesis about doctors' and clergymens' book collections in the period 1650-1750.

  20. Work experience and seniority in health care vs. medical students’ knowledge of selected hand hygiene procedures

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    Anna Różańska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hand hygiene (HH is the most important element of infection prevention. The aim of the study was to analyze the level of HH knowledge among medical students of Jagiellonian University Medical College in correlation with their clinical experience and the presence and extent of trainings in hospital hygiene prior to internships, as well as with HH practice among medical staff perceived by students. Material and Methods: The study was carried out in a group of 414 students from October to December, 2014. The questionnaire built of 14 questions was used as a study tool. Results: Absolutely correct answers to questions about HH were given by 52.9%, and about HH technique by 6.5% of respondents. The degree of accuracy of answers to questions concerning HH did not correlate with the gender of the respondents or with the fact that work placement had been preceded by training in the field of HH or with its scope. A statistically significant correlation was found between the year, the field, and the type of the study. Students with greater professional practice, significantly less often claimed that medical workers comply with HH. Professional practice of 22.9% of students was not preceded by any training in the field of hospital hygiene and in 28% of cases training did not cover HH. Nearly half of the respondents declared that pre-internship training had not addressed the problem of occupational exposure to biological agents. Conclusions: The results of the study shows that knowledge gained by students participating in the study was not satisfactory. Moreover, there is a need for improving the educational scheme in the discussed subject at all levels of basic and clinical subjects as well as during internships. Med Pr 2016;67(5:623–633

  1. [Work experience and seniority in health care vs. medical students' knowledge of selected hand hygiene procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różańska, Anna; Wójkowska-Mach, Jadwiga; Bulanda, Małgorzata

    Hand hygiene (HH) is the most important element of infection prevention. The aim of the study was to analyze the level of HH knowledge among medical students of Jagiellonian University Medical College in correlation with their clinical experience and the presence and extent of trainings in hospital hygiene prior to internships, as well as with HH practice among medical staff perceived by students. The study was carried out in a group of 414 students from October to December, 2014. The questionnaire built of 14 questions was used as a study tool. Absolutely correct answers to questions about HH were given by 52.9%, and about HH technique by 6.5% of respondents. The degree of accuracy of answers to questions concerning HH did not correlate with the gender of the respondents or with the fact that work placement had been preceded by training in the field of HH or with its scope. A statistically significant correlation was found between the year, the field, and the type of the study. Students with greater professional practice, significantly less often claimed that medical workers comply with HH. Professional practice of 22.9% of students was not preceded by any training in the field of hospital hygiene and in 28% of cases training did not cover HH. Nearly half of the respondents declared that pre-internship training had not addressed the problem of occupational exposure to biological agents. The results of the study shows that knowledge gained by students participating in the study was not satisfactory. Moreover, there is a need for improving the educational scheme in the discussed subject at all levels of basic and clinical subjects as well as during internships. Med Pr 2016;67(5):623-633. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  2. Education on end-of-life care in the medical curriculum: students' opinions and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselink, Berniek A M; Pasman, H Roeline W; van der Wal, Gerrit; Soethout, Marc B M; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2010-04-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate: (1) opinions of medical students regarding quantity and content of education on end-of-life care in the curriculum, (2) medical students' knowledge of different aspects of the euthanasia act, and (3) factors associated with positive opinions about the quantity and content of education on end-of-life care in the curriculum. A total of 204 medical students received a questionnaire; 176 completed it (response rate, 86%). Approximately half of the students (55%) considered the quantity of end-of-life care education in the curriculum moderate; 35% rated it as good. Half of the students rated the content of end-of-life care education as moderate (50%); 47% rated it as good. Fourteen percent of the students gave correct answers to 6 or 7 of the 8 questions about the euthanasia act. Students who took the elective course "Terminal and Palliative Care," students who had experience with a patient requesting euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in their personal lives, and students with more knowledge of the euthanasia act were more positive about the quantity of end-of-life care education. Students who completed fewer clerkships and totally agreed with the statement, "Everyone has the right to decide about their own life and death" were more positive about the content on end-of-life care education. The data of this study suggest that more attention can and should be paid to education on end-of-life care in the medical curriculum, so students are well prepared to provide adequate end-of-life care.

  3. Knowledge of community pharmacists about the risks of medication use during pregnancy in central region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyad Alrabiah

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: Community Pharmacists are the most accessible health care providers who can help pregnant women with their medications use there are still gaps in knowledge where educational interventions are needed.

  4. Knowledge and Awareness of Medical Practitioners of Jazan City towards Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery as a Specialty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fareedi Mukram Ali

    2018-03-01

    CONCLUSION: There is low awareness toward the scope of oral and maxillofacial surgery in the medical community. Knowledge and awareness of the scope of oral and maxillofacial surgery can improve the success and promptness of delivery of health services.

  5. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of business travelers regarding influenza and the use of antiviral medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfenberger, Salome; Tschopp, Alois; Robyn, Luc; Hatz, Christoph; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Swiss business travelers with regard to influenza and the use of antiviral medication. Questionnaires, available in three languages, were distributed manually and online through companies, organizations, and travel medicine specialists in Switzerland to business travelers who were traveling during the period January 2005 to April 2009. In total, 661 questionnaires were fully completed and evaluated. A total of 58.9% (n = 388) of the respondents stated that they had contracted influenza in the past; some 48.6% (n = 321) of the travelers had been vaccinated against seasonal influenza at least once in their lifetime; 87.1% (n = 576) of the travelers knew that influenza can be transmitted by droplets; and 62.3% (n = 412) were aware of transmission by direct contact. Almost all respondents (96.8%; n = 633) recognized fever as a main symptom of influenza, 80.0% (n = 523) knew about muscular aches and pain, 79.5% (n = 520) about shivering, and 72.9% (n = 477) about joint pain. Some 38.0% (n = 250) of the respondents stated that the annual vaccination is their preferred prevention method for influenza, 35.6% (n = 234) would neither do an annual vaccination nor carry antiviral medication, 16.0% (n = 105) would carry antiviral medication, 8.5% (n = 56) would prefer to do both the annual vaccination and to carry antivirals, and 2.0% (n = 13) would use antivirals as influenza prophylaxis. Regarding prevention, the majority (78.9%; n = 498) of the travelers did not seek advice on influenza before going on their last business trip, 58.0% (n = 381) did not take any preventive measures against influenza, 27.2% (n = 179) had their annual vaccination, and 15.7% (n = 103) observed hand hygiene. Of the travelers, 9.7% (n = 64) carried antiviral medication on their last business trip and 7.0% (n = 46) actually used this medication. Business travelers have a good knowledge about the transmission and the symptoms of

  6. Impact of Counseling Received by Adolescents Undergoing Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision on Knowledge and Sexual Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Michelle R; Patel, Eshan U; Dam, Kim H; Packman, Zoe R; Van Lith, Lynn M; Hatzold, Karin; Marcell, Arik V; Mavhu, Webster; Kahabuka, Catherine; Mahlasela, Lusanda; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Seifert Ahanda, Kim; Ncube, Getrude; Lija, Gissenge; Bonnecwe, Collen; Tobian, Aaron A R

    2018-04-03

    Little is known regarding the impact of counseling delivered during voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) services on adolescents' human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) knowledge, VMMC knowledge, or post-VMMC preventive sexual intentions. This study assessed the effect of counseling on knowledge and intentions. Surveys were conducted with 1293 adolescent clients in 3 countries (South Africa, n = 299; Tanzania, n = 498; Zimbabwe, n = 496). Adolescents were assessed on HIV and VMMC knowledge-based items before receiving VMMC preprocedure counseling and at a follow-up survey approximately 10 days postprocedure. Sexually active adolescents were asked about their sexual intentions in the follow-up survey. Prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by modified Poisson regression models with generalized estimating equations and robust variance estimators. Regarding post-VMMC HIV prevention knowledge, older adolescents were significantly more likely than younger adolescents to know that a male should use condoms (age 10-14 years, 41.1%; 15-19 years, 84.2%; aPR, 1.38 [95% CI, 1.19-1.60]), have fewer sex partners (age 10-14 years, 8.1%; age 15-19 years, 24.5%; aPR, 2.10 [95% CI, 1.30-3.39]), and be faithful to one partner (age 10-14 years, 5.7%; age 15-19 years, 23.2%; aPR, 2.79 [95% CI, 1.97-3.97]) to further protect himself from HIV. Older adolescents demonstrated greater improvement in knowledge in most categories, differences that were significant for questions regarding number of sex partners (aPR, 2.01 [95% CI, 1.18-3.44]) and faithfulness to one partner post-VMMC (aPR, 3.28 [95% CI, 2.22-4.86]). However, prevention knowledge levels overall and HIV risk reduction sexual intentions among sexually active adolescents were notably low, especially given that adolescents had been counseled only 7-10 days prior. Adolescent VMMC counseling needs to be improved to increase knowledge and postprocedure preventive sexual intentions.

  7. Knowledge, Attitude and Faculty Members’ performance on e-Learning in Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeen Mohammadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : E-learning is used in the worldwide in higher education to improve the quality of the learning experience by students; at the same time using this approach requires behavioral changes in the faculty members. One of the steps in the implementation and monitoring of e-learning, is audience analysis using techniques such as knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP. This study investigates the knowledge, attitude and faculty members’ performance of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS on e-learning. Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014-15 through a research-made questionnaire. Face validity was determined by expert opinion, Cronbach’s alpha was measured to assess the reliability and its construct validity was investigated through exploratory factor analysis. . The questionnaire was e-mailed to all TUMS faculty members . 218 faculty members responded to the questionnaire. Results: The reliability score of the questionnaire was assessed using Cronbach alphs, and it was 0.79. Exploratory factor analysis of the attitude part of the questionnaire produced a single factor that explained 53% of the variance. The results showed the positive attitude of faculty members regarding e-learning, although their knowledge and practice scores was less than half of the total score. There wass not found any meaningful differences between knowledge, attitude and performance of the participants based on sex, rank and work experience. ANOVA test showed that the difference of scores among schools was statistically significant (  = 0.000;  = 0.003 and  = 0.000, respectively. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed the state of knowledge, attitude and faculty members’ performance of TUMS on e-learning. Over the past years, TUMS has established suitable e-learning infrastructure such as educational websites and virtual programs as well as training workshop for faculty members. The results of this study can

  8. The knowledge, attitudes and practices on influenza among medical college students in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohetamu, Shabiremu; Pang, Mingfan; Nuer, Xiaokelaiti; Mahemuti; Mohemaiti, Patamu; Qin, Ying; Peng, Zhibin; Zheng, Jiandong; Yu, Hongjie; Feng, Luzhao; Feng, Zijian

    2017-07-03

    Objective This study aimed to understand the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) on seasonal influenza among medical college students in a low-income multiethnic society. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey collected information of KAP related to influenza. A knowledge score was calculated according to the total number of correct points out of 9 questions. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with influenza vaccine uptake. Results 856 valid questionnaires were obtained. The average knowledge score was 14.8 ± 3.1 out of 22 correct points. Han Chinese got higher score than minorities (p Students majoring in pharmacy had lower score than others. Questions on mode of transmission, symptoms, precautions, high risk groups and vaccination schedule had a correct rate lower than 50%. Hand hygiene was practiced by less than 40% of students after touching objects in public areas or sneezing. The proportion of participants received influenza vaccine in the past 3 y was 4.1%, 9.2% and 6.1% respectively. Willingness to receive free vaccine (OR = 2.49, 95% CI 1.31∼4.28), and awareness of the vaccine effectiveness (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.08∼2.56) were significantly associated with vaccine uptake, while the general knowledge about influenza, perceived susceptibility and severity, and demographic factors were not. The top 3 reasons for not being vaccinated were poor knowledge of the vaccine (46%), no perceived need due to good health (45%) and worry about adverse reactions (33%). Conclusion Health education is needed to improve the awareness of basic facts about influenza and vaccine, and more attention should be paid to minority groups. The coverage of seasonal influenza vaccine is quite low. Besides individual level behavior change, social and structural factors should be considered to increase the uptake of influenza vaccine.

  9. Survey of first-year medical students to assess their knowledge and attitudes toward organ transplantation and donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekahli, D; Liutkus, A; Fargue, S; Ranchin, B; Cochat, P

    2009-03-01

    The important shortage of organ donors is still a fundamental public health problem in France. Improving the knowledge and attitudes of health care professionals could help to promote organ donation. The aim of this survey was to evaluate the level of knowledge of medical students and their gaps about organ donation prior to any medical course. A survey was conducted among 571 first-year medical students at a medical faculty in Lyon. Their knowledge, attitudes, personal views, and perceptions toward organ donation and transplantation were investigated prior to any medical course. A 31-item anonymous questionnaire including queries about personal views of organ donation, factual knowledge, and awareness of French law was distributed to the students. To "willingness to donate a kidney to a relative," 97.7% of respondents consented, 0.9% objected, and 1.4% did not answer. Their attitudes toward cadaveric organ donation were different: 81.1% agreed, 13.5% refused, and 5.4% did not answer. Regarding their knowledge about which organs could be transplanted, 95% of the respondents were aware of the possibility to transplant a face and 14% thought that xenotransplantation was performed nowadays. First-year medical students have a good knowledge level regarding the organ donation and transplantation system prior to their medical course. Some gaps remain which could be improved. The results of this study supported a greater emphasis on providing information regarding transplantation in medical schools to improve the knowledge of future health care professionals. A follow-up survey of the participants at the end of their medical course will be interesting to assess the progress of their attitudes.

  10. Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)

  11. Knowledge and practice of the use of traditional eye medication in a semi-urban community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumebi Hedwig Kayoma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional eye medications may be harmful causing ocular morbidity. The aim of this study is to determine the knowledge and practice of traditional eye medication (TEM among adults in a semi-urban community in Edo state. Materials and Methods: A 3 months cross-sectional descriptive study in Ekiadolor community in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo state, Nigeria. A cluster sampling technique was used. Four hundred and thirty respondents aged between 18 years and above were included in the study. Results: A total of four hundred and thirty respondents (430 which comprised of 184 (42.8% males and 246 (57.2% females with a male to female ratio of 1:1.3 were studied. The age range of the respondents was 21 to 84 years, with a mean age of 49.83 ± 19.99 years (standard deviation. Three hundred and ninety-two (91.2% of the respondents knew about TEM. Herbal extract was the most known (94.4%. Although 71.6% said TEM was harmful, the prevalence of use of TEM was 48.7%. The male gender, low socioeconomic class, and no or low level of formal education were more likely to use TEM (P = 0.001. Conclusion: The knowledge and practice of TEM are high in this community. There is a great need to educate the people on the overall harmful effect of this practice through public enlightenment campaigns.

  12. "banca del Fare" Summer School in Alta Langa: «THE Ruins to BE Rebuilt Will BE Our CLASSROOMS». Knowledge from Artisans to New Generations, from Ancient Skills to New Building Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villata, M.

    2017-05-01

    "Banca del fare" is an ambitious project proposed by "Cultural Park Alta Langa". It is born to hand ancient knowledges down to young people, as meeting place useful to exchange the development of new construction techniques and at the same time the traditional ones. A program of educational workshops, which constitute the summer school, was organized for increasing communication among different generations. Indeed, the last local craftsmen or artisans are coming out from their employment and there is no training process to ensure the migration of knowledge to young architects. The activities of the school took place for the first time during summer of 2016 in Alta Langa, the southern part of Langhe in Piedmont. The landscape of this area is marked by small rural architectures called "ciabòts" shed all over the countryside. Artisans and students work together to recover these buildings every year. The aim of this landscape heritage's valorization is to relate the restored ciabòt into a network, in order to create a widespread hotels system. Therefore, the essay wants to present the results of "Banca del fare" and to suggest a GIS project that can gather information about numerous "ciabòt" widespread in this territory. The interaction between land development and networking process can ensure the optimal reuse of these rural architectures.

  13. 'Zoonoses? Not sure what that is...' An assessment of knowledge of zoonoses among medical students in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, Manish; Ramani, Sudha; Menon, Geetha; Sankhe, Lalit; Gaidhane, Abhay; Krishnan, Sampath

    2011-05-01

    This study focuses on estimating knowledge of zoonoses among medical students and recent graduates, with an aim of understanding critical gaps in medical education with respect to zoonoses. A semi-structured tool for knowledge assessment, having nine principal domains of knowledge and five domains of practice, was developed and validated. Using this tool, cross-sectional data was collected from 364 medical students and recent graduates and knowledge scores were calculated based on pre-defined guidelines. Out of the 364 respondents, only 10 defined zoonoses accurately (2.8%). Only 33.7% of the respondents in the public college (62 out of 184) and 3.3% in the private college (6 out of 180) could correctly name three common parasitic zoonoses in India. Only 5.5% of respondents (20 out of 361) were able to identify rabies as a disease transmitted by animals other than dogs. Knowledge on all emerging and new infectious diseases was poor. The average knowledge score was 64% in the public medical college and 41.4% in the private medical college. These poor scores imply that, on average, a student knows only 40-60% of what is needed to diagnose, treat and report zoonotic diseases effectively. Considering the changing landscape of infectious diseases, the current medical curriculum needs to be revised to improve understanding of existing zoonoses and also include emerging diseases. Copyright © 2011 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Exercise during pregnancy: knowledge and beliefs of medical practitioners in South Africa: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Estelle D; Oddie, Brydie; Constantinou, Demitri

    2015-10-07

    There is compelling evidence for the benefits of regular exercise during pregnancy, and medical practitioners (MPs) can play an important role in changing antenatal health behaviours. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of South African MPs towards exercise during pregnancy. A convenience sample of ninety-six MPs working in the private health care sector, including General Practitioners (n = 58), Obstetricians/Gynaecologists (n = 33) and other Specialists (n = 5), participated in this cross sectional, descriptive survey study. A 33-item questionnaire was distributed manually at medical practices and via email to an on-line survey tool. Descriptive statistics and frequency tables were calculated for all questions. Chi-squared and Fisher's exact statistical tests were used to determine the differences in response by age, speciality and years of practice (p < 0.05). The majority of practitioners (98%) believe that exercise during pregnancy is beneficial, and were knowledgeable on most of the expected benefits. Seventy-eight percent believed that providing exercise advice is an important part of prenatal care, however only 19% provided informational pamphlets and few (24%) referred to exercise specialists. A large majority (83%) were unaware of the recommended exercise guidelines. Although age and years of practice played no role in this awareness, practitioners who focussed on obstetrics and gynaecology were more likely to be aware of the current guidelines, than those in general practice (p < 0.001). Although the MPs were largely positive towards exercise during pregnancy, their advice did not always align with the current guidelines. Therefore, better dissemination of available research is warranted, to bridge the gap between clinical knowledge and current recommendations for physical activity promotion.

  15. New York Physicians' Perspectives and Knowledge of the State Medical Marijuana Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideris, Alexandra; Khan, Fahad; Boltunova, Alina; Cuff, Germaine; Gharibo, Christopher; Doan, Lisa V

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: In 2014, New York (NY) became the 23rd state to legalize medical marijuana (MMJ). The purpose of this survey was to collect data about practicing NY physicians' comfort level, opinions, and experience in recommending or supporting patient use of MMJ. Materials and Methods: An anonymous web-based survey was distributed to medical societies and to academic departments in medical schools within NY. Results: A total of 164 responses were analyzed. Physician participants were primarily located in New York City and surrounding areas. The majority (71%) agreed that MMJ should be an option available to patients. Most respondents were not registered to certify MMJ in NY, but were willing to refer patients to registered physicians. Common reasons for not registering included specialty and federal status of cannabis. More than 75% reported having patients who used cannabis for symptom control, and 50% reported having patients who inquired about MMJ within the past year. Most respondents are willing to discuss MMJ with their patients, but had little familiarity with the state program and a modest knowledge of the endocannabinoid system. Pain was a common symptom for which cannabis was recommended by registered physicians (69%) and purportedly used by patients (83%). Most respondents would consider MMJ as an adjuvant to opioids, and 84% believed opioids have greater risks than MMJ. Conclusion: Given that the majority of surveyed physicians support MMJ as an option for patients, few are registered and have adequate knowledge of MMJ. Although our study sample is small and geographically limited, our survey results highlight key physician issues that are likely applicable to practitioners in other states. Concerted efforts are needed at the federal, state, and academic levels to provide practitioners with evidence-based guidelines for the safe use of MMJ.

  16. Citation analysis with medical subject Headings (MeSH) using the Web of Knowledge: A new routine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Opthof, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Citation analysis of documents retrieved from the Medline database (at the Web of Knowledge) has been possible only on a case-by-case basis. A technique is presented here for citation analysis in batch mode using both Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) at the Web of Knowledge and the Science Citation

  17. Knowledge and attitude of women attending Subharti Medical College towards Pap smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prateek, Shashi; Gupta, Smriti; Gupta, Akanksha; Choudhary, Sonam; Prakash, Diksha; Nain, Geetika

    2018-03-19

    The aim of this prospective study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of women towards the Pap smear. It was carried out on the women coming to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at our University, with the help of a pre-formed questionnaire. We found that only 33% of the women were aware of the Pap smear, and of these hardly (10%) had the correct information. Sixty-five percent of the women said that they would have gotten the Pap smear done, if they had known about it earlier. Unless this knowledge amongst women is improved and their attitude is changed, the indices of cervical cancer cannot be improved. Impact statement What is already known on this subject? A Pap smear is used as a screening test to detect not only early stages of cervical cancer but also the precancerous conditions. A Pap smear is done every three years for routine screening, or every five years along with an HPV DNA test. What do the results of this study add? Despite the efforts from the medical fraternity and governments, the number of women undergoing this test in Uttar Pradesh is very minimal. This study analysed the knowledge and attitude of women towards the Pap smear. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? The results have brought into light the many factors hindering an effective cervical cancer screening in India. Further actions need to be directed in the direction to address these issues.

  18. Test de Evaluacion de Conocimientos Medicos-CIIPME (Test of Evaluation of Medical Knowledge-CIIPME). Publication No. 42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfici, C.; And Others

    The purpose of this research is to build a test for the evaluation of the knowledge needed by medical students before entering clinical courses in medical school. The criterion for this was provided by teachers in both the pre-clinical and clinical subjects. The Pilot instrument consisted of 335 items that covered 8 sections. Each one of these…

  19. Anatomical Knowledge Retention in Third-Year Medical Students Prior to Obstetrics and Gynecology and Surgery Rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Lee, Juliet; Ahle, Samantha; Brown, Kirsten M.; Butera, Gisela; Goldman, Ellen F.; Krapf, Jill M.

    2014-01-01

    Surgical anatomy is taught early in medical school training. The literature shows that many physicians, especially surgical specialists, think that anatomical knowledge of medical students is inadequate and nesting of anatomical sciences later in the clinical curriculum may be necessary. Quantitative data concerning this perception of an…

  20. Guideline-recommended use of asthma medication by children is associated with parental information and knowledge : the PIAMA birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijga, Alet H.; Zuidgeest, Mira G. P.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Smit, Henriette A.; de Jongste, Johan C.

    PurposeWe investigated the use of asthma medication by children and the association of use as recommended by guidelines with modifiable risk factors: parental attitudes, knowledge of asthma medication and information provided by health care providers. MethodsQuestionnaire data were obtained from

  1. Studying Ancient History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Robin

    1982-01-01

    Defends the value and relevance of the study of ancient history and classics in history curricula. The unique homogeneity of the classical period contributes to its instructional manageability. A year-long, secondary-level course on fifth-century Greece and Rome is described to illustrate effective approaches to teaching ancient history. (AM)

  2. Medicine in Ancient Assur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbøll, Troels Pank

    This dissertation is a microhistorical study of a single individual named Kiṣir-Aššur who practiced medicine in the ancient city of Assur (modern northern Iraq) in the 7th century BCE. The study provides the first detailed analysis of one healer’s education and practice in ancient Mesopotamia...

  3. Association between public knowledge regarding antibiotics and self-medication with antibiotics in Teling Atas Community Health Center, East Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniawan Kurniawan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication with antibiotics increases the risk of resistance, which leads to higher morbidity and mortality. The community plays an important role in preventing and controlling the spread of antibiotic resistance. This study aims to determine factors associated with antibiotics self-medication practices in the community, which are the key to developing effective intervention programs.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between September and October 2015 at Teling Atas Community Health Center in Wanea, a sub-district of East Indonesia region. Data was collected by a questionnaire-guided interview. There were 35 questions which cover respondent demographics, antibiotic use, and respondents’ knowledge about antibiotics. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association between self-medication with antibiotics and respondents’ level of knowledge as well as other factors.Results: Among 400 respondents, there were 240 (60% who had used antibiotics within 6 months prior to the interview and 180 (45.0% who had self-medicated. Wounds or skin diseases (32.2% were main reasons for self-medication. The majority of respondents self-medicated on their own initiatives (70.6% and purchased antibiotics in pharmacies (52.2%. The mean score for respondent knowledge about antibiotic was categorized as “moderate” (score 7.14±2.49. Respondents with lower knowledge scores had higher probabilities to self-medicate with antibiotics than those with higher scores (OR= 16.86; 95% CI= 4.25–66.83.Conclusion: Self-medication practices with antibiotics in this study are associated with age, family income, and knowledge. Since poorer knowledge about antibiotics is associated with a higher probability of self-medication with antibiotics, education programs to improve public awareness are needed.

  4. Oral health knowledge among pre-clinical students of International Branch of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

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    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Oral health is an important issue in public health with a great impact on individuals’ general health status. A good access to oral healthcare services and a good knowledge of it play a key role in the oral disease prevention. A better health attitude and practice require a better knowledge. The aims of this study was to evaluate the oral health knowledge among the International students branch (Kish of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2011-12.   Materials and Methods: 159 pre-clinical students in medicine (54 students, dentistry (69 students and pharmacy (36 students participated in this research. A standard questionnaire was used as the main tool of research to evaluate the attitude and knowledge of students about the oral health. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test.   Results: According to the results, dental students had the best level of knowledge and pharmacy students had a better knowledge level compared to the medical students. The results also showed a significant relationship between students’ oral health knowledge and their field and duration of study and the place of their secondary school (P0.05.   Conclusion: The results showed that the students at the International Branch of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences had a relatively good knowledge of oral health. Students’ knowledge level can be improved by providing students with educational materials, organized workshops and seminars.

  5. Knowledge on Perimenopausal Symptoms among Women Attending Lumbini Medical College Teaching Hospital

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    Parbati Nepal Paudyal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Perimenopause is an unavoidable stage of a woman's reproductive life that starts several years before menopause. Due to declining estrogen level, women experience physiological and psychological changes during perimenopausal period and sometimes symptoms are very distressing that affect the women’s quality of life negatively. This study was done to assess the knowledge of women about perimenopausal symptoms. Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was done at Lumbini Medical college (LMC throughout the months of November and December, 2013. Women of age 40-60 years, attending various clinics in LMC and ready to take part in the study were included. A total of 142 women were selected purposefully. The data was collected using the semi structured interview schedule. Results: The study revealed that half of respondents were between age group 40-44 years, 141 (99.3% were married and 82 (57.7% were literate. Three quarter of respondents (74.6% were menstruating women. The main source of information on perimenopausal symptoms was friends and relatives (81.2%. Majority of respondents (n=90, 63.4% had poor, 52 (33.8% had fair and only 2.8% had good level of knowledge on perimenopausal symptoms. The respondents’ level of knowledge on perimenopausal symptoms was statistically significant with educational status (p<0.001, level of education (p=0.048 and economic status (p=0.02. Conclusion: Many women have poor knowledge on perimenopausal symptoms. The role of health care provider is that they should seriously discuss about mid-life women’s health problems including perimenopausal symptoms and treatment modality including hormonal replacement therapy so the quality of life of women can be improved.

  6. An assessment of pregnant women's knowledge and use of the Internet for medication safety information and purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Marlene; Lagan, B M; Dolk, Helen; McCullough, Julie E M

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess pregnant women's Internet searching activity about medication safety, knowledge and perceptions of medication risk and willingness to take prescribed and non-prescribed medication or make online medication purchases. Online medication advice for pregnant women is complex. The quality and veracity of this data is increasingly important as more midwives report women are bringing retrieved online information to clinical appointments. Pregnant women's use of the Internet for seeking medication advice and purchasing medications has not yet been fully investigated. Online survey conducted from January - March 2013. Of the 284 respondents, 39% were taking a medication when they became pregnant and 76% had searched the Internet for medication safety information. Analgesics were the most commonly searched category (41%). Health service sites were the most common online source and regarded as the most helpful and trusted. Regardless of age and education level, 90% of women agreed that if trying to become pregnant they would reconsider taking any medications because of the potential risk to their unborn baby. Forty-six percent of women with higher levels of education consider buying medication online as safe, a greater proportion than those of lower education. Five percent of women reported buying medication online. The lack of specific recommendations for medication use during pregnancy is challenging for healthcare staff and pregnant women who need robust evidence to make informed treatment decisions. The Internet is a recognized, commonly accessed, source of medication information for pregnant women. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Cases of Trephination in Ancient Greek Skulls

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    Vasiliki Ζafiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trephination, or trepanning, is considered to be one of the most ancient surgical operations with an especially extensive geographical incidence, both in the New World and in the Old. In Europe, more than 200 finds of trephination have been found, from Scandinavia to the Balkans. The technique of trephination or trepanning covers overall the last 10,000 years and exhibits great versatility and adjustability in the knowledge, technical means, therapeutic needs, prejudices and social standards of each period and of each population group. Hippocrates was the one to classify for the first time the kinds of cranial fractures and define the conditions and circumstances for carrying out a trepanning.Aim: The present research aims to investigate the Greek cranial trephinations on sculls from the collection of the Anthropological Museum of the Medical School of Athens that come from archaeological excavations.Method: Skulls were examined by macroscopic observation with reflective light. Furthermore, radiographic representation of the skulls was used.Results: The anthropological researches and the studies of anthropological skeleton remains that came out during archaeological excavations from different eras and areas have given information about the medical practices in the very important geographic area of Greece and in particular, we referred to cases of Greek trephinations.

  8. Medical Undergraduate Survey on Headache Education in Singapore: Knowledge, Perceptions, and Assessment of Unmet Needs.

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    Ong, Jonathan Jia Yuan; Chan, Yee Cheun

    2017-06-01

    There have been no prior studies assessing the status of undergraduate headache training and education in Singapore. Unmet needs of undergraduate medical students in terms of knowledge-practice gaps pertaining to diagnosis and management of headache disorders are unknown. The possible underemphasis of this aspect of the curriculum as compared to other chronic conditions such as diabetes mellitus has also not been ascertained. The aim of this article is to assess the knowledge base and perceptions, thereby identifying the unmet needs of headache disorder education in undergraduate medical students. Students reported their perceived time that was devoted to the subject matter and this was recorded and reported. In order to provide a comparative indication on the level of prioritization, the total duration within the syllabus dedicated to headache education vs other chronic diseases (using diabetes mellitus as a surrogate) was sought. A comprehensive survey consisting of questions assessing the headache curriculum, knowledge, and perceptions was developed. The questionnaire was distributed to final year medical students attending a full-day Neurology review course in their last semester. Attendees were given the duration of the course to complete the questionnaire, and forms were collected at the end of the day. About 127 final year medical students completed our survey. More than half (55.1%) did not receive formal teaching on how to take a complete headache history. The majority (90.6%) have not attended a headache sub-specialty clinic. The mean total number of hours exposed to headache disorders was 5.69h (SD ± 5.19). The vast majority (96.1%) were unfamiliar with locally published clinical practice guidelines, and a significant proportion (74.0%) were unfamiliar with the third edition (beta) of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Nearly half (47.2%) were unfamiliar with 'medication overuse headache' as a disease entity. Only one (0

  9. A Spanish-language patient safety questionnaire to measure medical and nursing students' attitudes and knowledge

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    José J. Mira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To design and validate a questionnaire for assessing attitudes and knowledge about patient safety using a sample of medical and nursing students undergoing clinical training in Spain and four countries in Latin America. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a literature review was carried out and total of 786 medical and nursing students were surveyed at eight universities from five countries (Chile, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Spain to develop and refine a Spanish-language questionnaire on knowledge and attitudes about patient safety. The scope of the questionnaire was based on five dimensions (factors presented in studies related to patient safety culture found in PubMed and Scopus. Based on the five factors, 25 reactive items were developed. Composite reliability indexes and Cronbach's alpha statistics were estimatedfor each factor, and confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess validity. After a pilot test, the questionnaire was refined using confirmatory models, maximum-likelihood estimation, and the variance-covariance matrix (as input. Multiple linear regression models were used to confirm external validity, considering variables related to patient safety culture as dependent variables and the five factors as independent variables. RESULTS: The final instrument was a structured five-point Likert self-administered survey (the "Latino Student Patient Safety Questionnaire" consisting of 21 items grouped into five factors. Compound reliability indexes (Cronbach's alpha statistic calculated for the five factors were about 0.7 or higher. The results of the multiple linear regression analyses indicated good model fit (goodness-of-fit index: 0.9. Item-total correlations were higher than 0.3 in all cases. The convergent-discriminant validity was adequate. CONCLUSIONS: The questionnaire designed and validated in this study assesses nursing and medical students' attitudes and knowledge about patient safety. This

  10. Dreams in ancient Greek Medicine.

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    Laios, K; Moschos, M M; Koukaki, E; Vasilopoulos, E; Karamanou, M; Kontaxaki, M-I; Androutsos, G

    2016-01-01

    Dreams preoccupied the Greek and Roman world in antiquity, therefore they had a prominent role in social, philosophical, religious, historical and political life of those times. They were considered as omens and prophetic signs of future events in private and public life, and that was particularly accentuated when elements of actions which took place in the plot of dreams were associated directly or indirectly with real events. This is why it was important to use them in divination, and helped the growth of superstition and folklore believes. Medicine as a science and an anthropocentric art, could not ignore the importance of dreams, having in mind their popularity in antiquity. In ancient Greek medicine dreams can be divided into two basic categories. In the first one -which is related to religious medicine-dreams experienced by religionists are classified, when resorted to great religious sanctuaries such as those of Asclepius (Asclepieia) and Amphiaraos (Amfiaraeia). These dreams were the essential element for healing in this form of religious medicine, because after pilgrims underwent purifications they went to sleep in a special dwelling of the sanctuaries called "enkoimeterion" (Greek: the place to sleep) so that the healing god would come to their dreams either to cure them or to suggest treatment. In ancient Greek literature there are many reports of these experiences, but if there may be phenomena of self-suggestion, or they could be characterized as propaganda messages from the priesthood of each sanctuary for advertising purposes. The other category concerns the references about dreams found in ancient Greek medical literature, where one can find the attempts of ancient Greek physicians to interpret these dreams in a rational way as sings either of a corporal disease or of psychological distress. This second category will be the object of our study. Despite the different ways followed by each ancient Greek physician in order to explain dreams, their

  11. Predicting United States Medical Licensure Examination Step 2 clinical knowledge scores from previous academic indicators

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    Monteiro KA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Kristina A Monteiro, Paul George, Richard Dollase, Luba Dumenco Office of Medical Education, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA Abstract: The use of multiple academic indicators to identify students at risk of experiencing difficulty completing licensure requirements provides an opportunity to increase support services prior to high-stakes licensure examinations, including the United States Medical Licensure Examination (USMLE Step 2 clinical knowledge (CK. Step 2 CK is becoming increasingly important in decision-making by residency directors because of increasing undergraduate medical enrollment and limited available residency vacancies. We created and validated a regression equation to predict students’ Step 2 CK scores from previous academic indicators to identify students at risk, with sufficient time to intervene with additional support services as necessary. Data from three cohorts of students (N=218 with preclinical mean course exam score, National Board of Medical Examination subject examinations, and USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 CK between 2011 and 2013 were used in analyses. The authors created models capable of predicting Step 2 CK scores from academic indicators to identify at-risk students. In model 1, preclinical mean course exam score and Step 1 score accounted for 56% of the variance in Step 2 CK score. The second series of models included mean preclinical course exam score, Step 1 score, and scores on three NBME subject exams, and accounted for 67%–69% of the variance in Step 2 CK score. The authors validated the findings on the most recent cohort of graduating students (N=89 and predicted Step 2 CK score within a mean of four points (SD=8. The authors suggest using the first model as a needs assessment to gauge the level of future support required after completion of preclinical course requirements, and rescreening after three of six clerkships to identify students who might benefit from

  12. The Knowledge Level of Interns of Medical Faculty in Ondokuz Mayis University about Avian Influenza

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    Ozlem Terzi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: It is predictable that our country, especially Samsun city will be affect by a probable avian influenza epidemic because of is location that takes place in the region of wild birds migration way. The aim of this study is to ascertain the knowledge level of interns of medical faculty about avian influenza. METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted on 175 (81.7% of 214 intern of medical faculty between 1 and 30 May 2008. A questionnaire included six questions related with the agent, group of the agent and therapy of avian influenza and source of information about avian influenza, was applied to the participants. The questionnaire also included 10 questions, which should be answered as true/false for each the following subjects transmission ways, risk groups, symptoms and protection methods of the disease. Each correct answer is scored as one point and a knowledge score was calculated for each subject. RESULTS: In all, 79 students (45.1% were girls, 96(54.9% were boys. The median age was 24.6±1.1 years. While the proportion of true response was 73.7% about the avian influenza agent, 55.3% of the whole group knew the group of the agent. The median points for knowing the transmission ways of virus, risk groups and prevention were 7.0, 6.0 and 7.0 respectively. The median point of the participants was 9,0 for the question related with the symptoms of the disease and this question was the most correctly answered one. Although 56.4% of the participants knew the treatment of the disease, 33.5% of them stated that vaccination is protective. The information sources about disease were television (74.2%, newspapers/magazine (46.8% and the internet (36.0%. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, it’s found that interns have a medium level of knowledge about avian influenza. Lessons about, the diseases those can cause epidemics and important health problems in the future should be integrated in to the education programs to improve the knowledge level of interns

  13. Multidimensional representations: The knowledge domain of germs held by students, teachers and medical professionals

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    Rua, Melissa Jo

    The present study examined the understandings held by 5th, 8th, and 11th-grade students, their teachers and medical professionals about germs. Specifically, this study describes the content and structure of students' and adults' conceptions in the areas of germ contraction, transmission, and treatment of infectious and non-infectious diseases caused by microorganisms. Naturalistic and empirical research methods were used to investigate participants' conceptions. Between and within group similarities were found using data from concept maps on the topic "flu," drawings of germs, a 20 word card sort related to germs and illness, and a semi-structured interview. Concept maps were coded according to techniques by Novak and Gowan (1984). Drawings of germs were coded into four main categories (bacteria, viruses, animal cell, other) and five subcategories (disease, caricature, insect, protozoa, unclassified). Cluster patterns for the card sorts of each group were found using multidimensional scaling techniques. Six coding categories emerged from the interview transcripts: (a) transmission, (b) treatment, (c) effect of weather on illness, (d) immune response, (e) location of germs, and (f) similarities and differences between bacteria and viruses. The findings showed students, teachers and medical professionals have different understandings about bacteria and viruses and the structures of those understandings vary. Gaps or holes in the participants knowledge were found in areas such as: (a) how germs are transmitted, (b) where germs are found, (c) how the body transports and uses medicine, (d) how the immune system functions, (e) the difference between vaccines and non-prescription medicines, (f) differences that exist between bacteria and viruses, and (g) bacterial resistance to medication. The youngest students relied heavily upon personal experiences with germs rather than formal instruction when explaining their conceptions. As a result, the influence of media was

  14. Over the counter sale of drugs for medical abortion- Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of pharmacists of Delhi, India

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    Archana Mishra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the well defined law and highly liberal policy Government approved medical facilities are not the leading provider of abortion in Indian Scenario. Whether legally or not Pharmacists are already acting as provider of medical abortion for large number of women in India. Dispense of Medical abortion drugs via pharmacist has the advantages of convenience, relative anonymity, hasty transaction, easy accessibility and saving cost.Aims and Objectives: Objective of present study was to assess the over the counter sale of medical abortion in terms of knowledge, attitude and practices of pharmacists of Delhi, India.Material and Methods: It was a cross sectional interview based study conducted in 110 pharmacies of 6 districts of State of Delhi.Results: A total of 75 pharmacists and 35 pharmacy workers were interviewed. Knowledge and practices of all of them was inadequate in some aspects. 68% knew Medical abortion is legal and 57% thought that over the counter sale of drugs of medical abortion is also legal. Only 40.9% knew the correct regimen of mifepristone + misoprostol combination.Most of them is not aware of any serious side effects and failure rate. Their attitude is indifferent towards the clients but positive towards training in updating knowledge if given option.Conclusion: Their knowledge, attitude and practices while dispensing drugs for medical abortion were inappropriate to qualify them as an independent mid level provider in present scenario. Unregulated OTC sale of abortifacients is responsible for high number of self induced abortion related complications.

  15. Translation: an example from ancient Chinese to modern Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X; Hoede, C.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we gave an idea of translation by means of knowledge graph theory from ancient Chinese to modern Chinese, by using an example story. Actually, we give the details of the method of translation from ancient Chinese to modern Chinese step by step as carried out by hand. From the example,

  16. Notions of "Rhetoric as Epistemic" in Ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.

    The notion that rhetoric (and to a lesser extent, argument) is epistemic is an increasingly popular one today, although it can be traced to ancient Greece. The notion holds that rhetoric, or the art of persuasion, creates and shapes knowledge. Two ancient authors--Aristophanes and Plato--provide evidence that others had notions of rhetoric as…

  17. [Exploring the changes of inheritance model of medical knowledge as viewed from the description of physicians in the Song Dynasty].

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    Zhang, Haipeng

    2014-11-01

    From the Southern and Northern Dynasties to the beginning of the Northern Song Dynasty, the models of "master and apprentice" and "physician of long family tradition for generations" were the main ways for teaching medical knowledge. With the rapid amassment of medical books in the Song Dynasty, "reading text" became increasingly important and prominent in the inheritance of medical knowledge, which could be seen clearly from the descriptions on physicians in the Song Dynasty. For instance, Hao Yun's medical knowledge was recorded as a model of "master and apprentice" in Hao Yun's Epitaph written by Zhang Xun. However, in Ye Mengde's description, this model was played down, while at the same time, "reading text" was emphasized. Pang Anshi, though coming from a physician family for generations, got rid of some medical knowledge from his own family and turned to the medical knowledge by "reading text". According to Pang Anshi's Epitaph written by Zhang Lei and Fang ji Zhuan (Biography of Technicians) in Song shi (The Song History), Pang Anshi was a typical model of becoming a famous physician by "reading text". In the Epitaph, Pang Anshi's brilliance was stressed, and in the latter, "reading text" was more important and the family tradition was denied. In the description of the Song Dynasty, Chen Zhaoyu's wonderful medical skills was coming from the "practice", and "reading text" was denied right away. What is more, "reading text" was introspected and criticized through Chen Zhaoyu's lip. The different descriptions of the Song Dynasty reflected the change of inheritance model of medical knowledge.

  18. Translation, adaptation and practicability of Nurses’ knowledge of high alert medications to the Brazilian culture

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    Priscila Peruzzo Apolinario

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a methodological study with the aim to translate, adapt and assess the practicability of parts A and B of the instrument Nurses’ knowledge of high-alert medications to the Brazilian culture. The translation and cultural adaptation followed the steps recommended by the international literature. The appointed judges assessed the semantic, idiomatic, conceptual and cultural equivalences; the degree of agreement among the judges was quantified by the Content Validity Index. The translation and back-translation stages were successfully performed and the assessment of the synthesized version by the committee resulted in changes of questions, ensuring the equivalence between the original and the translated versions. The specialists suggested three new questions for the instrument. Some questions were reformulated in the pre-testing stage to improve understanding. The Brazilian version of the instrument obtained satisfactory outcomes in terms of translation, cultural adaptation and practicability, being considered as easily applicable and viable for clinical practice.

  19. 'The chearful haunts': John Armstrong (1709-1779), physician, poet, satirist and leveller of medical knowledge.

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    Bryan, Charles S; Scott, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    John Armstrong, the first honours graduate of the University of Edinburgh School of Medicine, was famous in his day for a lengthy didactic poem entitled The Art of Preserving Health (1744). He is now obscure except to scholars specializing in the 18th century and, when discussed at all, often dismissed as a failed physician who wrote mediocre poetry in a quest for money and fame. A new exegesis by Adam Budd exhumes Armstrong as an original voice who offered timely and reassuring advice to Britons as they braced for another epidemic of plague; who depicted illness through the lens of a vulnerable and sympathetic physician, and who was perhaps above all else a leveller of medical knowledge. Elaborating on Budd's thesis, it would seem that Armstrong, a complicated man, has frequently been misread and was in some ways ahead of his time. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Does clinical experience affect knowledge regarding hepatitis-B among male medical students at a private university

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisar, N.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the knowledge of male medical students about Hepatitis-B in their preclinical and clinical years and to investigate the self reported vaccination status of these students. In the year of 2007, 187 male students of Isra University Hyderabad Sindh Pakistan were selected by convenient sampling and surveyed with a self reported questionnaire comprising of questions regarding knowledge about hepatitis B. Data gathered was analyzed by SPSS V. 16. Knowledge between preclinical and clinical students were compared by Pearson's coefficient chi square test, p value < 0.005 was considered significant. Out of 187 students interviewed, 73 (39%) and 114 (61%) were from preclinical and clinical years respectively. Significant difference was found in clinical and preclinical students regarding basic knowledge about hepatitis B. and mode of transmission of disease (P= 0.004) and (P=< 0.001) respectively. Significant difference was found in the knowledge of both preclinical and clinical male medical students. (JPMA 59:808; 2009). (author)

  1. Knowledge and attitudes of nurses in community health centres about electronic medical records

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    Don O'Mahony

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nurses in primary healthcare record data for the monitoring and evaluation of diseases and services. Information and communications technology (ICT can improve quality in healthcare by providing quality medical records. However, worldwide, the majority of health ICT projects have failed. Individual user acceptance is a crucial factor in successful ICT implementation. Objectives: The aim of this study is to explore nurses’ knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding ICT so as to inform the future implementation of electronic medical record (EMR systems. Methods: A qualitative design was used. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with nurses at three community health centres (CHCs in the King Sabata Dalyindyebo Local Municipality. The interview guide was informed by the literature on user acceptance of ICT. Interviews were recorded and analysed using content analysis. Results: Many nurses knew about health ICT and articulated clearly the potential benefits of an EMR such as fewer errors, more complete records, easier reporting and access to information. They thought that an EMR system would solve the challenges they identified with the current paper-based record system, including duplication of data, misfiling, lack of a chronological patient record, excessive time in recording and reduced time for patient care. For personal ICT needs, approximately half used cellphone Internet-based services and computers. Conclusions: In this study, nurses identified many challenges with the current recording methods. They thought that an EMR should be installed at CHCs. Their knowledge about EMR, positive attitudes to ICT and personal use of ICT devices increase the likelihood of successful EMR implementation at CHCs.

  2. Knowledge and interests of Romanian medical students in parasitology, tropical and travel medicine.

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    Neghina, Raul; Calma, Crenguta Livia; Neghina, Adriana Maria

    2011-01-01

    As travel has become easier and faster, the rate of tropical infections across the world is expected to increase; more students working abroad are going to encounter these diseases more often. Disorders of parasitic etiology play an important role in travel and tropical medicine. The aim of our study was to assess the preclinical students' knowledge regarding parasitic diseases, tropical and travel medicine in the broad context of their professional background. A total of 346 Romanian medical students completed a 13-item questionnaire on the above-mentioned topics. In order to allow for complex evaluation, the questionnaire also included items related to their extracurricular training as well as their future perspectives. The majority of the students (97.7%) declared they had prior knowledge (before studying parasitology) of malaria. Most of the responders (90.2%) knew that a journey in (sub)tropical regions requires adequate prophylactic measures. About a quarter of those interviewed (26.4%) would agree to practice tropical medicine after graduation. They were mainly interested in helping people from underdeveloped countries regardless of remuneration (52.7%). The majority of students (59.8%) wished to practice clinical medicine. It has been observed that fewer than 5% of the questioned students had ever read a scientific paper or book in the field of tropical medicine. English was the most commonly spoken foreign language (92.8%), and 99.1% of students had at least intermediate computer skills. Finally, 71.6% of students would choose to practice the specialty of travel medicine if it were available in Romania. The implementation of appropriate measures towards the globalization of medical teaching in Romanian universities should represent an important issue in this new millennium, in which borders between various nations are starting to fade; otherwise the next generations of physicians will lose the chance to gain wider experiences and share the international

  3. Knowledge Attitude and Behavior of Medical Technology Vocational Training School Students About Genetically Modified Organisms

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    Safak Taner Gursoy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To determine The Medical Technology Vocational Training School (MTVTS students’ the knowledge about the effects of GMO on human health and environment and to evaluate their attitude and behavior has been aimed. METHODS: All of the second class students of the year 2006-2007 of MTVTS were included (N=161 in the study, response rate was 92%. The survey questionare included questions on knowledge, the risk perception and attitute about GMOs. The legal framework in Turkey about GMOs, the rationale for GMO production, the labeling for GMO and the students’ perception of their knowledge was evaluated through 14 items with Likert scale. After the questionaire, the students received an informative brochure on GMOs. RESULTS: The open-ended question asking to define GMOs was answered by 59,2% of the students among which 35,6% defined as “additive”, 34,5% as “food with hormones”. The risk perceived for GMOs was the forth following cigarette smoking, stres, and environmental pollution in the ranking according to the risk score means. Sex has been the only determinant effecting this scoring for GMOs where girls perceived the risk greater. If family was one of the information sources about GMOs, the perceived risk was increased (p=0,000. Among the students 81,6% thought that GMO should not be grown in Turkey, 77,7% think that GMO was sold however. The leading topic of ambivalence is the state of self knowledge on GMO. The low income group are less concerned about consuming GMO for themselves or for their children (respectively p==0.003 ve p=0,012. CONCLUSION: Health workers are assigned with an important role to inform the public for healthy eating. However although the the risk perception of the study group for GMOs is high, their knowledge is low. Training activities to supply this deficiency should be implemented. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(6.000: 503-508

  4. An opioid overdose curriculum for medical residents: Impact on naloxone prescribing, knowledge, and attitudes.

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    Taylor, Jessica Lee; Rapoport, Alison B; Rowley, Christopher F; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Stead, Wendy

    2018-02-12

    Despite escalating opioid overdose death rates, addiction medicine is underrepresented in residency curricula. Providing naloxone to at-risk patients, relatives, and first responders reduces overdose deaths, but rates of naloxone prescribing remain low. The goal of this study is to examine the impact of a brief curricular intervention for internal medicine residents on naloxone prescribing rates, knowledge, and attitudes. Internal medicine residents (n = 160) at an urban, tertiary care medical center received two one-hour didactic sessions addressing overdose prevention, including intranasal naloxone. The number of naloxone prescriptions generated by residents was compared to faculty, who received no similar intervention, in the 3-month periods before and after the curriculum. Resident knowledge and attitudes, as assessed by pre- and post-intervention surveys, were compared. The resident naloxone prescribing rate increased from 420 to 1,270 per 100,000 inpatient discharges (p = 0.01) and from 0 to 370 per 100,000 ambulatory visits (p<0.001) post-intervention. Similar increases were not observed amongst inpatient faculty, whose prescribing rate decreased from 1,150 to 880 per 100,000 discharges (p = 0.08), or among outpatient faculty, whose rate increased from 30 to 180 per 100,000 ambulatory visits (p < 0.001) but was lower than the post-intervention resident rate (p = 0.01). Residents demonstrated high baseline knowledge about naloxone, but just 13% agreed that they were adequately trained to prescribe pre-intervention. Post-intervention, residents were more likely to agree that they were adequately trained to prescribe (Likert mean 2.5 vs. 3.9, p<0.001), to agree that treating addiction is rewarding (Likert mean 2.9 vs. 3.3, p = 0.03), and to attain a perfect score on the knowledge composite (57% vs. 33%, p = 0.05). A brief curricular intervention improved resident knowledge and attitudes regarding intranasal naloxone for opioid overdose reversal and

  5. Knowledge of HIV and factors associated with attitudes towards HIV among final-year medical students at Hanoi medical university in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platten, Michael; Pham, Ha N; Nguyen, Huy V; Nguyen, Nhu T; Le, Giang M

    2014-03-20

    The success of HIV care strongly depends upon skills of the healthcare worker. Vietnam has a punitive history towards HIV and even though this has changed recently, persons living with HIV are still facing discrimination. The objective of this paper is to assess the gaps in knowledge of HIV and factors associated with discriminatory attitudes towards persons living with HIV among medical students in order to improve medical training. In a cross-sectional quantitative study using a structured questionnaire, 200 final-year medical students at Hanoi Medical University were approached for data collection in May of 2012. Descriptive statistics (percentages) were used to present four HIV knowledge tests. Linear regression models were examined to highlight factors that are associated with general attitudes towards HIV and attitudes towards HIV in a clinical setting. Although students performed overall well in the knowledge category of HIV discrimination and stigma, there were several gaps in knowledge of HIV, including the categories of HIV-related basic sciences, prevention, and care and treatment. Knowledge of stigma and discrimination was a significant positive predictor of General non-prejudicial attitude to HIV and AIDS (β=0.186, Pstudents. As persons who inject drugs carry a proportionately high burden of HIV in Vietnam, it is also important to include methadone training for students.

  6. Knowledge of first aid skills among students of a medical college in mangalore city of South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, N; Kumar, Gs; Babu, Ypr; Nelliyanil, M; Bhaskaran, U

    2014-03-01

    The adequate knowledge required for handling an emergency without hospital setting at the site of the accident or emergency may not be sufficient as most medical schools do not have formal first aid training in the teaching curriculum. The aim of this study is to assess the level of knowledge of medical students in providing first aid care. This cross-sectional study was conducted during May 2011 among 152 medical students. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Based on the scores obtained in each condition requiring first aid, the overall knowledge was graded as good, moderate and poor. Only 11.2% (17/152) of the total student participants had previous exposure to first aid training. Good knowledge about first aid was observed in 13.8% (21/152), moderate knowledge in 68.4% (104/152) and poor knowledge in 17.8% (27/152) participants. Analysis of knowledge about first aid management in select conditions found that 21% (32/152) had poor knowledge regarding first aid management for shock and for gastro esophageal reflux disease and 20.4% (31/152) for epistaxis and foreign body in eyes. All students felt that first aid skills need to be taught from the school level onwards and all of them were willing to enroll in any formal first aid training sessions. The level of knowledge about first aid was not good among majority of the students. The study also identified the key areas in which first aid knowledge was lacking. There is thus a need for formal first aid training to be introduced in the medical curriculum.

  7. Nurses Knowledge Regarding Risk Factors And Management Of Stroke At Rajshahi Medical College Hospital Bangladesh

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    Nahid Uz Zaman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out with a view to assess the nurses knowledge regarding the risk factors and management of stroke following a cross type descriptive study. Nurses having academic qualification were S.S.C 32 and H.S.C 68. Nurses having professional qualification were Diploma in Nursing amp Midwifery 50 because this degree was compulsory and basic for all. During the data collection there were also 42 B.Sc. in Nursing and 8 MPHM.Sc. among those respondents. Length of Service of the respondents nurses were 6 1 to 10 years followed by 24 58 amp 12 were in the 11 to 20 years 21 to 30 years and 31 to 40 years. The Nurses were given correct answer about 74 knowledge regarding stroke 50 types of stroke 82 controllable risk factor of stroke 76 uncontrollable risk factor of stroke 85 positioning needed for patients and 86 management of stroke. Considering the above discussion it was obviously clear that the Senior Staff Nurses SSN were much conscious regarding the risk factors and management of stroke working at Rajshahi Medical College Hospital RMCH.

  8. Multicultural environment in higher education: The knowledge and perceptions of medical teachers of UNIKL RCMP, Malaysia

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    ATM Emdadul Haque

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background A clear majority of teaching staff in UniKL-RCMP are expatriates with different cultural backgrounds, and the university currently accepting international students with a different cultural background in addition to the local culturally diverse students. Aims The purpose was to determine the knowledge and awareness of the lecturers of Faculty of Medicine regarding multiculturalism and the importance in the medical profession. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire was developed based on the relevant demographic information and knowledge and awareness of the cultural issues and the validity was discussed with a survey expert. Results A total of 43 teachers took part in the survey. The respondents were mostly male, expatriate and had very fewer experiences in teaching students of different cultural background. The most important thing affecting teachers’ competence was their experience in teaching students of different culture, and the teachers with experience in teaching in a multicultural environment felt more competent than the ones without experience. Gender or teaching experience did not have a significant impact on their feeling of competence. However, the teachers believed that training on special education program might have helped them more than their educational background to help develop the cultural competence of the students from different cultural backgrounds. Conclusion This study showed that teachers need more training and experiences of the multicultural education program and to facilitate the development of cultural competence of students with cultural diversity, which should be taken into consideration in the faculty development activities.

  9. Assessment of medical students' knowledge retention in a diagnostic radiology course: lecture attendees versus absentees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wing Pong

    2009-03-01

    To compare class attendees versus absentees in their ability to retain knowledge during a diagnostic radiology course. This study recruited 146 fourth-year medical students who attended a diagnostic radiology course from February 2004 to June 2004. Eight unit tests were conducted. Questions for each test covered content taught in the prior class. Another examination (which students were not aware of beforehand) was conducted in June, and the questions for this examination included content from all lectures in the course. The class attendance rates were measured separately 6 times during the course. Students who were present on the last of these dates were categorised as attendees (group A students) and those who were absent were categorised as absentees (group B). The average class attendance was 76.8% and the lowest attendance was 56.8%. For the unit tests, the average score of group A students (80.7 +/- 7.3) was significantly higher than that of the group B students (76.2 +/- 8.8) (P = 0.001). However, in the unanticipated examination, there was no significant difference in the scores between group A (68.1 +/- 10.3; range, 36-92) and group B students (65.5 +/- 13.5; range, 28- 88) (P = 0.19). Self-learning time was related to the unit test scores (P = 0.001) but not to the unanticipated examination scores (P = 0.27). Students who frequently attend classes or study for longer can retain their knowledge over a short period of time, but there is no difference in knowledge retention between class attendees and absentees at the end of a 4-month course.

  10. Development of a template for the classification of traditional medical knowledge in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungha; Kim, Boyoung; Mun, Sujeong; Park, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Min-Kyeoung; Choi, Sunmi; Lee, Sanghun

    2016-02-03

    Traditional Medical Knowledge (TMK) is a form of Traditional Knowledge associated with medicine that is handed down orally or by written material. There are efforts to document TMK, and make database to conserve Traditional Medicine and facilitate future research to validate traditional use. Despite of these efforts, there is no widely accepted template in data file format that is specific for TMK and, at the same time, helpful for understanding and organizing TMK. We aimed to develop a template to classify TMK. First, we reviewed books, articles, and health-related classification systems, and used focus group discussion to establish the definition, scope, and constituents of TMK. Second, we developed an initial version of the template to classify TMK, and applied it to TMK data. Third, we revised the template, based on the results of the initial template and input from experts, and applied it to the data. We developed the template for classification of TMK. The constituents of the template were summary, properties, tools/ingredients, indication/preparation/application, and international standard classification. We applied International Patent Classification, International Classification of Diseases (Korea version), and Classification of Korean Traditional Knowledge Resources to provide legal protection of TMK and facilitate academic research. The template provides standard terms for ingredients, preparation, administration route, and procedure method to assess safety and efficacy. This is the first template that is specialized for TMK for arranging and classifying TMK. The template would have important roles in preserving TMK, and protecting intellectual property. TMK data classified with the template could be used as the preliminary data to screen potential candidates for new pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of French medical students about antibiotic prescribing and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyar, O J; Howard, P; Nathwani, D; Pulcini, C

    2013-10-01

    We had for aim to learn about medical students' knowledge and perspectives on antibiotic prescribing and bacterial resistance. Penultimate and final year students at a French medical school were invited to participate in an anonymous online survey in summer 2012. The response rate was 20% (60/297). Penultimate and final year students gave similar answers. Students felt more confident in diagnosing an infection, and less confident in choosing the correct dose and interval of antibiotic administration. Seventy-nine percent of students wanted more training on antibiotic treatments. Sixty-nine percent of students knew that antibiotic prescriptions were inappropriate or unnecessary in 21-60% of the cases, and 95% believed that these prescriptions were unethical. Only 27% knew that more than 80% of antibiotic prescriptions were made in community practice. Students believed that the most important causes of resistance were that too many prescriptions were made and broad-spectrum antibiotic use; 27% believed poor hand hygiene was "not at all important". Ninety-four percent believed resistance was a national problem, and 69% mentioned it as a problem in their hospital. Sixty-three percent thought that the antibiotics they would prescribe would contribute to resistance, and 96% thought resistance would be a greater problem in the future. Twenty-two percent knew MRSA bacteremia rates had decreased over the past decade in France. Medical students are aware that antibiotic resistance is a current and growing problem. They would like more training on antibiotic selection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Natural fertility, infertility and the role of medically assisted reproduction: The knowledge amongst women of reproductive age in North Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nicole K; Coffey, Anne; Woods, Cindy; de Costa, Caroline

    2018-04-16

    The demand for medically assisted reproduction continues to increase, with more women encountering challenges with fertility. Due to misconceptions and gaps in knowledge, women are often unaware of the risks related to delayed childbearing. Lack of understanding of natural fertility, infertility and the role of medically assisted reproduction can lead to emotional suffering and changes in family plans. To assess the understanding and knowledge that women of reproductive age in North Queensland have regarding natural fertility, infertility and the role of medically assisted reproduction. Data were collected from 120 women (30 nurses, 30 teachers, 30 university students and 30 Technical and Further Education students) via the distribution of a structured questionnaire. Participants were surveyed in person about their personal plans and opinions, knowledge about natural fertility, infertility and medically assisted reproduction, and their preferred source of information. Participants demonstrated suboptimal knowledge levels throughout all sections of the questionnaire, in particular when asked about medically assisted reproduction. When asked to identify their main source of information, 'friends and family' was the most popular choice. Results from this North Queensland study add to the existing international literature, highlighting the widespread nature of the problem. Without adequate understanding of natural fertility, the risks of infertility, and the role and limitations of medically assisted reproduction, women make uninformed decisions. Development of local reproductive health education programs need to be instigated in response. © 2018 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. The study of knowledge, attitude and practice of medical law and ethics among doctors in a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahira, Q.U.A.; Lodhi, S.; Haider, S.T.; Abaidullah, S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding medical law and ethics among doctors of a medical unit in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Lahore. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Methodology: A three part self - administered structured questionnaire designed to test the knowledge and practices regarding medical law and ethics was distributed among doctors in a medical unit in Mayo Hospital, Lahore during September - October, 2012. Results: The 52 respondent doctors included in the study comprised of 20 (38.5%) house officers, 22 (42.3%) postgraduate residents and 10 (19.2%) consultants. In keeping with the Pakistan Medical and Den-tal Council code of ethics, the correct responses of house officers, postgraduate residents and consultants regarding knowledge of medical law and ethics were respectively 50%, 27.3% and 10% for patient's autonomy, 40%, 36.4% and 10% for adhering to patient's wishes, 10%, 63.6% and 50% for breaching confidentiality, 35%, 36.4% and 0% for informed consent, 10%, 22.7% and 10% for doing best regardless of patient's opinion, 5%, 31.8% and 10% for informing patient's relatives, 15%, 4.5% and 0% for treating violent patients. The practical application part of the questionnaire was a general reflection of the knowledge and attitudes. Conclusion: Most of the doctors were poorly acquainted with PMDC code of ethics. (author)

  14. "You Can Learn Merely by Listening to the Way a Patient Walks through the Door": The Transmission of Sensory Medical Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Gili

    2018-03-01

    Examining the mechanisms of medical knowledge transfer, this article addresses the ways nonvisual senses are employed within medical training, asking about the role of sound, touch, and movement in transmitting knowledge of the body. Based on a 10-month ethnography in a medical massage training course for blind students, the article examines the ways sensory medical knowledge is transferred in this setting. I discuss the multisensory characteristics of medical knowledge transfer, and the dual process inherent in this sensory pedagogy, in which senses such as touch and hearing undergo medicalization and scientification, while medicine enters the realm of the sensorial. Contributing to emerging research of nonvisual senses in medical training, this case study allows rethinking larger processes of medical knowing, challenging the dominancy of vision as the means of scientific knowledge transmission, and exposing the multisensorial elements of medical perception, and learning in general. © 2017 by the American Anthropological Association.

  15. Knowledge Toward Cancer Pain and the Use of Opioid Analgesics Among Medical Students in their Integrated Clinical Clerkship

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    Maria Fidelis C. Manalo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Among the focal issues of barriers to pain management include the physicians’ lack of knowledge about cancer pain and negative attitudes towards opioids. Many physicians and educators attribute this, at least in part, to limited exposure to pain and palliative care education during medical school.Aim: The researcher investigated the medical students’ knowledge about cancer pain and the use of opioid analgesics.Methods: The subjects were a sample of 50 students of the University of the Philippines College of Medicine in their integrated clinical clerkship year. Descriptive statistics (frequencies, means, standard deviation, rating scales were used to determine mean knowledge score and level of confidence with opioid use. The study also identified specific areas where students exhibited good or poor knowledge of opioids.Results: Approximately sixty-nine (69% of the study respondents mentioned that pain management was given to them during their Anesthesiology lectures while a few recalled that they had these lectures during their Family Medicine rotation in Supportive, Palliative and Hospice Care. More than a third (35% of the respondents admitted to not being confident with morphine use at present. The top three reasons cited as limitations in choice of opioids for cancer pain include fear of addiction, lack of adequate knowledge and experience and fear of side effects and complications. Out of a maximum of 13 correct answers, the mean knowledge score of the medical students was 6.6 ± 2.9. Less than 16% of the respondents had adequate knowledge on cancer pain and opioid use.Conclusions: The results show that basic knowledge of the role of opioids in cancer pain management among medical students in their integrated clinical clerkship year at the University of the Philippines is poor. The findings imply a need to look into making revisions in the medical curriculum to include a training program that will enable all students to

  16. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James Seymour; McLay, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful...

  17. [Gynecology and obstetrics in ancient Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morice, P; Josset, P; Colau, J C

    1994-01-01

    We analyzed scriptural and archeologic sources of information concerning gynaecology and obstetrics as practiced in ancient Egypt. Knowledge of anatomy was rudimentary but precocious diagnosis of pregnancy was practiced. An obstetrical chair had been used since the VIth dynasty. The Egyptians were the first to describe prolapsus of the genital organs. The pessary was a known treatment. Spermicidal mixtures were used for contraception.

  18. [Knowledge and attitude of medical students in Germany towards palliative care : Does the final year of medical school make a difference?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M; Schmiedel, S; Nauck, F; Alt-Epping, B

    2016-06-01

    The practical year (PY) during the final year of medical education is intended to deepen and broaden knowledge, skills, and abilities that were acquired during previous years of their studies. Against this background, this study pursues the question of how the knowledge of future physicians and their confidence in terms of cancer pain therapy and other palliative care issues develops during the PY. At the end of the PY, students from two university hospitals completed a 3-part online questionnaire (self-assessment of the confidence, questions about palliative care knowledge, and assessment of palliative care training during the PY). These results are compared with previously published data from the same collective that had been collected at the beginning of the PY. Overall, 92 of 318 students participated (28.9 %). Less than 10 % of students said that they were more confident regarding palliative care topics at the end of their medical studies. Improvements in the self-assessment could only be observed in the recognition of and screening for cancer pain (increase from 36 % to 65%). With regard to the palliative care knowledge, only the knowledge of how to treat symptoms other than pain improved significantly; however, knowledge in this regard prior to the PY was particularly low (an increase from 25 % to 35 %, p palliative care training, between 36 and 83 % of participants stated having insufficient opportunities to gain knowledge and experience on various topics in the treatment of patients with advanced and incurable diseases during their PY. In the present study, considerable deficits in confidence and knowledge regarding palliative care issues were also observed at the end of PY. Integration of palliative care into the medical school curriculums should be given special attention in terms of a longitudinal training of the PY.

  19. Impact of learning nutrition on medical students: their eating habits, knowledge and confidence in addressing dietary issues of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Shama; Dwivedi, Shraddha; Khan, Maroof A

    2011-12-01

    Nutrition is an important component in the treatment of acute and chronic diseases and is a cornerstone in strategies for disease prevention and health promotion. Despite the acknowledged importance of nutrition, there is evidence to indicate that the nutrition training of medical students is inadequate in both quality and quantity. The study aimed to know the dietary/eating habits of medical students, assess their knowledge on nutrition and to assess their confidence in addressing the dietary issues of patients. It was a cross-sectional study conducted on final year medical students, interns and postgraduate students of Moti Lal Nehru Government Medical College, Allahabad. The sampling was purposive and a total of 218 participated in the study voluntarily. Overall 55% of the students were less knowledgeable and only 45% of them were more knowledgeable. Most (62%) postgraduates were more knowledgeable (p habits. There was no association between their healthy habits and more knowledge (p > 0.340). Only 45.4% of them were confident in assessing the diet of patients and 44% of them were confident in recommending change of diet in patients. However this study shows no association between increase in the level of knowledge and confidence levels of the students (p > 0.339 and p > 0.109) suggesting that we need to incorporate innovative teaching methods to increase their confidence. Most students (79%) said that the medical curriculum was either just enough or not enough in preparing them to deal with the dietary issues of patients and 55% of them were of the opinion that the faculty should be trained in nutrition. The study results intend to stimulate active consideration of proper role of nutrition learning in medical education.

  20. Group concept mapping: An approach to explore group knowledge organization and collaborative learning in senior medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Dario; Daley, Barbara J; Picho, Katherine; Durning, Steven J

    2017-10-01

    Group concept mapping may be used as a learning strategy that can potentially foster collaborative learning and assist instructors to assess the development of knowledge organization in medical students. Group concept maps were created by 39 medical students rotating through a fourth year medicine rotation. The group maps were developed based on a clinical vignette. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis of students' evaluations were performed. Evaluations indicated that students enjoyed the collaborative nature of the exercise and the knowledge sharing activities associated with it. Group maps can demonstrate different knowledge organization Discussion: Group concept mapping can be used to explore students' organization and integration of knowledge structures in a collaborative setting. Additional research should focus on how group mapping and learning progresses over time and, whether group mapping can help identify curricular strengths and needs.

  1. [Violence against women: knowledge and attitudes of the the medical staff at the Mexican Institute of Social Security, Morelos, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Hernández, Pablo; Valdez-Santiago, Rosario; Viniegra-Velázquez, Leonardo; Rivera-Rivera, Leonor; Salmerón-Castro, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    To asses the affective, cognitive, and behavioral attitudes of healthcare providers at the Mexican Institute of Social Security (MISS) in Morelos, Mexico; to identify the institutional and medical practice barriers that hinder screening and reference of battered women. A cross-sectional study was conducted between September and December 1999. A self-administered questionnaire was applied to 269 general practitioners, specialists, and pre- and postdoctoral students working in 30 primary and secondary level of healthcare units in Morelos State. The data collection instrument was designed to assess healthcare providers' knowledge of and attitudes towards domestic violence during medical office visits. A knowledge index was constructed and analyzed using multivariate regression methods. Ninety percent of healthcare providers had never received training on violence against women. Healthcare providers' affective and cognitive attitudes after receiving training on the subject matter were more favorable compared to those with no training. Favorable attitudes were directly related to the number of training sessions. Most participants (63%) showed a moderate degree of knowledge on the subject, whereas 21% were slightly knowledgeable and 16% were highly knowledgeable. Medical personnel with a moderate or high level of knowledge were 2.1 and 6 times more likely, respectively, to have favorable attitudes than those with a low degree of knowledge. Female physicians showed more favorable attitudes towards identifying and referring battered women. Medical personnel interested in further training on the subject of violence against women were 7.6 times more likely to show favorable attitudes than personnel not interested on the subject. Healthcare providers were not sufficiently able to assess and manage battered women. General and family practitioners were more interested in being trained, as compared with specialist physicians. Training on violence against women should be included

  2. Comparison of the knowledge and perception of physiotherapy by medical students of the institutions with and without physiotherapy training programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odebiyi, O D; Aiyejusunle, C B; Alonge, E O; Olalekan, T A

    2011-12-01

    To compare the knowledge and perception of physiotherapy by medical students of two institutions, one (i.e. University of Lagos - UL) with and the other (i.e. Lagos State University - LSU) without physiotherapy training programme. A total of 193 undergraduate medical students (UL = 96, LSU = 97) participated in this survey by completing a 26-item closed-ended questionnaire with a response rate of 96%. The questionnaire included information on personal characteristics, general knowledge and perception of physiotherapy. Chi-square statistics, t-test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to determine significant differences between variables at 95% confident interval. Respondents from UL (medical school with physiotherapy training facility) were significantly knowledgeable (pperception of physiotherapy was significantly (pperception of Physiotherapy (pstudents from UL had better knowledge and perception of physiotherapy than those from LSU. The low level of knowledge and perception of medical students of LSU about physiotherapy may be due to the absence of physiotherapy training in LSU.

  3. Social Workers’ Knowledge and Perceptions of Effectiveness and Acceptability of Medication Assisted Treatment of Substance Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Bride, Brian E.; Abraham, Amanda J.; Kintzle, Sara; Roman, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Data from a national study of 345 privately-funded, community-based substance use disorder (SUD) treatment centers was used to investigate social workers’ knowledge, perceptions of effectiveness, and perceptions of the acceptability of medication assisted treatments (MATs) for SUDs. Results reveal the importance of exposure to MATs for social workers to develop a knowledge base regarding the effectiveness of various pharmacological agents. Results also underline the importance of social worke...

  4. Medical knowledge and the improvement of vernacular languages in the Habsburg Monarchy: a case study from Transylvania (1770-1830).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechel, Teodora Daniela

    2012-09-01

    In all European countries, the eighteenth century was characterised by efforts to improve the vernaculars. The Transylvanian case study shows how both codified medical language and ordinary language were constructed and enriched by a large number of medical books and brochures. The publication of medical literature in Central European vernacular languages in order to popularise new medical knowledge was a comprehensive programme, designed on the one hand by intellectual, political and religious elites who urged the improvement of the fatherland and the promotion of the common good by perfecting the arts and sciences. On the other hand, the imperial administration's initiatives affected local forms of medical knowledge and the construction of vernacular languages. In the eighteenth century, the construction of vernacular languages in the Habsburg Monarchy took on a significant political character. However, in the process of building of the scientific and medical vocabulary, the main preoccupation was precision, clarity and accessibility of the neologisms being invented to encompass the medical phenomena being described. In spite of political conflicts among the 'nations' living in Transylvania, physicians borrowed words from German, Hungarian and Romanian. Thus they elevated several words used in everyday language to the upper social stratum of language use, leading to the invention of new terms to describe particular medical practices or phenomena. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Medical knowledge and the improvement of vernacular languages in the Habsburg Monarchy: A case study from Transylvania (1770–1830)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechel, Teodora Daniela

    2012-01-01

    In all European countries, the eighteenth century was characterised by efforts to improve the vernaculars. The Transylvanian case study shows how both codified medical language and ordinary language were constructed and enriched by a large number of medical books and brochures. The publication of medical literature in Central European vernacular languages in order to popularise new medical knowledge was a comprehensive programme, designed on the one hand by intellectual, political and religious elites who urged the improvement of the fatherland and the promotion of the common good by perfecting the arts and sciences. On the other hand, the imperial administration’s initiatives affected local forms of medical knowledge and the construction of vernacular languages. In the eighteenth century, the construction of vernacular languages in the Habsburg Monarchy took on a significant political character. However, in the process of building of the scientific and medical vocabulary, the main preoccupation was precision, clarity and accessibility of the neologisms being invented to encompass the medical phenomena being described. In spite of political conflicts among the ‘nations’ living in Transylvania, physicians borrowed words from German, Hungarian and Romanian. Thus they elevated several words used in everyday language to the upper social stratum of language use, leading to the invention of new terms to describe particular medical practices or phenomena. PMID:22595134

  6. Evaluation of the implementation of the knowledge management processes in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences teaching hospitals, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Sharifian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recognition and implementation of knowledge management have an important effect on improving the quality of hospital activities. According to the direct relationship with the society’s health, health and treatment departments need knowledgeable and skillful staff. Thus, this research investigated different dimensions of the knowledge management processes in teaching hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Method: This cross-sectional analytical study was performed on 103 top and middle-ranked managers of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences hospitals. The instrument was a valid and reliable questionnaire containing six knowledge management dimensions. Data were analyzed in SPSS software version 16, using the one-sample t-test and ANOVA. Results: The results of the study showed that among the processes of knowledge management dimensions, “acquisition and knowledge creation”(mean=3.2 and “strategy and policy of knowledge” (mean=3.13 had the highest ranks and “assessment and feedback of knowledge” (mean=2.86 and “knowledge sharing” (mean=2.61 were at the lowest levels. The comparison between these six dimensions demonstrated that there were significant relationships among “strategy and policy of knowledge” and “acquisition and knowledge creation” (p=0.047,“strategy and policy of knowledge” and “organizing and documenting of knowledge” (p=0.206, “organizing and documenting of knowledge” and “knowledge sharing” (p=0.259, “organizing and documenting of knowledge” and “use and reuse of knowledge” (p=0.325, “use and reuse of knowledge”, and “knowledge sharing” (p=0.100. Conclusion: According to the results, the conditions of “strategy and policy of knowledge” and “acquisition and knowledge creation” dimensions are at the average level and other dimensions of knowledge management processes are poor in teaching hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical

  7. Knowledge, opinions, and practices about oral cancer among general medical practitioners in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalekan Micah Gbotolorun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the knowledge and practices of general medical practitioners (GMPs in Lagos on screening for oral cancer (OC. Materials and Methods: A 43-item self-administered questionnaires was filled by each GMPs recruited into the study. Analysis was done using the SPSS version 17.5. Descriptive analyses were used and results were presented in percentages, graphs, and tables. Results: One-hundred and twenty GMPs participated in the study, 58.7% were males and 41.3% females; their ages ranged 22-61 years (36.1 ΁ 7.97. While most participants answered correctly that smoked tobacco (96.1%, increasing age >45 years (97%, oral sex (99%, and patient with a previous OC (93.7% were risk factors for OC; there was misinformation on the nonrisk factors as only 5.5%, 7.9%, and 18.9%, respectively, answered correctly that family history of cancer, dental infections, and poor oral hygiene were not identifiable risk factors associated with OC. Furthermore, although majority of subjects (81.1% identified the floor and the tongue as the most common sites of OC and leukoplakia (75.6% as a common precursor of OC; only 29.1% identified correctly that OC had one of the worst morbidity and mortality rates of the most common cancers due to late presentation. Only 0.8% of GMPs had a consistent high score in the indexes. Conclusion: The knowledge and practices of GMPs in the Lagos environment on OC needs a lot of improvement for them to become significant in the screening for the disease entity.

  8. Testing knowledge of human gross anatomy in medical school: an applied contextual-learning theory method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, R W; Lehr, R P

    1996-01-01

    The traditional gross anatomy laboratory experience, with modifications in evaluations that we outline later, meets the criteria of contextual-learning theory, expands the repertoire of core objectives we identify for our students, and may increase the likelihood of cognitive permanence of anatomical data. Our subjects included approximately 54 first-year medical students from each of three sequential class years (1996, 1997, 1998). As an alternative to more typical written and practical exams, examinations in a major portion of our gross anatomy program consist of two approximately 30 minute oral expositions by each student to his or her peers and a faculty member. Students demonstrate specific detail on cadaver, x-ray, cross sections, or a model. Clinical applications, spatial relationships, nomenclature, and functions are strongly emphasized. The results of this teaching approach to the utilization of anatomical knowledge in clinical situations requires further assessment: however, new attributes have been afforded our students with implementation of the present program: First, students learn anatomical detail equally well as the students of the more traditional system (based on board exam results). Second, students who completed the program indicate that this approach provides a useful simulation of what is expected later in their training. Third, students gradually gain confidence in verbal presentation, they demonstrate cognitive synthesis of separate conceptual issues, they retain information, and they are quite visibly more enthusiastic about anatomy and its importance in medicine. Our program demonstrates that the learning of applicable human anatomy is facilitated in a contextual-learning environment. Moreover, by learning anatomy in this way, other equally beneficial attributes are afforded the medical student, including, but not limited to, increases in communication skills, confidence in verbal presentation, synthesis of anatomical concepts

  9. Perception, knowledge, and attitude toward mental disorders and psychiatry among medical undergraduates in Karnataka: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruna, G.; Mittal, Shobhana; Yadiyal, Muralidhara B.; Acharya, Chandana; Acharya, Srilekha; Uppulari, Chinmay

    2016-01-01

    Context: Globally, psychiatry as a subject, psychiatrists as professionals, and patients with psychiatric disorders are subjected to cultural stereotypes and negative attitude by the general population. What is of alarming concern is that these prejudices exist within the medical community as well. Aims: This study aims at evaluating the perception, knowledge, and attitude toward psychiatric disorders, therapeutic modalities used in psychiatry, psychiatry as a subject and psychiatrists as professionals among undergraduate medical students in Karnataka. Settings and Design: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional type of study conducted in three medical colleges located in Karnataka. Materials and Methods: A sample of 500 students from all three professional phases of MBBS was selected using purposive sampling. A semistructured prevalidated questionnaire was used to assess the perception, knowledge, and attitude of undergraduate medical students toward psychiatric disorders and psychiatry. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 16.0. Results: The undergraduate medical student population had significant shortcomings in knowledge and attitude pertaining to psychiatric disorders, more glaring in the initial years of education. A comparatively positive opinion was obtained regarding psychiatry as a subject and psychiatrists as professionals, which may reflect the changing trends and concepts, both in society and medical community. Conclusion: This study highlights the need for better educational measures at undergraduate level in order to shape a positive attitude of the health care providers towards psychiatry, which is essential for ensuring better care for patients as well as reduction of stigma surrounding psychiatric disorders. PMID:26985108

  10. Perception, knowledge, and attitude toward mental disorders and psychiatry among medical undergraduates in Karnataka: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruna, G; Mittal, Shobhana; Yadiyal, Muralidhara B; Acharya, Chandana; Acharya, Srilekha; Uppulari, Chinmay

    2016-01-01

    Globally, psychiatry as a subject, psychiatrists as professionals, and patients with psychiatric disorders are subjected to cultural stereotypes and negative attitude by the general population. What is of alarming concern is that these prejudices exist within the medical community as well. This study aims at evaluating the perception, knowledge, and attitude toward psychiatric disorders, therapeutic modalities used in psychiatry, psychiatry as a subject and psychiatrists as professionals among undergraduate medical students in Karnataka. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional type of study conducted in three medical colleges located in Karnataka. A sample of 500 students from all three professional phases of MBBS was selected using purposive sampling. A semistructured prevalidated questionnaire was used to assess the perception, knowledge, and attitude of undergraduate medical students toward psychiatric disorders and psychiatry. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 16.0. The undergraduate medical student population had significant shortcomings in knowledge and attitude pertaining to psychiatric disorders, more glaring in the initial years of education. A comparatively positive opinion was obtained regarding psychiatry as a subject and psychiatrists as professionals, which may reflect the changing trends and concepts, both in society and medical community. This study highlights the need for better educational measures at undergraduate level in order to shape a positive attitude of the health care providers towards psychiatry, which is essential for ensuring better care for patients as well as reduction of stigma surrounding psychiatric disorders.

  11. [Knowledge, trust, and the decision to donate organs : A comparison of medical students and students of other disciplines in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terbonssen, T; Settmacher, U; Dirsch, O; Dahmen, U

    2018-02-01

    Following the organ transplant scandal in Germany in 2011, the willingness to donate organs postmortem decreased dramatically. This was explained by a loss of confidence in the German organ donation system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between knowledge, trust, and fear in respect to organ donation and the explicit willingness to potentially act as an organ donor by comparing medical students to students of other disciplines. We conducted a Facebook-based online survey (June-July 2013). The participating students were divided into two groups according to their discipline: medical students and other students. Based on questions covering different aspects of organ donation, a knowledge, trust, and fear score was established and calculated. The answers were related to an explicitly expressed decision to donate organs as expressed in a signed organ donor card. In total, 2484 participants took part in our survey. Of these, 1637 were students, 83.7% (N = 1370) of which were medical students and 16.3% (N = 267) other students. As expected, medical students reached a higher knowledge score regarding organ donation compared with other students (knowledge score 4.13 vs. 3.38; p organ donation, resulting in a higher confidence score (3.94 vs. 3.33; p organ donation as indicated by the lower fear score (1.76 vs. 2.04; p donate organs more often than did other students (78.2% vs. 55.2%; p organ donation cards did not differ significantly between medical students and other students. Medical students possessing an organ donor card showed a higher knowledge and a higher trust score than did medical students without an organ donor card. In contrast, other students possessing an organ donor card showed a higher trust score but did not show a higher knowledge score. The higher level of knowledge and trust demonstrated by the medical students was associated with a higher rate of written decisions to donate organs. In contrast, the lower level

  12. Enough is not enough: Medical students’ knowledge of early warning signs of childhood cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ann Geel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. The reported incidence of childhood cancer in upper-middle-income South Africa (SA is much lower than in high-income countries, partly due to under-diagnosis and under-reporting. Documented survival rates are disturbingly low, prompting an analysis of potential factors that may be responsible. Objectives. To determine final-year medical students’ level of knowledge of early warning signs of childhood cancer and whether a correlation existed between test scores and participants’ age, gender and previous exposure to a person with cancer. Methods. A two-part questionnaire based on the Saint Siluan mnemonic, testing both recall and recognition of early warning signs of childhood cancer, was administered. The Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test was used to assess differences in continuous and count variables between demographic data, experience and responses, and Fisher’s exact test and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient were used to determine correlations between demographic data, previous contact with persons with cancer and test scores. A novel equality ratio was calculated to compare the recall and recognition sections and allowed analysis of recall v. recognition. Results. The 84 participants recalled a median of six signs each (interquartile range 4 - 7 and correctly recognised a median of 70% in the recognition section, considered a pass mark. There was no correlation between participants’ age, gender, previous contact with a person with cancer and recognition scores. Students with previous exposure to a person with cancer had higher scores in the recall section, but this did not achieve statistical significance. Students were able to recognise more signs of haematological malignancies than central nervous system (CNS malignancies. Conclusion. The study demonstrated a marked inconsistency between recall and recognition of signs of childhood cancer, with signs of CNS malignancies being least recognised. However, the majority

  13. Dacic Ancient Astronomical Research in Sarmizegetuza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel George Oprea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The actual Romanian territory belongs to Carpatho-Danubian Space and to Ancient Europe. The Ancient European Society was a vast cultural entity based on a theocratic, matriarchal society, peaceful and art creating.Temples of Sarmizegetusa have given rise to several theories over time, proven by historians with the most diverse arguments. The largest complex of temples and sanctuaries was founded in Sarmizegetusa Regia, the Dacian’s main fortress and ancient capital of Dacia in the time of King Decebalus. The mysterious form of settlements has led researchers to the conclusion that the locations were astronomical observation shrines. Among the places of Dacian worship in Orastie Mountains the most impressive is the Great Circular Sanctuary, used to perform some celestial observations, and also as original solar calendar. This paper had the purpose to re-discover the Dacian Civilization and Dacian cosmogony based on the accumulated knowledge upon our country’s past.

  14. Palaeoparasitology - Human Parasites in Ancient Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Adauto; Reinhard, Karl; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Parasite finds in ancient material launched a new field of science: palaeoparasitology. Ever since the pioneering studies, parasites were identified in archaeological and palaeontological remains, some preserved for millions of years by fossilization. However, the palaeoparasitological record consists mainly of parasites found specifically in human archaeological material, preserved in ancient occupation sites, from prehistory until closer to 2015. The results include some helminth intestinal parasites still commonly found in 2015, such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms, besides others such as Amoebidae and Giardia intestinalis, as well as viruses, bacteria, fungi and arthropods. These parasites as a whole provide important data on health, diet, climate and living conditions among ancient populations. This chapter describes the principal findings and their importance for knowledge on the origin and dispersal of infectious diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Knowledge, attitude and practice of pediatricians and pharmacists in Riyadh City toward the use of sugar free medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawazir, Omar A; Alsuwayt, Bandar; Alqahtani, Waleed; Al-Dhafiri, Ahmad; Al-Shamrani, Mosleh

    2014-11-01

    This study was intended to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of pediatricians and pharmacists about sugar free medications (SFMs) and their impact on oral health. Self-administered close ended questionnaire was handed out to all pediatricians and pharmacists in five tertiary hospitals in Riyadh (King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud Medical City, King Fahad Medical City, Prince Sultan Medical Military City, Security Forces Hospital) to investigate the knowledge, attitude and practice concerning SFMs. Eighty-five pediatricians and 77 pharmacists participated in this study. The results showed that pediatricians and pharmacists have a good knowledge, but negative attitude toward SFMs. Only (5.9%) of pediatricians had formal undergraduate training which is significantly lower than pharmacists (15.6%) (p = 0.04). One-third of pediatricans and pharmacists prescribe or dispense SFMs. The most influencing factors toward prescription (pediatrician) of SFMs was the medical status of the patient (70.6%), while the most influencing factor of dispensing (pharmacists) SFMs was the availability in the pharmacy (64.9%). Two-third of pediatricians (67%) guide the parents about the risk associated with sugar-containing medications (SCMs) which is significantly higher than pharmacists (p < 0.0001). Also, 53% of pediatricians recommend oral hygiene instructions when prescribing SCMs which is also significantly higher than pharmacists (p = 0.0 02). There is a considerable knowledge about SFMs and its impact on dental caries, among pediatricians and pharmacists participated in this study. However, their attitude toward prescribing or dispensing SFMs was not positive and may be linked to the gap in knowledge. Further training and education of healthcare providers regarding the use of SFMs and its negative impact on dental caries has to be reiterated.

  16. A Priori Knowledge and Probability Density Based Segmentation Method for Medical CT Image Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyan Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly introduces a novel segmentation strategy for CT images sequences. As first step of our strategy, we extract a priori intensity statistical information from object region which is manually segmented by radiologists. Then we define a search scope for object and calculate probability density for each pixel in the scope using a voting mechanism. Moreover, we generate an optimal initial level set contour based on a priori shape of object of previous slice. Finally the modified distance regularity level set method utilizes boundaries feature and probability density to conform final object. The main contributions of this paper are as follows: a priori knowledge is effectively used to guide the determination of objects and a modified distance regularization level set method can accurately extract actual contour of object in a short time. The proposed method is compared to other seven state-of-the-art medical image segmentation methods on abdominal CT image sequences datasets. The evaluated results demonstrate our method performs better and has the potential for segmentation in CT image sequences.

  17. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF CONTACT LENS USERS AMONG MEDICAL COLLEGE STUDENTS IN BANGALORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The use of contact lens (CL for the correction of refractive errors, cosmetic use and their usage as a therapeutic modality for corneal pathologies has increased many fold over the years. The present study was conducted with the aim to find the knowledge , attitude and pattern of CL use amongst medical college students and to highlight the complications and the correct method to be followed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 520college students out of which 114 students who have worn contact lens for any period were included for the study. RESULTS: Results showed that 94.7% of the CL users use the daily wear soft contact lens’ most quoted reasons of usage were comfort and convenience (59.6% with cosmetic benefit (29.8% as the next most common reply. Common complaints were that of general discomfort (foreign body sensation, dry eyes and watering eyes. With the advent of e commerce 26.3% of students are buying lenses are online. CONCLUSION: Educated use of CLs amongst its users is advised in view of the symptoms and associated complications that may occur. Electronic media is playing a commendable role in the sales and educating the buyers about do’s and don’t’s of contact lens use

  18. How to use contextual knowledge in medical case-based reasoning systems: a survey on very recent trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montani, Stefania

    2011-02-01

    This paper aims at systematizing the ways in which the contextual knowledge embedded in the case library can support decision making, within case-based reasoning (CBR) systems. In particular, CBR applications to the medical domain are considered. After a quick survey on the definition and on the role of context in artificial intelligence research, we have focused on CBR, with a particular emphasis on medical applications. In this field, we have identified a number of very recent contributions, which strongly recognize context per se as a major knowledge source. These contributions propose to maintain and to rely on contextual information, in order to support human reasoning in different fashions. We have distinguished three main directions in which contextual knowledge can be resorted to, in order to optimize physicians' decision making. Such directions can be summarized as follows: (1) to reduce the search space in the case retrieval step; (2) to maintain the overall knowledge content always valid and up to date, and (3) to adapt knowledge application and reasoning to local/personal constraints. We have also properly categorized the surveyed works within these three clusters, and identified the most significant ones, able to exploit contextual knowledge along more than one direction. Innovative applications of the contextual knowledge recorded in the case library, described and systematized in this paper, can trace promising research directions for the future. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Physicians' knowledge and practice towards medical error reporting: a cross-sectional hospital-based study in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsafi, E; Baharoon, S; Ahmed, A; Al-Jahdali, H H; Al Zahrani, S; Al Sayyari, A

    2015-10-02

    Identifying reasons for under-reporting is crucial in reducing the incidence of medical errors. We studied physicians' knowledge of the occurrence, frequency and causes of medical errors and their actual practice toward reporting them. A cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire was answered by 107 physicians at a tertiary-care hospital in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire had 6 sections covering demographic data, knowledge, attitudes and practice towards reporting medical errors, perceived causes of and frequency of medical errors in their hospital and personal experiences of medical error reporting. Physicians tended not to report medical errors when no harm had occurred to patients. One-third of respondents feared punitive actions if they reported errors and only 56.4% felt that error reporting had led to positive changes in overall care. A majority of errors were related to late interventions and misdiagnosis. Under-reporting of medical errors was common in this hospital. Physicians did not appreciate attempts to improve the system of error reporting and a culture of blame still prevailed.

  20. The Role of Knowledge Creation and Its Dimensions in Management Skills of Managers of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Ali Hemmati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and Objectives : The purpose of this study was to study the role of knowledge creation and management skills of managers in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Material and Methods : This was a descriptive correlational study. The statistical population consisted of all managers (140 managers in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Census sampling method was used due to limited statistical population. The data were collected through management skills and knowledge creation questionnaire developed by Goudarzi (2002. The reliability was 0.933 and 0.792 respectively using Cronbach's alpha. The validity of the questionnaire was verified by management faculty members. Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Results : Results showed that there was a positive relationship between knowledge creation and management skills of the managers. In addition, there was a positive and significant relationship between the management skills indicators (human, conceptual and technical and the knowledge creation variables. Multiple regression results indicated that the knowledge creation dimensions had a predictive role in human, perceptual and technical skills. A significant relationship between knowledge creation and management skills of managers indicated that managers should have access to the up-to-date knowledge to promote it in order to execute it at all levels within the organization to improvement staff and organization creativity. Conclusion : The results demonstrated that the enhancement of organizational knowledge creation and its dimensions lead to improvement of management skills.  Managers need to have dynamic capabilities to move towards knowledge creation and make the best use of available and potential resources of the organization to achieve these capabilities and identify, acquire, apply, integrate and combine the information, knowledge and skills.

  1. Drug knowledge of expatriate adolescents in the United Arab Emirates and their attitudes towards self-medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehnaz, Syed Ilyas; Khan, Nelofer; Sreedharan, Jayadevan; Arifulla, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents have limited knowledge about medicines and their potential adverse effects. In this context, we aimed to investigate the basic knowledge of medicines, any differences in knowledge related to practice of self-medication (SM), attitudes towards SM and sources of information about medicines among expatriate adolescents in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 324 students from four schools in the UAE using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 19. The sample of multi-ethnic students, with ages ranging from 14 to 19 years, was almost equally distributed between the genders. A total of 289 students reported to be self-medicating. More than 60% of adolescents had responded incorrectly to eight questions related to knowledge about medicines. There were no significant differences between mean scores for drug knowledge (maximum score=22) of self-medicating adolescents (12.1±4.32; SMAs) and those not practicing SM (12±4.53; NSMAs). Self-assessment of drug knowledge was perceived as good by 33% and satisfactory by 34% of SMAs. The majority of adolescents (87%) believed that SM was acceptable and reported being aware of its advantages and disadvantages. Parents and pharmacists were common sources of information about medicines. The participants showed a positive inclination towards SM. The SMAs and NSMAs had similar knowledge about medicines. However, gaps in knowledge may lead to drug misuse and toxicity. Healthcare providers, pharmacists, educators and parents should be actively involved in health education strategies for rational use of medicines among adolescents in the UAE.

  2. Knowledge of Hazards of Self-Medication among Secondary School Students in Ethiopia East Local Government Area of Delta State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyeke, Patrick; Dafe, Onoharigho Festus

    2016-01-01

    This study is set out to ascertain the knowledge of hazards of self-medication among Secondary School Students. The descriptive Survey design was adopted for the work. The population of the study is 9,500 students in the public Secondary Schools, in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State. The sample is 300 students randomly selected…

  3. Effects of interactive pictorial education on community dwelling older adult's self efficacy and knowledge for safe medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myonghwa

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of interactive pictorial education on community dwelling older Korean adults' self-efficacy and knowledge for safe medication. A quasi-experimental, three-group pre- and post-intervention design was used in this study. The interactive pictorial education was designed to suit the learning patterns and psychomotor skills of older adults. The education content, dealing with safe medication, was delivered over three sessions. A total of 136 older adults from local senior centers were assigned to one of the three groups: a) interactive pictorial education plus information booklet (experimental); b) education only with information booklet (conventional); or c) no intervention (control). Participants receiving interactive pictorial education had significantly higher self-efficacy (F=24.32, pcontrol group at post intervention. Post-hoc analyses indicated that both the interactive pictorial and the information booklet groups had significantly higher self-efficacy and knowledge scores than the control group at the post-test point (pinteractive pictorial group had higher self-efficacy and knowledge scores than the information booklet group at the post-test point (pinteractive pictorial education is an innovative approach that provides a means for older adults to learn appropriate medication use to improve their own health. It empowers older adults with different literacy levels to enhance their self-efficacy and knowledge for the safe use of medication.

  4. Knowledge transfer in the “medical tourism” industry: The role of transnational migrant patients and health workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormond, M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Tapping into migrants’ diverse tacit healthcare knowledge can bring a range of stakeholders in countries of origin great insight, at both macro and micro levels, not only into how to improve on local healthcare delivery but also how to effectively respond to the needs and interests of ‘medical

  5. Evaluation of self-perception of mechanical ventilation knowledge among Brazilian final-year medical students, residents and emergency physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallo, Fernando Sabia; de Campos Vieira Abib, Simone; de Andrade Negri, Alexandre Jorgi; Cesar, Paulo; Lopes, Renato Delascio; Lopes, Antônio Carlos

    2017-02-01

    To present self-assessments of knowledge about mechanical ventilation made by final-year medical students, residents, and physicians taking qualifying courses at the Brazilian Society of Internal Medicine who work in urgent and emergency settings. A 34-item questionnaire comprising different areas of knowledge and training in mechanical ventilation was given to 806 medical students, residents, and participants in qualifying courses at 11 medical schools in Brazil. The questionnaire's self-assessment items for knowledge were transformed into scores. The average score among all participants was 21% (0-100%). Of the total, 85% respondents felt they did not receive sufficient information about mechanical ventilation during medical training. Additionally, 77% of the group reported that they would not know when to start noninvasive ventilation in a patient, and 81%, 81%, and 89% would not know how to start volume control, pressure control and pressure support ventilation modes, respectively. Furthermore, 86.4% and 94% of the participants believed they would not identify the basic principles of mechanical ventilation in patients with obstructive pulmonary disease and acute respiratory distress syndrome, respectively, and would feel insecure beginning ventilation. Finally, 77% said they would fear for the safety of a patient requiring invasive mechanical ventilation under their care. Self-assessment of knowledge and self-perception of safety for managing mechanical ventilation were deficient among residents, students and emergency physicians from a sample in Brazil.

  6. Collaborative diagramming during problem based learning in medical education: Do computerized diagrams support basic science knowledge construction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leng, Bas; Gijlers, Aaltje H.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To examine how collaborative diagramming affects discussion and knowledge construction when learning complex basic science topics in medical education, including its effectiveness in the reformulation phase of problem-based learning. Methods: Opinions and perceptions of students (n = 70) and

  7. Use of e-learning to enhance medical students' understanding and knowledge of healthcare-associated infection prevention and control.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, E

    2011-12-01

    An online infection prevention and control programme for medical students was developed and assessed. There was a statistically significant improvement (P<0.0001) in the knowledge base among 517 students after completing two modules. The majority of students who completed the evaluation were positive about the learning experience.

  8. Organ transplantation and donation from the point of view of medical students in Iran: Ethical aspects and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mahmoud; Kiani, Mehrzad; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Salehi, Bahare

    2018-01-31

    Organ transplantation is an effective process that prolongs the lives of individuals suffering from incapacitating conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the view point of medical students in Iran regarding ethical aspects and knowledge on organ transplantation and donation. The participants included 165 medical students from different faculties of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. They were assessed using a reliable questionnaire that examined their ethical aspects and knowledge regarding organ transplantation and donation. All data analyses were performed using Chi-square and analysis of variance tests with SPSS software. Results showed that main sources of respondents’ knowledge on organ transplantation and donation were TV, 51.52 % (n = 85) and Internet, 19.39 % (n = 32). 91.51% (n = 151) of the respondents understand and 8.48% (n =14) do not understand the concept of brain death. 49.69% (n = 82) of the respondents were willing to donate their organs. A brain death donor was selected by respondents as the best option for organs transplantation (72.12%; n = 119). The respondents selected young patients as the preferred recipients of an organ (69.69%; n = 115). There was no correlation between gender, age, educational level, marital status and attitude towards organ transplantation. From the results, there is need for an organized educational planning for medical students in ethical issue and knowledge on organ and tissue transplantation.

  9. Evaluation of an Educational Intervention on Knowledge and Awareness of Medication Safety in Older Adults with Low Health Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Chanel F.; Tom, Sarah E.; Bivens, Angel; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Background: Older adults with low health literacy are at increased risk of nonadherence, accidental drug exposure, and adverse events. Purpose: This study evaluated older adults' knowledge and awareness of medication safety and poison prevention resources using an interactive educational game compared to a less intensive intervention involving…

  10. Development of a clinician reputation metric to identify appropriate problem-medication pairs in a crowdsourced knowledge base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Allison B; Wright, Adam; Rogith, Deevakar; Fathiamini, Safa; Ottenbacher, Allison J; Sittig, Dean F

    2014-04-01

    Correlation of data within electronic health records is necessary for implementation of various clinical decision support functions, including patient summarization. A key type of correlation is linking medications to clinical problems; while some databases of problem-medication links are available, they are not robust and depend on problems and medications being encoded in particular terminologies. Crowdsourcing represents one approach to generating robust knowledge bases across a variety of terminologies, but more sophisticated approaches are necessary to improve accuracy and reduce manual data review requirements. We sought to develop and evaluate a clinician reputation metric to facilitate the identification of appropriate problem-medication pairs through crowdsourcing without requiring extensive manual review. We retrieved medications from our clinical data warehouse that had been prescribed and manually linked to one or more problems by clinicians during e-prescribing between June 1, 2010 and May 31, 2011. We identified measures likely to be associated with the percentage of accurate problem-medication links made by clinicians. Using logistic regression, we created a metric for identifying clinicians who had made greater than or equal to 95% appropriate links. We evaluated the accuracy of the approach by comparing links made by those physicians identified as having appropriate links to a previously manually validated subset of problem-medication pairs. Of 867 clinicians who asserted a total of 237,748 problem-medication links during the study period, 125 had a reputation metric that predicted the percentage of appropriate links greater than or equal to 95%. These clinicians asserted a total of 2464 linked problem-medication pairs (983 distinct pairs). Compared to a previously validated set of problem-medication pairs, the reputation metric achieved a specificity of 99.5% and marginally improved the sensitivity of previously described knowledge bases. A

  11. Self-Medication with Antibiotics, Attitude and Knowledge of Antibiotic Resistance among Community Residents and Undergraduate Students in Northwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumide Ajibola

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to evaluate self-medicated antibiotics and knowledge of antibiotic resistance among undergraduate students and community members in northern Nigeria. Antibiotic consumption pattern, source of prescription, illnesses commonly treated, attitude towards antibiotics, and knowledge of antibiotic resistance were explored using a structured questionnaire. Responses were analyzed and summarized using descriptive statistics. Of the 1230 respondents from undergraduate students and community members, prescription of antibiotics by a physician was 33% and 57%, respectively, amongst undergraduate students and community members. We tested the respondents’ knowledge of antibiotic resistance (ABR and found that undergraduate students displayed less knowledge that self-medication could lead to ABR (32.6% and 42.2% respectively. Self-medication with antibiotics is highly prevalent in Northwest Nigeria, with most medicines being purchased from un-licensed stores without prescription from a physician. We also observed a significant gap in respondents’ knowledge of ABR. There is an urgent need for public health authorities in Nigeria to enforce existing laws on antibiotics sales and enlighten the people on the dangers of ABR.

  12. Evaluation of knowledge, practices, and possible barriers among healthcare providers regarding medical waste management in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Mohammad Abul Bashar; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md; Hirosawa, Tomoya; Abdul Hai, Md Shaheen Bin; Siddique, Md Ruhul Furkan; Sakamoto, Junichi; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2014-12-09

    Improper handling of medical wastes, which is common in Bangladesh, could adversely affect the hospital environment and community at large, and poses a serious threat to public health. We aimed to assess the knowledge and practices regarding medical waste management (MWM) among healthcare providers (HCPs) and to identify possible barriers related to it. A cross-sectional study was carried out during June to September, 2012 including 1 tertiary, 3 secondary, and 3 primary level hospitals in Dhaka division, Bangladesh through 2-stage cluster sampling. Data were collected from 625 HCPs, including 245 medical doctors, 220 nurses, 44 technologists, and 116 cleaning staff who were directly involved in MWM using a self-administered (researcher-administered for cleaning staff), semi-structured questionnaire. Nearly one-third of medical doctors and nurses and two-thirds of technologists and cleaning staff had inadequate knowledge, and about half of medical doctors (44.0%) and cleaning staff (56.0%) had poor practices. HCPs without prior training on MWM were more likely to have poor practices compared to those who had training. Lack of personal protective equipment, equipment for final disposal, MWM-related staff, proper policy/guideline, and lack of incinerator were identified as the top 5 barriers. Strengthening and expansion of ongoing educational programs/training is necessary to improve knowledge and practices regarding MWM. The government should take necessary steps and provide financial support to eliminate the possible barriers related to proper MWM.

  13. Dentistry in ancient mesopotamia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiburger, E J

    2000-01-01

    Sumer, an empire in ancient Mesopotamia (southern Iraq), is well known as the cradle of our modern civilization and the home of biblical Abraham. An analysis of skeletal remains from cemeteries at the ancient cities of Ur and Kish (circa 2000 B.C.), show a genetically homogeneous, diseased, and short-lived population. These ancient Mesopotamians suffered severe dental attrition (95 percent), periodontal disease (42 percent), and caries (2 percent). Many oral congenital and neoplastic lesions were noted. During this period, the "local dentists" knew only a few modern dental techniques. Skeletal (dental) evidence indicates that the population suffered from chronic malnutrition. Malnutrition was probably caused by famine, which is substantiated in historic cuneiform and biblical writings, geologic strata samples, and analysis of skeletal and forensic dental pathology. These people had modern dentition but relatively poor dental health. The population's lack of malocclusions, caries, and TMJ problems appear to be due to flat plane occlusion.

  14. Medical knowledge packages and their integration into health-care information systems and the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Rappelsberger, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Software-based medical knowledge packages (MKPs) are packages of highly structured medical knowledge that can be integrated into various health-care information systems or the World Wide Web. They have been established to provide different forms of clinical decision support such as textual interpretation of combinations of laboratory rest results, generating diagnostic hypotheses as well as confirmed and excluded diagnoses to support differential diagnosis in internal medicine, or for early identification and automatic monitoring of hospital-acquired infections. Technically, an MKP may consist of a number of inter-connected Arden Medical Logic Modules. Several MKPs have been integrated thus far into hospital, laboratory, and departmental information systems. This has resulted in useful and widely accepted software-based clinical decision support for the benefit of the patient, the physician, and the organization funding the health care system.

  15. Survey of the Attitude to, the Knowledge and the Practice of Contraception and Medical Abortion in Women Who Attended a Family Planning Clinic

    OpenAIRE

    K.M., Umashankar; M.N., Dharmavijaya; Kumar D.E., Jayanta; K., Kala; Nagure, Abed Gulab; Ramadevi,

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the attitude to, the knowledge and practice of contraception and medical abortion in women attending the family planning clinic at the mvj medical college , hosakote , Bangalore, India.

  16. Differences in medication knowledge and risk of errors between graduating nursing students and working registered nurses: comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Bjoerg O; Daehlin, Gro K; Johansson, Inger; Farup, Per G

    2014-11-21

    Nurses experience insufficient medication knowledge; particularly in drug dose calculations, but also in drug management and pharmacology. The weak knowledge could be a result of deficiencies in the basic nursing education, or lack of continuing maintenance training during working years. The aim of this study was to compare the medication knowledge, certainty and risk of error between graduating bachelor students in nursing and experienced registered nurses. Bachelor students in closing term and registered nurses with at least one year job experience underwent a multiple choice test in pharmacology, drug management and drug dose calculations: 3x14 questions with 3-4 alternative answers (score 0-42). Certainty of each answer was recorded with score 0-3, 0-1 indicating need for assistance. Risk of error was scored 1-3, where 3 expressed high risk: being certain that a wrong answer was correct. The results are presented as mean and (SD). Participants were 243 graduating students (including 29 men), aged 28.2 (7.6) years, and 203 registered nurses (including 16 men), aged 42.0 (9.3) years and with a working experience of 12.4 years (9.2). The knowledge among the nurses was found to be superior to that of the students: 68.9%(8.0) and 61.5%(7.8) correct answers, respectively, (p error was lower, both overall and for each topic (p error was associated with high knowledge and high sense of coping (p error. More emphasis should be put into the basic nursing education and in the introduction to medication procedures in clinical practice to improve the nurses' medication knowledge and reduce the risk of error.

  17. Knowledge and provision practices regarding medical abortion among public providers in Hanoi, Khanh Hoa, and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Thoai D; Free, Caroline; Le, Hoan T; Edwards, Phil; Pham, Kiet H T; Nguyen, Yen B T; Nguyen, Thang H

    2014-03-01

    To assess public service providers' knowledge of medical abortion (MA) and practices, and perspectives on expanding the use of MA to primary and secondary health facilities in Vietnam. A cross-sectional study was conducted via an interviewer-administered questionnaire among abortion providers (n=905) from public health facilities between August 2011 and January 2012. Overall, 31.1% of providers performed both surgical and medical abortions; 68.9% offered only surgical abortion. Providers were knowledgeable about the regimen/dosage of mifepristone plus misoprostol regimen; however, knowledge scores were low for gestational age limits for MA, adverse effects of the combined drug regimen, and safety and effectiveness of MA compared with surgical abortion. Knowledge scores were significantly lower among providers in rural areas than among those in urban settings. A large proportion of providers (82.9%) thought that MA should be expanded to primary and secondary health facilities. Perceived barriers to MA expansion included lack of knowledge and training, qualified staff, adequate drug supplies, equipment, or facilities, guidelines and protocols on MA, and patient awareness. Provision of MA in Vietnam was found to be disproportionate to surgical abortion provision and to vary by region. Knowledge of MA was moderate, but poorer among providers in rural settings. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. All rights reserved.

  18. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Residents in Patient Training at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirala Aghbali

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and skill of clinical residents in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, northwestern Iran, (as the future specialists, as well as their attitudes on the necessity of patient education, and the practice and responsibility of the residents in this field. Methods: Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of a random selection of 380 clinical residents at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences were assessed in 2011 through a comprehensive questionnaire about education. The data were analyzed using SPSS software.Results: There was no significant relationship between the two variables of sex and study period and the knowledge variable during the residency. However, there was a significant positive correlation between knowledge and age variables (P<0.05. The level of knowledge rose with aging because the amount of the model significance was less than0.05. Besides, the coefficient of sex was positive by regression analysis. There was no significant relationship between the previous variables and attitude variable. No significant relationship was seen between the previ¬ous variables and practice variable. Conclusion: The influence of age, sex, and year of study was apparent in the knowledge of the residents, but no considerable influence was shown in their practices and attitudes. Some educational strategies are needed to improve the practices and attitudes of the training group.

  19. Adherence to pharmacological pain therapy in patients with nonmalignant pain: the role of patients' knowledge of pain medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Leon; Stellema, Rudolf; Stronks, Dirk L; Groeneweg, George; Huygen, Frank J P M

    2014-11-01

    Nonadherence to pharmacological therapy is a common and underexposed problem in patients with chronic nonmalignant pain. It may lead to treatment failure and increased healthcare costs. In this prospective observational study we analyzed the association between knowledge and adherence in the chronic nonmalignant pain population. We included 96 patients treated with a new pharmacological prescription. During the initial visit (T0), demographic variables, pain intensity, knowledge of the prescription (name, dose, and frequency), self-reported adherence to the prescription, and general knowledge of pharmacological pain therapy (according to the Pain Knowledge Questionnaire, Dutch Language Version (PKQ-DLV) were recorded. During two follow-up visits (T1, T2), apart from demographics, these parameters were measured again. Adherence rates were 42%, 42%, and 46% at T0, T1 and T2, respectively. 53%, 59%, and 48% of patients had knowledge of their current prescription, and mean scores on the PKQ-DLV were 56, 55, and 52 percent of the maximum scores, respectively, at T0, T1 and T2. A multivariate binary logistic regression analysis resulted in a significant contribution of knowledge of the prescription and of age to the prediction of adherence. Knowledge of the analgesic prescription is associated with adherence and significantly contributes to the prediction of adherence to analgesic therapy. An interventional study is needed to determine whether increasing knowledge will improve medication adherence and therapy outcome in patients with chronic nonmalignant pain. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  20. Plastic surgery in the Norwegian undergraduate medical curriculum: students' knowledge and attitudes. A nationwide case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeland, Stian K; Guttormsen, Anne Berit; de Weerd, Louis; Nordgaard, Håvard B; Freccero, Carolin; Hansson, Emma

    2017-04-01

    Changes in medical education have resulted in less available time for plastic surgery, which might jeopardise the availability of plastic surgery for patients. The aims of this study were to investigate the level of knowledge within and attitudes towards plastic surgery among medical students, and find predictors for a wish to pursue a career in plastic surgery. A previously used questionnaire was sent to all clinical medical students. Law students were used as a control group. Thirty per cent of all clinical medical students in the country responded. The majority of students considered education in plastic surgery valuable/very valuable and 23% were considering it as a career. Nonetheless, about half of the students were unaware of the plastic surgical education at their faculty and reported non-academic sources of learning. Only 44% of medical students were able to name five common plastic surgical procedures and 8% were unable to name any. Law students were superior to medical students in the task (p = 0.005). Forty-two per cent of medical students were successful in indicating on which body parts plastic surgeons operate, whereas law students were less successful (p = 0.001). Male gender and positive valuing of clinical attachment could predict a wish for a career in plastic surgery. In some aspects, medical students are only as knowledgeable as their non-medical peers. These results call for higher quality plastic surgery teaching, to secure referral of the correct patients and successful specialist recruitment to plastic surgery.

  1. Knowledge, attitudes and proposals of medical students concerning transplantations in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore Dardavessis

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The need for further informative actions stressing the importance of organ donations appears to be the only way to increase transplantations in our country and towards this direction medical students could also be activated. A new medical curriculum should increase medical students′ awareness of the organ shortage problem. Public education is recommended to correct misconceptions.

  2. Relationship between knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy on the radiation safety management of radiation workers in medical institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eun Ok

    2007-01-01

    Radiation safety managements in medical institutions are needed to protect certain radiation damages as a part of National Coalition. This study investigates the characteristics of self-efficacy that become the major factor on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior on the radiation safety management of radiation workers as an approach of educational aspects and analyzes the relationship between such factors to provide basic materials for improving the activity level of radiation safety managements. In order to implement the goal of this study, a survey was performed for 1,200 workers who were engaged in radiation treatments in medical centers, such as general hospital, university hospital, private hospital, and public health center for 42 days from July 23, 2006. Then, the results of the analysis can be summarized as follows: 1. Average scores on knowledge, attitude, and behavior in the radiation safety management were presented as 75.76±11.20, 90.55±8.59, 80.58±11.70, respectively. Also, the average score of self-efficacy was recorded as 73.55±9.82. 2. Knowledge levels in the radiation safety management showed significant differences according to the sex, age, marriage, education, and experience. Also, males of married, older, highly educated, and largely experienced represented high knowledge levels. Attitude levels in the radiation safety management showed certain significant differences according to the type of medical centers in which private hospitals showed a relatively low level compared to that of high levels in university hospitals. Behavior levels in the radiation safety management also represented significant differences according to the age, marriage, education, experience, and types of medical centers. Factors in married, general hospital, older, highly educated, and largely experienced showed high behavior levels. In addition, the self-efficacy showed certain differences according to the marriage and types of medical centers. Factors in married

  3. Relationship between knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy on the radiation safety management of radiation workers in medical institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Ok [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Radiation safety managements in medical institutions are needed to protect certain radiation damages as a part of National Coalition. This study investigates the characteristics of self-efficacy that become the major factor on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior on the radiation safety management of radiation workers as an approach of educational aspects and analyzes the relationship between such factors to provide basic materials for improving the activity level of radiation safety managements. In order to implement the goal of this study, a survey was performed for 1,200 workers who were engaged in radiation treatments in medical centers, such as general hospital, university hospital, private hospital, and public health center for 42 days from July 23, 2006. Then, the results of the analysis can be summarized as follows: 1. Average scores on knowledge, attitude, and behavior in the radiation safety management were presented as 75.76{+-}11.20, 90.55{+-}8.59, 80.58{+-}11.70, respectively. Also, the average score of self-efficacy was recorded as 73.55{+-}9.82. 2. Knowledge levels in the radiation safety management showed significant differences according to the sex, age, marriage, education, and experience. Also, males of married, older, highly educated, and largely experienced represented high knowledge levels. Attitude levels in the radiation safety management showed certain significant differences according to the type of medical centers in which private hospitals showed a relatively low level compared to that of high levels in university hospitals. Behavior levels in the radiation safety management also represented significant differences according to the age, marriage, education, experience, and types of medical centers. Factors in married, general hospital, older, highly educated, and largely experienced showed high behavior levels. In addition, the self-efficacy showed certain differences according to the marriage and types of medical centers. Factors in

  4. Ancient Chinese Precedents in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geddis, Robert

    1999-01-01

    ... classics from ancient china. The assumption is that since China's political and military leaders state openly that their strategy is based on traditional Chinese strategic concepts, a study of ancient classics on strategy...

  5. Knowledge and attitude regarding euthanasia among medical students in the public and private medical schools of Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Wafa; Ahmad, Farah; Malik, Aisha; Ali, Saba

    2013-02-01

    To assess the awareness about and perception of euthanasia among medical students of Karachi. The cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2011 to March 2012 among students of private-sector and one public-sector medical college in Karachi. Data was analysed using SPSS version 17, and associations were worked out using chi-square test. Out of the 493 students, 226 (46%) were from the matriculation system and 194 (39%) from the Cambridge system, while the remaining 15% were from the American High School. The male-female ratio was 1:3. There were 284 (58%) students from the private medical college. Majority of the private medical school students (n = 284; 99.6%) knew about euthanasia, compared to the public-sector facility where only 161 (77%) knew of it. Of the total, 405 (82%) students agreed that it is physician-assisted suicide; 255 (52%) agreed to the idea of palliative care, claiming it was sufficient to maintain life; 226 (54%) disagreed that a doctor should not be allowed to administer a lethal dose while only 162 (33%) agreed to the idea of it; 285 (58%) disagreed that a law regarding the practice of euthanasia should not be introduced, whereas 134 (27%) agreed to it; 70 (14%) agreed to the practice of euthanasia, while 311 (63%) disagreed, mostly for religious reasons. The awareness of euthanasia was high, but a very small proportion of students approved of it. There is need to include palliative care and euthanasia in the Behavioural Science module in the under-graduation programme of both public and private medical schools.

  6. Knowledge, attitude and anxiety pertaining to basic life support and medical emergencies among dental interns in Mangalore City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somaraj, Vinej; Shenoy, Rekha P; Panchmal, Ganesh Shenoy; Jodalli, Praveen S; Sonde, Laxminarayan; Karkal, Ravichandra

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and anxiety pertaining to basic life support (BLS) and medical emergencies among interns in dental colleges of Mangalore city, Karnataka, India. The study subjects comprised of interns who volunteered from the four dental colleges. The knowledge and attitude of interns were assessed using a 30-item questionnaire prepared based on the Basic Life Support Manual from American Heart Association and the anxiety of interns pertaining to BLS and medical emergencies were assessed using a State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) Questionnaire. Chi-square test was performed on SPSS 21.0 (IBM Statistics, 2012) to determine statistically significant differences ( P basic life support procedures. Assessment of stress showed a total of 27.1% participants to be above high-stress level. Comparison of assessed knowledge and stress was found to be insignificant ( P =0.983). There was an evident lack of knowledge pertaining to the management of medical emergencies among the interns. As oral health care providers moving out to the society, a focus should be placed on the training of dental interns with respect to Basic Life Support procedures.

  7. Survey of the knowledge, perception, and attitude of medical students at the University of Leeds toward organ donation and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, K K; Hakeem, A R; Dave, R; Lewington, A; Sanfey, H; Ahmad, N

    2015-03-01

    The shortage of organ donors is the key rate-limiting factor for organ transplantation in the United Kingdom. Many strategies have been proposed to increase donation; one strategy aims to improve awareness of organ donation and transplantation (ODT) among medical students. This survey seeks to investigate the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of the medical students in the United Kingdom toward ODT and the curriculum content. A 32-item online questionnaire was distributed to 957 medical students at the University of Leeds (October to December 2012). There were 216 (22.6%) respondents. Students were aware of kidney, heart, and liver transplantation (91.6%, 88.8%, and 86.5%). Awareness of small intestine (36.7%) and islet of Langerhans (33.0%) transplantation was poor. Students understood the term "brain stem death" (82.3%); however, they lacked understanding of criteria used for brain stem death testing (75.8%). Their perceptions and attitudes were favorable toward ODT; 43.3% of the students were unhappy with their current knowledge, and 87.6% of the students agree that ODT teaching should be included in the curriculum. Students have a basic understanding of ODT but lack detailed knowledge. They accept its importance and desire further teaching to supplement their current knowledge to be able to understand the issues related to ODT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Awareness, Attitude, and Knowledge of Basic Life Support among Medical, Dental, and Nursing Faculties and Students in the University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangamesh, N C; Vidya, K C; Pathi, Jugajyoti; Singh, Arpita

    2017-01-01

    To assess the awareness, attitude, and knowledge about basic life support (BLS) among medical, dental, and nursing students and faculties and the proposal of BLS skills in the academic curriculum of undergraduate (UG) course. Recognition, prevention, and effective management of life-threatening emergencies are the responsibility of health-care professionals. These situations can be successfully managed by proper knowledge and training of the BLS skills. These life-saving maneuvers can be given through the structured resuscitation programs, which are lacking in the academic curriculum. A questionnaire study consisting of 20 questions was conducted among 659 participants in the Kalinga Institute of Dental Sciences, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, KIIT University. Medical junior residents, BDS faculties, interns, nursing faculties, and 3 rd -year and final-year UG students from both medical and dental colleges were chosen. The statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS software version 20.0 (Armonk, NY:IBM Corp). After collecting the data, the values were statistically analyzed and tabulated. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney U-test. The results with P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Our participants were aware of BLS, showed positive attitude toward it, whereas the knowledge about BLS was lacking, with the statistically significant P value. By introducing BLS regularly in the academic curriculum and by routine hands on workshops, all the health-care providers should be well versed with the BLS skills for effectively managing the life-threatening emergencies.

  9. Personal profile of medical students selected through a knowledge-based exam only: are we missing suitable students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Abbiati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A consistent body of literature highlights the importance of a broader approach to select medical school candidates both assessing cognitive capacity and individual characteristics. However, selection in a great number of medical schools worldwide is still based on knowledge exams, a procedure that might neglect students with needed personal characteristics for future medical practice. We investigated whether the personal profile of students selected through a knowledge-based exam differed from those not selected. Methods: Students applying for medical school (N=311 completed questionnaires assessing motivations for becoming a doctor, learning approaches, personality traits, empathy, and coping styles. Selection was based on the results of MCQ tests. Principal component analysis was used to draw a profile of the students. Differences between selected and non-selected students were examined by Multivariate ANOVAs, and their impact on selection by logistic regression analysis. Results: Students demonstrating a profile of diligence with higher conscientiousness, deep learning approach, and task-focused coping were more frequently selected (p=0.01. Other personal characteristics such as motivation, sociability, and empathy did not significantly differ, comparing selected and non-selected students. Conclusion: Selection through a knowledge-based exam privileged diligent students. It did neither advantage nor preclude candidates with a more humane profile.

  10. Mathematics in Ancient India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this series of articles, we intend to have a glimpse of some of the landmarks in ancient In- dian mathematics with special emphasis on num- ber theory. This issue features a brief overview of some of the high peaks of mathematics in an- cient India. In the next part we shall describe. Aryabhata's general solution in integers ...

  11. Printing Ancient Terracotta Warriors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadecki, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    Standing in awe in Xian, China, at the Terra Cotta warrior archaeological site, the author thought of sharing this experience and excitement with her sixth-grade students. She decided to let her students carve patterns of the ancient soldiers to understand their place in Chinese history. They would make block prints and print multiple soldiers on…

  12. Ancient Egypt: History 380.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Laraine D.

    "Ancient Egypt," an upper-division, non-required history course covering Egypt from pre-dynastic time through the Roman domination is described. General descriptive information is presented first, including the method of grading, expectation of student success rate, long-range course objectives, procedures for revising the course, major…

  13. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  14. Mathematics in Ancient India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Number Theory for its own sake, as a great 'intellectual challenge, has a long history, particularly here in India. Already in the 7th century, Brahmagupta made impor- tant contributions to what is now known (incorrectly) as. Pell's equation.: Michael Atiyah ([1], p.913). In number theory, the grandest achievements of ancient.

  15. Ancient deforestation revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J Donald

    2011-01-01

    The image of the classical Mediterranean environment of the Greeks and Romans had a formative influence on the art, literature, and historical perception of modern Europe and America. How closely does is this image congruent with the ancient environment as it in reality existed? In particular, how forested was the ancient Mediterranean world, was there deforestation, and if so, what were its effects? The consensus of historians, geographers, and other scholars from the mid-nineteenth century through the first three quarters of the twentieth century was that human activities had depleted the forests to a major extent and caused severe erosion. My research confirmed this general picture. Since then, revisionist historians have questioned these conclusions, maintaining instead that little environmental damage was done to forests and soils in ancient Greco-Roman times. In a reconsideration of the question, this paper looks at recent scientific work providing proxy evidence for the condition of forests at various times in ancient history. I look at three scientific methodologies, namely anthracology, palynology, and computer modeling. Each of these avenues of research offers support for the concept of forest change, both in abundance and species composition, and episodes of deforestation and erosion, and confirms my earlier work.

  16. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  17. Mathematics in Ancient India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SERIES I ARTICLE. Mathematics in Ancient India. 3. Brahmagupta's Lemma: The Samasabhavana. Amartya Kumar Dutta is an Associate Professor of. Mathematics at the. Indian Statistical. Institute, Kolkata. His research interest is in commutative algebra. Part 1, An overview, Reso- nance, VoL7, No.4, pp.4-19,. 2002. Part 2.

  18. Incest in Ancient Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škorić Marko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many controversies that surround the problem of incest in Ancient Egypt. One of them is belief that incest was practiced exclusively by the Royal families, which is incorrect. I will try to show that at this time we don’t have satisfactory explanation of this kind of behavior, but that there are interesting suggestions for further research.

  19. Ancient ports of Kalinga

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    which plied between Kalinga and south east Asian countries. Nanda Raja, is said to have attacked Kalinga with the intention of getting access to the sea for the landlocked Kingdom of Magadha (Bihar). The ancient texa Artha Sastra (3rd-4th century B...

  20. Assessing residents’ knowledge of patient satisfaction: a cross-sectional study at a large academic medical centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Diana E; Dang, Bich N; Trautner, Barbara; Cai, Cecilia; Torres, Sergio; Turner, Teri

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Patient satisfaction impacts healthcare quality and outcomes. Residents play an important role in patient satisfaction at academic institutions. This study aims to assess residents’ patient satisfaction knowledge and determine which learning experiences contributed to their knowledge acquisition. Settings This study was conducted at a health science university in a large, urban, tertiary-care academic medical centre in the USA. Participants All residents from internal medicine (n=185) and paediatrics (n=156) were asked to participate. Design Residents completed a survey from April 2013 to December 2013 that assessed (1) knowledge of factors that impact patient satisfaction and (2) learning experiences that may have contributed to their understanding of the drivers of patient satisfaction (eg, experiential (personal or clinical) or didactics). Trainees identified the importance of factors in determining patient satisfaction on a five-point Likert scale; answers were compiled into a knowledge score. The score was correlated with prior personal/clinical experience and didactics. Results Of the 341 residents, 247 (72%) completed the survey. No difference was found in knowledge among training levels or residency programme. More than 50% incorrectly thought physician board certification, patient’s education, patient’s income and physician’s age impacted satisfaction. Personal experience, through hospitalisation of a relative or friend, was correlated with higher knowledge (67% vs 71%, p=0.03). Ninety-nine per cent (n=238) stated peer observation, and all stated faculty feedback impacted their patient satisfaction knowledge. Seventy-seven per cent (n=185) had attended didactics on satisfaction, but attendance did not correlate with higher scores. Conclusions Our study showed trainees have a few gaps in their patient satisfaction knowledge, and attending past educational sessions on patient satisfaction did not correlate with higher knowledge scores. Our

  1. Are Expectations Too High for Transitioning Adolescents With Inflammatory Bowel Disease? Examining Adult Medication Knowledge and Self-Management Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Laurie N; Mitchell, Paul D; Lakin, Paul R; Masciarelli, Lisa; Flier, Sarah N

    2016-11-01

    Transition readiness assessment has focused attention on adolescent knowledge and skills, but data-driven benchmarks have not been established. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ages 25 to 50 years, attending an outpatient gastroenterology clinic, were recruited to complete a voluntary, confidential survey asking patients to recall medications and potential side effects, and to rate their degree of independence performing health maintenance tasks. The 141 respondents (48% response rate) had mean age of 36 years with median disease duration of 11 years. They were 60% female, 54% had Crohn disease, and 23% were diagnosed before age 18. Nearly all patients were fully independent answering doctor's questions during the visit (93%) and scheduling office visits (92%). Excluding pharmacy pick up, full independence seen in only 57%, whereas 16% significantly delegated tasks. No differences by sex, disease type, medication class, age at disease onset, or disease duration were found across levels of self-management. Almost all (97%) respondents could recall medication name, whereas fewer were able to recall dose (63%) or frequency (65%). Side effect knowledge was poor; among 81 patients on a biologic or immunomodulator, only 17 (21%) cited cancer and 22 (27%) cited infection. Adolescent IBD transition programs now have empirical data from the present study about adult benchmarks for independence in self-management skills. Further research can establish which skills correlate with medication adherence and active collaboration with the medical team. The present study also exposes important gaps in medication risk knowledge and may allow improved patient education for subgroups of adult patients with IBD.

  2. An approach to enrich online medical Problem-Based Learning with tacit healthcare knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Yu-N; Rashid, Faridah Abdul; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2003-01-01

    Existing Problem-Based Learning (PBL) problems, though suitable in their own right for teaching purposes, are limited in their potential to evolve by themselves and to create new knowledge. Presently, they are based on textbook examples of past cases and/or cases that have been transcribed by a clinician. In this paper, we present (a) a tacit healthcare knowledge representation formalism called Healthcare Scenarios, (b) the relevance of healthcare scenarios in PBL in healthcare and medicine, (c) a novel PBL-Scenario-based tacit knowledge explication strategy and (d) an online PBL Problem Composer and Presenter (PBL-Online) to facilitate the acquisition and utilisation of expert-quality tacit healthcare knowledge to enrich online PBL. We employ a confluence of healthcare knowledge management tools and Internet technologies to bring tacit healthcare knowledge-enriched PBL to a global and yet more accessible level.

  3. An Assessment of the Knowledge and Attitudes of Graduating Medical Students in Lagos, Nigeria, Regarding Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozoh, Obianuju B; Iwuala, Sandra O; Desalu, Olufemi O; Ojo, Oluwadamilola O; Okubadejo, Njideka U

    2015-09-01

    Symptom scores show that a significant proportion of Nigerians are at high risk of developing obstructive sleep apnea; however, the diagnosis is rarely made in this country. The knowledge of medical students regarding sleep apnea may provide insight into their future ability to recognize patients with sleep apnea and can also inform student education on this disease. To assess the knowledge and attitudes of graduating medical students in Nigeria regarding obstructive sleep apnea using a standard validated questionnaire. This descriptive, cross-sectional survey study was performed at the College of Medicine of the University of Lagos, Nigeria. The Obstructive Sleep Apnea Knowledge and Attitude (OSAKA) instrument was self-administered by the subjects. This validated questionnaire consists of 18 knowledge assessment questions and 5 attitude assessment questions. The response rate was 99%, and our final sample comprised 143 participants. The maximum achievable knowledge score was 18. Obtained scores ranged from 0 to 15; the mean ± SD score was 7.6 ± 3.2 (42.2%); and the median score was 8 (interquartile range, 6-10). Four participants (2.8%) had a score of 0, and 56 (39.2%) had a score corresponding to ≥50%. There was no significant difference in knowledge scores by sex or age. Regarding attitudes, over 80% considered obstructive sleep apnea an important disorder; 41% were confident in identifying patients with the condition; 16.1% were confident in managing the disease; and 16.8% expressed confidence in managing patients receiving continuous positive airway pressure therapy. The total attitude score ranged from 1 to 5 (mean, 2.9 ± 0.7). There was a significant correlation between the total attitude score and the total knowledge score (r = 0.22, P = 0.01) and the age of the participants (r = 0.18, P = 0.04). The level of knowledge of obstructive sleep apnea among medical students at the Nigerian university in our study was not optimal

  4. Social Workers’ Knowledge and Perceptions of Effectiveness and Acceptability of Medication Assisted Treatment of Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bride, Brian E.; Abraham, Amanda J.; Kintzle, Sara; Roman, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Data from a national study of 345 privately-funded, community-based substance use disorder (SUD) treatment centers was used to investigate social workers’ knowledge, perceptions of effectiveness, and perceptions of the acceptability of medication assisted treatments (MATs) for SUDs. Results reveal the importance of exposure to MATs for social workers to develop a knowledge base regarding the effectiveness of various pharmacological agents. Results also underline the importance of social workers’ perceptions of effectiveness in forming opinions regarding the acceptability of the use of MATs in SUD treatment. Lastly, a 12-step orientation towards treatment has a negative influence on social workers’ opinions regarding the acceptability of MATs. PMID:23301934

  5. Social workers' knowledge and perceptions of effectiveness and acceptability of medication assisted treatment of substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bride, Brian E; Abraham, Amanda J; Kintzle, Sara; Roman, Paul M

    2013-01-01

    Data from a national study of 345 privately funded, community-based substance use disorder (SUD) treatment centers were used to investigate social workers' knowledge, perceptions of effectiveness, and perceptions of the acceptability of medication assisted treatments (MATs) for SUDs. Results reveal the importance of exposure to MATs for social workers to develop a knowledge base regarding the effectiveness of various pharmacological agents. Results also underline the importance of social workers' perceptions of effectiveness in forming opinions regarding the acceptability of the use of MATs in SUD treatment. Lastly, a 12-Step orientation toward treatment has a negative influence on social workers' opinions regarding the acceptability of MATs.

  6. Physician-assisted suicide, euthanasia and palliative sedation: attitudes and knowledge of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anneser, Johanna; Jox, Ralf J; Thurn, Tamara; Borasio, Gian Domenico

    2016-01-01

    In November 2015, the German Federal Parliament voted on a new legal regulation regarding assisted suicide. It was decided to amend the German Criminal Code so that any "regular, repetitive offer" (even on a non-profit basis) of assistance in suicide would now be considered a punishable offense. On July 2, 2015, a date which happened to be accompanied by great media interest in that it was the day that the first draft of said law was presented to Parliament, we surveyed 4th year medical students at the Technical University Munich on "physician-assisted suicide," "euthanasia" and "palliative sedation," based on a fictitious case vignette study. The vignette study described two versions of a case in which a patient suffered from a nasopharyngeal carcinoma (physical suffering subjectively perceived as being unbearable vs. emotional suffering). The students were asked about the current legal norms for each respective course of action as well as their attitudes towards the ethical acceptability of these measures. Out of 301 students in total, 241 (80%) participated in the survey; 109 answered the version 1 questionnaire (physical suffering) and 132 answered the version 2 questionnaire (emotional suffering). The majority of students were able to assess the currently prevailing legal norms on palliative sedation (legal) and euthanasia (illegal) correctly (81.2% and 93.7%, respectively), while only a few students knew that physician-assisted suicide, at that point in time, did not constitute a criminal offense. In the case study that was presented, 83.3% of the participants considered palliative sedation and the simultaneous withholding of artificial nutrition and hydration as ethically acceptable, 51.2% considered physician-assisted suicide ethically legitimate, and 19.2% considered euthanasia ethically permissible. When comparing the results of versions 1 and 2, a significant difference could only be seen in the assessment of the legality of palliative sedation: it was

  7. The Inca healer: empirical medical knowledge and magic in pre-Columbian Peru

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    Elferink, Jan G. R.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of medical practitioners among the Incas is addressed, based on archeological findings and especially the writings of the Spanish chroniclers. In Inca medicine a large role was reserved for religion and magic but at the same time an extensive knowledge of medicinal plants was available. As a consequence there were several types of healers who cured with a mixture of medicinal plants and religious-magic ceremonies. The hampicamayoc or ‘official in charge of medicines’ was the one who resembled somewhat the European physician of that time and was the most important type of healer. He relied largely but certainly not exclusively on the use of medicinal plants. There were also healers who cured mainly with religious-magic procedures. Surgery must have been important for the Inca healer but this is hardly reflected in the work of the Spanish chroniclers.La posición social de los profesionales de la medicina en la Cultura Inca se conoce gracias a los hallazgos arqueológicos y, sobre todo, gracias a los escritos de los cronistas españoles. En la medicina Inca, la religión y la magia ocupaban un papel destacado, aunque también era importante el conocimiento de las plantas medicinales. En consecuencia, existieron distintos tipos de curanderos que curaban con una mezcla más o menos mayor de plantas medicinales y ceremonias religiosas y mágicas. El hampicamayoc o «funcionario encargado de los medicamentos» sobresalía entre los curanderos y tenía cierto parecido con el médico europeo de la época. Su actuación se basaba sobre todo, aunque no exclusivamente, en el uso de plantas medicinales. Otros, en cambio, curaban básicamente con procedimientos mágicoreligiosos. La cirugía debió ser importante para el sanador Inca pero este hecho apenas se refleja en la obra de los cronistas españoles.

  8. Effect of High-Fidelity Simulation on Medical Students' Knowledge about Advanced Life Support: A Randomized Study.

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    Andrea Cortegiani

    Full Text Available High-fidelity simulation (HFS is a learning method which has proven effective in medical education for technical and non-technical skills. However, its effectiveness for knowledge acquisition is less validated. We performed a randomized study with the primary aim of investigating whether HFS, in association with frontal lessons, would improve knowledge about advanced life support (ALS, in comparison to frontal lessons only among medical students. The secondary aims were to evaluate the effect of HFS on knowledge acquisition of different sections of ALS and personal knowledge perception. Participants answered a pre-test questionnaire consisting of a subjective (evaluating personal perception of knowledge and an objective section (measuring level of knowledge containing 100 questions about algorithms, technical skills, team working/early warning scores/communication strategies according to ALS guidelines. All students participated in 3 frontal lessons before being randomized in group S, undergoing a HFS session, and group C, receiving no further interventions. After 10 days from the end of each intervention, both groups answered a questionnaire (post-test with the same subjective section but a different objective one. The overall number of correct answers of the post-test was significantly higher in group S (mean 74.1, SD 11.2 than in group C (mean 65.5, SD 14.3, p = 0.0017, 95% C.I. 3.34 - 13.9. A significantly higher number of correct answers was reported in group S than in group C for questions investigating knowledge of algorithms (p = 0.0001; 95% C.I 2.22-5.99 and team working/early warning scores/communication strategies (p = 0.0060; 95% C.I 1.13-6.53. Students in group S showed a significantly higher score in the post-test subjective section (p = 0.0074. A lower proportion of students in group S confirmed their perception of knowledge compared to group C (p = 0.0079. HFS showed a beneficial effect on knowledge of ALS among medical students

  9. Ancient Egypt in our Cultural Heritage?

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    Vera Vasiljević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Inspiration derived from ancient Egypt is usually expressed through the Egyptian motifs in arts and popular culture of the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as through the non-scientific interpretations of the culture, very much based upon the Renaissance ones. The number and variety of material and non-material traces of this fascination are most expressed in the countries where, along with the early support for the institutional development of Egyptology, there existed economically potent educated middle classes (Western and Central Europe, USA, but may also be traced elsewhere. The public fascination by ancient Egypt has not ceased by the times of foundation of Egyptology, marked by the decipherment of the hieroglyphic script in 1822. Until the end of the 20th century Egyptologists have rarely dealt with the prelude to their discipline, limiting their interest to the critical approach to ancient sources and to noting the attempts to interpret the hieroglyphic script and the function of pyramids. However, the rising importance of the reception studies in other disciplines raised the interest of Egyptologists for the "fascination of Egypt", thus changing the status of various modes of expressing "Egyptomania" – they have thus become a part of the cultural heritage, registered, documented, preserved and studied. The research of this kind is only beginning in Serbia. The line of inquiry enhances the knowledge of the scope, manifestations and roles of the interest in Egypt, not limited by the national or political borders. On the other hand, the existence of the cultural heritage similar to the wider European view of ancient Egypt – short remarks by Jerotej Račanin, Kandor by Atanasije Stojković, the usage of architectural motifs derived from Egypt, the emergence of small private collections, to mention several early examples – all show that the research into the reception of ancient Egypt may contribute to the knowledge about the history

  10. Continuing medical education effect on physician knowledge application and psychomotor skills: effectiveness of continuing medical education: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Educational Guidelines.

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    O'Neil, Kevin M; Addrizzo-Harris, Doreen J

    2009-03-01

    Recommendations for optimizing continuing medical education (CME) effectiveness in improving physician application of knowledge and psychomotor skills are needed to guide the development of processes that effect physician change and improve patient care. The guideline panel reviewed evidence tables and a comprehensive review of the effectiveness of CME developed by The Johns Hopkins Evidence-based Practice Center for the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ Evidence Report). The panel considered studies relevant to the effect of CME on physician knowledge application and psychomotor skill development. From the 136 studies identified in the systematic review, 15 articles, 12 addressing physician application of knowledge and 3 addressing psychomotor skills, were identified and reviewed. Recommendations for optimizing CME were developed using the American College of Chest Physicians guideline grading system. The preponderance of evidence demonstrated improvement in physician application of knowledge with CME. The quality of evidence did not allow specific recommendations regarding optimal media or educational techniques or the effectiveness of CME in improving psychomotor skills. CME is effective in improving physician application of knowledge. Multiple exposures and longer durations of CME are recommended to optimize educational outcomes.

  11. Pathogens and host immunity in the ancient human oral cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warinner, Christina; Rodrigues, João F Matias; Vyas, Rounak

    2014-01-01

    cavity has long served as a reservoir for bacteria implicated in both local and systemic disease. We characterize (i) the ancient oral microbiome in a diseased state, (ii) 40 opportunistic pathogens, (iii) ancient human-associated putative antibiotic resistance genes, (iv) a genome reconstruction......Calcified dental plaque (dental calculus) preserves for millennia and entraps biomolecules from all domains of life and viruses. We report the first, to our knowledge, high-resolution taxonomic and protein functional characterization of the ancient oral microbiome and demonstrate that the oral...

  12. A Randomized Comparative Trial of the Knowledge Retention and Usage Conditions in Undergraduate Medical Students Using Podcasts and Blog Posts.

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    Lien, Kelly; Chin, Alvin; Helman, Anton; Chan, Teresa M

    2018-01-15

    Introduction Podcasts and blog posts have gained popularity in Free Open Access Medical education (FOAM). Previous work suggests that podcasts may be useful for knowledge acquisition in undergraduate medical education. However, there remains a paucity of research comparing the two mediums. This study aims to investigate if there are differences in knowledge acquisition and usage conditions by medical students using podcasts and blog posts. Methods Medical students were randomized to either the podcast or blog post group. They completed an initial online assessment of their baseline knowledge on the subject matter. Participants then received access to learning materials and were given four weeks to complete the follow-up assessment on their own time. Independent t-test, paired samples t-test, and a mixed ANOVA (analysis of variance) were conducted to assess knowledge acquisition. An intention-to-teach analysis was used to impute missing data from students lost to follow-up. Simple descriptive statistical data was used to describe media usage conditions. Results Completion of at least one follow-up assessment was comparable (68% podcasts (n = 21/31), 73% blog posts (n = 22/30)). Both groups showed significant improvements in their test scores, with an average 22% improvement for the podcast group and 29% for the blog post group. There was no significant statistical difference in knowledge acquisition between educational modalities overall. Students in the blog post group that completed both post-intervention quizzes showed a larger improvement than the podcast group in the toxicology topic, with similar improvements in the asthma topic. The podcast group tended to engage in multiple activities while using the learning materials (e.g. at least two to three of the following: driving, eating, chores, taking notes, exercising/walking), while the blog readers tended to do fewer activities (e.g. only one of the following: note taking, eating). Conclusion This study

  13. Knowledge, attitude, and performance of medical staff of teaching healthcare settings about hepatitis B and C in Isfahan, Iran

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    Behrooz Ataei

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Due to excessive contact with patients, a paramedic-educated society is expected to have an optimal level of knowledge, attitude, and performance related to viral hepatitis. Our results from the checklists showed that medical personnel are not appropriately aware of viral hepatitis and their performance, too, is not satisfactory. Further continuous training is required and there needs to be more emphasis on actions regarding behaviors with high risk of infection transmission.

  14. The influence of acculturation, medical mistrust, and perceived discrimination on knowledge about blood donation and blood donation status.

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    Renzaho, Andre M N; Polonsky, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this research was to assess whether perceived discrimination, the level of acculturation, and medical mistrust are associated with knowledge about blood donation processes and blood donation status. This cross-sectional study involved 425 African migrants recruited in Melbourne and Adelaide, Australia. Participants were surveyed face-to-face using bilingual workers to maximize the inclusion across different levels of literacy in the community. In the adjusted model, the scores for knowledge about blood donation were positively associated with a longer stay in Australia (β = 0.12, p = 0.001), significantly higher among those with a tertiary education (β = 0.75; p = 0.049), those who came from rural areas (β = 1.54, p = 0.015), and Christians (β = 1.83, p < 0.01) but significantly lower among those from the western African region (β = -1.10, p = 0.032). Scores for knowledge about blood donation were lower among those who were marginalized (β = -1.01, p = 0.026). Medical mistrust and perceived discrimination were not associated with knowledge about blood donation. Participants who were traditionally orientated were 69% less likely to have ever given blood than those who were bicultural or integrated (odds ratio [OR]: 0.31, p = 0.044), whereas the effects of perceived discrimination and medical mistrust were not significant. We also examined whether to restrict the analysis to those who had given blood in Australia postmigration and found that the level of acculturation and medical mistrust were not significant but that perceived discrimination, especially personal discrimination, mattered (OR = 0.63, p = 0.005). Efforts to increase blood donation among African migrants need to address the issues related to perceived personal discrimination as an important intervention target. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  15. Emergency radiology elective improves second-year medical students' perceived confidence and knowledge of appropriate imaging utilization.

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    Leschied, Jessica R; Knoepp, Ursula S; Hoff, Carrie Nicole; Mazza, Michael B; Klein, Katherine A; Mullan, Patricia B; Kelly, Aine M

    2013-09-01

    Given recent advances in and wider availability of complex imaging, physicians are expected to understand imaging appropriateness. We introduced second-year medical students to the American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria (ACR-AC) in an interactive case-based elective to demonstrate their use in imaging for common emergency department clinical complaints. Prospective pre- and post-test design assessed second-year medical students' performance on case-based knowledge applications and self-assessed confidence related to ACR-AC guidelines compared to second-year students participating in a different concurrent radiology elective. Students participated in a 3-day elective covering the ACR-AC, comparative effective imaging, and risks associated with imaging radiation exposure, with outcomes of perceived confidence using a 5-point Likert scale and knowledge of ACR-AC using case-based multiple choice questions. Analysis included computing mean scores and assessing effect sizes for changes in knowledge. Before the elective, 24 students scored an average of 3.45 questions correct of 8 (43.1%). On course completion, students scored an average of 5.3 questions correct of the same questions (66.3%) (P .85; effect size = 0.008). Students' confidence in ordering appropriate imaging improved nearly 2-fold from a range of 1.9 to 3.2 (on a scale of 1.0 to 5.0) to a range of 3.7 to 4.5. Following a short radiology elective, second-year medical students improved their knowledge of appropriate image utilization and perceived awareness of the indications, contraindications, and effects of radiation exposure related to medical imaging. Copyright © 2013 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Antipsychotic Medication and People with Intellectual Disabilities: Their Knowledge and Experiences

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    Crossley, Rachel; Withers, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Background: Antipsychotics are the most frequently prescribed psychotropic medication for people with intellectual disabilities. Many people are prescribed this medication for "challenging behaviours" without having had a formal diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder. Antipsychotics have been reported to have severe side-effect profiles, which can…

  17. The Introduction of an Undergraduate Interventional Radiology (IR) Curriculum: Impact on Medical Student Knowledge and Interest in IR

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    Shaikh, M. [Bradford Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology, Bradford Teaching Hospital Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Shaygi, B. [Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, Interventional Radiology Department (United Kingdom); Asadi, H., E-mail: asadi.hamed@gmail.com; Thanaratnam, P.; Pennycooke, K.; Mirza, M.; Lee, M., E-mail: mlee@rcsi.ie [Beaumont Hospital, Interventional Radiology Service, Department of Radiology (Ireland)

    2016-04-15

    IntroductionInterventional radiology (IR) plays a vital role in modern medicine, with increasing demand for services, but with a shortage of experienced interventionalists. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a recently introduced IR curriculum on perception, knowledge, and interest of medical students regarding various aspects of IR.MethodsIn 2014, an anonymous web-based questionnaire was sent to 309 4th year medical students in a single institution within an EU country, both before and after delivery of a 10-h IR teaching curriculum.ResultsSeventy-six percent (236/309) of the respondents participated in the pre-IR module survey, while 50 % (157/309) responded to the post-IR module survey. While 62 % (147/236) of the respondents reported poor or no knowledge of IR compared to other medical disciplines in the pre-IR module survey, this decreased to 17 % (27/157) in the post-IR module survey. The correct responses regarding knowledge of selected IR procedures improved from 70 to 94 % for venous access, 78 to 99 % for uterine fibroid embolization, 75 to 97 % for GI bleeding embolization, 60 to 92 % for trauma embolization, 71 to 92 % for tumor ablation, and 81 to 94 % for angioplasty and stenting in peripheral arterial disease. With regard to knowledge of IR clinical roles, responses improved from 42 to 59 % for outpatient clinic review of patients and having inpatient beds, 63–76 % for direct patient consultation, and 43–60 % for having regular ward rounds. The number of students who would consider a career in IR increased from 60 to 73 %.ConclusionDelivering an undergraduate IR curriculum increased the knowledge and understanding of various aspects of IR and also the general enthusiasm for pursuing this specialty as a future career choice.

  18. Knowledge and critical thinking skills increase clinical reasoning ability in urogenital disorders: a Universitas Sriwijaya Medical Faculty experience

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    Irfannuddin Irfannuddin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim Clinical reasoning is one of the essential competencies for medical practitioners, so that it must be exercised by medical students. Studies on quantitative evidence of factors influencing clinical reasoning abilicy of students are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of knowledge and other factors on the clinical reasoning abiliry ofthe students, which can serve as reference to establish methods for learning ctinical reasoning.Methods This is a cross-sectional study on fourth semester students enrolled in the Competency-based Curriculum of the Medical Faculty, University of Sriwijaya. Data on clinical reasoning abilily and risk factors during urogenital blockwere collected inApril 2008, when the students have just completed the btock. Clinical reasoning abiliry was tested using the Script Concordance test and the risk factors were evaluated based on formative tests, block summative assessments, and student characteristics. Data were analyzed by Cox regression.Results The prevalence of low clinical reasoning ability of the 132 students was 38.6%. The group with low basic knowledge was found to have 63% risk ol low clinical reasoning abiliry when compared to those with high basic knowledge (adjusted RR = 1.63; 95% conidence intewal (Ct: 1.10 -2.42. When compared to students with high critical thinking skitls, those with lory critical thinking skills had 2.3 time to be low clinical reasoning abitity (adjusted RR : 2.30; 95% CI: 1.55 - 3.41.Conclusion Students with low critical thinking skills or with inadequate knowledge had a higher risk of low clinical reasoning ability. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 53-9Keywords: clinical reasoning, basic knowledge, critical thinking, competency-based curriculum

  19. Cultural adaptation of a survey to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Albania.

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    Shane D Morrison

    Full Text Available Though the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Southeastern Europe is one of low reported prevalence, numerous studies have described the pervasiveness of medical providers' lack of knowledge of HIV/AIDS in the Balkans. This study sought to culturally adapt an instrument to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Albania. Cultural adaptation was completed through development of a survey from previously validated instruments, translation of the survey into Albanian, blinded back translation, expert committee review of the draft instrument, focus group pre-testing with community- and University Hospital Center of Tirana-based physicians and nurses, and test-retest reliability testing. Blinded back translation of the instrument supported the initial translation with slight changes to the idiomatic and conceptual equivalences. Focus group pre-testing generally supported the instrument, yet some experiential and idiomatic changes were implemented. Based on unweighted kappa and/or prevalence adjusted bias adjusted kappa (PABAK, 20 of the 43 questions were deemed statistically significant at kappa and/or PABAK ≥0.5, while 12 others did not cross zero on the 95% confidence interval for kappa, indicating their probable significance. Subsequently, an instrument to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS for an Albanian population was developed which can be expanded within Albania and potentially to other countries within the Balkans, which have an Albanian-speaking population.

  20. Competency-based residency training and the web log: modeling practice-based learning and enhancing medical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollon, Matthew F

    2015-01-01

    By using web-based tools in medical education, there are opportunities to innovatively teach important principles from the general competencies of graduate medical education. Postulating that faculty transparency in learning from uncertainties in clinical work could help residents to incorporate the principles of practice-based learning and improvement (PBLI) in their professional development, faculty in this community-based residency program modeled the steps of PBLI on a weekly basis through the use of a web log. The program confidentially surveyed residents before and after this project about actions consistent with PBLI and knowledge acquired through reading the web log. The frequency that residents encountered clinical situations where they felt uncertain declined over the course of the 24 weeks of the project from a mean frequency of uncertainty of 36% to 28% (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p=0.008); however, the frequency with which residents sought answers when faced with uncertainty did not change (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p=0.39), remaining high at approximately 80%. Residents answered a mean of 52% of knowledge questions correct when tested prior to faculty posts to the blog, rising to a mean of 65% of questions correct when tested at the end of the project (paired t-test, p=0.001). Faculty role modeling of PBLI behaviors and posting clinical questions and answers to a web log led to modest improvements in medical knowledge but did not alter behavior that was already taking place frequently among residents.