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Sample records for ancient medical knowledge

  1. Growth of medical knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, BH; Verwijnen, GM; Scherpbier, AJJA; van der Vleuten, CPM

    2002-01-01

    Background Knowledge is an essential component of medical competence and a major objective of medical education. Thus, the degree of acquisition of knowledge by students is one of the measures of the effectiveness of a medical curriculum. We studied the growth in student knowledge over the course of

  2. Evolution of medical education in ancient Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanouil Pikoulis; Pavlos Msaouel; Efthimios D Avgerinos; Sofia Anagnostopoulou; Christos Tsigris

    2008-01-01

    @@ The study of ancient Greece is essential for the proper understanding of the evolution of modem Western medicine.An important innovation of classical Greek medicine was the development of a body of medical theory associated with natural philosophy,i.e.a strong secular tradition of free enquiry,or what would now be called "science" (Επιστημη).Medical education rests upon the ancient Greek foundations and its history remains a fascinating topic for modem physicians and medical teachers.

  3. Chest surgical disorders in ancient Egypt: evidence of advanced knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungraithmayr, Wolfgang; Weder, Walter

    2012-03-01

    The ancient Egyptians laid the foundation for the development of the earliest recorded systems of medical treatment. Many specialties such as gynecology, neurosurgery, ophthalmology, and chest disorders were subject to diagnosis, which were followed by an appropriate treatment. Here, we elucidate the remarkable level of their knowledge and understanding of anatomy and physiology in the field of chest medicine. Furthermore, we look at how ancient Egyptian physicians came to a diagnosis and treatment based on the thoracic cases in the Edwin Smith papyrus. PMID:22330033

  4. Some notes on medical liability in ancient times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somville, F J M P; Broos, P L O; Van Hee, R

    2010-01-01

    Already in ancient times did medical liability occupy mankind. Various civilizations did give their own interpretation on the subject and proposed solutions. Original writings are rare and articles concerning ancient medical liability equally are hard to find. The only relatively trustworthy sources are of legal nature and find their origin in Greek philosophy and Roman Law. At a later stage, Arabic philosophers gave a renewed view on the statements of these previous civilizations and added their own way of thinking. All these influences still reflect in our modern western way of medical acting. Some of these ancient customs concerning medical liability will be discussed in this article. PMID:20690537

  5. A brief journey into medical care and disease in ancient Egypt.

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, R G

    1995-01-01

    Ancient Egypt was one of the greatest civilizations to have arisen, becoming the cradle of scientific enquiry and social development over 3 millennia; undoubtedly its knowledge of medicine has been vastly underestimated. Few artefacts survive which describe the medical organization, but from the extent of the diseases afflicting that ancient populus there would have been much to study. Evidence from papyri, tomb bas reliefs and the writings of historians of antiquity tell of an intense intere...

  6. Medical knowledge discovery and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Fred

    2009-05-01

    Although the volume of medical information is growing rapidly, the ability to rapidly convert this data into "actionable insights" and new medical knowledge is lagging far behind. The first step in the knowledge discovery process is data management and integration, which logically can be accomplished through the application of data warehouse technologies. A key insight that arises from efforts in biosurveillance and the global scope of military medicine is that information must be integrated over both time (longitudinal health records) and space (spatial localization of health-related events). Once data are compiled and integrated it is essential to encode the semantics and relationships among data elements through the use of ontologies and semantic web technologies to convert data into knowledge. Medical images form a special class of health-related information. Traditionally knowledge has been extracted from images by human observation and encoded via controlled terminologies. This approach is rapidly being replaced by quantitative analyses that more reliably support knowledge extraction. The goals of knowledge discovery are the improvement of both the timeliness and accuracy of medical decision making and the identification of new procedures and therapies.

  7. Tattoos: ancient body art may assist in medical emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Sarah; Shah, Mamta

    2013-07-01

    Tattooing, like medicine, is an ancient art form. However, in the UK, tattooing of minors is illegal except when performed for medical reasons. We present a 15-year-old type I diabetic, who being prone to hypoglycaemic attacks, had a permanent medical alert tattoo on his forearm, with his parents' consent, whilst on holiday abroad. Tattooing to convey a medical message is employed by many adults for reasons as diverse as anaphylaxis to do not resuscitate orders. We present the patient and propose that clinicians may wish to consider supporting tattooing to convey a medical alert in young people, particularly those at risk of life-threatening complications, such as hypoglycaemia.

  8. Georgia, country of ancient medical traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shengelia, R

    2000-06-01

    Georgian medicine as well as the whole culture of Georgia, is one of the oldest in the world. In more than the 500 medical manuscripts preserved and since described, there are traces of Sumerian medicine. Examples of Chinese, Indian and especially Arabic medicine are also clearly seen. At the same time close relationships with Graeco-Roman medical traditions are beyond doubt. Nursing homes established by Georgian healers, many of whom were canonized by the Orthodox Church are to be found in many churches and monasteries all over the world. They gave fruitful scientific research and practical help. PMID:11624591

  9. An Application of the Cosmologic Concepts and Astronomical Symbols in the Ancient Medical Science and Astrology Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikichyan, H. V.

    2015-07-01

    Employing the cosmologic concepts and astronomical symbols, the features of the ancient subjective approach of the achievement or perception of the knowledge and its systematic delivery ways are presented. In particular, the ancient systems of the natural medical science and the art of astrology are discussed, whereas the relations of the five cosmological elements, three dynamical agents, nine luminaries and twelve zodiac signs are applied. It is pointed out some misunderstandings encountered in the contemporary interpretation on the evaluation of ancient systems of the knowledge.

  10. The history of parkinsonism: descriptions in ancient Indian medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovallath, Sujith; Deepa, P

    2013-05-01

    The clinical syndrome of parkinsonism was identified in ancient India even before the period of Christ and was treated methodically. The earliest reference to bradykinesia dates to 600 bc. Evidences prove that as early as 300 bc, Charaka proposed a coherent picture of parkinsonism by describing tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and gait disturbances as its components. The scenario was further developed by Madhava, Vagbhata, and Dalhana all through history. The 15th-century classic "Bhasava rajyam" introduced the term kampavata, which may be regarded as an ayurvedic analogue of parkinsonism. The pathogenesis of kampavata centered on the concept of imbalance in the vata factor, which controls psychomotor activities. The essential element in therapy was the administration of powdered seed of Mucuna pruriens, or atmagupta, which as per reports, contains 4%-6% of levodopa. In addition to proving the existence and identification of parkinsonism in ancient India, the study points to the significance of ancient Indian Sanskrit works in medical history. PMID:23483637

  11. [Application of studies on popular words in the systematization of ancient medical books].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, D; Lai, W

    2000-07-01

    Based on the arrangement of Renho Temple edition of Taisu (Extremely Plain), as an example, it can be seen that by correcting the wrong popular words in ancient medical books, the causes of mistakes of ancient editions and solution for annotations of difficult terms of ancient words in the medical books are of significance.

  12. Tattoos: ancient body art may assist in medical emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Sarah; Shah, Mamta

    2013-07-01

    Tattooing, like medicine, is an ancient art form. However, in the UK, tattooing of minors is illegal except when performed for medical reasons. We present a 15-year-old type I diabetic, who being prone to hypoglycaemic attacks, had a permanent medical alert tattoo on his forearm, with his parents' consent, whilst on holiday abroad. Tattooing to convey a medical message is employed by many adults for reasons as diverse as anaphylaxis to do not resuscitate orders. We present the patient and propose that clinicians may wish to consider supporting tattooing to convey a medical alert in young people, particularly those at risk of life-threatening complications, such as hypoglycaemia. PMID:23411639

  13. Architecture and Workflow of Medical Knowledge Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyunsook; Kim, Jeong Ah; Cho, Insook

    Recently, clinical field builds various forms of computerized medical knowledge and tries to use it efficiently. In general, to build and reuse knowledge easily, it is needed to build a knowledge repository. Especially, the credibility of knowledge is important in clinical domain. This paper proposes methods for supporting it. To perform it systematically, we propose the method of the knowledge management processes. The methods for knowledge management can serve equal quality, usability and credibility of knowledge. Knowledge management methods consist of 2 methods. They are the knowledge management processes and the specification of the management targets. And this paper proposes the requirement of a knowledge repository and the architecture of the knowledge repository.

  14. THE DEVELOPMENT OF GEOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE IN THE OLD KINGDOM OF ANCIENT EGYPT

    OpenAIRE

    Agnese Kukela

    2012-01-01

    DOCTORAL THESIS THE DEVELOPMENT OF GEOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE IN THE OLD KINGDOM OF ANCIENT EGYPT Abstract This doctoral thesis reflects the analysis of development of geological knowledge in the Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. The main object of this study is the Step Pyramid of Djoser. This pyramid was built in several construction stages that differ in the quality of stone material and mortar used. The results of the study indicate that the skills and knowledge of craftsmen...

  15. Medical practice in the ancient Asclepeion in Kos island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironidou-Tzouveleki, Maria; Tzitzis, Panagiotis M

    2014-01-01

    Asclepius was called "a great doctor for every disease". Asclepius was born in Trikala, Thessaly, in the middle of Greece, where the first Asclepeion was established. Patients coming to the Asclepeia were first taking cleaning baths and then entered the main Asclepeion, where they were examined by priests-therapists and were accommodated in certain areas-rooms of the Asclepeion. Inscriptions found in marble plaques describe treatment of some diseases and the sum of money paid for every treatment. These were the first medical records and fees in ancient Greece. Patients were considered as a unique psychosomatic entity. Patients followed many instructions in order to relax and rest, submitted daily baths, exercises, massages, entertainment attending theatrical or poetic or athletic races, reading special books, promenades, special diets or were kept fasting and were instructed to take many kinds of medicine per os, suppositories, ointments, eye drops etc. The main diseases treated in the Asclepeia were: chronic neuropsychological disorders, skin diseases and chronic lung diseases. Other diseases gynaecological, ophthalmic and surgical were also treated. Today, like in the ancient Asclepeia, the psychology of patients is important and certain preparatory drugs are administered before the actual main treatment of surgery or of some psychic disorders. In Aalborg, Denmark, a large prototype medical university hospital, is scheduled to be built in an area of 350acres within the next 15 years. The psychosomatic dogma and principals of a "green building" will be well respected. The Asclepeion of the island of Kos, where as we know Hippocrates was born, was built on the 5th century B.C. and functioned till the 4th century A.D. and had three floors. The Asclepeion had many dedications, of which many parts of the human body in marble: an ear, a damaged penis and two breasts. Surgical tools were also found and are now exhibited in the Dion Museum. After the 4th century A.D. the

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of cancer in medical textbooks of ancient Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Mahmoud; Ali Tabatabaei, Seyed Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that ancient Iranians were among the pioneers of medical science, and are therefore admired and praised by non-Iranian scholars for their efforts and accomplishments in this field. Investigations of medical and historical texts indicate that between the 10(th) and the 18(th) century A.D., ancient Iran experienced a golden age of medicine. Great physicians such as Rhazes, al-Ahwazi, Avicenna and others reviewed the medical textbooks of civilizations such as Greece and India, Theories were scientifically criticized, superstitious beliefs were discarded, valuable innovations were added to pre-existing knowledge and the ultimate achievements were compiled as precious textbooks. Alhawi by Rhazes, Cannon by Avicenna, and Kamil al-Sina'ah by al-Ahwazi are among the works that were treasured by domestic and foreign scientists alike, as well as future generations who continued to appreciate them for centuries. The above-mentioned textbooks discuss diseases and conditions related to neurosurgery, ophthalmology, ear, nose and throat, gastroenterology, urology, skeletomuscular system and other specialties, as well as cancer and similar subjects. One of the richest texts on the description, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and prognosis of cancer and therapeutic approaches is Alhawi by Mohammad ibn Zakarya al Razi (Rhazes). This article presents a brief summary of Rhazes' views about the definition of cancer, types, signs and symptoms, prevalence, complications, medical care, treatment and even surgical indications and contraindications. Moreover, his opinions are compared against the views of other physicians and theories of modern medicine. It is also recommended to review the medical heritage of Iran and evaluate the proposed treatments based on modern methodologies and scientific approaches. PMID:25512835

  17. Concept graphics: a language for medical knowledge.

    OpenAIRE

    Preiss, B.; Kaltenbach, M; Zanazaka, J.; Echave, V

    1992-01-01

    This paper makes a case for Concept Graphics, a novel form of medical knowledge representation. Concept Graphics are assemblies of icons each of which has a precise meaning. Individual icons are metaphors of the object or process they represent. Concept Graphics are analogs of pathological situations, their symptoms, signs and other relevant components necessary for a diagnosis. We propose three principal areas of application for Concept Graphics: medical education, medical records management...

  18. Extracting and Sharing Knowledge from Medical Texts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹存根

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, we have been developing a new framework for acquiring medical knowledge from Encyclopedic texts. This framework consists of three major parts. The first part is an extended high-level conceptual language (called HLCL 1.1) for use by knowledge engineers to formalize knowledge texts in an encyclopedia. The other part is an HLCL 1.1compiler for parsing and analyzing the formalized texts into knowledge models. The third part is a set of domain-specific ontologies for sharing knowledge.

  19. Knowledge Management within the Medical University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauzina, Svetlana Ye; Tikhonova, Tatiana A; Karpenko, Dmitriy S; Bogopolskiy, Gennady A; Zarubina, Tatiana V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work is studying the possibilities of ontological engineering in managing of medical knowledge. And also practical implementation of knowledge management system (KMS) in medical university. The educational process model is established that allows analyzing learning results within time scale. Glossary sub-system has been developed; ontologies of educational disciplines are constructed; environment for setup and solution of situational cases is established; ontological approach to assess competencies is developed. The possibilities of the system for solving situation tasks have been described. The approach to the evaluation of competence has been developed. PMID:26152966

  20. Knowledge Management within the Medical University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauzina, Svetlana Ye; Tikhonova, Tatiana A; Karpenko, Dmitriy S; Bogopolskiy, Gennady A; Zarubina, Tatiana V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work is studying the possibilities of ontological engineering in managing of medical knowledge. And also practical implementation of knowledge management system (KMS) in medical university. The educational process model is established that allows analyzing learning results within time scale. Glossary sub-system has been developed; ontologies of educational disciplines are constructed; environment for setup and solution of situational cases is established; ontological approach to assess competencies is developed. The possibilities of the system for solving situation tasks have been described. The approach to the evaluation of competence has been developed.

  1. Knowledge Transfer with Medical Language Embeddings

    OpenAIRE

    Hyland, Stephanie L.; Karaletsos, Theofanis; Rätsch, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Identifying relationships between concepts is a key aspect of scientific knowledge synthesis. Finding these links often requires a researcher to laboriously search through scien- tific papers and databases, as the size of these resources grows ever larger. In this paper we describe how distributional semantics can be used to unify structured knowledge graphs with unstructured text to predict new relationships between medical concepts, using a probabilistic generative model. Our approach is al...

  2. KNOWLEDGE OF MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS TOWARDS DENGUE DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranya Selvanayaki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is a major public health problem throughout the world. It is a rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease with high rate of morbidity and mortality. Dengue can be reduced by implementing early case detection, reorienting health services, improving outbreak prediction and detection through coordinated epidemic and appropriate vector management. Various diagnostic techniques like ELISA, Rapid tests, etc. are very useful in diagnosis of dengue. Diagnosis of dengue is the most essential step to curb any mass outbreak of the disease. OBJECTIVES The objectives of the study were to find the existing knowledge of Dengue among medical professionals and preference of diagnostic techniques of dengue and to elicit acceptability and affordability of such measures and to highlight the policies regarding dengue diagnostics. METHOD A questionnaire survey was conducted among 100 doctors using a pretested open-ended questionnaire. The result was analysed and interpreted. RESULTS The knowledge of medical professionals regarding the preference of dengue diagnostics varies; 56% of the medical professionals prefer IgM antibody ELISA test, 41% prefer NS I antigen test and only 3% prefer RT – PCR; 100% of the medical professionals agreed that platelet count decreases during the course of infection. An increase of haematocrit value was thought to be important by 73% professionals. Interestingly, 20% of the medical professionals reported that no change in haematocrit value and 7% reported that haematocrit value would decrease. The knowledge of availability of ELISA was 72%. However, 83% of medical professionals agreed that IgM antibody ELISA test was a rapid test for Dengue diagnosis. CONCLUSION Laboratory infrastructure, technical expertise and research capacity must be improved in order to positively influence dengue surveillance, clinical case management and development of new approaches to dengue control. CME on dengue is suggested to improve the

  3. [Assumption of medical risks and the problem of medical liability in ancient Roman law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váradi, Agnes

    2008-11-01

    The claim of an individual to assure his health and life, to assume and compensate the damage from diseases and accidents, had already appeared in the system of the ancient Roman law in the form of many singular legal institutions. In lack of a unified archetype of regulation, we have to analyse the damages caused in the health or corporal integrity of different personal groups: we have to mention the legal interpretation of the diseases or injuries suffered by serves, people under manus or patria potestas and free Roman citizens. The fragments from the Digest od Justinian do not only demonstrate concrete legal problems, but they can serve as a starting point for further theoretical analyses. For example: if death is the consequence of a medical failure, does the doctor have any kind of liability? Was after-care part of the healing process according to the Roman law? Examining these questions, we should not forget to talk about the complex liability system of the Roman law, the compensation of the damages caused in a contractual or delictual context and about the lex Aquilia. Although these conclusions have no direct relation with the present legal regulation of risk assumption, we have to see that analysing the examples of the Roman law can be useful for developing our view of a certain theoretical problem, like that of the modern liability concept in medicine as well.

  4. Mining knowledge in medical image databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perner, Petra

    2000-04-01

    Availability of digital data within picture archiving and communication systems raises a possibility of health care and research enhancement associated with manipulation, processing and handling of data by computers. That is the basis for computer-assisted radiology development. Further development of computer-assisted radiology is associated with the use of new intelligent capabilities such as multimedia support and data mining in order to discover the relevant knowledge for diagnosis. In this paper, we present our work on data mining in medical picture archiving systems. We use decision tree induction in order to learn the knowledge for computer- assisted image analysis. We are applying our method to interpretation of x-ray images for lung cancer diagnosis. We are describing our methodology on how to perform data mining on picture archiving systems and our tool for data mining. Results are given. The method has shown very good results so that we are going on to apply it to other medical image diagnosis tasks such as lymph node diagnosis in MRI and investigation of breast MRI.

  5. Medical students' knowledge about hospital infections

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    Marković-Denić Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to show the differences in the knowledge level about hospital infections between medical students having studied according to the old and new education programs. Material and methods. Two cross-sectional studies were conducted at the Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade, Serbia. The anonymous self-administrated questionnaires were distributed to all third year students. In 2000, the students followed the 'old' system of education, and in 2007 they followed the new curriculum according to the Bologna Process. Results. The questionnaires were answered and returned by 79.8% of students who had the 'old' education program and by 71.9% of students having a 'new' curriculum. The latter students knew more about the definition of hospital infections (p<0.001, their reservoirs (p<0.05, the importance of endogenous reservoirs (p<0.001, etiology (p<0.001, transmission (p<0.001 and prevention (p<0.001. A greater number of students studying according to the new program recognized that the contact was the most frequent mode of transmission (p<0.001. Discussion. The students with the new program of studies knew more about hospital infections. This difference may be attributed to the previous course in epidemiology and earlier clinical practice that covered these topics. Although all of the students stated they knew which mode of transmission was the most frequent, when asked in specific terms about the hand hygiene, the 'new' curriculum students stated to have intermediate knowledge, and the 'old' curriculum students showed a substantial lack of knowledge. It is important to increase their knowledge level and compliance with the hand hygiene. Conclusion. The knowledge about hospital infections seems to have been improved by theoretical and practical sessions during early clinical training by the Bologna curriculum.

  6. [Steri's graffiti of Palermo and medical knowledges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Renato; Salerno, Alfredo

    2007-01-01

    The graffiti left by prisoners in the Inquisition gaols of Palermo's represent a testimony of the historical period between 1600 to 1793. In that period, by order of the viceroy Caracciolo, all the testimonies were removed at the same time in which the Inquisition court was suppressed. In this work the historical subdivision between sacred and profane themes is analyzed with the purpose to study human body in an anthropological key as a language in condition of limited freedom and under torture. Many of the profane graffiti are devoted to medical knowledge suggesting that doctors were involved in the activities of this religious court likewise happened in civil courts. Giovanni Filippo Ingrassia, the well-known proto-medical physician of the kingdom, in his treatise, wrote in 1578 and entitled Methodus dandi relationes ... reports many examples of the role of medical doctors in attesting fitness to torture of inquired people or the necessity of graduating torture when they were hill or in a morbid conditions. PMID:18450037

  7. Handling of medical knowledge in sport: Athletes' medical opinions, information seeking behaviours and knowledge sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbing, Kim-Kristin; Thiel, Ansgar

    2016-01-01

    Medical care in sport comprises a variety of treatments, from scientifically proven biomedicine to complementary and alternative medicine. Information and knowledge about these diverse treatment options is spread by different sources. Thus, athletes encounter information of varying content, quality and background. This exploratory pilot study addresses athletes' medical opinions, their health-related information seeking behaviour and the knowledge sources they utilise. Questionnaires were used to examine n = 110 German athletes (n(male) = 69, n(female) = 41; mean(age) = 24.28 ± 4.97 years) at high performance levels (national team and/or European championship and/or World championship n = 22; first national league and/or German championship n = 51, second national league and/or State championship n = 37) from various Olympic sports. A cluster analysis regarding the athletes' attitudes towards sport medicine exhibited four different types of athletes: 'the autonomous athlete', 'the open-minded athlete', 'the functionalistic athlete' and 'the conservative athlete'. In general, our findings show that the most used and trusted information sources are physicians and physiotherapists. However, medical information is trusted the most if it is experience- and field-tested, and comes from the athletes' sport-specific network. Our findings also suggest that professional medical knowledge management in competitive sport is needed. PMID:25563758

  8. Learning from Surgery: How Medical Knowledge is Constructed

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    Helena Serra

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Using data collected from surgeons working in a transplantation unit in Portugal this article aims to identify how medical knowledge is constructed within the context of surgery. The key theoretical guidelines are drawn from the sociology of professions and medical sociology, particularly social constructivist studies. A qualitative methodological approach was adopted, in which we opted for a partici-pant observation and on-site interviews. Three hypotheses are addressed: 1 the recent shift towards Evidence-Based-Medicine (EBM influences the primacy of clinical experience in the construction of medical knowledge; 2 medical experience does not strongly links with EBM principles; 3 personal experience is central in the construction of medical knowledge and discourse. This article provides a new window into the study of medical profession, a step forward in the research field. Conclusions show new understanding about EBM practice, insofar as it ties the production of medical knowledge to professional dynamics and autonomy.

  9. Memantic: A Medical Knowledge Discovery Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Yavlinsky, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    We present a system that constructs and maintains an up-to-date co-occurrence network of medical concepts based on continuously mining the latest biomedical literature. Users can explore this network visually via a concise online interface to quickly discover important and novel relationships between medical entities. This enables users to rapidly gain contextual understanding of their medical topics of interest, and we believe this constitutes a significant user experience improvement over c...

  10. The Antikythera mechanism: A remnant of the ancient knowledge; El mecanismo de Antikythera: un retazo del conocimiento antiguo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, B.; Garcia, J. M.

    2015-07-01

    We tend to believe that in ancient times the scientific knowledge were scarce and sometimes arises something in history which exceeds our expectations and denies it. This is the case of the protagonist of this article, the Antikythera mechanism, an instrument that has allowed us to better understand those prodigious minds of our ancestors. (Author)

  11. Integration of an object knowledge base into a medical workstation.

    OpenAIRE

    Timmers, T.; van Mulligen, E. M.; van den Heuvel, F.

    1991-01-01

    A simple, yet powerful, knowledge base and its development environment is described that can act as a "knowledge server", integrated into a medical workstation. In many areas, such an integration of a knowledge base with other modules and systems is required, but difficult or impossible to achieve with existing commercial development shells. Three applications of the knowledge base are described: a controlled vocabulary for the classification of Congenital Heart Diseases, an extended data mod...

  12. Serious games for disseminating the knowledge of ancient manuscripts: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Lorenzini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available En In this paper we present a Digital Serious Game set in a medieval alchemical laboratory, aimed at disseminating the ancient knowledge of medicine distillation contained in the famous Adam Lonicer's Kreuterbuch (1569 treatise. The application is  based on interactive Virtual Environments and available on multiple visualization technologies, ranging from simple touch-based tablet up to immersive environments such as CAVEs or Oculus Rift.  The game comes as the latest development level of a larger international multidisciplinary project meant to explore novel methodologies to raise the awareness about ancient books, in particular the collection of the Gunnerus Library of Trondheim, with a special attention to the public of youngsters. ItIn questo articolo viene presentato un Digital Serious Game ambientato in un laboratorio alchemico medievale, realizzato al fine di facilitare la trasmissione della conoscenza relativa alle antiche tecniche di distillazione medicinale così come illustrate nel famoso trattato Kreuterbuch di Adam Lonicer (1569. L'applicazione è stata realizzata utilizzando tecnologie di ambienti virtuali interattivi ed è fruibile su un vasto panorama di dispositivi di visualizzazione, a partire da semplici PC touch-screen fino a sistemi immersivi come il CAVE o il recente Oculus Rift. Il gioco rappresenta il terzo livello di sviluppo di un più grande progetto di ricerca multidisciplinare avente come obiettivo l'esplorazione di nuove metodologie per stimolare e  promuovere l'interesse  per i libri antichi, in particolare la collezione della Gunnery Library di Trondheim, con una speciale attenzione al pubblico dei giovani.

  13. Medical Doctors' Knowledge of Dental Specialty: Implication for Referral

    OpenAIRE

    C.C. Azodo; Ehigiator, O; A.O. Ehizele; O. Ololo

    2010-01-01

    The research goal is to assess Medical Doctors' knowledge of the various dental specialties and to determine if their past dental experience affects their level of knowledge. Resident Doctors and Medical Officers working in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria were surveyed with self-administered questionnaire in 2008. A total of 142 doctors responded to the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 71%. The female: male ratio was approximately 1:2.5. The designations of res...

  14. Knowledge of healthcare professionals about medication errors in hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Latif, Mohamed M M

    2016-01-01

    Context: Medication errors are the most common types of medical errors in hospitals and leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge of healthcare professionals about medication errors in hospitals. Settings and Design: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to randomly selected healthcare professionals in eight hospitals in Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: An 18-item survey was designed and comp...

  15. Should knowledge of classical dance be essential for medical practitioners?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shovana T Narayan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The medical field is constantly throwing challenges, leading to considerable stress for its practitioners. Medical practitioners are expected to be professional, have up-to-date knowledge and expertise, and the ability to withstand fatigue. Through it all they are expected to remain motivated, respectful and humane, patient and kind, and confident and sensitive. The author demonstrates how learning dance can stimulate creativity, increase motivation and bolster social intelligence in medical practitioners.

  16. Sleep medicine education and knowledge among medical students in selected Saudi Medical Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Almohaya, Abdulellah; Qrmli, Abdulaziz; Almagal, Naeif; Alamri, Khaled; Bahammam, Salman; Al-Enizi, Mashhour; Alanazi, Atif; Almeneessier, Aljohara S; Sharif, Munir M.; Ahmed S BaHammam

    2013-01-01

    Background Limited information is available regarding sleep medicine education worldwide. Nevertheless, medical education has been blamed for the under-recognition of sleep disorders among physicians. This study was designed to assess the knowledge of Saudi undergraduate medical students about sleep and sleep disorders and the prevalence of education on sleep medicine in medical schools as well as to identify the obstacles to providing such education. Methods We surveyed medical schools that ...

  17. AIDS-related Knowledge, Condom Usage Among Medical Postgraduates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the knowledge about safety/unsafty of sexual acts relating to HIV transmission, levels of embarrassment related to condom and condom usage among medical postgraduates. Methods From August to December, 1998, a self-administered anonymous questionnaire was given to 271 new medical postgraduates from two medical colleges of Beijing and Hebei Province. Results There was a hazy understanding of the protective function of condom from AIDS among medical postgraduates. Only 14.4% medical postgraduates persisted in using condom, and 27.94% had never or almost never used it. The levels of embarrassment about condom were high. The median score was 3.55+0.98. Whether to use condom was related with the attitudes to condom, but not to AIDS. Conclusion There was some misunderstanding about condom and inconsistent condom usage in medical postgraduates. So it is essential to strengthen the sexual health education among them.

  18. Patient Safety in Medical Education: Students’ Perceptions, Knowledge and Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Bahram Nabilou; Aram Feizi; Hesam Seyedin

    2015-01-01

    Patient safety is a new and challenging discipline in the Iranian health care industry. Among the challenges for patient safety improvement, education of medical and paramedical students is intimidating. The present study was designed to assess students' perceptions of patient safety, and their knowledge and attitudes to patient safety education. This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 2012 at Urmia University of Medical Sciences, West Azerbaijan province, Iran. 134 students st...

  19. Factors influencing physicians' knowledge sharing on web medical forums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tung Cheng; Lai, Ming Cheng; Yang, Shu Wen

    2016-09-01

    Web medical forums are relatively unique as knowledge-sharing platforms because physicians participate exclusively as knowledge contributors and not as knowledge recipients. Using the perspective of social exchange theory and considering both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations, this study aims to elicit the factors that significantly influence the willingness of physicians to share professional knowledge on web medical forums and develops a research model to explore the motivations that underlie physicians' knowledge-sharing attitudes. This model hypothesizes that constructs, including shared vision, reputation, altruism, and self-efficacy, positively influence these attitudes and, by extension, positively impact knowledge-sharing intention. A conventional sampling method and the direct recruitment of physicians at their outpatient clinic gathered valid data from a total of 164 physicians for analysis in the model. The empirical results support the validity of the proposed model and identified shared vision as the most significant factor of influence on knowledge-sharing attitudes, followed in descending order by knowledge-sharing self-efficacy, reputation, and altruism. PMID:25888432

  20. Tacit knowledge and visual expertise in medical diagnostic reasoning: implications for medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg Engel, Peter Johan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Much education--especially at the university level--has been criticized for having primarily dealt with explicit knowledge, i.e. those aspects of mental activities, which are verbal and conscious. Furthermore, research in medical diagnostic reasoning has been criticized for having...... focused on the specialty of intern medicine, while specialties with other skills, i.e. perceptive skills within pathology and radiology, have been ignored. AIMS: To show that the concept of tacit knowledge is important in medical education-at all levels and in medical diagnostic reasoning. METHODS...... such as "non-analytical reasoning" and "dual process of reasoning." CONCLUSION: It is important that educators are trained in how explicit and implicit knowledge is attained and that tacit knowledge is included in educational programmes of all medical specialties....

  1. 皮肤病中医古籍数据库的构建%Construction of ancient Chinese medical books database in skin diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈维文; 丁侃; 邓丙戌; 周冬梅; 张苍; 张广中; 曲剑华; 孙丽蕴; 王萍

    2013-01-01

    Objective Aiming at efficient access to skin disease knowledge from ancient Chinese medical books for the dermatologists of Chinese medicine,which can be used in clinic,teaching and research.Methods The plan of Construction of ancient Chinese medical books database is determined by two groups of people,one group is doctors from dermatology department of Chinese medicine,the other group is literature researchers.They put forward the plan at a different angle,from which it can get inspiration of clinical use experience and literature research methods to keep the plan.The specific content including the selection of bibliographies and contents of ancient books,collations of those books,deep processing indexing based on knowledge element,the application function the database to be achieved,the operation and maintenance of the database system,and so on.Under the scheduled program objectives,with people's cooperation and division of labour,we will complete the database building together.Results Construct a database system platform based on web which has powerful search function (the search function is centered on diseases and based on knowledge element) and many other features,such as:managing ancient books information,inquiring and browsing dermatologic knowledge,directing the content of literature to research and exchange,and so on.Conclusion It is a practical plan that constructing a thematic database of ancient Chinese medical books centered on diseases,they can meet the challenge of knowledge discovery and knowledge expanding function.%目的 实现中医皮肤科人员在临床、教学与科研工作中,高效获取中医古籍中记载的皮肤病知识.方法 中医皮肤科临床医生与文献学研究者分别从临床使用经验和文献学角度入手,共同商定古籍专题数据库建设方案,包括:选定古籍书目、内容;对选中古籍进行校勘整理;基于知识元的深度加工标引;数据库所要实现的应用功能;数据库的运行

  2. Patient Safety in Medical Education: Students' Perceptions, Knowledge and Attitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Nabilou

    Full Text Available Patient safety is a new and challenging discipline in the Iranian health care industry. Among the challenges for patient safety improvement, education of medical and paramedical students is intimidating. The present study was designed to assess students' perceptions of patient safety, and their knowledge and attitudes to patient safety education. This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 2012 at Urmia University of Medical Sciences, West Azerbaijan province, Iran. 134 students studying medicine, nursing, and midwifery were recruited through census for the study. A questionnaire was used for collecting data, which were then analyzed through SPSS statistical software (version 16.0, using Chi-square test, Spearman correlation coefficient, F and LSD tests. A total of 121 questionnaires were completed, and 50% of the students demonstrated good knowledge about patient safety. The relationships between students' attitudes to patient safety and years of study, sex and course were significant (0.003, 0.001 and 0.017, respectively. F and LSD tests indicated that regarding the difference between the mean scores of perceptions of patient safety and attitudes to patient safety education, there was a significant difference among medical and nursing/midwifery students. Little knowledge of students regarding patient safety indicates the inefficiency of informal education to fill the gap; therefore, it is recommended to consider patient safety in the curriculums of all medical and paramedical sciences and formulate better policies for patient safety.

  3. Knowledge of medical imaging radiation dose and risk among doctors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine (NM) scans has revolutionised healthcare but also greatly increased population radiation doses. Overuse of diagnostic radiation is becoming a feature of medical practice, leading to possible unnecessary radiation exposures and lifetime-risks of developing cancer. Doctors across all medical specialties and experience levels were surveyed to determine their knowledge of radiation doses and potential risks associated with some diagnostic imaging. A survey relating to knowledge and understanding of medical imaging radiation was distributed to doctors at 14 major Queensland public hospitals, as well as fellows and trainees in radiology, emergency medicine and general practice. From 608 valid responses, only 17.3% correctly estimated the radiation dose from CT scans and almost 1 in 10 incorrectly believed that CT radiation is not associated with any increased lifetime risk of developing cancer. There is a strong inverse relationship between a clinician's experience and their knowledge of CT radiation dose and risks, even among radiologists. More than a third (35.7%) of doctors incorrectly believed that typical NM imaging either does not use ionising radiation or emits doses equal to or less than a standard chest radiograph. Knowledge of CT and NM radiation doses is poor across all specialties, and there is a significant inverse relationship between experience and awareness of CT dose and risk. Despite having a poor understanding of these concepts, most doctors claim to consider them prior to requesting scans and when discussing potential risks with patients.

  4. Oral cancer knowledge, behavior, and attitude among osteopathic medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCready, Zachary R; Kanjirath, Preetha; Jham, Bruno C

    2015-06-01

    Approximately 21,000 osteopathic medical students were enrolled in the USA in 2012-2013. These future physicians are being educated with an emphasis on a holistic or patient-centered approach, with a focus on preventive care. Considering the importance of preventive care and early diagnosis in the outcomes of oral malignancies, our goal in this study was to assess the knowledge, behavior, and attitude of osteopathic medical students in relation to oral cancer. To this end, 204 second-year (Y2) and 194 fourth-year (Y4) medical students were invited to participate in an electronic survey. Forty-one Y2 and 44 Y4 students agreed to participate (20 and 22% response rate, respectively). The results showed that most Y2 and Y4 students were knowledgeable in certain areas (demographic features, important risk factors, and histologic feature), but deficient in others (clinical presentation, association of human papillomavirus (HPV) with oropharyngeal cancers, and screening recommendations). Head, neck, and oral examination habits were reported as being performed occasionally. Overall, students reported feeling uninformed about oral cancer and showed an interest in receiving further education on the subject. Our findings confirm that an overall improvement in oral cancer education in the medical curriculum is needed. Interprofessional collaboration between dental and medical schools may prove to be a valid approach to achieve this goal, which may possibly lead to increased detection of early oral cancerous lesions and, ultimately, improved mortality rates. PMID:24882439

  5. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF SELF-MEDICATION AMONG MEDICAL COLLEGE STUDENTS IN KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messaline

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & RATIONALE Self-medication is defined as the selection and use of medicines by individuals to treat self-recognised illness or symptoms. Practice of self-medication, especially by medical students can cause wastage of resources, bacterial resistance, drug addiction and serious adverse drug reactions. The objective of our study is to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of selfmedication among medical college students in Kerala. METHODS AND MATERIAL MBBS students of a private medical college were included in the study. The students filled a structured pretested questionnaire and descriptive statistics was applied to the data with SPSS version 20. RESULTS Out of 300, 264 (88% students had taken self-medication over the past 1 year. Past exposure with the same drug was the significant source of information for the drugs (49.2% and the drugs frequently self-medicated were analgesics 34.4% (91 and antipyretics 30.3% (80. More than half of the students, 66% (198 students had expressed positive and 34% (102 students had expressed negative attitude towards self-medication. Around 66% students declared that they were not aware of the dose, frequency and adverse effects of the drugs. CONCLUSION The pattern of self-medication practice from our study was similar to other studies done in various parts of India. Similar studies in future will provide adequate information to regulatory authorities to implement these results on strict drug dispensing and drug advertising policies. KEYWORDS Self-medication, Medical College Students, Kerala.

  6. Sharing and archiving medical knowledge through collaborative tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacic, Alice S.; Furuie, Sergio S.

    2004-04-01

    Physicians are used to meet and discuss cases periodically and the objective of the discussion is not only finding diagnosis and better treatment options, but to share knowledge and teach residents. Although the discussions are very rich, they are also unstructured and not well documented. This work proposes the use of collaborative tools and proper archiving of the discussions, aiming to collect and store the knowledge exposed in medical meetings in a structured form for future retrieval. To achieve this goal, this research involves fields like CSCW (Computer Supported Collaborative Work), Natural Language Processing and Telemedicine. This research is a work in progress and is focused on the Brazilian health care context. A model for electronic medical discussion and archiving is presented.

  7. Implementation of Medical Knowledge Bases in HyperCard

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, Gordon; McLinden, Sean; Carlos, Gina

    1988-01-01

    Hypercard is a computer program which allows the creation of databases of linked textual and graphic information. It is extremely easy to use, even for naive users. We have transferred into Hypercard format portions of some of the expert system medical knowledge-bases developed over the years in our laboratory to investigate the feasibility of using Hypercard as an editor and browser for such data.

  8. A comparative study of knowledge, attitude and practice of self-medication among medical and para medical students in a medical college, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India

    OpenAIRE

    Pooja Mapala; Rajendra Holla; Swathi Acharya; Tittu Zachariah; Puneeth Aipanjiguly

    2016-01-01

    Background: Self-medication is defined as use of medicines without a doctor's prescription and is frequently practiced among students in professional colleges. The purpose of this study was to compare the knowledge, attitude and practice of self-medication among second year medical and paramedical students in K. S Hegde Medical Academy, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India. Methods: A prospective, observational, questionnaire based study conducted where two groups of students, Medical and Paramedic...

  9. Do citizens have minimum medical knowledge? A survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steurer-Stey Claudia

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experts defined a "minimum medical knowledge" (MMK that people need for understanding typical signs and/or risk factors of four relevant clinical conditions: myocardial infarction, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and HIV/AIDS. We tested to what degree Swiss adult citizens satisfy this criterion for MMK and whether people with medical experience have acquired better knowledge than those without. Methods Questionnaire interview in a Swiss urban area with 185 Swiss citizens (median age 29 years, interquartile range 23 to 49, 52% male. We obtained context information on age, gender, highest educational level, (paramedical background and specific health experience with one of the conditions in the social surrounding. We calculated the proportion of MMK and examined whether citizens with medical background (personal or professional would perform better compared to other groups. Results No single citizen reached the full MMK (100%. The mean MMK was as low as 32% and the range was 0 -72%. Surprisingly, multivariable analysis showed that participants with a university degree (n = 84; β (95% CI +3.7% MMK (0.4–7.1 p = 0.03, (paramedical background (n = 34; +6.2% MMK (2.0–10.4, p = 0.004 and personal illness experience (n = 96; +4.9% MMK (1.5–8.2, p = 0.004 had only a moderately higher MMK than those without, while age and sex had no effect on the level of MMK. Interaction between university degree and clinical experience (personal or professional showed no effect suggesting that higher education lacks synergistic effect. Conclusion This sample of Swiss citizens did not know more than a third of the MMK. We found little difference within groups with medical experience (personal or professional, suggesting that there is a consistent and dramatic lack of knowledge in the general public about the typical signs and risk factors of relevant clinical conditions.

  10. Medication communication through documentation in medical wards: knowledge and power relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Manias, Elizabeth; Gerdtz, Marie

    2014-09-01

    Health professionals communicate with each other about medication information using different forms of documentation. This article explores knowledge and power relations surrounding medication information exchanged through documentation among nurses, doctors and pharmacists. Ethnographic fieldwork was conducted in 2010 in two medical wards of a metropolitan hospital in Australia. Data collection methods included participant observations, field interviews, video-recordings, document retrieval and video reflexive focus groups. A critical discourse analytic framework was used to guide data analysis. The written medication chart was the main means of communicating medication decisions from doctors to nurses as compared to verbal communication. Nurses positioned themselves as auditors of the medication chart and scrutinised medical prescribing to maintain the discourse of patient safety. Pharmacists utilised the discourse of scientific judgement to guide their decision-making on the necessity of verbal communication with nurses and doctors. Targeted interdisciplinary meetings involving nurses, doctors and pharmacists should be organised in ward settings to discuss the importance of having documented medication information conveyed verbally across different disciplines. Health professionals should be encouraged to proactively seek out each other to relay changes in medication regimens and treatment goals.

  11. [P.A.I.S., a personal medical information system. A comprehensive medical knowledge base].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münch, E

    1994-06-01

    The electronic medical knowledge data base DOPIS is a compliation of knowledge from various special fields of medicine. Using uniform nomenclature, the data are presented on demand as they would be in a book chapter. Concise updates can be performed at low cost. The primary structure of the concept is the division of medical knowledge into data banks on diagnosis, literature, medication and pharmacology, as well as so-called electronic textbooks. All data banks and electronic textbooks are connected associatively. Visual information is obtained via the image data bank connected to the diagnosis data bank and the electronic books. Moreover, DOPIS has an integrated patient findings system, as well as an image processing and archiving system with research values enabling research functions. The diagnosis and literature data banks can be modified by the user or author, or fed with their own data (a so-called Expert System Shell). For authors from special fields working on the project, an extra Medical Electronic Publishing System has been developed and made available for the electronic textbooks. The model for the knowledge data base has been developed in the field of ENT, the programme implemented and initially ENT data have been stored. PMID:8071098

  12. [P.A.I.S., a personal medical information system. A comprehensive medical knowledge base].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münch, E

    1994-06-01

    The electronic medical knowledge data base DOPIS is a compliation of knowledge from various special fields of medicine. Using uniform nomenclature, the data are presented on demand as they would be in a book chapter. Concise updates can be performed at low cost. The primary structure of the concept is the division of medical knowledge into data banks on diagnosis, literature, medication and pharmacology, as well as so-called electronic textbooks. All data banks and electronic textbooks are connected associatively. Visual information is obtained via the image data bank connected to the diagnosis data bank and the electronic books. Moreover, DOPIS has an integrated patient findings system, as well as an image processing and archiving system with research values enabling research functions. The diagnosis and literature data banks can be modified by the user or author, or fed with their own data (a so-called Expert System Shell). For authors from special fields working on the project, an extra Medical Electronic Publishing System has been developed and made available for the electronic textbooks. The model for the knowledge data base has been developed in the field of ENT, the programme implemented and initially ENT data have been stored.

  13. 图书馆古籍保护工作中的隐性知识转移%Tacit Knowledge Transfer in Protection of Library Ancient Books

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓庆

    2016-01-01

    〔Abstract〕There is a lot of tacit knowledge in protection of library ancient books. Combining with the actual work of protection of ancient books, tacit knowledge can be divided into four types. This paper analyzes factors of ideology, psychology, capacity and mobility, etc. and proposes the strategy of tacit knowledge transfer in protection of ancient books.%古籍保护工作中隐藏着丰富的隐性知识,文章结合古籍保护工作的实际,将其中的隐性知识划分为四大类型,分析了影响隐性知识转移的思想、心理、能力、流动等方面的因素,提出了古籍保护工作中隐性知识转移的策略。

  14. A Comparative Study of The Regular Pattern of Syndrome and Treatment of Lung-intestine Related Diseases in Ancient and Modern Medical Cases Based on Data Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang-Fang Mo; Le-Peng Wang; Si-Hua Gao

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the similarities and differences of the applications of “the lung and large intestine being interior-exteriorly related”between the ancient and modern clinical practices, and to reveal the theory meaning. Method: Based on the ancient and modern medical cases database, 245 ancient medical records and 373 modern medical records were studied with the general statistical description and analysis of association rules, and the results were compared to summarize the similarities and differences of the regular pattern of syndrome and treatment on lung-large intestine related diseases in ancient and modern medical records. Results: In modern medical cases, intestinal diseases appeared with the main symptom of constipation due to deficiency of lung qi and qi stagnation of large intestine were always treated by purgation together with replenishing and restoring lung qi. In ancient medical cases, large intestine heat was always caused by lung heat and a variety of diarrhea symptoms appeared. They were always treated by clearing heat and moistening lungs. In addition, the symptom of bound stool caused by qi stagnation of large intestine due to lung qi stagnation was always treated by lowering lung qi to regulate and smooth large intestine qi. And Armeniae Amarum Semen was used by both as a core medicinal herb. Conclusion: Ascending-descending of qi movement is the core of the lung and large intestine relationship. In other words, the lung and the large intestine communicate through qi.

  15. A comparative study of knowledge, attitude and practice of self-medication among medical and para medical students in a medical college, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Mapala

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Self-medication is a common form of health care with potential benefits and hazards. Hence, it is very important to increase the awareness about the advantages and disadvantages of self-medication in medical college students to improve their knowledge, attitudes and practices of self-medication and eventually to increase the awareness in the society. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 865-868

  16. A Brief Discussion on the Medical Communication Between China and Vietnam in the Ancient Times%简论古代中越医药交流

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李未醉; 余罗玉

    2004-01-01

    In ancient China and Vietnam, cultural exchanges were frequent. In medicine, Chinese medicine was trans-ported into Vietnam or vice versa. Chinese doctors resided there and Chinese medical books were read. The practice of these exchanges helped promote the medical development and the international relations.

  17. Knowledge of triage in the senior medical students in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOSSEIN MAHMOODIAN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Triage is a response to the problem of overcrowding in Emergency Departments (EDs and accuracy of decisions made by the triage unit affects the ultimate outcome of EDs. This study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge of triage among last year medical students in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This is a cross-sectional analytical study whose subjects were all the senior students of medicine (62 in the last year of medicine from January to June 2013 who attended emergency medicine course in the screen room of 2 University Hospitals. This questionnaire was designed in 3 sections including personal data, 15 questions on knowledge of triage and 10 case scenarios for triage decision making and completed by the students. Statistical analysis was performed in SPSS statistical software (version 14 using independent sample t-test, one way ANOVA, and Pearson correlation coefficient (p≤0.001. Results: The total mean score of the participants was 10.6±1.5, ranging from 7 to 13. 58(93.5% students had poor triage knowledge. In the scenario’s section, the percentage of correct triage by students was 49.2% and those of over and under triage were 28.1% and 22.7%, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the triage accuracy and level of triage (ESI 4 (p≤0.001. Conclusion: The level of knowledge of triage in the last year medical students was poor, although most of them had passed a course in the screen room. It is recommended that medical students’ educational courses should include sections on the knowledge of triage in emergency rooms.

  18. [Different uses of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (buckwheat) in Japan and China: what ancient medical documents reveal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Nami; Marui, Eiji

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate that buckwheat has been recognized, both in Japan and China, as a crop that is useful in many ways: as an agricultural crop, and for the healing powers and properties that, according to traditional Chinese medicine, it has. A comparative study of ancient documents pertaining to medicine in these countries has made it clear that this is the case. Buckwheat, however, has been used quite differently in each country. As is shown in some ancient Chinese documents pertaining to medicine, China has treated buckwheat primarily as a medicine for clinical use rather than as an edible crop. Nowadays, buckwheat is eaten only in some regions of China. Although it came to Japan from China as a medicine, in Japan buckwheat gradually became a popular food crop. It has become an important component of traditional Japanese cuisine thanks in part to government support and the strong demand that developed in Japanese society.

  19. In the light of science our ancient quest for knowledge and the measure of modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolaides, Demetris

    2014-01-01

    The birth of science in ancient Greece had a historical impact that is still being felt today. Physicist Demetris Nicolaides examines the epochal shift in thinking that led pre-Socratic philosophers of the sixth and fifth centuries BCE to abandon the prevailing mythologies of the age and, for the first time, to analyze the natural world in terms of impersonal, rationally understood principles. He argues not only that their conceptual breakthroughs anticipated much of later science but that scientists of the twenty-first century are still grappling with the fundamental problems raised twenty-five hundred years ago. Looking at the vast sweep of human history, the author delves into the factors that led to the birth of science: urbanization, the role of religion, and in Greece a progressive intellectual curiosity that was unafraid to question tradition. Why did the first scientific approach to understanding the world take place in Greece? The author makes a convincing case that, aside from factors of geography...

  20. Knowledge of medical students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences regarding plagiarism.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hadi Gharedaghi; Keramat Nourijelyani; Mohammad Salehi Sadaghiani; Yashar Yousefzadeh-Fard; Azadeh Gharedaghi; Pouya Javadian; Afsaneh Morteza; Yasir Andrabi; Saharnaz Nedjat

    2013-01-01

    The core concept of plagiarism is defined as the use of other people’s ideas or words without proper acknowledgement. Herein, we used a questionnaire to assess the knowledge of students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement. The questionnaire comprised 8 questions. The first six questions of the questionnaire were translations of exercises of a book about academic writing and were concerning plagiarism in preparing articles. Questions ...

  1. Knowledge and attitude of medical resident doctors toward antihistamines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esha Chainani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allergic rhinitis and urticaria are chronic persistent allergic conditions that need proper management as they significantly reduce quality of life measures. Of the many pharmacological options of allergic rhinitis and urticaria, second-generation antihistamines are the mainstay of therapy. Aims: This review focuses on the knowledge of medical residents toward prescribing antihistamines, according to the new ARIA and GA2LEN guidelines for allergic rhinitis and urticaria, attempting to find the cause of less prescription of newer second-generation antihistamines by finding out the knowledge and attitude of the doctors prescribing them to the patients. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out among resident doctors at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Primary data from 100 resident doctors, who gave their informed consent, was collected. A prevalidated questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitude and prescribing practice of antihistamines was filled up. The data was then analyzed with suitable statistical tests. Every question was first validated using the Chi-square test, and significance was below 10% hence proving validity of the questions. Results: Out of the doctors surveyed, 82% of doctors said they prescribed second-generation antihistamines, while 18% still prescribed first-generation antihistamines. Out of the 82% that prescribed second-generation antihistamines, 8.9% also prescribed first-generation antihistamines as well. 23% of doctors surveyed had heard about the ARIA and GAL2EN guidelines and their recommendations for prescribing second-generation antihistamines over the older first-generation antihistamines, while 77% of them had not heard of these position papers. Conclusion: First-generation or classic antihistamines are still overused due to the lack of knowledge of various guidelines that have been published. The main reason for not prescribing the second-generation antihistamines was due to the increased

  2. 'Medical Knowledge' and 'Tradition' of Colonial Korea: Focused on Kudo's "Gynecology"-based Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yang Hee

    2013-08-01

    This article attempts to illuminate the ways in which Kudo's medical knowledge based on 'gynecological science' constructed the cultural 'traditions' of colonial Korea. Kudo appears to have been quite an influential figure in colonial Korea in that his writings on the relationship between women's crime, gynecological science and the Chosŏn society granted a significant amount of intellectual authority. Here, I examine Kudo's position within colonial Korea as a producer and propagator of medical knowledge, and then see how women's bodies were understood according to his gynecological knowledge. It also traces the ways in which Kudo's gynecological knowledge represents Chosŏn society and in turn invents the 'traditions' of Chosŏn. Kudo's knowledge of "gynecology" which had been formed while it traveled the states such as Japan, Germany and France served as an important reference for his representation of colonial Korean society. Kudo was a proponent of biological evolution, particularly the rules of 'atavism' put forth by the criminal anthropologist Cesare Lombroso, and argued that an unique social environment caused 'alteration of sexual urges' and primitive cruelty in Chosŏn women. According to Kudo, The social environment was none other than the practice of 'early marriage,' which went against the physiology of women. To Kudo, 'early marriage' was an old 'tradition' of Chosŏn and the cause of heinous crimes, as well as an unmistakable indicator of both the primitiveness and savageness of Chosŏn. While Lombroso considered personal factors such as stress as the cause of women's crimes, Kudo saw Chosŏn women's crimes as a national characteristic. Moreover, he compared the occurrence rate of husband murders by provinces, based on which he categorized the northern population of Chosŏn as barbaric Manchurian and the southern population as the superior Japanese, a combination of racism and scientific knowledge. Kudo's writings provide an insight into the

  3. Retention of Basic Sciences Knowledge at Clinical Years of Medical Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Lazić, Elvira; Dujmović, Josip; Hren, Darko

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To explore the association between the knowledge of basic (physiology and biochemistry) and clinical sciences (internal medicine) among medical students, and determine the level of retained basic science knowledge at the fifth year of medical studies. Methods: Medical students attending the second (n = 145, response rate 60%) or the fifth year (n = 176, response rate 73%) of medical studies at the Zagreb University School of Medicine in Croatia were given an anonymous knowledge test w...

  4. Oral and Written Communication and Transmission of Knowledge in Ancient Judaism and Christianity

    OpenAIRE

    Hezser, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the contexts of oral communication and the use of written messages in Josephus’ writings, the New Testament, and rabbinic literature, and discusses the possible reasons for using orality or writing in the respective Jewish and Christian contexts in antiquity. It is argued that an individual’s social power depended on his position within the communication network and his ability to control and manipulate the dissemination of knowledge among his co-religionists. Mobility was...

  5. The Knowledge Levels of Medical Faculty Students About Tuberculosis Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Demir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the consequences of education of medical faculty students regarding tuberculosis and to com­pare the attitudes and knowledge of student subgroups who completed education regarding tuberculosis and the ones who did not. Methods: A questionnaire prepared to assess the knowledge of students about the diagnosis and treatment of tuber­culosis was administered by a face-to-face interview method. The demographic features of students were recorded. The answers of students who attend fifth class and completed education on tuberculosis and the ones attending first two classes and did not learn anything about tuberculosis were compared. Results: Mean age of 293 students included in study was 21.1±1.9 years. One hundred and ninety two (65.5% of them were male and 101 (34.5% were female. One hundred and fifty two (51.9% of the participants were attending pre-education classes, while 141 (48.1% were attending post-education class. When compared to the students attending first two classes, the students attending fifth class had significantly more information about the route of transmission (84% vs. 42.8%, p<0.001, risk factors associated with transmission (77.3% vs. 29.6%, p<0.001, symptoms (59.1% vs. 35.5%, p=0.001, diagnosis (70.9% vs. 24.3%, p<0.001, and duration of tuberculosis treatment (83.7% vs. 34.2%, p<0.001 and they were less anxious about having tuberculosis (27% vs. 40.1%, p=0.017. Conclusion: The students who completed education on tuberculosis had significantly more information about the route of transmission, risk factors associated with transmission, symptoms, diagnosis, and duration of tuberculosis treatment and had lower level of anxiety about having tuberculosis.

  6. Medical papyri show the effects of the Santorini eruption heavily influenced the development of ancient medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisanato, Siro I

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ash from the catastrophic Santorini eruption radically changed Bronze Age medicine, triggering the development of new remedies, the wide dissemination of medical data, and the transfer of technologies. These developments were identified in medical papyri thanks to remedies for ailments linked to volcanic matter an oddity in Egypt, a country without volcanoes. The anomaly was traced back to the Santorini eruption, which through volcanic ash, acidified bodies of waters, and acid rain affected the whole eastern Mediterranean without sparing Egypt. Using available technology, doctors developed new remedies for severe irritation to eyes from ash and for burns on the skin, or imported foreign remedies as exemplified by paragraph 28 of the London Medical Papyrus (L28), thus resorting to technology transfer even if so crude. Furthermore, medical manuals rather than being guarded by families of physicians were now used to disseminate remedies as widely as possible. Finally, besides providing historical data, the medical reaction to the Santorini eruption could still be of use today. The remedies could be integrated in manuals for emergency situations for population left without adequate medical infrastructure at a time of exposure to heavy volcanic fallout or acidified rain. PMID:22649871

  7. [The Zagreb Etruscan ceremonial fragment and an ancient Egyptian medical papyrus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grmek, M D

    1995-01-01

    The Archeological museum in Zagreb treasures the linen strips of an Egyptian mummy with inscriptions in Etruscan, and an Egyptian medical papyrus. The Etruscan text has been deciphered, but only a small part has been translated. This religious-magical ceremonial might be in relation with theurgical measures for health protection, promotion and restitution. The medical text on the papyrus is a hieratic script dating back to Pharaonic New Kingdom, probably a fragment of a medicine book similar to the Ebers papyrus. This article provides its transcription and translation. Three recipes for a powder and ointments which were used in the local treatment of inflammed moist skin lesions are presented. PMID:8656978

  8. Medical knowledge in Hebrew: manuscripts and early printed books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Navas, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a short survey of the Hebrew textual production on medical literature during the Middle Ages in the West. It explores diverse trends in the writing and diffusion of medical texts from the creation of the Hebrew medical corpus, as well as the fortuna that the transmission of this genre had after the introduction of printing. PMID:17152188

  9. Medicalization in psychiatry: the medical model, descriptive diagnosis, and lost knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedler, Mark J

    2016-06-01

    Medicalization was the theme of the 29th European Conference on Philosophy of Medicine and Health Care that included a panel session on the DSM and mental health. Philosophical critiques of the medical model in psychiatry suffer from endemic assumptions that fail to acknowledge the real world challenges of psychiatric nosology. The descriptive model of classification of the DSM 3-5 serves a valid purpose in the absence of known etiologies for the majority of psychiatric conditions. However, a consequence of the "atheoretical" approach of the DSM is rampant epistemological confusion, a shortcoming that can be ameliorated by importing perspectives from the work of Jaspers and McHugh. Finally, contemporary psychiatry's over-reliance on neuroscience and pharmacotherapy has led to a reductionist agenda that is antagonistic to the inherently pluralistic nature of psychiatry.  As a result,  the field has suffered a loss of knowledge that may be difficult to recover. PMID:26602907

  10. Knowledge of medical students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences regarding plagiarism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hadi Gharedaghi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The core concept of plagiarism is defined as the use of other people's ideas or words without proper acknowledgement. Herein, we used a questionnaire to assess the knowledge of students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement. The questionnaire comprised 8 questions. The first six questions of the questionnaire were translations of exercises of a book about academic writing and were concerning plagiarism in preparing articles. Questions number 7 and 8 (which were concerning plagiarism in preparing Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows and copyright infringement, respectively were developed by the authors of the present study. The validity of the questionnaire was approved by five experts in the field of epidemiology and biostatistics. A pilot study consisting of a test and retest was carried to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. The sampling method was stratified random sampling, and the questionnaire was handed out to 74 interns of TUMS during July and August 2011. 14.9% of the students correctly answered the first six questions. 44.6% of the students were adequately familiar with proper referencing in Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows. 16.2% of the students understood what constitutes copyright infringement. The number of correctly answered questions by the students was directly proportionate to the number of their published articles. Knowledge of students of TUMS regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement is quite poor. Courses with specific focus on plagiarism and copyright infringement might help in this regard.

  11. Knowledge of Medical Students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences Regarding Plagiarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hadi Gharedaghi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The core concept of plagiarism is defined as the use of other people’s ideas or words without proper acknowledgement. Herein, we used a questionnaire to assess the knowledge of students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement. The questionnaire comprised 8 questions. The first six questions of the questionnaire were translations of exercises of a book about academic writing and were concerning plagiarism in preparing articles. Questions number 7 and 8 (which were concerning plagiarism in preparing Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows and copyright infringement, respectively were developed by the authors of the present study. The validity of the questionnaire was approved by five experts in the field of epidemiology and biostatistics. A pilot study consisting of a test and retest was carried to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. The sampling method was stratified random sampling, and the questionnaire was handed out to 74 interns of TUMS during July and August 2011. 14.9% of the students correctly answered the first six questions. 44.6% of the students were adequately familiar with proper referencing in Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows. 16.2% of the students understood what constitutes copyright infringement. The number of correctly answered questions by the students was directly proportionate to the number of their published articles. Knowledge of students of TUMS regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement is quite poor. Courses with specific focus on plagiarism and copyright infringement might help in this regard.

  12. Knowledge of medical students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences regarding plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharedaghi, Mohammad Hadi; Nourijelyani, Keramat; Salehi Sadaghiani, Mohammad; Yousefzadeh-Fard, Yashar; Gharedaghi, Azadeh; Javadian, Pouya; Morteza, Afsaneh; Andrabi, Yasir; Nedjat, Saharnaz

    2013-07-13

    The core concept of plagiarism is defined as the use of other people's ideas or words without proper acknowledgement. Herein, we used a questionnaire to assess the knowledge of students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement. The questionnaire comprised 8 questions. The first six questions of the questionnaire were translations of exercises of a book about academic writing and were concerning plagiarism in preparing articles. Questions number 7 and 8 (which were concerning plagiarism in preparing Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows and copyright infringement, respectively) were developed by the authors of the present study. The validity of the questionnaire was approved by five experts in the field of epidemiology and biostatistics. A pilot study consisting of a test and retest was carried to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. The sampling method was stratified random sampling, and the questionnaire was handed out to 74 interns of TUMS during July and August 2011. 14.9% of the students correctly answered the first six questions. 44.6% of the students were adequately familiar with proper referencing in Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows. 16.2% of the students understood what constitutes copyright infringement. The number of correctly answered questions by the students was directly proportionate to the number of their published articles. Knowledge of students of TUMS regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement is quite poor. Courses with specific focus on plagiarism and copyright infringement might help in this regard.

  13. Knowledge of medical students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences regarding plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharedaghi, Mohammad Hadi; Nourijelyani, Keramat; Salehi Sadaghiani, Mohammad; Yousefzadeh-Fard, Yashar; Gharedaghi, Azadeh; Javadian, Pouya; Morteza, Afsaneh; Andrabi, Yasir; Nedjat, Saharnaz

    2013-01-01

    The core concept of plagiarism is defined as the use of other people's ideas or words without proper acknowledgement. Herein, we used a questionnaire to assess the knowledge of students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement. The questionnaire comprised 8 questions. The first six questions of the questionnaire were translations of exercises of a book about academic writing and were concerning plagiarism in preparing articles. Questions number 7 and 8 (which were concerning plagiarism in preparing Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows and copyright infringement, respectively) were developed by the authors of the present study. The validity of the questionnaire was approved by five experts in the field of epidemiology and biostatistics. A pilot study consisting of a test and retest was carried to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. The sampling method was stratified random sampling, and the questionnaire was handed out to 74 interns of TUMS during July and August 2011. 14.9% of the students correctly answered the first six questions. 44.6% of the students were adequately familiar with proper referencing in Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows. 16.2% of the students understood what constitutes copyright infringement. The number of correctly answered questions by the students was directly proportionate to the number of their published articles. Knowledge of students of TUMS regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement is quite poor. Courses with specific focus on plagiarism and copyright infringement might help in this regard. PMID:23852849

  14. Knowledge and attitude towards antimicrobial self medication usage: a cross sectional study among medical and nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Bala

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial drug resistance is a fast mounting universal crisis. Many factors like self medication, inappropriate use and unregulated sale of medicines and self medication have been attributed to this problem. The objective was to determine extend and causes of antimicrobial self medication and to compare the knowledge attitude of senior and junior medical/nursing students. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study on randomly selected 410 students from Baba Farid University of Health Sciences Faridkot, Punjab. A total sample of 220 medical students were enrolled from GGS Medical College, Faridkot (1st year students 50 and 170 above 1st year senior medical students and 190 nursing students were enrolled from University College of Nursing, Faridkot. Results: prevalence of antimicrobial self medication came out to be around 74%. The most common cause for seeking antimicrobial (self therapy was upper respiratory tract infection. A statistical significant knowledge/attitude gap was found between senior and fresher medical/nursing students. Conclusions: High prevalence of antimicrobial self medication among medical/nursing students is a matter of concern and it should be discouraged at appropriate level to safeguard students from preventable adversary exposure. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(4.000: 428-432

  15. Histological Knowledge as a Predictor of Medical Students' Performance in Diagnostic Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivala, Markus; Lehtinen, Erno; Helle, Laura; Kronqvist, Pauliina; Paranko, Jorma; Säljö, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, the role and extent of the basic sciences in medical curricula have been challenged by research on clinical expertise, clinical teachers, and medical students, as well as by the development and diversification of the medical curricula themselves. The aim of this study was to examine how prior knowledge of basic histology and…

  16. KNOWLEDGE: A POSSIBLE TOOL IN SHAPING MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS HOMOSEXUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Dunjić-Kostić, Bojana; Pantović, Maja; Vuković, Vuk; Randjelović, Dunja; Totić-Poznanović, Sanja; Damjanović, Aleksandar; Jašović-Gašić, Miroslava; Ivković, Maja

    2012-01-01

    Background: The attitudes of medical professionals towards homosexuals can influence their willingness to provide these individuals with medical help. The study evaluated the medical professionals’ knowledge about homosexuality and their attitudes towards it. Subjects and methods: The sample consisted of 177 participants (physicians n=79 and students n=98). The study respondents anonymously completed three questionnaires (socio-demographic questionnaire, the questionnaire on knowl...

  17. [Investigation on the number of ancient medical books collected in Haiyuan Private Library].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Xue; Liu, Gengsheng

    2015-03-01

    Yang's Haiyuan Private Library in Liaocheng City, Shandong Province, is the only extant one among the four famous private libraries of the Qing dynasty in Northern China. Its collection is ample and graceful and especially rich in rare and secret versions, amounting to over 2 000 kinds, 200- thousand volumes. By sorting out 5 kinds of such collections from the Yang's family catalogue of Liaocheng in Shandong, plus 3 kinds of supplemented catalogue by Wang Shaozeng, the Catalogue of Haiyuan Private Library Collected in Shandong Provincial Library, and catalogues of modern scholars, it can be basically identified that the number of medical collections of Yang's Haiyuan Private Library is 87 kinds. Supposing all kinds contain 112 works, then Haiyuan Private Library totally has 1296 volumes according to the catalogues. PMID:26420415

  18. Biopiracy and the ethics of medical heritage: the case of India's traditional knowledge digital library'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Ian James

    2012-09-01

    Medical humanities have a central role to play in combating biopiracy. Medical humanities scholars can articulate and communicate the complex structures of meaning and significance which human beings have invested in their ways of conceiving health and sickness. Such awareness of the moral significance of medical heritage is necessary to ongoing legal, political, and ethical debates regarding the status and protection of medical heritage. I use the Indian Traditional Knowledge Digital Library as a case study of the role of medical humanities in challenging biopiracy by deepening our sense of the moral value of medical heritage.

  19. [Evidence-based guidelines as tools for medical knowledge transfer. The work mode of the Medical Knowledge Network evidence.de].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmar, H C; Koneczny, N; Floer, B; Isfort, J; Kunstmann, W; Butzlaff, M

    2002-12-01

    The amount of medical knowledge is growing with increasing speed. Physicians are confronted with more and more--and often useless--information. However, the time lag between the creation of new knowledge and its implementation into daily medical practice is often exceeding a decade. In view of these challenges the knowledge network of the medical faculty of the University Witten/Herdecke is focusing on two different tasks: It provides evidence based medical guidelines in a format that is meant for easy access and use in daily practice. It scientifically explores different ways of presenting and transferring evidence based guidelines in order to develop better and easier ways of implementation. National and international guidelines and studies are screened, evaluated, updated and adapted for its use in the academic network by a team of five university based physicians. In addition, clinical specialists as well as primary care physicians provide expertise for detailed scientific adaptations and for adequate implementation strategies. The implementation process of the guidelines among the faculty based primary care physicians is continuously monitored and evaluated. The main goal of this concept is to create a learning environment for the complex process of medical knowledge transfer.

  20. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  1. Knowledge acquisition for medical diagnosis using collective intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Chan, G; Rodríguez-González, A; Alor-Hernández, G; Gómez-Berbís, J M; Mayer-Pujadas, M A; Posada-Gómez, R

    2012-11-01

    The wisdom of the crowds (WOC) is the process of taking into account the collective opinion of a group of individuals rather than a single expert to answer a question. Based on this assumption, the use of processes based on WOC techniques to collect new biomedical knowledge represents a challenging and cutting-edge trend on biomedical knowledge acquisition. The work presented in this paper shows a new schema to collect diagnosis information in Diagnosis Decision Support Systems (DDSS) based on collective intelligence and consensus methods. PMID:23089960

  2. Higher Order Programming to Mine Knowledge for a Modern Medical Expert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nittaya Kerdprasop

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge mining is the process of deriving new and useful knowledge from vast volumes of data and background knowledge. Modern healthcare organizations regularly generate huge amount of electronic data stored in the databases. These data are a valuable resource for mining useful knowledge to help medical practitioners making appropriate and accurate decision on the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. In this paper, we propose the design of a novel medical expert system based on a logic-programming framework. The proposed system includes a knowledge-mining component as a repertoire of tools for discovering useful knowledge. The implementation of classification and association mining tools based on the higher order and meta-level programming schemes using Prolog has been presented to express the power of logic-based language. Such language also provides a pattern matching facility, which is an essential function for the development of knowledge-intensive tasks. Besides the major goal of medical decision support, the knowledge discovered by our logic-based knowledge-mining component can also be deployed as background knowledge to pre-treatment data from other sources as well as to guard the data repositories against constraint violation. A framework for knowledge deployment is also presented.

  3. Emergency contraception: Knowledge and attitude toward its use among medical students of a medical college in North-West India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajiv Kumar; Raina, Sunil Kumar; Verma, Aruna Kumari; Shora, Tejali

    2016-01-01

    Context: Emergency contraception (EC) is use of drug or device to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse. Unlike other regular methods of contraception which are taken prior to the sexual act, EC is used after the unprotected sex. Aim: To assess the knowledge and attitude toward use of emergency contraceptives among medical students. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted among all the medical students in the Government Medical College in North-West India. Subjects and Methods: A questionnaire seeking information on knowledge and attitude of undergraduate medical students was administered over a period of 4 weeks in the month of February and March 2014. Statistical Analysis: The data were entered in MS excel and expressed using percentages. Chi-square test was used as a test of statistical significance. Results: About 61.6% (247/401) of the participants were aware about the timing of use of EC. Audio visual media (76.6%; 307/401) was the most common source of information for of these medical students. Conclusions: The lack of appropriate in-depth knowledge of EC among future health care professional should alarm the medical teaching system as EC is the only method that can be used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex or contraceptive accident. PMID:27413353

  4. 针药并用的古代认识与方法探析%Ancient understanding and the method analysis of combined acupuncture and medication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王耀帅; 王玲玲; 张建斌; 陈仁寿

    2009-01-01

    To study and analyze on the understanding of ancient physicians' experience about combined acupuncture and medication, the thought of combined acupuncture and medication in ancient Chinese medicine, and the concrete application are analyzed by reorganization of the treatises and literature of ancient physicians. It is found that physicians of past dynasties have the greatest esteem for such academic thought of combined acupuncture and medication as essential quality of physicians, and accumulate rich experience and understanding in the application rules of clinical treatment model of combined acupuncture and medication, and action characteristics of acupuncture and medical herbs, etc. which are worthy to be further studied, so as to better guide clinical practice and scientific researches.%探析古代医家针药并用的经验与认识.通过对古代医家论著文献的梳理,从古代中医针药并用的思想和具体运用两方面进行分析.发现历代医家对针药并用作为医家必备素质的学术思想极为推崇,在针药并用临床治疗方法模式运用规律以及针药的作用特点效应等方面积累了丰富的经验和认识,值得我们进一步深入研究,以更好地指导针灸临床与科研.

  5. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Motivations towards Blood Donation among King Abdulaziz Medical City Population

    OpenAIRE

    Najd Alfouzan

    2014-01-01

    Background. Blood donation is remarkably safe medical procedure. However, attitudes, beliefs, and level of knowledge may affect it. Objectives. To measure the level of knowledge regarding blood donation, find out positive and negative attitudes, identify the obstacles, and suggest some motivational factors. Methodology. A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC). Participants were selected by convenient nonrandom sampling technique. A self-created questionnair...

  6. [The application of forensic medical knowledge for the reconstruction of historical events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, A V; Molin, Yu A; Gorshkov, A N; Smolyanitsky, A G; Mazurova, E A; Vorontsov, G A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to summarize the results of many year investigations on the application of forensic medical methods and experience for the reconstruction of historical events including identification of the ancient Russian saints' hallows and statesmen's remains, elucidation of the genuine causes of death of the members of the Russian Imperial House of Romanovs based on the recently discovered archival materials, restoration of the character of the injuries suffered by Aleksander II, M.I. Kutuzov, P. Demidov, G. Gapon., and G. Rasputin, the attribution A.S. Pushkin's memorial belongings based on the biological traces, and the like.

  7. 14 CFR 61.29 - Replacement of a lost or destroyed airman or medical certificate or knowledge test report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or medical certificate or knowledge test report. 61.29 Section 61.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... destroyed airman certificate, medical certificate, or knowledge test report must state: (1) The name of the... airman certificate, medical certificate, or knowledge test report, as appropriate, for up to 60...

  8. Knowledge and Attitude Level of Students about Solid Waste Recycling; Kashan University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazaheri Tehrani A.MSc,

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims Increasing of the population and development of urban areas, has led to solid waste generation increasing which is one of the problems and difficulties that put human and environmental health in danger. The aim of present study was to determine the knowledge and attitude level of Kashan University of Medical Sciences’ students about solid waste recycling. Instrument & Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out in the fall of 2012 at the Kashan University of Medical Sciences and all the 250 students studying at nursing, medical, and paramedical schools were participated in it. A researcher-made questionnaire consisting of 20 questions was used to determine the knowledge about and attitude toward solid waste recycling. Data was analyzed by ANOVA, Pearson correlation and independent T test. Findings The knowledge of students was the highest about the definition of recycling (84.4% and lowest about delivery of recycled materials to badgers (23.6%. Most medical (55.1% and paramedical (75.3% students had “weak” and most nursing students (47.1% had “moderate” knowledge about solid waste recycling. 69.2% of paramedical, 27.3% of medical and 25.5% of nursing students stated that “there is no information about recycling in the university courses”. Conclusion Most of the students of Kashan University of Medical Sciences have weak knowledge regarding to solid waste recycling and their knowledge are different among schools.

  9. Text mining for traditional Chinese medical knowledge discovery: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuezhong; Peng, Yonghong; Liu, Baoyan

    2010-08-01

    Extracting meaningful information and knowledge from free text is the subject of considerable research interest in the machine learning and data mining fields. Text data mining (or text mining) has become one of the most active research sub-fields in data mining. Significant developments in the area of biomedical text mining during the past years have demonstrated its great promise for supporting scientists in developing novel hypotheses and new knowledge from the biomedical literature. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) provides a distinct methodology with which to view human life. It is one of the most complete and distinguished traditional medicines with a history of several thousand years of studying and practicing the diagnosis and treatment of human disease. It has been shown that the TCM knowledge obtained from clinical practice has become a significant complementary source of information for modern biomedical sciences. TCM literature obtained from the historical period and from modern clinical studies has recently been transformed into digital data in the form of relational databases or text documents, which provide an effective platform for information sharing and retrieval. This motivates and facilitates research and development into knowledge discovery approaches and to modernize TCM. In order to contribute to this still growing field, this paper presents (1) a comparative introduction to TCM and modern biomedicine, (2) a survey of the related information sources of TCM, (3) a review and discussion of the state of the art and the development of text mining techniques with applications to TCM, (4) a discussion of the research issues around TCM text mining and its future directions.

  10. A Survey of Medical Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Urmia, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mahshid; Rabiepoor, Soheila; Forough, Aida Sefidani; Jabbari, Shiva; Shahabi, Shahram

    2016-10-01

    Personal beliefs of medical students may interfere with their tendency for learning Complementary and Alternative Medicine concepts. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of medical students toward complementary and alternative medicine in Urmia, Iran. A structured questionnaire was used as data collection instrument. One hundred questionnaires were returned. Thirty-one percent of students reported use of alternative medicine for at least once. Iranian Traditional Medicine was the main type of alternative medicine used by medical students (93.5%). Neuromuscular disorders were the main indication of alternative medicine use among students (34.4%). Ninety percent of participants demonstrated competent knowledge about acupuncture while the lowest scores belonged to homeopathy (12%). Study results showed that 49% of medical students had positive attitudes and demonstrated a willingness to receive training on the subject. Thus, there appears a necessity to integrate complementary and alternative medicine into the medical curriculum, by taking expectations and feedbacks of medical students into consideration.

  11. A European perspective on medical tourism: the need for a knowledge base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Percivil; Lunt, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, medical tourism, whereby individuals choose to travel across national borders or overseas to receive treatments, has been increasingly recognized in the United States and Asia. This article highlights the emergence of medical tourism in the European context. It examines the drivers for such developments and situates medical tourism within the broader context of health globalization and forms of patient mobility in the European Union. In outlining the developments of medical tourism in Europe, the authors distinguish between two types of medical tourist: the citizen and the consumer. The discussion explores the need for greater empirical research on medical tourism in Europe and argues that such research will contribute toward knowledge of patient mobility and the broader theorization of medical tourism. The authors make suggestions about the content of this research agenda, including understanding the development of medical tourist markets, the nature of choice, equity implications, the role of brokers and intermediaries, and general issues for health management.

  12. Multiple choice exams of medical knowledge with open books and web access? A validity study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Simonsen, Eivind Ortind; Knudsen, Ulla Breth;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Open book tests have been suggested to lower test anxiety and promote deeper learning strategies. In the Aarhus University medical program, ¼ of the curriculum assess students’ medical knowledge with ‘open book, open web’ (OBOW) multiple choice examinations. We found little existing...

  13. First-Year Residents' Caring, Medical Knowledge, and Clinical Judgment in Relation to Laboratory Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnold, Paul R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A study of 36 first-year Northwestern University (Illinois) medical residents found that students' medical knowledge was a predictor of increased laboratory test use, that clinical judgment was a predictor of decreased laboratory use, and that level of caring was statistically unrelated to amount of laboratory use. (Author/MSE)

  14. Relating Medical Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Experience to an Interest in Geriatric Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, James T.; Wray, Linda A.; Halter, Jeffrey B.; Williams, Brent C.; Supiano, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined medical students' interest in geriatrics: Are knowledge, positive attitudes, and prior experience with older adults associated with an interest in geriatric medicine? Design and Methods: Entering University of Michigan medical students completed three surveys: the Revised Facts on Aging Quiz, the University of…

  15. Knowledge of Medical Students, Residents, and Attending Physicians About Opiate Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Daniel, Demas, Penelope

    1984-01-01

    A questionnaire concerning knowledge of opiate abuse and attitudes about abusers was administered to 94 randomly selected physicians and medical students at Montefiore Medical Center in New York City. The results indicated that physicians might benefit from improved teaching in the area of opiate abuse. (Author/MLW)

  16. Breast Cancer Screening Knowledge and Skills of Students upon Entering and Exiting a Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, P. Elizabeth; Lane, Dorothy S.

    1998-01-01

    A study compared the breast cancer screening knowledge of 27 medical students in first and fourth years. In the fourth year additional questions were asked about training and training needs. Although students performed significantly better on knowledge-based questions in the fourth year, considerable room for improvement remained. Most students…

  17. Medical and Psychology Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Aging and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Rachel J.; Zweig, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    The current study surveys medical and doctoral psychology students (N = 100) from an urban northeastern university regarding knowledge and attitudes toward elderly sexuality and aging using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale, and measures of interest in gerontology, academic/clinical exposure to aging and…

  18. Prior knowledge regularization in statistical medical image tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crimi, A.; Sporring, J.; Bruijne, M. de;

    2009-01-01

    are lower than the dimension of the data can lead to incorrect estimation e.g. of the covariance matrix and subse- quent unreliable results of statistical tasks. This limitation is normally solved by the well-known Tikhonov regularization adding partially an identity matrix; here we discuss a Bayesian...... approach for regularizing the covariance matrix using prior knowledge. Our method is evaluated for reconstructing and modeling vertebra and cartilage shapes from a lower dimensional representation and a conditional model. For these central problems, the proposed methodology outperforms the traditional MLE...... method and the Tikhonov regularization....

  19. A Healthcare Project: Managing Knowledge through Electronic Medical Record -Empirical Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Rocco Reina; Teresa Cetani; Assunta Lacroce; Marzia Ventura

    2012-01-01

    The paper aims at analysing the complex relations between knowledge management and project management on an empirical case in healthcare system represented by Electronic Medical Record (EMR); the effective goal is to underline the approach and the practical methods used by the project teams to maximize the level of knowledge plugged in EMR in two selected Italian hospitals. First, the research analyzes the main references about knowledge management and project management; then, it shows the j...

  20. ['How Much Sex do Medical Studies Need?' - A Survey of the Knowledge and Interest in Sexual Medicine of Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Daniel; Driemeyer, Wiebke; Nieder, Timo Ole; Scherbaum, Norbert; Briken, Peer

    2014-12-01

    Background: Because of the increasing need for medical care of problems concerning human sexuality, the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) in 2010 suggested to include sexual medicine in the current curricula of medical studies. Based on the ISSM's suggestions sexual medicine should be taught on a multidisciplinary basis throughout the whole study process. Furthermore, health care providers have repeatedly indicated that they have lacking knowledge concerning sexual medicine and patients have criticized that their health care providers only infrequently address their sexuality. Methods: 404 medical students from 2 German university medical centers answered an online questionnaire assessing the quality of sexual medicine education. The students were asked about their interest in and their knowledge about different issues concerning human sexuality in the following 4 domains: Sexual development, Sexual behavior, Sexual physiology and psychology, Sexual medicine and therapy of sexual disorders. Results: The great majority of students were interested in education about sexual medicine within medical studies, whereby most students were of the opinion that sexual medicine should be included in the already existing subjects. Furthermore, students mostly evaluated the current quality of sexual medicine education as insufficient and more than half of the students thought that they do not have enough knowledge about human sexuality for their future profession as medical health care providers. On average the students correctly answered 50% of the knowledge questions, however they showed some knowledge gaps especially in the domains of sexual development and sexual physiology and psychology. Discussion: The results of the present study suggest that medical students have lacking knowledge concerning important parts of human sexuality but at the same time express great interest in the field. Therefore, in Germany more structured educational programs in sexual

  1. Feasibility of incorporating genomic knowledge into electronic medical records for pharmacogenomic clinical decision support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoath James I

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In pursuing personalized medicine, pharmacogenomic (PGx knowledge may help guide prescribing drugs based on a person’s genotype. Here we evaluate the feasibility of incorporating PGx knowledge, combined with clinical data, to support clinical decision-making by: 1 analyzing clinically relevant knowledge contained in PGx knowledge resources; 2 evaluating the feasibility of a rule-based framework to support formal representation of clinically relevant knowledge contained in PGx knowledge resources; and, 3 evaluating the ability of an electronic medical record/electronic health record (EMR/EHR to provide computable forms of clinical data needed for PGx clinical decision support. Findings suggest that the PharmGKB is a good source for PGx knowledge to supplement information contained in FDA approved drug labels. Furthermore, we found that with supporting knowledge (e.g. IF age

  2. The Theory of Bio-Medical Knowledge Integration(Ⅵ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Han-fei

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduced the following new concepts:the cognitive goal, the cognitive goal for the declarative data of the patient records (PRs), The basic attributes of PR's data at the sides of generation, construction and cognition, the generalized data creator (GDC), type Ⅰ to Ⅵ+ of GDC, the cognitive directions of data: forward direction and backward direction, the apparent cognitive orientation and inapparent cognitive orientation, the cognitive granularity difference principle between the natural intelligence and the artificial intelligence, the generalized variable(GVAR) and the generalized value(GVAL), the variable and value transitivity law(V-V transitivity law), the attribute-combination irreversibility between the concept abstracting and embodying, an open model of the launching engine of bio-medical cognition, etc

  3. Knowledge of pulse oximetry among medical and nursing staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Kosmidis

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The pulse oximetry is a widely used non invasive method for monitoring the arterial oxygenation. The doctors and the nurses are persons which are in charge for right interpretation of measurements, receiving suitable interventions for the management of patients. Aim: To assess nurses' and doctors' knowledge of pulse oximetry and identify training needs. Material and method: Participants in this study were 376 doctors and nurses from critical and general care settings in seven hospitals in Greece. The data collection was done through a self-administered questionnaire. Frequency of use, critical care experience, and opinions about education needs were included in demographic data. The knowledge test consisted of a 15 item, multiple-choice questionnaire, designed by researchers based on international bibliography. Results: A 70,7% of participants, use pulse oximeter often and 66,3% consider that is very useful in daily clinical practice. 83,7% didn't have some type of past education while more than 81,4% believes that they need further education. The average score for all (on a 15-point scale was 8,5. Ιn particular, the average score for each team had as follows: 10,5±2,7 for the specialized doctors, 9,6±3,1 for residents, 7,8±3,3 for the nurses and 7,4±3,4 for the nurse assistants. Low percentages of right answers were observed mainly in the questions about principles on which the pulse oximetry are based, clinical application and limitations, as well as normal ranges. Conclusion: The comprehension of pulse oximetry is insufficient, mainly in the nursing staff while totally is observed the need for further education.

  4. Future of medical knowledge management and decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenes, Robert A

    2002-01-01

    Attempts to predict the future are typically off the mark. Beyond the challenges of forecasting the stock market or the weather, dramatic instances of notoriously inaccurate prognostications have been those by the US patent office in the late 1800s about the future of inventions, by Thomas Watson in the 1930s about the market for large computers, and by Bill Gates in the early 1990s about the significance of the Internet. When one seeks to make predictions about health care, one finds that, beyond the usual uncertainties regarding the future, additional impediments to forecasting are the discontinuities introduced by advances in biomedical science and technology, the impact of information technology, and the reorganizations and realignments attending various approaches to health care delivery and finance. Changes in all three contributing areas themselves can be measured in "PSPYs", or paradigm shifts per year. Despite these risks in forecasting, I believe that certain trends are sufficiently clear that I am willing to venture a few predictions. Further, the predictions I wish to make suggest a goal for the future that can be achieved, if we can align the prevailing political, financial, biomedical, and technical forces toward that end. Thus, in a sense this is a call to action, to shape the future rather than just let it happen. This chapter seeks to lay out the direction we are heading in knowledge management and decision support, and to delineate an information technology framework that appears desirable. I believe the framework to be discussed is of importance to the health care-related knowledge management and decision making activities of the consumer and patient, the health care provider, and health care delivery organizations and insurers. The approach is also relevant to the other dimensions of academic health care institution activities, notably the conduct of research and the processes of education and learning. PMID:12026135

  5. Knowledge brokers, companions, and navigators: a qualitative examination of informal caregivers’ roles in medical tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many studies examining the phenomena of medical tourism have identified health equity issues associated with this global health services practice. However, there is a notable lack of attention in this existing research to the informal care provided by the friends and family members who typically accompany medical tourists abroad. To date, researchers have not examined the care roles filled by informal caregivers travelling with medical tourists. In this article, we fill this gap by examining these informal caregivers and the roles they take on towards supporting medical tourists’ health and wellbeing. Methods We conducted 21 interviews with International Patient Coordinators (IPCs) working at medical tourism hospitals across ten countries. IPCs work closely with informal caregivers as providers of non-medical personal assistance, and can therefore offer broad insight on caregiver roles. The interviews were coded and analyzed thematically. Results Three roles emerged: knowledge broker, companion, and navigator. As knowledge brokers, caregivers facilitate the transfer of information between the medical tourist and formal health care providers as well as other staff members at medical tourism facilities. The companion role involves providing medical tourists with physical and emotional care. Meanwhile, responsibilities associated with handling documents and coordinating often complex journeys are part of the navigation role. Conclusions This is the first study to examine informal caregiving roles in medical tourism. Many of the roles identified are similar to those of conventional informal caregivers while others are specific to the transnational context. We conclude that these roles make informal caregivers an integral part of the larger phenomenon of medical tourism. We further contend that examining the roles taken on by a heretofore-unconsidered medical tourism stakeholder group sheds valuable insight into how this industry operates and that such

  6. Doctors' attitudes about prescribing and knowledge of the costs of common medications.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGuire, C

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Compliance with medical therapy may be compromised because of the affordability of medications. Inadequate physician knowledge of drug costs may unwittingly contribute to this problem. METHODS: We measured attitudes about prescribing and knowledge of medication costs by written survey of medical and surgical non consultant hospital doctors and consultants in two University teaching hospitals (n = 102). Sixty-eight percent felt the cost of medicines was an important consideration in the prescribing decision, however, 88% often felt unaware of the actual costs. Only 33% had easy access to drug cost data, and only 3% had been formally educated about drug costs. Doctors\\' estimates of the cost of a supply of ten commonly used medications were accurate in only 12% of cases, too low for 50%, and too high for 38%. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions are needed to educate doctors about drug costs and provide them with reliable, easily accessible cost information in real-world practice.

  7. Comparing medical knowledge of osteopathic medical trainees in DO and MD programs: a random effect meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, L; Cavalieri, T; Clearfield, M; Smoley, J

    1997-06-01

    The authors used random effect meta-analysis to synthesize eight mean score differences of the Part III/Level 3 examinations of the national Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners (NBOME) between osteopathic medical trainees in DO residency programs and osteopathic medical trainees in MD programs. The analysis involved 6001 trainees and all Part III or Level 3 examinations since 1992. The average mean score difference was not significantly different from zero; however, the estimates of true effect sizes of each examination varied substantially. The findings indicate that, overall, medical knowledge of osteopathic trainees in MD and DO residency programs is compatible at the time they took the examinations. However, a large variation of effect size suggests the need for further investigation of the factors other than difference between osteopathic and allopathic training programs.

  8. Bassoonists' medical problems-current state of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, William J

    2012-06-01

    Specific musical instruments can be a source of physical problems to their players. Based on reviews of the literature and personal experience, this paper summarizes current knowledge of problems affecting musicians who play instruments in the bassoon family (including the bassoon, contrabassoon, and several other instruments). Prevalence rates are higher in reports of surveys (ranging up to 86%), compared to clinical reports of patients seen and treated. Significant risk factors include young age, small body size, female gender, and use of large instruments. Problems unique to bassoonists are rare; most physical difficulties also are seen in general musculoskeletal clinical practices and in musicians playing all types of instruments. The left upper extremity is more commonly affected by overuse-related conditions in bassoonists. Non-playing-related problems are equally important for consideration (such as degenerative disorders and acute trauma), since they also affect practice and performance. Little experimental data exist to validate current and widely-held principles of treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention. PMID:22739824

  9. Ancient Egyptian surgical heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Aly

    2010-12-01

    Egyptian medicine influenced the medicine of neighboring cultures, including the culture of ancient Greece. From Greece, its influence spread onward, thereby affecting Western civilization significantly. The oldest extant Egyptian medical texts are six papyri: The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus and the Ebers Medical Papyrus are famous. PMID:21208098

  10. Nutritional knowledge of medical students studying in clinical courses of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mozaffari-Khosravi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrition is one of the important components of health promotion and disease prevention. However, nutrition literacy of medical students is unclear. This study aims to determine nutritional knowledge of medical students studying in clinical course of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in 2012. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 114 medical students in clinical course of Shahid Sadoughi hospital were randomly selected. Nutritional knowledge questionnaire was completed. Each correct answer had one score and wrong answers had no score. Results: Of 114 students, 69 students (60.5% were female and 45 students (39.5% were male with the mean age of 24.1±1.5 year. The mean score of students in basic nutrition, nutrition in the life cycle and diet therapy was 4.6±2.2, 6.2±3.2 and 6.2±3.8, respectively. There was significant association between the score of nutrition course and nutritional knowledge score in all of the fields. Conclusion: The average of scores was low. Improving the nutrition courses, especially clinical aspects, during clinical education and presence of nutritionist in treatment teams will be helpful.

  11. Knowledge of and Adherence to Hygiene Guidelines among Medical Students in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena G. Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adherence to hygiene guidelines is of utmost importance for healthcare professionals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge on and the adherence to hygiene guidelines among medical students in Austria. Additionally, a possible difference between female and male students was investigated. Methods. An open paper-based survey among third-year medical students at the Medical University of Graz was conducted. The questionnaire consisted of 20 single-choice questions covering compliance with basic hygiene standards, self-rated knowledge of hygiene guidelines, and satisfaction with current hygiene education, equipment, and quality standards. Results. Of 192 medical students, 70% judged their knowledge of hygiene standards as “excellent” or “good”; however, only 49% reported adherence to hygiene guidelines and only 43% performed hygienic hand disinfection according to WHO guidelines. Of the respondents, 79% voted for a mandatory course on hygiene standards in medical education. No significant gender differences were observed. Conclusion. While the knowledge on hygiene guidelines appears to be good among medical students, adherence is limited and requires improvement. The need for an optimum education in hygiene is high.

  12. A JAVA implementation of a medical knowledge base for decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosiadou, V; Goulis, D; Shankararaman, V; Shamtani, G

    1999-01-01

    Distributed decision support is a challenging issue requiring the implementation of advanced computer science techniques together with tools of development which offer ease of communication and efficiency of searching and control performance. This paper presents a JAVA implementation of a knowledge base model called ARISTOTELES which may be used in order to support the development of the medical knowledge base by clinicians in diverse specialised areas of interest. The advantages that are evident by the application of such a cognitive model are ease of knowledge acquisition, modular construction of the knowledge base and greater acceptance from clinicians.

  13. Medical Student Knowledge of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Peru: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errea, Renato A; Vasquez-Rios, George; Machicado, Jorge D; Gallardo, Maria Susana; Cornejo, Marilhia; Urquiaga, Jorge F; Montoya, Diego; Zamudio, Rodrigo; Terashima, Angelica; Marcos, Luis A; Samalvides, Frine

    2015-11-01

    In developing countries, education to health-care professionals is a cornerstone in the battle against neglected tropical diseases (NTD). Studies evaluating the level of knowledge of medical students in clinical and socio-demographic aspects of NTD are lacking. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted among students from a 7 year-curriculum medical school in Peru to assess their knowledge of NTD by using a pilot survey comprised by two blocks of 10 short questions. Block I consisted of socio-demographic and epidemiological questions whereas block II included clinical vignettes. Each correct answer had the value of 1 point. Out of 597 responders (response rate: 68.4%), 583 were considered to have valid surveys (male:female ratio: 1:1.01; mean age 21 years, SD ± 2.42). Total knowledge showed a raising trend through the 7-year curriculum. Clinical knowledge seemed to improve towards the end of medical school whereas socio-demographic and epidemiological concepts only showed progress the first 4 years of medical school, remaining static for the rest of the curricular years (p = 0.66). Higher mean scores in socio-demographic and epidemiological knowledge compared to clinical knowledge were seen in the first two years (pPeru where many people are affected by these preventable and treatable diseases.

  14. Assessment of patient knowledge of diabetic goals, self-reported medication adherence, and goal attainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitley HP

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medication adherence is an integral aspect of disease state management for patients with chronic illnesses, including diabetes mellitus. It has been hypothesized that patients with diabetes who have poor medication adherence may have less knowledge of overall therapeutic goals and may be less likely to attain these goals. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess self-reported medication adherence, knowledge of therapeutic goals (hemoglobin A1C [A1C], low density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] and blood pressure [BP], and goal attainment in adult patients with diabetes. Methods: A survey was created to assess medication adherence, knowledge of therapeutic goals, and goal attainment for adult patients with diabetes followed at an internal medicine or a family medicine clinic. Surveys were self-administered prior to office visits. Additional data were collected from the electronic medical record. Statistical analysis was performed. Results: A total of 149 patients were enrolled. Knowledge of therapeutic goals was reported by 14%, 34%, and 18% of survived patients for LDL-C, BP, and A1C, respectively. Forty-six percent, 37%, and 40% of patients achieved LDL-C, BP, and A1C goals, respectively. Low prescribing of cholesterol-lowering medications was an interesting secondary finding; 36% of patients not at LDL-C goal had not been prescribed a medication targeted to lower cholesterol. Forty-eight percent of patients were medication non-adherent; most frequently reported reasons for non-adherence were forgot (34% and too expensive (14%. Patients at A1C goal were more adherent than patients not at goal (p=0.025. Conclusion: The majority did not reach goals and were unknowledgeable of goals; however, most were provided prescriptions to treat these parameters. Goal parameters should be revisited often amongst multidisciplinary team members with frequent and open communications. Additionally, it is imperative that practitioners discuss

  15. A Family Day program enhances knowledge about medical school culture and necessary supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cushing Herbert E

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A Family Day program was implemented at Indiana University School of Medicine to educate the families and friends of in-coming medical students about the rigors of medical school and the factors that contribute to stress. Methods Surveys that assessed knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes about medical school were administered to participants before and after the program. Results After the program, participants showed a significant improvement in their understanding of medical school culture and the importance of support systems for medical students. Post-test scores improved by an average of 29% (P Conclusions The inclusion of family members and other loved ones in pre-matriculation educational programs may serve to mitigate the stress associated with medical school by enhancing the students' social support systems.

  16. A Brief Educational Intervention Improves Medication Safety Knowledge in Grandparents of Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesha Agarwal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Increasing grandparent-grandchild interactions have not been targeted as a potential contributing factor to the recent surge in pediatric poisonings. We hypothesized that in grandparents with a young grandchild, a single educational intervention based on the PROTECT “Up & Away” campaign will improve safe medication knowledge and storage at follow-up from baseline. Methods: This prospective cohort study validated the educational intervention and survey via cognitive debriefing followed by evaluation of the educational intervention in increasing safe medication storage. Participants had to read and speak English and have annual contact with one grandchild ≤ 5-years-old. Participants were recruited from a convenience sample of employees in a regional healthcare system. They completed a pre-intervention survey querying baseline demographics, poisoning prevention knowledge, and medication storage, followed by the educational intervention and post-intervention survey. Participants completed a delayed post-intervention survey 50–90 days later assessing medication storage and poisoning prevention knowledge. Storage sites were classified as safe or unsafe a priori|a panel classified handwritten responses. Results: 120 participants were enrolled|95 (79% completed the delayed post-intervention survey. Participants were predominantly female (93% and white (76%|50% had a clinical degree. Participants averaged 1.9 grandchildren. Initially, 23% of participants reported safe medication storage|this improved to 48% after the intervention (OR 6.4|95% CI = 2.5–21.0. 78% of participants made at least one improvement in their medication storage after the intervention even if they did not meet all criteria for safe storage. Participants also demonstrated retention of poisoning prevention knowledge. Conclusions: This brief educational intervention improved safe medication storage and poisoning prevention knowledge in grandparents

  17. Knowledge of hand hygiene in undergraduate medical, dental, and nursing students: A cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Thakker, Vaishnavi S.; Jadhav, Pradeep R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hand hygiene is of paramount importance for the prevention of healthcare associated infections and the spread of antimicrobial resistance. There is a need to explore the concept of hand hygiene among the cross-disciplinary undergraduate healthcare students. Aim: To evaluate and compare the knowledge of hand hygiene among medical, dental, and nursing undergraduate students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 84 medical, 74 dental, and 40 nursing und...

  18. Knowledge Attitude & Practices towards Voluntary Blood Donation among Medical Students in Barabanki

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Chopra; Nidhi Jauhari

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:  Blood Donation can save million lives. Voluntary blood donations are the cornerstone of a safe and adequate supply of blood and blood products. The safest blood donors are voluntary, non-remunerated blood donors from low-risk populations. Objectives: The present study was undertaken with an aim to understand the factors like knowledge, attitude and practices associated with voluntary blood donation among the medical students in a medical college. Materials & Methods: This i...

  19. Awareness and Knowledge of Ergonomics Among Medical Laboratory Scientists in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Oladeinde, BH; Ekejindu, IM; Omoregie, R; Aguh, OD

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ergonomics awareness helps in its right application and contributes significantly to general wellbeing and safety of worker at workplace. Aim: This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed at assessing the level of awareness and knowledge of the science of ergonomics among Medical Laboratory Scientists in Benin City, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A total of 106 medical laboratory scientists comprising 64 and 42 in public and private laboratories, respectively, were recruited for t...

  20. MEDICAL STUDENTS’ KNOWLEDGE OF THE CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES AND PREVENTION OF TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Yustiniyanova

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Medical students’ knowledge of the main characteristic features of tuberculosis and the prevention of the disease was studied by means of an anonymous inquiry examination of 84 students of the Medical College of Varna during the 2009/2010 academic year. They presented with good knowledge of the main characteristics of tuberculosis such as predisposing factors, risk groups, source and mechanism of transmission of the infection. They were better grounded in the common preventive measures for avoiding the tuberculosis infection rather than in those towards the contact persons. Most respondents indicated the role of Mantoux test (61% and microbiological examination of sputum.

  1. Knowledge Attitude and Behavior of Medical Technology Vocational Training School Students About Genetically Modified Organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Safak Taner Gursoy; Isil Ergin; Zeliha Asli Ocek; Meltem Ciceklioglu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To determine The Medical Technology Vocational Training School (MTVTS) students’ the knowledge about the effects of GMO on human health and environment and to evaluate their attitude and behavior has been aimed. METHODS: All of the second class students of the year 2006-2007 of MTVTS were included (N=161) in the study, response rate was 92%. The survey questionare included questions on knowledge, the risk perception and attitute about GMOs. The legal framework in Turkey about...

  2. The role of Ibn Sina (Avicenna)'s medical poem in the transmission of medical knowledge to medieval Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Halim, Rabie El-Said

    2014-01-01

    The Medical Poem ("Al-Urjuzah Fi Al-Tibb") of Ibn Sina (Avicenna, 980-1037), is the subject of this primary-source study evaluating its scientific value, poetics and pedagogical significance as well as assessing its role in the transmission of medical knowledge to Medieval Europe. In addition to one original manuscript and two modern editions, the English translation by Krueger was also studied. Ibn Sina's poem on medicine consisting of meticulously classified 1326 verses, can be considered as a poetic summary of his encyclopedic textbook: The Canon of Medicine; hence its popularity in the East then the West as a tool in the process of transmitting medical knowledge from master to student. Since first translated by Gerard of Cremona (1114-1187) in the middle of the 12(th) century, the Latinized poem was frequently published in Medieval Europe either independently or combined with the Latinized Canon of Medicine or with the Articella; the famous collection of Greco-Roman and Latinized Arabian medical treatises in use in the universities of Salerno, Montpelier, Bologna and Paris up to the 17(th) century. The study of the Krueger's English edition revealed few places where the full meanings of the original Arabic text were not conveyed. A list of those places is given together with the suggested corrections. PMID:24669114

  3. The role of Ibn Sina (Avicenna′s medical poem in the transmission of medical knowledge to medieval Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabie El-Said Abdel-Halim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Medical Poem ("Al-Urjuzah Fi Al-Tibb" of Ibn Sina (Avicenna, 980-1037, is the subject of this primary-source study evaluating its scientific value, poetics and pedagogical significance as well as assessing its role in the transmission of medical knowledge to Medieval Europe. In addition to one original manuscript and two modern editions, the English translation by Krueger was also studied. Ibn Sina′s poem on medicine consisting of meticulously classified 1326 verses, can be considered as a poetic summary of his encyclopedic textbook: The Canon of Medicine; hence its popularity in the East then the West as a tool in the process of transmitting medical knowledge from master to student. Since first translated by Gerard of Cremona (1114-1187 in the middle of the 12 th century, the Latinized poem was frequently published in Medieval Europe either independently or combined with the Latinized Canon of Medicine or with the Articella; the famous collection of Greco-Roman and Latinized Arabian medical treatises in use in the universities of Salerno, Montpelier, Bologna and Paris up to the 17 th century. The study of the Krueger′s English edition revealed few places where the full meanings of the original Arabic text were not conveyed. A list of those places is given together with the suggested corrections.

  4. Evolution of the knowledge of electricity and electrotherapeutics with special reference to X-rays and cancer. Part 1. Ancient Greeks to Luigi Galvani

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a chronological review of the growth points in the knowledge of electricity, especially as applied to medicine. Commencing with the ancient Greeks and ending with cancer electrotherapeutics at the turn of the 20th century, our history is arranged in chronological order by years of the investigators. William Gilbert (1540-1603) initiated the era of scientific investigation, followed by advances in later centuries by Otto von Guericke (1602-1686), Abbe Nollet (1700-1770), Luigi Galvani (1737-1798), Alessandro Volta ( 1745-1827), Michael Faraday (1791-1867) and Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) among others. Although electrotherapy was infrequently used to treatment malignancy, it was to make a major contribution to cancer therapy because the experience gained in electrotherapeutics paved the way for the rapid adoption of diagnostic and therapeutic radiology. Within a year of rontge's discovery, more than a thousand books, pamphlets and papers about X-rays were published. (author)

  5. MEDICO LEGAL KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS REGARDING EYE DONATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VinayKumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In developing countries like India, shortage of orga n donors is a fundamental public health problem with medical and legal implications. Improvin g the awareness, medico-legal knowledge and attitude among medical students who a re considered as the future health care providers of the community could help to promote organ donation. The objective of the present study was to assess the level of medico-legal knowl edge and attitude of second year medical students on eye donation. One hundred and twenty tw o medical students participated in the study. The awareness and medico-legal knowledge whi ch included procedure on eye donation, time factor, valid consent, place of contact and the reasons for willingness and unwillingness to donate eyes were assessed through pretested structur ed questionnaire. 99% of the medical students were aware of eye donation.59% of the part icipants responded that the eyes should be removed within 6 hours of death and 81.9% responded that the donor should be consented. However, only 18.03% responded that a valid consent should be obtained from the relatives or legal heirs after the death of the donor. 89.3% of the students were willing to donate the eyes and only 10% were unwilling. Nobility (64% was the main motivational factor for eye donation and those who were unwilling attributed it to relig ious (84.6% and cosmetic (15.4% factors. Second-year medical students have a good knowledge regarding eye donation but their knowledge on valid consent of legal heir and relati ves and the knowledge on newer legislation like presumed consent and required request needs to be improved which can play a significant role in eye donation movement in the country.

  6. [Ancient Egyptian Odontology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghult, B

    1999-01-01

    In ancient Egypt during the reign of Pharaoh Djoser, circa 2650 BC, the Step Pyramid was constructed by Imhotep. He was later worshiped as the God of Medicine. One of his contemporaries was the powerful writer Hesy who is reproduced on a panel showing a rebus of a swallow, a tusk and an arrow. He is therefore looked upon as being the first depicted odontologist. The art of writing begun in Egypt in about 3100 BC and the medical texts we know from different papyri were copied with hieratic signs around 1900-1100 BC. One of the most famous is the Papyrus Ebers. It was purchased by professor Ebers on a research travel to Luxor in 1873. Two years later a beautiful facsimile in color was published and the best translation came in 1958 in German. The text includes 870 remedies and some of them are related to teeth and oral troubles like pain in the mouth, gingivitis, periodontitis and cavities in the teeth. The most common oral pain was probably pulpitis caused by extreme attrition due to the high consumption of bread contaminated with soil and/or quern minerals. Another text is the Papyrus Edwin Smith with four surgical cases of dental interest. The "toothworms" that were presumed to bring about decayed teeth have not been identified in the medical texts. It was not until 1889 W.D. Miller presented a scientific explanation that cavities were caused by bacteria. In spite of extensive research only a few evidence of prosthetic and invasive treatments have been found and these dental artifacts have probably been made post mortem. Some of the 150 identified doctors were associated with treatments of disorders of the mouth. The stele of Seneb from Sa'is during the 26th dynasty of Psamtik, 664-525 BC, shows a young man who probably was a dental healer well known to Pharaoh and his court. Clement of Alexandria mentions circa 200 AD that the written knowledge of the old Egyptians was gathered in 42 collections of papyri. Number 37-42 contained the medical writings. The

  7. Impact of a Preventive Cardiology Curriculum on Knowledge and Attitudes of First-Year Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitia, Marie C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study of 54 first-year Marshall University (West Virginia) medical students found that a preventive cardiology curriculum improved both knowledge of and attitudes about preventive cardiology in general and on all 4 subscales (epidemiological evidence, risk factor characteristics, pathophysiology, primary interventions). (Author/MSE)

  8. Development of a Scale to Measure Laypersons' Beliefs about Medical Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Laura L. B.; Wheeler, Denna L.; Laster, Bonnie B.; McGaugh, Miriam; Morse, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Literature on participatory health care suggests that, though many patients desire basic information, a substantial number prefer a passive role. This variability is explored as a function of laypersons' beliefs about the nature of medical knowledge, referred to as epistemological beliefs, through the evaluation of a newly-developed…

  9. Attitudes, beliefs and knowledge concerning antibiotic use and self-medication : a comparative European study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoryan, Larissa; Burgerhof, Johannes G. M.; Degener, John E.; Deschepper, Reginald; Lundborg, Cecilia Stalsby; Monnet, Dominique L.; Scicluna, Elizabeth A.; Birkin, Joan; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Although the relevance of cultural factors for antibiotic use has been recognized, few studies exist in Europe. We compared public attitudes, beliefs and knowledge concerning antibiotic use and self-medication between 11 European countries. Methods In total, 1101 respondents were interviewed

  10. Stroke Knowledge among Urban and Frontier First Responders and Emergency Medical Technicians in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Michael J.; Oser, Carrie; Gohdes, Dorothy; Fogle, Crystelle C.; Dietrich, Dennis W.; Burnett, Anne; Okon, Nicholas; Russell, Joseph A.; DeTienne, James; Harwell, Todd S.; Helgerson, Steven D.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess stroke knowledge and practice among frontier and urban emergency medical services (EMS) providers and to evaluate the need for additional prehospital stroke training opportunities in Montana. Methods: In 2006, a telephone survey of a representative sample of EMS providers was conducted in Montana. Respondents were stratified…

  11. Development of cognitive processing and judgments of knowledge in medical students : Analysis of progress test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecilio-Fernandes, Dario; Kerdijk, Wouter; Jaarsma, A D Debbie C; Tio, René A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Beside acquiring knowledge, medical students should also develop the ability to apply and reflect on it, requiring higher-order cognitive processing. Ideally, students should have reached higher-order cognitive processing when they enter the clinical program. Whether this is the case, is

  12. Physician Assisted Suicide: Knowledge and Views of Fifth-Year Medical Students in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildmann, Jan; Herrmann, Eva; Burchardi, Nicole; Schwantes, Ulrich; Vollmann, Jochen

    2006-01-01

    Suicide and assisted suicide are not criminal acts in Germany. However, attempting suicide may create a legal duty for physicians to try to save a patient's life. This study presents data on medical students' legal knowledge and ethical views regarding physician assisted suicide (PAS). The majority of 85 respondents held PAS to be illegal. More…

  13. Nutrition knowledge, attitudes and practices among senior medical students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S P; Liu, J F; Shieh, M J

    1997-10-01

    A questionnaire administered to 528 senior medical students from all 9 medical colleges in Taiwan revealed a need for curriculum modifications to improve nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices. At present, 5 of the medical schools offer elective courses on nutrition, but a nutrition curriculum is not required during medical training. The 20 items on the questionnaire concerned the nutritional functions of various nutrients, nutrition management in disease states, nutrition in disease prevention, and nutrition status assessment. On a 10-point scale, the average score was 5.99 on general nutrition knowledge and 5.15 on clinical nutritional knowledge. Correct responses were highest (77.0%) on the 2 questions concerning the nutritive content of foods and lowest (17.35%) on nutrition status assessment. Only 50% knew the definition of a balanced diet and just 30% were concerned about the caloric content of their own diet. Overall, these findings suggest that nutrition education, including an evaluation of one's own diet, should be incorporated into the training programs of Taiwanese medical students.

  14. Medical providers' self perceived knowledge and skills for working with eating disorders: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linville, Deanna; Brown, Tiffany; O'Neil, Maya

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that individuals suffering from an eating disorder (ED) consult their general practitioners more frequently than those without an eating disorder (Mond, Myers, Crosby, Hay, & Mitchell, 2010). However, little is known about medical providers' existing knowledge of and training in ED detection, intervention, and treatment. This study aimed to examine national medical providers' self-perceived knowledge, skills, and needs around eating disorder screening and intervention strategies. Utilizing survey design, a randomized sample of national medical providers responded to a 23-question survey. Sixty-eight percent of respondents indicated that they did not think to screen for an eating disorder because it was not the presenting concern and nearly 59% of providers did not feel like they had the skills necessary to intervene with eating disorders. Training implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:22188056

  15. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice between Medical and Non-Medical Sciences Students about Food Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Malek Mahdavi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the significant role of consumers’ awareness about food labels in making healthy food choices, this study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and prac-tice of university students about food labeling.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 332 students aged 18-25 yr in five different academic ma-jors (including Nutrition, Public Health, Health Services Administration, Paramedical and En-gineering were asked to complete an approved questionnaire contained fifteen questions. The chi-square test was applied to examine the differences across various major groups.Results: 89.2% of the students believed that food labels had effect on nutritional awareness. 77.4% were agreed with the usefulness of the food labels and 79.2% did not feel that nutrition claims on food label were truthful. For 84% of students, the expiry date and storage conditions information were the most important informational cues to appear on the food labels. From 47.6% of students who reported the use of nutrition facts label in their often or always shopping; only 32.3% used the information on labels to fit the food into their daily diet. Surprisingly, fatty acids were the least noteworthy items (1.9% on nutrition facts labels. Regarding students’ major, there was significant difference in their knowledge, attitude and practice about truth of the nutri-tion claims, using food labels and importance of health claims (P<0.05.Conclusion: Food labels were more useful tools for students and had an effect on their nutri-tional awareness. Designing and implementation of the educational programs in order to increase the level of knowledge about food labels is suggested.

  16. A vertically integrated geriatric curriculum improves medical student knowledge and clinical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supiano, Mark A; Fitzgerald, James T; Hall, Karen E; Halter, Jeffrey B

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a vertically integrated curriculum intervention on the geriatric knowledge and performance in clinical skills of third-year medical students. This observational cohort study conducted at the University of Michigan Medical School evaluates the performance of 622 third-year medical students from the graduating class years of 2004 through 2007. An integrated curriculum intervention was developed and implemented for the class of 2006. Its elements included identification and tracking of geriatric learning outcomes in an individualized Web-based student portfolio, integration of geriatric content into preclinical courses, development of a geriatric functional assessment standardized patient instructor, and an experience in a geriatrics clinic during the ambulatory component of the third-year internal medicine clerkship. Medical student performance was assessed on a geriatric knowledge test and during a geriatric functional assessment station administered during an Observed Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) at the beginning of the fourth year. Student performance on the geriatric functional assessment OSCE station progressively improved from pre-intervention performance (mean performance+/-standard deviation 43+/-15% class of 2005, 62 + 15% class of 2006, 78+/-10% class of 2007; analysis of variance, P<.001). Similarly, student performance on the geriatric knowledge test was significantly better for the classes of 2006 and 2007 than for the class of 2005 (model F ratio=4.72; P<.001). In conclusion, an integrated approach to incorporating new educational geriatric objectives into the medical school curriculum leads to significant improvements in medical student knowledge and in important clinical skills in the functional assessment of older patients.

  17. The Theory of Bio-Medical Knowledge Integration(Ⅷ)——The Intrinsic Medical Informatics(IMI) and Meta-dimensions(MDs) of SNOMED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Han-fei

    2008-01-01

    This paper presented the profile of Intrinsic Medical Informatics(IMI), which consists of Medical Cognition Informatics(MCI) and Organism Informatics (OI). MCI and OI are taken as two cornerstones of the Theory of BioMedical Knowledge Integration(BMKI). Additionally, so called Meta-dimension architecture of SNOMED is discussed in order to venture its context computing.

  18. Exposure and Knowledge of Sharps Injuries among Medical Students in Seven States of Mexico

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    Adrián Camacho-Ortiz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical students are vulnerable to accidental exposure to blood-borne pathogens when performing clinical activities. Knowle­dge of both the prevalence of exposure and necessary reporting procedures is important to minimize the risk of harm to medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey of medical students from 19 universities from seven states in Mexico was utilized to determine the prevalence of needle stick injuries amongst medical students and the associated reporting procedures. Results: We included 312 res­pondents; of these, 52.24% were men and 47.76% were women, with a mean age of 23.19 years (SD ± 2.11 years. Nearly all of them (94.23% were medical students doing clerkships in public hospitals. Mean knowledge score of blood-borne pathogens was 3.6 (SD ± 1.16 on a scale of 0-10 designed specifically for this study. Thirty-five per cent of the respondents had sustained a needle stick injury at some point during their medical school training, and 33.97% reported some type of mucocutaneous exposure. Overall, the non-reporting rate of needle stick injury was 48.34%. Approximately 25% of the respondents were not familiar with reporting procedures in the event of a needle stick injury or mucocutaneous exposure; 61.50% had received information from their hospital about the standard protocol to follow after a blood or body fluid exposure. Conclusion: In this Mexican population of medical students, there is a high risk of suffering needle stick injuries during medical training. Furthermore, knowledge regarding prevention, evaluation, and reporting of needle stick injuries is suboptimal.

  19. Knowledge, attitude, and level of physical activity among medical undergraduate students in Delhi

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    Tanu Anand

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical inactivity has been implicated as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The healthy lifestyle of medical students could facilitate the formation of healthy physicians who is more likely to give effective preventive counseling to their patients. Therefore, this study was undertaken to assess the knowledge, attitude, and pattern of the physical activity among the medical students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 161 eligible sixth semester medical undergraduate students. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect the data. Anthropometric measurements were also taken. The data were fed and coded in Microsoft Excel 2007 and analyzed using SPSS 17.0 and Epi Info software of World Health Organization. Results: Knowledge regarding different types of exercise and anthropometric variables was fairly low among the study participants. Only 9.3% of the students were aware of the recommended level of the physical activity but nearly all (96.27% were aware of the benefits of it. The attitude of the participants toward the physical activity was favorable, yet only one-third (32.3% subjects adhered to recommended guidelines. Boys (39.8% were found to be significantly more active than girls (20.6% (P = 0.01. Conclusion: The knowledge and practices regarding the physical activity was found to be low amongst the medical students. There is a need to provide an enabling environment for promoting the physical activity amongst them so that can inculcate the same in their patients.

  20. Curcumin, an active constiuent of the ancient medicinal herb Curcuma longa L.: some uses and the establishment and biological basis of medical efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkin, Jeffrey M; Li, Xia

    2013-06-01

    The root extract, curcumin (diferuloylmethane), is a constituent of the ancient herbal medicine Jiawei-Xiaoyaosan that has been used for dyspepsia, stress, and mood disorders. Curcumin engenders a diverse profile of biological actions that result in changes in oxidative stress, inflammation, and cell-death pathways. Combined with its historical use in medical practice and its safety profile, curcumin has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications in cancer, aging, endocrine, immunological, gastrointestinal, and cardiac diseases. In addition, data in animal models and in humans have also begun to be collected in stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. A compelling new body of literature is also mounting to support the efficacy of curcumin in stress and mood disorders. Current understanding of the biological basis for antidepressant-relevant biochemical and behavioral changes shows convergence with some mechanisms known for standard antidepressants. In addition, the mechanisms of the antidepressant-like pharmacology of curcumin also appear to overlap with those of other disease states. Thus, ancient wisdom might be built into this interesting and newly-appreciated natural molecule. Although curcumin is a primary ingredient in anti-aging pills, cosmetic creams, eye treatments, diet products, etc, a key hurdle to the development of curcumin for disease treatment and prevention is overcoming its low oral bioavailability. Although multiple approaches to this problem are being examined, a solution to the bioavailability issue will be needed to ensure appropriate tissue exposures of curcumin in clinical investigation. Progress in this regard is underway.

  1. Attitudes towards and knowledge about homosexuality among medical students in Zagreb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabovac, Igor; Abramović, Marija; Komlenović, Gordana; Milosević, Milan; Mustajbegović, Jadranka

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether students in their fifth and sixth years of medical school in Zagreb have homophobic attitudes and assess their knowledge about homosexuality. A survey was conducted among fifth and sixth year medical students during the 2009/2010 academic year. The survey consisted of general demographic data, two validated questionnaires--"Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire" and "Heterosexual Attitudes towards Homosexuality Scale"--and questions about personal experiences created for this study. The mean knowledge scores were X = 14.8 out of 20. Furthermore, gender differences in attitudes were observed, indicating less negative attitudes among the female participants. The regression model was significant (ANOVA: Sum of Squares = 38.065; df = 17, Mean Square= 2239, F = 10.6; p homosexuality score were female gender (beta= -0.14, p = 0.015), sixth year of study (beta = -0.16, p = 0.009) and more knowledge about homosexuality (beta = -0.48, p < 0.001). Negative attitudes are present among the students; therefore, educational efforts should be included in the curricula of medical schools to diminish the negative perceptions of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community.

  2. Pharmacist, general practitioner, and nurse perceptions, experiences, and knowledge of medication dosage form modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen TMU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Thi-My-Uyen Nguyen,1 Esther TL Lau,1,3 Kathryn J Steadman,1 Julie AY Cichero,1 Kaeleen Dingle,2 Lisa M Nissen1,3 1School of Pharmacy, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2School of Public Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 3School of Clinical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Background: People often modify oral solid dosage forms when they experience difficulty swallowing them. Modifying dosage forms may cause adverse effects to the patient, and the person undertaking the modification. Pharmacists are often the first point of contact for people in the general community seeking advice regarding medications. Nurses are at the forefront of administering medications to patients and are likely to be most directly affected by a patient’s swallowing ability, while general practitioners (GPs are expected to consider swallowing abilities when prescribing medications. Objective: To compare the perspectives and experiences of GPs, pharmacists, and nurses regarding medication dosage form modification and their knowledge of medication modification. Method: Questionnaires tailored to each profession were posted to 630 GPs, and links to an online version were distributed to 2,090 pharmacists and 505 nurses. Results: When compared to pharmacists and GPs, nurses perceived that a greater proportion of the general community modified solid dosage forms. Pharmacists and GPs were most likely to consider allergies and medical history when deciding whether to prescribe or dispense a medicine, while nurses’ priorities were allergies and swallowing problems when administering medications. While nurses were more likely to ask their patients about their ability to swallow medications, most health professionals reported that patients “rarely” or “never” volunteered information about swallowing difficulties. The majority of health professionals would advise a patient to

  3. Trend of knowledge production of research centers in the field of medical sciences in iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falahat, K; Eftekhari, Mb; Habibi, E; Djalalinia, Sh; Peykari, N; Owlia, P; Malekafzali, H; Ghanei, M; Mojarrab, Sh

    2013-01-01

    Establishment of medical research centers at universities and health-related organizations and annually evaluation of their research activities was one of the strategic policies which followed by governmental organization in last decade in order to strengthening the connections between health research system and health system. The aim of this study is to scrutinize the role of medical research centers in medical science production in Iran. This study is a cross sectional which has been performed based on existing reports on national scientometrics and evaluation results of research performance of medical research centers between years 2001 to 2010. During last decade number of medical research centers increased from 53 in 2001 to 359 in 2010. Simultaneous scientific output of medical research centers has been increased especially articles indexed in ISI (web of science). Proper policy implementation in the field of health research system during last decades led to improving capacity building and growth knowledge production of medical science in recent years in Iran. The process embedding research into the health systems requires planning up until research products improves health outcomes and health equity in country. PMID:23865017

  4. Trend of Knowledge Production of Research Centers in the Field of Medical Sciences in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Owlia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of medical research centers at universities and health-related organizations and annually evaluation of their research activities was one of the strategic policies which followed by governmental organization in last decade in order to strengthening the connections between health research system and health system. The aim of this study is to scrutinize the role of medical research centers in medical science production in Iran. This study is a cross sectional which has been performed based on existing reports on national scientometrics and evaluation results of research performance of medical research centers between years 2001 to 2010. During last decade number of medical research centers increased from 53 in 2001 to 359 in 2010. Simultaneous scientific output of medical research centers has been increased especially articles indexed in ISI (web of science. Proper policy implementation in the field of health research system during last decades led to improving capacity building and growth knowledge production of medical science in recent years in Iran. The process embedding research into the health systems requires planning up until research products improves health outcomes and health equity in country.

  5. Knowledge and attitudes towards complementary and alternative medicine among medical students in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akan Hulya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective This study aims to examine knowledge and attitudes towards Complementary and Alternative Medicine among medical students in Turkey, and find out whether they want to be trained in Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between October and December 2010 among medical students. Data were collected from a total of seven medical schools. Findings The study included 943 medical students. The most well known methods among the students were herbal treatment (81.2 %, acupuncture (80.8 %, hypnosis (78.8 %, body-based practices including massage (77 % and meditation (65.2 %, respectively. Acupuncture, aromatherapy, herbal treatment and meditation were better known among female participants compared to males (p  Conclusions Majority of the medical students were familiar with the CAM methods widely used in Turkey, while most of them had positive attitudes towards CAM as well as willingness to receive training on the subject, and they were likely to recommend CAM methods to their patients in their future professional lives. With its gradual scientific development and increasing popularity, there appears a need for a coordinated policy in integrating CAM into the medical curriculum, by taking expectations of and feedback from medical students into consideration in setting educational standards.

  6. Knowledge of causes, clinical features and diagnosis of common zoonoses among medical practitioners in Tanzania

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    Mfinanga Godfrey S

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many factors have been mentioned as contributing to under-diagnosis and under-reporting of zoonotic diseases particularly in the sub-Sahara African region. These include poor disease surveillance coverage, poor diagnostic capacity, the geographical distribution of those most affected and lack of clear strategies to address the plight of zoonotic diseases. The current study investigates the knowledge of medical practitioners of zoonotic diseases as a potential contributing factor to their under-diagnosis and hence under-reporting. Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. Semi-structured open-ended questionnaire was administered to medical practitioners to establish the knowledge of anthrax, rabies, brucellosis, trypanosomiasis, echinococcosis and bovine tuberculosis in selected health facilities within urban and rural settings in Tanzania between April and May 2005. Frequency data were analyzed using likelihood ratio chi-square in Minitab version 14 to compare practitioners' knowledge of transmission, clinical features and diagnosis of the zoonoses in the two settings. For each analysis, likelihood ratio chi-square p-value of less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. Fisher's exact test was used where expected results were less than five. Results Medical practitioners in rural health facilities had poor knowledge of transmission of sleeping sickness and clinical features of anthrax and rabies in humans compared to their urban counterparts. In both areas the practitioners had poor knowledge of how echinococcosis is transmitted to humans, clinical features of echinococcosis in humans, and diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in humans. Conclusion Knowledge of medical practitioners of zoonotic diseases could be a contributing factor to their under-diagnosis and under-reporting in Tanzania. Refresher courses on zoonotic diseases should be conducted particularly to practitioners in rural areas. More emphasis

  7. Mother's Health Knowledge and Its Links with the Illness and Medical Care of Their Children in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Shraboni; Perianayagam, Arokiasamy; Goli, Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The level of mother's health knowledge influences not only her health, but also significantly predicts her children's health and medical care, and spending on medical care. This relationship has not yet been empirically assessed in India. The purpose of this paper is to measure the level of health knowledge of mothers in India and its…

  8. Correlation between Knowledge, Experience and Common Sense, with Critical Thinking Capability of Medical Faculty's Students at Indonesia Christian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeak, Bernadetha

    2015-01-01

    This research discusses correlation between knowledge, experience and common sense with critical thinking of Medical Faculty's Student. As to the objective of this research is to find the correlation between knowledge, experience and common sense with critical thinking of Medical Faculty's Students at Christian University of Indonesia. It is…

  9. [My personal idea on acupuncture and moxibustion (acu-moxibustion) literature of the Republic of China not recorded in the General Catalog of the Ancient Chinese Medical Books].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kewei; Wang, Zhaohui; Li, Naiqi; Li, Pengliu

    2015-11-01

    In addition to the collected books in the General Catalog of Ancient Chinese Medical Books, there are lots of acu-moxibustion literature of the Republic of China period scattered among the people which are not carried in this Catalog, some of them are rare and precious ones. In 1933, the first issue of Acu-moxibustion Journal was published and became the first professional Journal of acupuncture and moxibustion in China, 35 issues were published at that time, with many monographs on acu-moxibustion carried in its "special column". Meanwhile, other acupuncturists from different regions also established acu-moxibustion associations or schools and edited all kinds of acupuncture moxibustion teaching materials in order to develop acu-moxibustion education. In a word, the acu-moxibustion literature of the Republic of China were not only rich in forms and contents, but also combined with regional characteristics. Therefore, it should be pay more attention on that field and do further study.

  10. Knowledge and Attitude of Medical Nurses toward Oral Health and Oral Health Care of Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Suzana; Saddki, Norkhafizah; Yusoff, Azizah

    2016-01-01

    Background This study assessed the knowledge and attitudes of medical nurses regarding oral health and oral health care of pregnant women. Methods This cross sectional study of 133 nurses in the district of Tumpat, Kelantan (Malaysia) used self-administered questionnaires. Results Most nurses knew that dental plaque is associated with periodontal disease (97.7%). However, most nurses erroneously believed that tooth decay (86.5%) and excessive sugar consumption (87.2%) led to periodontal disease. About half of the nurses knew about the relationship between periodontal disease of pregnant women and low birth weight (43.6%) and preterm birth (48.9%). Many nurses had the misconception that the developing foetus draws calcium from the mothers’ teeth (78.2%). Most nurses had good attitudes toward improving their oral health knowledge (97.0%) and agreed they should help to deliver oral health education to pregnant women (94.0%). Age, length of service as a nurse, and length of service in antenatal care had no effect on the scores for the nurses’ knowledge and attitude regarding oral health and oral health care of pregnant women. Conclusion Medical nurses had limited knowledge about oral health of pregnant women and had some misunderstandings about oral health, although they had good attitudes. Age, length of service as a nurse, and length service in antenatal care had no effect on the knowledge and attitude scores of the nurses.

  11. The politics of healthcare informatics: knowledge management using an electronic medical record system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Lev, Shirly

    2015-03-01

    The design and implementation of an electronic medical record system pose significant epistemological and practical complexities. Despite optimistic assessments of their potential contribution to the quality of care, their implementation has been problematic, and their actual employment in various clinical settings remains controversial. Little is known about how their use actually mediates knowing. Employing a variety of qualitative research methods, this article attempts an answer by illustrating how omitting, editing and excessive reporting were employed as part of nurses' and physicians' political efforts to shape knowledge production and knowledge sharing in a technologically mediated healthcare setting. PMID:25581280

  12. Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Virginia

    This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

  13. Research of Infantile Anorexia in Ancient Medical Literature%小儿厌食古代文献研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斐; 林洁

    2011-01-01

    文章通过探寻并整理中医古籍及专著中对小儿厌食的病名、病因病机、选方用药、其它治疗等方面,追溯本源,阐释演变,总结规律,以便后学者得到启迪.%Research gets to the root of infantile anorexia and summarizes its law from its evolution which includes the name of the disease, causes, pathogenesis, herbs and other treatments, which can be got from ancient literatures.This study could reveal some theories which be beneficial to the other researchers.

  14. A survey of medical students to assess their exposure to and knowledge of renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weale Andrew R

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within the field of renal transplantation there is a lack of qualified and trainee surgeons and a shortage of donated organs. Any steps to tackle these issues should, in part, be aimed at future doctors. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to final year students at a single medical school in the UK to assess their exposure to and knowledge of renal transplantation. Results Although 46% of responding students had examined a transplant recipient, only 14% had ever witnessed the surgery. Worryingly, 9% of students believed that xenotransplantation commonly occurs in the UK and 35% were unable to name a single drug that a recipient may need to take. Conclusions This survey demonstrates a lack of exposure to, and knowledge of, the field of renal transplantation. Recommendations to address the problems with the recruitment of surgeons and donation of organs, by targeting medical students are made.

  15. Knowledge about Ultraviolet Radiation Hazards and Tanning Behavior of Cosmetology and Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuba, Ewelina Bogumiła; Francuzik, Wojciech; Malicki, Przemysław; Osmola-Mańkowska, Agnieszka; Jenerowicz, Dorota

    2016-04-01

    Dear Editor, Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a well-known physical hazard responsible for photoaging, photoallergic, and phototoxic reactions as well as carcinogenesis, including life-threatening melanomas (1,2). Overexposure to both natural and artificial UV radiation is a public health concern. 30% of cancers diagnosed worldwide are skin cancers. Approximately three million non-melanoma skin cancers and 132 000 new cases of melanomas are diagnosed globally each year (3). Sunburns, especially in childhood, are a very important risk factor for melanomas. Several studies demonstrated a positive association between sunbed use and an increased incidence of malignant melanoma (4). Current medical and cosmetology students will soon be knowledge providers about the risks of excessive exposure to UV radiation and prophylaxis of its consequences. Our aim was to evaluate their knowledge about the side effects of ultraviolet radiation and tanning behaviors. Details on the knowledge and habits of students were obtained during classes at the Poznan University of Medical Sciences. With approval from the Institutional Bioethical Committee, a 41-question anonymous survey was conducted in the spring of 2012 among 190 medical (1-6 year) and cosmetology students (1-5 year). The mean age of the study group was 22.3 years (standard deviation (SD) = 2.4 years), range 19-28 years. The survey was composed of closed and open-ended questions prepared by the authors. The first part of the form included demographic data: gender, age, degree course, and school year. The students were also asked about their reaction to sunlight, sunburns in childhood, and personal and family history of skin cancers or dysplastic nevus syndrome. The factual section of the survey contained questions evaluating responder knowledge about sunbeds and risk of UV radiation as well as their personal tanning habits. The open-ended questions asked responders to provide definitions of: skin phototype, sun protection factor

  16. Public Knowledge, Beliefs and Behavior on Antibiotic Use and Self-Medication in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavydė, Eglė; Veikutis, Vincentas; Mačiulienė, Asta; Mačiulis, Vytautas; Petrikonis, Kęstutis; Stankevičius, Edgaras

    2015-06-01

    Irrational antibiotic use has led society to antibiotic resistance-a serious health problem worldwide. This study aimed to assess public knowledge, beliefs, and behavior concerning antibiotic use and self-medication in Lithuania. The cross-sectional survey method was processed using a validated questionnaire in different regions of Lithuania. In total, 1005 adults completed the questionnaire and were included in the study. More than half of the respondents (61.1%) had poor knowledge of antibiotics. Almost half of the respondents incorrectly identified antibiotics as being effective either against viral (26.0%) or mixed (bacterial and viral) infections (21.7%). The respondents with lower educational qualifications (OR = 2.515; 95% CI 1.464-4.319; p = 0.001) and those from rural areas (OR = 1.765; 95% CI 1.041-2.991; p = 0.035) were significantly less knowledgeable of antibiotics. There was no significant difference between genders, different age groups, or different parenthood status. The determined level of self-medication with antibiotics was 31.0%. The men (OR = 1.650; 95% CI 1.120-2.430; p = 0.011), the respondents from rural areas (OR = 2.002; 95% CI 1.343-2.985; p = 0.001), and those without children (OR = 2.428; 95% CI 1.477-3.991; p self-medication. Lithuanian residents' knowledge of antibiotics is insufficient. More information about antibiotic use should be provided by physicians and pharmacists. Self-medication with antibiotics is a serious problem in Lithuania and requires considerable attention.

  17. Knowledge and attitude of medical undergraduate, interns and postgraduate students in India towards emergency contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purushottam A Giri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although India was the first country in the world to have national family planning policy, the acceptance of contraceptive methods has been unsatisfactory. Many women in their peak reproductive years, who wish to control their fertility, are not aware about the different methods of contraceptives available. Unregulated fertility results in unplanned pregnancies. Emergency contraceptive pills can avoid many such unplanned pregnancies. Aim: The study was to assess the knowledge and attitude about emergency contraception (EC among the undergraduate, interns and postgraduate medical science university students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 180 medical students which include undergraduate (final year MBBS, interns, and postgraduate students (60 from each group studying at Rural Medical College and Pravara Rural Hospital of Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences University of central India by a convenient sample method over a period of February 2009 to May 2009. Data were collected by pre-designed, pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire. Data was analyzed in the form of percentage and proportions and Chi-square test was applied. Results: In this study, a total of 180 respondents, of which 110 (61.2% were male and 70 (38.8% were female. The knowledge about EC was highest (47.6% among postgraduates in comparison to interns (43.3% and undergraduate students (41.6%. Overall positive attitude toward EC was observed among 73.8% of the respondents. Conclusions: Considering the role of a medical graduate as counselor and health-care provider, the technical knowledge about different aspects of EC among the study population was inadequate.

  18. Differences in medication knowledge and risk of errors between graduating nursing students and working registered nurses: comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Simonsen, Bjørg Øfstedal; Dæhlin, Gro Kvanli; Johansson, Inger Signe; Farup, Per Grønaas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nurses experience insufficient medication knowledge; particularly in drug dose calculations, but also in drug management and pharmacology. The weak knowledge could be a result of deficiencies in the basic nursing education, or lack of continuing maintenance training during working years. The aim of this study was to compare the medication knowledge, certainty and risk of error between graduating bachelor students in nursing and experienced registered nurses. Methods: Bac...

  19. Knowledge, awareness, and attitude regarding infection prevention and control among medical students: a call for educational intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Awab Ali; Elshafie, Sittana Shamseldin

    2016-01-01

    Background Medical students can be exposed to serious health care-associated infections, if they are not following infection prevention and control (IPC) measures. There is limited information regarding the knowledge, awareness, and practices of medical students regarding IPC and the educational approaches used to teach them these practices. Aim To evaluate the knowledge, awareness, and attitude of medical students toward IPC guidelines, and the learning approaches to help improve their knowledge. Methods A cross-sectional, interview-based survey included 73 medical students from Weill Cornell Medical College, Qatar. Students completed a questionnaire concerning awareness, knowledge, and attitude regarding IPC practices. Students’ knowledge was assessed by their correct answers to the survey questions. Findings A total of 48.44% of the respondents were aware of standard isolation precautions, 61.90% were satisfied with their training in IPC, 66.13% were exposed to hand hygiene training, while 85.48% had sufficient knowledge about hand hygiene and practiced it on a routine basis, but only 33.87% knew the duration of the hand hygiene procedure. Conclusion Knowledge, attitude, and awareness of IPC measures among Weill Cornell Medical Students in Qatar were found to be inadequate. Multifaceted training programs may have to target newly graduated medical practitioners or the training has to be included in the graduate medical curriculum to enable them to adopt and adhere to IPC guidelines. PMID:27579002

  20. Knowledge, awareness, and attitude regarding infection prevention and control among medical students: a call for educational intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Awab Ali; Elshafie, Sittana Shamseldin

    2016-01-01

    Background Medical students can be exposed to serious health care-associated infections, if they are not following infection prevention and control (IPC) measures. There is limited information regarding the knowledge, awareness, and practices of medical students regarding IPC and the educational approaches used to teach them these practices. Aim To evaluate the knowledge, awareness, and attitude of medical students toward IPC guidelines, and the learning approaches to help improve their knowledge. Methods A cross-sectional, interview-based survey included 73 medical students from Weill Cornell Medical College, Qatar. Students completed a questionnaire concerning awareness, knowledge, and attitude regarding IPC practices. Students’ knowledge was assessed by their correct answers to the survey questions. Findings A total of 48.44% of the respondents were aware of standard isolation precautions, 61.90% were satisfied with their training in IPC, 66.13% were exposed to hand hygiene training, while 85.48% had sufficient knowledge about hand hygiene and practiced it on a routine basis, but only 33.87% knew the duration of the hand hygiene procedure. Conclusion Knowledge, attitude, and awareness of IPC measures among Weill Cornell Medical Students in Qatar were found to be inadequate. Multifaceted training programs may have to target newly graduated medical practitioners or the training has to be included in the graduate medical curriculum to enable them to adopt and adhere to IPC guidelines.

  1. Knowledge and skill in motion: layers of Tibetan medical education in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pordié, Laurent; Blaikie, Calum

    2014-09-01

    This article examines the transmission of Tibetan medical knowledge in the Himalayan region of Ladakh (India), taking three educational settings as ethnographic ports of entry. Each of these corresponds to a different operating mode in the standardisation of medical knowledge and learning processes, holding profound implications for the way this therapeutic tradition is known, valued, applied and passed on to the next generation. Being at the same time a cause and a consequence of intra-regional variability in Tibetan medicine, the three institutional forms coexist in constant interaction with one another. The authors render this visible by examining the 'taskscapes' that characterize each learning context, that is to say, the specific and interlocking sets of practices and tasks in which a practitioner must be skilled in order to be considered competent. The authors build upon this notion by studying two fields of transmission and practice, relating to medicine production and medical ethics. These domains of enquiry provide a rich grounding from which to examine the transition from enskilment to education, as well as the overlaps between them, and to map out the connections linking different educational forms to social and medical legitimacy in contemporary India.

  2. Medical Students’ Knowledge of Indications for Imaging Modalities and Cost Analysis of Incorrect Requests, Shiraz, Iran 2011-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Islami Parkoohi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging has a remarkable role in the practice of clinical medicine. This study intends to evaluate the knowledge of indications of five common medical imaging modalities and estimation of the imposed cost of their non-indicated requests among medical students who attend Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. We conducted across-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire to assess the knowledge of indications of a number of medical imaging modalities among 270 medical students during their externship or internship periods. Knowledge scoring was performed according to a descriptive international grade conversion (fail to excellent using Iranian academic grading (0 to 20. In addition, we estimated the cost for incorrect selection of those modalities according to public and private tariffs in US dollars. The participation and response rate was 200/270 (74%. The mean knowledge score was fair for all modalities. Similar scores were excellent for X-ray, acceptable for Doppler ultrasonography, and fair for ultrasonography, CT scan and MRI. The total cost for non-indicated requests of those modalities equaled $104303 (public tariff and $205581 (private tariff. Medical students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences lacked favorable knowledge about indications for common medical imaging modalities. The results of this study have shown a significant cost for non-indicated requests of medical imaging. Of note, the present radiology curriculum is in need of a major revision with regards to evidence-based radiology and health economy concerns.

  3. [Psychiatry in ancient Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón Narváez, G

    1992-12-01

    Using studies on prehispanic and early post-conquest documents of Ancient Mexico--such as the Badianus Manuscript, also known as Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis, and Brother Bernardino de Sahagún's famous work History of the Things of the New Spain, a description of some existing medical and psychiatric problems, and treatments Ancient Aztecs resorted to, is presented. The structure of the Aztec family, their problems with the excessive ingestion of alcoholic beverages, and the punishments native authorities had implemented in order to check alcoholism up are also described. PMID:1341125

  4. Features of effective medical knowledge resources to support point of care learning: a focus group study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Cook

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Health care professionals access various information sources to quickly answer questions that arise in clinical practice. The features that favorably influence the selection and use of knowledge resources remain unclear. We sought to better understand how clinicians select among the various knowledge resources available to them, and from this to derive a model for an effective knowledge resource. METHODS: We conducted 11 focus groups at an academic medical center and outlying community sites. We included a purposive sample of 50 primary care and subspecialist internal medicine and family medicine physicians. We transcribed focus group discussions and analyzed these using a constant comparative approach to inductively identify features that influence the selection of knowledge resources. RESULTS: We identified nine features that influence users' selection of knowledge resources, namely efficiency (with sub-features of comprehensiveness, searchability, and brevity, integration with clinical workflow, credibility, user familiarity, capacity to identify a human expert, reflection of local care processes, optimization for the clinical question (e.g., diagnosis, treatment options, drug side effect, currency, and ability to support patient education. No single existing resource exemplifies all of these features. CONCLUSION: The influential features identified in this study will inform the development of knowledge resources, and could serve as a framework for future research in this field.

  5. E-book for Knowledge Management in Scientific Research Conducted in the Medical Sciences Graduate Program

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    Oramis Sosa Palacios

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The training of students enrolled in the Medical Sciences graduate program (residents includes research activities such as research projects, the final paper of the specialty, scientific events and scientific publications. Knowledge gaps in residents lead to problems seen in both the poor quality of the research project and the final paper of the specialty and in the lack of autonomy to make decisions, affecting their overall training. An electronic book aimed at residents was created for knowledge management in scientific research. The first version was designed using the Crheasoft 2.0 program. It consists of: presentation, start modules, list of topics and complementary information. It comprises condensed knowledge on: research management, research methodology, statistics, information management, computer science, linguistics and language. This e-book contributes to the execution of research activities and promotes learning independence.

  6. The Trend of Smoking Behavior and its Relation to Health Knowledge among Medical and Literature Colleges

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    Wijdan Akram

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Smoking is a major public health problem all around the world, especially in developing countries when smoking behavior among college students is a major concern to the society. Object of this study to estimate the prevalence of smoking among university students of medical and literature colleges and to assess the students’ knowledge about the health effects of smoking and attitudes towards public action against smoking. Design: cross sectional study. Setting: Al-Kindy Medical College, Baghdad Medical College and Baghdad literature collage/University of Baghdad for the period from first of March till 1st of April 2010. Approach: A random sample of 252 students of 1st and 2nd stages at the above colleges, 124 Literature students and 128 students in two Medical colleges, had been selected and subjected to the modified Arabic version of the World Health Organization (WHO, standard questionnaire for young people, to study their knowledge, attitudes and practices of smoking. All the information elicited from the questionnaire was collected and analyzed. The statistical differences between literature students and medical students were estimated. Results: The prevalence of current smoking was 58, 60% for cigarettes, 65, 56% for sheesha for Medical and Literature students respectively. Friends were the main source of the first cigarette (69%, (62% among students of the literature college and those of the medical college, respectively. followed by parents. Level of awareness of the injurious nature of smoking found to be very high among both medical 100% and literature students 94%, while (74% of medical student and only (51.3% of Literature student Agree with prevention of smoking advertising activity. Conclusion/Recommendations: Smoking still constitutes a major problem among Baghdad university students, in spite of high level of awareness to it’s hazards. This may call for an urgent action to be undertaken by health sectors in

  7. (ETHNO-)MEDICAL ETHICS IN GLOBALIZING CHINA: TRACING LOCAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION OF BIOMEDICINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micollier, Evelyne

    2015-12-01

    Encounters between several bodies of therapeutic knowledge have led to a restructuring of the entire health system, including a transformation in medical ethics. Defining "new ethics" with both Chinese and international characteristics, is part of the ongoing knowledge production process: plural health ideas, practices and medical sciences develop within the broader framework of social and economic transition. Such transition simultaneously reveals and encourages China's influence and position in an era of globalization including in the technical and knowledge production domains. Re-alignments in medical ethics in Reform China (post-1979) highlight a rather under-explored aspect of medical plurality enabling these ethics to be used as an analytical lens to provide information about social and political issues. In this article, two sets of ethical principles, one from Late Imperial China (Late Ming Era), the other from post-Mao China (1980s), are detailed and analysed. They were selected as case-studies mainly because they reflected at the time of their emergence an on-going radical change in society in the realm of health and medicine. Therefore both sets unveil the process of legitimizing a "Chinese medicine" in a context of epistemological shift: such a process takes various conceptual and practicalforms framed along the lines of the current dominant ideological system and constrained by socio-economic and political factors. Finally, issues relative to research ethics, bioethics and the New Health Reform guidelines raised in the 2000s, which represents also a significant historical turn for China, are discussed. Drawn from the overall discussion throughout the text, several concluding remarks contribute to advocate for "win-win" encounters--from the East to the West and from the South to the South, and for more implementable transnational/global ethics designing. PMID:27120825

  8. (ETHNO-)MEDICAL ETHICS IN GLOBALIZING CHINA: TRACING LOCAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION OF BIOMEDICINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micollier, Evelyne

    2015-12-01

    Encounters between several bodies of therapeutic knowledge have led to a restructuring of the entire health system, including a transformation in medical ethics. Defining "new ethics" with both Chinese and international characteristics, is part of the ongoing knowledge production process: plural health ideas, practices and medical sciences develop within the broader framework of social and economic transition. Such transition simultaneously reveals and encourages China's influence and position in an era of globalization including in the technical and knowledge production domains. Re-alignments in medical ethics in Reform China (post-1979) highlight a rather under-explored aspect of medical plurality enabling these ethics to be used as an analytical lens to provide information about social and political issues. In this article, two sets of ethical principles, one from Late Imperial China (Late Ming Era), the other from post-Mao China (1980s), are detailed and analysed. They were selected as case-studies mainly because they reflected at the time of their emergence an on-going radical change in society in the realm of health and medicine. Therefore both sets unveil the process of legitimizing a "Chinese medicine" in a context of epistemological shift: such a process takes various conceptual and practicalforms framed along the lines of the current dominant ideological system and constrained by socio-economic and political factors. Finally, issues relative to research ethics, bioethics and the New Health Reform guidelines raised in the 2000s, which represents also a significant historical turn for China, are discussed. Drawn from the overall discussion throughout the text, several concluding remarks contribute to advocate for "win-win" encounters--from the East to the West and from the South to the South, and for more implementable transnational/global ethics designing.

  9. Knowledge, attitude and practice of tobacco smoking by medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Haqwi Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco consumption is associated with considerable negative impact on health. Health professionals, including future doctors, should have a leading role in combating smoking in the community. Objectives: The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence of smoking among medical students of newly established medical colleges in Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia, as well as to assess students′ attitude, practice and their knowledge on the risk factors of tobacco consumption. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study of students from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was carried out. The questionnaire used was anonymous, self-administered and developed mainly from Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. Results: A total of 215 students participated in this study. Forty students (19% indicated that they smoke tobacco at the time of the study. All of them were males, which raise the prevalence among male students to 24%. Tobacco smoking was practiced by males more than females (P value < 0.0001 and by senior more than junior students (< 0.0001. About 94% of the study sample indicated that smoking could cause serious illnesses. About 90% of the students indicated that they would advice their patients to quit smoking in the future and 88% thought that smoking should be banned in public areas. Forty-four students (20% thought that smoking has some beneficial effects, mainly as a coping strategy for stress alleviation. Conclusion: Despite good knowledge about the hazards of tobacco consumption, about 25% of the medical students in this study continue to smoke. The main reported reasons should be addressed urgently by policy-makers. Special efforts should be taken to educate medical students on the effective strategies in managing stress during their study as they thought that tobacco smoking could be used as a coping strategy to face such a stress.

  10. Probing into the Origin of Ancient Chinese Medical Advertising Forms%中国古代传统医药广告形式探源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛涛

    2011-01-01

    中国传统医药行业很早就进入市场并且有自己的广告传播方式,在医药广告时间和空间的历史演进中经历了由动态到静态,从实物到抽象的各种演变过程,其广告形式也有招幌广告、印刷广告等主要方式.图画广告、名人广告、对联广告、市声广告也在其传播过程中发挥了积极的作用和有益的补充。古代中医药广告形式的探究,对深入研究中国古代医药广告文化、医药商业文化,推动现代医药广告的发展会有积极的作用和帮助。%Chinese traditional medicine industry entered the market so early and had their own ways of advertising communication. In the medical advertisement history of time and space evolution, it has gone through a variety of evolution, from dynamic to static, and from physical to abstract. Major advertising forms include Sapporo advertising, print ads and other forms. During its communication process, picture advertising, celebrity advertising, couplet advertising and city sound advertising also played positive roles and acted as useful sup- plement. To explore advertising forms of ancient Chinese medicine is beneficial to the in-depth study of the advertising culture of ancient Chinese medicine, business culture of medicine, and to promote the development of modern medicine advertisements.

  11. 基于文献编纂的中国古代知识组织结构初探%Knowledge Organization Structure Based on Document Compiling in Ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明杰; 周亚

    2012-01-01

    From the perspective of knowledge organization, the authors make a deep study on the knowledge organization structure based on document compiling in ancient China and argues that there is correspondence with the structure of document organization. Knowledge organization structure in ancient China can be divided into three levels, such as knowledge organization based on natural and social institutions, knowledge organization based on document unit and knowledge organization based on knowledge unit. Accordingly, it conducts an in-depth inquiry on knowledge organization methods, achievements of every level and the relationship between them. The study may help to reveal the relationship between ancient library science and modem library science.%从知识组织的视角,对基于文献编纂的中国古代知识组织结构进行考察。将之比照于基于“编述”和“抄纂”的古代文献组织结构,发现两者具有一定的对应性。把中国古代知识组织结构划分为基于自然及社会名物、基于文献单元、基于知识单元三个层次,并对每个层次的知识组织方法、知识组织成果及相互关系进行深入探究。本研究对于揭示古代图书馆学与现代图书馆学的因承关系具有启示意义。

  12. ATTITUDE AND KNOWLEDGE OF MEDICAL STUDENTS ON PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF FORENSIC MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explored medical students’ knowledge and attitude on the medico - legal autopsy demonstrations which formed part of their training in Forensic Medicine. 300 students of 2010, 2011 and 2012 batch of college were obtained by asking them to answer a questionnaire on the subject. The students were asked to respond anonymously to a questionnaire which dealt with their views on the autopsy practice, the knowledge of the procedure, attitude and perception towards medico legal autopsy. In present study majority of the students were aware of the situations where medico legal postmortem examination is mandatory as per Indian law and taking out of viscera for chemical analysis and histo - pathological examination for the purpose of medico - legal autopsy. 96% of the students agreed that autopsy is necessary in medical education. 37.95% of the students were very uncomfortable on the first exposure to postmortem examination. This study showed that medical students appreciate the medico - legal autopsy demonstration as a learning experience.

  13. Health Care Professionals’ Knowledge and Attitudes About Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Legal Aspects of Medical Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpak Yaşam Kemal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to investigate healthcare professionals’ (HCPs general level of knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases, their attitudes towards these patients and legal aspects of medical services. Materials and Methods: This was a multi-centered study. The participants were given 28 questions that mainly asked their level of knowledge on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs patients, their attitudes towards such patients, and their legal as well as ethical views on them. Results: A total of 234 HCPs, 124 (53% female and 110 (47% male, participated in the study. The majority of married HCPs have reported monogamy as the most reliable protection method, whereas single participants have marked "condoms." The most commonly known STD has been reported as AIDS in all groups. Even though HCPs find it medically unethical not to offer a medical intervention to patients with STDs, more than one-third of the participants believe that HCPs should have the right not to do so. Conclusion: It has been concluded that HCPs need further education on STDs. Nevertheless, such high level of care and attention on HCPs’ part does not necessarily decrease their need for proper medico legal regulations on such issues.

  14. Knowledge, attitude, and awareness of childhood cancer among undergraduate medical students in South India

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    M Sneha Latha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background :In India roughly 60000 childhood cancer cases are diagnosed annually with only nearly 100 pediatric oncologists. So it′s pertinent that the physicians and pediatricians are adequately equipped to recognize and refer them appropriately. Hence this study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and awareness of childhood cancer among undergraduate medical students in South India. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 240 undergraduate students from all over South India in a undergraduate pediatric clinical training. A 24 point questionnaire was given to assess their understanding of pediatric malignancies and their interest towards pediatric oncology. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS 18.V software. Results: 50% were interested in pursuing pediatrics as their career but 80% of them were not interested in pursuing pediatric oncology as their career. 55% of the students have not encountered any pediatric oncology patients in the ward. 40% did not have any lecture classes on pediatric oncology. 65.5% felt that their knowledge of childhood cancer did not make them competent to suspect and refer appropriately during their practice. 84% supported that there is a need to improve pediatric oncology teaching in their medical curriculum. Conclusions : The study unambiguously states that the future physicians lack confidence in identifying and managing childhood malignancies and pediatric oncology is far down in their career options. There is a need to reform the undergraduate medical students by increasing their exposure to pediatric oncology to improve their competence levels and interest in pursuing it as a career also.

  15. Entomology in translation: interpreting French medical entomological knowledge in colonial Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles-Vernick, T

    2008-12-01

    This essay examines how knowledge and practices around entomology and parasitology travelled and the consequences of their mobility. In exploring three anti-malaria campaigns in French Soudan before 1960, it argues that the history of medical entomology's travels entailed multiple temporal, spatial, social translations that African medical personnel, intellectuals, healers, and farmers in French Soudan reinterpreted, appropriated, and sometimes wholly rejected. This essay also focuses on "erroneous" translations, detailing how and why middle class medical personnel and intellectuals interpreted and reformulated farmers' and healers' diagnostic categories that may or may not be malaria. Anti-mosquito and antilarval interventions, and more generally anti-malaria interventions, influenced how African colonial subjects and health workers understood certain vectors and of certain maladies. These understandings, in turn, shaped the consequences of subsequent public health measures. Histories of translated parasitological and entomological knowledge and etiologies of illness have critical implications for contemporary malaria control efforts: interventions to reduce malaria transmission through various kinds of entomological controls that require active participation of local populations cannot be effective if all participants cannot agree upon what is being controlled or prevented.

  16. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Motivations towards Blood Donation among King Abdulaziz Medical City Population

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    Najd Alfouzan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Blood donation is remarkably safe medical procedure. However, attitudes, beliefs, and level of knowledge may affect it. Objectives. To measure the level of knowledge regarding blood donation, find out positive and negative attitudes, identify the obstacles, and suggest some motivational factors. Methodology. A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC. Participants were selected by convenient nonrandom sampling technique. A self-created questionnaire was used for data collection. Results. The study included 349 individuals. About 45.8% of the participants claimed that they have a history of blood donation. Reported causes for not donating blood were blood donation not crossing their mind (52.4%, no time for donation (45%, and difficulty in accessing blood donation center (41.3%. Reported motivating factors for donating blood were one day off (81.4%, mobile blood donation caravans in public areas (79.1%, token gifts (31.5%, and finally paying money (18.9%. Conclusion. People in the age group 31–50 years, males, higher education and military were more likely to donate blood as well as People who showed higher knowledge level and positive attitude towards blood donation. More educational programs to increase the awareness in specific targeted populations and also to focus on some motivational factors are recommended.

  17. Knowledge Attitude & Practices towards Voluntary Blood Donation among Medical Students in Barabanki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Chopra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  Blood Donation can save million lives. Voluntary blood donations are the cornerstone of a safe and adequate supply of blood and blood products. The safest blood donors are voluntary, non-remunerated blood donors from low-risk populations. Objectives: The present study was undertaken with an aim to understand the factors like knowledge, attitude and practices associated with voluntary blood donation among the medical students in a medical college. Materials & Methods: This is a cross sectional study with a sample size of 278. A pre-tested semi structured questionnaire was used to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding blood donation in the study subjects. The data was analyzed by applying suitable statistical methods. Results:  The knowledge about the recommended age and interval of blood donation was 90 % & 48.9% respectively. Nearly 23% of students had ever donated blood and the majority of subjects (56.5% did not have an opportunity to donate blood. 75.54 % of students were willing to donate blood at the time of study. Conclusion: Creating the opportunities regarding the blood donation may lead to the achievement of goal of 100% non-remunerated voluntary blood donation.

  18. Medical Students' Knowledge, Familiarity, and Attitudes towards Hematopoietic Stem Cell Donation: Stem Cell Donation Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Praveena; Wolanskyj, Alexandra; Ehlers, Shawna L; Litzow, Mark R; Patnaik, Mrinal S; Hogan, William J; Hashmi, Shahrukh K

    2016-09-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a potentially curative treatment for patients with blood disorders and genetic diseases. Approximately 70% of the HSCTs currently performed in the United States use stems cells from an unrelated donor who donated voluntarily. Medical students (MS) are a young, diverse, influential population whose willingness to engage in altruistic acts, such as donating stem cells, may be correlated with knowledge on the topic. A literature gap exists in MS perspectives towards HSCT and the bone marrow registry (BMR) and prior studies suggest that misconceptions about donation deter MS from participation on the BMR, which may decrease opportunities to educate other potential donors. We performed a cross-sectional survey among the 4-year cohort of MS at Mayo Medical School in Rochester, Minnesota. The questionnaire evaluated multiple areas including whether MS were current members of the BMR and/or prior blood donors, MS current knowledge on donor eligibility (DE) and the donation process (DP), MS familiarity with HSCT and the DP, and MS attitudes towards joining the BMR and towards donating stem cells. The responses were analyzed and assessed alongside a self-reported, standardized scale measuring students' altruistic behaviors. There were 99 out of 247 potential respondents (40%), with 45% (n = 44) of MS in preclinical years 1 or 2, 37% (n = 37) in clinical years 3 or 4, and 18% (n = 18) in research or alternative portions of their training, of which 43% (n = 41) in total were current BMR members. BMR status correlated positively with prior blood donation (P = .015) and female sex (P = .014). Respondents had a 57.7% and 63.7% average correct response rate regarding knowledge of DE and DP, respectively, with knowledge of DE not surprisingly higher in BMR members (P donating stem cells: lower concern with all evaluated aspects of HSCT-time, cost, pain, and side effects (for all subsections, P

  19. Exploration on the editing of catalog of ancient medical texts of China' s ethnic minorities%对民族医药古籍目录编纂的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄艳; 胡颖翀

    2013-01-01

    对民族医药古籍的整理始于20世纪80年代.在既往的各种目录类著作中,收录了部分民族医药古籍,以藏、蒙、维3个民族为主,尤其是藏族,但至今尚无一部能全面反映民族医药古籍整体状况的目录类著作.与中医药古籍目录不同,民族医药古籍目录有其特殊性,在编纂时虽然可以借鉴既往的工作经验,但仍面临着一些新的问题,例如,民族医药古籍的界定,信息著录时应使用民族文字和汉字对照,民族医药古籍的分类,医药古籍的民族归属等.%The work of collection and collation of ancient minority medical texts began in the 1980s.Some ancient minority medical texts are collected in the past catalog books,including mainly those of Tibetan medicine,Mongolian medicine and Uighur medicine.However,no comprehensive catalog works reflecting the total situation of ancient minority medical texts appeared so far.Unlike its counterpart in traditional Chinese medicine in which the advantages of its experiences can be taken,the catalog works of ancient minority medical texts have their own characteristics.Naturally,there are some new problems in the process of our editing works.For examples,the definition of "ancient medical texts of ethnic minorities",the usage of minority writing character and Chinese writing character during its collecting procedures,the classification of ancient medical texts of ethnic minorities,the ethnic belonging of minority medical texts,etc.

  20. [Physicians, books and medical knowledge in Norway around the year 1700].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Gina

    2009-12-17

    Development of medicine in the early modern period (1500-1800) formed the basis for modern medicine, in that iatrochemical and mechanistic perceptions of the human body gradually became more influential. Several different medical theories prevailed and were tested in parallel, and perceptual changes developed over time. Few studies have looked into the knowledge universe that Norwegian doctors were part of in this period. I have examined book collections owned by the physicians Jacob Woldenberg, Georg Blumenthal and Paul Dons, in order to discern how physicians practicing in Norway around 1700 responded to this particular situation of "complexity". In general, these book collections covered antique medical theories and more recent debates within the medical profession at the time. Most of the books are from Germany and the Netherlands, which means the three doctors were part of firstly a German and secondly a Dutch medical tradition. The article is based on the authors' doctoral thesis about doctors' and clergymens' book collections in the period 1650-1750. PMID:20029579

  1. [Physicians, books and medical knowledge in Norway around the year 1700].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Gina

    2009-12-17

    Development of medicine in the early modern period (1500-1800) formed the basis for modern medicine, in that iatrochemical and mechanistic perceptions of the human body gradually became more influential. Several different medical theories prevailed and were tested in parallel, and perceptual changes developed over time. Few studies have looked into the knowledge universe that Norwegian doctors were part of in this period. I have examined book collections owned by the physicians Jacob Woldenberg, Georg Blumenthal and Paul Dons, in order to discern how physicians practicing in Norway around 1700 responded to this particular situation of "complexity". In general, these book collections covered antique medical theories and more recent debates within the medical profession at the time. Most of the books are from Germany and the Netherlands, which means the three doctors were part of firstly a German and secondly a Dutch medical tradition. The article is based on the authors' doctoral thesis about doctors' and clergymens' book collections in the period 1650-1750.

  2. Intelligent technique for knowledge reuse of dental medical records based on case-based reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dong-Xiao; Liang, Chang-Yong; Li, Xing-Guo; Yang, Shan-Lin; Zhang, Pei

    2010-04-01

    With the rapid development of both information technology and the management of modern medical regulation, the generation of medical records tends to be increasingly intelligent. In this paper, Case-Based Reasoning is applied to the process of generating records of dental cases. Based on the analysis of the features of dental records, a case base is constructed. A mixed case retrieval method (FAIES) is proposed for the knowledge reuse of dental records by adopting Fuzzy Mathematics, which improves similarity algorithm based on Euclidian-Lagrangian Distance, and PULL & PUSH weight adjustment strategy. Finally, an intelligent system of dental cases generation (CBR-DENT) is constructed. The effectiveness of the system, the efficiency of the retrieval method, the extent of adaptation and the adaptation efficiency are tested using the constructed case base. It is demonstrated that FAIES is very effective in terms of reducing the time of writing medical records and improving the efficiency and quality. FAIES is also proven to be an effective aid for diagnoses and provides a new idea for the management of medical records and its applications.

  3. [Increasing the effectiveness of training of medical students in promoting the knowledge of medicine and hygiene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eme'lianova, G F; Pavlov, V A; Patoka, G A

    1989-01-01

    Fifth-year students of the medical faculty prepare one of the course of lectures on the subject of healthy lifestyle promotion, using methodological literature supplied by the Chair and the necessary information. This work is carried out during hours reserved for independent training under the supervision of teachers. The students deliver these lectures to schoolchildren during days and hours specified by the timetable. The lecturing includes demonstration of visual aids. Independent training and lecturing, on the one hand, promotes positive motivation in students in relation to the most important part of their future activity--dissemination of medical and hygienic knowledge and, on the other, raises the level of hygienic education among schoolchildren. PMID:2595448

  4. Knowledge of adverse drug reaction reporting in first year postgraduate doctors in a medical college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upadhyaya P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Prerna Upadhyaya,1 Vikas Seth,2 Vijay V Moghe,1 Monika Sharma,1 Mushtaq Ahmed11Department of Pharmacology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College, Sitapura, Jaipur, Rajasthan, 2Department of Pharmacology, Hind Institute of Medical Sciences, Safedabad, Barabanki, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, IndiaIntroduction: Poor reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs by doctors is a major hindrance to successful pharmacovigilance. The present study was designed to assess first-year residents’ knowledge of ADR reporting.Methods: First-year postgraduate doctors at a private medical college completed a structured questionnaire. The responses were analyzed by nonparametric methods.Results: All doctors were aware of the term “adverse drug reactions.” Fifty percent of the doctors reported being taught about ADR reporting during their undergraduate teaching, and 50% had witnessed ADRs in their internship training. Ten percent of patients suffering an ADR observed and reported by doctors required prolonged hospitalization for treatment as a result. Only 40% of interns reported the ADRs that they observed, while 60% did not report them. Twenty-eight percent reported ADRs to the head of the department, 8% to an ADR monitoring committee, and 4% to the pharmacovigilance center. Eighty-six percent of the doctors surveyed felt that a good knowledge of undergraduate clinical pharmacology therapeutics would have improved the level of ADR reporting.Conclusion: The knowledge of first-year doctors regarding ADR reporting is quite poor. There is a dire need to incorporate ADR reporting into undergraduate teaching, and to reinforce this during internships and periodically thereafter.Keywords: ADR reporting, pharmacovigilance, first-year postgraduate doctors

  5. Development of Knowledge and Skills in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation for Medical Students and Research Assistants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayati Kandiş1

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Aimed to asses the level of knowledge and skills of medical students attending medical school from different classes and resident physicians about CPR training before and after training course. Methods: Theorical and practical training and education on basic life support, advanced cardiac life support, airway management, airway obstruction due to foreign body, cervical collar and spine board application were given. Education program during course was didactic and interactive. Pre-test was applied before theoric education program and post-test was applied after theoric education. Practical training was applied after theoric education was applied. Results: Before CPR course program, average scores of pre-test of participants from class 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were 40.5±9.6; 46.1±9.7; 53.8±16.4; 39.9±18.5; 56.6±14.1; 52.5±11.7, respectively. For resident physicians, average score of pre-test was 72.3±11.6. Average scores of post-test for participants from medical students and resident physicians were 58.2±11.4; 62.2±9.2; 79.3±7.5; 73.3±15.6; 94.3±6.2, 80.6±9.1 and 94.2±7.1, respectively. Conclusion: Training program about CPR improved level knowledge and skill with theoric and practical education, and CPR should be implemented to faculty curriculum of medical schools for graduate and post-graduate trainers. Standardization and assessment measures of curriculum were adapted to international standard can be suggested.

  6. Underuse of Breast Cancer Adjuvant Treatment: Patient Knowledge, Beliefs, and Medical Mistrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickell, Nina A.; Weidmann, Jessica; Fei, Kezhen; Lin, Jenny J.; Leventhal, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about why women with breast cancer who have surgery do not receive proven effective postsurgical adjuvant treatments. Methods We surveyed 258 women who recently underwent surgical treatment at six New York City hospitals for early-stage breast cancer about their care, knowledge, and beliefs about breast cancer and its treatment. As per national guidelines, all women should have received adjuvant treatment. Adjuvant treatment data were obtained from inpatient and outpatient charts. Factor analysis was used to create scales scored to 100 of treatment beliefs and knowledge, medical mistrust, and physician communication about treatment. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed differences between treated and untreated women. Results Compared with treated women, untreated women were less likely to know that adjuvant therapies increase survival (on a 100-point scale; 66 v 75; P < .0001), had greater mistrust (64 v 53; P = .001), and had less self-efficacy (92 v 97; P < .05); physician communication about treatment did not affect patient knowledge of treatment benefits (r = 0.8; P = .21). Multivariate analysis found that untreated women were more likely to be 70 years or older (adjusted relative risk [aRR], 1.11; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.13), to have comorbidities (aRR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.12), and to express mistrust in the medical delivery system (aRR, 1.003; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.007), even though they were more likely to believe adjuvant treatments were beneficial (aRR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98 to 0.99; model c, 0.84; P ≤ .0001). Conclusion Patient knowledge and beliefs about treatment and medical mistrust are mutable factors associated with underuse of effective adjuvant therapies. Physicians may improve cancer care by ensuring that discussions about adjuvant therapy include a clear presentation of the benefits, not just the risks of treatment, and by addressing patient trust in and concerns about the medical system. PMID:19770368

  7. Content knowledge and problem-solving skill in reviewing medical charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson-Saunders, B; Mast, T A; Finch, W T; Konrad, H R; Folse, J R

    1984-01-01

    Skills in reviewing medical charts have been demonstrated components of clinical competence related to knowledge base, level of clinical experience, and basic observational skills. A study of the generalizability of performance on chart review exercises, which controlled for knowledge in the content area, was undertaken to determine their potential in evaluating students' problem-solving ability. Results of the study indicate that the case specificity which has characterized simulated problem-solving tasks is largely case, rather than content, specificity: correlations between scores on single charts demonstrated no consistent relationships for measures of proficiency, efficiency, and diagnostic accuracy. However, averaging the scores on two charts and then computing correlations resulted in significant positive measures for both proficiency and efficiency. The effects of length and difficulty level on the generalizability of tests of problem-solving ability are areas suggested for future research.

  8. Medical students' learning from patient-led teaching: experiential versus biomedical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Ann-Helen; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how medical students perceive the experience of learning from patient instructors (patients with rheumatism who teach health professionals and students) in the context of coupled faculty-led and patient-led teaching session. This was an explorative study with a qualitative approach based on focus group interviews. Analysis was based on a prior developed model of the characteristics of learning from patient instructors. The authors used this model as sensitizing concepts for the analysis of data while at the same time being open to new insights by constant comparison of old and new findings. Results showed a negotiation both between and within the students of the importance of patients' experiential knowledge versus scientific biomedical knowledge. On one hand students appreciated the experiential learning environment offered in the PI-led sessions representing a patient-centred approach, and acknowledged the importance of the PIs' individual perspectives and experiential knowledge. On the other hand, representing the scientific biomedical perspective and traditional step-by step teaching, students expressed unfamiliarity with the unstructured experiential learning and scepticism regarding the credibility of the patients' knowledge. This study contributes to the understanding of the complexity of involving patients as teachers in healthcare education and initiates a discussion on how to complement faculty-led teaching with patient-led teaching involving varying degrees of patient autonomy in the planning and delivering of the teaching.

  9. A Study of the Competency of Third Year Medical Students to Interpret Biochemically Based Clinical Scenarios Using Knowledge and Skills Gained in Year 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Veena Bhaskar S.; Nagaiah, Bhaskar Hebbani; Sengodan, Bharathi

    2016-01-01

    Medical students build clinical knowledge on the grounds of previously obtained basic knowledge. The study aimed to evaluate the competency of third year medical students to interpret biochemically based clinical scenarios using knowledge and skills gained during year 1 and 2 of undergraduate medical training. Study was conducted on year 3 MBBS…

  10. "Interventions for Promoting Research Knowledge Translation: Why and how should we promote utilization of research-based knowledge through medical journals?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Yazdizadeh

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nWhat is medical journals purpose of publishing research? These objectives have significantly changed since the first medical journals have been published; accordingly article formats have also transformed. Initially publication of articles was done with the purpose of informing the other researchers, but gradually, as the volumes of information and research target audiences increased, certain changes such as formatting abstracts and full texts were implemented in article presentations to inform target audiences in the shortest time. The question now is, how have medical journals moved on following the occurrence and development of evidence-based medicine and subsequently knowledge translation which highlight the importance of changing target audiences' behavior on the grounds of new evidence?"nIn order to identify the changes introduced in journals to promote knowledge translation, a search was conducted in electronic journals that were accessible. Eventually, it was observed that two important events had taken place in medical journals: changing article formats and creating new journals. In some journals there is a separate section that clearly highlights the essence of the study. For example inserting questions like "what does your study add to the current knowledge available?" or "how can the results of this study change target audiences' behavior?". On the other hand, journals were created that only publish systematic review studies."nUnfortunately, the aforementioned changes have not been addressed by many international and domestic medical journals. Therefore, in order to strengthen knowledge translation through journals in the country, we suggest inserting a section titled "Overview Box" in addition to formatting abstracts. To assess the impact of this intervention in improving the status of knowledge translation, we suggest an interventional study aimed at examining the impact of this box and properly transferring the article

  11. Anatomical Knowledge Retention in Third-Year Medical Students Prior to Obstetrics and Gynecology and Surgery Rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Lee, Juliet; Ahle, Samantha; Brown, Kirsten M.; Butera, Gisela; Goldman, Ellen F.; Krapf, Jill M.

    2014-01-01

    Surgical anatomy is taught early in medical school training. The literature shows that many physicians, especially surgical specialists, think that anatomical knowledge of medical students is inadequate and nesting of anatomical sciences later in the clinical curriculum may be necessary. Quantitative data concerning this perception of an…

  12. Guideline-recommended use of asthma medication by children is associated with parental information and knowledge : the PIAMA birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijga, Alet H.; Zuidgeest, Mira G. P.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Smit, Henriette A.; de Jongste, Johan C.

    2014-01-01

    PurposeWe investigated the use of asthma medication by children and the association of use as recommended by guidelines with modifiable risk factors: parental attitudes, knowledge of asthma medication and information provided by health care providers. MethodsQuestionnaire data were obtained from par

  13. Test de Evaluacion de Conocimientos Medicos-CIIPME (Test of Evaluation of Medical Knowledge-CIIPME). Publication No. 42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfici, C.; And Others

    The purpose of this research is to build a test for the evaluation of the knowledge needed by medical students before entering clinical courses in medical school. The criterion for this was provided by teachers in both the pre-clinical and clinical subjects. The Pilot instrument consisted of 335 items that covered 8 sections. Each one of these…

  14. 论中国古代医者群体及其变迁——以《古今图书集成·医部全录》为中心%On the Ancient Medical Goups and Their Changes -With the Medical Records of Collection of Ancient and Modern Books as Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美美

    2012-01-01

    Collection of Ancient and Modern Books is a medical book which records the ancient physicians such as witch doctors, Confucian physicians, hereditary doctors, good -natured doctors, highly skilled doctors, saint doctors, hour doctors, doctors of good lucks, fine doctors, filial doctors, hermit doctors, quacks and female doctors. This paper mainly discusses witch doctors, Confucian doctors, hereditary doctors, female doctors, god -natured doctors, skilled doctors, saint doctors, hour doctors and quacks.%《古今图书集成·医部全录》是一部医学类书籍,其所录古代医者有巫医、儒医、世医、良医、名医、大医、时医、巧医、孝医、隐医、庸医、女医。择其巫医、儒医、世医、女医、良医、名医、大医、时医、庸医等而论。

  15. Antibiotic prescribing in DR Congo: a knowledge, attitude and practice survey among medical doctors and students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamala Thriemer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Antibiotic resistance (ABR particularly hits resource poor countries, and is fuelled by irrational antibiotic (AB prescribing. We surveyed knowledge, attitudes and practices of AB prescribing among medical students and doctors in Kisangani, DR Congo. METHODS: Self-administered questionnaires. RESULTS: A total of 184 questionnaires were completed (response rate 94.4%. Knowledge about AB was low (mean score 4.9/8 points, as was the estimation of local resistance rates of S. Typhi and Klebsiella spp.(correct by 42.5% and 6.9% of respondents respectively. ABR was recognized as a problem though less in their own practice (67.4% than nation- or worldwide (92.9% and 85.5%, p<.0001. Confidence in AB prescribing was high (88.6% and students consulted more frequently colleagues than medical doctors when prescribing (25.4% versus 11.6%, p= 0.19. Sources of AB prescribing included pharmaceutical companies (73.9%, antibiotic guidelines (66.3%, university courses (63.6%, internet-sites (45.7% and WHO guidelines (26.6%. Only 30.4% and 16.3% respondents perceived AB procured through the central procurement and local pharmacies as of good quality. Local AB guidelines and courses about AB prescribing are welcomed (73.4% and 98.8% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This data shows the need for interventions that support rational AB prescribing.

  16. Knowledge and perceptions of physicians from private medical centres towards generic medicines: a nationwide survey from Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Rohit; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Saleem, Fahad; Alrasheedy, Alian A.; Kaur, Navneet; Wong, Zhi Yen; Kader, Muhamad Ali SK Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Generic medicine prescribing has become a common practice in public hospitals. However, the trend in private medical centres seems to be different. The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge, perceptions and behavior of physicians from private medical centres in Malaysia regarding generic medicines. Methods This study was a cross-sectional nationwide survey targeting physicians from private medical centres in Malaysia. The survey was conducted using questionnaire havi...

  17. [My personal idea on acupuncture and moxibustion (acu-moxibustion) literature of the Republic of China not recorded in the General Catalog of the Ancient Chinese Medical Books].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kewei; Wang, Zhaohui; Li, Naiqi; Li, Pengliu

    2015-11-01

    In addition to the collected books in the General Catalog of Ancient Chinese Medical Books, there are lots of acu-moxibustion literature of the Republic of China period scattered among the people which are not carried in this Catalog, some of them are rare and precious ones. In 1933, the first issue of Acu-moxibustion Journal was published and became the first professional Journal of acupuncture and moxibustion in China, 35 issues were published at that time, with many monographs on acu-moxibustion carried in its "special column". Meanwhile, other acupuncturists from different regions also established acu-moxibustion associations or schools and edited all kinds of acupuncture moxibustion teaching materials in order to develop acu-moxibustion education. In a word, the acu-moxibustion literature of the Republic of China were not only rich in forms and contents, but also combined with regional characteristics. Therefore, it should be pay more attention on that field and do further study. PMID:26813321

  18. Rural Zulu women’s knowledge of and attitudes towards medical male circumcision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph N. Ikwegbue

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical male circumcision (MMC is a key strategy in the South African HIV infection prevention package. Women may have a potentially powerful role in supporting such a strategy. Circumcision is not a traditional part of Zulu society, and Zulu women may have limited knowledge and ambivalent or negative attitudes towards MMC.Aim: This study employs quantitative data to expand insight into rural Zulu women’s knowledge of and attitudes towards MMC, and is important as women could potentially yield a powerful positive or negative influence over the decisions of their partners and sons.Setting: A hospital-based antenatal clinic in rural KwaZulu-Natal.Methods: Participants were 590 pregnant, mostly isiZulu-speaking women. Data on their knowledge of and attitude towards MMC were collected using a questionnaire and were analysed descriptively.Results: The majority of the women supported MMC; however, knowledge of the potential benefits was generally poor. Most would encourage their partners and sons to undergo MMC. The preferred place for the procedure was a hospital.Conclusion: Zulu participants supported MMC and would support their partners and children being circumcised. Knowledge around potential benefits was worryingly poor, and further research into disseminating information is essential. The findings highlight the need for an expanded campaign of health education for women, and innovative means are suggested to enhance information accessibility. Reasons for preferring that MMC be carried out in hospital need to be explored further.

  19. Citation analysis with medical subject Headings (MeSH) using the Web of Knowledge: A new routine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Leydesdorff; T. Opthof

    2013-01-01

    Citation analysis of documents retrieved from the Medline database (at the Web of Knowledge) has been possible only on a case-by-case basis. A technique is presented here for citation analysis in batch mode using both Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) at the Web of Knowledge and the Science Citation I

  20. Constructing Medical Knowledge Alliance Database and Promoting Knowledge Sharing and Innovation among Medical Colleges and Universities%构建医学知识联盟库 促进医学院校知识共享与创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱其军

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces the importance of constructing medical knowledge alliance database and mainly elaborates its schemes of construction from the perspectives of management institutions' setting,program of database construction,operating and management mechanism.It discusses how to implement the knowledge management and promote the knowledge sharing and innovation among medical colleges and universities using medical knowledge alliance database.%介绍构建医学知识联盟库的重要性,从管理机构设置、建库方案、运营管理机制等方面阐述医学知识联盟库的建设方案,探讨如何应用医学知识联盟库实施知识管理、促进医学院校实施知识共享与创新服务。

  1. A survey exploring the knowledge and perceptions of senior medical students in Nepal toward generic medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Sudesh; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Saha, Archana

    2016-01-01

    Background: The accurate knowledge of generic medicine issues among future prescribers will enhance the prescribing of cost-effective medicines. This study aimed to explore the knowledge and perception of senior medical students about the generic medicines. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 237 senior medical students (final year students and interns) using a validated self-administered questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 for windows and comparison of difference was done using linear by linear association. A p value of less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: The average age (standard deviation) of the respondents was 23.54 (1.39) years. Almost 5% of respondents correctly answered the question regarding the regulatory limits for bioequivalence. Almost two-thirds of respondents correctly agreed that generic medicine is bioequivalent to a brand-name medicine, and 79.3% and 72.5% of respondents correctly agreed that the medicine should be present in the same dosage form and same dose, respectively, as the brand-name medicines. However, almost half of the respondents had impression that brand-name medicines are required to meet higher safety standard than generic medicines. Almost 90% of respondents felt that advertisement by the drug companies would influence the use of brand-name medicine and they need more information about generic medicine. Conclusion: This study highlights the negative perception and knowledge deficit among the respondents. The students’ responses to almost all the statements were almost similar to the respondents’ academic year (final year students and interns), gender and nationality. PMID:27551423

  2. The level of knowledge of students of medical faculty kragujevac about nosocomial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Milena D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in clinical and pre-clinical medical students' knowledge of nosocomial infections (NI. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. RESULTS: Questionnaires were answered and returned by 352 of 453 student (77.7 %. The results indicated that students knew the definition of NI (70.1 % correct answers and their reservoirs (86 %. The bacteria as etiological agents was the most frequent answer (76.4 %, but 30.9 % students did not knew at least one multidrug-resistant bacteria. About one half of the students (54.4 % knew that contact was the most frequent mode of NI transmission, but hand washing as preventive measure was cited by only 18.8 % of students. Significantly statistical differences about NI in our country, etiology NI and preventive measures, and perception of risk for transmission of hepatitis B for health-care personnel were founded by year of training, by expectation that final-year medical students as more successfully, while pre-clinical students knew more about mode of NI transmission. Pre-clinical students who had previously finished nursing school knew more about multidrug-resistant bacteria than those who had finished some other secondary school, but showed a lower knowledge about definition and most important preventive measures of NI. Clinical students who had previously finished nursing school knew more about frequency NI in our country, reservoirs and preventive measures of NI than those who had finished some other secondary school. CONCLUSION: Data support the need for additional information about nosocomial infections, especially practical work in prevention, in order to get complete knowledge about nosocomial infections.

  3. Evaluation of the implementation of the knowledge management processes in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences teaching hospitals, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana Sharifian; Nasrin Shokrpour; Fahimeh Salehpour

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Recognition and implementation of knowledge management have an important effect on improving the quality of hospital activities. According to the direct relationship with the society’s health, health and treatment departments need knowledgeable and skillful staff. Thus, this research investigated different dimensions of the knowledge management processes in teaching hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Method: This cross-sectional analytical st...

  4. Combined numerical and linguistic knowledge representation and its application to medical diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesad, Phayung; Yen, Gary G.

    2002-07-01

    In this study, we propose a novel hybrid intelligent system (HIS) which provides a unified integration of numerical and linguistic knowledge representations. The proposed HIS is hierarchical integration of an incremental learning fuzzy neural network (ILFN) and a linguistic model, i.e., fuzzy expert system, optimized via the genetic algorithm. The ILFN is a self-organizing network with the capability of fast, one-pass, online, and incremental learning. The linguistic model is constructed based on knowledge embedded in the trained ILFN or provided by the domain expert. The knowledge captured from the low-level ILFN can be mapped to the higher-level linguistic model and vice versa. The GA is applied to optimize the linguistic model to maintain high accuracy, comprehensibility, completeness, compactness, and consistency. After the system being completely constructed, it can incrementally learn new information in both numerical and linguistic forms. To evaluate the system's performance, the well-known benchmark Wisconsin breast cancer data set was studied for an application to medical diagnosis. The simulation results have shown that the prosed HIS perform better than the individual standalone systems. The comparison results show that the linguistic rules extracted are competitive with or even superior to some well-known methods.

  5. Towards knowledge-based retrieval of medical images. The role of semantic indexing, image content representation and knowledge-based retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, H J; Antipov, I; Hersh, W; Smith, C A

    1998-01-01

    Medicine is increasingly image-intensive. The central importance of imaging technologies such as computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in clinical decision making, combined with the trend to store many "traditional" clinical images such as conventional radiographs, microscopic pathology and dermatology images in digital format present both challenges and an opportunities for the designers of clinical information systems. The emergence of Multimedia Electronic Medical Record Systems (MEMRS), architectures that integrate medical images with text-based clinical data, will further hasten this trend. The development of these systems, storing a large and diverse set of medical images, suggests that in the future MEMRS will become important digital libraries supporting patient care, research and education. The representation and retrieval of clinical images within these systems is problematic as conventional database architectures and information retrieval models have, until recently, focused largely on text-based data. Medical imaging data differs in many ways from text-based medical data but perhaps the most important difference is that the information contained within imaging data is fundamentally knowledge-based. New representational and retrieval models for clinical images will be required to address this issue. Within the Image Engine multimedia medical record system project at the University of Pittsburgh we are evolving an approach to representation and retrieval of medical images which combines semantic indexing using the UMLS Metathesuarus, image content-based representation and knowledge-based image analysis. PMID:9929345

  6. Towards knowledge-based retrieval of medical images. The role of semantic indexing, image content representation and knowledge-based retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, H J; Antipov, I; Hersh, W; Smith, C A

    1998-01-01

    Medicine is increasingly image-intensive. The central importance of imaging technologies such as computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in clinical decision making, combined with the trend to store many "traditional" clinical images such as conventional radiographs, microscopic pathology and dermatology images in digital format present both challenges and an opportunities for the designers of clinical information systems. The emergence of Multimedia Electronic Medical Record Systems (MEMRS), architectures that integrate medical images with text-based clinical data, will further hasten this trend. The development of these systems, storing a large and diverse set of medical images, suggests that in the future MEMRS will become important digital libraries supporting patient care, research and education. The representation and retrieval of clinical images within these systems is problematic as conventional database architectures and information retrieval models have, until recently, focused largely on text-based data. Medical imaging data differs in many ways from text-based medical data but perhaps the most important difference is that the information contained within imaging data is fundamentally knowledge-based. New representational and retrieval models for clinical images will be required to address this issue. Within the Image Engine multimedia medical record system project at the University of Pittsburgh we are evolving an approach to representation and retrieval of medical images which combines semantic indexing using the UMLS Metathesuarus, image content-based representation and knowledge-based image analysis.

  7. 缄默知识与医学教育创新%Tacit Knowledge and Medical Education Innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱志刚; 祝延

    2012-01-01

    The theory of "tacit knowledge" proposed by M. Polanyi has huge influence on many fields of western sciences. Medical science includes plenty of tacit knowledge, which is of great importance to medical education. There is inherent correlation between tacit knowledge and medical education, as the application of tacit knowledge to medical fields can facilitate medical education reform and innovation. Apprenticeship, implicit learning and action learning are beneficial to the acquisition of tacit knowledge of medical education.%波兰尼的缄默知识理论在西方多个学科领域产生巨大影响.医学学科中蕴含大量缄默知识,缄默知识对于医学和医学教育非常重要,二者有着内在的关联性,将缄默知识理论引入医学领域能够促进医学教育反思、改革和创新.学徒制模式、内隐学习和行动学习有助于医学缄默知识的获取和增长.

  8. Oral health knowledge among pre-clinical students of International Branch of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Oral health is an important issue in public health with a great impact on individuals’ general health status. A good access to oral healthcare services and a good knowledge of it play a key role in the oral disease prevention. A better health attitude and practice require a better knowledge. The aims of this study was to evaluate the oral health knowledge among the International students branch (Kish of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2011-12.   Materials and Methods: 159 pre-clinical students in medicine (54 students, dentistry (69 students and pharmacy (36 students participated in this research. A standard questionnaire was used as the main tool of research to evaluate the attitude and knowledge of students about the oral health. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test.   Results: According to the results, dental students had the best level of knowledge and pharmacy students had a better knowledge level compared to the medical students. The results also showed a significant relationship between students’ oral health knowledge and their field and duration of study and the place of their secondary school (P0.05.   Conclusion: The results showed that the students at the International Branch of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences had a relatively good knowledge of oral health. Students’ knowledge level can be improved by providing students with educational materials, organized workshops and seminars.

  9. [Living in abundance in the ancient and modern worlds from a medical and cultural-historical point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, D P

    2014-06-01

    Comparative investigations centre on attitudes of demand and consumption in ethnic groups living in affluence, beginning with the first pre-Christian century in the Roman Empire on the one hand and in Western countries in the post-industrial age of hight-tech in times of far advanced globalization on the other. In this context medical, psycho-social and socio-economical aspects will be treated considering ideal and cultural breaks. Renowned Roman and Greek historians, physicians and philosophers are vouching as witnesses of the times for developments in the antique world with their literary works, in excerpts and verbatim. Obviously general moral decay is a side effect of any affluence. Even in the antiquitiy the "ideology of renewal" proclaimed by the Emperor Augustus died away mostly in emptiness just as do the appeals for improving one's state of health for surviving directed to all citizens in our time. With the rise of Rome as a world power general relative affluence was widespread to such an extent that diseases caused by affluence have occured as mass phenomena. The old Roman virtues of temperance and frugality turned into greed and addiction to pleasure. In this way the Roman people under the banner of affluence degenerated into a society of leisure time, consumption, fun and throwaway mentality. The decline of the Empire was predetermined. The promise of affluence which modern Europe is addicted to is demanding its price following the principle of causality. "How the pictures resemble each other!"

  10. Ancient genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen;

    2015-01-01

    , archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when...

  11. Ancient mitogenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Simon Y W; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2010-01-01

    the technical challenges that face researchers in the field. We catalogue the diverse sequencing methods and source materials used to obtain ancient mitogenomic sequences, summarise the associated genetic and phylogenetic studies that have been conducted, and evaluate the future prospects of the field....

  12. [Exploring the changes of inheritance model of medical knowledge as viewed from the description of physicians in the Song Dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haipeng

    2014-11-01

    From the Southern and Northern Dynasties to the beginning of the Northern Song Dynasty, the models of "master and apprentice" and "physician of long family tradition for generations" were the main ways for teaching medical knowledge. With the rapid amassment of medical books in the Song Dynasty, "reading text" became increasingly important and prominent in the inheritance of medical knowledge, which could be seen clearly from the descriptions on physicians in the Song Dynasty. For instance, Hao Yun's medical knowledge was recorded as a model of "master and apprentice" in Hao Yun's Epitaph written by Zhang Xun. However, in Ye Mengde's description, this model was played down, while at the same time, "reading text" was emphasized. Pang Anshi, though coming from a physician family for generations, got rid of some medical knowledge from his own family and turned to the medical knowledge by "reading text". According to Pang Anshi's Epitaph written by Zhang Lei and Fang ji Zhuan (Biography of Technicians) in Song shi (The Song History), Pang Anshi was a typical model of becoming a famous physician by "reading text". In the Epitaph, Pang Anshi's brilliance was stressed, and in the latter, "reading text" was more important and the family tradition was denied. In the description of the Song Dynasty, Chen Zhaoyu's wonderful medical skills was coming from the "practice", and "reading text" was denied right away. What is more, "reading text" was introspected and criticized through Chen Zhaoyu's lip. The different descriptions of the Song Dynasty reflected the change of inheritance model of medical knowledge. PMID:25620356

  13. Knowledge and attitude of rural dwellers to the use of traditional eye medication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Catherine U. Ukponmwan; VO Omuemu

    2011-01-01

    To determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of rural dwellers to the use of traditional eye medications (TEM). Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study using a reseacher administered structured questionnaire was carried out in Iviari community in Etsako-East Local Government Area (LGA) of Edo State, Nigeria. A systematic sampling method was used. Three hundred and thirty six (336) people aged 15years and above (range 15 90years) comprised the participants. The data was analysed using Microsoft excel spreadsheet and the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS). Results: Fifty one (51, 49.5%) out of 103 people with eye disease or a past history of eye disease used TEM. There was no association between the sex, level of education, occupation of participants and the use of TEM. There was a significant association between African traditional religion and the use of TEM (P= 0. 0266). Thirty eight (38, 36.9 %) people were treated by medical doctors and nurses. Fourteen people (13.6 % ) had used TEM before seeking orthodox medical treatment. The most common source of TEM was self or friends and relations (38.9%). Traditional healers or herbalists were the source in 12 people (11.7 %). One hundred and ten (32.7 % ) respondents knew some form of traditional eye medication and the commonest was herbal extract (66, 60 %), others were native powder,sugar solution, urine, breast milk, alum and couching. One hundred (29.7%) people said that the use of TEM was beneficial, 187(55.7%) said there was no benefit while 49(14.6%) did not know. Conclusion: The knowledge and use of TEM in this community is high. There is a need to make eye care accessible and affordable to the people. Health education and public enlightenment campaigns of people in this community and rural dwellers in Nigeria about the harmful effects of TEM should be done. The establishments of outreach centres in rural areas by ophthalmology departments in secondary and tertiary

  14. Multidimensional representations: The knowledge domain of germs held by students, teachers and medical professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rua, Melissa Jo

    The present study examined the understandings held by 5th, 8th, and 11th-grade students, their teachers and medical professionals about germs. Specifically, this study describes the content and structure of students' and adults' conceptions in the areas of germ contraction, transmission, and treatment of infectious and non-infectious diseases caused by microorganisms. Naturalistic and empirical research methods were used to investigate participants' conceptions. Between and within group similarities were found using data from concept maps on the topic "flu," drawings of germs, a 20 word card sort related to germs and illness, and a semi-structured interview. Concept maps were coded according to techniques by Novak and Gowan (1984). Drawings of germs were coded into four main categories (bacteria, viruses, animal cell, other) and five subcategories (disease, caricature, insect, protozoa, unclassified). Cluster patterns for the card sorts of each group were found using multidimensional scaling techniques. Six coding categories emerged from the interview transcripts: (a) transmission, (b) treatment, (c) effect of weather on illness, (d) immune response, (e) location of germs, and (f) similarities and differences between bacteria and viruses. The findings showed students, teachers and medical professionals have different understandings about bacteria and viruses and the structures of those understandings vary. Gaps or holes in the participants knowledge were found in areas such as: (a) how germs are transmitted, (b) where germs are found, (c) how the body transports and uses medicine, (d) how the immune system functions, (e) the difference between vaccines and non-prescription medicines, (f) differences that exist between bacteria and viruses, and (g) bacterial resistance to medication. The youngest students relied heavily upon personal experiences with germs rather than formal instruction when explaining their conceptions. As a result, the influence of media was

  15. The breast: from Ancient Greek myths to Hippocrates and Galen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavazzo, C R; Trompoukis, C; Siempos, I I; Falagas, M E

    2009-01-01

    This is a historical article about Ancient Greek literature from mythological times until the first centuries AD with regard to the female breast. We endeavoured to collect several elegant narratives on the topic as well as to explore the knowledge of Ancient Greek doctors on the role, physiology and pathology of breast and the treatment of its diseases. We identified such descriptions in myths regarding Amazons, Hercules, Zeus, Hera and Amaltheia. Furthermore, descriptions on the topic were also found in the work of Hippocrates, Aristoteles, Soranos, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Celsus, Archigenis, Leonides, Galen and Oribasius. We may conclude that some of today's medical knowledge or practice regarding the breast was also known in the historical period. PMID:19891848

  16. The breast: from Ancient Greek myths to Hippocrates and Galen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavazzo, C R; Trompoukis, C; Siempos, I I; Falagas, M E

    2009-01-01

    This is a historical article about Ancient Greek literature from mythological times until the first centuries AD with regard to the female breast. We endeavoured to collect several elegant narratives on the topic as well as to explore the knowledge of Ancient Greek doctors on the role, physiology and pathology of breast and the treatment of its diseases. We identified such descriptions in myths regarding Amazons, Hercules, Zeus, Hera and Amaltheia. Furthermore, descriptions on the topic were also found in the work of Hippocrates, Aristoteles, Soranos, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Celsus, Archigenis, Leonides, Galen and Oribasius. We may conclude that some of today's medical knowledge or practice regarding the breast was also known in the historical period.

  17. The Knowledge Level of Interns of Medical Faculty in Ondokuz Mayis University about Avian Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Terzi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: It is predictable that our country, especially Samsun city will be affect by a probable avian influenza epidemic because of is location that takes place in the region of wild birds migration way. The aim of this study is to ascertain the knowledge level of interns of medical faculty about avian influenza. METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted on 175 (81.7% of 214 intern of medical faculty between 1 and 30 May 2008. A questionnaire included six questions related with the agent, group of the agent and therapy of avian influenza and source of information about avian influenza, was applied to the participants. The questionnaire also included 10 questions, which should be answered as true/false for each the following subjects transmission ways, risk groups, symptoms and protection methods of the disease. Each correct answer is scored as one point and a knowledge score was calculated for each subject. RESULTS: In all, 79 students (45.1% were girls, 96(54.9% were boys. The median age was 24.6±1.1 years. While the proportion of true response was 73.7% about the avian influenza agent, 55.3% of the whole group knew the group of the agent. The median points for knowing the transmission ways of virus, risk groups and prevention were 7.0, 6.0 and 7.0 respectively. The median point of the participants was 9,0 for the question related with the symptoms of the disease and this question was the most correctly answered one. Although 56.4% of the participants knew the treatment of the disease, 33.5% of them stated that vaccination is protective. The information sources about disease were television (74.2%, newspapers/magazine (46.8% and the internet (36.0%. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, it’s found that interns have a medium level of knowledge about avian influenza. Lessons about, the diseases those can cause epidemics and important health problems in the future should be integrated in to the education programs to improve the knowledge level of interns

  18. Enabling the use of hereditary information from pedigree tools in medical knowledge-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Pablo; López, Beatriz; Plà, Albert; Saperas, Jordi; Pous, Carles

    2013-08-01

    The use of family information is a key issue to deal with inheritance illnesses. This kind of information use to come in the form of pedigree files, which contain structured information as tree or graphs, which explains the family relationships. Knowledge-based systems should incorporate the information gathered by pedigree tools to assess medical decision making. In this paper, we propose a method to achieve such a goal, which consists on the definition of new indicators, and methods and rules to compute them from family trees. The method is illustrated with several case studies. We provide information about its implementation and integration on a case-based reasoning tool. The method has been experimentally tested with breast cancer diagnosis data. The results show the feasibility of our methodology.

  19. 'The chearful haunts': John Armstrong (1709-1779), physician, poet, satirist and leveller of medical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Charles S; Scott, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    John Armstrong, the first honours graduate of the University of Edinburgh School of Medicine, was famous in his day for a lengthy didactic poem entitled The Art of Preserving Health (1744). He is now obscure except to scholars specializing in the 18th century and, when discussed at all, often dismissed as a failed physician who wrote mediocre poetry in a quest for money and fame. A new exegesis by Adam Budd exhumes Armstrong as an original voice who offered timely and reassuring advice to Britons as they braced for another epidemic of plague; who depicted illness through the lens of a vulnerable and sympathetic physician, and who was perhaps above all else a leveller of medical knowledge. Elaborating on Budd's thesis, it would seem that Armstrong, a complicated man, has frequently been misread and was in some ways ahead of his time. PMID:24585614

  20. Knowledge and interests of Romanian medical students in parasitology, tropical and travel medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neghina, Raul; Calma, Crenguta Livia; Neghina, Adriana Maria

    2011-01-01

    As travel has become easier and faster, the rate of tropical infections across the world is expected to increase; more students working abroad are going to encounter these diseases more often. Disorders of parasitic etiology play an important role in travel and tropical medicine. The aim of our study was to assess the preclinical students' knowledge regarding parasitic diseases, tropical and travel medicine in the broad context of their professional background. A total of 346 Romanian medical students completed a 13-item questionnaire on the above-mentioned topics. In order to allow for complex evaluation, the questionnaire also included items related to their extracurricular training as well as their future perspectives. The majority of the students (97.7%) declared they had prior knowledge (before studying parasitology) of malaria. Most of the responders (90.2%) knew that a journey in (sub)tropical regions requires adequate prophylactic measures. About a quarter of those interviewed (26.4%) would agree to practice tropical medicine after graduation. They were mainly interested in helping people from underdeveloped countries regardless of remuneration (52.7%). The majority of students (59.8%) wished to practice clinical medicine. It has been observed that fewer than 5% of the questioned students had ever read a scientific paper or book in the field of tropical medicine. English was the most commonly spoken foreign language (92.8%), and 99.1% of students had at least intermediate computer skills. Finally, 71.6% of students would choose to practice the specialty of travel medicine if it were available in Romania. The implementation of appropriate measures towards the globalization of medical teaching in Romanian universities should represent an important issue in this new millennium, in which borders between various nations are starting to fade; otherwise the next generations of physicians will lose the chance to gain wider experiences and share the international

  1. Knowledge of First Aid Skills Among Students of a Medical College in Mangalore City of South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, N; Kumar, GS; Babu, YPR; Nelliyanil, M; Bhaskaran, U

    2014-01-01

    Background: The adequate knowledge required for handling an emergency without hospital setting at the site of the accident or emergency may not be sufficient as most medical schools do not have formal first aid training in the teaching curriculum. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the level of knowledge of medical students in providing first aid care. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during May 2011 among 152 medical students. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Based on the scores obtained in each condition requiring first aid, the overall knowledge was graded as good, moderate and poor. Results: Only 11.2% (17/152) of the total student participants had previous exposure to first aid training. Good knowledge about first aid was observed in 13.8% (21/152), moderate knowledge in 68.4% (104/152) and poor knowledge in 17.8% (27/152) participants. Analysis of knowledge about first aid management in select conditions found that 21% (32/152) had poor knowledge regarding first aid management for shock and for gastro esophageal reflux disease and 20.4% (31/152) for epistaxis and foreign body in eyes. All students felt that first aid skills need to be taught from the school level onwards and all of them were willing to enroll in any formal first aid training sessions. Conclusion: The level of knowledge about first aid was not good among majority of the students. The study also identified the key areas in which first aid knowledge was lacking. There is thus a need for formal first aid training to be introduced in the medical curriculum. PMID:24761231

  2. The study of knowledge, attitude and practice of medical law and ethics among doctors in a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding medical law and ethics among doctors of a medical unit in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Lahore. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Methodology: A three part self - administered structured questionnaire designed to test the knowledge and practices regarding medical law and ethics was distributed among doctors in a medical unit in Mayo Hospital, Lahore during September - October, 2012. Results: The 52 respondent doctors included in the study comprised of 20 (38.5%) house officers, 22 (42.3%) postgraduate residents and 10 (19.2%) consultants. In keeping with the Pakistan Medical and Den-tal Council code of ethics, the correct responses of house officers, postgraduate residents and consultants regarding knowledge of medical law and ethics were respectively 50%, 27.3% and 10% for patient's autonomy, 40%, 36.4% and 10% for adhering to patient's wishes, 10%, 63.6% and 50% for breaching confidentiality, 35%, 36.4% and 0% for informed consent, 10%, 22.7% and 10% for doing best regardless of patient's opinion, 5%, 31.8% and 10% for informing patient's relatives, 15%, 4.5% and 0% for treating violent patients. The practical application part of the questionnaire was a general reflection of the knowledge and attitudes. Conclusion: Most of the doctors were poorly acquainted with PMDC code of ethics. (author)

  3. Knowledge Attitude and Behavior of Medical Technology Vocational Training School Students About Genetically Modified Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Taner Gursoy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To determine The Medical Technology Vocational Training School (MTVTS students’ the knowledge about the effects of GMO on human health and environment and to evaluate their attitude and behavior has been aimed. METHODS: All of the second class students of the year 2006-2007 of MTVTS were included (N=161 in the study, response rate was 92%. The survey questionare included questions on knowledge, the risk perception and attitute about GMOs. The legal framework in Turkey about GMOs, the rationale for GMO production, the labeling for GMO and the students’ perception of their knowledge was evaluated through 14 items with Likert scale. After the questionaire, the students received an informative brochure on GMOs. RESULTS: The open-ended question asking to define GMOs was answered by 59,2% of the students among which 35,6% defined as “additive”, 34,5% as “food with hormones”. The risk perceived for GMOs was the forth following cigarette smoking, stres, and environmental pollution in the ranking according to the risk score means. Sex has been the only determinant effecting this scoring for GMOs where girls perceived the risk greater. If family was one of the information sources about GMOs, the perceived risk was increased (p=0,000. Among the students 81,6% thought that GMO should not be grown in Turkey, 77,7% think that GMO was sold however. The leading topic of ambivalence is the state of self knowledge on GMO. The low income group are less concerned about consuming GMO for themselves or for their children (respectively p==0.003 ve p=0,012. CONCLUSION: Health workers are assigned with an important role to inform the public for healthy eating. However although the the risk perception of the study group for GMOs is high, their knowledge is low. Training activities to supply this deficiency should be implemented. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(6.000: 503-508

  4. Integration of historical aerial and satellite photos, recent satellite images and geophysical surveys for the knowledge of the ancient Dyrrachium (Durres, Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfitana, Daniele; Shehi, Eduard; Masini, Nicola; Scardozzi, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    The paper presents the preliminary results of an integrated multidiscipliary research project concerning the urban area of the modern Durres (ancient Dyrrachium). Here a joint Italian and Albanian researcher are starting preliminary investigations on the place of an ancient roman villa placed in the urban centre of the modern town. In a initial phase are offering interesting results the use of a rich multitemporal remote sensing data-set, historical aerial photos of 1920s and 1930s, photos of USA spy satellites of 1960s and 1970s (Corona KH-4A and KH-4B), and very high resolution satellite imagery. The historical aerial documentation is very rich and includes aerial photogrammetrich flights of two Italian Institutions: the private company SARA - Società Anonima Rilevamenti Aerofotogrammetrici in Rome (1928) and the IGM - Istituto Geografico Militare (1936, 1937 e 1941), which flew on Durres for purposes of cartographic production and military. These photos offer an image of the city before the urban expansion after the Second World War and in recent decades, progressively documented by satellite images of the 1960s-1970s and recent years. They enable a reconstruction of the ancient topography of the urban area, even with the possibility of detailed analysis, as in the case of the the Roman villa, nowadays buried under a modern garden, but also investigated with a GPR survey, in order to rebuild its plan and contextualize the villa in relation to the urban area of the ancient Dyrrachium.

  5. Knowledge Toward Cancer Pain and the Use of Opioid Analgesics Among Medical Students in their Integrated Clinical Clerkship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fidelis C. Manalo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Among the focal issues of barriers to pain management include the physicians’ lack of knowledge about cancer pain and negative attitudes towards opioids. Many physicians and educators attribute this, at least in part, to limited exposure to pain and palliative care education during medical school.Aim: The researcher investigated the medical students’ knowledge about cancer pain and the use of opioid analgesics.Methods: The subjects were a sample of 50 students of the University of the Philippines College of Medicine in their integrated clinical clerkship year. Descriptive statistics (frequencies, means, standard deviation, rating scales were used to determine mean knowledge score and level of confidence with opioid use. The study also identified specific areas where students exhibited good or poor knowledge of opioids.Results: Approximately sixty-nine (69% of the study respondents mentioned that pain management was given to them during their Anesthesiology lectures while a few recalled that they had these lectures during their Family Medicine rotation in Supportive, Palliative and Hospice Care. More than a third (35% of the respondents admitted to not being confident with morphine use at present. The top three reasons cited as limitations in choice of opioids for cancer pain include fear of addiction, lack of adequate knowledge and experience and fear of side effects and complications. Out of a maximum of 13 correct answers, the mean knowledge score of the medical students was 6.6 ± 2.9. Less than 16% of the respondents had adequate knowledge on cancer pain and opioid use.Conclusions: The results show that basic knowledge of the role of opioids in cancer pain management among medical students in their integrated clinical clerkship year at the University of the Philippines is poor. The findings imply a need to look into making revisions in the medical curriculum to include a training program that will enable all students to

  6. Ancient human microbiomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J.; Lewis, Cecil M.

    2015-01-01

    Very recently, we discovered a vast new microbial self: the human microbiome. Our native microbiota interface with our biology and culture to influence our health, behavior, and quality of life, and yet we know very little about their origin, evolution, or ecology. With the advent of industrialization, globalization, and modern sanitation, it is intuitive that we have changed our relationship with microbes, but we have little information about the ancestral state of our microbiome, and therefore, we lack a foundation for characterizing this change. High-throughput sequencing has opened up new opportunities in the field of paleomicrobiology, allowing us to investigate the evolution of the complex microbial ecologies that inhabit our bodies. By focusing on recent coprolite and dental calculus research, we explore how emerging research on ancient human microbiomes is changing the way we think about ancient disease and how archaeological studies can contribute to a medical understanding of health and nutrition today. PMID:25559298

  7. ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE (KAP) OF BLOOD DONATION AMONG MBBS STUDENTS OF A MEDICAL COLLEGE IN KOLLAM, KERALA

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Nadeem; Abraham, [No Value; Sony, .; Nahla; Pranav,; Mohammed; Nikhila; Nishani

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion is a very crucial component to manage patients suffering from various medical conditions. Voluntary blood donors are the need of the hour. There is a need to spread awareness among general population and students abo ut blood donation to maintain a regular blood supply. Young medical students can serve as best example to take a lead in this noble cause. OBJECTIVE: To assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) of Blood Donation...

  8. A study on the Rate of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Medical Students towards Method of Medical Records Documentation at Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences Affiliated Therapeutic and Teaching Centers 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Balaghafari

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: History, clinical findings, procedures undertaken, and patients response to treatment are written in clinical records, hence their contents are indicators of physicians’ evaluation. If clinical records are provided precisely, clear and systematized, they indicate the clinical thinking of the staff and facilitate patients diagnosis process. These records have an important role in coordinating professional staff involved in patient care. Since the physicians and medical students are involved more in medical records documentation than the other hospital staff, thus, a study on their knowledge, attitude and practice towards the principles of medical records documentation is undertaken.Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study, which is done about the rate of knowledge, attitude and practice of 207 Medical students of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences in university hospitals. Descriptive and inferential statistical analytic methods were used for the collected data. For comparison of the hospitals, regarding observing designed principals in the completion of medical files, according to the filled questionnaires the minimum and maximum score designated as 1-5 which is very poor to excellent. Then the mean score was calculated and considered for the comparison of hospitals. For the determination of the relationship between knowledge, attitude, and practice, β Kendall’s Tau Test was used.Results: The majority of the participants had low knowledge (77.8% about medical records documentation. Most of them did not have good attitude (54.1 about completion of medical records and significance and value of medical records documentation in treatment, education, and research.Conclusion: Results indicate that incompletion of medical records at the university affiliated hospitals are due to lack of awareness of the students towards the method of medical records documentation. In addition, not considering the

  9. Testing knowledge of human gross anatomy in medical school: an applied contextual-learning theory method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, R W; Lehr, R P

    1996-01-01

    The traditional gross anatomy laboratory experience, with modifications in evaluations that we outline later, meets the criteria of contextual-learning theory, expands the repertoire of core objectives we identify for our students, and may increase the likelihood of cognitive permanence of anatomical data. Our subjects included approximately 54 first-year medical students from each of three sequential class years (1996, 1997, 1998). As an alternative to more typical written and practical exams, examinations in a major portion of our gross anatomy program consist of two approximately 30 minute oral expositions by each student to his or her peers and a faculty member. Students demonstrate specific detail on cadaver, x-ray, cross sections, or a model. Clinical applications, spatial relationships, nomenclature, and functions are strongly emphasized. The results of this teaching approach to the utilization of anatomical knowledge in clinical situations requires further assessment: however, new attributes have been afforded our students with implementation of the present program: First, students learn anatomical detail equally well as the students of the more traditional system (based on board exam results). Second, students who completed the program indicate that this approach provides a useful simulation of what is expected later in their training. Third, students gradually gain confidence in verbal presentation, they demonstrate cognitive synthesis of separate conceptual issues, they retain information, and they are quite visibly more enthusiastic about anatomy and its importance in medicine. Our program demonstrates that the learning of applicable human anatomy is facilitated in a contextual-learning environment. Moreover, by learning anatomy in this way, other equally beneficial attributes are afforded the medical student, including, but not limited to, increases in communication skills, confidence in verbal presentation, synthesis of anatomical concepts

  10. ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE (KAP OF BLOOD DONATION AMONG MBBS STUDENTS OF A MEDICAL COLLEGE IN KOLLAM, KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nadeem

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion is a very crucial component to manage patients suffering from various medical conditions. Voluntary blood donors are the need of the hour. There is a need to spread awareness among general population and students abo ut blood donation to maintain a regular blood supply. Young medical students can serve as best example to take a lead in this noble cause. OBJECTIVE: To assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP of Blood Donation among 1 st and 2 nd year MBBS students of a Medical College. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The cross sectional study was conducted in a medical college in Kollam district of Kerala in September 2013 among all 1 st and 2 nd year medical students. A separate Health awareness session was organized . Data was collected and analyzed with the Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS 12. RESULTS AND OBSERVATIONS: Not a single participant answered all knowledge questions correctly. Only 35% had adequate knowledge. The gender has no signifi cant association with knowledge about blood donation. 90% of the respondents had a positive attitude about blood donation. Religion only plays a minor role in their decision to donate blood. Only 10% actually donated blood. 57% students gave blood to a nee dy relative. The most common reason for not donating blood was having no opportunity. There is a significant association between 2 nd year students and blood donation. After awareness session, the overall willingness to donate blood increased from 89.3% to 97. 1%. CONCLUSION: Only one third of students have adequate knowledge level regarding blood donation. Only few among them have donated blood. Majority of them intend to donate blood in future. Information, Education and Communication (IEC activities shoul d be increased and regular seminars and classes should be conducted to increase awareness among medical students for encouraging them to donate blood voluntarily.

  11. Impact of learning nutrition on medical students: their eating habits, knowledge and confidence in addressing dietary issues of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Shama; Dwivedi, Shraddha; Khan, Maroof A

    2011-12-01

    Nutrition is an important component in the treatment of acute and chronic diseases and is a cornerstone in strategies for disease prevention and health promotion. Despite the acknowledged importance of nutrition, there is evidence to indicate that the nutrition training of medical students is inadequate in both quality and quantity. The study aimed to know the dietary/eating habits of medical students, assess their knowledge on nutrition and to assess their confidence in addressing the dietary issues of patients. It was a cross-sectional study conducted on final year medical students, interns and postgraduate students of Moti Lal Nehru Government Medical College, Allahabad. The sampling was purposive and a total of 218 participated in the study voluntarily. Overall 55% of the students were less knowledgeable and only 45% of them were more knowledgeable. Most (62%) postgraduates were more knowledgeable (p 0.340). Only 45.4% of them were confident in assessing the diet of patients and 44% of them were confident in recommending change of diet in patients. However this study shows no association between increase in the level of knowledge and confidence levels of the students (p > 0.339 and p > 0.109) suggesting that we need to incorporate innovative teaching methods to increase their confidence. Most students (79%) said that the medical curriculum was either just enough or not enough in preparing them to deal with the dietary issues of patients and 55% of them were of the opinion that the faculty should be trained in nutrition. The study results intend to stimulate active consideration of proper role of nutrition learning in medical education.

  12. Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  13. Use of e-learning to enhance medical students' understanding and knowledge of healthcare-associated infection prevention and control.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, E

    2011-12-01

    An online infection prevention and control programme for medical students was developed and assessed. There was a statistically significant improvement (P<0.0001) in the knowledge base among 517 students after completing two modules. The majority of students who completed the evaluation were positive about the learning experience.

  14. Ontology-supported processing of clinical text using medical knowledge integration for multi-label classification of diagnosis coding

    CERN Document Server

    Waraporn, Phanu; Clayton, Gareth

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the knowledge integration of clinical information extracted from distributed medical ontology in order to ameliorate a machine learning-based multi-label coding assignment system. The proposed approach is implemented using a decision tree based cascade hierarchical technique on the university hospital data for patients with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD). The preliminary results obtained show a satisfactory finding.

  15. Knowledge transfer in the “medical tourism” industry: The role of transnational migrant patients and health workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormond, M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Tapping into migrants’ diverse tacit healthcare knowledge can bring a range of stakeholders in countries of origin great insight, at both macro and micro levels, not only into how to improve on local healthcare delivery but also how to effectively respond to the needs and interests of ‘medical touri

  16. Knowledge of Hazards of Self-Medication among Secondary School Students in Ethiopia East Local Government Area of Delta State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyeke, Patrick; Dafe, Onoharigho Festus

    2016-01-01

    This study is set out to ascertain the knowledge of hazards of self-medication among Secondary School Students. The descriptive Survey design was adopted for the work. The population of the study is 9,500 students in the public Secondary Schools, in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State. The sample is 300 students randomly selected…

  17. Integrated Database And Knowledge Base For Genomic Prospective Cohort Study In Tohoku Medical Megabank Toward Personalized Prevention And Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogishima, Soichi; Takai, Takako; Shimokawa, Kazuro; Nagaie, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Nakaya, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The Tohoku Medical Megabank project is a national project to revitalization of the disaster area in the Tohoku region by the Great East Japan Earthquake, and have conducted large-scale prospective genome-cohort study. Along with prospective genome-cohort study, we have developed integrated database and knowledge base which will be key database for realizing personalized prevention and medicine.

  18. Knowledge, attitude towards human papillomavirus and HPV vaccine among medical students of a tertiary care teaching hospital in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saswati Tripathy

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Lack of knowledge among medical students can be detrimental to the health of the society. So there is a need to create awareness among the future health educators against various aspects of HPV, cervical cancers and its prevention. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(6.000: 1771-1774

  19. Antibiotic Resistance and Usage—A Survey on the Knowledge, Attitude, Perceptions and Practices among the Medical Students of a Southern Indian Teaching Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Khan A K, Afzal; Banu, Gausia; K K, Reshma

    2013-01-01

    Background: Examining the knowledge, attitude, perceptions and practices (KAP) of the medical students regarding antibiotic resistance (ABR) and use can help us in devising suitable educational interventions for them, tailored according to their earlier held knowledge, beliefs, capabilities and experience.

  20. The knowledge, attitude and behavior about public health emergencies and the response capacity of primary care medical staffs of Guangdong Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiheng Zhou; Caixia Wang; Jiaji Wang; Huajie Yang; Chao Wang; Wannian Liang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Primary care medical staffs’ knowledge, attitude and behavior about health emergency and the response capacity are directly related to the control and prevention of public health emergencies. Therefore, it is of great significance for improving primary care to gain in-depth knowledge about knowledge, attitude and behavior and the response capacity of primary care medical staffs. The main objective of this study is to explore knowledge, attitude and behavior, and the respon...

  1. Tıp ve Sağlık Kuruluşlarında Bilgi Yönetimi / Knowledge Management in Medical and Health Care Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Nazlı Alkan

    2003-01-01

    The present study examines the "Knowledge Management" phenomenon which occured in mid-nineties as a product of information and communication technologies usage in business and economy; the knowledge-based new economy and the global competition in the business world. The application of knowledge management in medical and health care organizations has been evaluated. Knowledge management in medical and health care organizations had been discussed under two subtopics in particular: The evolution...

  2. Impact of Ancient Greek and Roman Mythology on the Etymology of Medical Terminology%探索古希腊罗马神话对医学英语术语的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云茜

    2016-01-01

    Ancient Greek and Roman Mythology is the origin of western civilization, which has an important influence on every field of western culture especially on medicine. Language is the carrier of culture and vocabulary is the basic unit of language. Therefore, vocabulary is the most direct tool to support culture. The title, image, name, and story of the Gods of Ancient Greek and Roman Mythology are directly used to name the medical terminology or indirectly deduced the roots, prefixes and suffixes to form the medical terminology. By exploring the origin of medical terms in ancient Greek and Roman mythology, it is helpful to understand the deep meaning of words, grasp the connotation of the words, and stimulate the students’ learning interest.%古希腊罗马神话是西方文明的起源,对西方文化的各个领域,尤其是医学方面影响颇深。语言是文化的载体,词语是语言的基本组成单位,因而词语是承载文化最直接的工具。古希腊罗马神话中神的职能、形象、称谓和典故往往被直接用来命名医学术语或者从中衍生出词根和词缀来构成医学术语。通过古希腊罗马神话探索医学英语术语词源的由来,有助于理解词语的深层意义,准确把握词语的内涵,激发学生的学习兴趣。

  3. An investigation into the ancient abortion laws: comparing ancient Persia with ancient Greece and Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Zargaran, Arman; Vatanpour, Azadeh; Abedini, Ehsan; Adhami, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    Since the dawn of medicine, medical rights and ethics have always been one of mankind's concerns. In any civilisation, attention paid to medical laws and ethics depends on the progress of human values and the advancement of medical science. The history of various civilisations teaches that each had its own views on medical ethics, but most had something in common. Ancient civilisations such as Greece, Rome, or Assyria did not consider the foetus to be alive and therefore to have human rights. In contrast, ancient Persians valued the foetus as a living person equal to others. Accordingly, they brought laws against abortion, even in cases of sexual abuse. Furthermore, abortion was considered to be a murder and punishments were meted out to the mother, father, and the person performing it. PMID:24304111

  4. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of prescription writing as per Medical Council of India guidelines among interns in a Medical College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumalatha R

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of prescription writing among interns in medical college.Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the interns in a Medical College, after taking approval from the Institutional Ethics Committee. Participants were asked to write prescription for a common ailment in a given prescription blank page. A structured questionnaire was designed based on new Medical Council of India (MCI prescription writing pattern to analyse the prescription. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics.Results: Among 84 interns, most of the participants had written the drug by generic name (95.2% and have signed in the prescription sheet (98%. None of them were aware of the latest prescription writing pattern recommended by Medical Council of India (MCI. The writing of generic name in capital letter was not done by 97.6% of interns.    Conclusion: Our study concluded that interns were not aware of new Medical Council of India (MCI prescription writing pattern. Majority of interns have made errors while writing the prescription. Thus there is a need for regular formal education regarding prescription writing, before the start of internship. They can be given training under medical education unit regarding the recent updates of prescription writing.

  5. Study of the Knowledge, Attitude and Experience of Medical Tourism Among Target Groups with Special Emphasis on South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Medical tourism aims at providing cost-effective customized health care in collaboration with the tourism industry in distant locations wherein the hospitality component is handled efficiently so that fixing appointments, making arrangements for accommodation and other logistics become hassle-free for the patient. This allows more concentration on the procedure at hand and the interaction between the medical fraternity and the patient becomes smoother. More and more hospitals in India are gearing up to provide such services to neighbouring countries and even to the developed nations across the world. The purpose of this study was to study the knowledge, attitude and experiences of the population of a suitable cross-section regarding the emerging scenario of medical tourism with special interest vis-à-vis Non Resident Indians (NRIs specifically to the state of Karnataka and Mangalore in particular. It was found that compared to the locals (kannadigas or non-kannadigas, the Non-resident Indians were more dissatisfied with the health care facilities available in their proximity. Though a majority of them do have medical insurance, it still looks as if the care is more cost-effective when sourced to India. NRIs are more aware of the potential of medical tourism through their communication with the medical fraternity as well as the general public and 11.1% of NRIs have really utilized the services of medical tourism. An e-mail survey which was also conducted among a number of foreigners yielded the interesting fact that they indeed had a greater awareness regarding medical tourism with an emphasis on health tourism. The reason why these foreigners opted for medical tourism was due to the substandard medical care available in their locality, rather than due to the cost of medical care as such.

  6. Investigating Knowledge Management Status among Faculty Members of Kerman University of Medical Sciences based on the Nonaka Model in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vali, Leila; Izadi, Azar; Jahani, Yunes; Okhovati, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Education and research are two major functions of universities, which require proper and systematic exploitation of available knowledge and information. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the knowledge management status in an education system by considering the function of faculty members in creation and dissemination of knowledge. This study was conducted to investigate the knowledge management status among faculty members of the Kerman University of Medical Sciences based on the Nonaka and Takeuchi models in 2015. Methods This was a descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study. It was conducted on 165 faculty members at the Kerman University of Medical Sciences, who were selected from seven faculties as weighted using a random stratified sampling method. The Nonaka and Takeuchi knowledge management questionnaire consists of 26 questions in four dimensions of socialization, externalization, internalization, and combination. Scoring of questions was conducted using the five-point Likert scale. To analyze data, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficients, and the Kruskal-Wallis test were employed. Results The four dimensions in the Nonaka and Takeuchi model are based on optimal indicators (3.5), dimensions of combination, and externalization with an average of 3.3 were found in higher ranks and internalization and socialization had averages of 3.1 and 3. According to the findings of this study, the average knowledge management among faculty members of the Kerman University of Medical Sciences was estimated to be 3.1, with a bit difference compared to the average. According to the results of t-tests, there was no significant relationship between gender and various dimensions of knowledge management (p>0.05). The findings of Kruskal-Wallis showed that there is no significant relationship between variables of age, academic rank, and type of faculty with regard to dimensions of knowledge management (p>0.05). In addition

  7. Analysis of Ancient DNA in Microbial Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgé, Olivier; Bennett, E Andrew; Massilani, Diyendo; Daligault, Julien; Pruvost, Melanie; Geigl, Eva-Maria; Grange, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The development of next-generation sequencing has led to a breakthrough in the analysis of ancient genomes, and the subsequent genomic analyses of the skeletal remains of ancient humans have revolutionized the knowledge of the evolution of our species, including the discovery of a new hominin, and demonstrated admixtures with more distantly related archaic populations such as Neandertals and Denisovans. Moreover, it has also yielded novel insights into the evolution of ancient pathogens. The analysis of ancient microbial genomes allows the study of their recent evolution, presently over the last several millennia. These spectacular results have been attained despite the degradation of DNA after the death of the host, which results in very short DNA molecules that become increasingly damaged, only low quantities of which remain. The low quantity of ancient DNA molecules renders their analysis difficult and prone to contamination with modern DNA molecules, in particular via contamination from the reagents used in DNA purification and downstream analysis steps. Finally, the rare ancient molecules are diluted in environmental DNA originating from the soil microorganisms that colonize bones and teeth. Thus, ancient skeletal remains can share DNA profiles with environmental samples and identifying ancient microbial genomes among the more recent, presently poorly characterized, environmental microbiome is particularly challenging. Here, we describe the methods developed and/or in use in our laboratory to produce reliable and reproducible paleogenomic results from ancient skeletal remains that can be used to identify the presence of ancient microbiota. PMID:26791510

  8. Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and practice of self-medication among college students

    OpenAIRE

    Dipan Uppal; Monika Agarwal; Vandana Roy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Self-medication is widely practiced both in developed and developing countries. Self-medication has certain advantages as it is convenient, economical, and medical resources are not wasted for minor illnesses. However, there are disadvantages as the disease recognized may not be correct, there is delay in meeting a health care worker, the side-effects of the medication are not known, inappropriate usage of antibiotics leading to drug resistance, taking the same drug with different...

  9. Knowledge, expectations and self medication in the adult population in the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Angelovska, Bistra; Drakalska, Elena; Pavleski, Aleksandar; Atanasova, Marija; Kostik, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Self-medication i.e using of medications without doctor's prescription becomes a problem, most of all because the patients are not informed for the possible consequences from the willfully taking of medications, as interactions medicine – medicine and increased risk from the appearance of harmful effects from the medicines taken in doses bigger than usual wherein appears potential abuse of the medicines. Self-medication allows quick access to the medicines because of their permanent and wide ...

  10. Relationship between knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy on the radiation safety management of radiation workers in medical institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Ok [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Radiation safety managements in medical institutions are needed to protect certain radiation damages as a part of National Coalition. This study investigates the characteristics of self-efficacy that become the major factor on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior on the radiation safety management of radiation workers as an approach of educational aspects and analyzes the relationship between such factors to provide basic materials for improving the activity level of radiation safety managements. In order to implement the goal of this study, a survey was performed for 1,200 workers who were engaged in radiation treatments in medical centers, such as general hospital, university hospital, private hospital, and public health center for 42 days from July 23, 2006. Then, the results of the analysis can be summarized as follows: 1. Average scores on knowledge, attitude, and behavior in the radiation safety management were presented as 75.76{+-}11.20, 90.55{+-}8.59, 80.58{+-}11.70, respectively. Also, the average score of self-efficacy was recorded as 73.55{+-}9.82. 2. Knowledge levels in the radiation safety management showed significant differences according to the sex, age, marriage, education, and experience. Also, males of married, older, highly educated, and largely experienced represented high knowledge levels. Attitude levels in the radiation safety management showed certain significant differences according to the type of medical centers in which private hospitals showed a relatively low level compared to that of high levels in university hospitals. Behavior levels in the radiation safety management also represented significant differences according to the age, marriage, education, experience, and types of medical centers. Factors in married, general hospital, older, highly educated, and largely experienced showed high behavior levels. In addition, the self-efficacy showed certain differences according to the marriage and types of medical centers. Factors in

  11. Relationship between knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy on the radiation safety management of radiation workers in medical institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation safety managements in medical institutions are needed to protect certain radiation damages as a part of National Coalition. This study investigates the characteristics of self-efficacy that become the major factor on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior on the radiation safety management of radiation workers as an approach of educational aspects and analyzes the relationship between such factors to provide basic materials for improving the activity level of radiation safety managements. In order to implement the goal of this study, a survey was performed for 1,200 workers who were engaged in radiation treatments in medical centers, such as general hospital, university hospital, private hospital, and public health center for 42 days from July 23, 2006. Then, the results of the analysis can be summarized as follows: 1. Average scores on knowledge, attitude, and behavior in the radiation safety management were presented as 75.76±11.20, 90.55±8.59, 80.58±11.70, respectively. Also, the average score of self-efficacy was recorded as 73.55±9.82. 2. Knowledge levels in the radiation safety management showed significant differences according to the sex, age, marriage, education, and experience. Also, males of married, older, highly educated, and largely experienced represented high knowledge levels. Attitude levels in the radiation safety management showed certain significant differences according to the type of medical centers in which private hospitals showed a relatively low level compared to that of high levels in university hospitals. Behavior levels in the radiation safety management also represented significant differences according to the age, marriage, education, experience, and types of medical centers. Factors in married, general hospital, older, highly educated, and largely experienced showed high behavior levels. In addition, the self-efficacy showed certain differences according to the marriage and types of medical centers. Factors in married

  12. Evaluation of knowledge, attitude and behavior about rational use of medicines in second year medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita D. Sontakke

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess the knowledge about various issues concerned with rational use of medicines in second year medical students Methods: This was a survey-based, cross-sectional study in which a self developed, pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was used. Respondents were 153 students of second year MBBS (beginning of third semester. They were explained about nature and purpose of study and necessary consent obtained. Questions were framed to obtain information about various issues concerned with use of medicines, common beliefs /misconceptions, purchase of medicines, sources of information about medicines etc. Results were expressed as counts and percentages. Results: Majority of respondents were aware about OTC (54% and generic medicines (96.7%, importance of reading medicine label (58.8%, that medicines are not needed for every illness (86.2%, medicines manufactures by big multinational companies are not always better (67.9%. 75.8% respondents were not influenced by direct to consumer advertising for purchase of medicines and 69.9% opined that medicines obtained from government hospital are not of inferior quality. 83.6% of respondents opined that they never mixed treatment of more than one doctor at a time and 83% always purchased all medicines written in prescription. For 93.4% respondents’ doctors’ advice was the most important factor that influenced medicine purchase. Conclusion: Though majority of respondents were aware about most of the issues addressed in the questionnaire which seems to be a positive finding, those still unaware needs to be educated by adopting suitable interventions. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(5.000: 617-621

  13. Parental and medical knowledge and management of fever in Italian pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiappini Elena

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines for the management of fever in children have been recently published, however “fever phobia” is still spreading. To provide information which may sustain educational interventions tailored to our population we investigated the parental and medical knowledge and management of fever in preschool children. Methods A questionnaire was administered to a convenient sample of Italian parents and paediatricians. The questionnaire elicited information about definition and cause of fever, concerns about fever, method of temperature measurement, and treatment modalities. Results Overall, 388 parents and 480 paediatricians were interviewed. All the parents believed that fever could cause at least one harmful effect and 89.9% (n = 349 believed that, if left untreated, it can cause brain damage or seizures. Parents used multiple resources to obtain information about fever but 67.8% (n = 264 considered paediatricians as their primary resource. Several wrong behaviours were found in the same proportions among parents and paediatricians: 78.5% of paediatricians (n = 377 and 77.8% of parents (n = 302 used physical method to reduce fever (P = 0.867; 27.0% of paediatricians (n = 103 and 21.4% (n = 83 of parents declared to alternate ibuprofen and acetaminophen (P = 0.953. Differently, 73.1% (n = 351 of paediatricians preferred oral to rectal administration of antipyretics compared to 48.7% (n = 190 of parents (P  Conclusions Paediatricians’ attitudes greatly influence the parental behaviours and beliefs. Implementation of educational programs regarding the management of the febrile child are needed in our setting.

  14. A questionnaire based survey on knowledge, attitude and practices of medical practitioners regarding the prescribing of medications during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gausia Banu

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Most respondents exhibited a healthy attitude and a fairly sound knowledge, except for their perception of risk associated with individual drugs which was much higher than what is mentioned in the literature. Educational interventions may help to increase the awareness leading to better and confident prescribing. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(4.000: 984-988

  15. The status of tobacco use and knowledge, and attitudes relating to smoking among female students in a Bengbu medical school

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulong Qi; Cuizhu Mei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To learn the status of tobacco use, and the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among female students in Bengbu Medical College. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, questionnaires were completed by 634 female students in the medical college in 2007,including the prevalence of current smoking, their knowledge of the effects of tobacco use on health, and attitudes towards the smoking behaviors of young women. Results: Only 6.9% of female medical students were former smokers, and 4.9% of them were current smokers. There was no significant difference in the current smoking rate among the students from each department surveyed. Female students from urban areas were more likely to be current or attempted smokers than those from rural areas. The proportion of the students who were aware of the health risks of smoking was less than 45%. The students from the Department of Nursing had more knowledge regarding the harmful health effects of smoking than those from the other departments. There was no significant difference in attitudes towards the smoking behaviors of young women among the students from each department. Compared with female students from rural areas, the female students from urban areas were significantly more likely to think that a young woman who smoked was cool, mature and charming. Conclusion: The smoking prevalence of the female students in Bengbu Medical College is high. They are not aware of the smoking related risks and have erroneous beliefs and perceptions about female smoking behaviors.

  16. Personal profile of medical students selected through a knowledge-based exam only: are we missing suitable students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Abbiati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A consistent body of literature highlights the importance of a broader approach to select medical school candidates both assessing cognitive capacity and individual characteristics. However, selection in a great number of medical schools worldwide is still based on knowledge exams, a procedure that might neglect students with needed personal characteristics for future medical practice. We investigated whether the personal profile of students selected through a knowledge-based exam differed from those not selected. Methods: Students applying for medical school (N=311 completed questionnaires assessing motivations for becoming a doctor, learning approaches, personality traits, empathy, and coping styles. Selection was based on the results of MCQ tests. Principal component analysis was used to draw a profile of the students. Differences between selected and non-selected students were examined by Multivariate ANOVAs, and their impact on selection by logistic regression analysis. Results: Students demonstrating a profile of diligence with higher conscientiousness, deep learning approach, and task-focused coping were more frequently selected (p=0.01. Other personal characteristics such as motivation, sociability, and empathy did not significantly differ, comparing selected and non-selected students. Conclusion: Selection through a knowledge-based exam privileged diligent students. It did neither advantage nor preclude candidates with a more humane profile.

  17. Knowledges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works...... as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism...... and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus...

  18. Knowledge brokers, companions, and navigators: a qualitative examination of informal caregivers’ roles in medical tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, Victoria; Crooks, Valorie; Snyder, Jeremy; Turner, Leigh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many studies examining the phenomena of medical tourism have identified health equity issues associated with this global health services practice. However, there is a notable lack of attention in this existing research to the informal care provided by the friends and family members who typically accompany medical tourists abroad. To date, researchers have not examined the care roles filled by informal caregivers travelling with medical tourists. In this article, we fill this g...

  19. Knowledge Brokers, Companions, and Navigators: Qualitatively Examining Informal Caregivers’ Roles in Medical Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, Victoria; Crooks, Valorie; Snyder, Jeremy; Turner, Leigh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many studies examining the phenomena of medical tourism have identified health equity issues associated with this global health services practice. However, there is a notable lack of attention in this existing research to the informal care provided by the friends and family members who typically accompany medical tourists abroad. To date, researchers have not examined the care roles filled by informal caregivers travelling with medical tourists. In this article, we fill this g...

  20. 古代情志相关医案中情志因子与脉象的典型相关分析%Canonical Correlation Analysis between Emotional Pathogenic Factors and Pulse Manifestations of Ancient Medical Records

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶

    2011-01-01

    基于古代情志相关医案脉象信息数据库,对743例情志致病症分类医案中的情志因子与左尺脉象进行典型相关分析,总结出恐、烦、精神萎靡、郁、狂与左尺脉象的相关性,为情志相关脉诊临床实践提供了文献支持.%The relations between emotional pathogenic factors and pulse manifestations of Zuo Chi in 743 medical records caused by emotions were analyzed by canonical correlation analysis according to pulse information database of ancient medical records related to emotions. Correlation between fright, vexation, dispiritedness, depression, madness and pulse manifestations of Zuo Chi were summarized to supply the literature basis for clinical pulse examination related to emotions

  1. Frequency Analysis of Pulse Information Database of Ancient Medical Records Related to Emotions%1328例古代医案中情志与脉象信息的频数分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶

    2011-01-01

    Pulse information database of ancient medical records related to emotions was established including 1328 cases with pulse record screened from Chinese Medical Canon to analyze the general conditions, emotions, pulse manifestations of the six parts of Cunkou and pulse manifestations related to emotions by frequencies so as to study the pulse manifestation law related to emotions.%查阅《中华医典》医案类书籍,筛选出1328例古代情志相关医案,将脉象相关信息构建数据库,对一般情况、情志、六部脉象、情志相关六部脉象进行了频教分析,以探讨情志相关医案的脉象规律.

  2. Burns treatment in ancient times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pećanac, Marija; Janjić, Zlata; Komarcević, Aleksandar; Pajić, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Misković, Sanja Skeledzija

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques. PMID:23888738

  3. Burns treatment in ancient times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pećanac, Marija; Janjić, Zlata; Komarcević, Aleksandar; Pajić, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Misković, Sanja Skeledzija

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques.

  4. The Inca healer: empirical medical knowledge and magic in pre-Columbian Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elferink, Jan G. R.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of medical practitioners among the Incas is addressed, based on archeological findings and especially the writings of the Spanish chroniclers. In Inca medicine a large role was reserved for religion and magic but at the same time an extensive knowledge of medicinal plants was available. As a consequence there were several types of healers who cured with a mixture of medicinal plants and religious-magic ceremonies. The hampicamayoc or ‘official in charge of medicines’ was the one who resembled somewhat the European physician of that time and was the most important type of healer. He relied largely but certainly not exclusively on the use of medicinal plants. There were also healers who cured mainly with religious-magic procedures. Surgery must have been important for the Inca healer but this is hardly reflected in the work of the Spanish chroniclers.La posición social de los profesionales de la medicina en la Cultura Inca se conoce gracias a los hallazgos arqueológicos y, sobre todo, gracias a los escritos de los cronistas españoles. En la medicina Inca, la religión y la magia ocupaban un papel destacado, aunque también era importante el conocimiento de las plantas medicinales. En consecuencia, existieron distintos tipos de curanderos que curaban con una mezcla más o menos mayor de plantas medicinales y ceremonias religiosas y mágicas. El hampicamayoc o «funcionario encargado de los medicamentos» sobresalía entre los curanderos y tenía cierto parecido con el médico europeo de la época. Su actuación se basaba sobre todo, aunque no exclusivamente, en el uso de plantas medicinales. Otros, en cambio, curaban básicamente con procedimientos mágicoreligiosos. La cirugía debió ser importante para el sanador Inca pero este hecho apenas se refleja en la obra de los cronistas españoles.

  5. Effect of High-Fidelity Simulation on Medical Students' Knowledge about Advanced Life Support: A Randomized Study.

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    Andrea Cortegiani

    Full Text Available High-fidelity simulation (HFS is a learning method which has proven effective in medical education for technical and non-technical skills. However, its effectiveness for knowledge acquisition is less validated. We performed a randomized study with the primary aim of investigating whether HFS, in association with frontal lessons, would improve knowledge about advanced life support (ALS, in comparison to frontal lessons only among medical students. The secondary aims were to evaluate the effect of HFS on knowledge acquisition of different sections of ALS and personal knowledge perception. Participants answered a pre-test questionnaire consisting of a subjective (evaluating personal perception of knowledge and an objective section (measuring level of knowledge containing 100 questions about algorithms, technical skills, team working/early warning scores/communication strategies according to ALS guidelines. All students participated in 3 frontal lessons before being randomized in group S, undergoing a HFS session, and group C, receiving no further interventions. After 10 days from the end of each intervention, both groups answered a questionnaire (post-test with the same subjective section but a different objective one. The overall number of correct answers of the post-test was significantly higher in group S (mean 74.1, SD 11.2 than in group C (mean 65.5, SD 14.3, p = 0.0017, 95% C.I. 3.34 - 13.9. A significantly higher number of correct answers was reported in group S than in group C for questions investigating knowledge of algorithms (p = 0.0001; 95% C.I 2.22-5.99 and team working/early warning scores/communication strategies (p = 0.0060; 95% C.I 1.13-6.53. Students in group S showed a significantly higher score in the post-test subjective section (p = 0.0074. A lower proportion of students in group S confirmed their perception of knowledge compared to group C (p = 0.0079. HFS showed a beneficial effect on knowledge of ALS among medical students

  6. A cross-sectional study of the knowledge and attitude of medical laboratory personnel regarding continuing professional development

    OpenAIRE

    Ekwempu Adaobi Ifeoma; Ede Folashade Rebecca; Ojo Oyekunle Ezekiel; Ofojekwu Mary-Jane; Essien Cosmas Uyime; Obiageri, Edeh N.; Adeshiyan Tola; Damen James

    2015-01-01

    Background: Continuing professional development (CPD) in Medical Laboratory Scientists (MLS) is aimed at equipping laboratory professionals with the necessary skills to enhance practice. The laboratory scientists are usually the first contact between the patient and health care system in aspects of diagnosis and monitory of diseases. As such, it becomes imperative to assess the knowledge of laboratory personnel regarding CPD. Materials and Methods: Self-administered questionnaires were distri...

  7. The Social Cognition of Medical Knowledge: With Special Reference to Childhood Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Malcolm N.; Badger, Richard; O'Regan, John

    2009-01-01

    This article arose out of an engagement in medical communication courses at a Gulf university. It deploys a theoretical framework derived from a (critical) sociocognitive approach to discourse analysis in order to investigate three aspects of medical discourse relating to childhood epilepsy: the cognitive processes that are entailed in relating…

  8. Cultural adaptation of a survey to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Albania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane D Morrison

    Full Text Available Though the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Southeastern Europe is one of low reported prevalence, numerous studies have described the pervasiveness of medical providers' lack of knowledge of HIV/AIDS in the Balkans. This study sought to culturally adapt an instrument to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Albania. Cultural adaptation was completed through development of a survey from previously validated instruments, translation of the survey into Albanian, blinded back translation, expert committee review of the draft instrument, focus group pre-testing with community- and University Hospital Center of Tirana-based physicians and nurses, and test-retest reliability testing. Blinded back translation of the instrument supported the initial translation with slight changes to the idiomatic and conceptual equivalences. Focus group pre-testing generally supported the instrument, yet some experiential and idiomatic changes were implemented. Based on unweighted kappa and/or prevalence adjusted bias adjusted kappa (PABAK, 20 of the 43 questions were deemed statistically significant at kappa and/or PABAK ≥0.5, while 12 others did not cross zero on the 95% confidence interval for kappa, indicating their probable significance. Subsequently, an instrument to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS for an Albanian population was developed which can be expanded within Albania and potentially to other countries within the Balkans, which have an Albanian-speaking population.

  9. Combining knowledge discovery from databases (KDD) and case-based reasoning (CBR) to support diagnosis of medical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranieri, Andrew; Yearwood, John; Pham, Binh

    1999-07-01

    The development of data warehouses for the storage and analysis of very large corpora of medical image data represents a significant trend in health care and research. Amongst other benefits, the trend toward warehousing enables the use of techniques for automatically discovering knowledge from large and distributed databases. In this paper, we present an application design for knowledge discovery from databases (KDD) techniques that enhance the performance of the problem solving strategy known as case- based reasoning (CBR) for the diagnosis of radiological images. The problem of diagnosing the abnormality of the cervical spine is used to illustrate the method. The design of a case-based medical image diagnostic support system has three essential characteristics. The first is a case representation that comprises textual descriptions of the image, visual features that are known to be useful for indexing images, and additional visual features to be discovered by data mining many existing images. The second characteristic of the approach presented here involves the development of a case base that comprises an optimal number and distribution of cases. The third characteristic involves the automatic discovery, using KDD techniques, of adaptation knowledge to enhance the performance of the case based reasoner. Together, the three characteristics of our approach can overcome real time efficiency obstacles that otherwise mitigate against the use of CBR to the domain of medical image analysis.

  10. Knowledge and critical thinking skills increase clinical reasoning ability in urogenital disorders: a Universitas Sriwijaya Medical Faculty experience

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    Irfannuddin Irfannuddin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim Clinical reasoning is one of the essential competencies for medical practitioners, so that it must be exercised by medical students. Studies on quantitative evidence of factors influencing clinical reasoning abilicy of students are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of knowledge and other factors on the clinical reasoning abiliry ofthe students, which can serve as reference to establish methods for learning ctinical reasoning.Methods This is a cross-sectional study on fourth semester students enrolled in the Competency-based Curriculum of the Medical Faculty, University of Sriwijaya. Data on clinical reasoning abilily and risk factors during urogenital blockwere collected inApril 2008, when the students have just completed the btock. Clinical reasoning abiliry was tested using the Script Concordance test and the risk factors were evaluated based on formative tests, block summative assessments, and student characteristics. Data were analyzed by Cox regression.Results The prevalence of low clinical reasoning ability of the 132 students was 38.6%. The group with low basic knowledge was found to have 63% risk ol low clinical reasoning abiliry when compared to those with high basic knowledge (adjusted RR = 1.63; 95% conidence intewal (Ct: 1.10 -2.42. When compared to students with high critical thinking skitls, those with lory critical thinking skills had 2.3 time to be low clinical reasoning abitity (adjusted RR : 2.30; 95% CI: 1.55 - 3.41.Conclusion Students with low critical thinking skills or with inadequate knowledge had a higher risk of low clinical reasoning ability. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 53-9Keywords: clinical reasoning, basic knowledge, critical thinking, competency-based curriculum

  11. Effects of the Nursing Psychoeducation Program on the Acceptance of Medication and Condition-Specific Knowledge of Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Mitsunobu; Kohno, Ayumi

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of the nursing psychoeducation program (NPE) for improving the acceptance of medication of inpatients with schizophrenia as well as their knowledge regarding their illness and the effects of medication on it. This study was a quasi-experimental study involving a convenience sample and was performed at the acute treatment units of two Japanese psychiatric hospitals. The subjects were recruited from among the inpatients being treated at the acute treatment units and were assigned to either the experimental or control group. The experimental group took part in the NPE, and the control group received the standard treatments for schizophrenia. Data were collected using structured questionnaires; i.e., the Medication Perception Scale for Patients with Schizophrenia (MPS), Drug Attitude Inventory-10 Questionnaire (DAI-10), and Knowledge of Illness and Drugs Inventory. Forty-three patients (13 men and 30 women) agreed in writing to participate in this study. During pre-/postintervention comparisons, the total MPS score, the 'efficacy of medication' subscale score, and the total DAI-10 score exhibited significant group×time interactions.

  12. Effects of the Nursing Psychoeducation Program on the Acceptance of Medication and Condition-Specific Knowledge of Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Mitsunobu; Kohno, Ayumi

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of the nursing psychoeducation program (NPE) for improving the acceptance of medication of inpatients with schizophrenia as well as their knowledge regarding their illness and the effects of medication on it. This study was a quasi-experimental study involving a convenience sample and was performed at the acute treatment units of two Japanese psychiatric hospitals. The subjects were recruited from among the inpatients being treated at the acute treatment units and were assigned to either the experimental or control group. The experimental group took part in the NPE, and the control group received the standard treatments for schizophrenia. Data were collected using structured questionnaires; i.e., the Medication Perception Scale for Patients with Schizophrenia (MPS), Drug Attitude Inventory-10 Questionnaire (DAI-10), and Knowledge of Illness and Drugs Inventory. Forty-three patients (13 men and 30 women) agreed in writing to participate in this study. During pre-/postintervention comparisons, the total MPS score, the 'efficacy of medication' subscale score, and the total DAI-10 score exhibited significant group×time interactions. PMID:27654241

  13. Awareness and knowledge of common eye diseases among the academic staff (non-medical faculties) of University of Malaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Y K; Reddy, S C; Karina, R

    2004-08-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to assess the level of awareness and knowledge of common eye diseases (cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and refractive errors) among 473 academic staff (non-medical faculties) of University Malaya. The awareness of cataract was in 88.2%, diabetic retinopathy in 83.5%, refractive errors in 75.3% and glaucoma in 71.5% of the study population. The knowledge about all the above common eye diseases was moderate, except presbyopia which was poor. Multivariate analysis revealed that females, older people, and those having family history of eye diseases were significantly more aware and more knowledgeable about the eye diseases. Health education about eye diseases would be beneficial to seek early treatment and prevent visual impairment in the society.

  14. Knowledge level estimation of medical workers participating in rendering of emergency medical aid to children at a pre-hospital stage

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    V.M. Popkov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Estimation of qualifying preparation of the doctors participating in rendering of emergency medical aid to children. Material: On the basis of the developed test cards the analysis of doctors' knowledge level of the first help on the basic questions of emergency medicine is carried out. 120 doctors are interrogated. Results compared depending on age, work experience and presence of a qualifying professional category. Results: As a whole answers of respondents were distributed as follows: unsatisfactorily - 2,6 %; satisfactorily - 7,9 %; well - 18,4 %; perfectly - 71,1 %. Distinctions in a dale of right answers on separate sections of knowledge depending on the experience and a qualifying professional category are established. The conclusion: The weakest places in preparation of experts of the first help on which it is necessary to pay special attention in courses of postdegree preparation are revealed

  15. Knowledge, attitude and skills before and after a module on pharmaceutical promotion in a Nepalese medical school

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    Shankar P Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmaceutical promotion is widespread and can impact prescribing by health professionals. Little research has been conducted on interactions between medical students and the pharmaceutical industry. Teaching about pharmaceutical promotion is inadequate. A survey showed that many schools spend only about two hours teaching this important topic while others spend around six hours. Recently a manual on understanding and responding to promotion has been published by Health Action International (HAI and the World Health Organization (WHO. From April to August 2011 the department of Clinical Pharmacology at KIST Medical College, Lalitpur, Nepal conducted a module on pharmaceutical promotion for second year students based on the manual. The module used active learning strategies such as brainstorming sessions, role plays and group activities. The study worked on the hypothesis that a module on pharmaceutical promotion will be effective in improving the knowledge, attitude and skills of medical students regarding pharmaceutical promotion. The impact of the module on knowledge, attitude and skills was tested using a retrospective-pre questionnaire. The scores according to gender and method of financing of medical education before and after the module were compared using appropriate non-parametric tests. Results Eighty-seven of the 100 second year students (87% participated in the study. 47 were females (54% and 39 (44.83% were males and one did not state the gender. Seventy-seven students (88.5% were self-financing while 9 were scholarship students. The median knowledge, attitude and skills score before the module were 9, 13 and 6 respectively while the overall score was 28. The scores increased significantly to 16, 15 and 14 respectively after the module while the overall score increased to 45. The median attitude scores and total scores were significantly higher among females both before and after the module. The scores did not

  16. Constructing a knowledge-based database for dermatological integrative medical information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jeeyoung; Jo, Yunju; Bae, Hyunsu; Hong, Moochang; Shin, Minkyu; Kim, Yangseok

    2013-01-01

    Recently, overuse of steroids and immunosuppressive drugs has produced incurable dermatological health problems. Traditional medical approaches have been studied for alternative solutions. However, accessing relevant information is difficult given the differences in information for western medicine (WM) and traditional medicine (TM). Therefore, an integrated medical information infrastructure must be utilized to bridge western and traditional treatments. In this study, WM and TM information was collected based on literature searches and information from internet databases on dermatological issues. Additionally, definitions for unified terminology and disease categorization based on individual cases were generated. Also a searchable database system was established that may be a possible model system for integrating both WM and TM medical information on dermatological conditions. Such a system will yield benefits for researchers and facilitate the best possible medical solutions for patients. The DIMI is freely available online.

  17. Connecting Philosophy of Ancient Egyptians to Modern Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Aminuddin Hassan; Nurul A.A.K. Anuar; Norhasni Z. Abiddin

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Associating any knowledge from ancient Egyptians to modern civilization and thinking was important and had its own value. The process of understanding knowledge related to ancient Egyptians is actually based on the nature of philosophical thought. Approach: In the discussion of ancient Egypt philosophy, it is important to look at it from the perspectives of the four branches of philosophy; metaphysics, epistemology, axiology and logic. Metaphysics has two elements, which ar...

  18. Medical Student Knowledge of Oncology and Related Disciplines: a Targeted Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskvarek, Jonathan; Braunstein, Steve; Farnan, Jeanne; Ferguson, Mark K; Hahn, Olwen; Henderson, Tara; Hong, Susan; Levine, Stacie; Rosenberg, Carol A; Golden, Daniel W

    2016-09-01

    Despite increasing numbers of cancer survivors, non-oncology physicians report discomfort and little training regarding oncologic and survivorship care. This pilot study assesses medical student comfort with medical oncology, surgical oncology, radiation oncology, hospice/palliative medicine, and survivorship care. A survey was developed with input from specialists in various fields of oncologic care at a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center. The survey included respondent demographics, reports of experience with oncology, comfort ratings with oncologic care, and five clinical vignettes. Responses were yes/no, multiple choice, Likert scale, or free response. The survey was distributed via email to medical students (MS1-4) at two US medical schools. The 105 respondents were 34 MS1s (32 %), 15 MS2s and MD/PhDs (14 %), 26 MS3s (25 %), and 30 MS4s (29 %). Medical oncology, surgical oncology, and hospice/palliative medicine demonstrated a significant trend for increased comfort from MS1 to MS4, but radiation oncology and survivorship care did not. MS3s and MS4s reported the least experience with survivorship care and radiation oncology. In the clinical vignettes, students performed the worst on the long-term chemotherapy toxicity and hospice/palliative medicine questions. Medical students report learning about components of oncologic care, but lack overall comfort with oncologic care. Medical students also fail to develop an increased self-assessed level of comfort with radiation oncology and survivorship care. These pilot results support development of a formalized multidisciplinary medical school oncology curriculum at these two institutions. An expanded national survey is being developed to confirm these preliminary findings.

  19. Improving medical students' knowledge of genetic disease: a review of current and emerging pedagogical practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolyniak MJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Wolyniak,1 Lynne T Bemis,2 Amy J Prunuske2 1Department of Biology, Hampden-Sydney College, Hampden-Sydney, VA, 2Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota Medical School, Duluth, MN, USA Abstract: Genetics is an essential subject to be mastered by health professional students of all types. However, technological advances in genomics and recent pedagogical research have changed the way in which many medical training programs teach genetics to their students. These advances favor a more experience-based education focused primarily on developing student's critical thinking skills. In this review, we examine the current state of genetics education at both the preclinical and clinical levels and the ways in which medical and pedagogical research have guided reforms to current and emerging teaching practices in genetics. We discover exciting trends taking place in which genetics is integrated with other scientific disciplines both horizontally and vertically across medical curricula to emphasize training in scientific critical thinking skills among students via the evaluation of clinical evidence and consultation of online databases. These trends will produce future health professionals with the skills and confidence necessary to embrace the new tools of medical practice that have emerged from scientific advances in genetics, genomics, and bioinformatics. Keywords: genetics education, medical genetics, pedagogical practice, active learning, problem-based learning

  20. Loss of international medical experiences: knowledge, attitudes and skills at risk

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    Legome Eric

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite the great influence International Medical Experiences (IMs can have on young physicians and their impact on patients and communities, they are not offered in all training programs and are at risk of being reduced in some due to stringent guidelines for funding of graduate medical education. Discussion IMs provide unique experiences in clinical, epidemiologic, cultural, and political arenas. From an educational perspective, they broaden a physician's differential diagnostic skills and introduce clinical entities rarely seen in the U.S. Time spent in developing countries emphasizes the importance of community health and increases cultural and linguistic competence. Experience working with the underserved during an IM has been shown to increase interest in volunteerism, humanitarian efforts, and work with underserved populations both in the US and abroad. IMs also afford physicians the opportunity to learn about the delivery of health care abroad and are associated with an increase in primary care specialty choice. Summary It is time for the leaders in graduate medical education to prioritize international health opportunities. Leaders in academic medicine can press for changes in reimbursement patterns at the national level or special funds for international electives. Hospitals can set up separate accounts to help finance resident salaries and benefits while abroad. Individual departments must be flexible with resident schedules to allow elective time. Medical students and housestaff can organize and lobby larger organizations such as the American Medical Association (AMA, the American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC, and specialty groups to make IMs universally accessible.

  1. Discourse structures in medical reports--watch out! The generation of referentially coherent and valid text knowledge bases in the MEDSYNDIKATE system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, U; Romacker, M; Schulz, S

    1999-01-01

    The automatic analysis of medical narratives currently suffers from neglecting text structure phenomena such as referential relations between discourse units. This has unwarranted effects on the descriptional adequacy of medical knowledge bases automatically generated from texts. The resulting representation bias can be characterized in terms of incomplete, artificially fragmented and referentially invalid knowledge structures. We focus here on four basic types of textual reference relations, viz. pronominal and nominal anaphora, textual ellipsis and metonymy and show how to deal with them in an adequate text parsing device. Since the types of reference relations we discuss show an increasing dependence on conceptual background knowledge, we stress the need for formally grounded, expressive conceptual representation systems for medical knowledge. Our suggestions are based on experience with MEDSYNDIKATE, a medical text knowledge acquisition system designed to properly deal with various sorts of discourse structure phenomena. PMID:10075128

  2. Oral health knowledge, attitude and practices among health professionals in King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdul Baseer

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Oral health knowledge among the health professionals working in KFMC, Riyadh was lower than what would be expected of these groups, which had higher literacy levels in health care, but they showed a positive attitude toward professional dental care.

  3. Knowledge discovery in medical systems using differential diagnosis, LAMSTAR & k-NN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isola, Rahul; Carvalho, Rebeck; Tripathy, Amiya Kumar

    2012-11-01

    Medical data is an ever-growing source of information generated from the hospitals in the form of patient records. When mined properly the information hidden in these records is a huge resource bank for medical research. As of now, this data is mostly used only for clinical work. This data often contains hidden patterns and relationships, that can lead to better diagnosis, better medicines, better treatment and overall, a platform to better understand the mechanisms governing almost all aspects of the medical domain. Unfortunately, discovery of these hidden patterns and relationships often goes unexploited. However there is on-going research in medical diagnosis which can predict the diseases of the heart, lungs and various tumours based on the past data collected from the patients.They are mostly limited to domain specific systems that predict diseases restricted to their area of operation like heart, brain and various other domains. These are not applicable to the whole medical dataset. The system proposed in this paper uses this vast storage of information so that diagnosis based on this historical data can be made. It focuses on computing the probability of occurrence of a particular ailment from the medical data by mining it using a unique algorithm which increases accuracy of such diagnosis by combining the key points of Neural Networks, Large Memory Storage and Retrieval (LAMSTAR), k-NN and Differential Diagnosis all integrated into one single algorithm. The system uses a Service-Oriented Architecture wherein the system components of diagnosis, information portal and other miscellaneous services are provided.This algorithm can be used in solving a few common problems that are encountered in automated diagnosis these days, which include: diagnosis of multiple diseases showing similar symptoms, diagnosis of a person suffering from multiple diseases, receiving faster and more accurate second opinion and faster identification of trends present in the medical

  4. The Role of Obesity Training in Medical School and Residency on Bariatric Surgery Knowledge in Primary Care Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Fatima Cody; Johnson, Erica D; Claridy, Mechelle D; Earle, Rebecca L; Kaplan, Lee M

    2015-01-01

    Objective. US primary care physicians are inadequately educated on how to provide obesity treatment. We sought to assess physician training in obesity and to characterize the perceptions, beliefs, knowledge, and treatment patterns of primary care physicians. Methods. We administered a cross-sectional web-based survey from July to October 2014 to adult primary care physicians in practices affiliated with the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). We evaluated survey respondent demographics, personal health habits, obesity training, knowledge of bariatric surgery care, perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs regarding the etiology of obesity and treatment strategies. Results. Younger primary care physicians (age 20-39) were more likely to have received some obesity training than those aged 40-49 (OR: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.008-0.822) or those 50+ (OR: 0.03, 95% CI: 0.004-0.321). Physicians who were young, had obesity, or received obesity education in medical school or postgraduate training were more likely to answer bariatric surgery knowledge questions correctly. Conclusions. There is a need for educational programs to improve physician knowledge and competency in treating patients with obesity. Obesity is a complex chronic disease, and it is important for clinicians to be equipped with the knowledge of the multiple treatment modalities that may be considered to help their patients achieve a healthy weight. PMID:26339506

  5. The Role of Obesity Training in Medical School and Residency on Bariatric Surgery Knowledge in Primary Care Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Cody Stanford

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. US primary care physicians are inadequately educated on how to provide obesity treatment. We sought to assess physician training in obesity and to characterize the perceptions, beliefs, knowledge, and treatment patterns of primary care physicians. Methods. We administered a cross-sectional web-based survey from July to October 2014 to adult primary care physicians in practices affiliated with the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH. We evaluated survey respondent demographics, personal health habits, obesity training, knowledge of bariatric surgery care, perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs regarding the etiology of obesity and treatment strategies. Results. Younger primary care physicians (age 20–39 were more likely to have received some obesity training than those aged 40–49 (OR: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.008–0.822 or those 50+ (OR: 0.03, 95% CI: 0.004–0.321. Physicians who were young, had obesity, or received obesity education in medical school or postgraduate training were more likely to answer bariatric surgery knowledge questions correctly. Conclusions. There is a need for educational programs to improve physician knowledge and competency in treating patients with obesity. Obesity is a complex chronic disease, and it is important for clinicians to be equipped with the knowledge of the multiple treatment modalities that may be considered to help their patients achieve a healthy weight.

  6. COMPARISON OF THE KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES OF ESSENTIAL MEDICINES AMONG MEDICAL PRACTITIONERS OF A MEDICAL COLLEGE VERSUS PRIVATE MEDICAL GENERAL PRACTITIONERS OF AN URBAN PLACE OF SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyarthi SurendraK, Nayak RoopaP, Gupta Sandeep K, Dandekar Rahul H

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is the third largest producer and exporter of medicinestomost of the countries. The World Medicine Situation Report 2011 states that 65% persons in India do not have access to essential medicines. While, huge unethical prescribing ofdrugs for monetary gains has been a second major cause of rural indebtedness. Aims and Objectives:The primary objective of the study was to compare the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Essential Medicines among Medical Practitioners of a Medical College and Private Medical General Practitioners of an urban place, e.g. Perambalur District of South India.Materials and Methods: After ethical approval, thestudy was started, in Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Medical College and Hospital (DSMCH, Siruvachur-621113, Perambalur, Tamil Nadu. It was a questionnaire based study. The faculties of the DSMCH and Medical Private Practitioner of Perambalur district included as participants in the study. We distributed knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP based 15multiple choice questionson National Essential Medicine List, 2011 (NEML to each healthcare professionals (HCPs to attempt within 15 minutes.Results:Overall, Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding NEML 2011 were 57.06%, 38.36%; 51.16%, 51.82%; 21.73%, 28.7% to HCP from DSMCH and HCP from Perambalur district, respectively. Whereas, 42.2 % HCPs from DSMCH and 44.7 % HCPs from Perambalur district wereprescribed branded and generic drugs both. Conclusion:The result’s data shows that regular awareness programmes should be conducted to update knowledge, change attitude and practices regarding essential medicines to serve the society as best as possible.

  7. Perceptions and knowledge of voluntary medical male circumcision for HIV prevention in traditionally non-circumcising communities in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jacob Robin; Arendse, Kirsten D; Larbi, Carl; Johnson, Naomi; Vivian, Lauraine M H

    2015-01-01

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been recommended for the prevention of HIV transmission, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Uptake of the campaign has been relatively poor, particularly in traditionally non-circumcising regions. This study evaluates the knowledge, attitudes and practices of medical male circumcision (MC) of 104 community members exposed to promotional campaigns for VMMC for five years. Results show that 93% of participants have heard of circumcision and 72% have heard of some health benefit from the practice. However, detailed knowledge of the relationship with HIV infection is lacking: 12.2% mistakenly believed you could not get HIV after being circumcised, while 75.5% believe that a circumcised man is still susceptible and another 12.2% do not know of any relationship between HIV and MC. There are significant barriers to the uptake of the practice, including misperceptions and fear of complications commonly attributed to traditional, non-medical circumcision. However, 88.8% of participants believe circumcision is an acceptable practice, and community-specific promotional campaigns may increase uptake of the service.

  8. Can ill-structured problems reveal beliefs about medical knowledge and knowing? A focus-group approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dory Valerie

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epistemological beliefs (EB are an individual's cognitions about knowledge and knowing. In several non-medical domains, EB have been found to contribute to the way individuals reason when faced with ill-structured problems (i.e. problems with no clear-cut, right or wrong solutions. Such problems are very common in medical practice. Determining whether EB are also influential in reasoning processes with regard to medical issues to which there is no straightforward answer, could have implications for medical education. This study focused on 2 research questions: 1. Can ill-structured problems be used to elicit general practice trainees' and trainers' EB? and 2. What are the views of general practice trainees and trainers about knowledge and how do they justify knowing? Methods 2 focus groups of trainees (n = 18 were convened on 3 occasions during their 1st year of postgraduate GP training. 2 groups of GP trainers (n = 11 met on one occasion. Based on the methodology of the Reflective Judgement Interview (RJI, participants were asked to comment on 11 ill-structured problems. The sessions were audio taped and transcribed and an adapted version of the RJI scoring rules was used to assess the trainees' reasoning about ill-structured problems. Results Participants made a number of statements illustrating their EB and their importance in clinical reasoning. The level of EB varied widely form one meeting to another and depending on the problem addressed. Overall, the EB expressed by trainees did not differ from those of trainers except on a particular ill-structured problem regarding shoulder pain. Conclusion The use of focus groups has entailed some difficulties in the interpretation of the results, but a number of preliminary conclusions can be drawn. Ill-structured medical problems can be used to elicit EB. Most trainees and trainers displayed pre-reflective and quasi-reflective EB. The way trainees and doctors view and justify

  9. INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT – A STRATEGY FOR PERFORMING MEDICAL SERVICES IN THE INFORMATIONAL ERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina BĂLAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The unprecedented incertitude existing in the health system in Romaniaimplies menaces for the system managers. The improvement of theperformance of the medical system has never been more adequate, so thatthe health system needs specific managerial strategies. Romania needs acomplete solution which could assure a performant management of themedical information in the system, and in their plans, the managers of thehealthcare organizations must include investments for the application of theinformational technologies, like the administration of medical information, ofthe health electronic file, the medical information exchange, so that themedical service be continuous and permanent from the birth until the death ofany individual. But the piece of information is only valuable to the one whoknows how to use it, where to search for it, how to choose it and finally howto use it, so that we can say the main instrument to which the manager fromthe health system may resort rapidly in order to find new solutions isinformation.

  10. Study of Knowledge and Attitude of Interns and Postgraduates about Tocolytics at M.R. Medical College, Gulbarga

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    Dr. Umesh Chandra C Honnaddi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was undertaken to assess the knowledge, attitude of tocolytics among interns and postgraduate students of M.R. Medical College, Gulbarga.Materials and Methods: An Observational study was carried out among interns and postgraduate students of M.R. Medical College. 100 students were included during the study period of one and half months from 1st September to 15th October 2014.  The data was collected in a Proforma which included questionnaire.Results: The results reveals that 71% of students answered correctly about the basics of tocolytics, 77% of students answered correctly about Beta-2 agonists, 66% of students answered correctly about Calcium channel blockers, 73% of students answered correctly about Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, 62% of students answered correctly aboutMagnesium sulfate and 51% of students answered correctly about Atosiban.Conclusion: Results of the study reveals that most of the students are aware and have good knowledge about the pharmacology of tocolytics. Knowledge about newer tocolytics is moderate and needs more awareness.

  11. Medical Students' Learning from Patient-Led Teaching: Experiential versus Biomedical Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Ann-Helen; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how medical students perceive the experience of learning from patient instructors (patients with rheumatism who teach health professionals and students) in the context of coupled faculty-led and patient-led teaching session. This was an explorative study with a qualitative approach based on focus group…

  12. Assessment of Genetics Knowledge and Skills in Medical Students: Insight for a Clinical Neurogenetics Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Phillip L.; Pettiford, Jennifer M.; Combs, Susan E.; Heffron, Ari; Healton, Sean; Hovaguimian, Alexandra; Macri, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    The pace of discovery in biochemistry and genetics and its effect on clinical medicine places new curricular challenges in medical school education. We sought to evaluate students' understanding of neurogenetics and its clinical applications to design a pilot curriculum into the clinical neurology clerkship. We utilized a needs assessment and a…

  13. Data Mining and Domain Knowledge: An Exploration of Methods to Advance Medical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Kelley M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers in the medical domain consider the double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial the gold standard. The data for these clinical trials are collected for a specifically defined hypothesis and there is very little in the realm of secondary data analyses conducted. The underlying purpose of this work is to demonstrate the value and…

  14. Underutilization of information and knowledge in everyday medical practice: Evaluation of a computer-based solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Peter

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The medical history is acknowledged as the sine qua non for quality medical care because recognizing problems is pre-requisite for managing them. Medical histories typically are incomplete and inaccurate, however. We show here that computers are a solution to this issue of information gathering about patients. Computers can be programmed to acquire more complete medical histories with greater detail across a range of acute and chronic issues than physician histories. Methods Histories were acquired by physicians in the usual way and by a computer program interacting directly with patients. Decision-making of what medical issues were queried by computer were made internally by the software, including determination of the chief complaint. The selection of patients was from admissions to the Robert-Bosch-Hospital, Stuttgart, Germany by convenience sampling. Physician-acquired and computer-acquired histories were compared on a patient-by-patient basis for 45 patients. Results The computer histories reported 160 problems not recorded in physician histories or slightly more than 3.5 problems per patient. However, physicians but not the computer reported 13 problems. The data show that computer histories reported problems across a range of organ systems, that the problems detected by computer but not physician histories were both acute and chronic and that the computer histories detected a significant number of issues important for preventing further morbidity. Conclusion A combination of physician and computer-acquired histories, in non-emergent situations, with the latter available to the physician at the time he or she sees the patient, is a far superior method for collecting historical data than the physician interview alone.

  15. An Increase in Medical Student Knowledge of Radiation Oncology: A Pre-Post Examination Analysis of the Oncology Education Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The Oncology Education Initiative was created to advance oncology and radiation oncology education by integrating structured didactics into the existing core radiology clerkship. We set out to determine whether the addition of structured didactics could lead to a significant increase in overall medical student knowledge about radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: We conducted a pre- and posttest examining concepts in general radiation oncology, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. The 15-question, multiple-choice exam was administered before and after a 1.5-hour didactic lecture by an attending physician in radiation oncology. Individual question changes, overall student changes, and overall categorical changes were analyzed. All hypothesis tests were two-tailed (significance level 0.05). Results: Of the 153 fourth-year students, 137 (90%) took the pre- and posttest and were present for the didactic lecture. The average test grade improved from 59% to 70% (p = 0.011). Improvement was seen in all questions except clinical vignettes involving correct identification of TNM staging. Statistically significant improvement (p ≤ 0.03) was seen in the questions regarding acute and late side effects of radiation, brachytherapy for prostate cancer, delivery of radiation treatment, and management of early-stage breast cancer. Conclusions: Addition of didactics in radiation oncology significantly improves medical students' knowledge of the topic. Despite perceived difficulty in teaching radiation oncology and the assumption that it is beyond the scope of reasonable knowledge for medical students, we have shown that even with one dedicated lecture, students can learn and absorb general principles regarding radiation oncology

  16. Competency-based residency training and the web log: modeling practice-based learning and enhancing medical knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F. Hollon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: By using web-based tools in medical education, there are opportunities to innovatively teach important principles from the general competencies of graduate medical education. Objectives: Postulating that faculty transparency in learning from uncertainties in clinical work could help residents to incorporate the principles of practice-based learning and improvement (PBLI in their professional development, faculty in this community-based residency program modeled the steps of PBLI on a weekly basis through the use of a web log. Method: The program confidentially surveyed residents before and after this project about actions consistent with PBLI and knowledge acquired through reading the web log. Results: The frequency that residents encountered clinical situations where they felt uncertain declined over the course of the 24 weeks of the project from a mean frequency of uncertainty of 36% to 28% (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p=0.008; however, the frequency with which residents sought answers when faced with uncertainty did not change (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p=0.39, remaining high at approximately 80%. Residents answered a mean of 52% of knowledge questions correct when tested prior to faculty posts to the blog, rising to a mean of 65% of questions correct when tested at the end of the project (paired t-test, p=0.001. Conclusions: Faculty role modeling of PBLI behaviors and posting clinical questions and answers to a web log led to modest improvements in medical knowledge but did not alter behavior that was already taking place frequently among residents.

  17. Experimentation with and knowledge regarding water-pipe tobacco smoking among medical students at a major university in Brazil

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    Stella Regina Martins

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Water-pipe tobacco smoking is becoming increasingly more common among young people. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the use of water pipes and other forms of tobacco use, including cigarette smoking, among medical students, as well as to examine the attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of those students regarding this issue. METHODS: We administered a questionnaire to students enrolled in the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, in São Paulo, Brazil. The respondents were evaluated in their third and sixth years of medical school, between 2008 and 2013. Comparisons were drawn between the two years. RESULTS: We evaluated 586 completed questionnaires. Overall, the prevalence of current cigarette smokers was low, with a decline among males (9.78% vs. 5.26% and an increase among females (1.43% vs. 2.65% in the 3rd and 6th year, respectively. All respondents believed that health professionals should advise patients to quit smoking. However, few of the medical students who smoked received physician advice to quit. Experimentation with other forms of tobacco use was more common among males (p<0.0001. Despite their knowledge of its harmful effects, students experimented with water-pipe tobacco smoking in high proportions (47.32% and 46.75% of the third- and sixth-year students, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of experimentation with water-pipe tobacco smoking and other forms of tobacco use is high among aspiring physicians. Our findings highlight the need for better preventive education programs at medical schools, not only to protect the health of aspiring physicians but also to help them meet the challenge posed by this new epidemic.

  18. Between East And West: Garcia de Orta’s Colloquies and the Circulation of Medical Knowledge in the Sixteenth Century

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    Fontes da Costa, Palmira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the importance of Garcia de Orta’s Colloquies on the simples and drugs of India (Goa, 1563 in the construction and circulation of Asian botanical and medical knowledge in the sixteenth century. It begins by examining the combined importance of experience and testimony in Orta’s assessment of materia medica from India. It then considers the relevance of interaction and exchange of medical systems between the West and the East in the Portuguese physician’s understanding of medical knowledge and practices. Finally, it analyses how medical and botanical information provided by this work was reframed by Carolus Clusius and circulated in new forms in Europe.En este artículo se analiza la importancia de los Coloquios sobre los medicamentos simples y drogas de la India [Colóquios sobre os simples e drogas da Índia] (Goa, 1563 de Garcia de Orta en la construcción y circulación del conocimiento médico y botánico en Asia en el siglo XVI. Se comienza examinando la importancia combinada de la experiencia y el testimonio en la evaluación de Orta sobre la materia medica de la India. A continuación se examina la importancia de la interacción y el intercambio de los sistemas médicos entre Occidente y Oriente en la comprensión del médico portugués sobre las prácticas y conocimientos médicos. Por último, se analiza como la información médica y botánica que ofrece este trabajo fue reformulada por Carolus Clusius y distribuida en una nueva forma en Europa.

  19. The Diffusion of Medical Knowledge in Song Dynasty%宋代医学知识的扩散

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎瑞雪

    2009-01-01

    以医书材料为基础,辅以史志、笔记、文集材料,描述了宋代医学知识的扩散现象,分析了对其产生影响的社会和个人因素,并讨论了这种扩散的局限性.研究发现:(1)宋代方书重视实用性,其受众主要是一般民众;(2)宋代医学知识的扩散和医学著作之间呈现一种相互促进、互相放大的机制;(3)医学的社会功能和"自疗"的需求都对医学知识的扩散产生了重要影响;(4)医学知识扩散的同时,出现了对"自疗"的负面评价,专业人士仍然得到更多的认可.%There is a wide diffusion of medical knowledge through the medium of medical works. This paper describes the phenomenon of the diffusion of medical knowledge, analyses the social and personal factors which impact diffusion and discusses its limitations. The conclusion is; 1) Themedical works in Song Dynasty paid attention to pragmatism and mainly faced to the general public. 2) The diffusion and the medical works promoted and magnified each other. 3) The social function of medicine and the need of "self-care" had important impact on the diffusion. 4) At the same time of the diffusion, the negative assessment of "self-care" appeared. Those who live their lives on medicine still receive more recognition.

  20. Effect of an Educational Booklet on Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Major Depressive Disorder in Medical Students in Delhi

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    Medha Goyal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression is one of the most common mental disorders affecting people in the world. It is also a growing concern in younger population particularly medical students. There are many pharmaceutical interventions for treatment of depression but there is paucity of data to determine the effect of educational intervention on the knowledge, attitude and help seeking behaviour regarding depression among medical students. Methods: An interventional study was carried out among randomly selected 100 medical students except interns over a period of 6 months from March August 2011 in a medical college in Delhi to assess the effect of educational booklet on knowledge and attitude about depression. Data was collected using pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 16 software. Statistical significance in pre and post intervention proportions was determined using Mc Nemar test (MN and for other proportions Chi-square test. Results: The study shown that only 71% of subjects knew that depression is a disease in pre intervention phase, which rose to 88% in post intervention phase (p=0.01. Knowledge of symptoms and treatment significantly improved such as trouble falling asleep or too much sleep (p=0.03, feeling tired or decreased energy (MN=17.6, p=0.01, feeling bad about self (MN=21.8, p=0.01, speaking slowly other can notice (MN=19.1, p=0.01 and can be treated by improving awareness (MN=8.6, p=0.03, and anti-depressants do not cause much of side effects (MN=17.3, p=0.01. Most common reasons for not seeking help were thinking that there is lack of understanding by other people about the depression (63%, lack of confidentiality (49%, social stigma (30%, fear of rejection (26% and time constraints (6%. Majority of students accepted the booklet for their understanding about depression where 63% considered that it improved their knowledge to great extent. Conclusion:Educational interventional booklet should be promoted at bigger

  1. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices on Energy Drink Consumption and Side Effects in a Cohort of Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casuccio, Alessandra; Bonanno, Valentina; Catalano, Rosanna; Cracchiolo, Manuela; Giugno, Sara; Sciuto, Valentina; Immordino, Palmira

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning energy drink consumption and the prevalence of side effects among medical students. Twenty-two percent of respondents were regular users, particularly men (p students declared side effects after energy drink consumption, such as palpitations (35%), insomnia (21%), and irritability (20%). The study confirms a large use of energy drinks among students and the occurrence of side effects. The use of energy drinks may influence the ingestion of large amounts of alcohol. PMID:26466517

  2. Changing educational needs of psychologists: do we need more medical knowledge, basic science and more psychological science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belar, Cynthia D

    2008-03-01

    Psychologists of the 21st century must be highly skilled and versatile to function effectively in academic health centers (AHCs). Thus, the current paper focuses on the training psychologists receive to prepare them for their diverse roles in AHCs. The paper is framed around the question: Do we need more medical knowledge, basic science and more psychological science? posed to the author by the conference organizers of the 3rd National Association of Psychologists in Academic Health Centers (APAHC) Conference and is based on the perspective of the author.

  3. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  4. Ancient medicine--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Lipozencić, Jasna; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Schachter, Neil; Mucić-Pucić, Branka; Neralić-Meniga, Inja

    2008-01-01

    Different aspects of medicine and/or healing in several societies are presented. In the ancient times as well as today medicine has been closely related to magic, science and religion. Various ancient societies and cultures had developed different views of medicine. It was believed that a human being has two bodies: a visible body that belongs to the earth and an invisible body of heaven. In the earliest prehistoric days, a different kind of medicine was practiced in countries such as Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mesopotamia, India, Tibet, China, and others. In those countries, "medicine people" practiced medicine from the magic to modern physical practices. Medicine was magical and mythological, and diseases were attributed mostly to the supernatural forces. The foundation of modern medicine can be traced back to ancient Greeks. Tibetan culture, for instance, even today, combines spiritual and practical medicine. Chinese medicine developed as a concept of yin and yang, acupuncture and acupressure, and it has even been used in the modern medicine. During medieval Europe, major universities and medical schools were established. In the ancient time, before hospitals had developed, patients were treated mostly in temples. PMID:18812066

  5. COMPARISON OF THE KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES OF ESSENTIAL MEDICINES AMONG MEDICAL PRACTITIONERS OF A MEDICAL COLLEGE VERSUS PRIVATE MEDICAL GENERAL PRACTITIONERS OF AN URBAN PLACE OF SOUTH INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Vidyarthi SurendraK, Nayak RoopaP, Gupta Sandeep K, Dandekar Rahul H

    2015-01-01

    Background: India is the third largest producer and exporter of medicinestomost of the countries. The World Medicine Situation Report 2011 states that 65% persons in India do not have access to essential medicines. While, huge unethical prescribing ofdrugs for monetary gains has been a second major cause of rural indebtedness. Aims and Objectives:The primary objective of the study was to compare the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Essential Medicines among Medical Practitioners of a Medi...

  6. The Lack Of Effective Hand Washing Practice Despite High Level Of Knowledge And Awareness In Medical Students Of Clinical Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sulaiha S A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nosocomial infection is among the leading problem in many major hospitals resulting in soaring cost expenditure in managing its affect.Hand washing practice is a crucial preventive way to contain such mischief but many ignored its importance. This is perhaps due to lack of appropriate role modeling from senior practitioners.Subjects and methods: Our study examined the prevalence of hand washing practice among medical students from year 3 to 5 and compared it to their knowledge and level of awareness on its importance in clinical practice. 142 students were randomly observed during their clinical work in the wards on this practice and questionnaires were later distributed to 268 students from all semesters on their knowledge on the technique and awareness on its importance.Results: Out of 142, almost 80% washed their hands but only 41.6% performed effective hand washing. In contrary, 80 to 90% showed good level of knowledge and awareness as well as perception about its importance in clinical practice.Conclusions: The contradictory findings between the actual practice of hand washing and knowledge as well as awareness suggest that enforcement on the practice is necessary. This requires motivation and cooperation from all health alliances and higher authority in the health system. Remedial measures are much needed in order to contain high.

  7. [Good use and knowledge of paracetamol (acetaminophen) among self-medicated patients: Prospective study in community pharmacies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Anne-Elise; Petitpain, Nadine; Scala-Bertola, Julien; Latarche, Clotilde; Yelehe-Okouma, Melissa; Di Patrizio, Paolo; Gillet, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol), the highest over-the-counter (OTC) selling drug in France, is also the first cause of acute hepatic failure. We aimed to assess the good use and the knowledge of acetaminophen in a setting of urban self-medicated patients. We conducted a prospective observational study in randomly selected community pharmacies of Metz (France) agglomeration. Patients coming to buy OTC acetaminophen for themselves or their family had to answer to an anonymous autoquestionnaire. Responses were individually and concomitantly analyzed through 3 scores: good use, knowledge and overdosage. Twenty-four community pharmacies participated and 302 patients were interviewed by mean of a dedicated questionnaire. Most of patients (84.4%) could be considered as "good users" and independent factors of good use were (i) a good knowledge of acetaminophen (OR=5.3; Pchildren (parentality: OR=0.1; P=0.006). Responses corresponding to involuntary overdosage were mostly due to a too short interval between drug intakes (3hours). Only 30.8% of patients were aware of liver toxicity of acetaminophen and only 40.7% knew the risk of the association with alcohol. Both good use and knowledge were significantly higher in patients looking for information from their pharmacist, physician and package leaflet. Patients should definitely be better informed about acetaminophen to warrant a better safety of its consumption. Pharmacists and physicians have to remind patients the risk factors of unintentional overdose and liver toxicity. Package leaflets have also to be more informative.

  8. Students' knowledge of, and attitudes towards biotechnology revisited, 1995-2014: Changes in agriculture biotechnology but not in medical biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Yen; Chu, Yih-Ru; Lin, Chen-Yung; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2016-09-10

    Modern biotechnology is one of the most important scientific and technological revolutions in the 21st century, with an increasing and measurable impact on society. Development of biotechnology curriculum has become important to high school bioscience classrooms. This study has monitored high school students in Taiwan on their knowledge of and attitudes towards biotechnology for nearly two decades. Not surprisingly, knowledge of biotechnology of current students has increased significantly (p biotechnology. There was a positive correlation between biotechnology knowledge and attitudes toward biotechnology for current students who study Advanced Biology (AB). However, for current students who did not study AB, there was a negative correlation.The attitude results showed that students today expressed less favorable opinions toward agricultural biotechnology (p medical biotechnology. In addition, current students showed a greater concern involving environmental risks than former students. Interestingly, the high school curriculum did affect students' attitudes toward genetically engineered (GE) plants but not GE animals. Our current study also found that the students' attitude towards GE animals was influenced more by their limited knowledge than by their moral belief. On the basis of findings from this study, we suggest that more materials of emerging animal biotechnology should be included in high school curriculum and recommend that high school teachers and university faculty establish a collaborative framework in the near future. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(5):475-491, 2016.

  9. Medical professional perception, attitude, knowledge, and experience about child abuse and neglect in Bagalkot district of north Karnataka: A survey report

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    S V Kirankumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze medical professional, perception, attitude, knowledge, and experience about child abuse and neglect in Bagalkot district, north Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: Two hundred medical professional, working in both public and private sectors in the province were interviewed by a single operator. Descriptive analyses were carried out by using the obtained data. Results: Medical professional′s perception about child abuse and neglect (CAN is low and these professionals have poor attitude and knowledge toward CAN in accordance with the code of conduct and law. The available information and education is also poor. Conclusions: The results obtained from the study showed that there is lack of knowledge and poor attitude and perception about CAN among medical professionals that prevents them from detecting and identifying suspected cases. Continuing medical education is required to enhance the ability of professionals to detect CAN cases.

  10. Nivel de conocimientos sobre emergencias médicas en estudiantes de medicina de universidades peruanas Level of knowledge in medical emergencies among medical students of peruvian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian R. Mejia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar el nivel de conocimientos de los estudiantes de medicina de once universidades peruanas sobre emergencias médicas. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal analítico, multicéntrico desarrollado entre 2007- 2008. Se utilizó un cuestionario de respuesta nominal autoaplicado con preguntas socio-educativas y diez de opción múltiple sobre emergencias médicas. Se obtuvo una muestra no probabilística de los matriculados en universidades participantes. Se obtuvieron el chi-cuadrado, los OR crudos y ajustados, con intervalos de confianza al 95% y análisis multivariado posterior. Resultados. Participaron 2109 estudiantes de medicina, la edad promedio fue 21 años (rango: 15-32, el 51% de género masculino. El 53% habían realizado un curso previo relacionado con emergencias médicas. El 60,4% desaprobó el cuestionario, la nota promedio fue 4,95 sobre 10 puntos posibles y 5,9% obtuvieron de 8-10 puntos. Se encontró una fuerte asociación entre la universidad de procedencia (OR: 0,45, IC95% 0,38-0,54, la etapa académica (OR: 1,55, IC95% 1,28-1,87, cuándo recibieron un curso del tema (OR: 0,62, IC95% 0,50-0,77 y el género (OR: 1,38, IC95% 1,15-1,65. Conclusiones. El nivel de conocimiento sobre emergencias médicas de los estudiantes de las once universidades evaluadas no es bueno, se sugiere evaluar y mejorar la formación práctica que brindan las universidades en temas de manejo de emergencias médicas.Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge about medical emergencies of medical students from eleven Peruvian universities. Materials and methods. Multicenter, cross-sectional study, conducted between 2007- 2008. We used a nominal response, self-administered questionnaire with socio-educational questions and ten multiple choice questions on medical emergencies. We obtained a nonrandom sample of participants enrolled in universities. We obtained the chi2, crude and adjusted ORs with 95% confidence

  11. ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF COMPUTER ASSISTED LEARNING AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravish

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It is going truth globally that the medical course in medical college students are developed via computer mediated learning.1 Utilization of both the range upon online messages options must create study exciting, monetization, and likely as hired. We Hypothesized that survey will facilitate to permit us to be able to blueprint some on this necessary condition among my medical students and also to improve our study facilities a lot of automatically. A set of closed ended problems remained displayed on departmental website, to evaluate their computer skills and talents and their own assessment in computer and internet skills helping in learning. In the beginning months of 1st year MBBS college students 2014-15 batch taken up voluntarily to the study through MCQs questions provided to them in the form of departmental website. A batch of 50 college students surveyed on 3 different days. Although 80% students were confident with the operational skills of the computer, the opinion regarding the usage of computers for web based learning activities was not uniform i.e., 55% of the participants felt uncomfortable with web assisted activity in comparison to paper based activity. However, 49% were of the opinion that paper based activity might become redundant and websites will take over books in the future. Expansion on computer-assisted study requires traditional changes as well as thoughtful strategic planning, resource giving, staff benefits, Edutainment promotion by multidisciplinary working, and efficient quality control.

  12. A Survey of the Knowledge of Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis among the Medical Staff of Intensive Care Units in North China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Tang

    Full Text Available Guideline concordance for venous thromboembolism (VTE prophylaxis in critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICUs varies across different countries.To explore how the medical staff of ICUs in China comprehend and practice VTE prophylaxis.Questionnaires comprising 39 questions and including 4 dimensions of thromboprophylaxis were administered in ICUs in North China.In all, 52 ICUs at 23 tertiary hospitals in 7 Chinese provinces and municipalities were surveyed. A total of 2500 questionnaires were sent, and 1861 were returned, corresponding to a response rate of approximately 74.4%. Of all surveyed medical staff, 36.5% of physicians and 22.2% of nurses were aware of the guidelines in China, and 19.0% of physicians and 9.5% of nurses comprehended the 9th edition of the guidelines of the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP. Additionally, 37.6% of the medical staff chose a prophylaxis method based on the related guidelines, and 10.3% could demonstrate the exact indication for mechanical pattern application. Worries about skin injury, difficulty with removal and discomfort during mechanical thromboprophylaxis were cited by more than 30% of nurses, which was significantly more frequent than for physicians (graduated compression stockings: 54.3% VS 34.1%, 60.7% VS 49%, and 59.4% VS 54%, p = 0.000; intermittent pneumatic compression: 31% VS 22.2%, 19.2% VS 13.9%, and 37.8% VS 27.2%, p = 0.000.The knowledge of VTE prophylaxis among the medical staff of ICUs in North China remains limited, which may lead to a lack of standardization of VTE prophylaxis. Strengthened, standardized training may help medical staff to improve their comprehension of the relevant guidelines and may finally reduce the occurrence of VTE in ICUs and improve the prognosis of critically ill patients with VTE.

  13. Sharing Wisdom(s) to Enrich Knowledge: Working in a Transdisciplinary Research Team in Medical Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carceller-Maicas, Natalia

    2015-06-01

    This paper explains our experience working in a transdisciplinary research team focused on adolescence mental health. It introduces briefly the two key theoretical concepts: participation and transdisciplinarity. In order to be followed with a deep description of the methodology and the creation of the two principal materials resulting from our research: a guide of best practices in adolescent mental health, and a documentary film. Showing in a practical way how the research could be enhanced by the sharing of knowledge.

  14. KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS REGARDING HIV/AIDS AMONG FIRST YEAR MEDICAL UNDERGRADUATES: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

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    Sharma Panchsheel, Khan Mohammad Shibly

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV/AIDS affects the most productive age group, the knowledge of which is clouded with many myths and misconceptions. Objective: To determine the knowledge and awareness about various aspects of HIV/AIDS among the students of MBBS first year. Methodology: The students were asked to fill a pre-designed, structured, semi open ended questionnaire. All efforts were made to ensure the originality of the responses. Statistical Analysis: The data collected so, was analysed, tabulated and presented in the forms of percentages and proportions. Appropriate statistical tests applied, wherever applicable. Results: Among the total of 122 respondents, all of them have heard about HIV/AIDS and that it is caused by a virus. About 43.4% students believed that HIV infection means AIDS. The place where HIV testing is done, was known to about 78%. Knowledge about the routes of spread included; through infected injections (100%, through blood transfusion (98%, Unprotected Sexual contact (97.5%, Infected Mother to child (86%. The respondents were aware that it doesn’t spread through touching/hand shaking (99.2%, sharing food (93.4%, using common cups/glasses (89%, used clothes/towels/soap (88.5%. About 80% responded to have discussed about HIV/AIDS ever with anybody, while about 82% considered safe working with a patient of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion: Most of students were aware about the basic knowledge while they also had a misconception which implies that the students should be equipped more, especially since the beginning of their career.

  15. Knowledge and attitude regarding Ebola virus disease among medical students of Rawalpindi: A preventable threat not yet confronted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisam, Aliya; Rana, Mariam Nadeem; Mahmood-Ur-Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitude regarding Ebola virus disease (EVD) among medical students of Rawalpindi. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in a medical college of Rawalpindi from September 2014-November 2014. About 400 students were inducted with 77% (n=308) response rate. After taking informed verbal consent from students and administration, a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was circulated among students of third, fourth and final year MBBS as well as third and fourth year BDS. The data collected was entered and analyzed using SPSS 20. Results: The response rate was 77% (308/400). About 244 (79.2%) of students had heard about EVD before. One hundred and sixty four (53.2%) of the students correctly identified that no treatment is available for EVD as yet. Also 163 (52.9%) said that no vaccine was available against the virus either. Washing hands every time after touching a patient in clinics/wards was important for 151 (49.0%) while 223 (72.4%) claimed to use proper techniques to dispose off used injections. Conclusion: Students have basic knowledge regarding EVD. However, there is deficient information regarding the diagnosis and precautionary measures required to control it. PMID:27648059

  16. Oral cancer--current knowledge, practices and implications for training among an Irish general medical practitioner cohort.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ni Riordain, Richeal

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated the current knowledge and practices of general medical practitioners (GMPs) in Ireland regarding the examination of the oral cavity and the detection of oral malignancy and the training they had received at both undergraduate and postgraduate level and since commencing in practice. A questionnaire survey of GMPs in Ireland was conducted. One hundred and fifty four (65.3%) of the practitioners reported regularly examining the oral mucosa of their patients. Almost half of these (n=68) further qualified this response by stating that they only examined the oral mucosa if the patient reported pain in this area or if the patient specifically requested an oral examination for some reason. Eighty one (34.3%) practitioners surveyed felt confident in their ability to detect oral malignancies with the remaining two thirds unsure of whether they would be able to detect oral cancer. There was a significant association between the undergraduate and postgraduate teaching on examination of the oral cavity and whether practitioners felt confident in their ability to detect oral cancer [chi(2)(1)=4.811, p<0.05]. A statistically significant association was also found between the undergraduate and postgraduate teaching on the diagnosis of oral malignant disease and whether practitioners felt confident in their ability to detect oral cancer [chi(2)(1)=6.194, p<0.05]. In conclusion the level of knowledge of Irish general medical practitioners needs to be addressed with appropriate initiatives both at undergraduate level and via CME.

  17. Knowledge attitude and practice (kap) of chronic kidneys disease among medical officers of teaching hospitals of lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) about kidney diseases among medical officers working in different hospitals of Lahore.Doctors working on the medical floors of different tertiary care teaching hospitals (Mayo Hospital (MH), Sir Ganga Ram Hospital (SGRH), Service Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Fatima Memoral Hospitals (FMH), Lahore General Hospitals (LGH), Shalamar Hospital (SH), Jinnah hospital (JH)) of Lahore were included in the study. Each doctor was given a questionnaire comprising of 28 questions. Each participant was given 10-15 minutes for completing the questionnaire at the spot. Categorization of doctors according to the KAP score was done as poor (70%).Results: One hundred eighty five doctors participated in the study who fulfilled the criteria. In this study majority 134 (62.6%) of the doctors were not taught about nephrology during their graduation which was statistically significant. Most of the doctors either had some knowledge or didn't know about procedures done in nephrology. Majority of the doctors 208(97.2%) know that nephrology deals with medical diseases of the kidney which was statistically significant. Most of the doctors 138(64.5) feel that nephrology services are insufficient in their hospital. More than 90% doctors want that kidney diseases should be taught during MBBS curriculum and separate nephrology department should be established which was statistically significant. Most of the doctors don't know the management of hyperkalemia very well. About 90% of the doctors know that there are five stages of CKD. Majority of the doctors know that ACE inhibitors are used in hypertension and diabetic nephropathy. They also know that urine complete examination help in early detection of diabetic nephropathy which was statistically significant.Conclusion:Most of the doctors have poor to average knowledge and practice about kidney diseases. Most of the doctors think that nephrology services are

  18. Knowledge, attitude and practice about bio-medical waste management among personnel of a tertiary health care institute in Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    Imaad Mohammed Ismail; Annarao G. Kulkarni; Suchith V. Kamble; Sagar A Borker; Rekha R.; Amruth M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The waste generated during the delivery of health care services carries a high potential of infection and injury than any other type of waste. Previous studies in India show that the awareness and practices on bio-medical waste management among health care personnel was dismal and hence studies are required to know the current status. Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice about bio-medical waste management among health care personnel working in KVG Medical C...

  19. Increase in medical knowledge during the final year of undergraduate medical education in Germany [Wissenszuwachs im Praktischen Jahr des Medizinstudiums in Deutschland

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    Harendza, Sigrid

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] Aims: In Germany, the final year of undergraduate medical education (‘practice year’ consists of three 16-week clinical attachments, two of which are internal medicine and surgery. Students can choose a specific specialty for their third 16-week attachment. Practice year students do not receive specific teaching to prepare them for the National Licensing Examination. It is unknown whether knowledge levels increase during this year. This study aimed at assessing knowledge at the beginning and the end of the final year of medical school. Methods: Three hundred pre-selected United States Medical Licensing Examination type items from ten medical disciplines were reviewed by ten recent medical graduates from the Netherlands and Germany. The resulting test included 150 items and was taken by 77 and 79 final year medical students from Göttingen and Hamburg at the beginning and the end of their practice year, respectively. Results: Cronbach’s α of the pre- and post-test was 0.75 and 0.68, respectively. Mean percent scores in the pre- and post-test were 63.9±6.9 and 69.4±5.7, respectively (p[german] Zielsetzung: In Deutschland besteht das letzte Jahr des Studiums der Humanmedizin ("Praktisches Jahr", PJ aus drei Tertialen von je 16 Wochen, von denen eines in der Inneren Medizin und eines in der Chirurgie abzuleisten ist. Die Fachrichtung des dritten Tertials von 16 Wochen kann von den Studierenden frei gewählt werden. Während des Praktischen Jahres findet keine gezielte Vorbereitung auf den schriftlichen Teil des Staatsexamens statt. Es ist unklar, inwieweit die Studierenden während des Praktischen Jahres auch neue Wissensinhalte erlernen. Ziel dieser Studie war es, zu Beginn und am Ende des Praktischen Jahres Wissensinhalte zu überprüfen. Methodik: Zehn Absolventen des Medizinstudiums in Deutschland und den Niederlanden trafen eine Auswahl aus 300 vorselektierten Fragen der US-amerikanischen Abschlussprüfung (USMLE, die zehn

  20. Cases of Trephination in Ancient Greek Skulls

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    Vasiliki Ζafiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trephination, or trepanning, is considered to be one of the most ancient surgical operations with an especially extensive geographical incidence, both in the New World and in the Old. In Europe, more than 200 finds of trephination have been found, from Scandinavia to the Balkans. The technique of trephination or trepanning covers overall the last 10,000 years and exhibits great versatility and adjustability in the knowledge, technical means, therapeutic needs, prejudices and social standards of each period and of each population group. Hippocrates was the one to classify for the first time the kinds of cranial fractures and define the conditions and circumstances for carrying out a trepanning.Aim: The present research aims to investigate the Greek cranial trephinations on sculls from the collection of the Anthropological Museum of the Medical School of Athens that come from archaeological excavations.Method: Skulls were examined by macroscopic observation with reflective light. Furthermore, radiographic representation of the skulls was used.Results: The anthropological researches and the studies of anthropological skeleton remains that came out during archaeological excavations from different eras and areas have given information about the medical practices in the very important geographic area of Greece and in particular, we referred to cases of Greek trephinations.

  1. Recall of Theoretical Pharmacology Knowledge by 6th Year Medical Students and Interns of Three Medical Schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    A. A. Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to provide some insights into the ability of the sixth year medical students and interns to recall theoretical knowledge of pharmacology. A cross-sectional study was conducted among students who graduated from three different medical schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was distributed to male and female students in 3 different colleges of medicine. The questionnaire included demographic information and ten multiple choice questions (MCQs on basic pharmacology. Out of the 161 students, there were 39 females (24% and 122 males (76%. A total of 36 (22% students studied at a traditional learning school whereas 125 (78% students studied at problem based learning (PBL schools. The students were recruited from three universities: KSU, KSAU-HS, and KFMC-COM. In general, 31 students (19% of the participants scored ≥ 7 out of 10, 77 students (48% of them obtained a correct score of (4–6 out of 10, and 53 students (33% scored less than 4. The study showed no statistically significant difference in recalling pharmacology between traditional school and problem based learning school except for those who prepared for exams. Results suggest that pharmacology is a difficult subject. Reevaluations are needed in the way of teaching pharmacology.

  2. Trichiasis in ancient times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulou, Olympia; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Trompoukis, Constantinos

    2016-01-01

    Trichiasis, recognized since the time of Hippocrates, is a cause of ocular irritation that may result in scarring of the cornea and threaten sight. We have reviewed the original Greek medical texts made from the 1st to the 7th century ce and present the existing medical knowledge relating to trichiasis, including its clinical picture, cause, diagnosis, and treatment. Recognition of trichiasis as a stage of trachoma and its distinction from pseudotrichiasis gave the impetus for physicians of the era to use a significant number of pharmaceutical and surgical treatments. PMID:27343968

  3. Assessing the Impact of HL7/FDA Structured Product Label (SPL) Content for Medication Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadow, Gunther

    2007-01-01

    The amount and quality of the SPL drug knowledge which has been released so far is assessed. All published labels were loaded into a relational database and classified to create vendor-independent descriptions. While SPL labels cover only 23% of RxNorm clinical drugs, they still describe 78% of actual community pharmacy dispenses records. SPL descriptions agree well with RxNorm. SPL can be used as the primary source of drug information for e-prescribing systems once the upcoming FDA listing rule takes effect. In the interim, existing gaps can be temporarily closed with RxNorm or other sources. PMID:18693916

  4. Factors influencing knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate Medical, Nursing and Psychology students of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Igwe Monday N; Bakare Muideen O; Agomoh Ahamefule O; Onyeama Gabriel M; Okonkwo Kevin O

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Knowledge and awareness about childhood autism is low among health care workers and the general populace in Nigeria. Poor knowledge about childhood autism among final year medical, nursing and psychology students who would form tomorrow's child health care professionals can compromise early recognition and interventions that are known to improve prognosis in childhood autism. Educational factors that could be influencing knowledge about childhood autism among these future ...

  5. Factors influencing knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate Medical, Nursing and Psychology students of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Igwe, Monday N; Bakare, Muideen O.; Agomoh, Ahamefule O; Onyeama, Gabriel M; Okonkwo, Kevin O

    2010-01-01

    Background Knowledge and awareness about childhood autism is low among health care workers and the general populace in Nigeria. Poor knowledge about childhood autism among final year medical, nursing and psychology students who would form tomorrow's child health care professionals can compromise early recognition and interventions that are known to improve prognosis in childhood autism. Educational factors that could be influencing knowledge about childhood autism among these future health ca...

  6. 'Reversing' the Flow of the Ancient Chinese Calendrical Subseasonal Phases Jie Qi in Australia: The Construction of a Chinese Medical & Agricultural Lunisolar Calendar (Northern and Southern Hemispheres )( Continued )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rey Tiquia

    2008-01-01

    Jie qi(subseasonal phases or solar qi)eonstitutes the solar component of the ancient Chinese lunisolar calendar.It divides the year into twenty-four suhseasonal phases i.e. li chun (beginning of spring) ,chun fen (spring equinox),etc.From the premodern perspective of Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM ),normal climate change(q/hou b/an q/an)moves inharmony with the temporal flow of the qi(qi yun)and is thus beneficial to human health.However,abnonnal,abrupt weatheror climatic changes like those weather features of being too cold or too hot,too windy,too humid,too dry or a combination oftwo or more of these weather/climatic features which occur out of season can lead to 'seasonal diseases' (shi bing)or'diseases brought about by external influences' (wai gan zhi bing)or by the'six excessive climatic qi etiological factors' (liuBut the temporal flow of the subseasonal qi (qi yun) in Australia is the reverse of that of the northern hemisphericalregions of China,United States and Europe.This situation thus leads to a temporal desynchronisation of TCM practice andsouthern hemisphere.Having this calendrical tool, Chinese medicine practitioners in Australia can 'reverse'their clinical ac-tivities in accordance with the natural rhythm of the seasons here.

  7. Knowledge, Attitude and Health Seeking Behavior of Health Care Professionals regarding Breast and Cervical Cancer at Indian Medical College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajal Thaker*

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research article Knowledge, Attitude and Health Seeking Behavior of Health Care Professionals regarding Breast and Cervical Cancer at Indian Medical College Rajal Thaker*,Kay Perrin**, Ellen Daley *** ,Cheryl Vamos ****,Pankaj Patel ***** * Associate Professor Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ***** Dean; Smt N H L Municipal Medical College, Ahmedabad 380 006, India. ** Associate Professor, *** Associate Professor, Co-Director, Center for Transdisciplinary Research in Women’s Health (CTR-WH, **** Research Assistant Professor, Associate Director; Center for Transdisciplinary Research in Women’s Health (CTR-WH; University of South Florida College of Public Health, USA Abstract Background: Women’s preventative health is a major public health issue across the globe. From prenatal care to post-menopausal screenings, women’s preventative care covers a wide spectrum of issues and topics. There is limited data on knowledge and practices of screening methods of breast and cervical cancers among female health care professionals in India. This study examines health care professionals’ knowledge and practices regarding breast and cervical cancer screenings in India. Material and Methods After clearance from Institutional Review Board (IRB of University of South Florida (USF and permission from Smt N H L Municipal Medical College (NHLMMC, a cross- sectional interview based survey was conducted amongst female teaching faculty and female consultants of NHLMMC, two affiliated teaching hospitals (Sheth V S General Hospital and Smt S C L General Hospital, and SBB college of Physiotherapy during the year 2010-2011. Conclusion Findings highlight the critical need for education and practice with regards to women’s preventive health care. Practice of Breast Self Examination (BSE and Pap test amongst the health care professionals was quite low; however, those who were 40 year or older were more conscious about their health. Findings also highlight the need for

  8. [Good use and knowledge of paracetamol (acetaminophen) among self-medicated patients: Prospective study in community pharmacies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Anne-Elise; Petitpain, Nadine; Scala-Bertola, Julien; Latarche, Clotilde; Yelehe-Okouma, Melissa; Di Patrizio, Paolo; Gillet, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol), the highest over-the-counter (OTC) selling drug in France, is also the first cause of acute hepatic failure. We aimed to assess the good use and the knowledge of acetaminophen in a setting of urban self-medicated patients. We conducted a prospective observational study in randomly selected community pharmacies of Metz (France) agglomeration. Patients coming to buy OTC acetaminophen for themselves or their family had to answer to an anonymous autoquestionnaire. Responses were individually and concomitantly analyzed through 3 scores: good use, knowledge and overdosage. Twenty-four community pharmacies participated and 302 patients were interviewed by mean of a dedicated questionnaire. Most of patients (84.4%) could be considered as "good users" and independent factors of good use were (i) a good knowledge of acetaminophen (OR=5.3; P<0.0001) and more surprisingly; (ii) the fact of having no children (parentality: OR=0.1; P=0.006). Responses corresponding to involuntary overdosage were mostly due to a too short interval between drug intakes (3hours). Only 30.8% of patients were aware of liver toxicity of acetaminophen and only 40.7% knew the risk of the association with alcohol. Both good use and knowledge were significantly higher in patients looking for information from their pharmacist, physician and package leaflet. Patients should definitely be better informed about acetaminophen to warrant a better safety of its consumption. Pharmacists and physicians have to remind patients the risk factors of unintentional overdose and liver toxicity. Package leaflets have also to be more informative. PMID:27235652

  9. Getting it right: the impact of a continuing medical education program on hepatitis B knowledge of Australian primary care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robotin MC

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Monica Robotin,1,2 Yumi Patton,3 Jacob George1,4 1School of Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 2Cancer Council New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; 3Faculty of Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; 4Storr Liver Unit, Westmead Millennium Institute, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, Australia Introduction: In Australia, chronic hepatitis B (CHB disproportionately affects migrants born in hepatitis B endemic countries, but its detection and management in high risk populations remains suboptimal. We piloted a primary care based program for CHB detection and management in an area of high disease prevalence in Sydney, Australia. Prior to its launch, all local general practitioners were invited to take part in a continuing medical education (CME program on hepatitis B diagnosis and management. Material and methods: Preceding each CME activity, participants completed an anonymous survey recording demographic data and hepatitis B knowledge, confidence in CHB management, and preferred CME modalities. We compared knowledge scores of first-time and repeat attendees. Results: Most participants (75% were males, spoke more than one language with their patients (91%, self-identified as Asian-Australians (91%, and had graduated over 20 years previously (69%. The majority (97% knew what patient groups require CHB and hepatocellular cancer screening, but fewer (42%–75% answered hepatitis B management and vaccination questions correctly. Knowledge scores were not significantly improved by seminar attendance and the provision of hepatitis B resources. At baseline, participants were fairly confident about their ability to screen for CHB, provide vaccinations, and manage CHB. This did not change with repeat attendances, and did not correlate with survey outcomes. Large group CMEs were the preferred learning modality. Discussion: Knowledge gaps in hepatitis B diagnosis and management translate into missed opportunities to screen for

  10. Application of knowledge management and the intelligence continuum for medical emergencies and disaster scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Nilmini; Bali, Rajeev K; Naguib, Raouf N G

    2006-01-01

    The world has recently witnessed several large scale natural disasters. These include the Asian tsunami which devastated many of the countries around the rim of the Indian Ocean in December 2004, extensive flooding in many parts of Europe in August 2005, hurricane katrina (September 2005), the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in many regions of Asia and Canada in 2003 and the Pakistan earthquake (towards the end of 2005). Such emergency and disaster situations (E&DS) serve to underscore the utter chaos that ensues in the aftermath of such events, the many casualties and lives lost not to mention the devastation and destruction that is left behind. One recurring theme that is apparent in all these situations is that, irrespective of the warnings of imminent threats, countries have not been prepared and ready to exhibit effective and efficient crisis management. This paper examines the application of the tools, techniques and processes of the knowledge economy to develop a prescriptive model that will support superior decision making in E&DS, thereby enabling effective and efficient crisis management.

  11. Nurturing 21st century physician knowledge, skills and attitudes with medical home innovations: the Wright Center for Graduate Medical Education teaching health center curriculum experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Thomas-Hemak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The effect of patient centered medical home (PCMH curriculum interventions on residents’ self-reported and demonstrated knowledge, skills and attitudes in PCMH competency arenas (KSA is lacking in the literature. This study aimed to assess the impact of PCMH curricular innovations on the KSA of Internal Medicine residents. Methods. Twenty four (24 Internal Medicine residents—12 Traditional (TR track residents and 12 Teaching Health Center (THC track residents—began training in Academic Year (AY 2011 at the Wright Center for Graduate Medical Education (WCGME. They were followed through AY2013, covering three years of training. PCMH curricular innovations were focally applied July 2011 until May 2012 to THC residents. These curricular innovations were spread program-wide in May 2012. Semi-annual, validated PCMH Clinician Assessments assessing KSA were started in AY2011 and were completed by all residents. Results. Mean KSA scores of TR residents were similar to those of THC residents at baseline for all PCMH competencies. In May 2012, mean scores of THC residents were significantly higher than TR residents for most KSA. After program-wide implementation of PCMH innovations, mean scores of TR residents for all KSA improved and most became equalized to those of THC residents. Globally improved KSA scores of THC and TR residents were maintained through May 2014, with the majority of improvements above baseline and reaching statistical significance. Conclusions. PCMH curricular innovations inspired by Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA’s Teaching Health Center funded residency program expansion quickly and consistently improved the KSA of Internal Medicine residents.

  12. Traditional-medical knowledge and perception of pangolins (manis sps among the awori people, Southwestern Nigeria

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    Adekanola Temilolu A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animals have been used as medicinal resources throughout human history. Majority of wildlife used in traditional medicines is taken from the wild; hence demand by traditional medicine is a cause of over-exploitation of wild animals. Indiscriminate use of endangered species portends grievous implications for biodiversity conservation. This study investigated the dynamics of the use of pangolin in trado-medicinal preparations amongst the Awori people. Methods Forty traditional Yorubic-medical practitioners (tymps selected through stratified random-sampling technique were interviewed using open-ended questionnaires. Various aspects of the utilisation of pangolin in traditional medicinal practices were investigated. Data collected were analysed using simple frequencies and percentages. Results An average of 1.6 pangolins were utilised per tymp per month. About 43% of respondents contracted hunters for deliberate searches for the animals. More than 92% believed that pangolins' abundance is steadily decreasing. Above 97% reported a continuous decline in the size of pangolin. Pangolin was used in treating 47 conditions. Situations accommodated included those that can be treated by orthodox medicine like rheumatism and venereal diseases as well as some that are out of range for orthodox medicine including kleptomania and good luck charms. Some substitute animals like gorilla are under a greater conservation threat than pangolin. Conclusions Utilisation of pangolin in traditional medicine has no consideration for sustainability. Awareness should be created on people as regards the implications of unsustainable depletion of medicinal resources. Efforts should be intensified on ex-situ breeding of pangolin while subjecting the scales and other parts to laboratory studies to determine the bioactive constituents.

  13. 中国古代医药文献对外传播及其影响%International Communication and Influence of Chinese Medical Literature in Ancient Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔卓瑶; 张宗明

    2015-01-01

    文献是人类文明的基本载体。在中医药对外交流的历程中,医药文献传播的重要意义自不待言。医药文献不仅是中医药文化历时传承的重要途径,也是中医药文化共时交流的重要方式。鉴古启今,梳理中医药跨文化传播史,发现凭借着丰富的中医药典籍、先进的造纸术和印刷术、开放的对外政策、发达的海陆交通,通过官方和民间两种途径,中国古代医药文献大量地输出,远播亚洲、欧洲,对汉方医学、韩医学等输入国的传统医学产生了深远的影响。%Literature is the basic carrier of human civilization . In the multi‐cultural exchanges of T raditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) ,there is no need to underscore the fact that the spread of medical literature is significant .Medical literature is not only the key channel to the inheritance of TCM culture ,but also an important way for the communication of TCM culture .It is enlightening to systematically review the intercultural communication history of TCM .The study found that a great deal of Chinese medical classics ,the invention of papermaking and printing ,the open policy and the developed transportation ,plenty Chinese medical classics spread abroad to Asia and Europe by the folk and governmental ways .It exerted profound influence on the traditional medicine of importing countries ,such as Kampo Medicine and Korean M edicine .

  14. The 'dark side' and 'bright side' of personality: when too much conscientiousness and too little anxiety are detrimental with respect to the acquisition of medical knowledge and skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Eamonn; Semper, Heather; Yates, Janet; Fitzgerald, J Edward; Skatova, Anya; James, David

    2014-01-01

    Theory suggests that personality traits evolved to have costs and benefits, with the effectiveness of a trait dependent on how these costs and benefits relate to the present circumstances. This suggests that traits that are generally viewed as positive can have a 'dark side' and those generally viewed as negative can have a 'bright side' depending on changes in context. We test this in a sample of 220 UK medical students with respect to associations between the Big 5 personality traits and learning outcomes across the 5 years of a medical degree. The medical degree offers a changing learning context from pre-clinical years (where a more methodical approach to learning is needed) to the clinical years (where more flexible learning is needed, in a more stressful context). We argue that while trait conscientiousness should enhance pre-clinical learning, it has a 'dark side' reducing the acquisition of knowledge in the clinical years. We also suggest that anxiety has a 'bright side' enhancing the acquisition of skills in the clinical years. We also explore if intelligence enhances learning across the medical degree. Using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling we show that medical skills and knowledge assessed in the pre-clinical and clinical years are psychometrically distinguishable, forming a learning 'backbone', whereby subsequent learning outcomes are predicted by previous ones. Consistent with our predictions conscientiousness enhanced preclinical knowledge acquisition but reduced the acquisition of clinical knowledge and anxiety enhanced the acquisition of clinical skills. We also identified a curvilinear U shaped association between Surgency (extraversion) and pre-clinical knowledge acquisition. Intelligence predicted initial clinical knowledge, and had a positive total indirect effect on clinical knowledge and clinical skill acquisition. For medical selection, this suggests that selecting students high on conscientiousness may be

  15. Physician-assisted suicide, euthanasia and palliative sedation: attitudes and knowledge of medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneser, Johanna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In November 2015, the German Federal Parliament voted on a new legal regulation regarding assisted suicide. It was decided to amend the German Criminal Code so that any “regular, repetitive offer” (even on a non-profit basis of assistance in suicide would now be considered a punishable offense. On July 2, 2015, a date which happened to be accompanied by great media interest in that it was the day that the first draft of said law was presented to Parliament, we surveyed 4th year medical students at the Technical University Munich on “physician-assisted suicide,” “euthanasia” and “palliative sedation,” based on a fictitious case vignette study. Method: The vignette study described two versions of a case in which a patient suffered from a nasopharyngeal carcinoma (physical suffering subjectively perceived as being unbearable vs. emotional suffering. The students were asked about the current legal norms for each respective course of action as well as their attitudes towards the ethical acceptability of these measures.Results: Out of 301 students in total, 241 (80% participated in the survey; 109 answered the version 1 questionnaire (physical suffering and 132 answered the version 2 questionnaire (emotional suffering. The majority of students were able to assess the currently prevailing legal norms on palliative sedation (legal and euthanasia (illegal correctly (81.2% and 93.7%, respectively, while only a few students knew that physician-assisted suicide, at that point in time, did not constitute a criminal offense. In the case study that was presented, 83.3% of the participants considered palliative sedation and the simultaneous withholding of artificial nutrition and hydration as ethically acceptable, 51.2% considered physician-assisted suicide ethically legitimate, and 19.2% considered euthanasia ethically permissible. When comparing the results of versions 1 and 2, a significant difference could only be seen in the

  16. Studying Ancient History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Robin

    1982-01-01

    Defends the value and relevance of the study of ancient history and classics in history curricula. The unique homogeneity of the classical period contributes to its instructional manageability. A year-long, secondary-level course on fifth-century Greece and Rome is described to illustrate effective approaches to teaching ancient history. (AM)

  17. 缄默知识与医学生的职业能力培养%Tacit knowledge and the cultivation of medical students' vocational ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭立; 殷晓丽; 门寒隽; 王通

    2008-01-01

    本文分析了缄默知识的含义及其对医学生职业能力培养的影响,指出缄默知识是医学生职业能力的重要组成部分,应当通过向医学生讲授缄默知识的含义及意义,帮助医学生外显化有关的缄默知识并使其学习和丰富自身的缄默知识,从而促进医学生职业能力的提高.%In this paper tacit knowledge and its affection to medical students' vocational ability cultivation were analvzed.Tacit knowledge was the important component of medical students' vocational ability.Medical educators should try to help medical students to understand the meanings and importance of tacit knowledge,expose relevant tacit knowledge, learn and enrich their own tacit knowledge so as to improve students' vocational ability.

  18. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James; McLay, Emma;

    2010-01-01

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful...

  19. Knowledge, Attitude, and Performance of Radiographers about the Principles of Radiation Protection and Following Protective Standards in Medical Imaging Centers of Hospitals in Fasa in 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Alipoor; Ghazal Mousavian; Ali Abbasnezhad; Seyede Farnaz Mousavi; Gholamhasan Haddadi

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Although ionizing radiation is effective in the diagnosis of illnesses, it is dangerous from the perspective of protection for patients and radiographers working in radiology sections. Therefore, knowledge, understanding, and application of radiation protection can play an important role. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of the radiation protection principles in radiation workers in medical imaging centers and hospitals in Fasa,...

  20. A study on knowledge, attitude and practice on blood donation among medical students in a tertiary care teaching hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    Jeya S. Ponmari; Malar Sivaraman; Aruna Balasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Role of youngsters in voluntary blood donation is crucial to meet the demand of safe blood. Therefore understanding the various factors contributing to knowledge, attitude and practice of voluntary blood donation (VBD) among youngsters is important. The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice regarding blood donation among the health care medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 students in second MBB...

  1. Lucky Guess or Knowledge: A Cross-Sectional Study Using the Bland and Altman Analysis to Compare Confidence-Based Testing of Pharmacological Knowledge in 3rd and 5th Year Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmeyer, Daniela; Matthes, Jan; Herzig, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-choice-questions are common in medical examinations, but guessing biases assessment results. Confidence-based-testing (CBT) integrates indicated confidence levels. It has been suggested that correctness of and confidence in an answer together indicate knowledge levels thus determining the quality of a resulting decision. We used a CBT…

  2. 医学生医疗电离辐射知识认知调查∗%A Study on Medical College Students′Knowledge about Medical Ionizing Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游岚岚; 唐曦; 沙莎

    2016-01-01

    目的:调查医学院校学生对医疗电离辐射相关知识的认知状况,为加强医学生电离辐射知识宣教活动提供参考。方法随机抽取某医学院医学生880名,自制问卷对其电离辐射知识的知晓度、获取途径以及从业意愿等进行调查和分析。结果收回的824份有效问卷中,电离辐射知识平均得分为(6.206±2.359)分,不同性别、年级和专业的医学生对电离辐射的认知比较,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05);医学生获取电离辐射知识的主要途径为媒体;35.1%(289/824)的医学生不愿意从事医疗放射相关工作。结论医学生对医疗电离辐射知识认知水平偏低,需加强医学生“医学辐射安全文化”教育,建立对待医疗电离辐射的正确态度。%Objective To investigate the knowledge of medical college students about medical ionizing radiation so as to provide significant references for the publicity and education of the knowledge about medical ionizing radiation among medical college students. Methods A survey of a self-designed questionnaire was conducted among 880 medical students randomly selected in a medical college to investigate and analyze their knowledge about medical ionizing radiation such as knowledge ranges,acquisition accesses,and willingness to practice.Results 824 valid questionnaires were retrieved and the means in the knowledge about medical ionizing radiation were 6.206 ± 2.359.There were significant differences among medical students of different genders, grades and majors (P <0.05).Their major acquisition access was the public media,and 35.1% of medical college students were unwilling to accept the jobs related to medical ionizing radiation.Conclusion The medical college students have limited knowledge about medical ionizing radiation, so the medical college should enhance the education of the knowledge about the safety of medical ironizing radiation and help students develop a positive attitude

  3. Antibiotic prescribing and resistance: knowledge level of medical students of clinical years of University Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haque M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mainul Haque, Nor Iza A Rahman, Zainal Zulkifli, Salwani Ismail Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia Abstract: The innovation of penicillin by Dr Alexander Fleming in 1928 and its use in clinical practice saved many lives, especially during the Second World War. Tuberculosis still carries a significant public health threat and has re-emerged over the past two decades, even in modern countries where tuberculosis was thought to be eliminated. The World Health Organization defines antimicrobial resistance as the resistance of a microorganism to an antimicrobial drug that was initially effective for treatment of infections caused by the microbe. Therefore, the findings of the current study will provide data to enable the design of a new educational program to better equip our students in confronting antimicrobial resistance. This study was a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey, which was undertaken in the Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. The study participants were students of the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery program (MBBS of Year III, IV, and V. A total of 142 out of 164 (86% medical students returned the questionnaire. Specifically, the year-wise breakdown of responses was 29% (41, 39% (55, and 32% (45 for Year III, IV, and V, respectively. Among the study respondents, 28% (40 were male, and the remaining 72% (102 were female. In all, 67% of the participants felt more confident in “making an accurate diagnosis of infection/sepsis.” The majority (88% of the study participants stated that they would like more training on antibiotic selection. This research has found that there is a gap between theoretical input and clinical practice; the students are demanding more educational intervention to face the threat of antimicrobial resistance. Keywords: antibiotic, prescribing, resistance, medical students, knowledge

  4. A cross-sectional study of the knowledge and attitude of medical laboratory personnel regarding continuing professional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekwempu Adaobi Ifeoma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Continuing professional development (CPD in Medical Laboratory Scientists (MLS is aimed at equipping laboratory professionals with the necessary skills to enhance practice. The laboratory scientists are usually the first contact between the patient and health care system in aspects of diagnosis and monitory of diseases. As such, it becomes imperative to assess the knowledge of laboratory personnel regarding CPD. Materials and Methods: Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 200 laboratory personnel's attending the maiden CPD workshop organized by the Association of MLS in Jos the Plateau state capital. Results: One hundred and thirty-five (82 males and 53 females of the 200 administered questionnaires were returned. Only 32 of them (23.7% attended CPD program in the last 1 year with 10 (7.5% engaging in online CPD. Five (3.7% of the respondents had the privilege to attend an international CPD. Majority (95.2% of the respondents identified CPD as an essential component of professional career development. Lack of sponsorship was identified as a major setback in CPD efficiency by 93.8% of respondents. About 58 (46.4% noted that poor attendance in CPD workshops was due to unavailability of policy guideline for CPD. One hundred and twenty (95.2% of respondents had an aim of improving their skills after attending CPD workshops. Conclusion: The overall attitude of Nigerian MLS toward attending CPD workshop is poor; however, the knowledge regarding the importance of CPD is adequate. There exists a gap between sponsorship for CPD by various institutions and MLS.

  5. [Ancient history of Indian pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Jun; Natsume, Yohko

    2010-01-01

    The study of the ancient history of Indian medicine has recently been revived due to the publication of polyglot translations. However, little is known of ancient Indian pharmacy. Archaeological evidence suggests the Indus people lived a settled life approximately in 2500 B.C. Their cities were enjoying the cleanest and most hygienic daily life with elaborate civic sanitation systems. The whole conception shows a remarkable concern for health. Then, the early Aryans invaded India about 1500 B.C. and the Vedic age started. The Rgveda texts contain the hymns for Soma and those for herbs. The term Ayurveda (i.e., science of life) is found in some old versions of both Ramāyana and Mahābhārata and in the Atharvaveda. Suśruta had the credit of making a breakthrough in the field of surgery. The Ayurveda, a work on internal medicine, gives the following transmission of sages: Brahmā-->Daksa-->Prajāpati-->Aśivinau-->Indra-->Caraka. On the other hand, the Suśruta-samhitā, which deals mainly with surgical medicine, explains it as follows; Indra-->Dhanvantari-->Suśruta Both Caraka and Suśruta were medical doctors as well as pharmacists, so they studied more than 1000 herbs thoroughly. The Ayurveda had been used by his devotees for medical purposes. It eventually spread over Asia with the advanced evolution of Buddhism.

  6. [Ancient history of Indian pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Jun; Natsume, Yohko

    2010-01-01

    The study of the ancient history of Indian medicine has recently been revived due to the publication of polyglot translations. However, little is known of ancient Indian pharmacy. Archaeological evidence suggests the Indus people lived a settled life approximately in 2500 B.C. Their cities were enjoying the cleanest and most hygienic daily life with elaborate civic sanitation systems. The whole conception shows a remarkable concern for health. Then, the early Aryans invaded India about 1500 B.C. and the Vedic age started. The Rgveda texts contain the hymns for Soma and those for herbs. The term Ayurveda (i.e., science of life) is found in some old versions of both Ramāyana and Mahābhārata and in the Atharvaveda. Suśruta had the credit of making a breakthrough in the field of surgery. The Ayurveda, a work on internal medicine, gives the following transmission of sages: Brahmā-->Daksa-->Prajāpati-->Aśivinau-->Indra-->Caraka. On the other hand, the Suśruta-samhitā, which deals mainly with surgical medicine, explains it as follows; Indra-->Dhanvantari-->Suśruta Both Caraka and Suśruta were medical doctors as well as pharmacists, so they studied more than 1000 herbs thoroughly. The Ayurveda had been used by his devotees for medical purposes. It eventually spread over Asia with the advanced evolution of Buddhism. PMID:21032887

  7. Mining the Medication Law of Ancient Analgesic Formulas Based on Complex Network%基于复杂网络挖掘古代止痛方剂用药规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡红; 李明; 李敬华; 牛亚华

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过复杂网络挖掘技术,总结古代止痛方剂的核心药物、配伍规律及用药特点,以期为疼痛的临床治疗及新药开发提供参考.方法 筛选汉代到金元时期的代表性方书著作14部,收集止痛方剂2 746首,建立中药止痛方剂数据库并进行术语规范;利用复方药物配伍的无尺度网络规律,构建止痛方剂复杂网络,分析止痛方剂的核心药物及配伍规律.结果 按疼痛部位分类,挖掘出腹痛、胸心痛、头痛、肢节痛、腰痛、胁痛、眼目痛、咽痛、全身痛、齿痛在汉唐、金宋元时期排名前10位的高频单味药和药对.结论 运用复杂网络挖掘技术,得到了汉唐、宋金元时期治疗各类痛证的核心药物、配伍药对以及用药特点,为今后进一步深入挖掘历代止痛方剂的用药配伍规律起到了示范作用.%Objective To summarize the core medicinal, composition law and medication characteristics of the ancient analgesic formulas through data mining in complex network and provide a reference for treating pain and new drug development. Methods Totally 2 746 formulas were selected from 14 typical formulary books during the Han to Jin-Yuan Dynasties. The analgesic formula database was established and the terms were standardized. The complex network of analgesic formulas was built according to the scale-free networks law of formula composition and the core medicinal and composition law was analyzed. Results The top 10 frequent single herbs and couplet medicines during the Han, Tang, Song, Jin and Yuan Dynasties were found according to the pain location such as abdominal pain, chest pain, heartache, headache, limb pain, lower back pain, hypochondriac pain, eyes pain, sore throat, body aches and tooth pain. Conclusion The core medicinal, composition law and medication characteristics of analgesic formulas during the Han, Tang, Song, Jin and Yuan Dynasties are found through data mining in complex network. This

  8. The history of bronchial asthma from the ancient times till the Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cserháti, E

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to give an overview of the knowledge on asthma through the history of mankind. The text begins with ancient China and it is finished with the medicine of Middle Age. During this time, a lot of theories came and this appeared about the etiology and therapy of the disease. The paper is giving a short description of the changing medical views during this very long period including China, Egypt Greco-roman period, Mesopotamia, the Hebrews, the physicians of India, the pre-Columbian medicine in the America and the Arabic world, and partly the European medicine of the Middle Ages. PMID:16438118

  9. The effect of implementing undergraduate competency-based medical education on students' knowledge acquisition, clinical performance and perceived preparedness for practice : a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerdijk, Wouter; Snoek, Jos W.; van Hell, Elisabeth A.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the gains and losses associated with the implementation of undergraduate competency-based medical education. Therefore, we compared knowledge acquisition, clinical performance and perceived preparedness for practice of students from a competency-based active learnin

  10. Study and analysis on the demand degree of different medical staff for the application knowledge of medical equipment%不同医务人员对医疗设备应用知识需求程度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴伟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze and study the demand degree of different medical staff for the application knowledge of medical equipment. Methods 75 medical staff in our hospital from October 2011 to May 2013 were selected as research object,and of application knowledge of medical equipment demand degree of all the medical staff were alll evaluated by questionnaire,then the evaluation results of all the medical staff with different operating post,positional title,work seniority and educational attainments were compared. Results The demand degree of nurses,staff with lower positional title,shorter work seniority and lower educational attainments for the application knowledge of medical equipment were all obviously higher than those of other medical staff,all P<0.05,there were all significant differences. Conclusion The demand degree of different medical staff for the application knowledge of medical equipment have obvious differences,so the demand of medical staff with different operating post,positional title,work seniority and educational attainments should be paid to targeted intervention.%目的:分析不同医务人员对医疗设备应用知识需求程度。方法选取2011年10月~2013年5月本院的75名医务人员为研究对象,采用问卷调查对所有医务人员进行医疗设备应用知识需求程度评估,然后将其中不同岗位、职称、工作年限及文化程度者的评估结果进行比较。结果护理人员、职称较低、工作年限较短及文化程度较低的医务人员对于医疗设备应用知识需求程度明显高于其他医务人员,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论不同医务人员对医疗设备应用知识需求程度存在明显的差异,故在干预的过程中应注意对不同岗位、职称、工作年限及文化程度者的需求进行针对性干预。

  11. IMPACT OF EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTION ON KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF PHARMACOVIGILANCE AMONG MEDICAL GRADUATES OF RURAL TERTIARY CARE, TEACHING HOSPITAL OF CENTRAL INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VARMA SUSHIL KUMAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the awareness of Pharmacovigilance among the medical graduates and to evaluate the need of inclusion of KAP (Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Pharmacovigilance in Internship Training Programme as an educational intervention.Material and Methods: The present study was conducted in the Internship orientation program in a rural hospital of central India. It was a Hospital Based Cross Sectional Study in which 65 Interns (medical graduates were participated. Semi-structured, Pre-Designed, Pre-tested Questionnaire was used for data collection. Data was entered and analyzed using statistical software ‘EPI INFO 3.5.3’.Results: In our study a total of 65 medical graduates were responded and involved in the pre KAP and post KAP survey questionnaires. The overall response rate between pre intervention and post intervention was statistically significant and that shows effectiveness of educational intervention for improving awareness of Pharmacovigilance among medical graduates.Conclusion: Imparting the knowledge and awareness of Pharmacovigilance among the medical graduates by mean of continuous educational intervention would bring update of knowledge for drug safety into their everyday clinical practice and also bring the adverse drug reactions(ADRs reporting culture among them.

  12. Esotericism Ancient and Modern

    OpenAIRE

    Frazer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Leo Strauss presents at least two distinct accounts of the idea that the authors in the political-philosophical canon have often masked their true teachings. A weaker account of esotericism, dependent on the contingent fact of persecution, is attributed to the moderns, while a stronger account, stemming from a necessary conflict between philosophy and society, is attributed to the ancients. Although most interpreters agree that Strauss here sides with the ancients, this view fails to consider...

  13. Palaeoparasitology - Human Parasites in Ancient Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Adauto; Reinhard, Karl; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Parasite finds in ancient material launched a new field of science: palaeoparasitology. Ever since the pioneering studies, parasites were identified in archaeological and palaeontological remains, some preserved for millions of years by fossilization. However, the palaeoparasitological record consists mainly of parasites found specifically in human archaeological material, preserved in ancient occupation sites, from prehistory until closer to 2015. The results include some helminth intestinal parasites still commonly found in 2015, such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms, besides others such as Amoebidae and Giardia intestinalis, as well as viruses, bacteria, fungi and arthropods. These parasites as a whole provide important data on health, diet, climate and living conditions among ancient populations. This chapter describes the principal findings and their importance for knowledge on the origin and dispersal of infectious diseases.

  14. Collation methods of ancient books by the Office of Revising Medical Books in the Northern Song Dynasty%北宋校正医书局整理中医古籍方法考证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉媛; 曾凤

    2015-01-01

    By analyzing the differences between the two editions of Important Formulas Worth a Thousand Gold Pieces ( Qian Jin Yao Fang) as well as other medical literature edited by Song scholars, this thesis has summed up most of the collation methods used by Song scholars to edit Traditional Chinese Medicine ( TCM) ancient literature.Those methods include:rectification, addition of missed content, deletion of repeated content and the rearrangement as well as the reordering of content.It can be said that Song scholars outpaced the methods used by Han and Tang scholar and they put more emphasis on the accuracy and intactness of the content as well as the consistency of the form.The efforts of Song scholars have pro-moted the enrichment of Chinese medicine theories and accuracy of the Chinese medicine academic framework.Their work has a profound and extensive influence on the development of Chinese medicine theories.%以《千金要方》两版本的诸多差异为例,结合其他宋校医书相关文献,较为全面地考察北宋校正医书局整理中医古籍的方法,主要包括:纠正讹误、填补遗佚、删削重复、重辑事类、重新编次等。宋臣极大突破了讲求文字训诂的汉唐传统,更为重视内容上的准确与完整、形式上的统一与规范,并由此促进了医学理论内涵的丰富,增强了中医学术框架的严谨性,对后世中医学的发展影响广泛而深远。

  15. Forming, transfer and globalization of medical-pharmaceutical knowledge in South East Asian missions (17th to 18th c.) - historical dimensions and modern perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    From the 17th to the 18th centuries, missionaries in Southeast Asia dedicated themselves to providing and establishing a professional medical-pharmaceutical supply for the local population and therefore explored the genuine Materia medica for easily available and affordable remedies, especially medicinal plants. In characteristic medical-pharmaceutical compendia, which can be classified as missionary pharmacopoeias, they laid down their knowledge to advise others and to guarantee a professional health care. As their knowledge often resulted from an exchange with indigenous communities, these compendia provide essential information about traditional plant uses of Southeast Asian people. Individual missionaries such as the Jesuit Georg Joseph Kamel (1661-1706) not only strove to explore medicinal plants but performed botanical studies and even composed comprehensive herbals. The Jesuit missionaries in particular played roles in both the order's own global network of transfer of medicinal drugs and knowledge about the application, and within the contemporary local and European scientific networks which included, for example, the famous Royal Society of London. The results of their studies were distributed all over the world, were introduced into the practical Materia medica of other regions, and contributed significantly to the academization of knowledge. In our article we will explain the different intentions and methods of exploring, the resulting works and the consequences for the forming of the pharmaceutical and scientific knowledge. Finally, we will show the options which the works of the missionaries can offer for the saving of traditional ethnopharmacological knowledge and for the development of modern phytotherapeutics and pharmaceutical supply. The publication is based on a comprehensive study on the phenomenon of missionary pharmacy which has been published as a book in 2011 (Anagnostou, 2011a) and shows now the potential of historical medical

  16. [THE HISTORY OF SKIN GRAFTING, ANCIENT TIMES AND CIVILIZATIONS. THE FIRST MENTIONS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, V A; Skvortsov, Yu R; Tarasenku, M Yu

    2015-01-01

    The article dials with the history of medicine practiced by the first civilizations. The facts of discovery and analysis of ancient medical treatises by modern researchers are reported. Special emphasis is laid on the achievements of medical practitioners in Ancient Egypt and India that promoted the development of operative treatment including skin grafting. PMID:26168607

  17. Beginnings-The Kidney and Nephrology in Ancient Mesopotamian Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2016-05-01

    A defining period in the history of civilization occurred in ancient Mesopotamia. While some of Mesopotamian contributions to knowledge (writing, mathematics, astronomy) have been recognized, those made to medicine are just beginning to be studied and appreciated. The medicine of the time developed in a theocratic society where local gods controlled all aspects of life and their healers were learned scribes who established the priestly medicine of old. For their use of prayers and incantations as a component of therapy Mesopotamian medicine has been belittled and relegated to magic. In fact, the Mesopotamian healers established the basic medical skills of observation, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment and, over time, systematically produced an expanding corpus of medical knowledge that had not existed theretofore. The kidney as an organ, the components of the urogenital tract, some signs and symptoms of renal diseases, and the art of urinalysis were first conceptualized, studied, and codified in Mesopotamia. In doing so, the Mesopotamians set the foundations of rational medicine that would follow after the introduction of the phonetic alphabet and the Socratic method of questioning and debate to stimulate critical analysis. PMID:26424002

  18. Connecting Philosophy of Ancient Egyptians to Modern Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminuddin Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Associating any knowledge from ancient Egyptians to modern civilization and thinking was important and had its own value. The process of understanding knowledge related to ancient Egyptians is actually based on the nature of philosophical thought. Approach: In the discussion of ancient Egypt philosophy, it is important to look at it from the perspectives of the four branches of philosophy; metaphysics, epistemology, axiology and logic. Metaphysics has two elements, which are ontology and cosmology. Arguments in ontology explain why most activities of people from the ancient Egypt involved agriculture and how they perceived their lives in the midst of this activity, this includes the concept of human creator; treatment to man and woman; and Egyptians’ Gods and Goddesses. In addition, cosmology analyses the universe; everything inside and out of it, as well as what makes them stay and move. Results: Whereas, epistemology refers to how ancient Egyptians appreciated the existence of knowledge among them by considering the sources, types, categories and importance of particular knowledge that was gained in different ways. Besides, the aspects of axiology are also discussed here, especially in the ancient Egypt’s hieroglyphics. This writing discusses the level of aesthetical value posed by all these Egyptians, even at the time of about 3000 B.C. They could discuss to form pictographic as their written language. This activity lasted for thousands of years. Conclusion: Last but not the least, logic is another aspect that can be used in the discussion across metaphysics, epistemology and also axiology, for instance, the thinking of the philosophy behind Egyptians life. This writing relates the philosophy of ancient Egypt with the life of the modern world, not only in Egypt, but also in another part of the world, which exist from the impact of the philosophy of ancient Egypt. Modern views of Egyptians’ thinking are often vastly based

  19. Data-mining to build a knowledge representation store for clinical decision support. Studies on curation and validation based on machine performance in multiple choice medical licensing examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Barry; Boray, Srinidhi

    2016-06-01

    Extracting medical knowledge by structured data mining of many medical records and from unstructured data mining of natural language source text on the Internet will become increasingly important for clinical decision support. Output from these sources can be transformed into large numbers of elements of knowledge in a Knowledge Representation Store (KRS), here using the notation and to some extent the algebraic principles of the Q-UEL Web-based universal exchange and inference language described previously, rooted in Dirac notation from quantum mechanics and linguistic theory. In a KRS, semantic structures or statements about the world of interest to medicine are analogous to natural language sentences seen as formed from noun phrases separated by verbs, prepositions and other descriptions of relationships. A convenient method of testing and better curating these elements of knowledge is by having the computer use them to take the test of a multiple choice medical licensing examination. It is a venture which perhaps tells us almost as much about the reasoning of students and examiners as it does about the requirements for Artificial Intelligence as employed in clinical decision making. It emphasizes the role of context and of contextual probabilities as opposed to the more familiar intrinsic probabilities, and of a preliminary form of logic that we call presyllogistic reasoning. PMID:27089305

  20. Data-mining to build a knowledge representation store for clinical decision support. Studies on curation and validation based on machine performance in multiple choice medical licensing examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Barry; Boray, Srinidhi

    2016-06-01

    Extracting medical knowledge by structured data mining of many medical records and from unstructured data mining of natural language source text on the Internet will become increasingly important for clinical decision support. Output from these sources can be transformed into large numbers of elements of knowledge in a Knowledge Representation Store (KRS), here using the notation and to some extent the algebraic principles of the Q-UEL Web-based universal exchange and inference language described previously, rooted in Dirac notation from quantum mechanics and linguistic theory. In a KRS, semantic structures or statements about the world of interest to medicine are analogous to natural language sentences seen as formed from noun phrases separated by verbs, prepositions and other descriptions of relationships. A convenient method of testing and better curating these elements of knowledge is by having the computer use them to take the test of a multiple choice medical licensing examination. It is a venture which perhaps tells us almost as much about the reasoning of students and examiners as it does about the requirements for Artificial Intelligence as employed in clinical decision making. It emphasizes the role of context and of contextual probabilities as opposed to the more familiar intrinsic probabilities, and of a preliminary form of logic that we call presyllogistic reasoning.

  1. Global Health Education: a cross-sectional study among German medical students to identify needs, deficits and potential benefits (Part 2 of 2: Knowledge gaps and potential benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schubert Kirsten

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Germany, educational deficits or potential benefits involved in global health education have not been analysed till now. Objective We assess the importance medical students place on learning about social determinants of health (SDH and assess their knowledge of global health topics in relation to (i mobility patterns, their education in (ii tropical medicine or (iii global health. Methods Cross-sectional study among medical students from all 36 medical schools in Germany using a web-based, semi-structured questionnaire. Participants were recruited via mailing-lists of students' unions, all medical students registered in 2007 were eligible to participate in the study. We captured international mobility patterns, exposure to global health learning opportunities and attitudes to learning about SDH. Both an objective and subjective knowledge assessment were performed. Results 1126 online-replies were received and analysed. International health electives in developing countries correlated significantly with a higher importance placed on all provided SDH (p ≤ 0.006. Participation in tropical medicine (p In the knowledge assessment students achieved an average score of 3.6 (SD 1.5; Mdn 4.0, 75% achieved a score of 4.0 or less (Q25 = 3.0; Q75 = 4.0 from a maximum achievable score of 8.0. A better performance was associated with international health electives (p = 0.032, participation in tropical medicine (p = 0.038 and global health (p = 0.258 courses. Conclusion The importance medical students in our sample placed on learning about SDH strongly interacts with students' mobility, and participation in tropical medicine and global health courses. The knowledge assessment revealed deficits and outlined needs to further analyse education gaps in global health. Developing concerted educational interventions aimed at fostering students' engagement with SDH could make full use of synergy effects inherent in student mobility, tropical

  2. A cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude, and behavior related to antibiotic use among undergraduate medical students in a tertiary care medical college, Kashmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmad Mir

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: There is an urgent need to improve education on antibiotic use in medical curricula. Furthermore, strict policies must be enforced to regulate dispensing of antibiotics. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(6.000: 1156-1162

  3. A time-efficient web-based teaching tool to improve medical knowledge and decrease ABIM failure rate in select residents

    OpenAIRE

    Drake, Sean; Qureshi, Waqas; Morse, William; Baker-Genaw, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) exam’s pass rate is considered a quality measure of a residency program, yet few interventions have shown benefit in reducing the failure rate. We developed a web-based Directed Reading (DR) program with an aim to increase medical knowledge and reduce ABIM exam failure rate.Methods: Internal medicine residents at our academic medical center with In-Training Examination (ITE) scores ≤35th percentile from 2007 to 2013 were enrolled in DR. The ...

  4. Evaluation of knowledge, experience and perceptions about medical emergencies amongst dental graduates (Interns) of Belgaum City, India

    OpenAIRE

    Jodalli, Praveen S.; Ankola, Anil V.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Medical emergencies can occur frequently in dental setting. Effective management of an emergency situation in the dental office is ultimately the dentist’s responsibility. The lack of training and inability to cope with medical emergencies can lead to tragic consequences and sometimes legal action. For this reason, all health professionals including dentists must be well prepared to attend to medical emergencies. Providing basic life support [BLS] is dentist’s most important con...

  5. 基于古医籍中生肌散用药配伍规律的分析研究%Study on Medication and Compatibility Laws of ShengJi Powder Based on Ancient Medical Works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万学谦; 李廷保

    2014-01-01

    There are 74 medical works about ShengJi powder in Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties a-mong the works before Qing dynasty. There were 88 pieces of ShengJi powder with correct names appeared in 60 medical works, and 14 pieces of ShengJi powder in different names. Altogether 88 prescriptions involved 93 kinds of herbs which could be classified into 18 types, total frequency of single drug was 550 times, among them, core drug with the frequency above 30% were respectively ten kinds of herbs: calomel, frankincense, MoYao (Commiphora myrrha Eng1.), fossil fragments, XueJie (Resina Draconis), HaiErCha [Acacia catechu (Linn. f.) Willd.], ShengDan (Hydrargyrum Oxydatum Crudum Bottom), ChiShiZhi (Halloysitum Rubrum), Borneol and HaiPiaoXiao (Sepiella maindroni de Rochebrune), and the prescriptions were composed of the core drugs by the modification and compati-bility.%自清以前古医籍中,仅唐、宋、元、明、清五代共74部医籍涉及有关生肌散的方剂。其中60部出现正名生肌散88首,14部出现异名生肌散14首。88首复方中共涉及中药93种分为18类,单味用药总次数为550次,其中频率大于30%的核心中药分别为轻粉、乳香、没药、龙骨、血竭、孩儿茶、升丹、赤石脂、冰片、海螵蛸10种,并且大多数生肌散均由此核心药加减配伍而成。

  6. Key opinion leaders and the corruption of medical knowledge: what the Sunshine Act will and won't cast light on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sismondo, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry, in its marketing efforts, often turns to "key opinion leaders" or "KOLs" to disseminate scientific information. Drawing on the author's fieldwork, this article documents and examines the use of KOLs in pharmaceutical companies' marketing efforts. Partly due to the use of KOLs, a small number of companies with well-defined and narrow interests have inordinate influence over how medical knowledge is produced, circulated, and consumed. The issue here, as in many other cases of institutional corruption, is that a few actors have accumulated the power to shape the information on which many others base their decisions. Efforts to address this corruption should focus on correcting large imbalances in the current political economy of medical knowledge. A sequestration of pharmaceutical research and development on one hand from pharmaceutical marketing on the other, though difficult to achieve, would address this and many other problems.

  7. Historical overview of spinal deformities in ancient Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Kaspiris Angelos; Grivas Theodoros B; Vasiliadis Elias S

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the history of spinal deformities in ancient Greece. The present study summarizes what we know today for diagnosis and management of spinal deformities in ancient Greece, mainly from the medical treatises of Hippocrates and Galen. Hippocrates, through accurate observation and logical reasoning was led to accurate conclusions firstly for the structure of the spine and secondly for its diseases. He introduced the terms kyphosis and scoliosis and wrote in depth abo...

  8. Effect of gender and age on the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding hepatitis B and C and vaccination status of hepatitis B among medical students of Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To determine the vaccination status for hepatitis B and knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) regarding hepatitis B and C among medical students of Karachi and to evaluate the effects of gender and age on the responses, regarding vaccination and KAP for Hepatitis B and C. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 7 medical colleges/ universities of Karachi. Convenient sampling was used to collect the information. Questionnaire regarding awareness about prevention, transmission, diagnosis, treatment and vaccination availability for hepatitis B and C was completed from each individual. In addition, vaccination status of hepatitis B and the awareness of students regarding post exposure prophylaxis was also documented. One thousand five hundred and nine students participated in this study. Results: The mean age of medical students (1509) was 20.35 +- 1.72 years. Female participants were 1075 (71.2%) and 937 62.1%) of the respondents were studying in public institutions. Eighty five percent of the respondents indicated that they were aware of availability of a vaccine for hepatitis B. Only 57.1% medical students showed excellent knowledge regarding the route of spread of hepatitis B and C. Students showing good knowledge of treatment procedures for hepatitis B and C were 48.2%. Half of the respondents (49.8%) showed good knowledge regarding spread of hepatitis by dental procedures. Seventy six percent of participating medical students did not have any knowledge about the post exposure prophylaxis for hepatitis B and C. Seventy four percent indicated that the hepatitis patients should not be isolated. Seventy nine percent of the students reported that they were vaccinated for hepatitis B and 70.6% of them were completely vaccinated (3 doses). About half of the respondents (49.4%) indicated that they were screened for hepatitis B and only 27.1% were screened for hepatitis C. Half of the students reported that they have had needle pricks in their

  9. A comparative evaluation of different teaching aids among fourth term medical students to improve the knowledge, attitude and perceptions about pharmacovigilance: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Bagewadi, Harish G; Rekha M S; Sabari Anandh JV

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The Study was designed to assess the awareness of Pharmacovigilance and Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR’s) and to evaluate the effectiveness of different teaching aids.Materials and Methods: This was a questionnaire-based pre- and post-test on (KAP) Knowledge, Attitude, Perception about pharmacovigilance. Students were given handouts regarding pharmacovigilance and ADR reporting one week before the educational interventions. Fourth term medical students (n=72) participated in the stud...

  10. Analysis and Investigation on Medical School Students' ;Application of Mathematics and Physics Knowledge%分析卫校学生数理知识调查应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁兴宁; 甘子健

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the students from the medical school of a city, and analyze the situation of students' learning of mathematics and physics knowledge, so as to further learn about the problems in medical school students' learning of mathematics and physics knowledge, pertinently propose teaching strategies, and improve the teaching quality. Method: Questionnaire survey was adopted to investigate 1220 students. Results:A better un-derstanding of medical school students' attitudes, abilities and methods in learning mathematics and physics knowledge has been obtained, and students' academic performance has been improved. Conclusion:The key of medical school students' learn-ing of mathematics and physics knowledge is teachers' formula-tion of rational teaching plans, stimulation of students' learning interest, and guidance of students' use of correct learning meth-ods.%目的:对某市卫校学生进行问卷调查,对学生数理知识学习情况进行记录分析,进一步了解卫校学生学习数理知识过程中出现的问题,有针对性地提出教学策略,从而提高教学质量。方法:采用问卷调查的方式针对1220名学生展开调查。结果:更好地掌握与了解了卫校学生在数理知识学习时的态度、能力、方法,提高了学生学习成绩。结论:教师制定合理的教学计划,激发学生学习兴趣,引导学生使用正确学习方法是卫校学生学习数理知识的关键。

  11. Medical students' knowledge, perceptions, and behavioral intentions towards the H1N1 influenza, swine flu, in Pakistan: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zara A; Hussain, Sarah A; Hussain, Faisal A

    2012-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the knowledge of H1N1 among medical students, their perceptions, and behavioral intentions in the wake of the H1N1 pandemic influenza. There were significant gaps in important self-isolation protocols and preventive measures. Increased contact with both patients and colleagues can lead to unintentional transmission and contraction of influenza. Universities should introduce and encourage infection control guidelines into routine curriculum. PMID:22361359

  12. Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviour intentions for three bowel management practices in intensive care: effects of a targeted protocol implementation for nursing and medical staff

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, Serena; Lam, Lawrence T; McInnes, Elizabeth; Elliott, Doug; Hardy, Jennifer; Middleton, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Background Bowel management protocols have the potential to minimize complications for critically ill patients. Targeted implementation can increase the uptake of protocols by clinicians into practice. The theory of planned behaviour offers a framework in which to investigate clinicians’ intention to perform the behaviour of interest. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of implementing a bowel management protocol on intensive care nursing and medical staffs’ knowledge, attitude, subjectiv...

  13. Scientific–medical knowledge management through media communication practices : a review of two opposite models in early 20th century Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Tabernero Holgado, Carlos; Jiménez-Lucena, Isabel; Molero Mesa, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the complex relationship between two sets of practices and discourses that are essential constituents of the processes of construction and functioning of contemporary societies: medicine-health and mass media. Two context-linked and overtly contrasting case studies help illustrate the intricate dynamics of scientific-medical knowledge management, that is, from its generation and circulation to its appropriation, as articulated through mass media: first, the Spanish liberta...

  14. A questionnaire based study to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of pharmacovigilance among undergraduate medical students in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital of South India

    OpenAIRE

    Bikash Ranjan Meher; N Joshua; Asha, B.; Deepali Mukherji

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reaction (ADR) is the backbone of pharmacovigilance program. Under reporting by prescribers is still exist. This study was done to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of undergraduate students about pharmacovigilance. Materials and Methods: It was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. Study tool was a validated questionnaire containing 21 questions to evaluate KAP of pharmacovigilance among undergraduate medical students ...

  15. Implementation of the WHO-6-step method in the medical curriculum to improve pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, Carolina J P W; Segers, Wieke S.; De Wildt, Dick J.; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; Keijsers, Loes; Jansen, Paul A F

    2015-01-01

    Aim The only validated tool for pharmacotherapy education for medical students is the 6-step method of the World Health Organization. It has proven effective in experimental studies with short term interventions. The generalizability of this effect after implementation in a contextual-rich medical c

  16. Medical students’ knowledge, attitude, and practice of complementary and alternative medicine: a pre- and post-exposure survey in Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Mansour MA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mohammed Abdullah Al Mansour,1 Abdullah MN Al-Bedah,2 Mohammed Othman AlRukban,3 Ibrahim S Elsubai,2 Elsadiq Yousif Mohamed,4 Ahmed Tawfik El Olemy,2 Asim AH Khalil,2 Mohamed KM Khalil,2 Meshari Saleh Alqaed,2 Abdullah Almudaiheem,2 Waqas Sami Mahmoud,4 Khalid Altohami Medani,4 Naseem Akhtar Qureshi2 1College of Medicine, Majmaah University, Al Majma’ah, 2National Center of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Health, 3Department of Family Medicine and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, 4Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, College of Medicine, Majmaah University, Al Majma’ah, Saudi Arabia Background: Evidently, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is a recognized medical practice that efficiently uses multiple treatment therapies and techniques in the prevention and management of a variety of human disorders. Many medical schools have integrated CAM curriculum in medical education system worldwide. Research in knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP of diverse health professionals exposed to CAM courses is important from many perspectives including improvement in KAP and teaching skills of faculty, together with capacity building and curriculum development.Objective and setting: This pre- and post-design cross-sectional study aimed to assess CAM-KAP of two intakes of medical students in Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia.Methods: The second-year medical students of the first (year 2012–2013 and second (year 2013–2014 intake (n=26 and 39, respectively were selected for this study. A reliable, 16-item self-administered questionnaire was distributed among all the students for answering before and after the 48-hour CAM course. The data were analyzed using appropriate statistical test of significance.Results: Medical students’ knowledge and attitude toward CAM significantly improved across some subitems of CAM questionnaire with a positive trend in the rest of its items

  17. Ancient and modern environmental DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Ermini, Luca;

    2015-01-01

    DNA obtained from environmental samples such as sediments, ice or water (environmental DNA, eDNA), represents an important source of information on past and present biodiversity. It has revealed an ancient forest in Greenland, extended by several thousand years the survival dates for mainland...... woolly mammoth in Alaska, and pushed back the dates for spruce survival in Scandinavian ice-free refugia during the last glaciation. More recently, eDNA was used to uncover the past 50 000 years of vegetation history in the Arctic, revealing massive vegetation turnover at the Pleistocene...... knowledge of biogeography. However, the approach remains marred by biases related to DNA behaviour in environmental settings, incomplete reference databases and false positive results due to contamination. We provide a review of the field....

  18. 本院医护人员特殊药品知识调查与用药宣教效果分析%Medical personnel knowledge survey and special medication education effect analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琳; 陈小葵; 梁翠玉; 林喜妹; 邓贵华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate medical personnel mastering the knowledge of special drugs and study the medication education effect to promote the rational usage of special drugs.Methods By designing special medicine knowledge questionnaires, investigated questionnaires respectively before and after medication education, and analyzed the statistics of the questionnaires.Results Before medical education, the qualified rate of special drug knowledge questionnaires of doctors and nurses were 42.0% and 36.1% respectively, while those after medical education were 85.5% and 83.3% respectively.Conclusion Special drugs education, delivery Safe Using Handbook of Special Drugs, can strengthen the medical staff mastering the knowledge of special drugs, promote the reasonable usage of special drugs, and ensure the safety of medication.%目的 调查本院医护人员对特殊药品知识的掌握情况,探究用药宣教效果,促进医院特殊药品的合理应用.方法 设计特殊药品知识调查问卷,于用药宣教前后分别发放问卷进行调查,对调查问卷进行统计分析,了解用药宣教效果.结果 用药宣教前,医师、护士的特殊药品知识调查问卷合格率分别为42.0%、36.1%;用药宣教后,两个组的合格率分别为85.5%、83.3%;宣教前后比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 通过特殊药品的知识培训、发放《特殊药品安全使用手册》,可以加强医护人员对特殊药品知识的掌握,促进特殊药品的合理应用,保证患者用药安全.

  19. The knowledge and uptake of travel vaccine among medical doctors in a tertiary health institution in Plateau State, North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuwaira Ibrahim Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Travelers play a significant role in the spread of infectious diseases across international borders, through their travel patterns and behaviors. Travel maybe the only risk factor for infectious diseases that are well controlled in the travelers′ country of residence, particularly vaccine-preventable diseases. The role of vaccination among travelers is an essential component of the control of travel-associated infectious diseases. This study was conducted to assess the knowledge and uptake of travel vaccine among medical doctors in Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in 2013 using quantitative method of data collection among 189 medical doctors. Epi Info™ statistical software package version 3.5.4 was used for data analysis and a P ͳ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result: The mean age of the respondents was 33.8 ± 4.5 years, majority of the respondents (96.3% were aware of travel vaccines with 45 (71.4% of the 63 respondents who had embarked on international travel prior to the study had taken travel vaccine in their last travel. Knowledge of travel vaccination was found to have statistically significant relationship with uptake of travel vaccine (P = 0.013. Conclusion: This study has revealed the need to improve the knowledge and uptake of travel vaccine among medical doctors.

  20. Association of knowledge of HIV and other factors with individuals' attitudes toward HIV infection: a national cross-sectional survey among the Japanese non-medical working population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The stigma of and discrimination because of HIV has been described as the most important obstacle to prevention and treatment efforts. The purpose of this study was to investigate negative attitudes and prejudice toward HIV among the Japanese non-medical working population and to explore contributing factors. METHODS: An online anonymous nationwide survey involving approximately 3,000 individuals was conducted in Japan. Questions ranged from background information and HIV knowledge to individuals' attitudes towards HIV infection in the workplace. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were applied for analysis. RESULTS: Thirty-three percent of participants feared transmission of HIV from infected colleagues, 34% tended to avoid contact with them and 40% had prejudiced opinions about HIV infection. Despite a relatively high level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS overall (11.9 ± 3.3 from 15 points, only 50% of individuals were aware of some issues. Greater knowledge was associated with less negative attitudes towards HIV infection (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.31-0.48 for prejudiced opinion, high compared with low level of knowledge, whereas greater health consciousness was inversely related to attitude (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.50-2.58 for prejudiced opinion, high compared with low health consciousness. CONCLUSION: Knowledge neutralizes peoples' negative attitudes towards HIV infection, whereas greater health consciousness may worsen them. Educational programs should balance knowledge with health consciousness to improve the efficacy of HIV interventions.

  1. The Study of Medical Knowledge Issue from the Perspective of Constructivism--The Review of Foreign Sociology of Medical Knowledge%建构主义视角下的医学知识问题研究——国外医学知识社会学研究评析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭燕霞; 赵万里

    2012-01-01

    20世纪70年代以来,医学社会学家沿着建构主义理论进路开展经验研究,形成了医学知识社会学这一研究亚领域,取得了许多广泛深入的经验研究成果,发展出“医学历史话语分析”、“医学争论研究”和“病患叙事研究”等重要研究场点。本文拟从建构主义视角对国外医学知识社会学的内容进行评析,认为医学知识的社会学考察是医学社会学走向成熟的关键因素,促进了我们对于医疗体制、医学知识和医疗实践的深入理解。%Since the 1970s, the medical sociologists have carried out some empirical studies along the theory of the constructivist approach, be- come the research sub-field of sociology of medical knowledge, gained much extensive and deep empirical research achievement, and developed some important study sites such as "medical historical discourse analysis","the studies of medical controversies" and "the studies of illness and narrative" etc. This paper reviews the content of sociology of medical knowledge from the perspective of constructivism, and argues that the so- ciological study of medical knowledge is a key factor of maturing of medical sociology and helps us understand medicine as institution, knowledge and practice.

  2. [The history of medicine in the ancient time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesarová, Drahomíra

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the history of medicine in the ancient Greece; from the cult of the God Asklepios, to the founder of the scientific rational medicine, Hippokrates. The humoral theory of Hippokrates is explained (the human body consists from four liquids) and his ideal of a physician's approach to a patient is emphasized. In the Hellenistic period the medical development continued in the Alexandria Medical School (Herofilos and Erasistratos). At first, not much attention was given to medicine and scientific health prevention in ancient Rome. Only 293 AD have physicians from Greece first been invited to Rome--e.g. Asklepiades. During the reign of C. lulius Caesar, foreigners, who engaged in medical practice, were granted Roman citizenship and thanks to a number of benefits the medical condition in Roman Empire blossomed. Medical clinics (iatreia), infirmaries (valetudinaria) and, under the influence of Christianity, hospitals were established. In the 2nd century AD ancient medicine reached its climax with physician Galenos, who created the entire system of medical science and became the most significant, but also last medical figure of ancient Rome. PMID:22442893

  3. Adoption in ancient times

    OpenAIRE

    Bisha Eugena

    2015-01-01

    Since in ancient times, in all human cultures, children transfered from biological parents to parents that want them to create family, for political alliances, for inheritance, for a future marriage, or to care for elderly parents. The practice of adoption was fairly common in different places and periods. Adoption is mention on Bible and Quran. Greeks, Romans, Egyptians and Babylonians had adoption systems.

  4. Ancient ports of Kalinga

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    which plied between Kalinga and south east Asian countries. Nanda Raja, is said to have attacked Kalinga with the intention of getting access to the sea for the landlocked Kingdom of Magadha (Bihar). The ancient texa Artha Sastra (3rd-4th century B...

  5. Ancient deforestation revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J Donald

    2011-01-01

    The image of the classical Mediterranean environment of the Greeks and Romans had a formative influence on the art, literature, and historical perception of modern Europe and America. How closely does is this image congruent with the ancient environment as it in reality existed? In particular, how forested was the ancient Mediterranean world, was there deforestation, and if so, what were its effects? The consensus of historians, geographers, and other scholars from the mid-nineteenth century through the first three quarters of the twentieth century was that human activities had depleted the forests to a major extent and caused severe erosion. My research confirmed this general picture. Since then, revisionist historians have questioned these conclusions, maintaining instead that little environmental damage was done to forests and soils in ancient Greco-Roman times. In a reconsideration of the question, this paper looks at recent scientific work providing proxy evidence for the condition of forests at various times in ancient history. I look at three scientific methodologies, namely anthracology, palynology, and computer modeling. Each of these avenues of research offers support for the concept of forest change, both in abundance and species composition, and episodes of deforestation and erosion, and confirms my earlier work.

  6. Printing Ancient Terracotta Warriors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadecki, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    Standing in awe in Xian, China, at the Terra Cotta warrior archaeological site, the author thought of sharing this experience and excitement with her sixth-grade students. She decided to let her students carve patterns of the ancient soldiers to understand their place in Chinese history. They would make block prints and print multiple soldiers on…

  7. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  8. Ancient Egypt: History 380.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Laraine D.

    "Ancient Egypt," an upper-division, non-required history course covering Egypt from pre-dynastic time through the Roman domination is described. General descriptive information is presented first, including the method of grading, expectation of student success rate, long-range course objectives, procedures for revising the course, major course…

  9. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  10. A Vibrant Ancient City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGTONG

    2004-01-01

    LIJIANG is a small city onthe Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau in southern Chinawith an 800-year history.Word of its ancient language and music, and unique natural scenery has spread over the decades, and Lijiang is now known throughout the world. It was added

  11. Try to Discuss the Knowledge- based Economy and the Innovation Management of Medical Library%试论知识经济与医学图书馆的创新管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨凝清

    2003-01-01

    The now world, Knowledge - based economy is already to see the clue. The expert pointsout that mankind are going into a Knowledge - based economic times. Possession, disposition, production,distribution and application knowledge(intelligence)resources are becomes an important factor to developeconomy of the times. The nucleus of knowledge - based economy depends on knowledge innovation. Andthe modem library is as the collecting and distributing center of knowledge product - document information, and should break traditional concept, and build up innovating consciousness, and strengthens innovating management, and better exert the function of medical library for meeting the arrival of knowledge economy.

  12. 医学本体临床路径知识库建设方法学研究%Construction Methodology of Medical Ontology Clinical Pathway Knowledge Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑西川; 谭申生; 于广军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To abstract practice-oriented knowledge from a cohort of real clinical pathways and to represent this knowledge as a clinical pathway ontology. Methods Engineering methodology was adopted to construct clinical pathway knowledge base, which included(l)knowledge source identification and classification of clinical pathways according to variations in setting, stage of care, patient type, outcome and specialty;(2)iterative knowledge abstraction using grounded theory; (3)ontology engineering as adapted from the Model -based Incremental Knowledge Engineering approach; and(4)ontology evaluation through encoding a sample of real clinical pathways. Results The clinical pathway ontology knowledge base was developed, which included 58 class diseases, and was applied in real clinical setting. Conclusion Clinical pathway ontology knowledge base has significant function in the electronic application of clinical pathway, which will be a reference fordeveloping a new generation of electronic medical records.%目的:从一组实际运行的临床路径应用中提取面向实践的临床知识,实现临床路径本体知识库的规范表达.方法:采取工程化方法建立临床路径知识库,包括临床路径知识源标识与分类、知识抽象方法、本体工程方法和临床路径本体评价.结果:建立了58个病种临床路径本体知识库,并在实际应用中进行了验证.结论:临床路径本体知识库建设对临床路径电子化深度应用有重要意义,对新一代电子病历研发有参考借鉴作用.

  13. Knowledge and attitude in regards to physical child abuse amongst medical and dental residents of central Gujarat: A cross-sectional survey

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    Anshula Deshpande

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Child abuse is a state of emotional, physical, economic, and sexual maltreatment met out to a person below the age of 18 and is a globally prevalent phenomenon. However, in India, there has been no understanding of the extent, magnitude, and trends of the problem. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge and attitudes of medical and dental residents with regards to physical child abuse of central Gujarat. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the medical and dental residents of central Gujarat. Data were collected from a self-administered questionnaire for a total of 130 residents, in which 89 medical and 41 dental residents responded. Results: Knowledge regarding the social indicator of child abuse was found to be poor in 27.7% (n = 36, average in 68.5% (n = 89, and good in 3.8% (n = 5; and for physical indicator it was found to be poor in 10.8% (n = 14, average 66.9% (n = 87, and good 22.3% (n = 29. Forty-nine percent (n = 64 of the respondents reported having formal training in recognizing child abuse, and 32% (n = 42 had read literature on the topic. Fifty-five percent (n = 72 stated that education regarding child abuse is extremely important. Conclusions: Result of the present study found that medical and dental residents are not sufficiently prepared to endure their role in protection of child from abuse. A significant gap existed between recognizing signs of physical child abuse and responding effectively. Improvements in child abuse education and continuing education courses are advised to provide adequate knowledge.

  14. Unknown ancient Greek ophthalmological instruments and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascaratos, J; Marketos, S

    1997-01-01

    Discoveries of some ancient medical instruments and equipment found in the Hellenic world have been published in magazines of general interest and in a rare Greek medical journal, yet none caught the attention of ophthalmologists. Among these instruments are two forms of the famous 'Kenteterion', dating from the Hellenistic period, used for the couching of cataract. These were found on the island of Milos in the last century. Two magnifying lenses of the Archaic period from the recent Cretan excavations gave us the opportunity to discuss the problem of their medical use. The two drop-bottles from the excavations on Cyprus and at Tanagra, which are also described, seem to be of medical, and possible ophthalmological, use. PMID:9657298

  15. IMPACT OF EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTION ON THE KNOWLEDGE OF BIO-MEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT AMONG HEALTH CARE WORKERS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL AT BAGALKOT CITY

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    Mannapur

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The waste generated from medical activities can be hazardous, toxic and even lethal because of their high potential for diseases transmission and injury that also results in environmental degradation. An adequate and appropriate knowledge of health care waste management among the health care workers is the first step towards developing favourable attitude and practices thereby ensuring safe disposal of hazardous hospital waste. OBJECTIVES: To determine the knowledge regarding the bio-medical waste management among health care workers. To evaluate the effect of the intervention program given to health care workers. METHODS: TYPE OF STUDY: A cross-sectional study. STUDY PERIOD: May-December 2013. STUDY SETTING & STUDY SUBJECTS: The present study was conducted at S. Nijalingappa Medical College and HSK Hospital & Research center in Bagalkot city among paramedical workers which includes all the nursing staff and lab-technicians of the hospital (n =122. An identical pre and post-training questionnaire was designed which is pre-tested & structured and given to the above mentioned paramedical staff before and after the training session. The study variables include general information and questions regarding the knowledge about the health hazards, segregation, storage, personal protective devices, prophylactic vaccination, treatment, disposal and the rule of bio-medical waste management. A series of training sessions were conducted by trained community medicine staff along with PGs and training included knowledge about all aspects of biomedical waste with power point presentation and demonstration. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The data was tabulated by using Microsoft Excel 2010 and analyzed by using Openepi software and chi-square test was used. RESULTS: Among 122 participants, 94 (77.05% were males and 28 (22.95% were females. Most of them 94 (77.05% belongs to the age group of 20-29yrs and 24 (19.67% to the age group of 30-39 years. Majority i

  16. Tuberculosis in ancient times

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    Louise Cilliers

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of an array of effective antibiotics, tuberculosis is still very common in developing countries where overcrowding, malnutrition and poor hygienic conditions prevail. Over the past 30 years associated HIV infection has worsened the situation by increasing the infection rate and mortality of tuberculosis. Of those diseases caused by a single organism only HIV causes more deaths internationally than tuberculosis. The tubercle bacillus probably first infected man in Neolithic times, and then via infected cattle, but the causative Mycobacteriacea have been in existence for 300 million years. Droplet infection is the most common way of acquiring tuberculosis, although ingestion (e.g. of infected cows’ milk may occur. Tuberculosis probably originated in Africa. The earliest path gnomonic evidence of human tuberculosis in man was found in osteo-archaeological findings of bone tuberculosis (Pott’s disease of the spine in the skeleton of anEgyptian priest from the 21st Dynasty (approximately 1 000 BC. Suggestive but not conclusiveevidence of tuberculotic lesions had been found in even earlier skeletons from Egypt and Europe. Medical hieroglyphics from ancient Egypt are silent on the disease, which could be tuberculosis,as do early Indian and Chinese writings. The Old Testament refers to the disease schachapeth, translated as phthisis in the Greek Septuagint. Although the Bible is not specific about this condition, tuberculosis is still called schachapeth in modern Hebrew. In pre-Hippocratic Greece Homer did not mention phthisis, a word meaning non-specific wasting of the body. However. Alexander of Tralles (6th century BC seemed to narrow the concept down to a specific disease, and in the Hippocratic Corpus (5th-4th centuries BC phthisis can be recognised as tuberculosis. It was predominantly a respiratory disease commonly seen and considered to be caused by an imbalance of bodily humours. It was commonest in autumn, winter and spring

  17. The study of knowledge and attitude of new coming residents in cardiopulmonary resuscitation in Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 1377-78

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haj Zeinali AM

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is one of the most important skills that every body must know it in medical services. In educational hospitals, the (Newly-arrived residents are in first cell for management of victims, specially in emergency rooms and at nights. Their knowledge and ability for successful CPR have a direct relation with prevalence of total mortality and morbidity. This research has assessed the knowledge and attitude of the new residents about CPR, and for answering to this question: "Is the CPR workshops necessary for all of the new residents in the beginning of their courses". All of the 506 new residents were examined simultaneously in 2 separate years with a questionnaire consist of 50 questions about their CPR secence and skills and 8 questions about their attitude in CPR. These informations were analyzed by SPSS and EPI6 softwares. The mean correct answers were 55%±11.8. The best results were about arrythmias (68.6% and airway management (63.6% and the worst were about IV access (43.1% and pediatric CPR (31.5%. These findings were similar in 2 sequential years. Their knowledge had significant relation with sex (P=0.002, their original university (P=0.031, their residency course (P=0.024 and their residency reception scores (P<0.001. Males and knowledge more than females. The max scores were from Kerman (62% and Beheshti universities (60.5% and the min score were from Hamadan (48% and Kashan universities (37%. The orthopedic (62.5% and urologic residents (61.6% had the most knowledge and the gynecology residents (53.8% had the least. The knowledge had no relation with the time of graduation. About their attitude in CPR: Their knowledge was moderate (65.8%, their abilities was moderate (58% and their education about CPR in MD course had been low (51.5%. Their references for education had been individual studies (74.6%, CPR workshop had not been condected in the most universities (92.7%. knowledge about CPR is low (55

  18. 医学生与非医学生艾滋病知信行和知识获取的差异分析%Analysis of differences in AIDS-related knowledge,attitude,behavior and knowledge acquisition between medical students and non-medical students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚蒙蒙; 谷利斌

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解医学生与非医学生在艾滋病(A ID S )知识、态度、行为和知识获取方面的基本情况及差异,为高校制订合理的健康教育策略提供相关依据。方法运用AIDS知识、态度、行为、知识获取调查问卷对440名在校大学生进行调查,其中医学生与非医学生各220名,运用SPSS19.0分析调查结果。结果医学生和非医学生在AIDS知识问卷和态度问卷方面的平均得分比较,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。医学生发生婚前性行为的概率为3.96%,非医学生为7.62%。医学生与非医学生获得AIDS知识的主要途径均为报纸、杂志,电视、电影,最愿意获得AIDS知识的途径为电视、电影。结论高校应联合家庭,运用大学生喜闻乐见的方式对其进行AIDS教育,重点加强非医学生在非传播途径知识、对AIDS患者/感染者的态度、预防知识等方面的教育。%Objective To understand the basic information and differences in the AIDS-related knowledge ,attitude ,behavior and knowledge acquisition between the medical students and the non-medical students to provide the related basis for formulating the ra-tional health education strategy in the colleges and universities .Methods The questionnaires of the AIDS-related knowledge ,atti-tude ,behavior and knowledge acquisition were used to perform the survey on 440 college students including 220 medical students and 220 non-medical students .The SPSS19 .0 software was adopted to analyze the survey results .Results The statistical differ-ences existed between the the medical students and the non-medical students in the average scores of the AIDS-related knowledge and attitude questionnaires(P<0 .05) .The propability of premarital sexual behavior was 3 .96% in the medical stedents and 7 .62%in the non-medical students .The main routes for obtaining the AIDS knowledge in the medical students and the non-medical students were

  19. Knowledge and attitudes of non-occupational HIV post-exposure prophylaxis amongst first- and second-year medical students at Stellenbosch University in South Africa

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    Nondumiso B.Q. Ncube

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection is a worldwide problem, with 68% of infected people residing in sub-Saharan Africa. Antiretroviral therapy is used as post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP to prevent infection in cases of occupational exposure, and use has recently been expanded to nonoccupational exposure. Studies have demonstrated a lack of awareness of non-occupational PEP (NOPEP in the general population.Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge and attitudes towards availability of, access to and use of NO-PEP amongst first- and second-year medical students.Setting: Participants were medical undergraduates of Stellenbosch University in the Western Cape of South Africa who were registered in 2013.Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of 169 students was performed. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires handed out in a classroom in August 2013. Self-reported knowledge and attitudes towards NO-PEP and barriers to access to and use of NO-PEP were analysed using frequency tables. Associations between self-reported and objective knowledge of NO-PEP were analysed by odds ratios.Results: Over 90% of students had good knowledge on HIV transmission, and about 75% knew how it can be prevented. Twenty eight per cent (n = 47 of students reported knowledge of NO-PEP; 67% reported hearing about it from lecturers, whilst 1% reported hearing about it from their partner. Studentswho knew the correct procedure to take when a dose is forgotten were 2.4 times more likely to report knowledge of NO-PEP than those who did not know what to do when a dose is forgotten (p = 0.029. No other associations were statistically signifiant.Conclusion: Students had positive attitudes towards the use of NO-PEP and also identifid barriers to its use. Despite good knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission, knowledge on NO-PEP was poor.

  20. Safe medication use based on knowledge of information about contraindications concerning cross allergy and comprehensive clinical intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li W

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Wei Li,1 Ling-Ling Zhu,2 Quan Zhou31Division of Medical Affairs, 2Cadre Department, Division of Nursing, 3Department of Pharmacy, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: An investigation of safety issues regarding information on contraindications related to cross allergy was conducted to promote clinical awareness and prevent medical errors in a 2200-bed tertiary care teaching hospital.Methods: Prescribing information on contraindications concerning cross allergy was collected from an information system and package inserts. Data mining and descriptive analysis were performed. A risk register was used for project management and risk assessment. A Plan, Do, Check, Act cycle was used as part of continuous quality improvement. Records of drug counseling and medical errors were collected from an online reporting system. A pharmacist-led multidisciplinary team initiated an intervention program on cross allergy in August 2008.Results: Four years of risk management at our hospital achieved successful outcomes, ie, the number of medical errors related to cross allergies decreased by 97% (10 cases monthly before August 2008 versus three cases yearly in 2012 and risk rating decreased significantly [initial risk rating:25 (high-risk before August 2008 versus final risk rating:6 (medium-risk in December 2012].Conclusion: We conclude that comprehensive clinical interventions are very effective through team cooperation. Medication use has potential for safety risks if sufficient attention is not paid to contraindications concerning cross allergy. The potential for cross allergy involving drugs which belong to completely different pharmacological classes is easily overlooked and can be dangerous. Pharmacists can play an important role in reducing the risk of cross allergy as well as recommending therapeutic alternatives.Keywords: clinical pharmacy, contraindications, cross allergy

  1. Lack of language skills and knowledge of local culture in international medical graduates: Implications for the NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamarneh, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    International Medical Graduates (IMGs) form a coherent part of the National Health Service (NHS). Nearly 25% of the doctors working in the NHS are IMGs who obtained their primary medical degree from outside the EU. Moving to a different country that holds a different set of values and belief systems can be very challenging for IMGs, which in turn could have a significant effect on the service provided to NHS patients. This article will address the issue of effective communication skills within the IMG population and will explore the underlying issues behind this problem.

  2. Comets in ancient India

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Patrick Das

    2014-01-01

    The Indo-aryans of ancient India observed stars and constellations for ascertaining auspicious times for sacrificial rites ordained by vedas. It is but natural that they would have recounted in the vedic texts about comets. In Rigveda ($\\sim $ 1700 - 1500 BC) and Atharvaveda ($\\sim $ 1150 BC), there are references to dhumaketus and ketus, which stand for comets in Sanskrit. Varahamihira in 550 AD and Ballala Sena ($\\sim $ 1100 - 1200 AD) have described a large number of comets recorded by ancient seers such as Parashara, Vriddha Garga, Narada, Garga, etc. In this article, I conjecture that an episode narrated in Mahabharata of a radiant king, Nahusha, ruling the heavens, and later turning into a serpent after he had kicked the seer Agastya (also the star Canopus), is a mythological retelling of a cometary event.

  3. How to Achieve Synergy between Medical Education and Cognitive Neuroscience? An Exercise on Prior Knowledge in Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiter, Dirk J.; van Kesteren, Marlieke T. R.; Fernandez, Guillen

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge in contemporary research is how to connect medical education and cognitive neuroscience and achieve synergy between these domains. Based on this starting point we discuss how this may result in a common language about learning, more educationally focused scientific inquiry, and multidisciplinary research projects. As the topic of…

  4. No rheumatoid arthritis in ancient Egypt: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecinski, Jakub; Rothschild, Bruce M

    2016-06-01

    Antiquity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains controversial, and its origins in Americas or in the Old World are disputed. Proponents of the latter frequently refer to RA in ancient Egypt, but validity of those claims has never been examined. Review of all reported RA cases from ancient Egypt revealed that none of them represent real RA, instead being either examples of changing naming conventions or of imprecise diagnostic criteria. Most cases represented osteoarthritis or spondyloarthropathies. Also review of preserved ancient Egyptian medical writings revealed many descriptions of musculoskeletal disorders, but none of them resembled RA. This suggests that RA was absent in ancient Egypt and supports the hypothesis of the New World origin of RA and its subsequent global spread in the last several centuries. PMID:26650735

  5. A STUDY ON THE KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE, PERCEPTIONS AND PRACTICES OF ANTIBIOTIC USAGE AND RESISTANCE AMONG THE MEDICAL STUDENTS OF JNIMS, IMPHAL, MANIPUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyami Tarao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The threat of antibiotic resistance is rapidly progressing. Awareness on its seriousness is the first step towards curtailing its progress. Young doctors should be given more education during their undergraduate training regarding antibiotic resistance & appropriate prescribing. The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude concerning ant ibiotic resistance as well as their self - reported practices related to antibiotic usage among the undergraduate medical students of Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Medical Sciences (JNIMS, Imphal Manipur. A cross - sectional study was conducted during March t o May 2014. Data were collected through self - administered questionnaire and analyzed by SPSS version 22. Descriptive statistics like mean, SD and percentages were used. Chi - square test was used for analysis where p - value of less than 0.05 was taken as sign ificant. Out of 372 undergraduate medical students, 52% were females and their mean age was 21.9±1.8 (SD years. It was found that 68.3% of the respondents had the knowledge of antibiotics being used for killing/inhibiting bacteria. Indiscriminate used of antibiotic lead to ineffective treatment (96.5%, leading to bacterial resistance (96%. Only 40.1% of them consulted doctor before they start antibiotics and 54.8% stop the antibiotics if they felt better after 2 - 3 doses of antibiotics. The knowledge of b acterial resistance following indiscriminate use of antibiotics was significantly higher among male (p=0.005 students and who were below 20 years of age (p=0.05 and after crossing 1 st MBBS (p=0.001. Hence it is the time to educate the students to ensure complete course of antibiotics uses

  6. Nutrition knowledge, attitudes and practice among medical undergraduates%医学生营养知识态度及饮食行为现况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦浩; 孙宏伟

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨医学本科生营养知识、态度及其饮食行为现况及影响因素,为临床医学教育改革提供参考依据.方法 采用自行编制的“临床医学生营养知识、态度及饮食行为问卷”,对分层整群随机抽取的某医学院校临床医学专业学生进行问卷调查,共获得有效问卷446份.结果 临床医学生营养知识最高得分为大四女生的(82.19±15.49)分,最低得分为大一男生的(52.75±21.72)分;营养态度、饮食行为分量表Cronbachα系数分别为0.84,0.79;饮食行为提取5个初始公因子,累计贡献率达到85.19%.家庭经济状况、性别、年级等对临床医学生营养知识、态度及饮食行为存在不同程度影响.结论 临床医学生营养知识、饮食行为有待于加强或改善.%Objective To investigate the current status and influencing factors of medical undergraduates nutritional knowledge,attitudes and practice.Methods By using a self-designed questionnaire,446 college students majored clinical medicine were surveyed.Results Senior female medical undergraduates got the highest score (82.19± 15.49) of nutrition knowledge,and freshman boys got the lowest score (52.75 ± 21.72).The Cronbach's coefficient of nutrition attitude and dietary behavior subscale was 0.84 and 0.79,respectively.Five initial public factors were selected for eating practice,and their cumulative contribution rate was 85.19%.Family economic status,gender and grade were the influencing factors of medical undergraduates nutritional knowledge,attitudes and practice.Conclusion The nutrition knowledge and dietary practice of medical undergraduates needs to be strengthened or improved.

  7. Citation Analysis using the Medline Database at the Web of Knowledge: Searching "Times Cited" with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2012-01-01

    Citation analysis of documents retrieved from the Medline database (at the Web of Knowledge) has been possible only on a case-by-case basis. A technique is here developed for citation analysis in batch mode using both Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) at the Web of Knowledge and the Science Citation Index at the Web of Science. This freeware routine is applied to the case of "Brugada Syndrome," a specific disease and field of research (since 1992). The journals containing these publications are attributed to Web-of-Science Categories other than "Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems"), perhaps because of the possibility of genetic testing for this syndrome in the clinic. With this routine, all the instruments available for citation analysis can be used on the basis of MeSH terms.

  8. Students' Knowledge of, and Attitudes towards Biotechnology Revisited, 1995-2014: Changes in Agriculture Biotechnology but Not in Medical Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Yen; Chu, Yih-Ru; Lin, Chen-Yung; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2016-01-01

    Modern biotechnology is one of the most important scientific and technological revolutions in the 21st century, with an increasing and measurable impact on society. Development of biotechnology curriculum has become important to high school bioscience classrooms. This study has monitored high school students in Taiwan on their knowledge of and…

  9. Investigations of Anatomical Variations of the Thorax and Heart, and Anatomical Knowledge for First Year Medical Dental and Podiatry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verenna, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    The universal presence of anatomy in healthcare professions is undeniable. It is a cornerstone to each of the clinical and basic sciences. Therefore, further expansion of current anatomical knowledge and effective methods to teach anatomy is essential. In this work, the relationship of the dorsal scapular artery with the trunks of the brachial…

  10. Suicide in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G

    2014-01-01

    The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say

  11. Suicide in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G

    2014-01-01

    The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say

  12. Medicine and psychiatry in Western culture: Ancient Greek myths and modern prejudices

    OpenAIRE

    Clementi Nicoletta; Fornaro Michele; Fornaro Pantaleo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The origins of Western culture extensively relate to Ancient Greek culture. While many ancient cultures have contributed to our current knowledge about medicine and the origins of psychiatry, the Ancient Greeks were among the best observers of feelings and moods patients expressed towards medicine and toward what today is referred to as 'psychopathology'. Myths and religious references were used to explain what was otherwise impossible to understand or be easily communicated. Most an...

  13. Knowledge and Practice of Standard Precautions and Awareness Regarding Post-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV among Interns of a Medical College in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvankar Mukherjee

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the knowledge of interns on standard precautions and post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV, and identify the gap between knowledge and practice relating to standard precautions, as well as determining the perceived barriers against adherence to standard precautions.Methods: The study was conducted on 130 interns of 2010-11 batch from a government-run medical college in Kolkata, India. All participants completed a self-administered questionnaire with items relating to basic components of standard precautions and post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV. The questionnaire also included open ended questions relating to reasons for non-adherence to the practice of standard precautions along with additional space for specific comments, if any.Results: Poor adherence in the use of personal protective equipment, hand washing, safe handling and disposal of needles and sharp objects were found to be among the practices for which the interns expressed correct knowledge. While the main reasons for non-adherence were found to be clumsiness in handling needles, wearing gloves, feeling uncomfortable when wearing aprons, impracticality of regular hand-washing and non-availability of equipment. Although the majority of the respondents (84.6% expressed awareness of washing sites of injured with soap and water, approximately 32.3% did not know that antiseptics could cause more damage. Also, only 63.8% expressed awareness of reporting any incidence of occupational exposure, while knowledge on post-exposure prophylaxis regimens was generally found to be poor.Conclusion: The considerable gap between knowledge and practice of standard precautions and inadequate knowledge of post-exposure prophylaxis emphasizes the need for continuous onsite training of interns with supportive supervision and monitoring of their activities.

  14. Knowledge level of primary care physicians who works in Denizli city center and interns in Pamukkale University medical faculty about alzheimer disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ergin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Many communities in the world are rapidly ageing, with aging dementia seen in the elderly, incidence and prevalence of Alzheimer and #8217;s disease which is the most common cause of dementia is also increasing. Therefore, primary care physicians will need to play a more significant role on the diagnosis and management of Alzheimer diseases in near future. The aim of this study was to determine the level of awareness on Alzheimers disease among primary care physicians who works in Denizli city center and interns in the Medical Faculty in Pamukkale University. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on primary care physicians who works in Denizli city center and interns in the Medical Faculty in Pamukkale University. 93 (60.4% family physicians and 65 (89.0% interns, a total of 158 (69.6% people participated in the study. The University of Alabama Alzheimers Disease Knowledge Test which consists of 12 questions was used to determine Alzheimers disease knowledge score. Data are evaluated by descriptive statistics, and either Mann-Whitney U test or Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine the statistical differences between numeric variables. RESULTS: The mean of Alzheimers disease knowledge score of family physicians and interns were 5.16+/-1.83 and 7.34+/-1.85, respectively (p <0.001. Interns who previously took any course on Alzheimers disease had a higher average score of 8.41+/-1.67 than that of those who did not take any course 5.07+/-1.95, (p=0.04. Previous course among family physicians did not make any difference (p=0.568. CONCLUSION: Alzheimers disease knowledge among primary care physicians and interns is insufficient. Authorities should take the necessary actions to improve this situatio [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(2.000: 131-136

  15. Genome-wide patterns of selection in 230 ancient Eurasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Iain; Lazaridis, Iosif; Rohland, Nadin; Mallick, Swapan; Patterson, Nick; Roodenberg, Songül Alpaslan; Harney, Eadaoin; Stewardson, Kristin; Fernandes, Daniel; Novak, Mario; Sirak, Kendra; Gamba, Cristina; Jones, Eppie R; Llamas, Bastien; Dryomov, Stanislav; Pickrell, Joseph; Arsuaga, Juan Luís; de Castro, José María Bermúdez; Carbonell, Eudald; Gerritsen, Fokke; Khokhlov, Aleksandr; Kuznetsov, Pavel; Lozano, Marina; Meller, Harald; Mochalov, Oleg; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Guerra, Manuel A Rojo; Roodenberg, Jacob; Vergès, Josep Maria; Krause, Johannes; Cooper, Alan; Alt, Kurt W; Brown, Dorcas; Anthony, David; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Haak, Wolfgang; Pinhasi, Ron; Reich, David

    2015-12-24

    Ancient DNA makes it possible to observe natural selection directly by analysing samples from populations before, during and after adaptation events. Here we report a genome-wide scan for selection using ancient DNA, capitalizing on the largest ancient DNA data set yet assembled: 230 West Eurasians who lived between 6500 and 300 bc, including 163 with newly reported data. The new samples include, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide ancient DNA from Anatolian Neolithic farmers, whose genetic material we obtained by extracting from petrous bones, and who we show were members of the population that was the source of Europe's first farmers. We also report a transect of the steppe region in Samara between 5600 and 300 bc, which allows us to identify admixture into the steppe from at least two external sources. We detect selection at loci associated with diet, pigmentation and immunity, and two independent episodes of selection on height. PMID:26595274

  16. Factors influencing knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate Medical, Nursing and Psychology students of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria

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    Igwe Monday N

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge and awareness about childhood autism is low among health care workers and the general populace in Nigeria. Poor knowledge about childhood autism among final year medical, nursing and psychology students who would form tomorrow's child health care professionals can compromise early recognition and interventions that are known to improve prognosis in childhood autism. Educational factors that could be influencing knowledge about childhood autism among these future health care professionals are unknown. This study assessed knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate medical, nursing and psychology students in south-eastern Nigeria and determined the factors that could be influencing such knowledge. Methods One hundred final year undergraduate students were randomly selected from each of the Departments of Medicine, Nursing Science and Psychology respectively of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria making a sample size of three hundred. A socio-demographic questionnaire and knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW questionnaire were administered to the students. Results The total mean score for the three groups of students on the KCAHW questionnaire was 10.67 ± 3.73 out of a possible total score of 19, with medical, nursing and psychology students having total mean scores of 12.24 ± 3.24, 10.76 ± 3.50 and 9.01 ± 3.76 respectively. The mean scores for the three groups showed statistically significant difference for domain 1 (p = 0.000, domain 3 (p = 0.029, domain 4 (p = 0.000 and total score (p = 0.000, with medical students more likely to recognise symptoms and signs of autism compared to nursing and psychology students. The mean score in domain 2 did not show statistically significant difference among the three groups (p = 0.769. The total score on the KCAHW questionnaire is positively correlated with the number of weeks of posting in psychiatry (r = 0.319, p = 0

  17. Dance in Ancient Greek Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Spalva, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The greatness and harmony of ancient Greece has had an impact upon the development of the Western European culture to this day. The ancient Greek culture has influenced contemporary literature genres and systems of philosophy, principles of architecture, sculpture and drama and has formed basis for such sciences as astronomy and mathematics. The art of ancient Greece with its penchant for beauty and clarity has been the example of the humanity’s search for an aesthetic ideal. Despite only bei...

  18. The study on knowledge and attitude of academic members of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences regarding the Quran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Bagher Mohammadi Laini1; Mohammad Azadbakht; Seyed Hamzeh Hossein3; Pedram Pezeshkan4

    2009-01-01

    (Received 5 Aug, 2008 ; Accepted 22 Apr, 2009)AbstractBackground and purpose: Lack of spirituality, remoteness of real purpose and a defeat versus cultural offense, is one of the many anxieties that families and compassionates, along with society and educators encounter. Without any doubt, knowledge of the Quran and positive attitude, are reasons for promotion of spirituality, recognizing and reaching the real goal of creation and protection against cultural offense. The aim of this research ...

  19. Nursing Practice, Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceived Barriers to Evidence-Based Practice at an Academic Medical Center

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Caroline E.; Wickline, Mary; Ecoff, Laurie; Glaser, Dale

    2009-01-01

    Aim. This paper is a report of a study describing nurses‘ practices, knowledge, and attitudes related to evidence-based nursing, and the relation of perceived barriers to and facilitators of evidence-based practice. Background. Evidence-based practice has been recognized by the healthcare community as the gold standard for the provision of safe and compassionate healthcare. Barriers and facilitators for the adoption of evidence-based practice in nursing have been identified by resear...

  20. Literary and Documentary Evidence for Lay Medical Practice in the Roman Republic and Empire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draycott, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The majority of surviving ancient medical literature was written by medical practitioners and produced for the purpose of ensuring the effective diagnosis and treatment of their patients, suggesting an audience of medical professionals ranging from instructors to students. This has led historians to concentrate on the professional medical practitioner and their theories, methods and practices, rather than on lay medical practitioners, or even patients themselves. This chapter seeks to redress this imbalance, and examine the ancient literary and documentary evidence for lay medical theories, methods and practices in the Roman Republic and Empire in an attempt to reconstruct the experiences of lay medical practitioners and their patients. The Roman agricultural treatises of Cato, Varro and Columella, papyri and ostraca from Egypt, and tablets from Britain are investigated, and it is established that the individual's personal acquisition of knowledge and expertise, not only from medical professionals and works of medical literature, but also from family members and friends, and through trial and error, was considered fundamental to domestic medical practice. PMID:26946689

  1. Climate and Ancient Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Climate, and human responses to it, have a strongly interconnected relationship. This when climate change occurs, the result of either natural or human causes, societies should react and adapt to these. But do they? If so, what is the nature of that change, and are the responses positive...... or negative for the long-term survival of social groups? In this volume, scholars from diverse disciplines including archaeology, geology and climate sciences explore scientific and material evidence for climate changes in the past, their causes, their effects on ancient societies and how those societies...

  2. Mathematics in ancient Greece

    CERN Document Server

    Dantzig, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    More than a history of mathematics, this lively book traces mathematical ideas and processes to their sources, stressing the methods used by the masters of the ancient world. Author Tobias Dantzig portrays the human story behind mathematics, showing how flashes of insight in the minds of certain gifted individuals helped mathematics take enormous forward strides. Dantzig demonstrates how the Greeks organized their precursors' melange of geometric maxims into an elegantly abstract deductive system. He also explains the ways in which some of the famous mathematical brainteasers of antiquity led

  3. Ancient concrete works

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    It is commonly believed that the ancient Romans were the first to create and use concrete. This is not true, as we can easily learn from the Latin literature itself. For sure, Romans were able to prepare high-quality hydraulic cements, comparable with the modern Portland cements. In this paper, we will see that the use of concrete is quite older, ranging back to the Homeric times. For instance, it was used for the floors of some courts and galleries of the Mycenaean palace at Tiryns

  4. Conhecimento de estudantes de medicina sobre o processo de doação de córneas The knowledge of medical students about cornea donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo França de Espíndola

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o conhecimento de estudantes de medicina sobre o processo de doação de córneas, comparando-o entre aqueles que já cursaram a disciplina de Oftalmologia com os demais. MÉTODOS: Foi aplicado um questionário a estudantes de medicina do interior de São Paulo, contendo dados como: idade, sexo, ano de graduação e 10 perguntas de múltipla escolha sobre o tema. As questões abordaram o limite de idade para doação, contra-indicações para o transplante, tempo para retirada das córneas, dentre outras. Foi comparado o conhecimento (% de acertos entre aqueles que haviam cursado a disciplina de Oftalmologia (Grupo A com os demais (Grupo B. RESULTADOS: Foram entrevistados 402 estudantes. Destes, 140 eram do grupo A e 262 do grupo B. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os dois grupos (p=0,8328. CONCLUSÃO: O conhecimento sobre o processo de doação de córneas mostrou-se insuficiente entre os alunos entrevistados, mesmo para aqueles que haviam cursado a disciplina de Oftalmologia, apontando a necessidade de aperfeiçoamento do conhecimento divulgado nas escolas médicas.PURPOSE: To compare knowledge of medical students about the cornea donation process among those who already studied Ophthalmology and the others. METHODOS: A questionnaire containing data as: age, sex, graduation year, and 10 multiple-choice questions about the subject was applied to medical students from the interior of São Paulo state, Brazil. The questions were: age for donation, contraindication for transplants, the time limit to remove the cornea, among others. The knowledge regarding cornea donation was compared between the two groups: students who already studied Ophthalmology (Group A and the others (Group B. RESULTS: The study group was composed of 402 students, of whom 140 were of group A and 262 of group B. Knowledge between the two groups was different, but not statistically significant (p=0.8328. CONCLUSION: Knowledge about

  5. FOOD SAFETY KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES AMONG WOMEN IN FIELD PRACTICE AREA OF URBAN HEALTH TRAINING CENTRE, ANDHRA MEDICAL COLLEGE, VISAKHAPATNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarada

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Food safety describes handling, prep aration and storage of food in ways to prevent foodborne illness . The contamination of food may occur at any stage in the process from food production to consumption (“farm to plate” - theme for World Health Day 2015.Unsafe food creates a vicious cycle of disease and malnutrition, particularly affecting infants, young children, elderly and the sick. Foodborne diseases include a wide spectrum of illnesses and a growing public health problem worldwide. METHODOLOGY: A cross - sectional community based study was done among 150 women in the field practice area of urban health training centre, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam. Data was collected by administering questionnaire after taking informed consent. Data was entered in Epi data version 3.1 and analysed by usi ng SPSS version 16.Results were represented in form of proportions and Fischer’s Exact test was used to find significant association between variables. RESULTS: Among 150 participants, most of them were in age group of 21 - 30 years with mean age 33±11years.Ab out 68% belonged to low socioeconomic status, 76.7% were housewives, and 79.3% were literates. Among the participants, 94.7% had good knowledge regarding food safety, 30.7% had good practices showing gap between knowledge and practices. In 12% of cases ther e was history of foodborne illness. There was significant association between knowledge and literacy status; knowledge and past history of foodborne diseases (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: There is need for an education program in the community to improve the pract ices among women regarding food safety to fill the observed gap between knowledge and practices.

  6. Assessment on the Dissemination and Knowledge Translation of Medical Students and PhD Students’ Theses in the Year 2006-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramezan Ghorbani Nahid

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The importance of research and its fundamental role in the country’s growth and development is vital. Connecting research to knowledge translation is an essential component of research process and its production, management, and the maintenance of this process is the reason behind the survival of the national health research system. Knowledge translation is the process of disseminating knowledge into actual use, or simply application of knowledge. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 418 university students enrolled in medical universities throughout the country during the period from September 2006 to 2013. Results: About 42.5% of respondents have expressed that results of dissertations will benefit the health care providers while 2.2% of respondents have expressed that research results can benefit the industrial sector, they further expressed that 11.4% of researchers and 32.2% of the general population can benefit from these researches. Furthermore, in order that results of students’ dissertations will become useful to others 71.7% of the students have expressed that research results be published as an article in international indexed journals. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that majority of students have selected the title of their research project based on their personal interest and then decided based on the opinion of their thesis mentor. The principles of accurate and relevant data management must be implemented in order that researches will be directed toward being more practical rather than theoretical. Hence, by performing more extensive researches, barriers as well as factors that promote researches will be identified and by emphasizing on knowledge translation a cultural environment aiming at presenting research results to users will be achieved and researches and dissertations that resulted to the solution of the problems of the community will be promoted.

  7. 新上岗医务人员医院感染知识培训方法探讨%Training methods for infection knowledge of novice medical personnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓琴; 沈益

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To achieve better effect of training methods for infection knowledge of novice medical personnel. METHODS A total of 68 novice medical personnel in 2008 were assigned as the control group and were trained by traditional method; and 95 novice medical personnel in 2009 were assigned into the observation group, and diversified training strategies were employed. RESULTS The score of theoretical and skill tests of the observation group was significantly better than that of the control group (83. 3 vs 93. 9) ;after the training, the understanding and implementation of eight aspects such as the idea of nosocomial infections and organization of infection management was significantly better than that of the control group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0. 01) \\ the differences in the sterilization methods and the disposal of medical waste were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION The application of diversified training of novice medical personnel can boost the handling of infection knowledge , as well as the proper use in clinic.%目的 探讨新上岗医务人员医院感染知识培训方法,以期达到更好的培训效果.方法 将2008年新上岗人员68名设为对照组,按原方法培训;将2009年进院的95名新上岗人员设为观察组,加强培训.结果 观察组理论知识及操作考核平均成绩分别为83.3分和93.9分,较对照组显著提高;培训后的自我评估,观察组在医院感染概念、感染管理组织等8个方面的知识掌握及执行程度明显优于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01),消毒灭菌方法、医疗废物管理两个方面,两组比较差异无统计学意义.结论 加强新上岗医务人员医院感染知识培训,有利于新上岗人员尽快掌握医院感染相关知识,并在临床正确应用.

  8. Exploring Ancient Skies A Survey of Ancient and Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H

    2011-01-01

    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers—events such as the supernova of 1054 A.D., the "lion horoscope," and the Star of Bethlehem. Explori...

  9. Enlightenment from ancient Chinese urban and rural stormwater management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Che; Qiao, Mengxi; Wang, Sisi

    2013-01-01

    Hundreds of years ago, the ancient Chinese implemented several outstanding projects to cope with the changing climate and violent floods. Some of these projects are still in use today. These projects evolved from the experience and knowledge accumulated through the long coexistence of people with nature. The concepts behind these ancient stormwater management practices, such as low-impact development and sustainable drainage systems, are similar to the technology applied in modern stormwater management. This paper presents the cases of the Hani Terrace in Yunnan and the Fushou drainage system of Ganzhou in Jiangxi. The ancient Chinese knowledge behind these cases is seen in the design concepts and the features of these projects. These features help us to understand better their applications in the contemporary environment. In today's more complex environment, integrating traditional and advanced philosophy with modern technologies is extremely useful in building urban and rural stormwater management systems in China.

  10. TO STUDY THE KNOWLEDGE ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF THE PHARMACOVIGILANCE AMONG THE SECOND PROFESSIONAL MBBS STUDENTS OF THE J. N . INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES, IMPHAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oinam Joychandra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim and object of the present study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of ADRs among the 2 nd professional MBBS students and also to find out the ways for implementation of Pharmacovigilance Programme of India (PvPi. MATERIAL AND METHOD : The material is the pretested questionnaire on knowledge, attitude , and practice on Pharmacovigila nce. The design of the study is cross sectional study. Percentage, proportions and means are used for descriptive statistics while the associations are calc ulated using corresponding tests for the associations . RESULTS: The knowledge of the students on Pharmacovig ilence in connection with Over t he Counter/self - medication (52%; minimum need of surveillance on marketing (74%; present surveillance on marketing as low as 60%; need of CME on ADRs along with Pharmacovigil a nce among student at least (64% as the ADRs on elderly (57%, children(58%, Pregnancy (64%. Similarly out of 24 questions on Attitude, only 7 questions on Reporting, Multi National Company, Dr ug Controller of India, Disability and Compensation are selected for statistical analysis. The percentage of the students who has heard and seen ADRs 64.5. CONCLUSION: Most of the ADRs are avoidable if there is good communication and reports which plays a pivotal role in minimizing the ADRs. Drugs must be prescribed rationally and polypharmacy should be avoided as much as possible. To avoid the iatrogenic diseases, Pharm acovigilance is a matter of great concern for the health care providers and for the general mass too.

  11. Relationships Between Health Literacy and Genomics-Related Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, Perceived Importance, and Communication in a Medically Underserved Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Blanchard, Melvin; Milam, Laurel; Pokharel, Manusheela; Elrick, Ashley; Goodman, Melody S

    2016-01-01

    The increasing importance of genomic information in clinical care heightens the need to examine how individuals understand, value, and communicate about this information. Based on a conceptual framework of genomics-related health literacy, we examined whether health literacy was related to knowledge, self-efficacy, and perceived importance of genetics and family health history (FHH) and communication about FHH in a medically underserved population. The analytic sample was composed of 624 patients at a primary care clinic in a large urban hospital. About half of the participants (47%) had limited health literacy; 55% had no education beyond high school, and 58% were Black. In multivariable models, limited health literacy was associated with lower genetic knowledge (β = -0.55, SE = 0.10, p information (OR = 1.95, 95% CI [1.27, 3.00], p = .0022) but lower perceived importance of FHH information (OR = 0.47, 95% CI [0.26, 0.86], p = .013) and more frequent communication with a doctor about FHH (OR = 2.02, 95% CI [1.27, 3.23], p = .0032). The findings highlight the importance of considering domains of genomics-related health literacy (e.g., knowledge, oral literacy) in developing educational strategies for genomic information. Health literacy research is essential to avoid increasing disparities in information and health outcomes as genomic information reaches more patients.

  12. A workshop to teach medical students communication skills and clinical knowledge about end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torke, Alexia M; Quest, Tammie E; Kinlaw, Kathy; Eley, J William; Branch, William T

    2004-05-01

    We describe a half-day workshop to teach third-year medical students three focused end-of-life care skills: breaking bad news, discussing advance directives, and assessing and managing pain. Our workshop included a readers' theater exercise and three role-play exercises. In two of the workshops, faculty members played the role of patients. We used readers' theater to engage the students on an emotional level and set a reflective tone for the workshop. Evaluations reflected that most respondents felt that the workshop enhanced their understanding and ability to address these skills with patients. By 6 months, many students reported applying these skills to patient care in a way they thought was effective.

  13. Conception of Pharmacological Knowledge and Needs Amongst Nigerian Medical Students at Lagos State University College of Medicine: Implication for Future Biomedical Science in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaga, Luther Agbonyegbeni; John, Theresa Adebola

    2016-01-01

    In Nigeria, medical students are trained in more didactic environments than their counterparts in researchintensive academic medical centers. Their conception of pharmacology was thus sought. Students who are taking/have takenthe medical pharmacology course completed an 18-question survey within 10min by marking one/more choices fromalternatives. Instructions were: "Dear Participant, Please treat as confidential, give your true view, avoid influences, avoidcrosstalk, return survey promptly." Out of 301 students, 188 (62.46%) participated. Simple statistics showed: 61.3%respondents associated pharmacology with medicine, 24.9% with science, 16.8 % with industry, and 11.1% with government;32.8% want to know clinical pharmacology, 7.1% basic pharmacology, 6.7% pharmacotherapy, and 34.2% want a blend ofall three; 57.8% want to know clinical uses of drugs, 44.8% mechanisms of action, 44.4% side effects, and 31.1% differentdrugs in a group; 45.8% prefer to study lecturers' notes, 26.7% textbooks, 9.8% the Internet, and 2.7% journals; 46.7% usestandard textbooks, 11.5% revision texts, 2.66% advanced texts, and 8.4% no textbook; 40.4% study pharmacology to beable to treat patients, 39.1% to complete the requirements for MBBS degree, 8.9% to know this interesting subject, and 3.1%to make money. Respondents preferring aspects of pharmacology were: 42.7, 16, 16, and 10 (%) respectively for mechanismsof action, pharmacokinetics, side effects, and drug lists. Medical students' conception and need for pharmacology werebased on MBBS degree requirements; they lacked knowledge/interest in pharmacology as a science and may not be thepotential trusts for Africa's future pharmacology.

  14. Conception of Pharmacological Knowledge and Needs Amongst Nigerian Medical Students at Lagos State University College of Medicine: Implication for Future Biomedical Science in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaga, Luther Agbonyegbeni; John, Theresa Adebola

    2016-01-01

    In Nigeria, medical students are trained in more didactic environments than their counterparts in researchintensive academic medical centers. Their conception of pharmacology was thus sought. Students who are taking/have takenthe medical pharmacology course completed an 18-question survey within 10min by marking one/more choices fromalternatives. Instructions were: "Dear Participant, Please treat as confidential, give your true view, avoid influences, avoidcrosstalk, return survey promptly." Out of 301 students, 188 (62.46%) participated. Simple statistics showed: 61.3%respondents associated pharmacology with medicine, 24.9% with science, 16.8 % with industry, and 11.1% with government;32.8% want to know clinical pharmacology, 7.1% basic pharmacology, 6.7% pharmacotherapy, and 34.2% want a blend ofall three; 57.8% want to know clinical uses of drugs, 44.8% mechanisms of action, 44.4% side effects, and 31.1% differentdrugs in a group; 45.8% prefer to study lecturers' notes, 26.7% textbooks, 9.8% the Internet, and 2.7% journals; 46.7% usestandard textbooks, 11.5% revision texts, 2.66% advanced texts, and 8.4% no textbook; 40.4% study pharmacology to beable to treat patients, 39.1% to complete the requirements for MBBS degree, 8.9% to know this interesting subject, and 3.1%to make money. Respondents preferring aspects of pharmacology were: 42.7, 16, 16, and 10 (%) respectively for mechanismsof action, pharmacokinetics, side effects, and drug lists. Medical students' conception and need for pharmacology werebased on MBBS degree requirements; they lacked knowledge/interest in pharmacology as a science and may not be thepotential trusts for Africa's future pharmacology. PMID:27574769

  15. Lucky guess or knowledge: a cross-sectional study using the Bland and Altman analysis to compare confidence-based testing of pharmacological knowledge in 3rd and 5th year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmeyer, Daniela; Matthes, Jan; Herzig, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Multiple-choice-questions are common in medical examinations, but guessing biases assessment results. Confidence-based-testing (CBT) integrates indicated confidence levels. It has been suggested that correctness of and confidence in an answer together indicate knowledge levels thus determining the quality of a resulting decision. We used a CBT approach to investigate whether decision quality improves during undergraduate medical education. 3rd- and 5th-year students attended formative multiple-choice exams on pharmacological issues. Students were asked to indicate their confidence in a given answer. Correctness of answers was scored binary (1-correct; 0-wrong) and confidence levels were transformed to an ordinal scale (guess: 0; rather unsure: 0.33; rather sure: 0.66; very sure: 1). 5th-year students gave more correct answers (73 ± 16 vs. 49 ± 13 %, p confident regarding the correctness of their answers (0.61 ± 0.18 vs. 0.46 ± 0.13, p students (r = 0.81 vs. r = 0.52), but agreement of confidence and correctness ('centration') was lower. By combining the Bland-and-Altman approach with categories of decision-quality we found that 5th-year students were more likely to be 'well-informed' (41 vs. 5 %), while more 3rd-students were 'uninformed' (24 vs. 76 %). Despite a good correlation of exam results and confidence in given answers increased knowledge might be accompanied by a more critical view at the own abilities. Combining the statistical Bland-and-Altman analysis with a theoretical approach to decision-quality, more advanced students are expected to apply correct beliefs, while their younger fellows are rather at risk to hesitate or to act amiss.

  16. Authenticity in ancient DNA studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske

    2006-01-01

    Ancient DNA studies represent a powerful tool that can be used to obtain genetic insights into the past. However, despite the publication of large numbers of apparently successful ancient DNA studies, a number of problems exist with the field that are often ignored. Therefore, questions exist as ...

  17. Surgical history of ancient China: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Louis

    2009-12-01

    Although surgery was an accepted and quite proficient craft very early on in Chinese history, it has deteriorated through the ages. Despite the fact that anaesthetic agents in major surgery were employed during the third century, Chinese surgery is conspicuous by its stagnation. Reverence for the dead, filial piety, abhorrence of shedding blood and other conservative attitudes make it impossible for any accurate knowledge of the human anatomy and physiology, without which surgery cannot progress. This article surveys some highlights in the history of surgery in ancient China and examines the factors responsible for its decline. The second concluding part deals with orthopaedics.

  18. Assessing local patients' knowledge and awareness of radiation dose and risks associated with medical imaging: a questionnaire study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the awareness of radiation dose and associated risks caused by radiological procedures among local patients. All subjects were recruited by randomly sampling the patients receiving radiological examinations. These subjects were stratified on age, sex and education. The questionnaire was in Chinese and consisted of 28 questions mostly in multiple choice/true-or-false format, divided into three sections examining demographic data, radiation knowledge/awareness and expectations. A total of 173 questionnaires were returned (83 females and 84 females; mean age of 53). Of these, 32.6% had attended college, 32.6% had completed matriculation and 24.4% secondary school. Most subjects underwent CT (75), MRI (70) and PET-CT (18). Education significantly affected the radiation knowledge (P=0.013). 60.7% and 32.7% were not aware of the radiation-free nature of MRI and USG, respectively. Respectively, 45.4% and 43.5% were of the misconception that Barium enema and Barium swallow studies do not involve radiation. Moreover, 77.6% and 87.9% were aware of the radiation-laden nature of CT and plain X-rays, respectively. Furthermore, 34% and 50%, respectively, think that they are not exposed to radiation at home and on a plane. Regarding the fatal cancer risk from CT, 17.8% chose the correct answer and 62% underestimated the risk. 32.2% correctly estimated the equivalent dose of CT in terms of number of conventional X-rays and 43.2% underestimated the dose. Most (98.2%) were told of the indication, and 42.7% were told the associated radiation dose. Patient radiation awareness is unsatisfactory. There is need to increase patient radiation awareness, and to provide them with the necessary information.

  19. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliya Gounder Palanichamy

    Full Text Available Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade.

  20. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade. PMID:25299580

  1. Ancient Chinese Sundials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kehui

    Timekeeping was essential in the agricultural society of ancient China. The use of sundials for timekeeping was associated with the use of the gnomon, which had its origin in remote antiquity. This chapter studies three sundials (guiyi 晷仪) from the Qin and Han dynasties, the shorter shadow plane sundial (duanying ping yi 短影平仪) invented by Yuan Chong in the Sui Dynasty, and the sundial chart (guiyingtu 晷影图) invented by Zeng Minxing in the Southern Song dynasty. This chapter also introduces Guo Shoujing's hemispherical sundial (yang yi 仰仪). A circular stone sundial discovered at the Small Wild Goose Pagoda in Xi'an is also mentioned. It is dated from the Sui and Tang dynasties. A brief survey of sundials from the Qing dynasty shows various types of sundials.

  2. Yoga and mental health: A dialogue between ancient wisdom and modern psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Ferreira Vorkapic

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Contemplative research found out that modern interventions in psychology might not come from modern concepts after all, but share great similarity with ancient yogic knowledge, giving us the opportunity to integrate the psychological wisdom of both East and West.

  3. Avaliação do conhecimento de estudantes de medicina sobre morte encefálica Evaluation of medical students knowledge on brain death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir Galvão Vieira Bitencourt

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Por ser um conceito relativamente novo e pouco divulgado na sociedade, o diagnóstico de morte encefálica (ME ainda não é bem aceito pela população em geral, inclusive entre médicos e estudantes de Medicina. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o conhecimento de uma amostra de estudantes de Medicina sobre o protocolo diagnóstico de ME. MÉTODO: Estudo descritivo de corte transversal, avaliando acadêmicos de duas faculdades de Medicina de Salvador-BA. Foi distribuído um questionário auto-aplicável composto por questões referentes à conhecimento, técnico e ético, contidos na Resolução nº 1.480/97 do Conselho Federal de Medicina, que dispõe sobre os critérios para caracterização de ME. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 115 estudantes. A média de acertos nas 14 questões sobre o conhecimento dos critérios da ME foi de 6,7 ± 1,8; sendo maior entre os estudantes que haviam assistido alguma apresentação sobre ME. A maioria dos estudantes (87,4% soube identificar os pacientes candidatos ao protocolo de ME. No entanto, apenas 5,2% e 16,1% dos estudantes acertaram, respectivamente, os testes clínicos e complementares que devem ser realizados durante o protocolo. Frente a um paciente não-doador com diagnóstico confirmado de ME, 66,4% referiram que o suporte artificial de vida deve ser suspenso. Apenas 15% dos estudantes entrevistados já avaliaram um paciente com ME, sendo este percentual maior entre os que já haviam realizado estágio em UTI (38,2% versus 5,1%; p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Because brain death (BD is a new concept and little divulged, it’s not well accepted in general population, including doctors and Medical students. This study aims to evaluate the knowledge of a sample of Medical students on the Brazilian BD diagnosis protocol. METHODS: Descriptive cross-sectional survey that evaluated students from two medical schools in Salvador-BA. We used a questionnaire composed by questions

  4. Antibiotic prescribing and resistance: knowledge level of medical students of clinical years of University Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Mainul; Rahman, Nor Iza A; Zulkifli, Zainal; Ismail, Salwani

    2016-01-01

    The innovation of penicillin by Dr Alexander Fleming in 1928 and its use in clinical practice saved many lives, especially during the Second World War. Tuberculosis still carries a significant public health threat and has re-emerged over the past two decades, even in modern countries where tuberculosis was thought to be eliminated. The World Health Organization defines antimicrobial resistance as the resistance of a microorganism to an antimicrobial drug that was initially effective for treatment of infections caused by the microbe. Therefore, the findings of the current study will provide data to enable the design of a new educational program to better equip our students in confronting antimicrobial resistance. This study was a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey, which was undertaken in the Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. The study participants were students of the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery program (MBBS) of Year III, IV, and V. A total of 142 out of 164 (86%) medical students returned the questionnaire. Specifically, the year-wise breakdown of responses was 29% (41), 39% (55), and 32% (45) for Year III, IV, and V, respectively. Among the study respondents, 28% (40) were male, and the remaining 72% (102) were female. In all, 67% of the participants felt more confident in “making an accurate diagnosis of infection/sepsis.” The majority (88%) of the study participants stated that they would like more training on antibiotic selection. This research has found that there is a gap between theoretical input and clinical practice; the students are demanding more educational intervention to face the threat of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:27042083

  5. Antibiotic prescribing and resistance: knowledge level of medical students of clinical years of University Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Mainul; Rahman, Nor Iza A; Zulkifli, Zainal; Ismail, Salwani

    2016-01-01

    The innovation of penicillin by Dr Alexander Fleming in 1928 and its use in clinical practice saved many lives, especially during the Second World War. Tuberculosis still carries a significant public health threat and has re-emerged over the past two decades, even in modern countries where tuberculosis was thought to be eliminated. The World Health Organization defines antimicrobial resistance as the resistance of a microorganism to an antimicrobial drug that was initially effective for treatment of infections caused by the microbe. Therefore, the findings of the current study will provide data to enable the design of a new educational program to better equip our students in confronting antimicrobial resistance. This study was a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey, which was undertaken in the Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. The study participants were students of the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery program (MBBS) of Year III, IV, and V. A total of 142 out of 164 (86%) medical students returned the questionnaire. Specifically, the year-wise breakdown of responses was 29% (41), 39% (55), and 32% (45) for Year III, IV, and V, respectively. Among the study respondents, 28% (40) were male, and the remaining 72% (102) were female. In all, 67% of the participants felt more confident in "making an accurate diagnosis of infection/sepsis." The majority (88%) of the study participants stated that they would like more training on antibiotic selection. This research has found that there is a gap between theoretical input and clinical practice; the students are demanding more educational intervention to face the threat of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:27042083

  6. Panic and Culture: Hysterike Pnix in the Ancient Greek World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Susan P

    2015-10-01

    Starting perhaps in the second century BCE, and with Hippocratic precedent, ancient medical writers described a condition they called hysterike pnix or "uterine suffocation." This paper argues that uterine suffocation was, in modern terms, a functional somatic syndrome characterized by chronic anxiety and panic attacks. Transcultural psychiatrists have identified and described a number of similar panic-type syndromes in modern populations, and a plausible theory of how they work has been advanced. These insights, applied to the ancient disease of hysterike pnix, demystify the condition and illuminate the experience of the women who suffered from it. PMID:25471069

  7. [Gout and its manifestations, description and treatment in ancient times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alušík, Tomáš; Alušík, Štefan

    2015-01-01

    Gout is a very old disease, which exists for thousands of years. The first descriptions interpreted as the symptoms of gout can be found already in the Egyptian medical papyri dating to the 3rd mill. BC. In the Ancient world, many physicians dealt with the causes, diagnostics and the treatments of gout, such as Hippocrates of Cos, Diocles of Carystus or Claudios Galenos. A personified gout (as the goddess Podagra) is also to be found in the Ancient mythology and culture. Several human remnants of the people suffering from gout are preserved from the Antiquity as well.

  8. [Gout and its manifestations, description and treatment in ancient times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alušík, Tomáš; Alušík, Štefan

    2015-01-01

    Gout is a very old disease, which exists for thousands of years. The first descriptions interpreted as the symptoms of gout can be found already in the Egyptian medical papyri dating to the 3rd mill. BC. In the Ancient world, many physicians dealt with the causes, diagnostics and the treatments of gout, such as Hippocrates of Cos, Diocles of Carystus or Claudios Galenos. A personified gout (as the goddess Podagra) is also to be found in the Ancient mythology and culture. Several human remnants of the people suffering from gout are preserved from the Antiquity as well. PMID:26357863

  9. Safety in numbers 3: Authenticity, Building knowledge & skills and Competency development & assessment: the ABC of safe medication dosage calculation problem-solving pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Keith W; Meriel Hutton, B; Coben, Diana; Clochesy, John M; Pontin, David

    2013-03-01

    When designing learning and assessment environments it is essential to articulate the underpinning education philosophy, theory, model and learning style support mechanisms that inform their structure and content. We elaborate on original PhD research that articulates the design rationale of authentic medication dosage calculation problem-solving (MDC-PS) learning and diagnostic assessment environments. These environments embody the principles of authenticity, building knowledge and skills and competency assessment and are designed to support development of competence and bridging of the theory-practice gap. Authentic learning and diagnostic assessment environments capture the features and expert practices that are located in real world practice cultures and recreate them in authentic virtual clinical environments. We explore how this provides students with a safe virtual authentic environment to actively experience, practice and undertake MDC-PS learning and assessment activities. We argue that this is integral to the construction and diagnostic assessment of schemata validity (mental constructions and frameworks that are an individual's internal representation of their world), bridging of the theory-practice gap and cognitive and functional competence development. We illustrate these principles through the underpinning pedagogical design of two online virtual authentic learning and diagnostic assessment environments (safeMedicate and eDose™).

  10. 循证医学主题综述知识系统UpToDate研究分析%The Study and Analysis of the UpToDate Knowledge System:an Evidence-based, Topic-reviewed Medical Knowledge System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏大明; 张玉燕; 张华敏; 李宗友; 尚文玲; 侯酉娟; 郎朗; 郝峰

    2013-01-01

    利用信息技术和数据库技术提供的知识管理服务是医学知识服务的重要模式,构建专业的医学知识服务系统、搭建知识服务平台,是有效实施医学知识服务的重要手段。循证医学专题综述知识系统,已经成为国外提供医学知识服务的重要形式之一,出现了诸如UpToDate、DynaMed、BMJ Clinical Evidence、MD Consult等一批高质量的医学知识系统。以UpToDate知识系统为例,从知识系统的框架结构、系统功能、系统特色和评价研究等方面详细介绍了国外循证医学主题综述知识系统的发展现状,为国内医学知识服务平台和知识系统的开发提供参考和借鉴。%The services of knowledge management with information technology and database technology are the important modes of medical knowledge services. The constructions of professional medical knowledge service system and knowledge service platform are the important methods to carry out knowledge service effetely. The evidence-based, topic-reviewed medical knowledge system is one of the most important ways to provide medical knowledge service abroad. There are some high quality medical knowledge systems, such as UpToDate, DynaMed, BMJ Clinical Evidence and MD Consult. This article will introduce the progress of the evidence-based, topic-reviewed medical knowledge system out of China, and discuss the system framework, functions, system features and evaluation studies of knowledge system with the example of UpToDate Knowledge System, so as to provide a demonstration for the construction of domestic medical knowledge service platform and knowledge systems.

  11. [Female anthropology, physiology and disease in ancient Christian writers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzivalli, Emanuela

    2011-01-01

    Ancient Christian sources are rich in reference to the anthropology and physiology of the female. Christianity in the first centuries had multiple positions as concerns the doctrinal thoughts as well as the social practices. Christian anthropological doctrine has been developed along two exegetical lines, hinging on Genesis 1-3: the first views the human being as a whole psycophysical entity and thereby highlights the protological inferiority of the woman; the second, spiritual and Platonic, emphasizes the inner self and thus, in theory, is more equalitarian. Ancient philosophical theories regarding human generation, in particular those ofAristotle and the Stoics, are used, along with medical notions, by Christian theologians to elaborate the dogma of incarnation. However, in certain cases, as with the post partum virginity of Maria, medical theories are totally put aside. The stories recounting the miracles offer the possibility of understanding medical practices offemale conditions and the emotive reactions of the women.

  12. A comparative evaluation of different teaching aids among fourth term medical students to improve the knowledge, attitude and perceptions about pharmacovigilance: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish G. Bagewadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The Study was designed to assess the awareness of Pharmacovigilance and Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR’s and to evaluate the effectiveness of different teaching aids.Materials and Methods: This was a questionnaire-based pre- and post-test on (KAP Knowledge, Attitude, Perception about pharmacovigilance. Students were given handouts regarding pharmacovigilance and ADR reporting one week before the educational interventions. Fourth term medical students (n=72 participated in the study. They were randomly allocated into group A (n=24, group B (n=24 and group C (n=24. A pre-validated 20-point questionnaire on Pharmacovigilance and Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR’s reporting was distributed to each group of students before the educational intervention to know their awareness. The interactive educational interventions on Pharmacovigilance were given using Overhead projector (OHP and transparencies to group A students, Black board (BB method to group B students, Power point presentation (PPT method to group C students respectively. Theoretical content was the same in all the educational interventions. The chi-square test and one way ANOVA was used for statistical calculation.Results: The overall response rates were expressed as percentages, Mean±SD. The Mean Pre-KAP scores on knowledge was (7.7±0.48 but the total post- KAP scores after (OHP, (BB, and (PPT were (12.1±0.39, (17.4±0.3, (19.4±0.21 respectively. The correct response rates were found to be statistically significant (P<0.001.The feedback from the students was encouraging; handouts before the class were greatly welcomed.Conclusion: The study greatly imparted knowledge about pharmacovigilance and ADR’s reporting and students preferred power point presentations the most.

  13. A study of Knowledge, Attitude and Self-Assessment of Residents on Evidence-Based Dentistry at Faculty of Dentistry of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Pourkazemi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evidence-based dentistry is the combination of individual clinical experiences withthe highest-quality evidence available as the result of systematic studies.Evidence-based dentistryis an approach in which the clinician uses the best evidence available to make the most appropriatedecision for the patient. In this descriptive study, the knowledge, attitude and self-assessment ofTabriz dental school residents were examined on evidence-based dentistry in the academic year2014-2015. Methods: All residents of Tabriz Dentistry Faculty (100 in total were enrolled in the study.Thedata collection tool was a questionnaire, and the validity of the questionnaire was determined inprevious studies. To determine the reliability of the questionnaire, it was distributed among the20 residents ina pilot study. Descriptive statistical methods were used to study the data obtained.Chi-square, t-test, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess the relationship between variablesusing SPSS 20. Results: The results showed that the level of residents’ knowledge on evidence-based dentistrywas moderate and 94.4% of residents had a positive attitude toward EBD. The highest and lowestself-assessments were related to the terms PubMed and Cochrane Collaboration (CI=29.27-30.73,CI=42.06-43.32 CI=28.69-31.09with 95%confidence interval, respectively. Conclusion: Given the increasing importance of evidence-based dentistry and considering themoderate knowledge of the residents on the topic, a need is felt for proper planning to teach itat Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Considering dentists’ positive attitude toward EBD, Itseems that there is an appropriate background for EBD education in the country

  14. Did the ancient Egyptians migrate to ancient Nigeria?

    OpenAIRE

    Jock M. Agai

    2014-01-01

    Literatures concerning the history of West African peoples published from 1900 to 1970 debate�the possible migrations of the Egyptians into West Africa. Writers like Samuel Johnson and�Lucas Olumide believe that the ancient Egyptians penetrated through ancient Nigeria but Leo�Frobenius and Geoffrey Parrinder frowned at this opinion. Using the works of these early�20th century writers of West African history together with a Yoruba legend which teaches�about the origin of their earliest ancesto...

  15. Ancient Astronomical Monuments of Athens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.

    2010-07-01

    In this work, four ancient monuments of astronomical significance found in Athens and still kept in the same city in good condition are presented. The first one is the conical sundial on the southern slope of the Acropolis. The second one is the Tower of the Winds and its vertical sundials in the Roman Forum of Athens, a small octagonal marble tower with sundials on all 8 of its sides, plus a water-clock inside the tower. The third monument-instrument is the ancient clepsydra of Athens, one of the findings from the Ancient Agora of Athens, a unique water-clock dated from 400 B.C. Finally, the fourth one is the carved ancient Athenian calendar over the main entrance of the small Byzantine temple of the 8th Century, St. Eleftherios, located to the south of the temple of the Annunciation of Virgin Mary, the modern Cathedral of the city of Athens.

  16. Layout of Ancient Maya Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylesworth, Grant R.

    Although there is little doubt that the ancient Maya of Mesoamerica laid their cities out based, in part, on astronomical considerations, the proliferation of "cosmograms" in contemporary scholarly discourse has complicated matters for the acceptance of rigorous archaeoastronomical research.

  17. Survey of Medical Undergraduates on the Ggeneral Knowledge about Antibiotics%医学生对抗生素一般知识认知状况的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴明雨; 李育超; 田至立; 吴志毅; 王欣; 唐小梅; 杨维青

    2014-01-01

    Rational use of antibiotics plays an important role for control ing formation of bacterial resistance, improving treatment ef icacy of bacterial diseases. To investigate and analysis the general knowledge of application of antibiotics of medical undergraduates in one medical col ege. Medical students can apply the general knowledge of application of antibiotics through related medical education and training.%本研究对某高等医学院校在读本科医学生进行抗生素应用一般知识认知状况的调查和分析,绝大多数同学通过相关的医学教育和学习,能较好地掌握抗生素应用的相关知识。

  18. Reconstructing ancient genomes and epigenomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-01-01

    DNA studies have now progressed to whole-genome sequencing for an increasing number of ancient individuals and extinct species, as well as to epigenomic characterization. Such advances have enabled the sequencing of specimens of up to 1 million years old, which, owing to their extensive DNA damage and...... contamination, were previously not amenable to genetic analyses. In this Review, we discuss these varied technical challenges and solutions for sequencing ancient genomes and epigenomes....

  19. Orthopedic surgery in ancient Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-01-01

    Background — Ancient Egypt might be considered the cradle of medicine. The modern literature is, however, sometimes rather too enthusiastic regarding the procedures that are attributed an Egyptian origin. I briefly present and analyze the claims regarding orthopedic surgery in Egypt, what was actually done by the Egyptians, and what may have been incorrectly ascribed to them. Methods — I reviewed the original sources and also the modern literature regarding surgery in ancient Egypt, concentra...

  20. 基于知识管理的医学信息学理论基础研究%Study on the theoretical basis of medical informatics based on knowledge management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志国; 于魁; 薄建柱

    2008-01-01

    Traditional theories on information management have made an extreme of studies and practice on medical informatics, which has hampered the development of medical informatics. Knowledge management is a brand new theory based on information and aiming at innovation of knowledge, and is in accordance with the nature of medical informatics. Medical informatics based on knowledge management promotes management of medical information, which not only benefits the integration and development of disciplines of medical informatics, also benefits hospital informatization, implementation of evidence-based medicine, and education in medical informatics. Basic studies on medical informatics, personnel training and management should be guided by knowledge management theory in the field of informatics.%传统的信息管理理论使医学信息学的研究和实践陷入了技术化的极端,不利于学科的健康发展.知识管理是以信息为基础、以知识创新为目的的全新的管理理论,符合医学信息学的本质.以知识管理作为医学信息学的理论基础,可以更好地促进医学信息管理工作,既有利于医学信息学学科的融合和发展,也有利于医院信息化建设的开展、循证医学的实施及医学信息学人才的培养.医学信息学界应以知识管理为指导,开展医学信息学的基础研究、人才培养和管理实践.

  1. Pathogens and host immunity in the ancient human oral cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warinner, Christina; Rodrigues, João F Matias; Vyas, Rounak;

    2014-01-01

    cavity has long served as a reservoir for bacteria implicated in both local and systemic disease. We characterize (i) the ancient oral microbiome in a diseased state, (ii) 40 opportunistic pathogens, (iii) ancient human-associated putative antibiotic resistance genes, (iv) a genome reconstruction......Calcified dental plaque (dental calculus) preserves for millennia and entraps biomolecules from all domains of life and viruses. We report the first, to our knowledge, high-resolution taxonomic and protein functional characterization of the ancient oral microbiome and demonstrate that the oral...... of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia, (v) 239 bacterial and 43 human proteins, allowing confirmation of a long-term association between host immune factors, 'red complex' pathogens and periodontal disease, and (vi) DNA sequences matching dietary sources. Directly datable and nearly ubiquitous, dental...

  2. A survey on medical personnel' s knowledge of nutrition management of diabetes mellitus%我国医护人员对糖尿病医学营养治疗知晓情况的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟; 张凤芝; 姬秋和

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the medical personnel's attitude and knowledge of diabetes nutrition management Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted among 944 clinical medical personnel of 27 cities in China from July to August 2010. Results The attitude of most medical personnel to medical nutritional treatment was positive, while their knowledge of nutrition management of diabetes mellitus was on the low level. Conclusion The medical personnel's knowledge level of nutrition management for diabetes mellitus is relatively low. The training on medical nutritional treatment for diabetes mellitus should be strengthened.%目的 了解医护人员对糖尿病医学营养治疗的态度和基础营养知识的知晓情况. 方法 2010年7~8月对全国27个城市的944名临床一线医护人员进行问卷调查. 结果 多数医护人员对糖尿病的医学营养治疗的作用持肯定态度,但对营养基础知识的了解程度偏低. 结论 各类医护人员对糖尿病营养基础知识的知晓率偏低,应加强医护人员的糖尿病医学营养治疗知识培训.

  3. Ancient analogues concerning stability and durability of cementitious wasteform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of cementitious materials goes back to ancient times. The Greeks and Romans used calcined limestone and later developed pozzolanic cement by grinding together lime and volcanic ash called open-quotes pozzolanclose quotes which was first found near Port Pozzuoli, Italy. The ancient Chinese used lime-pozzolanic mixes to build the Great Wall. The ancient Egyptians used calcined impure gypsum to build the Great Pyramid of Cheops. The extraordinary stability and durability of these materials has impressed us, when so much dramatically damaged infrastructure restored by using modern portland cement now requires rebuilding. Stability and durability of cementitious materials have attracted intensive research interest and contractors' concerns, as does immobilization of radioactive and hazardous industrial waste in cementitious materials. Nuclear waste pollution of the environment and an acceptable solution for waste management and disposal constitute among the most important public concerns. The analogy of ancient cementitious materials to modern Portland cement could give us some clues to study their stability and durability. This present study examines selected results of studies of ancient building materials from France, Italy, China, and Egypt, combined with knowledge obtained from the behavior of modern portland cement to evaluate the potential for stability and durability of such materials in nuclear waste forms

  4. Back to the roots - dermatology in ancient Egyptian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Anke

    2016-04-01

    Although ancient Greek and Roman medicine is generally considered the origin of European medicine, there is evidence in ancient Egyptian texts suggesting a precursor role of ancient Egyptian medicine in this regard. What did Greek and Roman physicians learn from their Egyptian counterparts? Of the medical papyri discovered to date, the largest and most significant - the Ebers papyrus and the Smith papyrus - originate from the beginning of the New Kingdom, however, they were - at least in part - already written during the Old Kingdom. Considering the times, the spectrum of diseases treated as well as the range of conservative and surgical treatment methods was truly astounding. Taking a medical history, performing a thorough manual examination, and assessing clinical findings constituted key components in establishing a diagnosis. Apart from hygienic aspects, skin and hair disorders, the treatment of acute and chronic wounds and injuries as well as cosmetic procedures took on an important role. Even back then, physicians sought to assess inflammatory processes with respect to their cardinal features, implement graded wound therapy, and treat diseases with allopathic drugs. The 'channel theory' prevalent at that time, in which the unimpeded flow of bodily fluids was considered a fundamental prerequisite for health, may likely be regarded as precursor of ancient Greek humoral pathology. The latter became the basis for the subsequently established theory of the four humors, and was thus essential for the entire field of medieval medicine. PMID:27027749

  5. Clustering and Symbolic Analysis of Cardiovascular Signals: Discovery and Visualization of Medically Relevant Patterns in Long-Term Data Using Limited Prior Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zeeshan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes novel fully automated techniques for analyzing large amounts of cardiovascular data. In contrast to traditional medical expert systems our techniques incorporate no a priori knowledge about disease states. This facilitates the discovery of unexpected events. We start by transforming continuous waveform signals into symbolic strings derived directly from the data. Morphological features are used to partition heart beats into clusters by maximizing the dynamic time-warped sequence-aligned separation of clusters. Each cluster is assigned a symbol, and the original signal is replaced by the corresponding sequence of symbols. The symbolization process allows us to shift from the analysis of raw signals to the analysis of sequences of symbols. This discrete representation reduces the amount of data by several orders of magnitude, making the search space for discovering interesting activity more manageable. We describe techniques that operate in this symbolic domain to discover rhythms, transient patterns, abnormal changes in entropy, and clinically significant relationships among multiple streams of physiological data. We tested our techniques on cardiologist-annotated ECG data from forty-eight patients. Our process for labeling heart beats produced results that were consistent with the cardiologist supplied labels 98.6 of the time, and often provided relevant finer-grained distinctions. Our higher level analysis techniques proved effective at identifying clinically relevant activity not only from symbolized ECG streams, but also from multimodal data obtained by symbolizing ECG and other physiological data streams. Using no prior knowledge, our analysis techniques uncovered examples of ventricular bigeminy and trigeminy, ectopic atrial rhythms with aberrant ventricular conduction, paroxysmal atrial tachyarrhythmias, atrial fibrillation, and pulsus paradoxus.

  6. Clustering and Symbolic Analysis of Cardiovascular Signals: Discovery and Visualization of Medically Relevant Patterns in Long-Term Data Using Limited Prior Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin Stultz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes novel fully automated techniques for analyzing large amounts of cardiovascular data. In contrast to traditional medical expert systems our techniques incorporate no a priori knowledge about disease states. This facilitates the discovery of unexpected events. We start by transforming continuous waveform signals into symbolic strings derived directly from the data. Morphological features are used to partition heart beats into clusters by maximizing the dynamic time-warped sequence-aligned separation of clusters. Each cluster is assigned a symbol, and the original signal is replaced by the corresponding sequence of symbols. The symbolization process allows us to shift from the analysis of raw signals to the analysis of sequences of symbols. This discrete representation reduces the amount of data by several orders of magnitude, making the search space for discovering interesting activity more manageable. We describe techniques that operate in this symbolic domain to discover rhythms, transient patterns, abnormal changes in entropy, and clinically significant relationships among multiple streams of physiological data. We tested our techniques on cardiologist-annotated ECG data from forty-eight patients. Our process for labeling heart beats produced results that were consistent with the cardiologist supplied labels 98.6% of the time, and often provided relevant finer-grained distinctions. Our higher level analysis techniques proved effective at identifying clinically relevant activity not only from symbolized ECG streams, but also from multimodal data obtained by symbolizing ECG and other physiological data streams. Using no prior knowledge, our analysis techniques uncovered examples of ventricular bigeminy and trigeminy, ectopic atrial rhythms with aberrant ventricular conduction, paroxysmal atrial tachyarrhythmias, atrial fibrillation, and pulsus paradoxus.

  7. Did the ancient Egyptians migrate to ancient Nigeria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock M. Agai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Literatures concerning the history of West African peoples published from 1900 to 1970 debate�the possible migrations of the Egyptians into West Africa. Writers like Samuel Johnson and�Lucas Olumide believe that the ancient Egyptians penetrated through ancient Nigeria but Leo�Frobenius and Geoffrey Parrinder frowned at this opinion. Using the works of these early�20th century writers of West African history together with a Yoruba legend which teaches�about the origin of their earliest ancestor(s, this researcher investigates the theories that the�ancient Egyptians had contact with the ancient Nigerians and particularly with the Yorubas.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: There is an existing ideology�amongst the Yorubas and other writers of Yoruba history that the original ancestors of�the Yorubas originated in ancient Egypt hence there was migration between Egypt and�Yorubaland. This researcher contends that even if there was migration between Egypt and�Nigeria, such migration did not take place during the predynastic and dynastic period as�speculated by some scholars. The subject is open for further research.

  8. 1027名医务人员癌症疼痛知识及态度调查研究%The investigation of 1027 medical staff about knowledge grasping and attitude of cancer pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Qiu; Shiying Yu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To get the message of knowledge and attitude about pain of the medical members from basic medical service sites by questionnaire investigation. To point out concrete directions for generalization and post-education of the three-tiered principles of analgesics treatment of WHO. Methods: We designed a questionnaire about cancer pain treatment.We used it to make inquire in 1040 medical staff from different medical agencies. SPSS software was used to analyze all data. Results: 1027 questionnaires were fit for data analysis. 91.4% of staff working in the primary medical agencies, 95.0%with professional title of assistant professor or lower title, and 83.7% younger than 50-year old. The data displayed that basic knowledge of cancer pain are poorly mastered. More than half investigates cannot evaluate the pain degrees correctly, and have many erroneous understandings about pain. Conclusion: The training of pain treatments for the medical staff working in primary medical agencies should be enhanced because of their poor grasping. Primary agencies should increase the varieties of analgesic drugs and change their attitude and conception of analgesic drugs administration.

  9. [Removal of weremit from the abdomen. Interpretation and efficacy of an ancient Egyptian prescription by the newest scientific results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katona, Júlia; Győry, Hedvig; Blázovics, Anna

    2015-12-13

    Significant percentage of today's knowledge of ancient Egyptian medicine has been acquired from papyri left behind from various periods of Egyptian history. The longest and the most comprehensive is the Ebers papyrus, kept at the University Museum of Leipzig, which was written more than one thousand years before Hippocrates (c. 460-377 BC). One of the riddles among the prescriptions of the Ebers papyrus Eb20 has been used in order to remove the so called "wemyt" weremit from the abdomen with the help of a drink, which consists of "jnnk", Conyza dioscoridis in milk or sweet beer. The authors assume that the disease could be an infection of Schistosoma haematobium and/or Schistosoma mansoni. Nowadays the tea of Conyza dioscoridis is widely used as an important part of traditional medicine against rheumatism, intestinal distention and cramps, as well as an antiperspirant, and with external use for wound healing. The authors' intent is to interpret the efficacy of the above-mentioned ancient prescription with the help of modern medical and pharmaceutical knowledge. PMID:26639646

  10. 医学生营养知识-态度-行为现状调查分析%Investigation on medical students' knowledge, attitude and practice of nutrition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓伟; 李增宁; 石汉平

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the medical students' knowledge, attitude and practices(KAP) of nutrition, provide the necessary information for nutrition education, and improve their own health and future participation in medical nutrition therapy. Methods A random cluster survey of 800 students in some Medical School was performed using questionnaire survey approach. Results Girls got higher scores than boys on nutritional knowledge (K), attitude (A) and practice (P) separately as well as the total KAP score (t=2.272, 2.035, 2.435, 3.096,all P<0.05). Medical students in seniors years did better than the juniors on the K, A, and KAP (t=6.017, 2.018, 4.441,all P<0.05); and there was no statistical difference of P among different grades (t=0.153,P=0.2265). Students from the urban area had higher scores than those from the rural area on K, A and KAP (t=2.138, 11.561, 2.800,all P<0.05), while there was no statistical difference of P among students from different areas (t=0.061,P=0.0585). There was relationship between K and eating snacks, dining out and having breakfast every day, and A between having breakfast every day. Conclusions The medical students lack nutritional knowledge,their own nutritional status is poor, but the attitude towards nutrition is relatively positive. More nutrition education should be given to boys, students in lower grades, and rural students.%目的:调查某医学院校医学生营养知识-态度-行为(KAP)现状,为针对性对其进行营养教育和干预提供依据,增强医学生日后在医疗工作中的营养治疗意识。方法采用分层随机抽样的方法,对某医学院校800名医学生的KAP现状进行调查分析。结果医学生中女性的营养知识(K)、态度(A)、行为(P)得分及KAP总分均高于男生,差异有统计学意义(t 分别为2.272,2.035,2.435,3.096,均P<0.05);高年级医学生K、A得分及KAP总分优于低年级学生(t分别为6.017,2.018,4.441,均P<0.05)

  11. Historical overview of spinal deformities in ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaspiris Angelos

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little is known about the history of spinal deformities in ancient Greece. The present study summarizes what we know today for diagnosis and management of spinal deformities in ancient Greece, mainly from the medical treatises of Hippocrates and Galen. Hippocrates, through accurate observation and logical reasoning was led to accurate conclusions firstly for the structure of the spine and secondly for its diseases. He introduced the terms kyphosis and scoliosis and wrote in depth about diagnosis and treatment of kyphosis and less about scoliosis. The innovation of the board, the application of axial traction and even the principle of trans-abdominal correction for correction of spinal deformities have their origin in Hippocrates. Galen, who lived nearly five centuries later impressively described scoliosis, lordosis and kyphosis, provided aetiologic implications and used the same principles with Hippocrates for their management, while his studies influenced medical practice on spinal deformities for more than 1500 years.

  12. Education in Ancient and the Present Egypt: From 4000 B.C. to A.D. 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwan, Nour Eldin

    The discovery and deciphering of the Rosetta stone led to a rediscovery of Egypt's contribution to world culture and civilization. This document outlines the growth of knowledge and education in ancient Egypt and emphasizes the disciplines of science, medicine, art, philosophy, agriculture, and engineering. Ancient Egypt's decline and the…

  13. Ancient DNA in Greece. Problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The promise associated with early 'ancient DNA' results has not been translated into routine techniques of value to archaeologists. The reasons for this are partly technical - ancient DNA analysis is an extremely difficult technique - and partly practical - ancient DNA analysis is often an 'after thought' to an archaeological project. In this paper ancient human DNA analysis is briefly reviewed paying particular attention to specimens originating from Greek archaeological contexts. Problems commonly encountered during ancient DNA research are summarised and recommendations for future strategies in the application of ancient DNA in archaeology are proposed. (author)

  14. Health care practices in ancient Greece: The Hippocratic ideal

    OpenAIRE

    Kleisiaris, Christos F.; Sfakianakis, Chrisanthos; Papathanasiou, Ioanna V.

    2014-01-01

    Asclepius and Hippocrates focused medical practice on the natural approach and treatment of diseases, highlighting the importance of understanding the patient’s health, independence of mind, and the need for harmony between the individual, social and natural environment, as reflected in the Hippocratic Oath. The aim of this study was to present the philosophy of care provision in ancient Greece and to highlight the influence of the Hippocratic ideal in modern health care practices. A literatu...

  15. [Dreams, their disorders and their therapeutic function in ancient Mesopotamia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangas, Julio César

    2006-12-01

    In this article, the author analyzes the concept of dreams in ancient Mesopotamia, as well as the interpretation of their therapeutic function by this civilisation. Also discussed are sleep disorders, as described on cuneiform tablets, written on clay at least four thousand years ago. These tablets had a magic role but also functioned as medical texts, detailing therapies used in dealing with the problems of sleep. PMID:17575818

  16. Night blindness and ancient remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hajar Al Binali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A.

  17. Sources of patients' knowledge of the adverse effects of psychotropic medication and the perceived influence of adverse effects on compliance among service users attending community mental health services.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Agyapong, Vincent I O

    2009-12-01

    Noncompliance with medication has been a complex issue with patients with severe mental illness during the last few decades, and adverse effects of medication have been identified as a major contributor to noncompliance.

  18. A time-efficient web-based teaching tool to improve medical knowledge and decrease ABIM failure rate in select residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M. Drake

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM exam's pass rate is considered a quality measure of a residency program, yet few interventions have shown benefit in reducing the failure rate. We developed a web-based Directed Reading (DR program with an aim to increase medical knowledge and reduce ABIM exam failure rate. Methods: Internal medicine residents at our academic medical center with In-Training Examination (ITE scores ≤35th percentile from 2007 to 2013 were enrolled in DR. The program matches residents to reading assignments based on their own ITE-failed educational objectives and provides direct electronic feedback from their teaching physicians. ABIM exam pass rates were analyzed across various groups between 2002 and 2013 to examine the effect of the DR program on residents with ITE scores ≤35 percentile pre- (2002–2006 and post-intervention (2007–2013. A time commitment survey was also given to physicians and DR residents at the end of the study. Results: Residents who never scored ≤35 percentile on ITE were the most likely to pass the ABIM exam on first attempt regardless of time period. For those who ever scored ≤35 percentile on ITE, 91.9% of residents who participated in DR passed the ABIM exam on first attempt vs 85.2% of their counterparts pre-intervention (p<0.001. This showed an improvement in ABIM exam pass rate for this subset of residents after introduction of the DR program. The time survey showed that faculty used an average of 40±18 min per week to participate in DR and residents required an average of 25 min to search/read about the objective and 20 min to write a response. Conclusions: Although residents who ever scored ≤35 percentile on ITE were more likely to fail ABIM exam on first attempt, those who participated in the DR program were less likely to fail than the historical control counterparts. The web-based teaching method required little time commitment by faculty.

  19. Hedera helix L. and damages in Tlos Ancient City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinç, Z.K.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available There are various plant types in Tlos Ancient City of Fethiye district in the Province of Mugla, a city where different residential ruins of Lycia Civilization starting from Classical Age until Byzantine Period. Tlos is an important city in West-Lycia and is situated right on the control point of Lycia Way. Hedera helix L. is one of the plants living in this area, which attracts the attention as it mostly harms the ancient ruins. One of the most important reasons why Hedera helix L. is growing commonly in this region is the perfect ecological circumstances for the growth of this plant of the location where this ancient city is situated in. Additionally the fact that the ruins of the city are left on their fate, is another perfect circumstance for the Hedera helix L. to grow. Climbing or creeping stems of Hedera helix L. stick easily to the objects it touches and encircle them. Due to this characteristic, the walls of the ancient city are covered by this plant. Nevertheless, Hedera helix L. does not only harm the ancient constructions and natural rocks but also woody plants. The harm caused by dried out or cut Hedera helix L. are more than the harm caused by them when they were untouched. The subject of this study is to prove the shape and level of the harm caused by Hedera helix L. on ancient ruins of Tlos. At the same time, this study will underline the fighting methods against Hedera helix L. by comparing similar studies in other countries. Knowledge collected after this study will offer an insight into the excavation and restoration studies undertaken in all Mediterranean countries.

  20. [Medicine in ancient Mesopotamia - part 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins E Silva, J

    2010-01-01

    The second part embraces exclusively the main characteristics of the medicine in Ancient Mesopotamia, in its main facets: concept of disease, healers and practice. The disease was considered a divine punishment or resultant from a malign influence. Insofar, the medicine began by being preventive, by the use of appropriate amulets or by offerings or sacrifices intending to pacify those malign forces. The treatment of the generality of the diseases privileged the expulsion of those spirits and malign influences from the patient body, purifying it, which was done by the specific intervention of a approximately shipu (clergymanexorcist); not having results, the treatment was continued by the asû (practical healer) that appealed to a group of physical manipulations, limited surgical acts and the administration or application of prescriptions, resultants of the mixture of organic and inorganic substances. In case of failing, the patients (as well as common healthy individuals or rule leaders) could fall back upon a priest diviner (bârû) that, by examination of the organs of an animal especially sacrificed for, would give a final decision about the disease or the future. Besides this more occult facet, nourished in religious faiths and in the magic, the medicine of Ancient Mesopotamia included rational knowledge, certainly as the result of systematic patients observation and semiotic interpretation. From those observations and knowledge referred to the Sumerian period, carefully logged, refined and transmitted to the following generations, it was built a valuable group of texts with the description of symptoms, signs, diagnosis and prognostic of the most common diseases, still identifiable in the present. PMID:20353716

  1. Understanding Malaria: Fighting an Ancient Scourge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Malaria Fighting an Ancient Scourge U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Understanding Malaria Fighting an Ancient Scourge U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH ...

  2. Phylogenetic estimation of timescales using ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molak, Martyna; Lorenzen, Eline; Shapiro, Beth;

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, ancient DNA has increasingly been used for estimating molecular timescales, particularly in studies of substitution rates and demographic histories. Molecular clocks can be calibrated using temporal information from ancient DNA sequences. This information comes from the ages...

  3. Cosmetic Dentistry in Ancient Time – Short Review

    OpenAIRE

    A. Vukovic; Bajsman, A.; Zukic, S; Secic, S.

    2009-01-01

    Paleoodontological research proved that some form of cosmetic dentistry existed in the ancient time. The intentional dental mutilation, dental decoration and modifications of anterior teeth have been widespread occurrence in many cultures. The facts that there are various names of this phenomenon indicate the different interpretations from the researches of this type of interventions. Although archaeological specimens of modified teeth are usually isolated and damaged they extend our knowledg...

  4. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. Ry

    1997-01-01

    Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification......Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification...

  5. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, S R

    1997-06-01

    Based on a study of mummies, skeletons, burial rites, medical instruments, medicaments, literature and objets d'art from Ancient Egypt before the Hellenistic Period, the understanding of the eye, its diseases and their treatment at that time is described. Magic spells, religious rites and medical treatments, especially with eye ointments, were probably used often complementary to one another. We must be very cautious about our conclusions in regard to the effectiveness of the treatments. Eye diseases have been depicted only exceptionally in Egyptian art, except for blindness and 'symbolic blindness'. PMID:9253993

  6. Wisdom of an Ancient City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE JIANXIONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ The famous painting,Along the River During Qingming Festival,impresses visitors at the China Pavilion not iust because of the animated figures in the electronic version of the painting but because it shows a prosperous view of Kaifeng,capital of the Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127).It also showcases the wisdom of city planning in ancient China.

  7. The ancient art of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Allan

    2013-12-01

    Revision of Freud's theory requires a new way of seeking dream meaning. With the idea of elaborative encoding, Sue Llewellyn has provided a method of dream interpretation that takes into account both modern sleep science and the ancient art of memory. Her synthesis is elegant and compelling. But is her hypothesis testable? PMID:24304762

  8. The Echoes of Ancient Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watzman, Haim

    2006-01-01

    Several artifacts found at the Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, or Daughters of Jacob Bridge, archaeological site in Israel provide a picture of ancient human ancestors that is different from the once accepted by most scholars. The discoveries by Israeli archaeologist Naama Goren-Inbar suggest that humans developed language and other key abilities far…

  9. Adult Reading of Ancient Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casler, Frederick H.

    Traditionally, students of ancient languages have been taught to translate rather than read. The four most popular current approaches to language instruction--the grammar-translation method, the direct-reading or inductive approach, the audiolingual method, and the structural approach--all have inherent deficiencies that are magnified when applied…

  10. Constructing of Ethics Education Teaching Mode for Medical Students under Knowledge,Emotion, Will, Faith and Behavior%知情意信行视域下医学生医德教育教学模式的建构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪慧英

    2015-01-01

    According to knowledge,emotion,will,faith and behavior method, medical colleges should construct on teaching mode of ethics education for medical students:let the medical students pay attention to medical ethics cognition with reason;construct beautiful civilization campus environment, create noble emotion of teachers, let the medical students foster medical ethics emotion with compassion;arm with the mind with the advanced theory, pro-mote medical ethics with the power of example, let the medical students firm medical ethics faith with conviction;Strengthen education of the spirit of work hard and perseveringly, strengthen the nettle spirit education, let the medical students exercise medical ethics with ambition; Establish of an effective supervision mechanism,carry out medical practice,let medicine students implement the behavioral of medical ethics.Step by step,all-round,multi-level,the wide field, construct the"five in one"teaching mode of medical ethics education for medical students.%按照“知—情—意—信—行”的思路展开对医学生医德教育模式的构建:晓之以理,让医学生重视医德认知,拓展医德教育教学内容、创新医德教育教学方法;动之以情,让医学生培养医德情感,建设优美文明的校园环境、打造高尚情感的师资队伍;笃之以信,让医学生坚定医德信念,以先进的理论武装头脑、以榜样的力量弘扬医德;炼之以志,让医学生锤炼医德意志,加强艰苦奋斗精神教育、加强迎难而上精神教育;导之以行,让医学生落实医德行为,建立有效监督机制、开展医疗实践活动。通过层层递进,步步深入,全方位、多层次、宽领域构建“五位一体”的医学生医德教育教学模式。

  11. Cross-sectional Survey on Nutritional Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Medical University Students in Wuhan%武汉市部分医学生营养KAP现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海月; 朱蕾蕾; 王迪

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current status of nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of medical university students in Wuhan, and to provide scientific evidence for conducting nutritional health education among medical university students. Methods Self - designed KAP questionnaires were applied to students from Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Results Medical students had a good understanding of nutritional knowledge (71.3%). Sex, student source, monthly household income per capita and parents' educational level had some influence on nutritional knowledge. Two— factor linear correlation analysis showed that there was a correlation among nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice. Conclusions It is convenient to provide senior nutritional health education for medical university students, for the nutrition attitude of them is well.%目的 了解武汉市医学生营养知识、态度、行为(KAP)现况,为开展营养健康教育提供科学依据. 方法 采用自行设计的KAP问卷对华中科技大学同济医学院的在校医学生进行调查. 结果 医学生营养知识知晓率较高(71.3%),性别、生源、家庭人均月收入和父母文化程度均对营养知识有一定影响.两因素线性相关分析结果显示,营养知识、态度和行为之间存在相关性. 结论 医学生有较好的营养态度,可以进行相关的高级营养健康教育.

  12. Visual translations of ancient heritage – re-contextualising ancient European script through contemporary visual communication methods and media

    OpenAIRE

    Levick-Parkin, Melanie; Flouda, Georgia; Wood, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this practice led research project was to apply a design anthropology approach to the visual re-contexualisation of ancient European script, using contemporary visual communication practices and media strategies in order to explore opportunities for creative engagement with archaeological knowledge. Archaeology can grant us access to our history by allowing us encounters with remnants of the past, but how these remnants are translated for us, read by us and what we believe that...

  13. The contribution of the ancient work "Miaoyizhai Medical Knowledge-the chapter on sexology" to andrology%《妙一斋医学正印编·种子编》对男科学的贡献

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞文伯

    2007-01-01

    岳甫嘉,字仲仁,号心翼,又号妙一斋主人,幼习举子业,屡试于乡不售,遂一意攻医,全治颇众,著《妙一斋医学正印编》16种,现有《种子编》及《女科证治全编》存世。

  14. Knowledge about knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology and knowledge make up the knowledge capital that has been so essential to the oil and gas industry's value creation, competitiveness and internationalization. Report prepared for the Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) and The Norwegian Society of Chartered Technical and Scientific Professionals (Tekna), on the Norwegian petroleum cluster as an environment for creating knowledge capital from human capital, how fiscal and other framework conditions may influence the building of knowledge capital, the long-term perspectives for the petroleum cluster, what Norwegian society can learn from the experiences in the petroleum cluster, and the importance of gaining more knowledge about the functionality of knowledge for increased value creation (author) (ml)

  15. Investigation and analysis on pain management knowledge and attitude of orthopedic medical staffs%骨科医务人员疼痛管理知识和态度调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娜

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate and analyze the level of pain management knowledge and attitude in or-thopedic medical staffs .Methods Totully 58 orthopedic medical staffs were selected and investigated by self-ques-tionnaire ,then the level of pain management knowledge and attitude were analyzed and the corresponding interven-tional countermeasures were provided .Results The assessment score of pain management knowledge and attitude were set as the dependent variables ,and gender ,age ,work experience ,marital status ,professional title and education as the independent variables ,the multiple stepwise regression analysis was performed .The results showed that age , work experience ,professional title and education degree were the influence factors of pain management knowledge and attitude in the orthopedic medical staffs (P< 0 .05) .Conclusion In the treatment process of orthopedic patients ,the differences of pain management knowledge and attitude levels exist in different levels of medical staffs .The medical institution should formulate the corresponding interventional measures according to the individual differences of medi-cal staffs for promoting the level of pain management knowledge and attitude .%目的:探讨骨科医务人员疼痛管理知识和态度水平。方法采用骨科医务人员疼痛管理知识和态度调查表,选取58名骨科医务人员进行调查,分析疼痛管理知识和态度水平并提出相应的干预对策。结果以骨科医务人员疼痛管理知识和态度评估得分为应变量,以医务人员性别、年龄、工作年限、婚姻状况、职称、教育程度为自变量进行回归分析,结果显示年龄、工作年限、职称、教育程度均是骨科医务人员疼痛管理知识和态度影响因素(P<0.05)。结论在骨科患者治疗过程中,不同层次医务人员疼痛管理知识和态度水平存在差异,医疗机构应根据医务人员的个体差异制订相应的干预对策

  16. On the acoustics of ancient Greek and Roman theaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnetani, Andrea; Prodi, Nicola; Pompoli, Roberto

    2008-09-01

    The interplay of architecture and acoustics is remarkable in ancient Greek and Roman theaters. Frequently they are nowadays lively performance spaces and the knowledge of the sound field inside them is still an issue of relevant importance. Even if the transition from Greek to Roman theaters can be described with a great architectural detail, a comprehensive and objective approach to the two types of spaces from the acoustical point of view is available at present only as a computer model study [P. Chourmouziadou and J. Kang, "Acoustic evolution of ancient Greek and Roman theaters," Appl. Acoust. 69, re (2007)]. This work addresses the same topic from the experimental point of view, and its aim is to provide a basis to the acoustical evolution from Greek to Roman theater design. First, by means of in situ and scale model measurements, the most important features of the sound field in ancient theaters are clarified and discussed. Then it has been possible to match quantitatively the role of some remarkable architectural design variables with acoustics, and it is seen how this criterion can be used effectively to define different groups of ancient theaters. Finally some more specific wave phenomena are addressed and discussed. PMID:19045647

  17. [The campaign of returning to the ancient in sphygmology in the Republican Period as viewed from Mai xue cong shu (Series of Pulse Taking)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sujie; Hu, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    From the Southern and Northern Dynasties to the beginning of the Northern Song Dynasty, the models of "master and apprentice" and "physician of long family tradition for generations" were the main ways for teaching medical knowledge. With the rapid amassment of medical books in the Due to the rapid transmission of western science and technology into China in the Republican period, the art of pulse taking had been treated as unscientific. Yao Xinyuan advocated the recovery of ancient pulse taking of the three-portion approach, i.e., taking the pulses at the neck, hands, and feet for comparison. To spread this idea, Yao and Zhang Ziying compiled the Mai xue cong shu (Series of Pulse Taking) in 1937-1947. Altogether 4 issues were published carrying 29 articles concerning the theoretical exploration, experimental research, and clinical practice. Their thinking and approaches were influential to the study and development of modern sphygmology.

  18. [The campaign of returning to the ancient in sphygmology in the Republican Period as viewed from Mai xue cong shu (Series of Pulse Taking)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sujie; Hu, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    From the Southern and Northern Dynasties to the beginning of the Northern Song Dynasty, the models of "master and apprentice" and "physician of long family tradition for generations" were the main ways for teaching medical knowledge. With the rapid amassment of medical books in the Due to the rapid transmission of western science and technology into China in the Republican period, the art of pulse taking had been treated as unscientific. Yao Xinyuan advocated the recovery of ancient pulse taking of the three-portion approach, i.e., taking the pulses at the neck, hands, and feet for comparison. To spread this idea, Yao and Zhang Ziying compiled the Mai xue cong shu (Series of Pulse Taking) in 1937-1947. Altogether 4 issues were published carrying 29 articles concerning the theoretical exploration, experimental research, and clinical practice. Their thinking and approaches were influential to the study and development of modern sphygmology. PMID:26268252

  19. Human cadaveric dissection: a historical account from ancient Greece to the modern era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sanjib Kumar

    2015-09-01

    The review article attempts to focus on the practice of human cadaveric dissection during its inception in ancient Greece in 3rd century BC, revival in medieval Italy at the beginning of 14th century and subsequent evolution in Europe and the United States of America over the centuries. The article highlights on the gradual change in attitude of religious authorities towards human dissection, the shift in the practice of human dissection being performed by barber surgeons to the anatomist himself dissecting the human body and the enactment of prominent legislations which proved to be crucial milestones during the course of the history of human cadaveric dissection. It particularly emphasizes on the different means of procuring human bodies which changed over the centuries in accordance with the increasing demand due to the rise in popularity of human dissection as a tool for teaching anatomy. Finally, it documents the rise of body donation programs as the source of human cadavers for anatomical dissection from the second half of the 20th century. Presently innovative measures are being introduced within the body donation programs by medical schools across the world to sensitize medical students such that they maintain a respectful, compassionate and empathetic attitude towards the human cadaver while dissecting the same. Human dissection is indispensable for a sound knowledge in anatomy which can ensure safe as well as efficient clinical practice and the human dissection lab could possibly be the ideal place to cultivate humanistic qualities among future physicians in the 21st century. PMID:26417475

  20. Status Survey on Knowledge of Medical Staff's Carrying Out Psychological Intervention for the Wounded after Disasters%灾后医护人员对伤员实施心理干预知识的现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张焕芳; 李红玉; 员庆博

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解灾后医护人员对伤员实施心理干预知识的掌握情况.方法 采用整群抽样法,抽取辽宁省锦州市三甲医院、成都市三甲医院在岗医护人员392名,自行设计问卷调查医护人员对伤员进行心理干预知识的掌握情况.结果不同地区医院、是否主动为伤员提供过心理帮助、是否参加过心理干预培训的医护人员问卷得分比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);参加过心理干预培训的医护人员与没有参加过心理干预培训的医护人员问卷各纬度(急性应激障碍、慢性创伤性应激障碍、自杀)得分比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论医护人员心理干预意识较差,灾害救援经验不足,应加强对医护人员的灾后伤员心理干预知识的教育.%Objective To survey the knowledge of medical staff on carrying out psychological intervention for the wounded after disaster. Methods The cluster sampling taken for recruiting 392 on - the -job medical staff from 3A - graded hospital in Jinzhou city of Liaoning province and Chengdu city. A self - designed questionnaire survey was conducted about their knowledge on carrying out psychological intervention for the wounded after disaster. Results The scores of the medical staff from hospitals of different regions about whether they had initially offered the psychological help to the wounded, and whether they participated in the training on knowledge of psychological intervention showed statistically significant difference ( P < 0. 05 ); and the scores of various dimensions ( acute stress disorder, chronic stress disorder, and suicide ) of the medical staff who had participated the training on knowledge of psychological intervention showed statistically significant differences as compared with those of the medical staff who had not ( P <0. 05 ) . Conclusion The medical personnel have poorer psychological intervention consciousness and lack experience in disaster relief, so they