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Sample records for ancient human burials

  1. Quantification and presence of human ancient DNA in burial place ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For reliable and sensitive DNA quantitation, the application of real time PCR is described. A published real-time PCR assay, which allows for the combined analysis of nuclear or ancient DNA and mitochondrial DNA, was modified. This approach can be used for recovering DNA from the surface of fossil bone remains in ...

  2. Ancient Item Spoilage Ritual Used in Nomadic Burial Rite

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    Beisenov Arman Z.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the findings of items in ancient burials which were intentionally spoiled prior to deposition in graves. This tradition was widely spread both in terms of chronology and geography, and therefore cannot be attributed to any individual cultures or regions. The authors present new information on the ritual obtained during an investigation of Borsyk burial mound of the Middle Sarmatian period located in West Kazakhstan. The central grave of barrow 6 contained a heavily damaged bronze cauldron. The grave was looted in antiquity. Individual scattered bones of a human skeleton and minor gold foil adornments from the ceremonial dress of a nobleman were discovered in the grave. The authors suggest that the cauldron was intentionally deformed by the participants of an ancient mortuary and memorial ritual. According to the principal hypothesis concerning the essence of this ritual, spoilage of the items was related to the idea of assign the items with “different” and “transcendent” properties, which resulted from the necessity of burying the owner. Cauldrons played an important role in the life of steppe leaders. The authors assume a sacral nature of the use of cauldrons in the culture of steppe peoples associated with feasts, battles, and sacred hunting. Perhaps, there was a tradition of burying cauldrons together with their owners after spoiling the items in view of the concept of the other world and the role of a heroic leader therein.

  3. Correlation between chemical composition of dental calculus and bone samples in ancient human burials: perspectives in paleonutritional studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capasso, L.; Di Tota, G.; Bondioli, L.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The authors describe the results of an assay based on the comparison between chemical composition of dental calculus and bone respectively obtained from teeth and bones of ancient skeletons. The chemical analysis has been performed by synchrotron light. The concentrations of the following oligoelements having paleonutritional correlations were analysed: Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Sr and Ca. The authors demonstrate that- in a given individual the concentration of such elements in the bone sample were in the range of those obtained for the same elements in the sample of dental calculus. Such correspondence suggests that the chemical analysis of dental calculus may give paleonutritional indications analogous to those deriving from the analysis of bone samples. The authors underline also that the use of dental calculus has a distinct advantage over the use of bone samples, since it may allow a diachronic investigation. In fact, dental calculus typically presents a concentric pattern of growth, and the chemical composition of each layer may vary in accordance with temporal dietary variations. This is not the case for bone. This fact is the theoretical basis for the possible future development of techniques directed to the reconstruction of variations in the dietary habits of ancient individuals, possibly in relation to environmental seasonal changes

  4. Correlation between chemical composition of dental calculus and bone samples in ancient human burials: perspectives in paleonutritional studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capasso, L.; Di Tota, G. [National Aechaeological Museum, Chieta, (Italy); Bondioli, L. [Prehistory and Ethnology Museum, Rome (Italy)

    1997-12-31

    Full text: The authors describe the results of an assay based on the comparison between chemical composition of dental calculus and bone respectively obtained from teeth and bones of ancient skeletons. The chemical analysis has been performed by synchrotron light. The concentrations of the following oligoelements having paleonutritional correlations were analysed: Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Sr and Ca. The authors demonstrate that- in a given individual the concentration of such elements in the bone sample were in the range of those obtained for the same elements in the sample of dental calculus. Such correspondence suggests that the chemical analysis of dental calculus may give paleonutritional indications analogous to those deriving from the analysis of bone samples. The authors underline also that the use of dental calculus has a distinct advantage over the use of bone samples, since it may allow a diachronic investigation. In fact, dental calculus typically presents a concentric pattern of growth, and the chemical composition of each layer may vary in accordance with temporal dietary variations. This is not the case for bone. This fact is the theoretical basis for the possible future development of techniques directed to the reconstruction of variations in the dietary habits of ancient individuals, possibly in relation to environmental seasonal changes.

  5. Ancient tombs in China and shallow ground burial of solid low-intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yawen; Gu Cunli

    1987-01-01

    Having reviewed the experiences with ancient tombs in China, particularly the experiences with tomb siting, configuration of tombs, backfilling materials, civil engineering techniques, sealing techniques, drainage system, antiseptic techniques, a comparison between the ancient tombs and the shallow ground burial of solid radioactive wastes is made. The authors believe that the brilliant achievements of ancient tombs in China in keeping ancient corpses and funeral objects are a historical evidence for safety of shallow ground burial of radioactive wastes, and that the main experiences with the ancient tombs may be useful to shallow ground burial of solid radioactive wastes

  6. Resurrection imageries: A study of the motives for extravagant burial rituals in ancient Egypt

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    Jock M. Agai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Unlike in the New Testament whereby faith in Christ can resurrect the dead, the ancient Egyptians believed that the bereaved created the resurrection of their deceased through burial rituals and by encouraging the living to serve their kings. They thought that faith alone in god or the gods was not enough to resurrect the dead, thus they seemingly superimposed resurrection alongside burials. Using the various forms of Egyptian burial rituals and evaluated from the perspective of the Christian concept of resurrection, this researcher attempts to search for the motives behind specific Egyptian burial rituals. The researcher proposes that the activities of the bereaved or of the living over the dead were paramount in resurrecting the dead in ancient Egypt. The purpose of this research is, firstly, to explain how the Egyptian burial rituals influenced their thoughts on resurrection and, secondly, to show that the Egyptian god(s might have depended on the living to raise the dead.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The ancient Egyptians lived their lives mainly to satisfy the interests of the dead, hence their extensive burial rituals. Whilst they believed in the power of the gods to raise the dead, there seemed to be another motive behind their burial practices which suggested that the living may have had more power to raise the dead. The power was realised in the activities of the living in the form of burials, tomb designs, mummification, food offering, and in remembering the dead. This research explains that these burial activities were relevant in resurrecting the dead without which the gods alone were not able to do that.

  7. The distinguishing characteristics of interlayer oxidation zone and burial ancient ground oxidation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhanshi; Zhou Wenbin

    1998-01-01

    The author discusses the main characteristics of interlayer oxidation zones and the burial ancient ground oxidation zones of Uranium deposit No. 512 in Xinjiang Uigur municipality. The epigenetic genesis, depending on some aquifer, the tongue-like in section, having the zonation along dip direction and having certain mineral assemblage are the typical features for interlayer oxidation zones

  8. Burial customs, the afterlife and pollution of death in ancient Greece

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Funerary practices in ancient Greece were influenced by contemporary views on the afterlife and by concepts of pollution, but also by a desire to limit costs and a need to prevent the process of burial from causing inconvenience to the community or providing an opportunity for exploitation by those with ulterior political ...

  9. Cultural heritage and biodiversity conservation – plant introduction and practical restoration on ancient burial mounds

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    Orsolya Valkó

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Linking the conservation of cultural heritage and natural values provides a unique opportunity for preserving traditional landscapes and receives an increased awareness from stakeholders and society. Ancient burial mounds are proper objects of such projects as they are iconic landscape elements of the Eurasian steppes and often act as refugia for grassland specialist species. The aim of this project was to reintroduce grassland plant species to burial mounds for representing them as cultural monuments with the associated biodiversity for the public. The effectiveness of seed sowing, transplanting greenhouse-grown plants and individuals from threatened populations on burial mounds in Hortobágy National Park, Hungary was tested. The following questions were answered: (1 which method is the most effective for species introduction? (2 which species can establish most successfully? (3 how does management affect the species establishment rates? It was found advisable to use a combination of seed sowing and transplanting greenhouse-grown plants. Sowing was found as a cost-effective method for introducing large-seeded species, whilst introduction of greenhouse-grown transplants warranted higher establishment rates for a larger set of species. Transplanting adult individuals was more reliable regardless of management regimes, however this method is labour-intensive and expensive. Intensive management, like mowing with heavy machinery and intensive grazing, should be avoided in the first few years after introduction. The authors highlighted the fact that introducing characteristic grassland species on cultural monuments offers a great opportunity to link issues of landscape and biodiversity conservation. This project demonstrated that, by the revitalisation of cultural monuments, cultural ecosystem services can also be restored.

  10. The Echoes of Ancient Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watzman, Haim

    2006-01-01

    Several artifacts found at the Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, or Daughters of Jacob Bridge, archaeological site in Israel provide a picture of ancient human ancestors that is different from the once accepted by most scholars. The discoveries by Israeli archaeologist Naama Goren-Inbar suggest that humans developed language and other key abilities far…

  11. Metal-touching tools from ancient graves: The case of a Roman period royal burial

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Martin; Holub, Milan; Zavřel, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 18, April (2018), s. 333-342 ISSN 2352-409X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-22207S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Roman period * elite * burial * touchstone * cinnabar * nickel * speiss Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology

  12. Ancient coins: cluster analysis applied to find a correlation between corrosion process and burial soil characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Rita; Plattner, Susanne H; Guida, Giuseppe; Sammartino, Maria Pia; Visco, Giovanni

    2012-05-02

    Although it is well known that any material degrades faster when exposed to an aggressive environment as well as that "aggressive" cannot be univocally defined as depending also on the chemical-physical characteristics of material, few researches on the identification of the most significant parameters influencing the corrosion of metallic object are available.A series of ancient coins, coming from the archaeological excavation of Palazzo Valentini (Rome) were collected together with soils, both near and far from them, and then analysed using different analytical techniques looking for a correlation between the corrosion products covering the coins and the chemical-physical soil characteristics. The content of soluble salts in the water-bearing stratum and surfacing in the archaeological site, was also measured.The obtained results stress the influence of alkaline soils on formation of patina. Cerussite, probably due to the circulation of water in layers rich in marble and plaster fragments, was the main corrosion product identified by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Copper, lead and vanadium were found in soil surrounding coins. By measuring conductivity, pH and soluble salts content of the washing solutions from both coins and soils, we could easily separate coins coming from different stratigraphic units of the site.Data were treated by cluster and multivariate analysis, revealing a correlation between part of the coins and the nearby soil samples.

  13. Palaeoparasitology - Human Parasites in Ancient Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Adauto; Reinhard, Karl; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Parasite finds in ancient material launched a new field of science: palaeoparasitology. Ever since the pioneering studies, parasites were identified in archaeological and palaeontological remains, some preserved for millions of years by fossilization. However, the palaeoparasitological record consists mainly of parasites found specifically in human archaeological material, preserved in ancient occupation sites, from prehistory until closer to 2015. The results include some helminth intestinal parasites still commonly found in 2015, such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms, besides others such as Amoebidae and Giardia intestinalis, as well as viruses, bacteria, fungi and arthropods. These parasites as a whole provide important data on health, diet, climate and living conditions among ancient populations. This chapter describes the principal findings and their importance for knowledge on the origin and dispersal of infectious diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Discovery and Excavation of a Human Burial from the Mini-athiliya Shell Midden in Southern Sri Lanka

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    Samanti Kulatilake

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Several shell middens of coastal Sri Lanka indicate human occupation in the mid-Holocene and are recognized as being of prime importance in the archaeological narrative of the island. A salvage archaeology operation conducted at the Mini-athiliya shell midden in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka, yielded ancient human remains associated with stone implements and culturally modified faunal remains. The main objective of this rescue operation was to mitigate the destruction to this archaeological site. We report the excavation strategy and dating of this mid-Holocene shell midden, while focusing on the discovery and extraction of a complete human burial that had not been disturbed by the shell mining activity at the site. This excavation is intended to serve as a precursor to systematic investigation of the coastal shell middens of southern Sri Lanka.

  15. On the Problem Related to Reconstructing the Social Structure of the Population that Had Founded Seliksa-Trofimovka (Ancient Mordovian Burial Ground in 4th—5th Centuries

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    Grishakov Valeriy V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of reconstruction of the social structure of the ancient Monrovian population that had established the 4th-5th-century Seliksa-Trofimovka burial ground in the Upper Sura river region. The materials of the male burials of the necropolis have been chosen for analysis as most socially informative. An attempt has been made to determine the relationship between the social status of the individual and its expression in ritual rites. The differences in the composition and quantity of grave goods made it possible to distinguish three groups of burials conventionally termed as "the poor", "the ordinary" and "the warriors." The latter group included three graves with swords. The necropolis has a row-based order layout; all the burials are on the ground level, with no traces of gravestones, and have the same northeast orientation. The property-based stratification in the analyzed community was apparently insignificant, while social stratification depended primarily on professional activities.

  16. A unique human-fox burial from a pre-Natufian cemetery in the Levant (Jordan.

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    Lisa A Maher

    Full Text Available New human burials from northern Jordan provide important insights into the appearance of cemeteries and the nature of human-animal relationships within mortuary contexts during the Epipalaeolithic period (c. 23,000-11,600 cal BP in the Levant, reinforcing a socio-ideological relationship that goes beyond predator-prey. Previous work suggests that archaeological features indicative of social complexity occur suddenly during the latest Epipalaeolithic phase, the Natufian (c. 14,500-11,600 cal BP. These features include sedentism, cemeteries, architecture, food production, including animal domestication, and burials with elaborate mortuary treatments. Our findings from the pre-Natufian (Middle Epipalaeolithic cemetery of 'Uyun al-Hammam demonstrate that joint human-animal mortuary practices appear earlier in the Epipalaeolithic. We describe the earliest human-fox burial in the Near East, where the remains of dogs have been found associated with human burials at a number of Natufian sites. This is the first time that a fox has been documented in association with human interments pre-dating the Natufian and with a particular suite of grave goods. Analysis of the human and animal bones and their associated artefacts provides critical data on the nature and timing of these newly-developing relationships between people and animals prior to the appearance of domesticated dogs in the Natufian.

  17. Burying dogs in ancient Cis-Baikal, Siberia: temporal trends and relationships with human diet and subsistence practices.

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    Robert J Losey

    Full Text Available The first objective of this study is to examine temporal patterns in ancient dog burials in the Lake Baikal region of Eastern Siberia. The second objective is to determine if the practice of dog burial here can be correlated with patterns in human subsistence practices, in particular a reliance on terrestrial mammals. Direct radiocarbon dating of a suite of the region's dog remains indicates that these animals were given burial only during periods in which human burials were common. Dog burials of any kind were most common during the Early Neolithic (∼7-8000 B.P., and rare during all other time periods. Further, only foraging groups seem to have buried canids in this region, as pastoralist habitation sites and cemeteries generally lack dog interments, with the exception of sacrificed animals. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data indicate that dogs were only buried where and when human diets were relatively rich in aquatic foods, which here most likely included river and lake fish and Baikal seal (Phoca sibirica. Generally, human and dog diets appear to have been similar across the study subregions, and this is important for interpreting their radiocarbon dates, and comparing them to those obtained on the region's human remains, both of which likely carry a freshwater old carbon bias. Slight offsets were observed in the isotope values of dogs and humans in our samples, particularly where both have diets rich in aquatic fauna. This may result from dietary differences between people and their dogs, perhaps due to consuming fish of different sizes, or even different tissues from the same aquatic fauna. This paper also provides a first glimpse of the DNA of ancient canids in Northeast Asia.

  18. Burying dogs in ancient Cis-Baikal, Siberia: temporal trends and relationships with human diet and subsistence practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losey, Robert J; Garvie-Lok, Sandra; Leonard, Jennifer A; Katzenberg, M Anne; Germonpré, Mietje; Nomokonova, Tatiana; Sablin, Mikhail V; Goriunova, Olga I; Berdnikova, Natalia E; Savel'ev, Nikolai A

    2013-01-01

    The first objective of this study is to examine temporal patterns in ancient dog burials in the Lake Baikal region of Eastern Siberia. The second objective is to determine if the practice of dog burial here can be correlated with patterns in human subsistence practices, in particular a reliance on terrestrial mammals. Direct radiocarbon dating of a suite of the region's dog remains indicates that these animals were given burial only during periods in which human burials were common. Dog burials of any kind were most common during the Early Neolithic (∼7-8000 B.P.), and rare during all other time periods. Further, only foraging groups seem to have buried canids in this region, as pastoralist habitation sites and cemeteries generally lack dog interments, with the exception of sacrificed animals. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data indicate that dogs were only buried where and when human diets were relatively rich in aquatic foods, which here most likely included river and lake fish and Baikal seal (Phoca sibirica). Generally, human and dog diets appear to have been similar across the study subregions, and this is important for interpreting their radiocarbon dates, and comparing them to those obtained on the region's human remains, both of which likely carry a freshwater old carbon bias. Slight offsets were observed in the isotope values of dogs and humans in our samples, particularly where both have diets rich in aquatic fauna. This may result from dietary differences between people and their dogs, perhaps due to consuming fish of different sizes, or even different tissues from the same aquatic fauna. This paper also provides a first glimpse of the DNA of ancient canids in Northeast Asia.

  19. Ancient humans and the origin of modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Janet; Prüfer, Kay

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in sequencing technologies and molecular methods have facilitated the sequencing of DNA from ancient human remains which has, in turn, provided unprecedented insight into human history. Within the past 4 years the genomes of Neandertals and Denisovans, as well as the genomes of at least two early modern humans, have been sequenced. These sequences showed that there have been several episodes of admixture between modern and archaic groups; including admixture from Neandertals into modern human populations outside of Africa, and admixture from Denisovans into modern human populations in Oceania. Recent results indicate that some of these introgressed regions may have been advantageous for modern humans as they expanded into new regions outside of Africa. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Raman spectroscopic analysis of human remains from a seventh century cist burial on Anglesey, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G M; Wilson, Andrew S; Nik Hassan, Nik F; Davidson, Andrew; Burnett, Andrew

    2007-02-01

    Specimens from human remains exhibiting unusual preservation excavated from a seventh century stone cist burial at Towyn y Capel in Anglesey, UK, have been analysed using Raman spectroscopy with near-infrared laser excitation at 1,064 and 785 nm. Specimens of hair and bone provided evidence for severe degradation and microbial colonisation. The deposits within the stone cist showed that some microbially mediated compounds had been formed. Analysis of crystals found at the interface between the hair and the skeletal neck vertebrae revealed a mixture of newberyite and haematite, associated with decomposition products of the hair and bone. An interesting differential degradation was noted in the specimens analysed which could be related to the air-void and the presence of plant root inclusions into the stone cist. This is the first time that Raman spectroscopy has been used in the forensic archaeological evaluation of burial remains in complex and dynamic environments.

  1. Pathogens and host immunity in the ancient human oral cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warinner, Christina; Rodrigues, João F Matias; Vyas, Rounak

    2014-01-01

    cavity has long served as a reservoir for bacteria implicated in both local and systemic disease. We characterize (i) the ancient oral microbiome in a diseased state, (ii) 40 opportunistic pathogens, (iii) ancient human-associated putative antibiotic resistance genes, (iv) a genome reconstruction......Calcified dental plaque (dental calculus) preserves for millennia and entraps biomolecules from all domains of life and viruses. We report the first, to our knowledge, high-resolution taxonomic and protein functional characterization of the ancient oral microbiome and demonstrate that the oral...

  2. Pathogens and host immunity in the ancient human oral cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warinner, Christina; Matias Rodrigues, João F.; Vyas, Rounak; Trachsel, Christian; Shved, Natallia; Grossmann, Jonas; Radini, Anita; Hancock, Y.; Tito, Raul Y.; Fiddyment, Sarah; Speller, Camilla; Hendy, Jessica; Charlton, Sophy; Luder, Hans Ulrich; Salazar-García, Domingo C.; Eppler, Elisabeth; Seiler, Roger; Hansen, Lars; Samaniego Castruita, José Alfredo; Barkow-Oesterreicher, Simon; Teoh, Kai Yik; Kelstrup, Christian; Olsen, Jesper V.; Nanni, Paolo; Kawai, Toshihisa; Willerslev, Eske; von Mering, Christian; Lewis, Cecil M.; Collins, Matthew J.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Rühli, Frank; Cappellini, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Calcified dental plaque (dental calculus) preserves for millennia and entraps biomolecules from all domains of life and viruses. We report the first high-resolution taxonomic and protein functional characterization of the ancient oral microbiome and demonstrate that the oral cavity has long served as a reservoir for bacteria implicated in both local and systemic disease. We characterize: (i) the ancient oral microbiome in a diseased state, (ii) 40 opportunistic pathogens, (iii) the first evidence of ancient human-associated putative antibiotic resistance genes, (iv) a genome reconstruction of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia, (v) 239 bacterial and 43 human proteins, allowing confirmation of a long-term association between host immune factors, “red-complex” pathogens, and periodontal disease, and (vi) DNA sequences matching dietary sources. Directly datable and nearly ubiquitous, dental calculus permits the simultaneous investigation of pathogen activity, host immunity, and diet, thereby extending the direct investigation of common diseases into the human evolutionary past. PMID:24562188

  3. Insights into Modern Human Prehistory Using Ancient Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Melinda A; Fu, Qiaomei

    2018-03-01

    The genetic relationship of past modern humans to today's populations and each other was largely unknown until recently, when advances in ancient DNA sequencing allowed for unprecedented analysis of the genomes of these early people. These ancient genomes reveal new insights into human prehistory not always observed studying present-day populations, including greater details on the genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flow that characterized past human populations, particularly in early Eurasia, as well as increased insight on the relationship between archaic and modern humans. Here, we review genetic studies on ∼45000- to 7500-year-old individuals associated with mainly preagricultural cultures found in Eurasia, the Americas, and Africa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. "Interred with their bones" - linking soil micromorphology and chemistry to unlock the hidden archive of archaeological human burials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothwell, Don; Usai, Maria-Raimonda; Keely, Brendan; Pickering, Matt; Wilson, Clare

    2010-05-01

    "Interred with their bones" Acronym: InterArChive - an ERC-funded project *** " Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears; " I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him. " The evil that men do lives after them; " The good is oft 'interred with their bones'; " So let it be with Caesar. William Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, Act III, Scene 2. *** Background The state of decay within soils in archaeological graves is often such that degradable objects are not preserved in a condition that can be visually recognised. However, microscopic soil features, inorganic element distributions and organic residues can be measured. Thus, archaeological burial soils have the potential to reveal signatures of decay; pre-burial treatment; presence and nature of associated clothing and perishable artefacts; diet of the individual; cause of death; evidence of morbidity and drug-use. Aims • To develop and test a multidisciplinary approach linking soil micromorphology and chemistry to recover environmental and cultural information; • Revealing the hidden archaeological archive within the burial soil • Developing soil sampling and analysis recommendations for archaeological human burials Methods 1: Sampling and soil field description from archaeological sites contrasting in soil, geology, age, and culture and from experimental piglet burials 2: Microscopic/micromorphological analysis (micro-scale observations) of remains and features in burial soils. We will establish the order of occurrence, spatial patterns, displacement, mode of formation and decay of micromorphological features including exotic components, parasites, hair and remnants of footwear and clothing [cf. pilot study of soils from Yemen]; microfabrics and textural pedofeatures, also to facilitate resolution of body decay products from other accumulations. 3: Microprobe analysis (nano-scale) will generate elemental maps of soil thin sections, allowing identification of features with distinct chemical signatures

  5. Human tuberculosis predates domestication in ancient Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Oussama; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H T; Besra, Gurdyal S; Minnikin, David E; Llewellyn, Gareth; Williams, Christopher M; Maixner, Frank; O'Sullivan, Niall; Zink, Albert; Chamel, Bérénice; Khawam, Rima; Coqueugniot, Eric; Helmer, Daniel; Le Mort, Françoise; Perrin, Pascale; Gourichon, Lionel; Dutailly, Bruno; Pálfi, György; Coqueugniot, Hélène; Dutour, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    The question of pre-neolithic tuberculosis is still open in paleopathological perspective. One of the major interests is to explore what type of infection could have existed around the early stage of animal domestication. Paleopathological lesions evoking skeletal TB were observed on five human skeletons coming from two PPNB sites in Syria, which belongs to the geographical cradle of agriculture. These sites represent respectively pre-domestication phase (Dja'de el Mughara, Northern Syria, 8800-8300 BCE cal.) and early domestication phase (Tell Aswad, Southern Syria, 8200-7600 BCE cal.). MicroCT scan analyses were performed on two specimens (one per site) and revealed microscopic changes in favor of TB infection. Detection of lipid biomarkers is positive for two specimens (one per site). Initial molecular analysis further indicates the presence of TB in one individual from Dja'de. Interestingly, no morphological evidence of TB was observed on animal remains of wild and newly domesticated species, discovered in these sites. These observations strongly suggest the presence of human tuberculosis before domestication and at its early stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Phylotyping and functional analysis of two ancient human microbiomes.

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    Raúl Y Tito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Human Microbiome Project (HMP is one of the U.S. National Institutes of Health Roadmap for Medical Research. Primary interests of the HMP include the distinctiveness of different gut microbiomes, the factors influencing microbiome diversity, and the functional redundancies of the members of human microbiotas. In this present work, we contribute to these interests by characterizing two extinct human microbiotas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examine two paleofecal samples originating from cave deposits in Durango Mexico and dating to approximately 1300 years ago. Contamination control is a serious issue in ancient DNA research; we use a novel approach to control contamination. After we determined that each sample originated from a different human, we generated 45 thousand shotgun DNA sequencing reads. The phylotyping and functional analysis of these reads reveals a signature consistent with the modern gut ecology. Interestingly, inter-individual variability for phenotypes but not functional pathways was observed. The two ancient samples have more similar functional profiles to each other than to a recently published profile for modern humans. This similarity could not be explained by a chance sampling of the databases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conduct a phylotyping and functional analysis of ancient human microbiomes, while providing novel methods to control for DNA contamination and novel hypotheses about past microbiome biogeography. We postulate that natural selection has more of an influence on microbiome functional profiles than it does on the species represented in the microbial ecology. We propose that human microbiomes were more geographically structured during pre-Columbian times than today.

  7. Taphonomy as a methodological framework for understanding surface funerary deposits: the human burial at the cave of El Espinoso (Ribadedeva, Asturias

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    Borja González-Rabanal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During the Bronze Age the human groups of Cantabria buried their dead on the surface of narrow caves. This cultural tradition, common to the Basque Country and Cantabria, extends to eastern Asturias. This work focuses on the taphonomical study of the human remains found in 1993 in the cave of El Espinoso, located in Ribadedeva (Asturias. The cavity was used as a burial place for a minimum of twenty individuals of both sexes and different ages. This site constitutes the only collective burial cave currently known from the Bronze Age in Asturias (other later prehistoric burial caves in the region – El Toral III, La Llana, Fuentenegroso, etc.– have single burials. A funerary tradition of cave burial lasted over two thousand years in eastern Asturias. The taphonomical analysis provides a theoritical and methodological framework adequate to the study this type of superficial deposits, affected by complex post-depositional processes.

  8. Ancient Human Genome Sequence of an Extinct Palaeo-Eskimo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Li, Yingrui; Lindgreen, Stinus

    2010-01-01

    We report here the genome sequence of an ancient human. Obtained from approximately 4,000-year-old permafrost-preserved hair, the genome represents a male individual from the first known culture to settle in Greenland. Sequenced to an average depth of 20x, we recover 79% of the diploid genome...... possible phenotypic characteristics of the individual that belonged to a culture whose location has yielded only trace human remains. We compare the high-confidence SNPs to those of contemporary populations to find the populations most closely related to the individual. This provides evidence...

  9. Tracking down human contamination in ancient human teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sampietro, María Lourdes; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Lao, Oscar

    2006-01-01

    DNA contamination arising from the manipulation of ancient calcified tissue samples is a poorly understood, yet fundamental, problem that affects the reliability of ancient DNA (aDNA) studies. We have typed the mitochondrial DNA hypervariable region I of the only 6 people involved in the excavation...... identified as contaminants, with those derived from the people involved in the retrieval and washing of the remains present in higher frequencies than those of the anthropologist and genetic researchers. This finding confirms, for the first time, previous hypotheses that teeth samples are most susceptible...... to contamination at their initial excavation. More worrying, the cloned contaminant sequences exhibit substitutions that can be attributed to DNA damage after the contamination event, and we demonstrate that the level of such damage increases with time: contaminants that are >10 years old have approximately 5...

  10. Carbon Burial at the Land Ocean Interface: Climate vs Human Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, T. S.; Smeaton, C.; Cui, X.; Howe, J. A.; Austin, W.

    2017-12-01

    Fjords are connectors between the terrestrial and marine systems and are known as globally significant hotspots for the burial (Smith et al., 2014) and long-term storage (Smeaton et al., 2016) of carbon (C). The glacial geomorphology of fjords and their catchment results in the terrestrial and marine environments being strongly coupled more so than other estuary types. The clearest example of this is the terrestrial C subsidy to these sediment, it is estimated that globally 55-62% of C held in fjord sediments are terrestrially derived (Cui et al., 2016). Yet it is largely unknown how climatic and human forcing drives the transfer of terrestrial C to marine sediments. Here we, examine the role of late Holocene climate and human activity on the transfer of C from the terrestrial to marine environment along the North Atlantic Margin. Loch Sunart a Scottish fjord sits at the land ocean interface of the North Atlantic. The catchment of the fjord has been shown to be sensitive to local and regional climatic change (Gillibrand et al., 2005) and the fjord sediments have been able to record these changes in Climate (Cage and Austin, 2010). Using a long (22 m) sedimentary record we discuss our understanding of mid to late Holocene regional climate and its impact on terrestrial C transfer to the coastal ocean. Alongside this we examine the role of humans on the landscape and their impact on the transfer of terrestrial C on the coastal ocean. The results from this study will further our understanding of the long-term drivers of terrestrial C transfer to the coastal ocean. Potentially this research provides insights on future C transfers under a changing future climate allowing the importance of fjords as a climate regulation service to be reassessed.

  11. Distribution and chemical speciation of arsenic in ancient human hair using synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoulli, Ioanna; Prikhodko, Sergey V; Fischer, Christian; Cilluffo, Marianne; Uribe, Mauricio; Bechtel, Hans A; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A

    2014-01-07

    Pre-Columbian populations that inhabited the Tarapacá mid river valley in the Atacama Desert in Chile during the Middle Horizon and Late Intermediate Period (AD 500-1450) show patterns of chronic poisoning due to exposure to geogenic arsenic. Exposure of these people to arsenic was assessed using synchrotron-based elemental X-ray fluorescence mapping, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectromicroscopy measurements on ancient human hair. These combined techniques of high sensitivity and specificity enabled the discrimination between endogenous and exogenous processes that has been an analytical challenge for archeological studies and criminal investigations in which hair is used as a proxy of premortem metabolism. The high concentration of arsenic mainly in the form of inorganic As(III) and As(V) detected in the hair suggests chronic arsenicism through ingestion of As-polluted water rather than external contamination by the deposition of heavy metals due to metallophilic soil microbes or diffusion of arsenic from the soil. A decrease in arsenic concentration from the proximal to the distal end of the hair shaft analyzed may indicate a change in the diet due to mobility, though chemical or microbiologically induced processes during burial cannot be entirely ruled out.

  12. Forensic odontological examination of a 1500 year-old human remain in ancient Korea (Gaya).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S; Lee, U Y; Han, S H; Lee, S S

    2011-12-01

    Forensic odontological examination was performed on one of the 1500-year old human remains of ancient Korea (Gaya) excavated from a burial site at Songhyeon-dong, Changnyeong, South Korea in April, 2008. The main purpose of the examination was to age estimate the remains and record any dental characteristics to aid full-body reconstruction and life history data collection. Oral and radiographic examinations and metric data collection were conducted. During the oral examination, the following observations were made: dental caries, semi-circular abrasion on the maxillary right lateral incisor and enamel hypoplasia on the left and right canines and first premolars in the mandible. The metric data was similar to that of average metric data of modern Koreans. Age estimation was initially conducted using the degree of dental attrition with methods of Takei and Yun, and was estimated to be approximately 40 years. However, it was observed in the radiographic examination, that the maxillary right second molar, together with the mandibular left and right second and third molars had incompletely developed root apices. The age estimation was then performed using the developmental status of the lower second and third molars. The age was estimated to be approximately 16 years using Lee's method which was consistent with the estimation using forensic anthropology. This case study highlights that the degree of attrition should not be used as a sole indicator for age estimation.

  13. Ancient human footprints in Ciur-Izbuc Cave, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, David; Robu, Marius; Moldovan, Oana; Constantin, Silviu; Tomus, Bogdan; Neag, Ionel

    2014-09-01

    In 1965, Ciur-Izbuc Cave in the Carpathian Mountains of Romania was discovered to contain about 400 ancient human footprints. At that time, researchers interpreted the footprints to be those of a man, woman and child who entered the cave by an opening which is now blocked but which was usable in antiquity. The age of the prints (≈10-15 ka BP) was based partly on their association with cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) footprints and bones, and the belief that cave bears became extinct near the end of the last ice age. Since their discovery, the human and bear evidence and the cave itself have attracted spelunkers and other tourists, with the result that the ancient footprints are in danger of destruction by modern humans. In an effort to conserve the footprints and information about them and to reanalyze them with modern techiques, Ciur-Izbuc Cave was restudied in summer of 2012. Modern results are based on fewer than 25% of the originally described human footprints, the rest having been destroyed. It is impossible to confirm some of the original conclusions. The footprints do not cluster about three different sizes, and the number of individuals is estimated to be six or seven. Two cases of bears apparently overprinting humans help establish antiquity, and C-14 dates suggest a much greater age than originally thought. Unfortunately, insufficient footprints remain to measure movement variables such as stride length. However, detailed three-dimensional mapping of the footprints does allow a more precise description of human movements within the cave. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana

    KAUST Repository

    Rasmussen, Morten Arendt Rendt

    2014-02-12

    Clovis, with its distinctive biface, blade and osseous technologies, is the oldest widespread archaeological complex defined in North America, dating from 11,100 to 10,700 14 C years before present (bp) (13,000 to 12,600 calendar years bp). Nearly 50 years of archaeological research point to the Clovis complex as having developed south of the North American ice sheets from an ancestral technology. However, both the origins and the genetic legacy of the people who manufactured Clovis tools remain under debate. It is generally believed that these people ultimately derived from Asia and were directly related to contemporary Native Americans. An alternative, Solutrean, hypothesis posits that the Clovis predecessors emigrated from southwestern Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum. Here we report the genome sequence of a male infant (Anzick-1) recovered from the Anzick burial site in western Montana. The human bones date to 10,705 ± 35 14 C years bp (approximately 12,707-12,556 calendar years bp) and were directly associated with Clovis tools. We sequenced the genome to an average depth of 14.4× and show that the gene flow from the Siberian Upper Palaeolithic Mal\\'ta population into Native American ancestors is also shared by the Anzick-1 individual and thus happened before 12,600 years bp. We also show that the Anzick-1 individual is more closely related to all indigenous American populations than to any other group. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis that Anzick-1 belonged to a population directly ancestral to many contemporary Native Americans. Finally, we find evidence of a deep divergence in Native American populations that predates the Anzick-1 individual. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  15. The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Anzick, Sarah L; Waters, Michael R; Skoglund, Pontus; DeGiorgio, Michael; Stafford, Thomas W; Rasmussen, Simon; Moltke, Ida; Albrechtsen, Anders; Doyle, Shane M; Poznik, G David; Gudmundsdottir, Valborg; Yadav, Rachita; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; White, Samuel Stockton; Allentoft, Morten E; Cornejo, Omar E; Tambets, Kristiina; Eriksson, Anders; Heintzman, Peter D; Karmin, Monika; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Meltzer, David J; Pierre, Tracey L; Stenderup, Jesper; Saag, Lauri; Warmuth, Vera M; Lopes, Margarida C; Malhi, Ripan S; Brunak, Søren; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Barnes, Ian; Collins, Matthew; Orlando, Ludovic; Balloux, Francois; Manica, Andrea; Gupta, Ramneek; Metspalu, Mait; Bustamante, Carlos D; Jakobsson, Mattias; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske

    2014-02-13

    Clovis, with its distinctive biface, blade and osseous technologies, is the oldest widespread archaeological complex defined in North America, dating from 11,100 to 10,700 (14)C years before present (bp) (13,000 to 12,600 calendar years bp). Nearly 50 years of archaeological research point to the Clovis complex as having developed south of the North American ice sheets from an ancestral technology. However, both the origins and the genetic legacy of the people who manufactured Clovis tools remain under debate. It is generally believed that these people ultimately derived from Asia and were directly related to contemporary Native Americans. An alternative, Solutrean, hypothesis posits that the Clovis predecessors emigrated from southwestern Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum. Here we report the genome sequence of a male infant (Anzick-1) recovered from the Anzick burial site in western Montana. The human bones date to 10,705 ± 35 (14)C years bp (approximately 12,707-12,556 calendar years bp) and were directly associated with Clovis tools. We sequenced the genome to an average depth of 14.4× and show that the gene flow from the Siberian Upper Palaeolithic Mal'ta population into Native American ancestors is also shared by the Anzick-1 individual and thus happened before 12,600 years bp. We also show that the Anzick-1 individual is more closely related to all indigenous American populations than to any other group. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis that Anzick-1 belonged to a population directly ancestral to many contemporary Native Americans. Finally, we find evidence of a deep divergence in Native American populations that predates the Anzick-1 individual.

  16. Under the mission steps : an 800 year-old human burial from south Tanna, Vanuatu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flexner, J.L.; Willie, E.

    2015-01-01

    Archaeological excavations at the late-19th century mission house at Kwamera, south Tanna Island, Vanuatu uncovered an inhumation directly underneath the mission step. Radiocarbon dating of the context revealed this burial to date to the 12th or 13th century AD. In addition to providing new information about the deeper past on Tanna, this finding provides some interesting material for thinking about long-term relationships to ancestors and sacred places on the island and how these related to interactions with missionaries in the 1800s.

  17. Ancient human genome sequence of an extinct Palaeo-Eskimo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Li, Yingrui; Lindgreen, Stinus; Pedersen, Jakob Skou; Albrechtsen, Anders; Moltke, Ida; Metspalu, Mait; Metspalu, Ene; Kivisild, Toomas; Gupta, Ramneek; Bertalan, Marcelo; Nielsen, Kasper; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Wang, Yong; Raghavan, Maanasa; Campos, Paula F.; Kamp, Hanne Munkholm; Wilson, Andrew S.; Gledhill, Andrew; Tridico, Silvana; Bunce, Michael; Lorenzen, Eline D.; Binladen, Jonas; Guo, Xiaosen; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Xiuqing; Zhang, Hao; Li, Zhuo; Chen, Minfeng; Orlando, Ludovic; Kristiansen, Karsten; Bak, Mads; Tommerup, Niels; Bendixen, Christian; Pierre, Tracey L.; Grønnow, Bjarne; Meldgaard, Morten; Andreasen, Claus; Fedorova, Sardana A.; Osipova, Ludmila P.; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Nielsen, Finn C.; Crawford, Michael H.; Brunak, Søren; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Villems, Richard; Nielsen, Rasmus; Krogh, Anders; Wang, Jun; Willerslev, Eske

    2013-01-01

    We report here the genome sequence of an ancient human. Obtained from ∼4,000-year-old permafrost-preserved hair, the genome represents a male individual from the first known culture to settle in Greenland. Sequenced to an average depth of 20×, we recover 79% of the diploid genome, an amount close to the practical limit of current sequencing technologies. We identify 353,151 high-confidence single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which 6.8% have not been reported previously. We estimate raw read contamination to be no higher than 0.8%. We use functional SNP assessment to assign possible phenotypic characteristics of the individual that belonged to a culture whose location has yielded only trace human remains. We compare the high-confidence SNPs to those of contemporary populations to find the populations most closely related to the individual. This provides evidence for a migration from Siberia into the New World some 5,500 years ago, independent of that giving rise to the modern Native Americans and Inuit. PMID:20148029

  18. Legacy of human-induced C erosion and burial on soil–atmosphere C exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oost, Kristof; Verstraeten, Gert; Doetterl, Sebastian; Notebaert, Bastiaan; Wiaux, François; Broothaerts, Nils; Six, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Carbon exchange associated with accelerated erosion following land cover change is an important component of the global C cycle. In current assessments, however, this component is not accounted for. Here, we integrate the effects of accelerated C erosion across point, hillslope, and catchment scale for the 780-km2 Dijle River catchment over the period 4000 B.C. to A.D. 2000 to demonstrate that accelerated erosion results in a net C sink. We found this long-term C sink to be equivalent to 43% of the eroded C and to have offset 39% (17–66%) of the C emissions due to anthropogenic land cover change since the advent of agriculture. Nevertheless, the erosion-induced C sink strength is limited by a significant loss of buried C in terrestrial depositional stores, which lagged the burial. The time lag between burial and subsequent loss at this study site implies that the C buried in eroded terrestrial deposits during the agricultural expansion of the last 150 y cannot be assumed to be inert to further destabilization, and indeed might become a significant C source. Our analysis exemplifies that accounting for the non–steady-state C dynamics in geomorphic active systems is pertinent to understanding both past and future anthropogenic global change. PMID:23134723

  19. New Ancient Egyptian Human Mummies from the Valley of the Kings, Luxor: Anthropological, Radiological, and Egyptological Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Rühli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Valley of the Kings (arab. Wadi al Muluk; KV situated on the West Bank near Luxor (Egypt was the site for royal and elite burials during the New Kingdom (ca. 1500–1100 BC, with many tombs being reused in subsequent periods. In 2009, the scientific project “The University of Basel Kings’ Valley Project” was launched. The main purpose of this transdisciplinary project is the clearance and documentation of nonroyal tombs in the surrounding of the tomb of Pharaoh Thutmosis III (ca. 1479–1424 BC; KV 34. This paper reports on newly discovered ancient Egyptian human mummified remains originating from the field seasons 2010–2012. Besides macroscopic assessments, the remains were conventionally X-rayed by a portable X-ray unit in situ inside KV 31. These image data serve as basis for individual sex and age determination and for the study of probable pathologies and embalming techniques. A total of five human individuals have been examined so far and set into an Egyptological context. This project highlights the importance of ongoing excavation and science efforts even in well-studied areas of Egypt such as the Kings’ Valley.

  20. New Ancient Egyptian Human Mummies from the Valley of the Kings, Luxor: Anthropological, Radiological, and Egyptological Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühli, Frank; Ikram, Salima

    2015-01-01

    The Valley of the Kings (arab. Wadi al Muluk; KV) situated on the West Bank near Luxor (Egypt) was the site for royal and elite burials during the New Kingdom (ca. 1500–1100 BC), with many tombs being reused in subsequent periods. In 2009, the scientific project “The University of Basel Kings' Valley Project” was launched. The main purpose of this transdisciplinary project is the clearance and documentation of nonroyal tombs in the surrounding of the tomb of Pharaoh Thutmosis III (ca. 1479–1424 BC; KV 34). This paper reports on newly discovered ancient Egyptian human mummified remains originating from the field seasons 2010–2012. Besides macroscopic assessments, the remains were conventionally X-rayed by a portable X-ray unit in situ inside KV 31. These image data serve as basis for individual sex and age determination and for the study of probable pathologies and embalming techniques. A total of five human individuals have been examined so far and set into an Egyptological context. This project highlights the importance of ongoing excavation and science efforts even in well-studied areas of Egypt such as the Kings' Valley. PMID:26347313

  1. Bioinformatical approaches to RNA structure prediction & Sequencing of an ancient human genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Stinus

    in the publication of the first genome of an ancient human individual, where close to the theoretical maximum of the genome sequence was recovered with high confidence. Part of the project was the development of the program SNPest for genotyping and SNP calling that models various sources of error and predicts...... tools that exist. The second part has been focused on the mapping and genotyping of ancient genomic DNA. The development of next generation sequencing technologies combined with the use of ancient DNA material present the researchers with some special challenges in the analyses. This work resulted...

  2. 2500 years from dendrochronology back to ancient French human biotopes. Trees studied: low altitude oaks

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, Georges-Noël; Durost, Sébastien; Cuaz, Jacques

    2005-01-01

    We propose an experimental method, using curvilinear regressions, called corridor method, for dating and building a global useful signal based on oak ring widths in northern and eastern France. The resulting signal seems to be more useful than others to progress in the domains of ancient climate and ancient environments: dendrodating, dendroclimatology, dendroecology and, of course, human history (Lambert, 2002, Houbrechts and Lambert, 2004, Durost, 2005). However, we were lead to adapt or re...

  3. Human-induced C erosion and burial across spatial and temporal scales. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van oost, K.

    2013-12-01

    Plateau and central Belgium. We investigate the factors controlling in-situ soil respiration, including soil temperature, moisture, soil erosion and SOC stock and quality. We use these studies to discuss the linkages between short-term, small-scale experimental work and longer-term, regional-scale mass-balances in relation to the changes in organic C stabilization due to erosion and subsoil exposure in eroding uplands and changes in C stabilization due to subsequent burial in colluvial and floodplain sediments in response to ALCC.

  4. Enterobius vermicularis: ancient DNA from north and south American human coprolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñiguez Alena M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A molecular paleoparasitological diagnostic approach was developed for Enterobius vermicularis. Ancient DNA was extracted from 27 coprolites from archaeological sites in Chile and USA. Enzymatic amplification of human mtDNA sequences confirmed the human origin. We designed primers specific to the E. vermicularis 5S ribosomal RNA spacer region and they allowed reproducible polymerase chain reaction identification of ancient material. We suggested that the paleoparasitological microscopic identification could accompany molecular diagnosis, which also opens the possibility of sequence analysis to understand parasite-host evolution.

  5. Two Catacombs of Late Sarmatian Time From Pashkovsky Burial Mound no. 2

    OpenAIRE

    Limberis Natalya Yuryevna; Marchenko Ivan Ivanovich

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with two burials from the Kuban basin region excavated in Pashkovsky burial mound no. 2 belonging to Maeotian Pashkovskoe ancient settlement. The burials were made in catacombs of similar construction and orientation. The narrow grave entrances and grave chambers are situated in-line. The grave chambers of the catacombs adjoin one other that probably was the reason for plunder of a little earlier burial no. 2. There were the complete horse skeleton, the cow skull and the she...

  6. New paleoradiological investigations of ancient human remains from North West Lombardy archaeological excavations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licata, Marta; Borgo, Melania; Armocida, Giuseppe; Nicosia, Luca; Ferioli, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Since its birth in 1895, radiology has been used to study ancient mummies. The purpose of this article is to present paleoradiological investigations conducted on several medieval human remains in Varese province. Anthropological (generic identification) and paleopathological analyses were carried out with the support of diagnostic imaging (X-ray and CT scans). Human remains were discovered during excavations of medieval archaeological sites in northwest Lombardy. Classical physical anthropological methods were used for the macroscopic identification of the human remains. X-ray and CT scans were performed on the same scanner (16-layer Hitachi Eclos 16 X-ray equipment). Radiological analysis permitted investigating (1) the sex, (2) age of death, (3) type of trauma, (4) therapeutic interventions and (5) osteomas in ancient human remains. In particular, X-ray and CT examinations showed dimorphic facial traits on the mummified skull, and the same radiological approaches allowed determining the age at death from a mummified lower limb. CT analyses allow investigating different types of traumatic lesions in skulls and postcranial skeleton portions and reconstructing the gait and functional outcomes of a fractured femur. Moreover, one case of possible Gardner's syndrome (GS) was postulated from observing multiple osteomas in an ancient skull. Among the medical tests available to the clinician, radiology is the most appropriate first-line procedure for a diagnostic approach to ancient human remains because it can be performed without causing any significant damage to the specimen. (orig.)

  7. New paleoradiological investigations of ancient human remains from North West Lombardy archaeological excavations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licata, Marta; Borgo, Melania; Armocida, Giuseppe; Nicosia, Luca; Ferioli, Elena [University of Insubria (Varese), Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, Varese (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Since its birth in 1895, radiology has been used to study ancient mummies. The purpose of this article is to present paleoradiological investigations conducted on several medieval human remains in Varese province. Anthropological (generic identification) and paleopathological analyses were carried out with the support of diagnostic imaging (X-ray and CT scans). Human remains were discovered during excavations of medieval archaeological sites in northwest Lombardy. Classical physical anthropological methods were used for the macroscopic identification of the human remains. X-ray and CT scans were performed on the same scanner (16-layer Hitachi Eclos 16 X-ray equipment). Radiological analysis permitted investigating (1) the sex, (2) age of death, (3) type of trauma, (4) therapeutic interventions and (5) osteomas in ancient human remains. In particular, X-ray and CT examinations showed dimorphic facial traits on the mummified skull, and the same radiological approaches allowed determining the age at death from a mummified lower limb. CT analyses allow investigating different types of traumatic lesions in skulls and postcranial skeleton portions and reconstructing the gait and functional outcomes of a fractured femur. Moreover, one case of possible Gardner's syndrome (GS) was postulated from observing multiple osteomas in an ancient skull. Among the medical tests available to the clinician, radiology is the most appropriate first-line procedure for a diagnostic approach to ancient human remains because it can be performed without causing any significant damage to the specimen. (orig.)

  8. U-Th Burial Dates on Ostrich Eggshell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, W. D.; Fylstra, N. D.; Tryon, C. A.; Faith, J. T.; Peppe, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Obtaining precise and accurate dates at archaeological sites beyond the range of radiocarbon dating is challenging but essential for understanding human origins. Eggshells of ratites (large flightless birds including ostrich, emu and others) are common in many archaeological sequences in Africa, Australia and elsewhere. Ancient eggshells are geochemically suitable for the U-Th technique (1), which has about ten times the range of radiocarbon dating (>500 rather than 50 ka), making eggshells attractive dating targets. Moreover, C and N isotopic studies of eggshell provide insights into paleovegetation and paleoprecipitation central to assessing past human-environment interactions (2,3). But until now, U-Th dates on ratite eggshell have not accounted for the secondary origin of essentially all of their U. We report a novel approach to U-Th dating of eggshell that explicitly accounts for secondary U uptake that begins with burial. Using ostrich eggshell (OES) from Pleistocene-Holocene east African sites, we have measured U and 232Th concentration profiles across OES by laser ablation ICP-MS. U commonly peaks at 10s to 100s of ppb and varies 10-fold or more across the ~2 mm thickness of OES, with gradients modulated by the layered structure of the eggshell. Common Th is high near the shell surfaces, but low in the middle "pallisade" layer of OES, making it optimal for U-Th dating. We determine U-Th ages along the U concentration gradient by solution ICP-MS analyses of two or more fractions of the pallisade layer. We then estimate OES burial dates using a simple model for diffusive uptake of uranium. Comparing such "U-Th burial dates" with radiocarbon dates for OES calcite from the same shells, we find good agreement in 7 out of 9 cases, consistent with rapid burial and confirming the accuracy of the approach. The remaining 2 eggshells have anomalous patterns of apparent ages that reveal they are unsuitable for U-Th dating, thereby providing reliability criteria innate

  9. Bioinformatical approaches to RNA structure prediction & Sequencing of an ancient human genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Stinus

    tools that exist. The second part has been focused on the mapping and genotyping of ancient genomic DNA. The development of next generation sequencing technologies combined with the use of ancient DNA material present the researchers with some special challenges in the analyses. This work resulted...... in the publication of the first genome of an ancient human individual, where close to the theoretical maximum of the genome sequence was recovered with high confidence. Part of the project was the development of the program SNPest for genotyping and SNP calling that models various sources of error and predicts...... in families of related RNA sequences. Also, the program MASTR was developed to perform simultaneous alignment of multiple RNA sequences and prediction of a common secondary structure. The webserver WAR was developed to make it easy for non-computer savy researchers to use the many RNA structure prediction...

  10. Human evolution in Siberia: from frozen bodies to ancient DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouakaze Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Yakuts contrast strikingly with other populations from Siberia due to their cattle- and horse-breeding economy as well as their Turkic language. On the basis of ethnological and linguistic criteria as well as population genetic studies, it has been assumed that they originated from South Siberian populations. However, many questions regarding the origins of this intriguing population still need to be clarified (e.g. the precise origin of paternal lineages and the admixture rate with indigenous populations. This study attempts to better understand the origins of the Yakuts by performing genetic analyses on 58 mummified frozen bodies dated from the 15th to the 19th century, excavated from Yakutia (Eastern Siberia. Results High quality data were obtained for the autosomal STRs, Y-chromosomal STRs and SNPs and mtDNA due to exceptional sample preservation. A comparison with the same markers on seven museum specimens excavated 3 to 15 years ago showed significant differences in DNA quantity and quality. Direct access to ancient genetic data from these molecular markers combined with the archaeological evidence, demographical studies and comparisons with 166 contemporary individuals from the same location as the frozen bodies helped us to clarify the microevolution of this intriguing population. Conclusion We were able to trace the origins of the male lineages to a small group of horse-riders from the Cis-Baïkal area. Furthermore, mtDNA data showed that intermarriages between the first settlers with Evenks women led to the establishment of genetic characteristics during the 15th century that are still observed today.

  11. Coadaptation of Helicobacter pylori and humans: ancient history, modern implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, John C; Blaser, Martin J

    2009-09-01

    Humans have been colonized by Helicobacter pylori for at least 50,000 years and probably throughout their evolution. H. pylori has adapted to humans, colonizing children and persisting throughout life. Most strains possess factors that subtly modulate the host environment, increasing the risk of peptic ulceration, gastric adenocarcinoma, and possibly other diseases. H. pylori genes encoding these and other factors rapidly evolve through mutation and recombination, changing the bacteria-host interaction. Although immune and physiologic responses to H. pylori also contribute to pathogenesis, humans have evolved in concert with the bacterium, and its recent absence throughout the life of many individuals has led to new human physiological changes. These may have contributed to recent increases in esophageal adenocarcinoma and, more speculatively, other modern diseases.

  12. Direct evidence of milk consumption from ancient human dental calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warinner, C.; Hendy, J.; Speller, C.

    2014-01-01

    directly to individuals and their dairy livestock. Here we report the first direct evidence of milk consumption, the whey protein β-lactoglobulin (BLG), preserved in human dental calculus from the Bronze Age (ca. 3000 BCE) to the present day. Using protein tandem mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that BLG...... is a species-specific biomarker of dairy consumption, and we identify individuals consuming cattle, sheep, and goat milk products in the archaeological record. We then apply this method to human dental calculus from Greenland's medieval Norse colonies, and report a decline of this biomarker leading up...

  13. Direct evidence of milk consumption from ancient human dental calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warinner, C; Hendy, J; Speller, C; Cappellini, E; Fischer, R; Trachsel, C; Arneborg, J; Lynnerup, N; Craig, O E; Swallow, D M; Fotakis, A; Christensen, R J; Olsen, J V; Liebert, A; Montalva, N; Fiddyment, S; Charlton, S; Mackie, M; Canci, A; Bouwman, A; Rühli, F; Gilbert, M T P; Collins, M J

    2014-11-27

    Milk is a major food of global economic importance, and its consumption is regarded as a classic example of gene-culture evolution. Humans have exploited animal milk as a food resource for at least 8500 years, but the origins, spread, and scale of dairying remain poorly understood. Indirect lines of evidence, such as lipid isotopic ratios of pottery residues, faunal mortality profiles, and lactase persistence allele frequencies, provide a partial picture of this process; however, in order to understand how, where, and when humans consumed milk products, it is necessary to link evidence of consumption directly to individuals and their dairy livestock. Here we report the first direct evidence of milk consumption, the whey protein β-lactoglobulin (BLG), preserved in human dental calculus from the Bronze Age (ca. 3000 BCE) to the present day. Using protein tandem mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that BLG is a species-specific biomarker of dairy consumption, and we identify individuals consuming cattle, sheep, and goat milk products in the archaeological record. We then apply this method to human dental calculus from Greenland's medieval Norse colonies, and report a decline of this biomarker leading up to the abandonment of the Norse Greenland colonies in the 15(th) century CE.

  14. The early colonial atlantic world: New insights on the African Diaspora from isotopic and ancient DNA analyses of a multiethnic 15th-17th century burial population from the Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Jonathan; Fregel, Rosa; Lightfoot, Emma; Morales, Jacob; Alamón, Martha; Guillén, José; Moreno, Marco; Rodríguez, Amelia

    2016-02-01

    The Canary Islands are considered one of the first places where Atlantic slave plantations with labourers of African origin were established, during the 15th century AD. In Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain), a unique cemetery dated to the 15th and 17th centuries was discovered adjacent to an ancient sugar plantation with funerary practices that could be related to enslaved people. In this article, we investigate the origin and possible birthplace of each individual buried in this cemetery, as well as the identity and social status of these people. The sample consists of 14 individuals radiocarbon dated to the 15th and 17th centuries AD. We have employed several methods, including the analysis of ancient human DNA, stable isotopes, and skeletal markers of physical activity. 1) the funerary practices indicate a set of rituals not previously recorded in the Canary Islands; 2) genetic data show that some people buried in the cemetery could have North-African and sub-Saharan African lineages; 3) isotopic results suggest that some individuals were born outside Gran Canaria; and 4) markers of physical activity show a pattern of labour involving high levels of effort. This set of evidence, along with information from historical sources, suggests that Finca Clavijo was a cemetery for a multiethnic marginalized population that had being likely enslaved. Results also indicate that this population kept practicing non-Christian rituals well into the 17th century. We propose that this was possible because the location of the Canaries, far from mainland Spain and the control of the Spanish Crown, allowed the emergence of a new society with multicultural origins that was more tolerant to foreign rituals and syncretism. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Joint Estimation of Contamination, Error and Demography for Nuclear DNA from Ancient Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatkin, Montgomery

    2016-01-01

    When sequencing an ancient DNA sample from a hominin fossil, DNA from present-day humans involved in excavation and extraction will be sequenced along with the endogenous material. This type of contamination is problematic for downstream analyses as it will introduce a bias towards the population of the contaminating individual(s). Quantifying the extent of contamination is a crucial step as it allows researchers to account for possible biases that may arise in downstream genetic analyses. Here, we present an MCMC algorithm to co-estimate the contamination rate, sequencing error rate and demographic parameters—including drift times and admixture rates—for an ancient nuclear genome obtained from human remains, when the putative contaminating DNA comes from present-day humans. We assume we have a large panel representing the putative contaminant population (e.g. European, East Asian or African). The method is implemented in a C++ program called ‘Demographic Inference with Contamination and Error’ (DICE). We applied it to simulations and genome data from ancient Neanderthals and modern humans. With reasonable levels of genome sequence coverage (>3X), we find we can recover accurate estimates of all these parameters, even when the contamination rate is as high as 50%. PMID:27049965

  16. Blocking human contaminant DNA during PCR allows amplification of rare mammal species from sedimentary ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boessenkool, Sanne; Epp, Laura S.; Haile, James Seymour

    2012-01-01

    , or bias, during the PCR. In this study, we test the utility of human-specific blocking primers in mammal diversity analyses of ancient permafrost samples from Siberia. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR) on human and mammoth DNA, we first optimized the design and concentration of blocking primer in the PCR......Analyses of degraded DNA are typically hampered by contamination, especially when employing universal primers such as commonly used in environmental DNA studies. In addition to false-positive results, the amplification of contaminant DNA may cause false-negative results because of competition....... Subsequently, 454 pyrosequencing of ancient permafrost samples amplified with and without the addition of blocking primer revealed that DNA sequences from a diversity of mammalian representatives of the Beringian megafauna were retrieved only when the blocking primer was added to the PCR. Notably, we observe...

  17. Introduction to "Digital Humanities in Ancient Jewish, Christian and Arabic Traditions"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Clivaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This special JRMDC number brings together articles based on eight papers presented at the Digital Humanities (DH consultation of the annual meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature (SBL. These eight articles focus on Digital Humanities (DH in Ancient Jewish, Christian and Arabic traditions. The first part of this introduction focuses on general considerations concerning the encounter between digital culture and biblical and religious studies, and introduces the first article by Caroline Schroeder. The second part of this introduction maps a number of key issues across the Digital Humanities which appear in the seven specific case studies presented in the other articles in this issue.

  18. The characterization of Helicobacter pylori DNA associated with ancient human remains recovered from a Canadian glacier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treena Swanston

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the stomach of nearly half of the world's population. Genotypic characterization of H. pylori strains involves the analysis of virulence-associated genes, such as vacA, which has multiple alleles. Previous phylogenetic analyses have revealed a connection between modern H. pylori strains and the movement of ancient human populations. In this study, H. pylori DNA was amplified from the stomach tissue of the Kwäday Dän Ts'ìnchi individual. This ancient individual was recovered from the Samuel Glacier in Tatshenshini-Alsek Park, British Columbia, Canada on the traditional territory of the Champagne and Aishihik First Nations and radiocarbon dated to a timeframe of approximately AD 1670 to 1850. This is the first ancient H. pylori strain to be characterized with vacA sequence data. The Tatshenshini H. pylori strain has a potential hybrid vacA m2a/m1d middle (m region allele and a vacA s2 signal (s region allele. A vacA s2 allele is more commonly identified with Western strains, and this suggests that European strains were present in northwestern Canada during the ancient individual's time. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the vacA m1d region of the ancient strain clusters with previously published novel Native American strains that are closely related to Asian strains. This indicates a past connection between the Kwäday Dän Ts'ìnchi individual and the ancestors who arrived in the New World thousands of years ago.

  19. Reliable identification of human albumin in ancient bone using ELISA and monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, C; Gelsthorpe, K; Phillips, P; Sokol, R J

    1992-03-01

    In order to help reconstruct ancient dietary, domestic, and ritual behaviour, a method was developed to identify the blood protein albumin in ancient skeletal material. This was an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a monoclonal antibody of IgG class against human albumin. With fresh material, the technique gave consistent and specific results and could detect as little as 10 ng of albumin. Extracts of bone from the English Civil War (A.D. 1644), Mediaeval (A.D. 1100-1400), Early Saxon (A.D. 450-600), Roman (A.D. 100-200), Iron Age (ca 400 B.C.) and Bronze Age (2200-1700 B.C. cal.) periods were then tested, samples of fresh human and animal bone being included as positive and negative controls, respectively. Albumin was demonstrated in human bone from all periods; there was no evidence of cross-reactivity with animal material. Detection seemed to depend largely on amount of sample and chronological age; other factors, such as physical integrity of the specimen and soil characteristics, appeared to be less important. Preliminary studies of other ancient skeletal remains showed that animal species could be readily identified and that albumin was probably still detectable in cremated material. It is concluded that our method provides a tool specific and sensitive enough for the reliable identification of the species-origin of small fragments of bone (and possibly of blood stains) and will thus allow insight into past behaviour patterns. ELISA may also be suitable for identifying other molecules (such as HLA and ABO) which would help determine racial affiliation and disease predisposition among ancient populations.

  20. Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  1. Health benefits of ancient grains. Comparison among bread made with ancient, heritage and modern grain flours in human cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, Veronica; Taccari, Annalisa; Di Nunzio, Mattia; Danesi, Francesca; Bordoni, Alessandra

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays the higher nutritional value of whole grains compared to refined grains is recognized. In the last decade, there has been a renewed interest in the ancient wheat varieties for producing high-value food products with enhanced health benefits. This study compared two ancient grains, two heritage grains, and four modern grains grown in the same agronomic conditions considering not only their chemical characteristics, but also their biological effects. Whole grain flours were obtained and used to make bread. Bread was in vitro digested, the digesta were supplemented to HepG2 cells, and the biological effects of supplementation were evaluated. In addition, cells previously supplemented with the different digested bread types were then exposed to inflammatory agents to evidence possible protective effects of the pre-treatments. Despite the impossibility to discriminate bread made with different grains based on their chemical composition, results herein reported evidence that their supplementation to cultured cells exerts different effects, confirming the potential health benefits of ancient grains. This research represents an advancement for the evaluation of the apparent positive effects of ancient grains and the formulation of cereal-based products with added nutritional value. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridis, Iosif; Patterson, Nick; Mittnik, Alissa; Renaud, Gabriel; Mallick, Swapan; Kirsanow, Karola; Sudmant, Peter H.; Schraiber, Joshua G.; Castellano, Sergi; Lipson, Mark; Berger, Bonnie; Economou, Christos; Bollongino, Ruth; Fu, Qiaomei; Bos, Kirsten I.; Nordenfelt, Susanne; Li, Heng; de Filippo, Cesare; Prüfer, Kay; Sawyer, Susanna; Posth, Cosimo; Haak, Wolfgang; Hallgren, Fredrik; Fornander, Elin; Rohland, Nadin; Delsate, Dominique; Francken, Michael; Guinet, Jean-Michel; Wahl, Joachim; Ayodo, George; Babiker, Hamza A.; Bailliet, Graciela; Balanovska, Elena; Balanovsky, Oleg; Barrantes, Ramiro; Bedoya, Gabriel; Ben-Ami, Haim; Bene, Judit; Berrada, Fouad; Bravi, Claudio M.; Brisighelli, Francesca; Busby, George B. J.; Cali, Francesco; Churnosov, Mikhail; Cole, David E. C.; Corach, Daniel; Damba, Larissa; van Driem, George; Dryomov, Stanislav; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Fedorova, Sardana A.; Romero, Irene Gallego; Gubina, Marina; Hammer, Michael; Henn, Brenna M.; Hervig, Tor; Hodoglugil, Ugur; Jha, Aashish R.; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Khusainova, Rita; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Kittles, Rick; Kivisild, Toomas; Klitz, William; Kučinskas, Vaidutis; Kushniarevich, Alena; Laredj, Leila; Litvinov, Sergey; Loukidis, Theologos; Mahley, Robert W.; Melegh, Béla; Metspalu, Ene; Molina, Julio; Mountain, Joanna; Näkkäläjärvi, Klemetti; Nesheva, Desislava; Nyambo, Thomas; Osipova, Ludmila; Parik, Jüri; Platonov, Fedor; Posukh, Olga; Romano, Valentino; Rothhammer, Francisco; Rudan, Igor; Ruizbakiev, Ruslan; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Sajantila, Antti; Salas, Antonio; Starikovskaya, Elena B.; Tarekegn, Ayele; Toncheva, Draga; Turdikulova, Shahlo; Uktveryte, Ingrida; Utevska, Olga; Vasquez, René; Villena, Mercedes; Voevoda, Mikhail; Winkler, Cheryl; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Zalloua, Pierre; Zemunik, Tatijana; Cooper, Alan; Capelli, Cristian; Thomas, Mark G.; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Villems, Richard; Comas, David; Sukernik, Rem; Metspalu, Mait; Meyer, Matthias; Eichler, Evan E.; Burger, Joachim; Slatkin, Montgomery; Pääbo, Svante; Kelso, Janet; Reich, David; Krause, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    We sequenced the genomes of a ~7,000 year old farmer from Germany and eight ~8,000 year old hunter-gatherers from Luxembourg and Sweden. We analyzed these and other ancient genomes1–4 with 2,345 contemporary humans to show that most present Europeans derive from at least three highly differentiated populations: West European Hunter-Gatherers (WHG), who contributed ancestry to all Europeans but not to Near Easterners; Ancient North Eurasians (ANE) related to Upper Paleolithic Siberians3, who contributed to both Europeans and Near Easterners; and Early European Farmers (EEF), who were mainly of Near Eastern origin but also harbored WHG-related ancestry. We model these populations’ deep relationships and show that EEF had ~44% ancestry from a “Basal Eurasian” population that split prior to the diversification of other non-African lineages. PMID:25230663

  3. Balancing selection on a regulatory region exhibiting ancient variation that predates human-neandertal divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Gokcumen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ancient population structure shaping contemporary genetic variation has been recently appreciated and has important implications regarding our understanding of the structure of modern human genomes. We identified a ∼36-kb DNA segment in the human genome that displays an ancient substructure. The variation at this locus exists primarily as two highly divergent haplogroups. One of these haplogroups (the NE1 haplogroup aligns with the Neandertal haplotype and contains a 4.6-kb deletion polymorphism in perfect linkage disequilibrium with 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs across diverse populations. The other haplogroup, which does not contain the 4.6-kb deletion, aligns with the chimpanzee haplotype and is likely ancestral. Africans have higher overall pairwise differences with the Neandertal haplotype than Eurasians do for this NE1 locus (p<10⁻¹⁵. Moreover, the nucleotide diversity at this locus is higher in Eurasians than in Africans. These results mimic signatures of recent Neandertal admixture contributing to this locus. However, an in-depth assessment of the variation in this region across multiple populations reveals that African NE1 haplotypes, albeit rare, harbor more sequence variation than NE1 haplotypes found in Europeans, indicating an ancient African origin of this haplogroup and refuting recent Neandertal admixture. Population genetic analyses of the SNPs within each of these haplogroups, along with genome-wide comparisons revealed significant FST (p = 0.00003 and positive Tajima's D (p = 0.00285 statistics, pointing to non-neutral evolution of this locus. The NE1 locus harbors no protein-coding genes, but contains transcribed sequences as well as sequences with putative regulatory function based on bioinformatic predictions and in vitro experiments. We postulate that the variation observed at this locus predates Human-Neandertal divergence and is evolving under balancing selection, especially among European

  4. Human cadaveric dissection: a historical account from ancient Greece to the modern era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The review article attempts to focus on the practice of human cadaveric dissection during its inception in ancient Greece in 3rd century BC, revival in medieval Italy at the beginning of 14th century and subsequent evolution in Europe and the United States of America over the centuries. The article highlights on the gradual change in attitude of religious authorities towards human dissection, the shift in the practice of human dissection being performed by barber surgeons to the anatomist himself dissecting the human body and the enactment of prominent legislations which proved to be crucial milestones during the course of the history of human cadaveric dissection. It particularly emphasizes on the different means of procuring human bodies which changed over the centuries in accordance with the increasing demand due to the rise in popularity of human dissection as a tool for teaching anatomy. Finally, it documents the rise of body donation programs as the source of human cadavers for anatomical dissection from the second half of the 20th century. Presently innovative measures are being introduced within the body donation programs by medical schools across the world to sensitize medical students such that they maintain a respectful, compassionate and empathetic attitude towards the human cadaver while dissecting the same. Human dissection is indispensable for a sound knowledge in anatomy which can ensure safe as well as efficient clinical practice and the human dissection lab could possibly be the ideal place to cultivate humanistic qualities among future physicians in the 21st century. PMID:26417475

  5. Ancient clam gardens, traditional management portfolios, and the resilience of coupled human-ocean systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Jackley

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous communities have actively managed their environments for millennia using a diversity of resource use and conservation strategies. Clam gardens, ancient rock-walled intertidal beach terraces, represent one example of an early mariculture technology that may have been used to improve food security and confer resilience to coupled human-ocean systems. We surveyed a coastal landscape for evidence of past resource use and management to gain insight into ancient resource stewardship practices on the central coast of British Columbia, Canada. We found that clam gardens are embedded within a diverse portfolio of resource use and management strategies and were likely one component of a larger, complex resource management system. We compared clam diversity, density, recruitment, and biomass in three clam gardens and three unmodified nonwalled beaches. Evidence suggests that butter clams (Saxidomus gigantea had 1.96 times the biomass and 2.44 times the density in clam gardens relative to unmodified beaches. This was due to a reduction in beach slope and thus an increase in the optimal tidal range where clams grow and survive best. The most pronounced differences in butter clam density between nonwalled beaches and clam gardens were found at high tidal elevations at the top of the beach. Finally, clam recruits (0.5-2 mm in length tended to be greater in clam gardens compared to nonwalled beaches and may be attributed to the addition of shell hash by ancient people, which remains on the landscape today. As part of a broader social-ecological system, clam garden sites were among several modifications made by humans that collectively may have conferred resilience to past communities by providing reliable and diverse access to food resources.

  6. People, dogs and wild game: evidence of human-animal relations from Middle Neolithic burials and personal ornaments in northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bernabò Brea

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to review evidence of human-animal relations, the paper offers an overview of the customs and funerary traditions of the Square Mouthed Pottery culture, between c. 5000 and 4300 calBC. We focus on the importance of domestic and wild animals on the basis of an analysis of grave-goods, funerary rites and personal ornaments. We also consider recent discoveries of peculiar offerings of animals and some dog burials. The evidence testifies to a diffusion of a wild component, symbolically emphasising the importance of the hunter identity in a society where subsistence actually depends primarily on domestic animals. Therefore, a contrast is drawn between the everyday and the symbolic worlds.

  7. Bona fide colour: DNA prediction of human eye and hair colour from ancient and contemporary skeletal remains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Draus-Barini (Jolanta); S. Walsh (Susan); E. Pośpiech (Ewelina); T. Kupiec (Tomasz); H. Głab (Henryk); W. Branicki (Wojciech); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: DNA analysis of ancient skeletal remains is invaluable in evolutionary biology for exploring the history of species, including humans. Contemporary human bones and teeth, however, are relevant in forensic DNA analyses that deal with the identification of perpetrators, missing

  8. Antimicrobial Functions of Lactoferrin Promote Genetic Conflicts in Ancient Primates and Modern Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F Barber

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin is a multifunctional mammalian immunity protein that limits microbial growth through sequestration of nutrient iron. Additionally, lactoferrin possesses cationic protein domains that directly bind and inhibit diverse microbes. The implications for these dual functions on lactoferrin evolution and genetic conflicts with microbes remain unclear. Here we show that lactoferrin has been subject to recurrent episodes of positive selection during primate divergence predominately at antimicrobial peptide surfaces consistent with long-term antagonism by bacteria. An abundant lactoferrin polymorphism in human populations and Neanderthals also exhibits signatures of positive selection across primates, linking ancient host-microbe conflicts to modern human genetic variation. Rapidly evolving sites in lactoferrin further correspond to molecular interfaces with opportunistic bacterial pathogens causing meningitis, pneumonia, and sepsis. Because microbes actively target lactoferrin to acquire iron, we propose that the emergence of antimicrobial activity provided a pivotal mechanism of adaptation sparking evolutionary conflicts via acquisition of new protein functions.

  9. Toward a new history and geography of human genes informed by ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickrell, Joseph K; Reich, David

    2014-09-01

    Genetic information contains a record of the history of our species, and technological advances have transformed our ability to access this record. Many studies have used genome-wide data from populations today to learn about the peopling of the globe and subsequent adaptation to local conditions. Implicit in this research is the assumption that the geographic locations of people today are informative about the geographic locations of their ancestors in the distant past. However, it is now clear that long-range migration, admixture, and population replacement subsequent to the initial out-of-Africa expansion have altered the genetic structure of most of the world's human populations. In light of this we argue that it is time to critically reevaluate current models of the peopling of the globe, as well as the importance of natural selection in determining the geographic distribution of phenotypes. We specifically highlight the transformative potential of ancient DNA. By accessing the genetic make-up of populations living at archaeologically known times and places, ancient DNA makes it possible to directly track migrations and responses to natural selection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 78 FR 76574 - Burial Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ..., Congress' clear motivation was to make burial benefits ``easier to administer, i.e., through existing VA...), the Government may pay up to $800 for the funeral and burial expenses of an employee who dies in...

  11. Shallow land burial handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinton, L.H.

    1983-01-01

    The facility development phases (preliminary analysis, site selection, facility design and construction, facility operation, and facility closure/post-closure) are systematically integrated into a logical plan for developing near surface disposal plans. The Shallow Land Burial Handbook provides initial guidance and concepts for understanding the magnitude and the complexity of developing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

  12. New genetic and linguistic analyses show ancient human influence on baobab evolution and distribution in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haripriya Rangan

    Full Text Available This study investigates the role of human agency in the gene flow and geographical distribution of the Australian baobab, Adansonia gregorii. The genus Adansonia is a charismatic tree endemic to Africa, Madagascar, and northwest Australia that has long been valued by humans for its multiple uses. The distribution of genetic variation in baobabs in Africa has been partially attributed to human-mediated dispersal over millennia, but this relationship has never been investigated for the Australian species. We combined genetic and linguistic data to analyse geographic patterns of gene flow and movement of word-forms for A. gregorii in the Aboriginal languages of northwest Australia. Comprehensive assessment of genetic diversity showed weak geographic structure and high gene flow. Of potential dispersal vectors, humans were identified as most likely to have enabled gene flow across biogeographic barriers in northwest Australia. Genetic-linguistic analysis demonstrated congruence of gene flow patterns and directional movement of Aboriginal loanwords for A. gregorii. These findings, along with previous archaeobotanical evidence from the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, suggest that ancient humans significantly influenced the geographic distribution of Adansonia in northwest Australia.

  13. Aesthetics of the Human Image in Life and Iconography of the Ancient Philosophers in Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorofeev, Daniil

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic and visual understanding of man is a hotly debated issue in contemporary culture. I found it important therefore to look at certain historical, cultural, aesthetical, philosophical and anthropological peculiarities of human image in Antiquity as reflected in the arts. The following aspects deserve special attention: the visualization of sense and values; the interaction of “ethos” (character and “soma” (body; the influence of the plastic images on the narrative ones; a normative typology of man; the significance of visual and acoustic perception. In this context, I studied ancient physiognomic; Aristotelian understanding of the acoustic and plastic arts; genesis, evolution and significance of the sculptural portrait image of man and the image of philosopher in Antiquity. I also pay attention to some methodological aspects of the study. As a result, there emerges an integral image of philosopher, which allows looking at the Greek culture from a fresh angle.

  14. A preliminary analysis of the DNA and diet of the extinct Beothuk: a systematic approach to ancient human DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuch, Melanie; Gröcke, Darren R; Knyf, Martin C

    2007-01-01

    We have used a systematic protocol for extracting, quantitating, sexing and validating ancient human mitochondrial and nuclear DNA of one male and one female Beothuk, a Native American population from Newfoundland, which became extinct approximately 180 years ago. They carried mtDNA haplotypes, w...

  15. Modeling ancient Egyptian mummification on fresh human tissue: macroscopic and histological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgopoulou, Christina; Shved, Natallia; Wanek, Johann; Rühli, Frank J

    2015-06-01

    Many studies have been concerned with the ancient Egyptian mummification method; nevertheless, little effort has been made to explore it experimentally. The goal of this study is to apply evidence-based diagnostic criteria and state-of-the art methodology in order to improve knowledge on soft tissues preservation and postmortem alterations. Two human lower limbs (LL) from a female donor were (1) "naturally" mummified by dry heat and (2) artificially in natron. At specific time intervals a macroscopic and radiological examination of the LL was performed and skin and muscle samples were taken for histological and biomolecular analysis. Temperature, humidity, pH, and weight of the LL were systematically measured. The mummification by dry heat was stopped after 7 days due to unexpected lack of mummification progress. The mummification in natron was completed successfully after 208 days. The humidity, the external temperature, and the pH were proven with Pearson correlation and principal component analysis as important factors for the mummification process. The steady removal of water from the tissues through the natron has prevented the putrefaction. This is also evident in the absence of bacteria or fungi through the microbiological analysis. The histological analysis revealed very good preservation of the skin and the muscle tissues. In the muscular sample certain degree of structural disintegration can be seen, particularly affecting the epimysium whilst in the skin samples the epidermis, especially the stratum corneum, is mostly affected. The samples show better preservation compared with ancient Egyptian sections and other mummified tissues from historic or forensic context. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. "Modeling ancient Egyptian embalming": radiological assessment of experimentally mummified human tissue by CT and MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Stephanie; Borumandi, Farzad; Wanek, Johann; Papageorgopoulou, Christina; Shved, Natallia; Colacicco, Giovanni; Rühli, Frank J

    2013-11-01

    To assess changes in different tissues during the process of artificial mummification by natron using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to translate the results to image interpretation in paleoradiological studies of ancient mummies. A human lower limb (LL) was amputated from a female donor 24 h post-mortem and mummified by artificial natron (54 % NaCl, 16 % Na2SO4, 18 % Na2CO3 12 % NaHCO3) in ancient Egyptian style. The LL was kept in a fume hood at 16-25 °C and 30-75 % relative humidity. CT and MRI were performed at specific intervals with quantitative evaluation of Hounsfield units (HU) and signal intensities (SI). Evaluated tissues showed different HU and SI changes during the experimental mummification. All tissues revealed an overall but varying increase of HU in CT examinations. All tissues except for the compact bone revealed an overall but varying decrease of SI in the IR and T2-weighted sequences of the MRI. Typical findings included a distinct increase of HU in the cutis at the end of the study and a temporary increase of SI in the IR and T2-weighted sequences in all muscle groups. Radiological findings showed a regular, controlled and effective dehydration by the applied natron without detectable putrefaction. Evaluated tissues revealed different radiological changes during the experiment, which altogether led to preservation of the tissues without radiologically identifiable destruction. The cutis revealed radiological signs of direct interaction with the natron in the form of covering and possibly permeation.

  17. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  18. 25 CFR 20.325 - Who can apply for Burial Assistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who can apply for Burial Assistance? 20.325 Section 20.325 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.325 Who can apply for Burial...

  19. Concepts of the body and personhood in the Mesolithic-Neolithic Danube Gorges: interpreting animal remains from human burials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Živaljević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, humanities have brought forward the idea of non-human agency; either in the form of meanings bestowed upon objects, animals and natural phenomena, or through deconstruction of ontological differences between ‘people’ and ‘things’. In case of the former, it has been argued that non-human agents have the power to act as ‘participants’ in social action (e.g. the agentive power of material properties of things, or of animal behaviour. In this paper, I discuss the practice of placing animal body parts alongside human bodies in the Mesolithic-Neolithic Danube Gorges, by using the concept of perspectivism as a theoretical framework. The choice of species and their body parts varied, but was by no means accidental. Rather, it reflected certain culturally specific taxonomies, which were based on animal properties: how they look, move, feel or what they do. Common examples include red deer antlers, which have the power to ‘regenerate’ each year, or dog mandibles (physical remains of ‘mouths’ which have the power to ‘communicate’ (i.e. bark. The aim of the paper is to explore how various aspects of animal corporeality, associated with certain ways of seeing and experiencing the world, could be ‘borrowed’ by humans utilizing animal body parts.

  20. Successful enrichment and recovery of whole mitochondrial genomes from ancient human dental calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozga, Andrew T; Nieves-Colón, Maria A; Honap, Tanvi P; Sankaranarayanan, Krithivasan; Hofman, Courtney A; Milner, George R; Lewis, Cecil M; Stone, Anne C; Warinner, Christina

    2016-06-01

    Archaeological dental calculus is a rich source of host-associated biomolecules. Importantly, however, dental calculus is more accurately described as a calcified microbial biofilm than a host tissue. As such, concerns regarding destructive analysis of human remains may not apply as strongly to dental calculus, opening the possibility of obtaining human health and ancestry information from dental calculus in cases where destructive analysis of conventional skeletal remains is not permitted. Here we investigate the preservation of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in archaeological dental calculus and its potential for full mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) reconstruction in maternal lineage ancestry analysis. Extracted DNA from six individuals at the 700-year-old Norris Farms #36 cemetery in Illinois was enriched for mtDNA using in-solution capture techniques, followed by Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Full mitogenomes (7-34×) were successfully reconstructed from dental calculus for all six individuals, including three individuals who had previously tested negative for DNA preservation in bone using conventional PCR techniques. Mitochondrial haplogroup assignments were consistent with previously published findings, and additional comparative analysis of paired dental calculus and dentine from two individuals yielded equivalent haplotype results. All dental calculus samples exhibited damage patterns consistent with ancient DNA, and mitochondrial sequences were estimated to be 92-100% endogenous. DNA polymerase choice was found to impact error rates in downstream sequence analysis, but these effects can be mitigated by greater sequencing depth. Dental calculus is a viable alternative source of human DNA that can be used to reconstruct full mitogenomes from archaeological remains. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:220-228, 2016. © 2016 The Authors American Journal of Physical Anthropology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. DNA typing of ancient parasite eggs from environmental samples identifies human and animal worm infections in viking-age settlement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Nejsum, Peter; Fredensborg, Brian Lund

    2015-01-01

    selecting genetic markers, PCR amplification and sequencing of ancient DNA (aDNA) isolates resulted in identification of: the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, using SSUrRNA sequence homology; Ascaris sp. with 100% homology to cox1 haplotype 07; and Fasciola hepatica using ITS1 sequence homology......Ancient parasite eggs were recovered from environmental samples collected at a Viking-age settlement in Viborg, Denmark, dated 1018-1030 A.D. Morphological examination identified Ascaris sp., Trichuris sp., and Fasciola sp. eggs, but size and shape did not allow species identification. By carefully....... The identification of T. trichiura eggs indicates that human fecal material is present and, hence, that the Ascaris sp. haplotype 07 was most likely a human variant in Viking-age Denmark. The location of the F. hepatica finding suggests that sheep or cattle are the most likely hosts. Further, we sequenced...

  2. Burial Ground Expansion Hydrogeologic Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaughan , T.F.

    1999-02-26

    Sirrine Environmental Consultants provided technical oversight of the installation of eighteen groundwater monitoring wells and six exploratory borings around the location of the Burial Ground Expansion.

  3. Alternatives to shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    During FY79 and FY80 the Los Alamos National Laboratory and its contractors performed a preliminary assessment of several alternatives to shallow land burial of low-level waste, including deeper burial, mined cavities, specially engineered storage buildings, well injection of liquid waste, and seabed disposal. Only deeper burial and mined cavities seem acceptable as near-term alternatives. A waste management program using a combination of disposal alternatives is recommended. Research needed to implement the deeper burial and mined cavity options is identified

  4. Background studies: human-induced effects on the evolution of shallow land burial sites for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This report presents the results of a programme of background research on the human-induced effects on the long term evolution of shallow disposal sites for low level radioactive wastes. The work is intended to support development and use of the TIME2 simulation code. Within the context of climatic change up to the next glacial maximum three areas are addressed: planning and legislative control over site usage, biosphere state changes and intrusion. An appendix presents a discussion of some planning aspects of radioactive waste disposal. (author)

  5. Widespread presence of human BOULE homologs among animals and conservation of their ancient reproductive function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag Shah

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sex-specific traits that lead to the production of dimorphic gametes, sperm in males and eggs in females, are fundamental for sexual reproduction and accordingly widespread among animals. Yet the sex-biased genes that underlie these sex-specific traits are under strong selective pressure, and as a result of adaptive evolution they often become divergent. Indeed out of hundreds of male or female fertility genes identified in diverse organisms, only a very small number of them are implicated specifically in reproduction in more than one lineage. Few genes have exhibited a sex-biased, reproductive-specific requirement beyond a given phylum, raising the question of whether any sex-specific gametogenesis factors could be conserved and whether gametogenesis might have evolved multiple times. Here we describe a metazoan origin of a conserved human reproductive protein, BOULE, and its prevalence from primitive basal metazoans to chordates. We found that BOULE homologs are present in the genomes of representative species of each of the major lineages of metazoans and exhibit reproductive-specific expression in all species examined, with a preponderance of male-biased expression. Examination of Boule evolution within insect and mammalian lineages revealed little evidence for accelerated evolution, unlike most reproductive genes. Instead, purifying selection was the major force behind Boule evolution. Furthermore, loss of function of mammalian Boule resulted in male-specific infertility and a global arrest of sperm development remarkably similar to the phenotype in an insect boule mutation. This work demonstrates the conservation of a reproductive protein throughout eumetazoa, its predominant testis-biased expression in diverse bilaterian species, and conservation of a male gametogenic requirement in mice. This shows an ancient gametogenesis requirement for Boule among Bilateria and supports a model of a common origin of spermatogenesis.

  6. Lead (Pb) Isotope Baselines for Studies of Ancient Human Migration and Trade in the Maya Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Ashley E; Kamenov, George D; Gilli, Adrian; Hodell, David A; Emery, Kitty F; Brenner, Mark; Krigbaum, John

    2016-01-01

    We examined the potential use of lead (Pb) isotopes to source archaeological materials from the Maya region of Mesoamerica. The main objectives were to determine if: 1) geologic terrains throughout the Maya area exhibit distinct lead isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb), and 2) a combination of lead and strontium ratios can enhance sourcing procedures in the Mesoamerica region. We analyzed 60 rock samples for lead isotope ratios and a representative subset of samples for lead, uranium, and thorium concentrations across the Maya region, including the Northern Lowlands of the Mexican Yucatan Peninsula, the Southern Lowlands of Guatemala and Belize, the Volcanic Highlands, the Belizean Maya Mountains, and the Metamorphic Province/Motagua Valley. Although there is some overlap within certain sub-regions, particularly the geologically diverse Metamorphic Province, lead isotopes can be used to distinguish between the Northern Lowlands, the Southern Lowlands, and the Volcanic Highlands. The distinct lead isotope ratios in the sub-regions are related to the geology of the Maya area, exhibiting a general trend in the lowlands of geologically younger rocks in the north to older rocks in the south, and Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the southern highlands. Combined with other sourcing techniques such as strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and oxygen (δ18O), a regional baseline for lead isotope ratios can contribute to the development of lead isoscapes in the Maya area, and may help to distinguish among geographic sub-regions at a finer scale than has been previously possible. These isotope baselines will provide archaeologists with an additional tool to track the origin and movement of ancient humans and artifacts across this important region.

  7. Lead (Pb Isotope Baselines for Studies of Ancient Human Migration and Trade in the Maya Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley E Sharpe

    Full Text Available We examined the potential use of lead (Pb isotopes to source archaeological materials from the Maya region of Mesoamerica. The main objectives were to determine if: 1 geologic terrains throughout the Maya area exhibit distinct lead isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb, and 2 a combination of lead and strontium ratios can enhance sourcing procedures in the Mesoamerica region. We analyzed 60 rock samples for lead isotope ratios and a representative subset of samples for lead, uranium, and thorium concentrations across the Maya region, including the Northern Lowlands of the Mexican Yucatan Peninsula, the Southern Lowlands of Guatemala and Belize, the Volcanic Highlands, the Belizean Maya Mountains, and the Metamorphic Province/Motagua Valley. Although there is some overlap within certain sub-regions, particularly the geologically diverse Metamorphic Province, lead isotopes can be used to distinguish between the Northern Lowlands, the Southern Lowlands, and the Volcanic Highlands. The distinct lead isotope ratios in the sub-regions are related to the geology of the Maya area, exhibiting a general trend in the lowlands of geologically younger rocks in the north to older rocks in the south, and Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the southern highlands. Combined with other sourcing techniques such as strontium (87Sr/86Sr and oxygen (δ18O, a regional baseline for lead isotope ratios can contribute to the development of lead isoscapes in the Maya area, and may help to distinguish among geographic sub-regions at a finer scale than has been previously possible. These isotope baselines will provide archaeologists with an additional tool to track the origin and movement of ancient humans and artifacts across this important region.

  8. Lead (Pb) Isotope Baselines for Studies of Ancient Human Migration and Trade in the Maya Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenov, George D.; Gilli, Adrian; Hodell, David A.; Emery, Kitty F.; Brenner, Mark; Krigbaum, John

    2016-01-01

    We examined the potential use of lead (Pb) isotopes to source archaeological materials from the Maya region of Mesoamerica. The main objectives were to determine if: 1) geologic terrains throughout the Maya area exhibit distinct lead isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb), and 2) a combination of lead and strontium ratios can enhance sourcing procedures in the Mesoamerica region. We analyzed 60 rock samples for lead isotope ratios and a representative subset of samples for lead, uranium, and thorium concentrations across the Maya region, including the Northern Lowlands of the Mexican Yucatan Peninsula, the Southern Lowlands of Guatemala and Belize, the Volcanic Highlands, the Belizean Maya Mountains, and the Metamorphic Province/Motagua Valley. Although there is some overlap within certain sub-regions, particularly the geologically diverse Metamorphic Province, lead isotopes can be used to distinguish between the Northern Lowlands, the Southern Lowlands, and the Volcanic Highlands. The distinct lead isotope ratios in the sub-regions are related to the geology of the Maya area, exhibiting a general trend in the lowlands of geologically younger rocks in the north to older rocks in the south, and Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the southern highlands. Combined with other sourcing techniques such as strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and oxygen (δ18O), a regional baseline for lead isotope ratios can contribute to the development of lead isoscapes in the Maya area, and may help to distinguish among geographic sub-regions at a finer scale than has been previously possible. These isotope baselines will provide archaeologists with an additional tool to track the origin and movement of ancient humans and artifacts across this important region. PMID:27806065

  9. Ancient cellular structures and modern humans: change of survival strategies before prolonged low solar activity period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragulskaya, Mariya; Rudenchik, Evgeniy; Gromozova, Elena; Voychuk, Sergei; Kachur, Tatiana

    The study of biotropic effects of modern space weather carries the information about the rhythms and features of adaptation of early biological systems to the outer space influence. The influence of cosmic rays, ultraviolet waves and geomagnetic field on early life has its signs in modern biosphere processes. These phenomena could be experimentally studied on present-day biological objects. Particularly inorganic polyphosphates, so-called "fossil molecules", attracts special attention as the most ancient molecules which arose in inanimate nature and have been accompanying biological objects at all stages of evolution. Polyphosphates-containing graves of yeast's cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain Y-517, , from the Ukrainian Collection of Microorganisms was studied by daily measurements during 2000-2013 years. The IZMIRAN daily data base of physiological parameters dynamics during 2000-2013 years were analyzed simultaneously (25 people). The analysis showed significant simultaneous changes of the statistical parameters of the studied biological systems in 2004 -2006. The similarity of simultaneous changes of adaptation strategies of human organism and the cell structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the 23-24 cycles of solar activity are discussed. This phenomenon could be due to a replacement of bio-effective parameters of space weather during the change from 23rd to 24th solar activity cycle and nonstandard geophysical peculiarities of the 24th solar activity cycle. It could be suggested that the observed similarity arose as the optimization of evolution selection of the living systems in expectation of probable prolonged period of low solar activity (4-6 cycles of solar activity).

  10. Natural analogue study for low-and-intermediate level radioactive waste shallow burial disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Cunli; Fan Zhiwen; Huang Yawen; Cui Anxi; Liu Xiuzheng; Zhang Jinshen

    1995-01-01

    The paper makes a comparison of low-and-intermediate level radioactive waste shallow burial disposal with Chinese ancient tombs in respects of siting, engineering structures, design principle and construction procedures. Results showed that Chinese ancient tombs are very good analogue for low-and-intermediate level radioactive waste shallow burial disposal. Long-term preservation of ancient tombs and buried objects demonstrated that low-and-intermediate level radioactive waste shallow burial disposal would be safe if suitable sites were selected, reasonable engineering structures and good backfill materials were adopted, and scientific construction procedures were followed. The paper reports for the first time the testing results of certain ancient tomb backfill materials. The results indicated that the materials have so low a permeability as 1.5 x 10 -8 cm/s , and strong adsorption to radionuclides Co and Cs with the distribution coefficients of 1.4 x 10 4 mL/g and 2.1 x 10 4 mL/g, and the retardation factors of 4.4 x 10 4 and 7.7 x 10 4 respectively. Good performance of these materials is important assurance of long-term preservation of the ancient tombs. These materials may be considered to be used as backfill materials in low-and-intermediate level radioactive shallow burial disposal. (4 figs., 10 tabs.)

  11. Omics for Precious Rare Biosamples: Characterization of Ancient Human Hair by a Proteomic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresnais, Margaux; Richardin, Pascale; Sepúlveda, Marcela; Leize-Wagner, Emmanuelle; Charrié-Duhaut, Armelle

    2017-07-01

    Omics technologies have far-reaching applications beyond clinical medicine. A case in point is the analysis of ancient hair samples. Indeed, hair is an important biological indicator that has become a material of choice in archeometry to study the ancient civilizations and their environment. Current characterization of ancient hair is based on elemental and structural analyses, but only few studies have focused on the molecular aspects of ancient hair proteins-keratins-and their conservation state. In such cases, applied extraction protocols require large amounts of raw hair, from 30 to 100 mg. In the present study, we report an optimized new proteomic approach to accurately identify archeological hair proteins, and assess their preservation state, while using a minimum of raw material. Testing and adaptation of three protocols and of nano liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS) parameters were performed on modern hair. On the basis of mass spectrometry data quality, and of the required initial sample amount, the most promising workflow was selected and applied to an ancient archeological sample, dated to about 3880 years before present. Finally, and importantly, we were able to identify 11 ancient hair proteins and to visualize the preservation state of mummy's hair from only 500 μg of raw material. The results presented here pave the way for new insights into the understanding of hair protein alteration processes such as those due to aging and ecological exposures. This work could enable omics scientists to apply a proteomic approach to precious and rare samples, not only in the context of archeometrical studies but also for future applications that would require the use of very small amounts of sample.

  12. DNA typing of ancient parasite eggs from environmental samples identifies human and animal worm infections in Viking-age settlement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Nejsum, Peter

    paleoparasitological techniques such as morphological examination and molecular identification. Hard-shelled parasite eggs can be recovered from the environment even after extended periods of time and they have shown to be excellent reservoirs of ancient DNA (aDNA). aDNA analysis has enabled identifying which species...... parasite eggs from environmental samples collected at a Viking-age settlement (1018-1030 A.D.) are DNA typed to the species level. The human whipworm (Trichuris trichiura) and the human roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) are identified indicating that these parasites were endemic in Denmark in the Viking...

  13. Genome-wide nucleosome map and cytosine methylation levels of an ancient human genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jakob Skou; Valen, Eivind; Velazquez, Amhed Missael Vargas

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic information is available from contemporary organisms, but is difficult to track back in evolutionary time. Here, we show that genome-wide epigenetic information can be gathered directly from next-generation sequence reads of DNA isolated from ancient remains. Using the genome sequence...... data generated from hair shafts of a 4000-yr-old Paleo-Eskimo belonging to the Saqqaq culture, we generate the first ancient nucleosome map coupled with a genome-wide survey of cytosine methylation levels. The validity of both nucleosome map and methylation levels were confirmed by the recovery...

  14. About One of Burials of Novotitorovka Culture From the Territory of Kuban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya A. Balabanova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the burial complex and the skull of the Novotitorovka culture from burial no. 35 of the Ovalny burial mound, Kalininsky district of the Krasnodar region. The burial itself was non-inventory, but it was synchronous with burial no. 26. Both burials were excavated from the level of the ancient surface and covered by the same barrow. The bones from the studied burial belonged to a young man, who died at the age of 20-25. His craniological type is characterized by meso-dolichocrania, ellipsoidal vertical norm, the average width of forehead, wide and low face, orthognathy-like in a vertical plane and slightly profiled at the level of low eye sockets. The face is also characterized by narrow and sharply protruding nasal bones. The article also deals with the possible relationship between the tribes of the Novotitorovka culture and the Azov-Black Sea sites of Catacomb culture. This conclusion is based on the results of intergroup comparison by the method of canonical analysis. The studied skull of the Novotitorovka culture has a morphological complex that characterizes the groups of burials of the Catacomb culture localized on the terraces of the Ingul river and on the terraces of the Don river left bank. This conclusion calls into question the archaeologists’ hypothesis on the connection of the the Novotitorovka culture with the tribes of the Novosvobodnenskaya culture and the Maykop culture.

  15. More on contamination: the use of asymmetric molecular behavior to identify authentic ancient human DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmström, Helena; Svensson, Emma M; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2007-01-01

    so, we also produce data that describes the efficiency of bleach incubation of bone powder and its relative detrimental effects on contaminant and authentic ancient DNA. We note that bleach treatment is significantly more detrimental to contaminant than to authentic aDNA in the bleached bone powder...

  16. Beads from Inhumation Rite Burials of Gnezdovo Burial Mound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrova Olga P.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The beads from 33 inhumation burials at Gnezdovo burial mound are examined in the article. The beads (total 367 were crafted from stretched tube (258, stretched stick (3, winding (45, press molding (2 pcs., welding (2 pcs., and mosaic beads (9 pcs.. The burial mound contains virtually no broken beads, including the settlement's most common yellow glass beads. Besides glass beads, cornelian, crystal, amber and faience beads have been registered among the burial mound material, as well as beads crafted with metal. Apart from beads, grave inventories contained a series of pendants with a bead strung on a wire ring. The considered complexes contain five pendants of this type. Besides Gnezdovo, similar pendants have been discovered in Kiev, Timerev, Pskov and Vladimir barrows. A comparison between bead sets from Gnezdovo and Kiev burial mounds allows to conclude that the general composition and occurrence frequency of beads is identical for these burials. At the same time, beads crafted with rock crystal, cornelian and metal are more frequently discovered in Kiev inhumations.

  17. Textiles from Scythian burial complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Fialko; Yurii Boltryk

    2013-01-01

    In Northern Black Sea steppes were excavated more than three thousand Scythian burial mounds. In the studied burials were discovered large quantities of artifacts, but leather and textile items are preserved only in a few cases. Some ideas about Scythian costume are found in the works of Greek authors. In this regard, extremely important is the funerary complex dated with the 4th century BC, discovered in barrow Vishnevaja Moghila (Zaporizhia region, Ukraine). In the crypt, which remained und...

  18. The elemental status of ancient human bones from Edesheim/Rheinland-Pfalz determined by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankuhn, S.; Vogt, J.; Butz, T. [Fakultaet fuer Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    We report on ion beam investigations of 40 bone samples from the archaeological site Edesheim/Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany, a burial site of a Merowingian population (6-8th century AD). The samples were prepared as pellets from the so-called WARD's triangle. This region is an inner part of the femoral neck and one of the areas of high fracture risk in the case of osteoporosis. The experiments were carried out with an 1.5 MeV H{sup +} beam at the 2 MV VAN DE GRAAFF accelerator of the University of Leipzig. Simultaneously to the PIXE measurements, PBS and PICE spectra were recorded. We will present a correlation matrix for 11 selected elements detected by PIXE, which exhibits trends and dependences from which preliminary information on various diagenetic processes can be derived. (author)

  19. MicroRNA induction in human macrophages associated with infection with ancient and modern TB strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Furci

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In this study it was observed that the genetic diversity among Mtb strains and, in particular between ancient and modern strains, reflects on several aspects of host-pathogen interaction. In particular, the modulation of specific cellular microRNAs upon MTBC infection suggests a potential role for these microRNAs in the outcome of infection and, to a major extent, to the different epidemiological success of Mtb strains.

  20. Burial customs and the pollution of death in ancient Rome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... views on the (im)mortality of the soul and the concept of the “pollution of death”. Contamination through contact with the dead was thought to affect interpersonal relationships, interfere with official duties and prevent contact with the gods. However, considerations of hygiene relating to possible physical contamination also ...

  1. burial customs and the pollution of death in ancient rome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    or 80 a day. It goes without saying that this was not a fixed average and that wars, famines and epidemic diseases in particular would have a pe- riodic impact. We know, for ... (tenuiores), slaves and emancipated slaves, as well as by tradesmen and ..... decomposing corpses was primitive in comparison with modern me-.

  2. DEBATE ENTRE NIVELES ARTIFICIALES Y UNIDADES ESTRATIGRÁFICAS: EL ENTIERRO HUMANO POSTERIOR AL FUERTE SANCTI SPIRITUS (1527-1529, PUERTO GABOTO (SANTA FE / Artificial levels vs. stratigraphic units: the human burial subsequent to Sancti Spiritus Fort (15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Pasquali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el estudio y análisis de un entierro humano hallado dentro del alcance del proyecto de investigación del Fuerte Sancti Spiritus, en la localidad de Puerto Gaboto (provincia de Santa Fe. La recuperación del mismo se realizó en el año 2010, mediante la metodología de excavación por niveles artificiales. Dentro del marco del proyecto, a partir del año 2010, con la incorporación del equipo de arqueólogos pertenecientes a la Universidad del País Vasco se aplica una nueva metodología de intervención en el campo: excavación en extensión (open area por unidades estratigráficas. Este trabajo consta de una primera parte, en donde se presenta la recuperación de los restos óseos por niveles artificiales y su curaduría, así como, la clasificación y descripción de los materiales asociados al entierro. En una segunda etapa, se presenta la secuencia histórica del sitio determinada por las excavaciones estratigráficas y su relación con el entierro. A esto se le agrega el proceso de trabajo seguido para integrar el entierro dentro de la secuencia estratigráfica y para poder señalar a cuál de las fases de la secuencia histórica pertenece. Palabras clave: Esqueleto humano; Niveles artificiales; Unidades estratigráficas; Siglo XVI; Nordeste argentino   Abstract This study analyses a human burial found within the excavations of the Fort Sancti Spiritus (Puerto Gaboto, province of Santa Fe. Artificial levels excavation methodology was used to recover it in 2010. Subsequently a new excavation methodology was applied, open area through stratigraphic units. The recovery and treatment of the bones by artificial levels is initially presented, as well as the classification and description of materials linked to the burial. Secondly the historical sequence of the site deduced by the stratigraphic excavations and its relationship to the burial is provided. Additionally the process followed to integrate the burial into the

  3. SL1 RNA gene recovery from Enterobius vermicularis ancient DNA in pre-Columbian human coprolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez, Alena Mayo; Reinhard, Karl; Carvalho Gonçalves, Marcelo Luiz; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Araújo, Adauto; Paulo Vicente, Ana Carolina

    2006-11-01

    Enterobius vermicularis, pinworm, is one of the most common helminths worldwide, infecting nearly a billion people at all socio-economic levels. In prehistoric populations the paleoparasitological findings show a pinworm homogeneous distribution among hunter-gatherers in North America, intensified with the advent of agriculture. This same increase also occurred in the transition from nomad hunter-gatherers to sedentary farmers in South America, although E. vermicularis infection encompasses only the ancient Andean peoples, with no record among the pre-Colombian populations in the South American lowlands. However, the outline of pinworm paleoepidemiology has been supported by microscopic finding of eggs recovered from coprolites. Since molecular techniques are precise and sensitive in detecting pathogen ancient DNA (aDNA), and also could provide insights into the parasite evolutionary history, in this work we have performed a molecular paleoparasitological study of E. vermicularis. aDNA was recovered and pinworm 5S rRNA spacer sequences were determined from pre-Columbian coprolites (4110 BC-AD 900) from four different North and South American archaeological sites. The sequence analysis confirmed E. vermicularis identity and revealed a similarity among ancient and modern sequences. Moreover, polymorphisms were identified at the relative positions 160, 173 and 180, in independent coprolite samples from Tulán, San Pedro de Atacama, Chile (1080-950 BC). We also verified the presence of peculiarities (Splicing leader (SL1) RNA sequence, spliced donor site, the Sm antigen biding site, and RNA secondary structure) which characterise the SL1 RNA gene. The analysis shows that the SL1 RNA gene of contemporary pinworms was present in pre-Columbian E. vermicularis by 6110 years ago. We were successful in detecting E. vermicularis aDNA even in coprolites without direct microscopic evidence of the eggs, improving the diagnosis of helminth infections in the past and further

  4. Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Virginia

    This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

  5. Ancient mitogenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Simon Y. W.; Gilbert, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome has been the traditional focus of most research into ancient DNA, owing to its high copy number and population-level variability. Despite this long-standing interest in mitochondrial DNA, it was only in 2001 that the first complete ancient mitogenomic sequences were obtai...

  6. Palaeoecological evidence of agricultural activity and human impact on the environment at the ancient settlement centre of Keava, Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinsalu, Atko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Peat record from a very small basin, the former mire of Verevainu, in the nearest vicinity of ancient Keava settlements (8th-11th centuries and hillforts (5th–13th centuries, was investigated by means of palaeoecological approach, namely by pollen, charcoal, and loss-on-ignition analyses and radiocarbon dating. The study aimed at ascertaining the appearance of prehistoric man in the area and reconstructing the local vegetation history and human impact on the environment around the inhabitation centre. The first sporadic cereal pollen grains appeared in the sediments in the Late Bronze Age at ca 1500 BC. Both peat ignition residue values as indicators of topsoil erosion and pollen evidence suggest forest clearance, opening of landscape, and cultivation of cereals from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. Approximately at AD 350–500 the rate of human impact upon environment increased notably.

  7. The Bahrain Burial Mound Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen; Johansen, Kasper Lambert

    2007-01-01

    the majority of burial mounds have been removed to make way for roads and housing, and in this process about 8000 mounds have been excavated; of these only c. 265 have been published. In 2006 the Bahrain Directorate for Culture & National Heritage and Moesgaard Museum decided on a collaborative project...... focussed on the Bahrain burial mounds. Within the framework of the Burial Mound Project aerial photos from 1959 have been orto-rectified and geo-referenced and so far a GIS-based digital map representing more than 60.000 mounds have been completed. With respect to the thousands of excavated mounds the huge...... process of linking relevant information to the mounds have been initiated in the course of which excavation data of individual monument is being fed into a relational database. Our preliminary study of the digital maps of the mound cemeteries has revealed an abundance of interesting patterns...

  8. Human macrophage responses to clinical isolates from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex discriminate between ancient and modern lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Portevin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is a correlation between phylogenetic relationship and inflammatory response amongst a panel of clinical isolates representative of the global diversity of the human Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex (MTBC. Measurement of cytokines from infected human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages revealed a wide variation in the response to different strains. The same pattern of high or low response to individual strains was observed for different pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and was conserved across multiple human donors. Although each major phylogenetic lineage of MTBC included strains inducing a range of cytokine responses, we found that overall inflammatory phenotypes differed significantly across lineages. In particular, comparison of evolutionarily modern lineages demonstrated a significant skewing towards lower early inflammatory response. The differential response to ancient and modern lineages observed using GM-CSF derived macrophages was also observed in autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells and murine bone marrow-derived macrophages, but not in human unfractionated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We hypothesize that the reduced immune responses to modern lineages contribute to more rapid disease progression and transmission, which might be a selective advantage in the context of expanding human populations. In addition to the lineage effects, the large strain-to-strain variation in innate immune responses elicited by MTBC will need to be considered in tuberculosis vaccine development.

  9. 20 CFR 416.1231 - Burial spaces and certain funds set aside for burial expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spouse's, if any) burial expenses and kept separate from nonburial-related assets. Property other than.... Interest earned on excluded burial funds and appreciation in the value of excluded burial arrangements... exclusion of burial funds and accumulated interest and appreciation will continue to apply throughout a...

  10. Emerging genetic patterns of the European Neolithic: perspectives from a late Neolithic Bell Beaker burial site in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Esther J; Makarewicz, Cheryl; Renneberg, Rebecca; Harder, Melanie; Krause-Kyora, Ben; Müller, Stephanie; Ostritz, Sven; Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Schreiber, Stefan; Müller, Johannes; von Wurmb-Schwark, Nicole; Nebel, Almut

    2012-08-01

    The transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture in Europe is associated with demographic changes that may have shifted the human gene pool of the region as a result of an influx of Neolithic farmers from the Near East. However, the genetic composition of populations after the earliest Neolithic, when a diverse mosaic of societies that had been fully engaged in agriculture for some time appeared in central Europe, is poorly known. At this period during the Late Neolithic (ca. 2,800-2,000 BC), regionally distinctive burial patterns associated with two different cultural groups emerge, Bell Beaker and Corded Ware, and may reflect differences in how these societies were organized. Ancient DNA analyses of human remains from the Late Neolithic Bell Beaker site of Kromsdorf, Germany showed distinct mitochondrial haplotypes for six individuals, which were classified under the haplogroups I1, K1, T1, U2, U5, and W5, and two males were identified as belonging to the Y haplogroup R1b. In contrast to other Late Neolithic societies in Europe emphasizing maintenance of biological relatedness in mortuary contexts, the diversity of maternal haplotypes evident at Kromsdorf suggests that burial practices of Bell Beaker communities operated outside of social norms based on shared maternal lineages. Furthermore, our data, along with those from previous studies, indicate that modern U5-lineages may have received little, if any, contribution from the Mesolithic or Neolithic mitochondrial gene pool. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A new era in palaeomicrobiology: prospects for ancient dental calculus as a long-term record of the human oral microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J

    2015-01-19

    The field of palaeomicrobiology is dramatically expanding thanks to recent advances in high-throughput biomolecular sequencing, which allows unprecedented access to the evolutionary history and ecology of human-associated and environmental microbes. Recently, human dental calculus has been shown to be an abundant, nearly ubiquitous, and long-term reservoir of the ancient oral microbiome, preserving not only microbial and host biomolecules but also dietary and environmental debris. Modern investigations of native human microbiota have demonstrated that the human microbiome plays a central role in health and chronic disease, raising questions about changes in microbial ecology, diversity and function through time. This paper explores the current state of ancient oral microbiome research and discusses successful applications, methodological challenges and future possibilities in elucidating the intimate evolutionary relationship between humans and their microbes.

  12. A new era in palaeomicrobiology: prospects for ancient dental calculus as a long-term record of the human oral microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    The field of palaeomicrobiology is dramatically expanding thanks to recent advances in high-throughput biomolecular sequencing, which allows unprecedented access to the evolutionary history and ecology of human-associated and environmental microbes. Recently, human dental calculus has been shown to be an abundant, nearly ubiquitous, and long-term reservoir of the ancient oral microbiome, preserving not only microbial and host biomolecules but also dietary and environmental debris. Modern investigations of native human microbiota have demonstrated that the human microbiome plays a central role in health and chronic disease, raising questions about changes in microbial ecology, diversity and function through time. This paper explores the current state of ancient oral microbiome research and discusses successful applications, methodological challenges and future possibilities in elucidating the intimate evolutionary relationship between humans and their microbes. PMID:25487328

  13. Interdisciplinary investigation on ancient Ephedra twigs from Gumugou Cemetery (3800 B.P.) in Xinjiang region, northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mingsi; Yang, Yimin; Wang, Binghua; Wang, Changsui

    2013-07-01

    In the dry northern temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, the genus Ephedra comprises a series of native shrub species with a cumulative application history reaching back well over 2,000 years for the treatment of asthma, cold, fever, as well as many respiratory system diseases, especially in China. There are ethnological and philological evidences of Ephedra worship and utilization in many Eurasia Steppe cultures. However, no scientifically verifiable, ancient physical proof has yet been provided for any species in this genus. This study reports the palaeobotanical finding of Ephedra twigs discovered from burials of the Gumugou archaeological site, and ancient community graveyard, dated around 3800 BP, in Lop Nor region of northwestern China. The macro-remains were first examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and then by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for traits of residual biomarkers under the reference of modern Ephedra samples. The GC-MS result of chemical analysis presents the existence of Ephedra-featured compounds, several of which, including benzaldehyde, tetramethyl-pyrazine, and phenmetrazine, are found in the chromatograph of both the ancient and modern sample. These results confirm that the discovered plant remains are Ephedra twigs. Although there is no direct archaeological evidence for the indication of medicinal use of this Ephedra, the unified burial deposit in which the Ephedra was discovered is a strong indication of the religious and medicinal awareness of the human inhabitants of Gumugou towards this plant. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Investigating kinship of Neolithic post-LBK human remains from Krusza Zamkowa, Poland using ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juras, Anna; Chyleński, Maciej; Krenz-Niedbała, Marta; Malmström, Helena; Ehler, Edvard; Pospieszny, Łukasz; Łukasik, Sylwia; Bednarczyk, Józef; Piontek, Janusz; Jakobsson, Mattias; Dabert, Miroslawa

    2017-01-01

    maternal relationship in ancient individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Classification of Ancient Mammal Individuals Using Dental Pulp MALDI-TOF MS Peptide Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi-Nguyen-Ny; Aboudharam, Gérard; Gardeisen, Armelle; Davoust, Bernard; Bocquet-Appel, Jean-Pierre; Flaudrops, Christophe; Belghazi, Maya; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Background The classification of ancient animal corpses at the species level remains a challenging task for forensic scientists and anthropologists. Severe damage and mixed, tiny pieces originating from several skeletons may render morphological classification virtually impossible. Standard approaches are based on sequencing mitochondrial and nuclear targets. Methodology/Principal Findings We present a method that can accurately classify mammalian species using dental pulp and mass spectrometry peptide profiling. Our work was organized into three successive steps. First, after extracting proteins from the dental pulp collected from 37 modern individuals representing 13 mammalian species, trypsin-digested peptides were used for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. The resulting peptide profiles accurately classified every individual at the species level in agreement with parallel cytochrome b gene sequencing gold standard. Second, using a 279–modern spectrum database, we blindly classified 33 of 37 teeth collected in 37 modern individuals (89.1%). Third, we classified 10 of 18 teeth (56%) collected in 15 ancient individuals representing five mammal species including human, from five burial sites dating back 8,500 years. Further comparison with an upgraded database comprising ancient specimen profiles yielded 100% classification in ancient teeth. Peptide sequencing yield 4 and 16 different non-keratin proteins including collagen (alpha-1 type I and alpha-2 type I) in human ancient and modern dental pulp, respectively. Conclusions/Significance Mass spectrometry peptide profiling of the dental pulp is a new approach that can be added to the arsenal of species classification tools for forensics and anthropology as a complementary method to DNA sequencing. The dental pulp is a new source for collagen and other proteins for the species classification of modern and ancient mammal individuals. PMID:21364886

  16. Classification of ancient mammal individuals using dental pulp MALDI-TOF MS peptide profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi-Nguyen-Ny Tran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The classification of ancient animal corpses at the species level remains a challenging task for forensic scientists and anthropologists. Severe damage and mixed, tiny pieces originating from several skeletons may render morphological classification virtually impossible. Standard approaches are based on sequencing mitochondrial and nuclear targets. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a method that can accurately classify mammalian species using dental pulp and mass spectrometry peptide profiling. Our work was organized into three successive steps. First, after extracting proteins from the dental pulp collected from 37 modern individuals representing 13 mammalian species, trypsin-digested peptides were used for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. The resulting peptide profiles accurately classified every individual at the species level in agreement with parallel cytochrome b gene sequencing gold standard. Second, using a 279-modern spectrum database, we blindly classified 33 of 37 teeth collected in 37 modern individuals (89.1%. Third, we classified 10 of 18 teeth (56% collected in 15 ancient individuals representing five mammal species including human, from five burial sites dating back 8,500 years. Further comparison with an upgraded database comprising ancient specimen profiles yielded 100% classification in ancient teeth. Peptide sequencing yield 4 and 16 different non-keratin proteins including collagen (alpha-1 type I and alpha-2 type I in human ancient and modern dental pulp, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Mass spectrometry peptide profiling of the dental pulp is a new approach that can be added to the arsenal of species classification tools for forensics and anthropology as a complementary method to DNA sequencing. The dental pulp is a new source for collagen and other proteins for the species classification of modern and ancient mammal individuals.

  17. Report on waste burial charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    One of the requirements placed upon nuclear power reactor licensees by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is for the licensees to periodically adjust the estimate of the cost of decommissioning their plants, in dollars of the current year, as part of the process to provide reasonable assurance that adequate funds for decommissioning will be available when needed. This report, which is scheduled to be revised periodically, contains the development of a formula for escalating decommissioning cost estimates that is acceptable to the NRC. The sources of information to be used in the escalation formula are identified, and the values developed for the escalation of radioactive waste burial costs, by site and by year, are given. The licensees may use the formula, the coefficients, and the burial escalation factors from this report in their escalation analyses, or they may use an escalation rate at least equal to the escalation approach presented herein. This third revision of NUREG-1307 contains revised spreadsheet results for the disposal costs for the reference PWR and the reference BWR and the ratios of disposal costs at the Washington, Nevada, and South Carolina sites for the years 1986, 1988 and 1991, superseding the values given in the July 1991 issue of this report. Burial cost surcharges mandated by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) have been incorporated into the revised ratio tables for those years. In addition, spreadsheet results for the disposal costs for the reference reactors and ratios of disposal costs at the two remaining burial sites in Washington and South Carolina for the year 1993 are provided. These latter results do not include any LLRWPAA surcharges, since those provisions of the Act expired at the end of 1992

  18. Textiles from Scythian burial complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Fialko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Northern Black Sea steppes were excavated more than three thousand Scythian burial mounds. In the studied burials were discovered large quantities of artifacts, but leather and textile items are preserved only in a few cases. Some ideas about Scythian costume are found in the works of Greek authors. In this regard, extremely important is the funerary complex dated with the 4th century BC, discovered in barrow Vishnevaja Moghila (Zaporizhia region, Ukraine. In the crypt, which remained undisturbed over time, was found a burial of a Scythian girl. The unique condition of preservation of the textiles and leather findings allowed reconstructing the entire costume of the Scythian. It consisted of six layers of clothing. Various pieces of clothing were made from different materials: white linen cloth, orange satin fabric, reddish-brown fur, black cloth, fur, red skin. This discovery is one of a kind in the Northern Black Sea region, which is currently a reference example of female costume of early nomads of the region.

  19. Evidence of ancient DNA reveals the first European lineage in Iron Age Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, C Z; Li, C X; Cui, Y Q; Zhang, Q C; Fu, Y Q; Zhu, H; Zhou, H

    2007-07-07

    Various studies on ancient DNA have attempted to reconstruct population movement in Asia, with much interest focused on determining the arrival of European lineages in ancient East Asia. Here, we discuss our analysis of the mitochondrial DNA of human remains excavated from the Yu Hong tomb in Taiyuan, China, dated 1400 years ago. The burial style of this tomb is characteristic of Central Asia at that time. Our analysis shows that Yu Hong belonged to the haplogroup U5, one of the oldest western Eurasian-specific haplogroups, while his wife can be classified as haplogroup G, the type prevalent in East Asia. Our findings show that this man with European lineage arrived in Taiyuan approximately 1400 years ago, and most probably married a local woman. Haplogroup U5 was the first west Eurasian-specific lineage to be found in the central part of ancient China, and Taiyuan may be the easternmost location of the discovered remains of European lineage in ancient China.

  20. DIGITAL WORKFLOWS FOR A 3D SEMANTIC REPRESENTATION OF AN ANCIENT MINING LANDSCAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Hiebel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The ancient mining landscape of Schwaz/Brixlegg in the Tyrol, Austria witnessed mining from prehistoric times to modern times creating a first order cultural landscape when it comes to one of the most important inventions in human history: the production of metal. In 1991 a part of this landscape was lost due to an enormous landslide that reshaped part of the mountain. With our work we want to propose a digital workflow to create a 3D semantic representation of this ancient mining landscape with its mining structures to preserve it for posterity. First, we define a conceptual model to integrate the data. It is based on the CIDOC CRM ontology and CRMgeo for geometric data. To transform our information sources to a formal representation of the classes and properties of the ontology we applied semantic web technologies and created a knowledge graph in RDF (Resource Description Framework. Through the CRMgeo extension coordinate information of mining features can be integrated into the RDF graph and thus related to the detailed digital elevation model that may be visualized together with the mining structures using Geoinformation systems or 3D visualization tools. The RDF network of the triple store can be queried using the SPARQL query language. We created a snapshot of mining, settlement and burial sites in the Bronze Age. The results of the query were loaded into a Geoinformation system and a visualization of known bronze age sites related to mining, settlement and burial activities was created.

  1. Digital Workflows for a 3d Semantic Representation of AN Ancient Mining Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebel, G.; Hanke, K.

    2017-08-01

    The ancient mining landscape of Schwaz/Brixlegg in the Tyrol, Austria witnessed mining from prehistoric times to modern times creating a first order cultural landscape when it comes to one of the most important inventions in human history: the production of metal. In 1991 a part of this landscape was lost due to an enormous landslide that reshaped part of the mountain. With our work we want to propose a digital workflow to create a 3D semantic representation of this ancient mining landscape with its mining structures to preserve it for posterity. First, we define a conceptual model to integrate the data. It is based on the CIDOC CRM ontology and CRMgeo for geometric data. To transform our information sources to a formal representation of the classes and properties of the ontology we applied semantic web technologies and created a knowledge graph in RDF (Resource Description Framework). Through the CRMgeo extension coordinate information of mining features can be integrated into the RDF graph and thus related to the detailed digital elevation model that may be visualized together with the mining structures using Geoinformation systems or 3D visualization tools. The RDF network of the triple store can be queried using the SPARQL query language. We created a snapshot of mining, settlement and burial sites in the Bronze Age. The results of the query were loaded into a Geoinformation system and a visualization of known bronze age sites related to mining, settlement and burial activities was created.

  2. Ancient genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a revolution in ancient DNA (aDNA) research. Although the field's focus was previously limited to mitochondrial DNA and a few nuclear markers, whole genome sequences from the deep past can now be retrieved. This breakthrough is tightly connected to the massive sequen...

  3. Detection of 400-year-old Yersinia pestis DNA in human dental pulp: an approach to the diagnosis of ancient septicemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drancourt, M; Aboudharam, G; Signoli, M; Dutour, O; Raoult, D

    1998-10-13

    Ancient septicemic plague epidemics were reported to have killed millions of people for 2 millenniums. However, confident diagnosis of ancient septicemia solely on the basis of historical clinical observations is not possible. The lack of suitable infected material has prevented direct demonstration of ancient septicemia; thus, the history of most infections such as plague remains hypothetical. The durability of dental pulp, together with its natural sterility, makes it a suitable material on which to base such research. We hypothesized that it would be a lasting refuge for Yersinia pestis, the plague agent. DNA extracts were made from the dental pulp of 12 unerupted teeth extracted from skeletons excavated from 16th and 18th century French graves of persons thought to have died of plague ("plague teeth") and from 7 ancient negative control teeth. PCRs incorporating ancient DNA extracts and primers specific for the human beta-globin gene demonstrated the absence of inhibitors in these preparations. The incorporation of primers specific for Y. pestis rpoB (the RNA polymerase beta-subunit-encoding gene) and the recognized virulence-associated pla (the plasminogen activator-encoding gene) repeatedly yielded products that had a nucleotide sequence indistinguishable from that of modern day isolates of the bacterium. The specific pla sequence was obtained from 6 of 12 plague skeleton teeth but 0 of 7 negative controls (P plague was achieved for historically identified victims, and we have confirmed the presence of the disease at the end of 16th century in France. Dental pulp is an attractive target in the quest to determine the etiology of septicemic illnesses detected in ancient corpses. Molecular techniques could be applied to this material to resolve historical outbreaks.

  4. Micromorphology of two prehistoric ritual burials from Yemen, and considerations on methodological aspects of sampling the burial matrix - work in progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usai, Maria-Raimonda; Brothwell, Don; Buckley, Stephen; Ai-Thour, Kalid; Canti, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    Introduction In the central area of Yemen, two burial sites placed high in the crevices of vertical cliff face of Cretaceous sandstone (Tawilah Group) provided evidence of human remains and yielded burial soils. Radiocarbon dating indicated c.2500-2900 years BP for the burials. In other local comparable sites the deep horizontal crevices yielded Bronze Age human remains, in exceptional state of preservation Questions: What was the nature of the burial matrix? Are other human influences superimposed on the soils derived from it? Is it simply decomposed crevice rock, scraped together at the time of burial, or the result of a more complex burial practice? Such questions are also relevant to a variety of other burials of different periods and world regions. Methods Seven matrix samples from Cliff Burials (A) Talan (Layers 4,10,12,14,18,20 and 22, from top to bottom) and (B) Shiban Kawkaban (Layer 1 and 9) were analysed with micromorphology, supplemented by SEM microprobe, X-ray diffraction, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results Cliff Burial Site Talan. The presence of cholesterol was confirmed in the lower sample. The second layer contained darker earth with fibrous plant material. A hard calcareous upper capping contrasted with the other levels of matrix, and it displayed a highly birefingent material with a significant component of uric acid. The other levels had variable organic content and plant inclusions, and possibly pollen. In Layer 10, aromatic acids indicative of balsam and sugar markers suggested plant gum. Cholesterol was the major sterol in Layers 10 and 22, but whilst in Layer 10 its oxidation products were present and cholestanol was abundant as normally in soils, it was only a minor component of Layer 22 where, rather, a significant amount of coprostanol indicated faecal input, and cholesterol oxidation products were absent. Cliff Burial Site Shiban Kawkaban. Although no stratification was visible to the naked eye, variation was observed at a

  5. Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA: An Ancient Nutrient for the Modern Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Bradbury

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern humans have evolved with a staple source of preformed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in the diet. An important turning point in human evolution was the discovery of high-quality, easily digested nutrients from coastal seafood and inland freshwater sources. Multi-generational exploitation of seafood by shore-based dwellers coincided with the rapid expansion of grey matter in the cerebral cortex, which characterizes the modern human brain. The DHA molecule has unique structural properties that appear to provide optimal conditions for a wide range of cell membrane functions. This has particular implications for grey matter, which is membrane-rich tissue. An important metabolic role for DHA has recently been identified as the precursor for resolvins and protectins. The rudimentary source of DHA is marine algae; therefore it is found concentrated in fish and marine oils. Unlike the photosynthetic cells in algae and higher plants, mammalian cells lack the specific enzymes required for the de novo synthesis of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, the precursor for all omega-3 fatty acid syntheses. Endogenous synthesis of DHA from ALA in humans is much lower and more limited than previously assumed. The excessive consumption of omega-6 fatty acids in the modern Western diet further displaces DHA from membrane phospholipids. An emerging body of research is exploring a unique role for DHA in neurodevelopment and the prevention of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. DHA is increasingly being added back into the food supply as fish oil or algal oil supplementation.

  6. A revised timescale for human evolution based on ancient mitochondrial genomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fu, Q.; Mittnik, A.; Johnson, P. L. F.; Bos, K.; Lari, M.; Bollongino, R.; Sun, Ch.; Giemsch, L.; Schmitz, R.; Burger, J.; Ronchitelli, A. M.; Martini, F.; Cremonesi, R. G.; Svoboda, Jiří; Bauer, P.; Caramelli, D.; Castellano, S.; Reich, D.; Pääbo, S.; Krause, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 23, April 8 (2013), s. 553-559 ISSN 0960-9822 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : mitochondrial genome * human evolution * calibration Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology Impact factor: 9.916, year: 2013

  7. Ancient dispersal of the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii from the Amazon rainforest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, F.; Ceresini, P.C.; Polacheck, I.; Ma, H.; van Nieuwerburgh, F.; Gabaldon, T.; Kagan, S.; Pursall, E.R.; Hoogveld, H.L.; van Iersel, L.J.; Klau, G.W.; Kelk, S.M.; Stougie, L.; Bartlett, K.H.; Voelz, K.; Pryszcz, L.P.; Castaneda, E.; Lazera, M.; Meyer, W.; Deforce, D.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; May, R.C.; Klaassen, C.H.W.; Boekhout, T.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades, several fungal outbreaks have occurred, including the high-profile 'Vancouver Island' and 'Pacific Northwest' outbreaks, caused by Cryptococcus gattii, which has affected hundreds of otherwise healthy humans and animals. Over the same time period, C. gattii was the cause

  8. Ancient dispersal of the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii from the Amazon rainforest.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, F.; Ceresini, P.C.; Polacheck, I.; Ma, H.; Nieuwerburgh, F. van; Gabaldón, T.; Kagan, S.; Pursall, E.R.; Hoogveld, H.L.; Iersel, L.J. van; Klau, G.W.; Kelk, S.M.; Stougie, L.; Bartlett, K.H.; Voelz, K.; Pryszcz, L.P.; Castañeda, E.; Lazera, M.; Meyer, W.; Deforce, D.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; May, R.C.; Klaassen, C.H.; Boekhout, T.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades, several fungal outbreaks have occurred, including the high-profile 'Vancouver Island' and 'Pacific Northwest' outbreaks, caused by Cryptococcus gattii, which has affected hundreds of otherwise healthy humans and animals. Over the same time period, C. gattii was the cause

  9. Uniqueness of human running coordination: The integration of modern and ancient evolutionary innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eKiely

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Running is a pervasive activity across human cultures and a cornerstone of contemporary health, fitness and sporting activities. Yet for the overwhelming predominance of human existence running was an essential prerequisite for survival. A means to hunt, and a means to escape when hunted. In a very real sense humans have evolved to run. Yet curiously, perhaps due to running’s cultural ubiquity and the natural ease with which we learn to run, we rarely consider the uniqueness of human bipedal running within the animal kingdom. Our unique upright, single stance, bouncing running gait imposes a unique set of coordinative difficulties. Challenges demanding we precariously balance our fragile brains in the very position where they are most vulnerable to falling injury while simultaneously retaining stability, steering direction of travel, and powering the upcoming stride: all within the abbreviated time-frames afforded by short, violent ground contacts separated by long flight times. These running coordination challenges are solved through the tightly-integrated blending of primitive evolutionary legacies, conserved from reptilian and vertebrate lineages, and comparatively modern, more exclusively human, innovations. The integrated unification of these top-down and bottom-up control processes bestows humans with an agile control system, enabling us to readily modulate speeds, change direction, negotiate varied terrains and to instantaneously adapt to changing surface conditions. The seamless integration of these evolutionary processes is facilitated by pervasive, neural and biological, activity-dependent adaptive plasticity. Over time, and with progressive exposure, this adaptive plasticity shapes neural and biological structures to best cope with regularly imposed movement challenges. This pervasive plasticity enables the gradual construction of a robust system of distributed coordinated control, comprised of processes that are so deeply

  10. Oxytocin Pathway Genes: Evolutionary Ancient System Impacting on Human Affiliation, Sociality, and Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Monakhov, Mikhail; Pratt, Maayan; Ebstein, Richard P

    2016-02-01

    Oxytocin (OT), a nonapeptide signaling molecule originating from an ancestral peptide, appears in different variants across all vertebrate and several invertebrate species. Throughout animal evolution, neuropeptidergic signaling has been adapted by organisms for regulating response to rapidly changing environments. The family of OT-like molecules affects both peripheral tissues implicated in reproduction, homeostasis, and energy balance, as well as neuromodulation of social behavior, stress regulation, and associative learning in species ranging from nematodes to humans. After describing the OT-signaling pathway, we review research on the three genes most extensively studied in humans: the OT receptor (OXTR), the structural gene for OT (OXT/neurophysin-I), and CD38. Consistent with the notion that sociality should be studied from the perspective of social life at the species level, we address human social functions in relation to OT-pathway genes, including parenting, empathy, and using social relationships to manage stress. We then describe associations between OT-pathway genes with psychopathologies involving social dysfunctions such as autism, depression, or schizophrenia. Human research particularly underscored the involvement of two OXTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs53576, rs2254298) with fewer studies focusing on other OXTR (rs7632287, rs1042778, rs2268494, rs2268490), OXT (rs2740210, rs4813627, rs4813625), and CD38 (rs3796863, rs6449197) single nucleotide polymorphisms. Overall, studies provide evidence for the involvement of OT-pathway genes in human social functions but also suggest that factors such as gender, culture, and early environment often confound attempts to replicate first findings. We conclude by discussing epigenetics, conceptual implications within an evolutionary perspective, and future directions, especially the need to refine phenotypes, carefully characterize early environments, and integrate observations of social behavior across

  11. 20 CFR 61.205 - Burial expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Burial expense. 61.205 Section 61.205... § 61.205 Burial expense. (a) When the death of a person listed in § 61.1(a) results from an injury caused by a war-risk hazard, the Office shall pay reasonable burial expenses up to the amount specified...

  12. The human skin: a meeting ground for the ideas about macrocosm and microcosm in ancient and Medieval and Greek literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamandopoulos, A A; Goudas, P; Diamandopoulos, A H

    2001-12-01

    We have been interested in the cleansing capacity of skin during the recent years. In a paper of ours (1) we presented a few references to Hippocrates' and Galen's ideas on the subject, while the main body of the article was based on the 17th-20th centuries' relative practices. In a second paper (2), we were mainly testing the ancient and Medieval Greek ideas on skin catharsis against some clinical work of ours. In this paper we now present the ideas of the pagan and Byzantine Greek authors (5th cent. BC - 10th cent. AD) on the relationship of the human body to the natural and man-made world. Special emphasis is given to the relationship between purification through the skin and world purification. Based on the similarity of the Empedokles' concept of the four elements and Hippocrates' thesis concerning the four humours, the Earth itself was personified and became a living organism that felt cold, perspired and became dry. Man started to seek a natural explanation for his diseases and alterations of his body functions. Hence, perspiration, fever, urination, headache, stroke, were explained in cosmological terms. Extracts from many medical and non-medical writers, like Empedocles, Hippocrates, Aristotle, Galen, the Fathers of the Church, Meletius latrosophista, Theophilus Protospatharius, Michael Psellus and other sources are presented, in order to show the close relationship between an abundance of diseases and an array of natural phenomena.

  13. The Effect of Recent Admixture on Inference of Ancient Human Population History

    OpenAIRE

    Lohmueller, Kirk E.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Clark, Andrew G.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the widespread study of genetic variation in admixed human populations, such as African-Americans, there has not been an evaluation of the effects of recent admixture on patterns of polymorphism or inferences about population demography. These issues are particularly relevant because estimates of the timing and magnitude of population growth in Africa have differed among previous studies, some of which examined African-American individuals. Here we use simulations and single-nucleotid...

  14. Beneath the surface of water. Hydraulic structures and human skeletal remains in Ancient Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Zanoni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings from the area of Modena, in Northern Italy, have revitalized the debate on the association between human skeletal remains and artificial hydraulic structures. In this paper, our intention is to assemble the relevant archaeological and anthropological data on the matter in order to establish whether these findings are exceptional and isolated or indicate instead a structured and specific cultural behaviour which persists through time.

  15. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Ning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1, followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1 and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1. Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC, lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  16. Scale-dependent climatic drivers of human epidemics in ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Huidong; Yan, Chuan; Xu, Lei; Büntgen, Ulf; Stenseth, Nils C; Zhang, Zhibin

    2017-12-05

    A wide range of climate change-induced effects have been implicated in the prevalence of infectious diseases. Disentangling causes and consequences, however, remains particularly challenging at historical time scales, for which the quality and quantity of most of the available natural proxy archives and written documentary sources often decline. Here, we reconstruct the spatiotemporal occurrence patterns of human epidemics for large parts of China and most of the last two millennia. Cold and dry climate conditions indirectly increased the prevalence of epidemics through the influences of locusts and famines. Our results further reveal that low-frequency, long-term temperature trends mainly contributed to negative associations with epidemics, while positive associations of epidemics with droughts, floods, locusts, and famines mainly coincided with both higher and lower frequency temperature variations. Nevertheless, unstable relationships between human epidemics and temperature changes were observed on relatively smaller time scales. Our study suggests that an intertwined, direct, and indirect array of biological, ecological, and societal responses to different aspects of past climatic changes strongly depended on the frequency domain and study period chosen.

  17. The effect of recent admixture on inference of ancient human population history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmueller, Kirk E; Bustamante, Carlos D; Clark, Andrew G

    2010-06-01

    Despite the widespread study of genetic variation in admixed human populations, such as African-Americans, there has not been an evaluation of the effects of recent admixture on patterns of polymorphism or inferences about population demography. These issues are particularly relevant because estimates of the timing and magnitude of population growth in Africa have differed among previous studies, some of which examined African-American individuals. Here we use simulations and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data collected through direct resequencing and genotyping to investigate these issues. We find that when estimating the current population size and magnitude of recent growth in an ancestral population using the site frequency spectrum (SFS), it is possible to obtain reasonably accurate estimates of the parameters when using samples drawn from the admixed population under certain conditions. We also show that methods for demographic inference that use haplotype patterns are more sensitive to recent admixture than are methods based on the SFS. The analysis of human genetic variation data from the Yoruba people of Ibadan, Nigeria and African-Americans supports the predictions from the simulations. Our results have important implications for the evaluation of previous population genetic studies that have considered African-American individuals as a proxy for individuals from West Africa as well as for future population genetic studies of additional admixed populations.

  18. Ancient dispersal of the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii from the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Ferry; Ceresini, Paulo C; Polacheck, Itzhack; Ma, Hansong; van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Gabaldón, Toni; Kagan, Sarah; Pursall, E Rhiannon; Hoogveld, Hans L; van Iersel, Leo J J; Klau, Gunnar W; Kelk, Steven M; Stougie, Leen; Bartlett, Karen H; Voelz, Kerstin; Pryszcz, Leszek P; Castañeda, Elizabeth; Lazera, Marcia; Meyer, Wieland; Deforce, Dieter; Meis, Jacques F; May, Robin C; Klaassen, Corné H W; Boekhout, Teun

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades, several fungal outbreaks have occurred, including the high-profile 'Vancouver Island' and 'Pacific Northwest' outbreaks, caused by Cryptococcus gattii, which has affected hundreds of otherwise healthy humans and animals. Over the same time period, C. gattii was the cause of several additional case clusters at localities outside of the tropical and subtropical climate zones where the species normally occurs. In every case, the causative agent belongs to a previously rare genotype of C. gattii called AFLP6/VGII, but the origin of the outbreak clades remains enigmatic. Here we used phylogenetic and recombination analyses, based on AFLP and multiple MLST datasets, and coalescence gene genealogy to demonstrate that these outbreaks have arisen from a highly-recombining C. gattii population in the native rainforest of Northern Brazil. Thus the modern virulent C. gattii AFLP6/VGII outbreak lineages derived from mating events in South America and then dispersed to temperate regions where they cause serious infections in humans and animals.

  19. The Application of Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) in Ancient Dental Calculus for the Reconstruction of Human Habits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fialová, D.; Skoupý, Radim; Drozdová, E.; Paták, Aleš; Piňos, Jakub; Šín, L.; Beňuš, R.; Klíma, B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 6 (2017), s. 1207-1213 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : ancient dental calculus * SEM-EDX * human habits * the Great Moravian Empire * Napoleonic Wars Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Electrical and electronic engineering Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  20. Ancient and Modern Genetic Evidence Provide Important Insights About the Entrance of Humans Into the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, B. M.

    2008-05-01

    Genetic data collected from contemporary and prehistoric Native America populations has been crucial to our understanding of the peopling of the Americas. In recent years there has been a flurry of productive research aimed at determining when and how humans first entered these continents, and the reconstructions of this momentous event have been made with ever increasing precision. The genetic evidence is now quickly converging on a single scenario in which the initial founders of the Americas separated from Asian populations, gained unique genetic markers during a "Beringian Standstill," and rapidly spread throughout the Americas. This initial movement into the Americas was most likely along the Pacific Coast and probably occurred around 14,000-15,000 years ago. However, discerning the precise geographic origin of this migration from Asia has proven far more difficult.

  1. Ancient deforestation revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J Donald

    2011-01-01

    The image of the classical Mediterranean environment of the Greeks and Romans had a formative influence on the art, literature, and historical perception of modern Europe and America. How closely does is this image congruent with the ancient environment as it in reality existed? In particular, how forested was the ancient Mediterranean world, was there deforestation, and if so, what were its effects? The consensus of historians, geographers, and other scholars from the mid-nineteenth century through the first three quarters of the twentieth century was that human activities had depleted the forests to a major extent and caused severe erosion. My research confirmed this general picture. Since then, revisionist historians have questioned these conclusions, maintaining instead that little environmental damage was done to forests and soils in ancient Greco-Roman times. In a reconsideration of the question, this paper looks at recent scientific work providing proxy evidence for the condition of forests at various times in ancient history. I look at three scientific methodologies, namely anthracology, palynology, and computer modeling. Each of these avenues of research offers support for the concept of forest change, both in abundance and species composition, and episodes of deforestation and erosion, and confirms my earlier work.

  2. Paleomagnetic dating of burial diagenesis in Mississippian carbonates, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumstein, Angela M.; Elmore, R. Douglas; Engel, Michael H.; Elliot, Crawford; Basu, Ankan

    2004-04-01

    The objective of this study is to test models for the origin of widespread secondary magnetizations in the Mississippian Deseret Limestone. The Delle Phosphatic Member of the Deseret Limestone is a source rock for hydrocarbons, and modeling studies indicate that it entered the oil window in the Early Cretaceous during the Sevier orogeny. Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic results from the Deseret Limestone and the stratigraphically equivalent Chainman Shale in central and western Utah indicate that the units contain two ancient magnetizations residing in magnetite. Burial temperatures are too low for the magnetizations to be thermoviscous in origin, and they are interpreted to be chemical remanent magnetizations (CRMs). Fold tests from western Utah indicate the presence of a prefolding Triassic to Jurassic CRM. Geochemical (87Sr/86Sr, δ13C, and δ18O) and petrographic analyses suggest that externally derived fluids did not alter these rocks. This CRM was acquired at the beginning of the oil window and is interpreted to be the result of burial diagenesis of organic matter. A second younger CRM in western central Utah is apparently postfolding and is probably Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary in age. On the basis of the thermal modeling, the timing overlaps with the oil window. These results are consistent with a connection between organic matter maturation and remagnetization. Modeling of the smectite-to-illite transformation in the Deseret Limestone suggests a mean age prior to acquisition of both CRMs, although the range for illitization overlaps with the Triassic to Jurassic CRM. The results of this study support the hypothesis that pervasive CRMs can be related to burial diagenetic processes. In addition, paleomagnetism can be used to determine the timing of such processes, which can benefit hydrocarbon exploration efforts.

  3. Carbon Sequestration via Wood Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, N.

    2007-12-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which forest dead wood or old trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It was estimated that the carbon sequestration potential of forest wood harvest and burial is 10GtC y-1 with an uncertainty range of 5-15 GtC y-1. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost was crudely estimated at $50/tC, significantly lower than the cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage, a carbon sequestration technique currently under most serious consideration. The low cost is largely because the CO2 capture is achieved at little cost by the natural process of photosynthesis. The technique is low tech, distributed, safe and can be stopped or reversed at any time. The relatively low cost may soon be competitive enough for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon trading market. In tropical regions with ongoing deforestation, wood burial instead of burning will immediately reduce that portion of the anthropogenic CO2 emission.

  4. Sediment Burial Intolerance of Marine Macroinvertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki J Hendrick

    Full Text Available The marine environment contains suspended particulate matter which originates from natural and anthropogenic sources. Settlement of this material can leave benthic organisms susceptible to smothering, especially if burial is sudden i.e. following storms or activities such as dredging. Their survival will depend on their tolerance to, and their ability to escape from burial. Here we present data from a multi-factorial experiment measuring burial responses incorporating duration, sediment fraction and depth. Six macroinvertebrates commonly found in sediment rich environments were selected for their commercial and/or conservation importance. Assessments revealed that the brittle star (Ophiura ophiura, the queen scallop (Aequipecten opercularis and the sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis were all highly intolerant to burial whilst the green urchin (Psammichinus miliaris and the anemone (Sagartiogeton laceratus, showed intermediate and low intolerance respectively, to burial. The least intolerant, with very high survival was the Ross worm (Sabellaria spinulosa. With the exception of C. intestinalis, increasing duration and depth of burial with finer sediment fractions resulted in increased mortality for all species assessed. For C. intestinalis depth of burial and sediment fraction were found to be inconsequential since there was complete mortality of all specimens buried for more than one day. When burial emergence was assessed O. ophiura emerged most frequently, followed by P. miliaris. The former emerged most frequently from the medium and fine sediments whereas P. miliaris emerged more frequently from coarse sediment. Both A. opercularis and S. laceratus showed similar emergence responses over time, with A. opercularis emerging more frequently under coarse sediments. The frequency of emergence of S. laceratus increased with progressively finer sediment and C. intestinalis did not emerge from burial irrespective of sediment fraction or depth. Finally

  5. Sediment Burial Intolerance of Marine Macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, Vicki J; Hutchison, Zoë L; Last, Kim S

    2016-01-01

    The marine environment contains suspended particulate matter which originates from natural and anthropogenic sources. Settlement of this material can leave benthic organisms susceptible to smothering, especially if burial is sudden i.e. following storms or activities such as dredging. Their survival will depend on their tolerance to, and their ability to escape from burial. Here we present data from a multi-factorial experiment measuring burial responses incorporating duration, sediment fraction and depth. Six macroinvertebrates commonly found in sediment rich environments were selected for their commercial and/or conservation importance. Assessments revealed that the brittle star (Ophiura ophiura), the queen scallop (Aequipecten opercularis) and the sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis) were all highly intolerant to burial whilst the green urchin (Psammichinus miliaris) and the anemone (Sagartiogeton laceratus), showed intermediate and low intolerance respectively, to burial. The least intolerant, with very high survival was the Ross worm (Sabellaria spinulosa). With the exception of C. intestinalis, increasing duration and depth of burial with finer sediment fractions resulted in increased mortality for all species assessed. For C. intestinalis depth of burial and sediment fraction were found to be inconsequential since there was complete mortality of all specimens buried for more than one day. When burial emergence was assessed O. ophiura emerged most frequently, followed by P. miliaris. The former emerged most frequently from the medium and fine sediments whereas P. miliaris emerged more frequently from coarse sediment. Both A. opercularis and S. laceratus showed similar emergence responses over time, with A. opercularis emerging more frequently under coarse sediments. The frequency of emergence of S. laceratus increased with progressively finer sediment and C. intestinalis did not emerge from burial irrespective of sediment fraction or depth. Finally, and perhaps

  6. Ancient Bedforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    18 August 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows groupings of large ripple-like windblown bedforms on the floor of a large crater (larger than the image shown here) in Sinus Sabaeus, south of Schiaparelli Basin. These ripple-like features are much larger than typical wind ripples on Earth, but smaller than typical sand dunes on either planet. Like most of the other ripple-like bedforms in Sinus Sabaeus, they are probably ancient and no longer mobile. Dark streaks on the substrate between the bedforms were formed by passing dust devils. This image is located near 13.0oS, 343.7oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across and sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  7. Climate and Ancient Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Climate, and human responses to it, have a strongly interconnected relationship. This when climate change occurs, the result of either natural or human causes, societies should react and adapt to these. But do they? If so, what is the nature of that change, and are the responses positive...... or negative for the long-term survival of social groups? In this volume, scholars from diverse disciplines including archaeology, geology and climate sciences explore scientific and material evidence for climate changes in the past, their causes, their effects on ancient societies and how those societies...

  8. Thermal identification of clandestine burials: A signature analysis and image classification approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servello, John A.

    Clandestine burials, the interred human remains of forensic interest, are generally small features located in isolated environments. Typical ground searches can be both time-consuming and dangerous. Thermal remote sensing has been recognized for some time as a possible search strategy for such burials that are in relatively open areas; however, there is a paucity of published research with respect to this application. This project involved image manipulation, the analyses of signatures for "graves" of various depths when compared to an undisturbed background, and the use of image classification techniques to tease out these features. This research demonstrates a relationship between the depth of burial disturbance and the resultant signature. Further, image classification techniques, especially object-oriented algorithms, can be successfully applied to single band thermal imagery. These findings may ultimately decrease burial search times for law enforcement and increase the likelihood of locating clandestine graves.

  9. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-2 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.S.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-2 Burial Ground, also referred to as Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2; Burial Ground No. 2; 318-2; and Dry Waste Burial Site No. 2. This waste site was used primarily for the disposal of contaminated equipment, materials and laboratory waste from the 300 Area Facilities

  10. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-2 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. S. Thompson

    2006-12-28

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-2 Burial Ground, also referred to as Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2; Burial Ground No. 2; 318-2; and Dry Waste Burial Site No. 2. This waste site was used primarily for the disposal of contaminated equipment, materials and laboratory waste from the 300 Area Facilities.

  11. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-01-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment

  12. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  13. Two Catacombs of Late Sarmatian Time From Pashkovsky Burial Mound no. 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limberis Natalya Yuryevna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with two burials from the Kuban basin region excavated in Pashkovsky burial mound no. 2 belonging to Maeotian Pashkovskoe ancient settlement. The burials were made in catacombs of similar construction and orientation. The narrow grave entrances and grave chambers are situated in-line. The grave chambers of the catacombs adjoin one other that probably was the reason for plunder of a little earlier burial no. 2. There were the complete horse skeleton, the cow skull and the sheep chap in the grave entrance ofthe catacomb no. 2. A skeleton of a man (about 50 years old was in extended supine position diagonally across the grave chamber, his scull had SSW orientation. Grave goods found near the buried man include the gray-clay bowl and the mug-jar, the iron spearhead, the long sword and the dagger, the bit with wheel-shaped cheek-pieces, the sickle, the knives and the shoe buckles, the glass bead, the chalk rock bead, the bronze buckle and fibula. The catacomb no. 2 plundered in ancient times situated north-ward of the first one, the southern border of the grave chamber is partially cutted by catacomb no. 1. In the grave entrance of the catacomb no. 1 there were the remains of the horse skeleton and the sheep skull. Grave goods scattered in grave chamber included the gray-clay bowl, pieces of chalk, the bronze ring, fragments of the iron buckle, rod, hasp, silver temple ring, bronze escutcheon for the box lock, the iron snap-up loop and fragments of silver flacon with a cover. Late Sarmatian burial rites and grave goods give evidence of the belonging these burials to spokesmen of the equestrian order. The chronological range of the burials stays within terms from the second half of 2nd to the middle of 3rd century A.D. The lower date of the catacomb no. 1 turns toward the end of the 2nd century A.D., the upper date is limited by the first half of the 3rd century A.D. The catacomb no. 2 is stratigraphically older. The eques status of

  14. Decommissioning and decontamination (burial ground stabilization) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The decommissioning and decontamination of retired Hanford facilities and the future use of surrounding landscapes require isolation of contaminated wastes from the biosphere. Burial ground stabilization studies were conducted to determine the effectiveness of physical barriers for isolating contaminated wastes in shallow-land burial sites from plants and animals. This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of using a layer of loose rock between the waste and the surface soil covering to prevent both plant root and animal penetrations

  15. Shallow land burial technology: humid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.C.; Yeh, G.T.

    1984-01-01

    Applying engineered modifications to present shallow land burial (SLB) practices is one method of ensuring safe operation and improving overall disposal-site performance. Two such engineered modifications, trench lining and grouting, are being demonstrated and evaluated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Engineered Test Facility (ETF), using nine 28-m 3 experimental trenches containing compacted low-level waste (LLW). Concurrent to this field demonstration experiment, two finite-element hydrologic models have been developed to model water movement and solute transport at a waste disposal site. This paper covers progress made in these two areas during FY 1984. Though the economic analysis of the two trench treatments favored Hypalon lining (lining costs were 33% lower at this demonstration scale), results of field experiments examining waste hydrologic isolation favored the cement-bentonite grout treatment. Data from water pump-out and water pump-in tests, combined with observed intratrench water-level fluctuations, suggest that the original goal of constructing watertight liners in three experimental trenches was not achieved. In addition, trench-cover subsidence of approx. 2% of the total trench depth has been measured over two of the three lined trenches but has not occurred over any of the three grouted or three control (untreated) trenches. The evaluation of the two trench treatments is continuing. However, results indicate that the cement-bentonite treatment, implemented at a cost of $160/m 3 of grout, provides a degree of waste isolation not afforded by the lined and control trenches and should be considered for use at SLB sites with water-related problems. 11 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  16. Kinship and Y-chromosome analysis of 7th century human remains: novel DNA extraction and typing procedure for ancient material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanek, Daniel; Saskova, Lenka; Koch, Hubert

    2009-06-01

    To develop novel DNA extraction and typing procedure for DNA identification of the 7th century human remains, determine the familiar relationship between the individuals, estimate the Y-chromosome haplogroup, and compare the Y-chromosome haplotype with the contemporary populations. DNA from preserved femur samples was extracted using the modified silica-based extraction technique. Polymerase chain reaction amplification was performed using human identification kits MiniFiler, Identifiler, and Y-filer and also laboratory-developed and validated Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (STR) pentaplexes with short amplicons. For 244A, 244B, 244C samples, full autosomal DNA profiles (15 STR markers and Amelogenin) and for 244D, 244E, 244F samples, MiniFiler profiles were produced. Y-chromosome haplotypes consisting of up to 24 STR markers were determined and used to predict the Y-chromosome haplogroups and compare the resulting haplotypes with the current population. Samples 244A, 244B, 244C, and 244D belong to Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b and the samples 244E and 244F to haplogroup G2a. Comparison of ancient haplotypes with the current population yielded numerous close matches with genetic distance below 2. Application of forensic genetics in archaeology enables retrieving new types of information and helps in data interpretation. The number of successfully typed autosomal and Y-STR loci from ancient specimens in this study is one of the largest published so far for aged samples.

  17. Mathematics in ancient Greece

    CERN Document Server

    Dantzig, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    More than a history of mathematics, this lively book traces mathematical ideas and processes to their sources, stressing the methods used by the masters of the ancient world. Author Tobias Dantzig portrays the human story behind mathematics, showing how flashes of insight in the minds of certain gifted individuals helped mathematics take enormous forward strides. Dantzig demonstrates how the Greeks organized their precursors' melange of geometric maxims into an elegantly abstract deductive system. He also explains the ways in which some of the famous mathematical brainteasers of antiquity led

  18. Ancient DNA analyses exclude humans as the driving force behind late Pleistocene musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) population dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, Paula; Willerslev, Eske; Sher, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    , as it was the geographic origin of all samples studied and held a large diverse population until local extinction at approximately 45,000 radiocarbon years before present ((14)C YBP). Subsequently, musk ox genetic diversity reincreased at ca. 30,000 (14)C YBP, recontracted at ca. 18,000 (14)C YBP, and finally recovered...... to the present. The musk ox has an intermediate story: relatively abundant during the Pleistocene, it is now restricted to Greenland and the Arctic Archipelago. In this study, we use ancient DNA sequences, temporally unbiased summary statistics, and Bayesian analytical techniques to infer musk ox population...

  19. A guide to ancient protein studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendy, Jessica; Welker, Frido; Demarchi, Beatrice

    2018-01-01

    the phylogenetic reconstruction of extinct species to the investigation of past human diets and ancient diseases. However, there is no explicit consensus at present regarding standards for data reporting, data validation measures or the use of suitable contamination controls in ancient protein studies...

  20. The initial investigation of Fatu-ma-Futi : an ancient coastal village site, Tutuila Island, Territory of American Samoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addison, D.J.; Walter, G.; Morrison, A.

    2007-01-01

    Results of inital excavations at Fatu-ma-Futi Village are reported. Stratigraphy in two test pits was similar, with compacted surface layers of a car-parking lot underlain by a layer of clayey sand, fire-affected rock and ancient pebble-gravel paving, which slowly graded into the original beach surface. Post-moulds, shell midden, and basalt flakes were found in both units and human remains in one. Near-basal radiocarbon dates on charcoal suggest initial occupation of a newly formed littoral environment in the period of about 1600 to 1300 cal BP. Permanent habitation came later, with evidence of large-scale basalt tool manufacture towards the end of the sequence. This site is important for understanding current topics in Samoan prehistory, including settlement pattern and coastal geomorphology, marine exploitation and reef health, human lifestyle, health and burial practices, domestic architectural morphology; and the Tutuila basal export industry. (author). 37 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs

  1. Shallow land burial of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, D.G.; Rose, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    The authors discuss low-level, solid radioactive wastes buried in the ground since the startup of nuclear operations by the Manhattan Engineer District in the early 1940's. These operations were originally intended to be temporary so the primary consideration in locating land burial sites was their accessibility from the source of waste production. Early land-burial facilities were located on large reservations owned by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and operated by their prime contractors. Shallow land burial consists of excavating a trench or vault, emplacing the waste, minimizing void space within the disposal unit, and covering the waste with earth to control access to the waste. Problems encountered in the land-burial of radioactive wastes are classified into areas which relate to the environmental characteristics of the sites, waste characteristics, operational practices and control, and predictive capability. The most serious environmentally related problems involve water management. Water provides primary vehicle for both erosional processes, which affect the structural integrity of the waste trenches, and for the migration of radionuclides. Although there is consensus that the current level of off-site movement of radionuclides from operating burial grounds does not constitute an immediate health hazard, there is less certainty with respect to the ability of the facilities to provide long-term containment and isolation

  2. A long burial for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takibaev, Zh.S.

    1998-01-01

    Several ways of radioactive wastes (RAW) burial are considered and characterized: - burial in geological formation deeply under ground; - dispatch RAW to cosmos; - transmutation of highly active and long-living radionuclides into short-living ones by means of nuclear transformation during irradiation of RAW with protons or neutrons; - burial RAW in mountains isolated from environment. Especial attention to RAW self-burial method on depth not less 1 km in Earth crust is paid. Self-burial (i. e. moving of whole RAW object down) is possible when temperature of object is above 1000 deg C and density ρ p is larger than density of surrounding it earth rock ρ r . Two methods of for maintaining of high temperature (>1000-1500 deg C) during quate large period (few hundreds years) are proposed : 1) Creation high temperature by means of residual energy emission by itself of RAW object. 2) Adaptation of reactor assembly ensuring high temperature during prolonged period (more hundred years) to RAW object

  3. Suicide in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G

    2014-01-01

    The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say

  4. Assessing global carbon burial during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2, Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, J. D.; Lyons, T. W.; Lowery, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Reconstructing the areal extent and total amount of organic carbon burial during ancient events remains elusive even for the best documented oceanic anoxic event (OAE) in Earth history, the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event ( 93.9 Ma), or OAE 2. Reports from 150 OAE 2 localities provide a wide global distribution. However, despite the large number of sections, the majority are found within the proto-Atlantic and Tethyan oceans and interior seaways. Considering these gaps in spatial coverage, the pervasive increase in organic carbon (OC) burial during OAE2 that drove carbon isotope values more positive (average of 4‰) can provide additional insight. These isotope data allow us to estimate the total global burial of OC, even for unstudied portions of the global ocean. Thus, we can solve for any `missing' OC sinks by comparing our estimates from a forward carbon-isotope box model with the known, mapped distribution of OC for OAE 2 sediments. Using the known OC distribution and reasonably extrapolating to the surrounding regions of analogous depositional conditions accounts for only 13% of the total seafloor, mostly in marginal marine settings. This small geographic area accounts for more OC burial than the entire modern ocean, but significantly less than the amount necessary to produce the observed isotope record. Using modern and OAE 2 average OC rates we extrapolate further to appropriate depositional settings in the unknown portions of seafloor, mostly deep abyssal plains. This addition significantly increases the predicted amount buried but still does not account for total burial. Additional sources, including hydrocarbon migration, lacustrine, and coal also cannot account for the missing OC. This difference points to unknown portions of the open ocean with high TOC contents or exceptionally high TOC in productive marginal marine regions, which are underestimated in our extrapolations. This difference might be explained by highly productive margins within the

  5. Effects of modern and ancient human activities on mercury in the environment in Xi'an area, Shannxi Province, P.R. China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Yongqing; Wang Xiaojuan [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, M5B 2K3 (Canada); Lu Julia [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, M5B 2K3 (Canada)], E-mail: julialu@ryerson.ca; Zhang Chengxiao [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China)], E-mail: cxzhang@snnu.edu.cn; Duan Qingbo [Shaanxi Archaeology Institute, Xi' an 710054 (China)

    2008-05-15

    Samples of water, soil, sediment, and pomegranate were collected from Xi'an and the Qinshihuang Mausoleum in Shaanxi Province, China to assess the effects of human activities on mercury in the environment. The total mercury concentrations ranged from 3.9 to 992.7 ng L{sup -1} for the water samples, 40.6 to 2204.0 ng g{sup -1} for the soil samples, 14.2 to 376.7 ng g{sup -1} for the sediment samples, and 0.22 to 1.74 ng g{sup -1} for the pomegranates samples. The higher values in the water samples collected from the rivers closer to and downstream of the city resulted from wastewater discharges. The effects of the mercury buried in the Qinshihuang Mausoleum thousands of years ago on the environment were neither significant nor widespread. Immediate actions should be taken to stop the direct and continuous discharges of industrial and residential wastewaters to prevent mercury and other pollutants from accumulating and spreading in the area. - Urban activities are sources of mercury to the environment and the pomegranates grown over the burial mound of the Qinshihuang Mausoleum are not mercury-contaminated.

  6. Effects of modern and ancient human activities on mercury in the environment in Xi'an area, Shannxi Province, P.R. China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yongqing; Wang Xiaojuan; Lu Julia; Zhang Chengxiao; Duan Qingbo

    2008-01-01

    Samples of water, soil, sediment, and pomegranate were collected from Xi'an and the Qinshihuang Mausoleum in Shaanxi Province, China to assess the effects of human activities on mercury in the environment. The total mercury concentrations ranged from 3.9 to 992.7 ng L -1 for the water samples, 40.6 to 2204.0 ng g -1 for the soil samples, 14.2 to 376.7 ng g -1 for the sediment samples, and 0.22 to 1.74 ng g -1 for the pomegranates samples. The higher values in the water samples collected from the rivers closer to and downstream of the city resulted from wastewater discharges. The effects of the mercury buried in the Qinshihuang Mausoleum thousands of years ago on the environment were neither significant nor widespread. Immediate actions should be taken to stop the direct and continuous discharges of industrial and residential wastewaters to prevent mercury and other pollutants from accumulating and spreading in the area. - Urban activities are sources of mercury to the environment and the pomegranates grown over the burial mound of the Qinshihuang Mausoleum are not mercury-contaminated

  7. Accounting And Forms Of Accountability In Ancient Civilizations: Mesopotamia And Ancient Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    SALVADOR CARMONA

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify the relevance and implications of ancient accounting practices to the contemporary theorizing of accounting. The paper provides a synthesis of the literature on ancient accounting particularly in relation to issues of human accountability, identifies its major achievements and outlines some of the key challenges facing researchers. We argue that far from being an idiosyncratic research field of marginal interest, research in ancient accounting is a rich an...

  8. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  9. Uprooting and burial of invasive alien plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollmann, Johannes Christian; Brink-Jensen, Kasper; Frandsen, Sally I.

    2011-01-01

    Invasive alien plants are a problem for conservation management, and control of these species can be combined with habitat restoration. Subsoil burial of uprooted plants is a new method of mechanical control, which might be suitable in disturbed habitats. The method was tested in Rosa rugosa...

  10. 77 FR 4676 - Parents Eligible for Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... available space, and has no spouse or child who is buried, or surviving spouse or child who, upon death, may... death has no spouse or child who is buried, or surviving spouse or child who, upon death, may be... provides burial eligibility to those parents whose unmarried veteran son or daughter dies due to combat or...

  11. The Management of Risk by Burial Societies in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It considers members\\' perceptions of the risks faced by the burial societies themselves. It explores the ways in which burial societies develop community and establish trust. It investigates the procedures that have been developed by burial societies, on the basis of the trust so established, for the management of their risks.

  12. A minimally-invasive method for sampling human petrous bones from the cranial base for ancient DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirak, Kendra A; Fernandes, Daniel M; Cheronet, Olivia; Novak, Mario; Gamarra, Beatriz; Balassa, Tímea; Bernert, Zsolt; Cséki, Andrea; Dani, János; Gallina, József Zsolt; Kocsis-Buruzs, Gábor; Kővári, Ivett; László, Orsolya; Pap, Ildikó; Patay, Róbert; Petkes, Zsolt; Szenthe, Gergely; Szeniczey, Tamás; Hajdu, Tamás; Pinhasi, Ron

    2017-06-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) research involves invasive and destructive sampling procedures that are often incompatible with anthropological, anatomical, and bioarcheological analyses requiring intact skeletal remains. The osseous labyrinth inside the petrous bone has been shown to yield higher amounts of endogenous DNA than any other skeletal element; however, accessing this labyrinth in cases of a complete or reconstructed skull involves causing major structural damage to the cranial vault or base. Here, we describe a novel cranial base drilling method (CBDM) for accessing the osseous labyrinth from the cranial base that prevents damaging the surrounding cranial features, making it highly complementary to morphological analyses. We assessed this method by comparing the aDNA results from one petrous bone processed using our novel method to its pair, which was processed using established protocols for sampling disarticulated petrous bones. We show a decrease in endogenous DNA and molecular copy numbers when the drilling method is used; however, we also show that this method produces more endogenous DNA and higher copy numbers than any postcranial bone. Our results demonstrate that this minimally-invasive method reduces the loss of genetic data associated with the use of other skeletal elements and enables the combined craniometric and genetic study of individuals with archeological, cultural, and evolutionary value.

  13. Detection of 400-year-old Yersinia pestis DNA in human dental pulp: An approach to the diagnosis of ancient septicemia

    OpenAIRE

    Drancourt, Michel; Aboudharam, Gérard; Signoli, Michel; Dutour, Olivier; Raoult, Didier

    1998-01-01

    Ancient septicemic plague epidemics were reported to have killed millions of people for 2 millenniums. However, confident diagnosis of ancient septicemia solely on the basis of historical clinical observations is not possible. The lack of suitable infected material has prevented direct demonstration of ancient septicemia; thus, the history of most infections such as plague remains hypothetical. The durability of dental pulp, together with its natural sterility, makes it a suitable material on...

  14. On the Origin of the Dragon Image on the Plate from Shilovka Burial Mound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liphanov Nicolay А.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article analyzes an unique image of two opposed dragons engraved on a bone plate discovered in 1992 at barrow No.1 of Shilovka burial mound located on the right bank of the Volga river in Ulyanovsk Oblast (the excavations were conducted by R.S. Bagautdinov. The burial mound is related to the cattle breeding population of late 7th century. The article considers different hypotheses concerning the origin of these dragon images in the artistic traditions of various regions: China (A.V. Komar, D.G. Savinov, B. Totev, Pelevina, Central Asia (V.G. Kotov, V.E. Flyorova, India (N.A. Fonyakova. According to the author, this image has no apparent iconographic parallels in the traditions of these regions. Such analogues are found in the art of the Mediterranean where the ancient images of various mythological creatures exist alongside the image of the sea dragon “ketos” which later became part of the Christian tradition. The appearance of this monster in the images of the first half – middle of the 1st millennium A.D. is practically identical to the dragons from Shilovka burial mound. According to the author, certain impact on the formation of the considered dragon image was made by Iranian art.

  15. Riding Horse Harness (Based on Materials from the Chulkovo Burial Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishakov Valeriy V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The items of riding horse harness (bits with psalia, stirrups, buckles, decorations of bridles are analyzed in the article on the basis of the materials from the Chulkovo (Murom burial ground site of the 8th-10th centuries, located on right bank of the Oka river. It has been established that the use of horse harness items by the Muroma culture population, which had left the Chulkovo burial ground, is in full correspondence with the general traditions of the Finno-Ugric peoples of the Volga river region characteristic of the 8th-10th centuries. The shapes of the bits correspond to both the steppe (bits with S-shaped and straight psalia and the local traditions (bits with two and three moving rings. A tendency to uniformity is observed in the tradition of stirrups production. The main differences of the Muroma burial grounds from the neighboring Mordovian ones consist in the presence of horse burials (not known among the Mordovians, and, on the other hand, in a practically complete lack of horse harness in the funeral set of human burials. It can be assumed that the importance of cavalry with the Muromа was lower than with the Mordovians who were living next to the steppe world.

  16. Colour Perception in Ancient World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterov, D. I.; Fedorova, M. Yu

    2017-11-01

    How did the human thought form the surrounding color information into the persistent semantic images of a mythological, pseudoscientific and religious nature? The concepts associated with colour perception are suggested. The existence of colour environment does not depend on the human consciousness. The colour culture formation is directly related to the level of the human consciousness development and the possibility to influence the worldview and culture. The colour perception of a person goes through the stages similar to the development of colour vision in a child. Like any development, the colour consciousness has undergone stages of growth and decline, evolution and stagnation. The way of life and difficult conditions for existence made their own adjustments to the development of the human perception of the surrounding world. Wars have been both a powerful engine of progress in all spheres of life and a great destructive force demolishing the already created and preserved heritage. The surrounding world has always been interesting for humans, evoked images and fantasies in the consciousness of ancient people. Unusual and inexplicable natural phenomena spawned numerous legends and myths which was reflected in the ancient art and architecture and, accordingly, in a certain manifestation of colour in the human society. The colour perception of the ancient man, his pragmatic, utilitarian attitude to colour is considered as well as the influence of dependence on external conditions of existence and their reflection in the colour culture of antiquity. “Natural Science” conducts research in the field of the colour nature and their authorial interpretation of the Hellenic period. Several authorial concepts of the ancient world have been considered.

  17. The impact of male burials on the construction of Corded Ware identity: Reconstructing networks of information in the 3rd millennium BC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Bourgeois

    Full Text Available The emergence of Corded Ware Groups throughout Europe in the 3rd millennium BC is one of the most defining events in European history. From the Wolga to the Rhine communities start to speak Indo-European languages and bury their dead in an extremely similar fashion. Recent ancient DNA-analyses identify a massive migration from the Eurasian steppe as the prime cause for this event. However, there is a fundamental difference between expressing a Corded Ware identity-the sharing of world views and ideas-and having a specific DNA-profile. Therefore, we argue that investigating the exchange of cultural information on burial rites between these communities serves as a crucial complement to the exchange of biological information. By adopting a practice perspective to 1161 Corded Ware burials throughout north-western Europe, combined with similarity indexes and network representations, we demonstrate a high degree of information sharing on the burial ritual between different regions. Moreover, we show that male burials are much more international in character than female burials and as such can be considered as the vector along which cultural information and Corded Ware identity was transmitted. This finding highlights an underlying complex societal organization of Corded Ware burial rites in which gender roles had a significant impact on the composition and transmission of cultural information. Our findings corroborate recent studies that suggest the Corded Ware was a male focused society.

  18. Multi-scale ancient DNA analyses confirm the western origin of Michelsberg farmers and document probable practices of human sacrifice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Beau

    Full Text Available In Europe, the Middle Neolithic is characterized by an important diversification of cultures. In northeastern France, the appearance of the Michelsberg culture has been correlated with major cultural changes and interpreted as the result of the settlement of new groups originating from the Paris Basin. This cultural transition has been accompanied by the expansion of particular funerary practices involving inhumations within circular pits and individuals in "non-conventional" positions (deposited in the pits without any particular treatment. If the status of such individuals has been highly debated, the sacrifice hypothesis has been retained for the site of Gougenheim (Alsace. At the regional level, the analysis of the Gougenheim mitochondrial gene pool (SNPs and HVR-I sequence analyses permitted us to highlight a major genetic break associated with the emergence of the Michelsberg in the region. This genetic discontinuity appeared to be linked to new affinities with farmers from the Paris Basin, correlated to a noticeable hunter-gatherer legacy. All of the evidence gathered supports (i the occidental origin of the Michelsberg groups and (ii the potential implication of this migration in the progression of the hunter-gatherer legacy from the Paris Basin to Alsace / Western Germany at the beginning of the Late Neolithic. At the local level, we noted some differences in the maternal gene pool of individuals in "conventional" vs. "non-conventional" positions. The relative genetic isolation of these sub-groups nicely echoes both their social distinction and the hypothesis of sacrifices retained for the site. Our investigation demonstrates that a multi-scale aDNA study of ancient communities offers a unique opportunity to disentangle the complex relationships between cultural and biological evolution.

  19. Multi-scale ancient DNA analyses confirm the western origin of Michelsberg farmers and document probable practices of human sacrifice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beau, Alice; Rivollat, Maïté; Réveillas, Hélène; Pemonge, Marie-Hélène; Mendisco, Fanny; Thomas, Yohann; Lefranc, Philippe; Deguilloux, Marie-France

    2017-01-01

    In Europe, the Middle Neolithic is characterized by an important diversification of cultures. In northeastern France, the appearance of the Michelsberg culture has been correlated with major cultural changes and interpreted as the result of the settlement of new groups originating from the Paris Basin. This cultural transition has been accompanied by the expansion of particular funerary practices involving inhumations within circular pits and individuals in "non-conventional" positions (deposited in the pits without any particular treatment). If the status of such individuals has been highly debated, the sacrifice hypothesis has been retained for the site of Gougenheim (Alsace). At the regional level, the analysis of the Gougenheim mitochondrial gene pool (SNPs and HVR-I sequence analyses) permitted us to highlight a major genetic break associated with the emergence of the Michelsberg in the region. This genetic discontinuity appeared to be linked to new affinities with farmers from the Paris Basin, correlated to a noticeable hunter-gatherer legacy. All of the evidence gathered supports (i) the occidental origin of the Michelsberg groups and (ii) the potential implication of this migration in the progression of the hunter-gatherer legacy from the Paris Basin to Alsace / Western Germany at the beginning of the Late Neolithic. At the local level, we noted some differences in the maternal gene pool of individuals in "conventional" vs. "non-conventional" positions. The relative genetic isolation of these sub-groups nicely echoes both their social distinction and the hypothesis of sacrifices retained for the site. Our investigation demonstrates that a multi-scale aDNA study of ancient communities offers a unique opportunity to disentangle the complex relationships between cultural and biological evolution.

  20. The Upper Paleolithic burial area at Předmostí. Ritual and taphonomy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2008), s. 15-33 ISSN 0047-2484 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/04/1498 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : Modern humans * Gravettian * Burials * Rituals * Taphonomy * Předmostí Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 3.550, year: 2008

  1. Targeted enrichment of ancient pathogens yielding the pPCP1 plasmid of Yersinia pestis from victims of the Black Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuenemann, Verena J; Bos, Kirsten; DeWitte, Sharon; Schmedes, Sarah; Jamieson, Joslyn; Mittnik, Alissa; Forrest, Stephen; Coombes, Brian K; Wood, James W; Earn, David J D; White, William; Krause, Johannes; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2011-09-20

    Although investigations of medieval plague victims have identified Yersinia pestis as the putative etiologic agent of the pandemic, methodological limitations have prevented large-scale genomic investigations to evaluate changes in the pathogen's virulence over time. We screened over 100 skeletal remains from Black Death victims of the East Smithfield mass burial site (1348-1350, London, England). Recent methods of DNA enrichment coupled with high-throughput DNA sequencing subsequently permitted reconstruction of ten full human mitochondrial genomes (16 kb each) and the full pPCP1 (9.6 kb) virulence-associated plasmid at high coverage. Comparisons of molecular damage profiles between endogenous human and Y. pestis DNA confirmed its authenticity as an ancient pathogen, thus representing the longest contiguous genomic sequence for an ancient pathogen to date. Comparison of our reconstructed plasmid against modern Y. pestis shows identity with several isolates matching the Medievalis biovar; however, our chromosomal sequences indicate the victims were infected with a Y. pestis variant that has not been previously reported. Our data reveal that the Black Death in medieval Europe was caused by a variant of Y. pestis that may no longer exist, and genetic data carried on its pPCP1 plasmid were not responsible for the purported epidemiological differences between ancient and modern forms of Y. pestis infections.

  2. Ancient medicine--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Lipozencić, Jasna; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Schachter, Neil; Mucić-Pucić, Branka; Neralić-Meniga, Inja

    2008-01-01

    Different aspects of medicine and/or healing in several societies are presented. In the ancient times as well as today medicine has been closely related to magic, science and religion. Various ancient societies and cultures had developed different views of medicine. It was believed that a human being has two bodies: a visible body that belongs to the earth and an invisible body of heaven. In the earliest prehistoric days, a different kind of medicine was practiced in countries such as Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mesopotamia, India, Tibet, China, and others. In those countries, "medicine people" practiced medicine from the magic to modern physical practices. Medicine was magical and mythological, and diseases were attributed mostly to the supernatural forces. The foundation of modern medicine can be traced back to ancient Greeks. Tibetan culture, for instance, even today, combines spiritual and practical medicine. Chinese medicine developed as a concept of yin and yang, acupuncture and acupressure, and it has even been used in the modern medicine. During medieval Europe, major universities and medical schools were established. In the ancient time, before hospitals had developed, patients were treated mostly in temples.

  3. The disappearance of European smiths' burials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2015), s. 121-143 ISSN 0959-7743 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M300021203 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : elite * burial * forging tools * symbolic * ritual * prehistory * Early Middle Ages * Marxism-Leninism Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  4. Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequencing of a Burial from a Romano–Christian Cemetery in the Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt: Preliminary Indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Eldon Molto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The curse of ancient Egyptian DNA was lifted by a recent study which sequenced the mitochondrial genomes (mtGenome of 90 ancient Egyptians from the archaeological site of Abusir el-Meleq. Surprisingly, these ancient inhabitants were more closely related to those from the Near East than to contemporary Egyptians. It has been accepted that the timeless highway of the Nile River seeded Egypt with African genetic influence, well before pre-Dynastic times. Here we report on the successful recovery and analysis of the complete mtGenome from a burial recovered from a remote Romano–Christian cemetery, Kellis 2 (K2. K2 serviced the ancient municipality of Kellis, a village located in the Dakhleh Oasis in the southwest desert in Egypt. The data were obtained by high throughput sequencing (HTS performed independently at two ancient DNA facilities (Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory, Dover, DE, USA and Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA. These efforts produced concordant haplotypes representing a U1a1a haplogroup lineage. This result indicates that Near Eastern maternal influence previously identified at Abusir el-Meleq was also present further south, in ancient Kellis during the Romano–Christian period.

  5. An investigation into the ancient abortion laws: comparing ancient Persia with ancient Greece and Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Zargaran, Arman; Vatanpour, Azadeh; Abedini, Ehsan; Adhami, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    Since the dawn of medicine, medical rights and ethics have always been one of mankind's concerns. In any civilisation, attention paid to medical laws and ethics depends on the progress of human values and the advancement of medical science. The history of various civilisations teaches that each had its own views on medical ethics, but most had something in common. Ancient civilisations such as Greece, Rome, or Assyria did not consider the foetus to be alive and therefore to have human rights. In contrast, ancient Persians valued the foetus as a living person equal to others. Accordingly, they brought laws against abortion, even in cases of sexual abuse. Furthermore, abortion was considered to be a murder and punishments were meted out to the mother, father, and the person performing it.

  6. Studying Ancient History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Robin

    1982-01-01

    Defends the value and relevance of the study of ancient history and classics in history curricula. The unique homogeneity of the classical period contributes to its instructional manageability. A year-long, secondary-level course on fifth-century Greece and Rome is described to illustrate effective approaches to teaching ancient history. (AM)

  7. Ancient Astronomy in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsamian, Elma S.

    2007-08-01

    The most important discovery, which enriched our knowledge of ancient astronomy in Armenia, was the complex of platforms for astronomical observations on the Small Hill of Metzamor, which may be called an ancient “observatory”. Investigations on that Hill show that the ancient inhabitants of the Armenian Highlands have left us not only pictures of celestial bodies, but a very ancient complex of platforms for observing the sky. Among the ancient monuments in Armenia there is a megalithic monument, probably, being connected with astronomy. 250km South-East of Yerevan there is a structure Zorats Kar (Karahunge) dating back to II millennium B.C. Vertical megaliths many of which are more than two meters high form stone rings resembling ancient stone monuments - henges in Great Britain and Brittany. Medieval observations of comets and novas by data in ancient Armenian manuscripts are found. In the collection of ancient Armenian manuscripts (Matenadaran) in Yerevan there are many manuscripts with information about observations of astronomical events as: solar and lunar eclipses, comets and novas, bolides and meteorites etc. in medieval Armenia.

  8. Medicine in Ancient Assur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbøll, Troels Pank

    This dissertation is a microhistorical study of a single individual named Kiṣir-Aššur who practiced medicine in the ancient city of Assur (modern northern Iraq) in the 7th century BCE. The study provides the first detailed analysis of one healer’s education and practice in ancient Mesopotamia...

  9. Human-Environment Interactions during the Last 8000 Years in the Environs of the Ancient City of Ephesus, Western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, F.; Knipping, M.; Pint, A.; Brückner, H.

    2014-12-01

    About 6 millennia ago the maximum Holocene transgression reached c. 20 km inland. Thereafter, the coastline has continuously shifted westwards due to the progradation of the Küçük Menderes delta and its tributaries. Consequently, settlement and harbour sites were established following the retreating coastline. Our interdisciplinary geoarchaeological research focuses on (i) the detection of spatial and temporal shifts in the coastline during the past millennia and the human response to these changes; (ii) the human impact on the landscape, especially in the environs of the Roman Harbour and the harbour canal; (iii) the reconstruction of the vegetation history of the Ephesia. More than 200 drill cores were retrieved from geo-bioarchives. For a better understanding of the depositional environments, we carried out geochemical, sedimentological, microfaunal, palynological and parasitological analyses in Ephesus' harbours and in the environs of two Neolithic settlement sites. Diagnostic ceramic finds, AMS-14C age estimates and a tephra layer were used for the chronological framework.The results reveal human impact in sediments: early agricultural use in the Neolithic period; several meters of sediment with a high concentration of fig and grape seeds in the Koressos harbour during the 6th-3rd centuries BC; an accelerated sedimentation rate up to the factor of ten in Hellenistic and Roman times. Heavy metal pollution, sugar melon and fruit tree pollen, as well as eggs of intestinal parasites occur in the Roman harbour and its canal during the prosperity period of the city. Pollen analysis revealed the dominance of deciduous oak, in a landscape with human impact, already since the 6th millennium BC. From Hellenistic times onwards, fruit trees appear next to crop and pasture farming. After the decline of the city in the 7th century AD, pine trees became dominant, presumably on abandoned land. In the Belevi swamp to the northeast of Ephesus, the ash from the Minoan

  10. DNA typing of ancient parasite eggs from environmental samples identifies human and animal worm infections in Viking-age settlement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Nejsum, Peter

    Human worm infections have, to a large extent, been eradicated in countries with high sanitary standards by preventing the fecal-oral transmission of infective eggs. It is possible to study parasite infections among past populations by retrieving and analyzing parasite eggs using paleoparasitolog......-age. Further, eggs of the Liver Fluke (Fasciola hepatica), whose primary hosts are cows and sheep, are identified indicating that grazing animals were kept in close proximity of the settlement....

  11. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-2 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.; Anselm, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance with cleanup criteria for the 118-F-2 Burial Ground. This burial ground, formerly called Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 1, was the original solid waste disposal site for the 100-F Area. Eight trenches contained miscellaneous solid waste from the 105-F Reactor and one trench contained solid waste from the biology facilities

  12. Migration of radionuclides following shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlet, J.; Golchert, N.W.

    1980-01-01

    The site of a former nuclear laboratory and shallow land burial facility 25 km southwest of Chicago (USA) has been examined for radionuclide migration and residual radioactive materials. The radioactivity was produced during operations with the first nuclear reactors and associated research from 1943 to 1955. The chronology of events and details of the decommissioning procedures, including reactor burial, are described. Surface soil, surface water, soil borings drilled through and around the facility, and water from the dolomite aquifer and glacial till overburden were analyzed for a variety of radionuclides. The only nuclide found to have migrated out of the burial site is hydrogen-3, as tritiated water. This nuclide was detected in surface water, soil water, and nearby picnic wells. The concentrations in the wells show a seasonal fluctuation, from 0.1 nCi/t in the summer to 14 nCi/l in the recharging of the groundwater winter, that is attributed to by spring rains. Water migration rates in the glacial till and dolomite were estimated by several methods. The time of travel of water to the nearest well, 400 m from the facility, is estimated to be 58 months. The vertical and horizontal distribution of tritium in the glacial till was measured. The origin of the tritium, neutron-irradiated lithium, was established from measurements of the hydrogen isotopic ratios. Concentrations of other radionuclides in soil and water were normal, except for plutonium (at about twice fallout concentrations) in the first 2 m below the buried material. The solid-element nuclides have migrated very little. Exposure pathways and their associated doses, and procedures for retarding further migration are discUssed. (author)

  13. Evolutionary diversity of bile salts in reptiles and mammals, including analysis of ancient human and extinct giant ground sloth coprolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmann Alan F

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bile salts are the major end-metabolites of cholesterol and are also important in lipid and protein digestion and in influencing the intestinal microflora. We greatly extend prior surveys of bile salt diversity in both reptiles and mammals, including analysis of 8,000 year old human coprolites and coprolites from the extinct Shasta ground sloth (Nothrotherium shastense. Results While there is significant variation of bile salts across species, bile salt profiles are generally stable within families and often within orders of reptiles and mammals, and do not directly correlate with differences in diet. The variation of bile salts generally accords with current molecular phylogenies of reptiles and mammals, including more recent groupings of squamate reptiles. For mammals, the most unusual finding was that the Paenungulates (elephants, manatees, and the rock hyrax have a very different bile salt profile from the Rufous sengi and South American aardvark, two other mammals classified with Paenungulates in the cohort Afrotheria in molecular phylogenies. Analyses of the approximately 8,000 year old human coprolites yielded a bile salt profile very similar to that found in modern human feces. Analysis of the Shasta ground sloth coprolites (approximately 12,000 years old showed the predominant presence of glycine-conjugated bile acids, similar to analyses of bile and feces of living sloths, in addition to a complex mixture of plant sterols and stanols expected from an herbivorous diet. Conclusions The bile salt synthetic pathway has become longer and more complex throughout vertebrate evolution, with some bile salt modifications only found within single groups such as marsupials. Analysis of the evolution of bile salt structures in different species provides a potentially rich model system for the evolution of a complex biochemical pathway in vertebrates. Our results also demonstrate the stability of bile salts in coprolites

  14. Evolutionary diversity of bile salts in reptiles and mammals, including analysis of ancient human and extinct giant ground sloth coprolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Bile salts are the major end-metabolites of cholesterol and are also important in lipid and protein digestion and in influencing the intestinal microflora. We greatly extend prior surveys of bile salt diversity in both reptiles and mammals, including analysis of 8,000 year old human coprolites and coprolites from the extinct Shasta ground sloth (Nothrotherium shastense). Results While there is significant variation of bile salts across species, bile salt profiles are generally stable within families and often within orders of reptiles and mammals, and do not directly correlate with differences in diet. The variation of bile salts generally accords with current molecular phylogenies of reptiles and mammals, including more recent groupings of squamate reptiles. For mammals, the most unusual finding was that the Paenungulates (elephants, manatees, and the rock hyrax) have a very different bile salt profile from the Rufous sengi and South American aardvark, two other mammals classified with Paenungulates in the cohort Afrotheria in molecular phylogenies. Analyses of the approximately 8,000 year old human coprolites yielded a bile salt profile very similar to that found in modern human feces. Analysis of the Shasta ground sloth coprolites (approximately 12,000 years old) showed the predominant presence of glycine-conjugated bile acids, similar to analyses of bile and feces of living sloths, in addition to a complex mixture of plant sterols and stanols expected from an herbivorous diet. Conclusions The bile salt synthetic pathway has become longer and more complex throughout vertebrate evolution, with some bile salt modifications only found within single groups such as marsupials. Analysis of the evolution of bile salt structures in different species provides a potentially rich model system for the evolution of a complex biochemical pathway in vertebrates. Our results also demonstrate the stability of bile salts in coprolites preserved in arid climates

  15. Resolving the bulk δ 15N values of ancient human and animal bone collagen via compound-specific nitrogen isotope analysis of constituent amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styring, Amy K.; Sealy, Judith C.; Evershed, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    Stable nitrogen isotope analysis is a fundamental tool in assessing dietary preferences and trophic positions within contemporary and ancient ecosystems. In order to assess more fully the dietary contributions to human tissue isotope values, a greater understanding of the complex biochemical and physiological factors which underpin bulk collagen δ 15N values is necessary. Determinations of δ 15N values of the individual amino acids which constitute bone collagen are necessary to unravel these relationships, since different amino acids display different δ 15N values according to their biosynthetic origins. A range of collagen isolates from archaeological faunal and human bone ( n = 12 and 11, respectively), representing a spectrum of terrestrial and marine protein origins and diets, were selected from coastal and near-coastal sites at the south-western tip of Africa. The collagens were hydrolysed and δ 15N values of their constituent amino acids determined as N-acetylmethyl esters (NACME) via gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). The analytical approach employed accounts for 56% of bone collagen nitrogen. Reconstruction of bulk bone collagen δ 15N values reveals a 2‰ offset from bulk collagen δ 15N values which is attributable to the δ 15N value of the amino acids which cannot currently be determined by GC-C-IRMS, notably arginine which comprises 53% of the nitrogen unaccounted for (23% of the total nitrogen). The δ 15N values of individual amino acids provide insights into both the contributions of various amino acids to the bulk δ 15N value of collagen and the factors influencing trophic position and the nitrogen source at the base of the food web. The similarity in the δ 15N values of alanine, glutamate, proline and hydroxyproline reflects the common origin of their amino groups from glutamate. The depletion in the δ 15N value of threonine with increasing trophic level indicates a fundamental difference between

  16. Great Moravian burial grounds in Rajhrad and Rajhradice

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrychová, Soňa

    2015-01-01

    The diploma thesis presented deals with an overall assessment of the Great Moravian burial ground in Rajhrad (Brno- venkov), which was excavated in the years 1972 to 1976. The work is based on a catalogue of this burial ground and the neighbouring one in Rajhradice published by Čeněk Staňa. It follows individual aspects of funeral rites at a necropolis and evaluates the inventory of the graves. Based on the findings, the work dates the burial ground, compares with burial ground in Rajhradice ...

  17. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. J. Farris and H. M. Sulloway

    2008-01-10

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground on the Hanford Site. This burial ground is a combination of two locations formerly called Minor Construction Burial Ground No. 2 and Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2. This waste site received radioactive equipment and other miscellaneous waste from 105-F Reactor operations, including dummy elements and irradiated process tubing; gun barrel tips, steel sleeves, and metal chips removed from the reactor; filter boxes containing reactor graphite chips; and miscellaneous construction solid waste.

  18. Shallow land burial - why or why not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.T.; Ledbetter, J.O.; Rohlich, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper summarizes a master's thesis on the state-of-the-art for shallow land burial of solid low-level radioactive wastes. The coverage of the thesis, which is condensed for this paper, ranges from site selection to problem case histories. Inherent in such coverage is the assessment of risk, the discussion of operational and management problems and the real significance of off-site migration. This topic is discussed in light of the stands taken that the migration is a serious problem and that it is not. Emphasis is on the engineering parameters of importance in site selection, and what pretreatment, if any, is needed

  19. DNA analysis of ancient dogs of the Americas: identifying possible founding haplotypes and reconstructing population histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Kelsey E; Judd, Kathleen; Kitchen, Andrew; Grier, Colin; Kohler, Timothy A; Ortman, Scott G; Kemp, Brian M; Malhi, Ripan S

    2015-02-01

    As dogs have traveled with humans to every continent, they can potentially serve as an excellent proxy when studying human migration history. Past genetic studies into the origins of Native American dogs have used portions of the hypervariable region (HVR) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to indicate that prior to European contact the dogs of Native Americans originated in Eurasia. In this study, we summarize past DNA studies of both humans and dogs to discuss their population histories in the Americas. We then sequenced a portion of the mtDNA HVR of 42 pre-Columbian dogs from three sites located in Illinois, coastal British Columbia, and Colorado, and identify four novel dog mtDNA haplotypes. Next, we analyzed a dataset comprised of all available ancient dog sequences from the Americas to infer the pre-Columbian population history of dogs in the Americas. Interestingly, we found low levels of genetic diversity for some populations consistent with the possibility of deliberate breeding practices. Furthermore, we identified multiple putative founding haplotypes in addition to dog haplotypes that closely resemble those of wolves, suggesting admixture with North American wolves or perhaps a second domestication of canids in the Americas. Notably, initial effective population size estimates suggest at least 1000 female dogs likely existed in the Americas at the time of the first known canid burial, and that population size increased gradually over time before stabilizing roughly 1200 years before present. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of ancient human mitochondrial DNA from the Xiaohe cemetery: insights into prehistoric population movements in the Tarim Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunxiang; Ning, Chao; Hagelberg, Erika; Li, Hongjie; Zhao, Yongbin; Li, Wenying; Abuduresule, Idelisi; Zhu, Hong; Zhou, Hui

    2015-07-08

    The Tarim Basin in western China, known for its amazingly well-preserved mummies, has been for thousands of years an important crossroad between the eastern and western parts of Eurasia. Despite its key position in communications and migration, and highly diverse peoples, languages and cultures, its prehistory is poorly understood. To shed light on the origin of the populations of the Tarim Basin, we analysed mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms in human skeletal remains excavated from the Xiaohe cemetery, used by the local community between 4000 and 3500 years before present, and possibly representing some of the earliest settlers. Xiaohe people carried a wide variety of maternal lineages, including West Eurasian lineages H, K, U5, U7, U2e, T, R*, East Eurasian lineages B, C4, C5, D, G2a and Indian lineage M5. Our results indicate that the people of the Tarim Basin had a diverse maternal ancestry, with origins in Europe, central/eastern Siberia and southern/western Asia. These findings, together with information on the cultural context of the Xiaohe cemetery, can be used to test contrasting hypotheses of route of settlement into the Tarim Basin.

  1. Ancient human mitochondrial DNA and radiocarbon analysis of archived quids from the Mule Spring Rockshelter, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristova, Lidia T.; Edwards, Susan R.; Wedding, Jeffrey R.; Snow, Meradeth; Kruger, Brittany R.; Moser, Duane P.

    2018-01-01

    Chewed and expectorated quids, indigestible stringy fibers from the roasted inner pulp of agave or yucca root, have proven resilient over long periods of time in dry cave environments and correspondingly, although little studied, are common in archaeological archives. In the late 1960s, thousands of quids were recovered from Mule Spring Rockshelter (Nevada, USA) deposits and stored without consideration to DNA preservation in a museum collection, remaining unstudied for over fifty years. To assess the utility of these materials as repositories for genetic information about past inhabitants of the region and their movements, twenty-one quids were selected from arbitrary excavation depths for detailed analysis. Human mitochondrial DNA sequences from the quids were amplified by PCR and screened for diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms. Most detected single nucleotide polymorphisms were consistent with recognized Native American haplogroup subclades B2a5, B2i1, C1, C1c, C1c2, and D1; with the majority of the sample set consistent with subclades C1, C1c, and C1c2. In parallel with the DNA analysis, each quid was radiocarbon dated, revealing a time-resolved pattern of occupancy from 347 to 977 calibrated years before present. In particular, this dataset reveals strong evidence for the presence of haplogroup C1/C1c at the Southwestern edge of the US Great Basin from ~670 to 980 cal YBP, which may temporally correspond with the beginnings of the so-called Numic Spread into the region. The research described here demonstrates an approach which combines targeted DNA analysis with radiocarbon age dating; thus enabling the genetic analysis of archaeological materials of uncertain stratigraphic context. Here we present a survey of the maternal genetic profiles from people who used the Mule Spring Rockshelter and the historic timing of their utilization of a key natural resource. PMID:29522562

  2. Dialectics of Burial and Teritoriality in Barclays Ayakoroma's A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is conceived to investigate the subjects of death, burial, pride and territorial supremacy in African drama with special focus on A Matter of Honour by Barclays Ayakoroma. The study becomes crucial because the question of burial and struggle over rights of possession of a corpse by two parties has become a ...

  3. Urban Stream Burial Increases Watershed-Scale Nitrate Export.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake J Beaulieu

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that reduces nutrient loading to downstream ecosystems. Here we synthesize studies that investigated the effects of urban stream burial on N-uptake in two metropolitan areas and use simulation modeling to scale our measurements to the broader watershed scale. We report that nitrate travels on average 18 times farther downstream in buried than in open streams before being removed from the water column, indicating that burial substantially reduces N uptake in streams. Simulation modeling suggests that as burial expands throughout a river network, N uptake rates increase in the remaining open reaches which somewhat offsets reduced N uptake in buried reaches. This is particularly true at low levels of stream burial. At higher levels of stream burial, however, open reaches become rare and cumulative N uptake across all open reaches in the watershed rapidly declines. As a result, watershed-scale N export increases slowly at low levels of stream burial, after which increases in export become more pronounced. Stream burial in the lower, more urbanized portions of the watershed had a greater effect on N export than an equivalent amount of stream burial in the upper watershed. We suggest that stream daylighting (i.e., uncovering buried streams can increase watershed-scale N retention.

  4. Customary right to befitting burial: a jurisprudential appraisal of four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These symbols reveal unique rights for the people's entitlement. Among the rights to which an African is entitled is the right to befitting burial/funerals. This right comes with it, certain duties and/or obligations. The aim of this paper is to deconstruct the elements of applicable burial customs with a view to demonstrating their ...

  5. URBAN STREAM BURIAL INCREASES WATERSHED-SCALE NITRATE EXPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of streams in stormwater pipes in urban watersheds. We predicted that stream burial reduces the capacity of streams to remove nitrate (NO3-) from the water column by in...

  6. Fire hazards analysis for solid waste burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    This document comprises the fire hazards analysis for the solid waste burial grounds, including TRU trenches, low-level burial grounds, radioactive mixed waste trenches, etc. It analyzes fire potential, and fire damage potential for these facilities. Fire scenarios may be utilized in future safety analysis work, or for increasing the understanding of where hazards may exist in the present operation

  7. burial customs, the afterlife and the pollution of death in ancient

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kurtz & Boardman ... spirit (aion) in the case of young people, also escape from the body but play no further role. The corpse which remains .... of hygiene, but on the view that the act was repulsive to the gods. Thus births and deaths were not ...

  8. 118-B-1 burial ground excavation treatability test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This treatability investigation focused on the feasibility of excavating, analytical screening, and handling waste materials from the 118-B-1 Burial Ground located in the 100 B/C Area of the Hanford Site. The 118-B-1 Burial Ground consists of approximately 24 trenches on a 7-acre parcel. Solid low-level radioactive wastes and other debris and trash associated with reactor operations were disposed in 28 burial grounds in the 100 Area between 1944 and 1973. The majority of waste generated from routine reactor operations was placed in seven primary burial grounds, including 118-B-1. The 118-B-1 Burial Ground was selected as the location to perform this treatability test based on the availability of historical data for this site, and because it was thought to be representative of other primary-use burial grounds in the 100 Area. Geophysical surveys were conducted over the burial ground to map the concentrations of waste and aid in the selection of test pit excavation locations. The test plan developed for this study integrated the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER), a US Department of Energy (DOE) initiative based on both the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process and the observational approach. This treatability test is the first one at the Hanford Site to use the SAFER approach. The purpose of this study was (1) to support development of the Proposed Plan and Record of Decision, which would identify the approach to be used for burial ground remediation and (2) to provide specific engineering information for receiving waste generated from the 100 Area removal actions. The results of the treatability test can be used to determine the feasibility of performing excavation, analytical screening, and handling of burial ground materials from similar burial grounds

  9. Managing soil moisture on waste burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.E.; Ratzlaff, T.D.

    1991-11-01

    Shallow land burial is a common method of disposing of industrial, municipal, and low-level radioactive waste. The exclusion of water from buried wastes is a primary objective in designing and managing waste disposal sites. If wastes are not adequately isolated, water from precipitation may move through the landfill cover and into the wastes. The presence of water in the waste zone may promote the growth of plant roots to that depth and result in the transport of toxic materials to above-ground foliage. Furthermore, percolation of water through the waste zone may transport contaminants into ground water. This report presents results from a field study designed to assess the the potential for using vegetation to deplete soil moisture and prevent water from reaching buried wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Our results show that this approach may provide an economical means of limiting the intrusion of water on waste sites

  10. Burial of a Man-At-Arms in Kudash I Burial Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazantseva Olga A.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article features a comprehensive analysis of items discovered in male burial 160 of Kudash I burial ground – a unique source of materials for the research of interactions between the local and foreign population on the Middle Kama region in 3rd – 5th centuries A.D. The monument is located in Bardymsky district of Perm Krai. The complex of metal objects comprises a set of personal protective armament rarely discovered in the Kama region: an open-work helmet, a set of plate armour, a sword, a spear head, a knife and "crooked scythes". The article contains a description of the grave, its structure, morphology and classification of findings, as well as the results of an investigation of the manufacturing technology of the following armament and implements: sword, spear head, knife, and "crooked scythe" conducted using the metallographic method. It also features a graphical reconstruction of the warriors’s protective armament – the helmet. The authors determined counterparts of the grave complex discovered at archaeological sites in the Middle Kama region and the Altai Mountains. The apparel of the man-at-arms represents a unique set of protective and offensive armament. The armour of the deceased is complemented by an open-work ceremonial helmet with an aventail, which suggests that the grave belonged to a military commander. The date of burial was determined on the basis of artefact study results as late 4th – early 5th centuries A.D.

  11. Short-Term Sediment Burial Effects on the Seagrass Phyllospadix scouleri

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    iwatensis provides structure to trap and retain allochthonous subsidies such as algal drifts and subtidal sea urchins (Hori 2006). While human...in some cases, food for marine mammals, sea turtles, waterfowl and invertebrates (Hemminga and Duarte 2000; Kenworthy et al. 2006). Worldwide they...nutrients (Smith et al. 1988). Shoot density and morphology . Prior to burial, there was no significant difference between the average number of shoots

  12. Dentistry in ancient mesopotamia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiburger, E J

    2000-01-01

    Sumer, an empire in ancient Mesopotamia (southern Iraq), is well known as the cradle of our modern civilization and the home of biblical Abraham. An analysis of skeletal remains from cemeteries at the ancient cities of Ur and Kish (circa 2000 B.C.), show a genetically homogeneous, diseased, and short-lived population. These ancient Mesopotamians suffered severe dental attrition (95 percent), periodontal disease (42 percent), and caries (2 percent). Many oral congenital and neoplastic lesions were noted. During this period, the "local dentists" knew only a few modern dental techniques. Skeletal (dental) evidence indicates that the population suffered from chronic malnutrition. Malnutrition was probably caused by famine, which is substantiated in historic cuneiform and biblical writings, geologic strata samples, and analysis of skeletal and forensic dental pathology. These people had modern dentition but relatively poor dental health. The population's lack of malocclusions, caries, and TMJ problems appear to be due to flat plane occlusion.

  13. Identification and Tracing Groundwater Contamination by Livestock Burial Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, K.; Ha, K.; Park, S.; Kim, Y.; Lee, K.

    2011-12-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) or hoof-and-mouth disease is a severe plague for animal farming that affects cloven-hoofed animals such as cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Since it is highly infectious and can be easily proliferated by infected animals, contaminated equipments, vehicles, clothing, people, and predators. It is widely known that the virus responsible for FMD is a picornavirus, the prototypic member of the genus Aphthovirus. A serious outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease, leading to the stamping out of 3.53 millions of pigs and cattle and the construction of 4,538 burial sites until 15th March, 2011. The build-up of carcass burial should inevitably produce leachate by the decomposition of buried livestock affecting the surround environment such as air, soil, groundwater, and surface water. The most important issues which are currently raised by scientists are groundwater contamination by leachate from the livestock burial sites. This study examined the current status of FMD outbreak occurred in 2010-2011 and the issues of groundwater contamination by leachate from livestock burial sites. The hydrogeochemical, geophysical, and hydrogeological studies were executed to identify and trace groundwater contamination by leachate from livestock burial sites. Generally livestock mortality leachate contains high concentrations of NH3-N, HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, K+, Na+, P along with relative lesser amounts of iron, calcium, and magnesium. The groundwater chemical data around four burial sites showed high NH3-N, HCO3-, and K+ suggesting the leachate leakage from burial sites. This is also proved by resistivity monitoring survey and tracer tests. The simulation results of leachate dispersion showed the persistent detrimental impacts for groundwater environment for a long time (~50 years). It is need to remove the leachate of burial sites to prevent the dispersion of leachate from livestock burial to groundwater and to monitor the groundwater quality. The most important

  14. Ancient Climatic Architectural Design Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasibeh Faghih

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancient climatic architecture had found out a series of appropriate responses for the best compatibility with the critical climate condition for instance, designing ‘earth sheltered houses’ and ‘courtyard houses’. They could provide human climatic comfort without excessive usage of fossil fuel resources. Owing to the normal thermal conditions in the ground depth, earth sheltered houses can be slightly affected by thermal fluctuations due to being within the earth. In depth further than 6.1 meters, temperature alternation is minute during the year, equaling to average annual temperature of outside. More to the point, courtyard buildings as another traditional design approach, have prepared controlled climatic space based on creating the maximum shade in the summer and maximum solar heat absorption in the winter. The courtyard houses served the multiple functions of lighting to the rooms, acting as a heat absorber in the summer and a radiator in the winter, as well as providing an open space inside for community activities. It must be noted that they divided into summer and winter zones located in south and north of the central courtyard where residents were replaced into them according to changing the seasons. Therefore, Ancient climatic buildings provided better human thermal comfort in comparison with the use contemporary buildings of recent years, except with the air conditioning

  15. Ancient DNA analysis of dental calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyrich, Laura S; Dobney, Keith; Cooper, Alan

    2015-02-01

    Dental calculus (calcified tartar or plaque) is today widespread on modern human teeth around the world. A combination of soft starchy foods, changing acidity of the oral environment, genetic pre-disposition, and the absence of dental hygiene all lead to the build-up of microorganisms and food debris on the tooth crown, which eventually calcifies through a complex process of mineralisation. Millions of oral microbes are trapped and preserved within this mineralised matrix, including pathogens associated with the oral cavity and airways, masticated food debris, and other types of extraneous particles that enter the mouth. As a result, archaeologists and anthropologists are increasingly using ancient human dental calculus to explore broad aspects of past human diet and health. Most recently, high-throughput DNA sequencing of ancient dental calculus has provided valuable insights into the evolution of the oral microbiome and shed new light on the impacts of some of the major biocultural transitions on human health throughout history and prehistory. Here, we provide a brief historical overview of archaeological dental calculus research, and discuss the current approaches to ancient DNA sampling and sequencing. Novel applications of ancient DNA from dental calculus are discussed, highlighting the considerable scope of this new research field for evolutionary biology and modern medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 25 CFR 20.210 - Can eligibility criteria or payments for Burial Assistance, Child Assistance, and Disaster...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Assistance, Child Assistance, and Disaster Assistance and Emergency Assistance change? 20.210 Section 20.210 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Welfare Reform § 20.210 Can eligibility criteria or payments for Burial...

  17. Ancient and contemporary DNA reveal a pre-human decline but no population bottleneck associated with recent human persecution in the kea (Nestor notabilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussex, Nicolas; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Robertson, Bruce C

    2015-01-01

    The impact of population bottlenecks is an important factor to consider when assessing species survival. Population declines can considerably limit the evolutionary potential of species and make them more susceptible to stochastic events. New Zealand has a well documented history of decline of endemic avifauna related to human colonization. Here, we investigate the genetic effects of a recent population decline in the endangered kea (Nestor notabilis). Kea have undergone a long-lasting persecution between the late 1800s to 1970s where an estimated 150,000 kea were culled under a governmental bounty scheme. Kea now number 1,000-5,000 individuals in the wild and it is likely that the recent population decline may have reduced the genetic diversity of the species. Comparison of contemporary (n = 410), historical (n = 15) and fossil samples (n = 4) showed a loss of mitochondrial diversity since the end of the last glaciation (Otiran Glacial) but no loss of overall genetic diversity associated with the cull. Microsatellite data indicated a recent bottleneck for only one population and a range-wide decline in Ne dating back some 300 - 6,000 years ago, a period predating European arrival in NZ. These results suggest that despite a recent human persecution, kea might have experienced a large population decline before stabilizing in numbers prior to human settlement of New Zealand in response to Holocene changes in habitat distribution. Our study therefore highlights the need to understand the respective effects of climate change and human activities on endangered species dynamics when proposing conservation guidelines.

  18. Ancient and contemporary DNA reveal a pre-human decline but no population bottleneck associated with recent human persecution in the kea (Nestor notabilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Dussex

    Full Text Available The impact of population bottlenecks is an important factor to consider when assessing species survival. Population declines can considerably limit the evolutionary potential of species and make them more susceptible to stochastic events. New Zealand has a well documented history of decline of endemic avifauna related to human colonization. Here, we investigate the genetic effects of a recent population decline in the endangered kea (Nestor notabilis. Kea have undergone a long-lasting persecution between the late 1800s to 1970s where an estimated 150,000 kea were culled under a governmental bounty scheme. Kea now number 1,000-5,000 individuals in the wild and it is likely that the recent population decline may have reduced the genetic diversity of the species. Comparison of contemporary (n = 410, historical (n = 15 and fossil samples (n = 4 showed a loss of mitochondrial diversity since the end of the last glaciation (Otiran Glacial but no loss of overall genetic diversity associated with the cull. Microsatellite data indicated a recent bottleneck for only one population and a range-wide decline in Ne dating back some 300 - 6,000 years ago, a period predating European arrival in NZ. These results suggest that despite a recent human persecution, kea might have experienced a large population decline before stabilizing in numbers prior to human settlement of New Zealand in response to Holocene changes in habitat distribution. Our study therefore highlights the need to understand the respective effects of climate change and human activities on endangered species dynamics when proposing conservation guidelines.

  19. Ancient and Contemporary DNA Reveal a Pre-Human Decline but No Population Bottleneck Associated with Recent Human Persecution in the Kea (Nestor notabilis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussex, Nicolas; Rawlence, Nicolas J.; Robertson, Bruce C.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of population bottlenecks is an important factor to consider when assessing species survival. Population declines can considerably limit the evolutionary potential of species and make them more susceptible to stochastic events. New Zealand has a well documented history of decline of endemic avifauna related to human colonization. Here, we investigate the genetic effects of a recent population decline in the endangered kea (Nestor notabilis). Kea have undergone a long-lasting persecution between the late 1800s to 1970s where an estimated 150,000 kea were culled under a governmental bounty scheme. Kea now number 1,000–5,000 individuals in the wild and it is likely that the recent population decline may have reduced the genetic diversity of the species. Comparison of contemporary (n = 410), historical (n = 15) and fossil samples (n = 4) showed a loss of mitochondrial diversity since the end of the last glaciation (Otiran Glacial) but no loss of overall genetic diversity associated with the cull. Microsatellite data indicated a recent bottleneck for only one population and a range-wide decline in Ne dating back some 300 – 6,000 years ago, a period predating European arrival in NZ. These results suggest that despite a recent human persecution, kea might have experienced a large population decline before stabilizing in numbers prior to human settlement of New Zealand in response to Holocene changes in habitat distribution. Our study therefore highlights the need to understand the respective effects of climate change and human activities on endangered species dynamics when proposing conservation guidelines. PMID:25719752

  20. Ancient Chinese Precedents in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geddis, Robert

    1999-01-01

    ... classics from ancient china. The assumption is that since China's political and military leaders state openly that their strategy is based on traditional Chinese strategic concepts, a study of ancient classics on strategy...

  1. Ancient Greek psychotherapy for contemporary nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourkouta, Lambrini

    2002-08-01

    Ancient Greek physicians as well as philosophers were fully cognizant of a human being's psychological function and used their particular art to influence individual or social behavior in accordance with their pursuit. This art or technique favorably compares with several of the methods currently called supportive psychotherapy. This psychotherapy was the first form of care for people with mental health problems. Nurses who base their practice on ancient Greek psychotherapy see the patient as a whole, a person who creates meaning in life. Applying the philosophical principles of ancient Greeks helps nurses understand the behavior of people with mental health problems and recognize and facilitate adaptive satisfaction of these psychological needs. In addition, psychiatric nurses are able to help distressed individuals understand their fears and anxieties, so they are freed from the causes of their symptoms that led them to seek therapy in the first place. Consequently, this understanding can make psychiatric nurses' work a living experience and add meaning to their work.

  2. Inferring Past Environments from Ancient Epigenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhman, David; Malul, Anat; Carmel, Liran

    2017-10-01

    Analyzing the conditions in which past individuals lived is key to understanding the environments and cultural transitions to which humans had to adapt. Here, we suggest a methodology to probe into past environments, using reconstructed premortem DNA methylation maps of ancient individuals. We review a large body of research showing that differential DNA methylation is associated with changes in various external and internal factors, and propose that loci whose DNA methylation level is environmentally responsive could serve as markers to infer about ancient daily life, diseases, nutrition, exposure to toxins, and more. We demonstrate this approach by showing that hunger-related DNA methylation changes are found in ancient hunter-gatherers. The strategy we present here opens a window to reconstruct previously inaccessible aspects of the lives of past individuals. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  3. Molybdenum speciation and burial pathway in weakly sulfidic environments: Insights from XAFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Meghan; Chappaz, Anthony; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2017-06-01

    Sedimentary molybdenum (Mo) accumulation is a robust proxy for sulfidic conditions in both modern and ancient aquatic systems and has been used to infer changing marine redox chemistry throughout Earth's history. Accurate interpretation of any proxy requires a comprehensive understanding of its biogeochemical cycling, but knowledge gaps remain concerning the geochemical mechanism(s) leading to Mo burial in anoxic sediments. Better characterization of Mo speciation should provide mechanistic insight into sedimentary Mo accumulation, and therefore in this study we investigate Mo speciation from both modern (Castle Lake, USA) and ancient (Doushantuo Formation, China) environments using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy. By utilizing a series of laboratory-synthesized oxythiomolybdate complexes-many containing organic ligands-we expand the number of available standards to encompass a greater range of known Mo chemistry and test the linkage between Mo and total organic carbon (TOC). In weakly euxinic systems ([H2S(aq)] < 11 μM), or where sulfide is restricted to pore waters, natural samples are best represented by a linear combination of MoO3, MoOxS4-x2- (intermediate thiomolybdates), and [MoOx(cat)4-x]2- (cat = catechol, x = 2 or 3). These results suggest a revised model for how Mo accumulates in weakly sulfidic sediments, including a previously unrecognized role for organic matter in early sequestration of Mo and a de-emphasized importance for MoS42- (tetrathiomolybdate).

  4. Molybdenum speciation and burial pathway in weakly sulfidic environments: Insights from XAFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Meghan; Chappaz, Anthony; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2017-06-01

    Sedimentary molybdenum (Mo) accumulation is a robust proxy for sulfidic conditions in both modern and ancient aquatic systems and has been used to infer changing marine redox chemistry throughout Earth’s history. Accurate interpretation of any proxy requires a comprehensive understanding of its biogeochemical cycling, but knowledge gaps remain concerning the geochemical mechanism(s) leading to Mo burial in anoxic sediments. Better characterization of Mo speciation should provide mechanistic insight into sedimentary Mo accumulation, and therefore in this study we investigate Mo speciation from both modern (Castle Lake, USA) and ancient (Doushantuo Formation, China) environments using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy. By utilizing a series of laboratory-synthesized oxythiomolybdate complexes—many containing organic ligands—we expand the number of available standards to encompass a greater range of known Mo chemistry and test the linkage between Mo and total organic carbon (TOC). In weakly euxinic systems ([H2S(aq)] < 11 µM), or where sulfide is restricted to pore waters, natural samples are best represented by a linear combination of MoO3, MoOxS4-x2- (intermediate thiomolybdates), and [MoOx(cat)4-x]2- (cat = catechol, x = 2 or 3). These results suggest a revised model for how Mo accumulates in weakly sulfidic sediments, including a previously unrecognized role for organic matter in early sequestration of Mo and a de-emphasized importance for MoS42- (tetrathiomolybdate).

  5. 25 CFR 20.324 - When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.324 When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance? In the absence of other resources, the Bureau can provide Burial Assistance for... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance? 20.324...

  6. Mathematics in Ancient India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this series of articles, we intend to have a glimpse of some of the landmarks in ancient In- dian mathematics with special emphasis on num- ber theory. This issue features a brief overview of some of the high peaks of mathematics in an- cient India. In the next part we shall describe. Aryabhata's general solution in integers ...

  7. Printing Ancient Terracotta Warriors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadecki, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    Standing in awe in Xian, China, at the Terra Cotta warrior archaeological site, the author thought of sharing this experience and excitement with her sixth-grade students. She decided to let her students carve patterns of the ancient soldiers to understand their place in Chinese history. They would make block prints and print multiple soldiers on…

  8. Trepanation in Ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobert, Leah; Binello, Emanuela

    2017-05-01

    Trepanation, the process of making a burr hole in the skull to access the brain, is an ancient form of a primitive craniotomy. There is widespread evidence of contributions made to this practice by ancient civilizations in Europe, Africa, and South America, where archaeologists have unearthed thousands of trepanned skulls dating back to the Neolithic period. Little is known about trepanation in China, and it is commonly believed that the Chinese used only traditional Chinese medicine and nonsurgical methods for treating brain injuries. However, a thorough analysis of the available archeological and literary evidence reveals that trepanation was widely practiced throughout China thousands of years ago. A significant number of trepanned Chinese skulls have been unearthed showing signs of healing and suggesting that patients survived after surgery. Trepanation was likely performed for therapeutic and spiritual reasons. Medical and historical works from Chinese literature contain descriptions of primitive neurosurgical procedures, including stories of surgeons, such as the legendary Hua Tuo, and surgical techniques used for the treatment of brain pathologies. The lack of translation of Chinese reports into the English language and the lack of publications on this topic in the English language may have contributed to the misconception that ancient China was devoid of trepanation. This article summarizes the available evidence attesting to the performance of successful primitive cranial surgery in ancient China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ancient Egypt: History 380.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Laraine D.

    "Ancient Egypt," an upper-division, non-required history course covering Egypt from pre-dynastic time through the Roman domination is described. General descriptive information is presented first, including the method of grading, expectation of student success rate, long-range course objectives, procedures for revising the course, major…

  10. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  11. Mathematics in Ancient India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Number Theory for its own sake, as a great 'intellectual challenge, has a long history, particularly here in India. Already in the 7th century, Brahmagupta made impor- tant contributions to what is now known (incorrectly) as. Pell's equation.: Michael Atiyah ([1], p.913). In number theory, the grandest achievements of ancient.

  12. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  13. Mathematics in Ancient India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SERIES I ARTICLE. Mathematics in Ancient India. 3. Brahmagupta's Lemma: The Samasabhavana. Amartya Kumar Dutta is an Associate Professor of. Mathematics at the. Indian Statistical. Institute, Kolkata. His research interest is in commutative algebra. Part 1, An overview, Reso- nance, VoL7, No.4, pp.4-19,. 2002. Part 2.

  14. Incest in Ancient Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škorić Marko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many controversies that surround the problem of incest in Ancient Egypt. One of them is belief that incest was practiced exclusively by the Royal families, which is incorrect. I will try to show that at this time we don’t have satisfactory explanation of this kind of behavior, but that there are interesting suggestions for further research.

  15. Ancient ports of Kalinga

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    which plied between Kalinga and south east Asian countries. Nanda Raja, is said to have attacked Kalinga with the intention of getting access to the sea for the landlocked Kingdom of Magadha (Bihar). The ancient texa Artha Sastra (3rd-4th century B...

  16. Bone foreshafts from a clovis burial in southwestern montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahren, L; Bonnichsen, R

    1974-10-11

    Formal and functional analyses of bone artifacts from a Clovis burial in southwestern Montana suggest that they were constructed to serve as (detachable or nondetachable) foreshafts for attaching fluted projectile points to lance shafts.

  17. Waste migration studies at the Savannah River Plant burial ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.; Oblath, S.B.; Hawkins, R.H.; Grant, M.W.; Hoeffner, S.L.; King, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The low-level radioactive waste burial ground at the Savannah River Plant is a typical shallow-land-burial disposal site in a humid region. Studies of waste migration at this site provide generic data for designing other disposal facilities. A program of field, laboratory, and modeling studies for the SRP burial ground has been conducted for several years. Recent results of lysimeter tests, soil-water chemistry studies, and transport modeling are reported. The lysimeter experiments include ongoing tests with 40 lysimeters containing a variety of defense wastes, and recently concluded lysimeter tests with tritium and plutonium waste forms. The tritium lysimeter operated 12 years. In chemistry studies, measurements of soil-water distribution coefficients (K/sub d/) were concluded. Current emphasis is on identification of trace organic compounds in groundwater from the burial site. Development of the dose-to-man model was completed, and the computer code is available for routine use. 16 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Rusenikha Burial Ground: interdisciplinary approach to monument investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitina Tatyana B.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of excavations at Rusenikha burial ground of Mari culture dating back to the medieval period obtained as a result of bioarcheological research. The research conducted by the authors is based on the atomic-absorption photometry method. Study of mineral composition allowed to classify the burials of Rusenikha burial mound into 2 conventional groups. The bone tissue located in burials of the first group contain exceedingly high concentrations of zinc, copper, lead and manganese with low calcium content, and low to average strontium content. Bones feature average or low mineralization. Of special interest is an individual group of skeletons with high zinc and manganese content, and very low strontium content. The differences determined on the basis of studying the mineral composition of bone tissue have been confirmed by an analysis of archaeological material: planigraphy, funerary rite and item inventory.

  19. Effects of urban stream burial on nitrogen uptake and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanization has resulted in extensive burial and channelization of headwater streams, yet little is known about impacts on stream ecosystem functions critical for reducing downstream nitrogen pollution. To characterize the biogeochemical impact of stream burial, we measured NO3- uptake, using 15N-NO3- isotope tracer releases, and whole stream metabolism, during four seasons in three paired buried and open streams reaches within the Baltimore Ecosystem Study Long-term Ecological Research Network. Stream burial increased NO3- uptake lengths, by a factor of 7.5 (p metabolism were primarily explained by decreased transient storage and light availability in buried streams. We estimate that stream burial increases daily watershed nitrate export by as much as 500% due to decreased in-stream retention and may considerably decrease carbon export via decreased primary production. These results

  20. Development of Chemical Indicators of Groundwater Contamination Near the Carcass Burial Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Choi, J.; Kim, M.; Choi, J.; Lee, M.; Lee, H.; Jeon, S.; Bang, S.; Noh, H.; Yoo, J.; Park, S.; Kim, H.; Kim, D.; Lee, Y.; Han, J.

    2011-12-01

    A serious outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) and avian influenza (AI) led to the culling of millions of livestock in South Korea from late 2010 to earlier 2011. Because of the scale of FMD and AI epidemic in Korea and rapid spread of the diseases, mass burial for the disposal of carcass was conducted to halt the outbreak. The improper construction of the burial site or inappropriate management of the carcass burial facility can cause the contamination of groundwater mainly due to the discharges of leachate through the base of disposal pit. The leachate from carcass burial contains by products of carcass decay such as amino acids, nitrate, ammonia and chloride. The presence of these chemical components in groundwater can be used as indicators demonstrating contamination of groundwater with leachate from carcass. The major concern about using these chemical indicators is that other sources including manures, fertilizers and waste waters from human or animal activities already exist in farming area. However, we lack the understanding of how groundwater contamination due to mass burial of carcass can be differentiated from the contamination due to livestock manures which shows similar chemical characteristics. The chemical compositions of the leachate from carcass burial site and the wastewater from livestock manure treatment facilities were compared. The chemical compositions considered include total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), nitrate, organic nitrogen (Organic nitrogen =TN-Ammonium Nitrogen- Nitrate nitrogen), ammonia, chloride, sodium, potassium and amino acids (20 analytes). The ratios of concentrations of the chemical compositions as indicators of contamination were determined to distinguish the sources of contamination in groundwater. Indicators which showed a linear relationship between two factors and revealed a distinct difference between the carcass leachate and livestock manure were chosen. In addition, the background level of the

  1. The value of ancient architecture for educational program of masters of architectural space design

    OpenAIRE

    Prishchepa Aleksandr; Maidibor Olesya

    2017-01-01

    The existence of archaeological sites of ancient Greek colony-towns and medieval fortresses gives a real insight into the interaction of all spheres of human activity in ancient times. Ancient Greek Emporium is a vivid example of the architecture, art, archaeology and urban planning synthesis. Archaeological excavations provide an opportunity to study the artefacts of the ancient world belonging to several fields, such as sculpture, decorative arts, fashion design and household. Studying hist...

  2. Water problems at the West Valley burial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelleher, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    A history of the water problems encountered at the West Valley, New York, burial site is presented with recommendations concerning operation at this site to prevent migration of radioactivity off site. When a permit to bury wastes was first issued in 1963, the possibility of water ponding in trenches because of relatively impermeable soil was recognized. Water rose persistently in 3 completed trenches in the north burial area, so the permit was revised in 1968 to be more explicit on how the trenches should be constructed to minimize the entrance of water into completed trenches. Water has not risen in the 7 trenches in the south burial area, which were completed in accordance with the revised permit. Water continued to rise in the 4 trenches in the north burial area and in early 1975 water from 2 of these trenches began to seep out through the cover. Three of the trenches were pumped to halt this seepage. Monitoring of surface streams has indicated no large-scale migration of radioisotopes away from the burial site. However, extraneous sources of radioactivity made it impossible to detect small amounts of seepage. Soil samples taken in 1973 near the trenches confirmed that there was no large-scale underground migration. The borings did indicate the existence of perched groundwater near the problem trenches in the north burial area that could result in the horizontal migration of water in or out of trenches. The USGS is now making a detailed hydrogeological study of the burial area. Erosion control and prevention of water from entering completed trenches are the main environmental problems at the West Valley burial site

  3. Tritium in the burial ground of the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyder, M.L.

    1993-06-01

    This memorandum reviews the available information on tritium-contaminated material discarded to burial grounds. Tritium was the first isotope studied because it represents the most immediate concern with regard to release to the environment. Substantial amounts of tritium are known to be present in the ground water underneath the area, and outcropping of this ground water in springs and seeps has been observed. The response to this release of tritium from the burial ground is a current concern. The amount of tritium emplaced in the burial ground facilities is very uncertain, however, some general conclusions can be made. In particular, most of the tritium buried is associated with spent equipment and other waste, rather than spent melts. Correspondingly, most of the tritium in the ground water seems to be associated with burials of this type, rather than the spent melts. Maps are presented showing the location of burials of tritiated waste by type, and the location of the largest individual burials according to COBRA records

  4. Sources and Resources for Teaching about Ancient Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridakis, John N.; Mantzanas, Theophilos

    1977-01-01

    This article identifies print, non-print, and human sources and resources useful to elementary and secondary teachers of ancient Greek history. A rationale for teaching Greek history is also included. (Author/RM)

  5. Safety analysis of the Chernobyl accident origin decontamination waste burials in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skurat, V.V.; Shiryaeva, N.M.; Myshkina, N.K.; Gvozdev, A.A.; Serebryanyj, G.Z.; Golikova, N.B.

    2002-01-01

    Potential dangerous of the decontamination waste burials was estimated by means of the generalized multicompartmental model. Characteristics of 24 the most large and unfavorable decontamination waste burials are shown and an estimate of their safety is given. The burial effect zones were determined (100-300 m). A reliability of the forecasting estimate of potential dangerous radioactive contamination of ground waters near the burials was checked on example of the Dudichi decontamination waste burial

  6. Sex identification of ancient DNA samples using a microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Kirsty J; Brown, Keri A; Brown, Terence A; Haswell, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Ancient DNA is the name given to the degraded, fragmented, and chemically damaged biomolecules that can be recovered from archaeological remains of plants, animals, and humans. Where ancient human DNA has survived at archaeological sites, it can give valuable information and is especially useful for its potential to identify kinship, population affinities, pathogens, and biological sex. Here, we describe the operation of a microfluidic device for the sex identification of ancient DNA samples using an efficient sample handling process. DNA is extracted from powdered bone samples and abasic sites labeled with biotin. Streptavidin-coated superparamagnetic particles are used to isolate the labeled DNA prior to amplification of the Amelogenin sex marker.

  7. Large-Scale Laboratory Experiments of Initiation of Motion and Burial of Objects under Currents and Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, B. J.; Wu, H.; Wenzel, S. P.; Gates, S. J.; Fytanidis, D. K.; Garcia, M. H.

    2017-12-01

    Unexploded ordnances (UXOs) can be found at the bottom of coastal areas as the residue of military wartime activities, training or accidents. These underwater objects are hazards for humans and the coastal environment increasing the need for addressing the knowledge gaps regarding the initiation of motion, fate and transport of UXOs under currents and wave conditions. Extensive experimental analysis was conducted for the initiation of motion of UXOs under various rigid bed roughness conditions (smooth PVC, pitted steel, marbles, gravels and bed of spherical particles) for both unidirectional and oscillatory flows. Particle image velocimetry measurements were conducted under both flow conditions to resolve the flow structure estimate the critical flow conditions for initiation of motion of UXOs. Analysis of the experimental observations shows that the geometrical characteristics of the UXOs, their properties (i.e. volume, mass) and their orientation with respect to the mean flow play an important role on the reorientation and mobility of the examined objects. A novel unified initiation of motion diagram is proposed using an effective/unified hydrodynamic roughness and a new length scale which includes the effect of the projected area and the bed-UXO contact area. Both unidirectional and oscillatory critical flow conditions collapsed into a single dimensionless diagram highlighting the importance and practical applicability of the proposed work. In addition to the rigid bed experiments, the burial dynamics of proud UXOs on a mobile sand bed were also examined. The complex flow-bedform-UXOs interactions were evaluated which highlighted the effect of munition density on burial rate and final burial depth. Burial dynamics and mechanisms for motion were examined for various UXOs types, and results show that, for the case of the low density UXOs under energetic conditions, lateral transport coexists with burial. Prior to burial, UXO re-orientation was also observed

  8. Micromorphological Aspects of Forensic Geopedology II: Ultramicroscopic vs Microscopic Characterization of Phosphatic Impregnations on Soil Particles in Experimental Burials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ern, S. I. E.; Trombino, L.; Cattaneo, C.

    2012-04-01

    Grows up the importance of the role played by soil scientists in the modern forensic sciences, in particular when buried human remains strongly decomposed or skeletonized are found in different environment situations. Among the different techniques normally used in geopedology, it is usefull to apply in such forensic cases, soil micromorphology (including optical microscopy and ultramicroscopy) that has been underused up today, for various kind of reasons. An interdisciplinary Italian-team, formed by earth scientists and legal medicine, is working on several sets of experimental burial of pigs and piglets in different soil types and for different times of burial, in order to get new evidences on environmental behaviour related to the burial, focalising on geopedological and micropedological aspects. The present work is focused on: - ultramicroscopic (SEM-EDS) characterization of the phosphatic impregnation (by body fluids) on soils sampled under the dead bodies of five couples of pigs, buried respectively for one month, six month, one year, two years and two years and half in two different areas; - microscopic (petrographic microscope) and ultramicroscopic (SEM-EDS) cross characterization of the phosphatic impregnation (by body fluids) on soils sampled under the dead bodies of several piglets, buried for twenty months. The first results show trends of persistency of such phosphatic features, mainly related to the grain size of the impregnated soil particles and weather conditions (or seasons) of exhumation, while apparently time since burial is only marginally effective for the investigated burial period. Further experiments are in progress in order to clarify the pathways of phosphorus precipitation and leaching for longer times of burial and different seasons of exhumation, both from the microscopic and the pedological/chemical point of view.

  9. [Ancientness and maturity: two complementary qualities of forest ecosystems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cateau, Eugénie; Larrieu, Laurent; Vallauri, Daniel; Savoie, Jean-Marie; Touroult, Julien; Brustel, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Ancientness and maturity are two major qualities of forest ecosystems. They are components of naturalness and are affected by human impact. These qualities and the associated terms are often mixed up and incorrectly used. We have carried out a synthesis in order to propose an adapted French terminology based on international literature. The topics of ancientness and maturity for biodiversity and soil characteristics are explained. This review leads us to submit different potential thresholds for ancientness and maturity. An analysis on ancientness and maturity on forest data for France leads to the conclusion that about 29% of all forests can be considered "ancient woodland", and less than 3% of the even-age forest is older than the harvesting age. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Bacteria in ancient sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzo, G.

    1986-01-01

    In order to ascertain the role of biological activity in ancient sediments, two microbiological studies were carried out. The first was on pleistocenic clay sediments on land, the second on deep oceanic sediments. In the present paper by direct counting the samples is demonstrated the presence of bacteria in a range of 10 5 to 10 7 . Further studies must be carried out to ascertain the activities by in situ incubation methods

  11. Childbirth in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Geoffrey

    2004-11-01

    Medicine in ancient Egypt was much more advanced than the rest of the Biblical world, especially in trauma surgery. Care at the time of childbirth was however virtually non-existent. There were no trained obstetricians or midwives but a galaxy of gods were at hand. This article traces what we can piece together about pregnancy of childbirth from the evidence we have in tombs and papyri of Egypt.

  12. Linen in Ancient Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dr.Rehab Mahmoud Ahmed Elsharnouby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Egypt was famous through the Ancient Near East for both weaving linen cloth and the produced quantities. Cloth was sent as expensive gifts from one king to another and given to a laborer as wages in return for his work. Cloth was regarded as an essential element in everyday life as it could be used for everything: clothing, bedding, trappings for animals, or sails of a ship. It was in fact one of the most widely used item throughout Ancient Egypt. Although other textile fibers were used in Pharaonic Egypt, namely, sheep's wool, goat hair and a form of coir, the majority of textiles were made from the plant Linum usitatissimum, flax. Cloth made from this fiber is defined as linen. The research starts with a brief definition of the flax, and then reviews the scenes representing the sowing and the harvesting of its seeds. It also focuses on the way of removing the seeds heads, the preparing of the flax for spinning: retting, beating and scutching. After that, it deals with transforming flax into orderly lengths, and rolling it into balls or coils. The researcher as well studies the Ancient Egyptian spinning techniques: grasped spindle, support spindle and drop spinning; the different types of weaving: tabby weaves, basket weaves, tapestry weaves and warps-patterned weave and the types of looms that were in use in Egypt, namely, the horizontal and vertical looms.

  13. Carbon burial and storage in tropical salt marshes under the influence of sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Fernández, A C; Carnero-Bravo, V; Sanchez-Cabeza, J A; Pérez-Bernal, L H; Amaya-Monterrosa, O A; Bojórquez-Sánchez, S; López-Mendoza, P G; Cardoso-Mohedano, J G; Dunbar, R B; Mucciarone, D A; Marmolejo-Rodríguez, A J

    2018-07-15

    Coastal vegetated habitats can be important sinks of organic carbon (C org ) and mitigate global warming by sequestering significant quantities of atmospheric CO 2 and storing sedimentary C org for long periods, although their C org burial and storage capacity may be affected by on-going sea level rise and human intervention. Geochemical data from published 210 Pb-dated sediment cores, collected from low-energy microtidal coastal wetlands in El Salvador (Jiquilisco Bay) and in Mexico (Salada Lagoon; Estero de Urias Lagoon; Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve) were revisited to assess temporal changes (within the last 100years) of C org concentrations, storage and burial rates in tropical salt marshes under the influence of sea level rise and contrasting anthropization degree. Grain size distribution was used to identify hydrodynamic changes, and δ 13 C to distinguish terrigenous sediments from those accumulated under the influence of marine transgression. Although the accretion rate ranges in all sediment records were comparable, C org concentrations (0.2-30%), stocks (30-465Mgha -1 , by extrapolation to 1m depth), and burial rates (3-378gm -2 year -1 ) varied widely within and among the study areas. However, in most sites sea level rise decreased C org concentrations and stocks in sediments, but increased C org burial rates. Lower C org concentrations were attributed to the input of reworked marine particles, which contribute with a lower amount of C org than terrigenous sediments; whereas higher C org burial rates were driven by higher mass accumulation rates, influenced by increased flooding and human interventions in the surroundings. C org accumulation and long-term preservation in tropical salt marshes can be as high as in mangrove or temperate salt marsh areas and, besides the reduction of C org stocks by ongoing sea level rise, the disturbance of the long-term buried C org inventories might cause high CO 2 releases, for which they must be protected as a part of

  14. Funeral and Memorial Ceremonialism and Armor Complex of the Ancient and Medieval Population (to the statement of the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izmaylov Iskander L.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to one of the major aspects of archeology: the reconstruction of social relations on the basis of data on burial and mortuary ceremonialism. Attention is mainly focused on the theoretical problems of the ratio of the “living” reality and its reflection in funeral monuments, especially on the armor as the key material used to determine the social status and restore the armor complex of ancient and medieval societies.

  15. Tuberculosis in ancient times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Cilliers

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of an array of effective antibiotics, tuberculosis is still very common in developing countries where overcrowding, malnutrition and poor hygienic conditions prevail. Over the past 30 years associated HIV infection has worsened the situation by increasing the infection rate and mortality of tuberculosis. Of those diseases caused by a single organism only HIV causes more deaths internationally than tuberculosis. The tubercle bacillus probably first infected man in Neolithic times, and then via infected cattle, but the causative Mycobacteriacea have been in existence for 300 million years. Droplet infection is the most common way of acquiring tuberculosis, although ingestion (e.g. of infected cows’ milk may occur. Tuberculosis probably originated in Africa. The earliest path gnomonic evidence of human tuberculosis in man was found in osteo-archaeological findings of bone tuberculosis (Pott’s disease of the spine in the skeleton of anEgyptian priest from the 21st Dynasty (approximately 1 000 BC. Suggestive but not conclusiveevidence of tuberculotic lesions had been found in even earlier skeletons from Egypt and Europe. Medical hieroglyphics from ancient Egypt are silent on the disease, which could be tuberculosis,as do early Indian and Chinese writings. The Old Testament refers to the disease schachapeth, translated as phthisis in the Greek Septuagint. Although the Bible is not specific about this condition, tuberculosis is still called schachapeth in modern Hebrew. In pre-Hippocratic Greece Homer did not mention phthisis, a word meaning non-specific wasting of the body. However. Alexander of Tralles (6th century BC seemed to narrow the concept down to a specific disease, and in the Hippocratic Corpus (5th-4th centuries BC phthisis can be recognised as tuberculosis. It was predominantly a respiratory disease commonly seen and considered to be caused by an imbalance of bodily humours. It was commonest in autumn, winter and spring

  16. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed.

  17. The Semiotics of Pemature Burial: Feminism in a Postfeminist Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Hawkesworth

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I will explore how the death of feminism is represented in order to plumb the larger meanings embedded in proclamations of feminism’s symbolic death. I will begin by investigating two mechanisms by which feminism’s death has been produced to unearth the tacit values of feminism’s morticians. I will then consider competing accounts of the “signs of death” in order to explore how particular assumptions about the ontology of feminism are tied to specific forms of metaphorical death. Given the particular kind of distortion involved in the premature burial of a thriving global feminism, the final section of the article situates contemporary feminism’s death knell in the context of a gendered history of live burial practices. By excavating and interpreting such archaic practices, I will link the rhetorical burial of contemporary feminism to an ongoing effort to undermine feminist struggles for social justice.

  18. Urology in ancient India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakti Das

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland.

  19. [Sexuality in Ancient Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androutsos, G; Marketos, S

    1994-10-01

    The present article explores the sexuality in ancient Egypt. In particular in this article are presented the ways of concubinage (marriage, concubinage, adultery), the incest, loves of the pharaohs and of the common people, the freedom of choice in garments, the status of the hetairas and of the whores, the sexual perversions (male and female homosexuality, necrophilia, sodomism, bestiality, rape, masturbation, exhibitionism), the operations of the genitals (circumcision, excision, castration) and finally the level of knowledge in gynaecology, fertility, contraception and obstetrics that even today demands our admiration.

  20. Obscuring the ancient artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tugrul, B.

    1987-01-01

    Radiography is a non-destructive method which is preferable for ancient artifacts. X-rays, gama rays, beta rays and neutrons can be used for radiography. Differences of them and application materials can be different. In this study, the radiographic techniques are determined with application parameters according to materials of the artifacts, and some interesting examples are given. Therefore, investigation of the artifacts can be realized for definition of physical properties, manufacturing techniques and quality controls of them easily by the application of the radiography. (author)

  1. Did ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine evolve in the modern period? A paleopathologic study of ancient human skeletons in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukuda, S; Inoue, K; Nakai, M; Katayama, K

    2000-11-01

    To investigate the historical origins of ligamentous ossifications of the spine in Japan. We studied skeletons of Jomonese of the period 5000-2300 years BP, of Japanese of the 17th-19th century Edo Period, and of Ainu of the 18th-20th century in Japan with special emphasis on spinal ligament ossifications as in the posterior longitudinal ligament. A comparison to our previous study on ancient Chinese skeletons was done. Cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) was the only ossification that increased significantly in prevalence in people of the near-modern period in comparison to the Neolithic gathering-hunting people. Socioeconomic changes from a subsistence gathering-hunting economy to the near-modern livelihood depending on rice-eating and a diet high in vegetable protein are speculated to be responsible for the prevalence increase of cervical OPLL.

  2. Macroculture, Athletics and Democracy in ancient Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Economou, Emmanouel/Marios/Lazaros; Kyriazis, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    In the present essay we examine whether and how sports affected the emergence of democracy as a political phenomenon in Classical Greece. To achieve this we introduce in a model the concept of macroculture as a complex of mutually supporting values, norms and beliefs in various areas of human activity, like athletics, war, politics, etc. Then, we proceed through a historical review on the history of sports in Ancient Greece and we investigate various aspects of how and under which terms athle...

  3. Estimated erosion rate at the SRP burial ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, J.H.; Wilhite, E.L.

    1978-04-01

    The rate of soil erosion at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) burial ground can be calculated by means of the universal soil loss equation. Erosion rates estimated by the equation are more suitable for long-term prediction than those which could be measured with a reasonable effort in field studies. The predicted erosion rate at the SRP burial ground ranges from 0.0007 cm/year under stable forest cover to 0.38 cm/year if farmed with cultivated crops. These values correspond to 170,000 and 320 years, respectively, to expose waste buried 4 ft deep

  4. Ancient celtic horns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Murray

    2002-11-01

    There is considerable evidence from iconographic and documentary sources that musical lip-reed instruments were important in the early celtic communities of Scotland and Ireland. In recent years several studies have been undertaken with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the musical nature of these ancient horns, and of their place in the life and culture of the time. A valuable source of tangible evidence is to be found in the archaeological remains deposited across Scotland and the whole of Ireland. A project is now under way, under the auspices of the Kilmartin House Trust and the general direction of John Purser, which has brought together an international team of musicians, craftsmen, archaeologists, musicologists and physicists with the aim of analyzing ancient musical artifacts, reconstructing some of the original instruments, and analyzing the sounds they produce. This paper describes acoustical studies carried out on a number of recent reconstructions of wooden and bronze instruments, and discusses the role of acoustics in this type of investigation. [Work supported by Sciart and EPSRC.

  5. Exploring Ancient Skies A Survey of Ancient and Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H

    2011-01-01

    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers—events such as the supernova of 1054 A.D., the "lion horoscope," and the Star of Bethlehem. Explori...

  6. Kodamaea transpacifica f.a., sp. nov., a yeast species isolated from ephemeral flowers and insects in the Galapagos Islands and Malaysia: further evidence for ancient human transpacific contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Larissa F D; Carvajal Barriga, Enrique Javier; Barahona, Patricia Portero; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2013-11-01

    Twenty-four yeast strains were isolated from ephemeral flowers of Ipomoea spp. and Datura sp. and their associated insects in the Galápagos Archipelago, Ecuador, and from Ipomoea spp. and associated insects in the Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. Sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit rRNA gene indicated that these strains belong to a novel yeast species of the Kodamaea clade, although the formation of ascospores was not observed. The closest relative is Candida restingae. The human-mediated dispersion of this species by transpacific contacts in ancient times is suggested. The name Kodamaea transpacifica f.a., sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these isolates. The type strain is CLQCA-24i-070(T) ( = CBS 12823(T) = NCYC 3852(T)); MycoBank number MB 803609.

  7. Presentation of Andronovsky Costume in Museum Exposition (on materials from Lisakovsk burial mound of the Bronze Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usmanova Emma R.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article features an analysis of ancient weaving technologies and women's costume of the Andronovo culture dating back to the Bronze Age. It features a reconstruction of this costume executed by the author on the basis of the discovered remains of woven textile and headwear decoration discovered in burial grounds of Lisakovsk area in the first half of 2nd Millennium B.C. (Kazakhstan, Kostanay Region, Kisakovsk. The preservation of textile base allowed the author to experimentally produce copies of two women's headwear pieces and a vest. As a result, two types of braid adornments were discovrered among grave artifacts. The author substantiates several ideas related to the meaning of the signs and symbols on costume details. As a result of research, the author presents the semantics of headwear corresponding to Andronovo culture in the context of the symbolism of costumes belonging to the traditional peoples of Middle Eurasia.

  8. Ancient DNA and Forensics Mutual Benefits a Practical Sampling and Laboratory Guide Through a Virtual Ancient DNA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Cemper-Kiesslich

    2014-09-01

    In this review the authors give a general overview on the field of ancient DNA analysis focussing of the potentials and limits, fields of application, requirements for samples, laboratory setup, reaction design and equipment as well as a brief outlook on current developments, future perspectives and potential cross links with associated scientific disciplines. Key words: Human DNA, Ancient DNA, Forensic DNA typing, Molecular archaeology, Application.

  9. An Evaluation of the Historical Importance of Fertility and Its Reflection in Ancient Mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behjati-Ardakani, Zohreh; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Mahmoodzadeh, Homa; Hosseini, Seyed Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Myths are reflective of human concerns and needs during ancient times. By reviewing them, it turns out that many human problems today, have a historical background. Among the main themes of ancient mythologies, fertility and reproduction have various representations in ancient civilizations. The purpose of this paper was to review myths and common symbols of fertility and reproduction in ancient civilizations and evaluate the reasons of their continuous importance in different cultures. The data in this review study was obtained by scrutinizing the related literature. The gathered data indicated the multiplicity and variety of fertility symbols in ancient myths. Most ancient fertility symbols were inspired by the nature and some of them like earth and water were common in mythology of different civilizations. Therefore, the symbols consolidate the concept of conformity between human reproductive concerns and the nature's necessities.

  10. Molybdenum speciation and burial pathway in weakly sulfidic environments: Insights from XAFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Meghan; Chappaz, Anthony; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2017-06-01

    Sedimentary molybdenum (Mo) accumulation is a robust proxy for sulfidic conditions in both modern and ancient aquatic systems and has been used to infer changing marine redox chemistry throughout Earth’s history. Accurate interpretation of any proxy requires a comprehensive understanding of its biogeochemical cycling, but knowledge gaps remain concerning the geochemical mechanism(s) leading to Mo burial in anoxic sediments. Better characterization of Mo speciation should provide mechanistic insight into sedimentary Mo accumulation, and therefore in this study we investigate Mo speciation from both modern (Castle Lake, USA) and ancient (Doushantuo Formation, China) environments using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy. By utilizing a series of laboratory-synthesized oxythiomolybdate complexes—many containing organic ligands—we expand the number of available standards to encompass a greater range of known Mo chemistry and test the linkage between Mo and total organic carbon (TOC). In weakly euxinic systems ([H2S(aq)] < 11 µM), or where sulfide is restricted to pore waters, natural samples are best represented by a linear combination of MoO3, MoOxS4-x2- (intermediate thiomolybdates), and [MoOx(cat)4-x]2- (cat = catechol, x = 2 or 3). These results suggest a revised model for how Mo accumulates in weakly sulfidic sediments, including a previously unrecognized role for organic matter in early sequestration of Mo and a de-emphasized importance for MoS42- (tetrathiomolybdate).

  11. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliya Gounder Palanichamy

    Full Text Available Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade.

  12. Tamil Merchant in Ancient Mesopotamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanichamy, Malliya gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade. PMID:25299580

  13. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade.

  14. Mesolithic burial place in La Martina Cave (Dinant, Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewez, M.; Gilot, E.; Groessens-Van-Dyck, M.C.; Cordy, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The ''La Martina'' cave is located near Dinant (Belgium). Although the sediments had been shoveled out in the mid XIXth century, a calcic breccia has provided prehistoric bones. We can distinguish a Pleistocene fauna with cave bear, one Mesolithic burial place with two cromagnoid skeletons, from the 6th millennium BC, and some Holocene faunal remains. (authors). 7 refs

  15. The materiality of Funnelbeaker burial practice : Evidence from the microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijn, van, A.L.; Marreiros J, Bicho N, Gibaja, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Flint and amber artefacts from Dutch Funnelbeaker (3400-2900 cal BC) megaliths were examined from a biographical perspective, also involving microwear analysis. It is shown that both flint and amber contributed to the materiality of Funnelbeaker burial practices, which above all stressed the

  16. Scale and distribution of marine carbonate burial dissolution pores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjiang Shen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is gradually accepted that porosity can be created in burial settings via dissolution by organic acid; TSR derived or hydrothermal fluids. The role of deep-buried carbonate reservoirs is becoming more and more important since the degree and difficulty in petroleum exploration of shallow strata are increasing. A profound understanding of the development scale and prediction of the deep-buried carbonate reservoirs is economically crucial. In addition to the formation mechanism, scale and distribution of burial dissolution pores in burial settings are focused on in recent studies. This paper is based on case studies of deep-buried (>4500 m carbonate reservoirs from the Tarim Basin and Sichuan Basin. Case studies mentioned includes dissolution simulation experiments proposes that an open system is of crucial importance in the development of large-scale burial dissolution pores, the distribution pattern of which is controlled by lithology, pre-existing porosity, and pore throat structures. These findings provided the basis for evaluation and prediction of deep-buried carbonate reservoirs.

  17. Waste analysis plan for the low-level burial grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, C.R.

    1996-09-19

    This waste analysis plan (WAP) has been prepared for the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) which are located in the 200 East and West Areas of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to characterize, and obtain and analyze representative samples of waste managed at this unit.

  18. Waste analysis plan for the low-level burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    This waste analysis plan (WAP) has been prepared for the Low-Level Burial Grounds that are located in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to characterize and obtain and analyze representative samples of waste managed at this unit

  19. Redefining kin and family social relations: burial societies and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The omnipresence of death and dying in Botswana (due to the AIDS pandemic, social victimization, road-related carnage and so on), does not necessarily precipitate despondency; instead it underwrites commitments by members of burial societies to new sensibilities and to imaginative interventions that regenerate, rather ...

  20. Chemical and Mechanical processes during burial diagenesis of chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borre, Mai Kirstine; Lind, Ida

    1998-01-01

    Burial diagenesis of chalk is a combination of mechanical compaction and chemical recrystallization as well as cementation. We have predicted the characteristic trends in specific surface resulting from these processes. The specific surface is normally measured by nitrogen adsorption but is here...

  1. Radiocarbon dating and compositional analysis of pre-Columbian human bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, E.; Solís, C.; Canto, C.E.; Lucio, O.G. de; Chavez, E.; Rocha, M.F.; Villanueva, O.; Torreblanca, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of ancient human bones found in “El Cóporo”, an archaeological site in Guanajuato, Mexico; were performed using a multi techniques scheme: 14 C radiocarbon dating, IBA (Ion Beam Analysis), SEM-EDS (Scanning Electron Microscope Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy). We measured the elemental composition of the bones, especially some with a superficial black pigmentation. Soil samples collected from the burial place were also analyzed. The 14 C dating was performed with a new High Voltage Europe 1 MV Tandentron Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) recently installed in the IFUNAM (Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México). The radiocarbon dating allowed us to determine the date of death of the individual in a period between the year 890 and 975 AD, which is consistent with the late period of the Cóporo civilization. The element sample analysis of bones with the surface black pigmentation show higher levels of Fe, Mn and Ba compared when bone’s black surface was mechanically removed. These three elements were found in soil samples from the skeleton burial place. These results indicate more likely that the bone black coloration is due to a postmortem alteration occurring in the burial environment

  2. Radiocarbon dating and compositional analysis of pre-Columbian human bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, E., E-mail: andrade@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México D.F. (Mexico); Solís, C.; Canto, C.E.; Lucio, O.G. de [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México D.F. (Mexico); Chavez, E. [ESIME-Z, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ALM Zacatenco, 07738 México D.F. (Mexico); Rocha, M.F.; Villanueva, O.; Torreblanca, C.A. [Centro INAH Zacatecas, Miguel Auza No. 205, Col. Centro, Zacatecas/Zacatecas CP 98000 (Mexico)

    2014-08-01

    Analysis of ancient human bones found in “El Cóporo”, an archaeological site in Guanajuato, Mexico; were performed using a multi techniques scheme: {sup 14}C radiocarbon dating, IBA (Ion Beam Analysis), SEM-EDS (Scanning Electron Microscope Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy). We measured the elemental composition of the bones, especially some with a superficial black pigmentation. Soil samples collected from the burial place were also analyzed. The {sup 14}C dating was performed with a new High Voltage Europe 1 MV Tandentron Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) recently installed in the IFUNAM (Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México). The radiocarbon dating allowed us to determine the date of death of the individual in a period between the year 890 and 975 AD, which is consistent with the late period of the Cóporo civilization. The element sample analysis of bones with the surface black pigmentation show higher levels of Fe, Mn and Ba compared when bone’s black surface was mechanically removed. These three elements were found in soil samples from the skeleton burial place. These results indicate more likely that the bone black coloration is due to a postmortem alteration occurring in the burial environment.

  3. Ancient Chinese Sundials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kehui

    Timekeeping was essential in the agricultural society of ancient China. The use of sundials for timekeeping was associated with the use of the gnomon, which had its origin in remote antiquity. This chapter studies three sundials (guiyi 晷仪) from the Qin and Han dynasties, the shorter shadow plane sundial (duanying ping yi 短影平仪) invented by Yuan Chong in the Sui Dynasty, and the sundial chart (guiyingtu 晷影图) invented by Zeng Minxing in the Southern Song dynasty. This chapter also introduces Guo Shoujing's hemispherical sundial (yang yi 仰仪). A circular stone sundial discovered at the Small Wild Goose Pagoda in Xi'an is also mentioned. It is dated from the Sui and Tang dynasties. A brief survey of sundials from the Qing dynasty shows various types of sundials.

  4. Ancient Greek new music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Žužek

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I use a contextual approach to questions about the revolutionary »new music« in ancient Greece. This view is different from the nowadays most common formalistk view. Rather than analyze textual sources stylistically, I will try to present the available lata in the context of the structure and events of the Athenian society at a tirne when a wave of »new« poetics appeared. In the following discussion it is argued that the »new music« and the phenomena of the destruction of mousiké connected with it are not an esthetical novum, but more a consequence of the change of the discursive practice, where a musical poetry became less important and needless.

  5. Characterization of Ancient Tripitaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. X. Gong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tripitaka is the world’s most comprehensive version of Buddhist sutra. There are limited numbers of Tripitaka currently preserved, most of them present various patterns of degradation. As little is known about the materials and crafts used in Tripitaka, it appeared necessary to identify them, and to further define adapted conservation treatment. In this work, a study concerning the paper source and dyestuff of the Tripitaka from approximate 16th century was carried out using fiber analysis and thin-layer chromatography (TLC. The results proved that the papers were mainly made from hemp or bark of mulberry tree, and indigo was used for colorizing the paper. At the end, we provide with suggestions for protecting and restoring the ancient Tripitaka.

  6. 25 CFR 20.326 - Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.326 Does Burial Assistance... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs? 20.326... because of extenuating circumstances, the social services worker can pay the added charge. To do this, the...

  7. Environmental analysis burial of offsite low-level waste at SRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poe, W.L.; Moyer, R.A.

    1980-12-01

    The environmental effects of receipt and burial of low-level naval waste generated at Department of Energy Laboratories are assessed in this environmental analysis. Through 1979, this low-level DOE waste was sent to the NRC-licensed burial ground operated by Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc., at Barnwell, South Carolina. DOE announced on October 26, 1979, that DOE-generated low-level waste would no longer be buried at commercial waste burial sites. SRP was selected to receive the naval waste described in this analysis. Receipt and burial of these wastes will have a negligible effect on SRP's environment and increase only slightly the environmental effects of the SRP operations discussed in the EIS on SRP waste management operations. The environmental effects of burial of this waste at Chem-Nuclear Burial Ground or at the SRP Burial Ground are described in this environmental analysis to permit assessment of incremental effects caused by the decision to bury this naval waste in the SRP Burial Ground rather than in the Barnwell Burial Ground. The radiological effects from burial of this waste in either the SRP or Chem-Nuclear Burial Ground are very small when compared to those from natural background radiation or to the annual population dose commitment from operation of SRP. The environmental effects of burial at SRP to dose commitments normally received by the population surrounding SRP are compared

  8. Funeral dress and textiles in 17th and 19th century burials in Ostrobothnia, Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipkin, S.; Vajanto, K.; Kallio-Seppä, T.; Kuokkanen, T.; Niinimäki, S.; Väre, T.; van Bommel, M.; Grömer, K.; Pritchard, F.

    2015-01-01

    The 17th-19th-century burial materials from northern Ostrobothnia are studied in order to consider the value, origin and meaning of textiles especially in child burials. The focus is on the preservation, quality and dyes of burial textiles unearthed at the yard of Oulu Cathedral as well as the

  9. The Sociological Essence of Music in Burial: An Analysis of Akwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The type of research methodology to be used in this paper would involve interviews and critical analysis on Akwa Oke-Nwanyi songs on some selected burials. This paper therefore looked at the sociological essence of burial music by taking a critical analysis of Akwa-Oke Nwaanyi. Key Word: Music in Burials; Akwa ...

  10. Not by human seed but born from above to become children of God: Johannine metaphor of the family or ancient science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. Draper

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a critical reflection on Jan van der Watt’s theory of the network of the metaphor of the family in John’s Gospel, taking the Johannine understanding of the seed as a case study. In his reflections on God’s act of creation, Philo uses the language of impregnation and (rebirth of the natural man by his divine seed to produce children of virtue for those who open themselves to divine wisdom. His Middle-Platonic construction is unlikely to have been understood as ‘absurd, irrelevant or untrue’, which characterises a metaphor in Van der Watt’s definition. The discourse on the relationship between seed/sperm and life reflects ancient ‘scientific’ understanding of the world for Philo and John’s Gospel. This article analyses the connections and differences between Philo’s conception and the mysticism of John’s understanding of rebirth from above as contrasted with ‘natural’ birth.

  11. Sarmatian Burials Near the Astanino Village in the Eastern Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kropotov Viktor Valeryevich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article contains the materials of two Sarmatian burials that had been studied in 1966-1967 years by the Kerch expedition of Institute of Archeology of Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (the chief of expedition – A.M. Leskov in the Astanino village in the Eastern Crimea. These burials had been made on small depth in embankments of barrows of the bronze epoch, therefore it is not possible to track contours of funeral constructions. The dead were laid on their backs, heads turned to the North and the North-West. The utensils buried in the same tombs included two ceramic gray-clay pelikes, two gray-clay bowls, a red-gloss vessel, a red-clay pottery, a set of glass and cornelian beads, and the Egyptian faience beads. These things allow to exactly date the investigated complexes within the second half of the 1st century BC – the beginnings of the 1st century AD. The main distinctive characteristics of Early-Sarmatian burials of Northern Pontic region consist in the use of already existing barrows for burial places, orientations of the dead in the Northern sector, the insignificant depth of burials. Therefore published monuments should be also referred to them. A small number of such complexes with their distribution on the quite big territory between the Don and Dnepr rivers testify to the low density of the nomadic population at that time. The antique sources of the end of the 2nd – 1st centuries BC mention the presence of Roxolani in the given region. The described complexes supplement our poor knowledge of Sarmatian antiquities of the Eastern Crimea and specify the direct contacts of nomads of Northern Pontic region to the antique centers, in immediate proximity from which they had been located.

  12. Middle Palaeolithic burial is not a dead issue: the view from Qafzeh, Saint-Césaire, Kebara, Amud, and Dederiyeh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargett, R H

    1999-07-01

    Inferences of purposeful Middle Palaeolithic (MP) burial are almost universally accepted, despite published arguments that the pre-1960s discoveries are equally well explained by natural processes. In the modern human origins debate (perhaps the most hotly disputed question in palaeoanthropology) inferences of MP burial are crucial in arguments for an early Upper Pleistocene emergence of modern humans. The present paper contributed to that debate by re-examining a number of post-1960s excavations of MP hominid remains. Because these were excavated with meticulous attention to depositional circumstances and stratigraphic context, most palaeoanthropologists consider these inferences of purposeful burial to be based on irrefutable evidence. This paper focuses on the reasoning behind such claims, especially the assumption that articulated sketetal material is prima facie evidence for deliberate burial. First it reviews a range of processes operating in caves and rockshelters that condition the probability of articulated skeletal material preserving without hominid intervention. Processes such as deposition, decomposition, and disturbance are inherently more variable in caves and rockshelters than is usually acknowledged. The first section concludes that purposeful protection is not necessary to account for the preservation of articulated skeletal remains. The second part of the paper examines the published record from Qafzeh, Saint-Césaire, Kebara, Amud and Dederiyeh, where the majority of the remains claimed to have been buried are fragmented, incomplete, and disarticulated. This re-examination suggests that in all of the post-1960s cases of putative burial, the hominid remains occur in special depositional circumstances, which by themselves are sufficient to account for the preservation in evidence at these sites. This conclusion severely weakens arguments for purposeful burial at the five sites. Moreover, the equivocal nature of the evidence in the more recent

  13. A decision support system for the reading of ancient documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roued-Cunliffe, Henriette

    2011-01-01

    ). The thesis balances between the use of IT tools to aid Humanities research and the understanding that Humanities research must involve human beings. It does not attempt to develop a system that can automate the reading of ancient documents. Instead it seeks to demonstrate and develop tools that can support......The research presented in this thesis is based in the Humanities discipline of Ancient History and begins by attempting to understand the interpretation process involved in reading ancient documents and how this process can be aided by computer systems such as Decision Support Systems (DSS...... this process in the five areas: remembering complex reasoning, searching huge datasets, international collaboration, publishing editions, and image enhancement. This research contains a large practical element involving the development of a DSS prototype. The prototype is used to illustrate how a DSS...

  14. Widespread mixing and burial of Earth's Hadean crust by asteroid impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, S; Bottke, W F; Elkins-Tanton, L T; Bierhaus, M; Wuennemann, K; Morbidelli, A; Kring, D A

    2014-07-31

    The history of the Hadean Earth (∼4.0-4.5 billion years ago) is poorly understood because few known rocks are older than ∼3.8 billion years old. The main constraints from this era come from ancient submillimetre zircon grains. Some of these zircons date back to ∼4.4 billion years ago when the Moon, and presumably the Earth, was being pummelled by an enormous flux of extraterrestrial bodies. The magnitude and exact timing of these early terrestrial impacts, and their effects on crustal growth and evolution, are unknown. Here we provide a new bombardment model of the Hadean Earth that has been calibrated using existing lunar and terrestrial data. We find that the surface of the Hadean Earth was widely reprocessed by impacts through mixing and burial by impact-generated melt. This model may explain the age distribution of Hadean zircons and the absence of early terrestrial rocks. Existing oceans would have repeatedly boiled away into steam atmospheres as a result of large collisions as late as about 4 billion years ago.

  15. Anticancer activity of botanical compounds in ancient fermented beverages (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, P E; Christofidou-Solomidou, M; Wang, W; Dukes, F; Davidson, T; El-Deiry, W S

    2010-07-01

    Humans around the globe probably discovered natural remedies against disease and cancer by trial and error over the millennia. Biomolecular archaeological analyses of ancient organics, especially plants dissolved or decocted as fermented beverages, have begun to reveal the preliterate histories of traditional pharmacopeias, which often date back thousands of years earlier than ancient textual, ethnohistorical, and ethnological evidence. In this new approach to drug discovery, two case studies from ancient Egypt and China illustrate how ancient medicines can be reconstructed from chemical and archaeological data and their active compounds delimited for testing their anticancer and other medicinal effects. Specifically, isoscopoletin from Artemisia argyi, artemisinin from Artemisia annua, and the latter's more easily assimilated semi-synthetic derivative, artesunate, showed the greatest activity in vitro against lung and colon cancers. In vivo tests of these compounds previously unscreened against lung and pancreatic cancers are planned for the future.

  16. A Study on Generic Representation of Skeletal Remains Replication of Prehistoric Burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-W. Shao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Generic representation of skeletal remains from burials consists of three dimensions which include physical anthropologists, replication technicians, and promotional educators. For the reason that archaeological excavation is irreversible and disruptive, detail documentation and replication technologies are surely needed for many purposes. Unearthed bones during the process of 3D digital scanning need to go through reverse procedure, 3D scanning, digital model superimposition, rapid prototyping, mould making, and the integrated errors generated from the presentation of colours and textures are important issues for the presentation of replicate skeleton remains among professional decisions conducted by physical anthropologists, subjective determination of makers, and the expectations of viewers. This study presents several cases and examines current issues on display and replication technologies for human skeletal remains of prehistoric burials. This study documented detail colour changes of human skeleton over time for the reference of reproduction. The tolerance errors of quantification and required technical qualification is acquired according to the precision of 3D scanning, the specification requirement of rapid prototyping machine, and the mould making process should following the professional requirement for physical anthropological study. Additionally, the colorimeter is adopted to record and analyse the “colour change” of the human skeletal remains from wet to dry condition. Then, the “colure change” is used to evaluate the “real” surface texture and colour presentation of human skeletal remains, and to limit the artistic presentation among the human skeletal remains reproduction. The“Lingdao man No.1”, is a well preserved burial of early Neolithic period (8300 B.P. excavated from Liangdao-Daowei site, Matsu, Taiwan , as the replicating object for this study. In this study, we examined the reproduction procedures step by

  17. Apotropaic Practices and the Undead: A Biogeochemical Assessment of Deviant Burials in Post-Medieval Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoricka, Lesley A.; Betsinger, Tracy K.; Scott, Amy B.; Polcyn, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Apotropaic observances-traditional practices intended to prevent evil-were not uncommon in post-medieval Poland, and included specific treatment of the dead for those considered at risk for becoming vampires. Excavations at the Drawsko 1 cemetery (17th–18th c. AD) have revealed multiple examples (n = 6) of such deviant burials amidst hundreds of normative interments. While historic records describe the many potential reasons why some were more susceptible to vampirism than others, no study has attempted to discern differences in social identity between individuals within standard and deviant burials using biogeochemical analyses of human skeletal remains. The hypothesis that the individuals selected for apotropaic burial rites were non-local immigrants whose geographic origins differed from the local community was tested using radiogenic strontium isotope ratios from archaeological dental enamel. 87Sr/86Sr ratios ( = 0.7112±0.0006, 1σ) from the permanent molars of 60 individuals reflect a predominantly local population, with all individuals interred as potential vampires exhibiting local strontium isotope ratios. These data indicate that those targeted for apotropaic practices were not migrants to the region, but instead, represented local individuals whose social identity or manner of death marked them with suspicion in some other way. Cholera epidemics that swept across much of Eastern Europe during the 17th century may provide one alternate explanation as to the reason behind these apotropaic mortuary customs, as the first person to die from an infectious disease outbreak was presumed more likely to return from the dead as a vampire. PMID:25427197

  18. Analysis of ancient silver coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flament, Christophe; Marchetti, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Writing from the numismatist point of view, the authors open this paper by reviewing critically the use of scientific methods for the studies of ancient coins. They also report about an application of the PIXE method at low incident proton energy to one of the most celebrated and known coinage in the ancient history: the Athenian silver coins of the fifth century BC. The results of those analyses indicate that the metallic composition of several coins usually taken as ancient imitations of Athenian coins does not differ from that of the genuine ones. Those analyses confirm what the authors have inferred from numismatic sources: These coins are probably genuinely Athenian

  19. Late Sarmatian Elite Military Burial From the Southern Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivosheev Mikhail Vasilyevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the burial of a warrior of Late Sarmatian time from the Southern Urals. The complex from mound no. 4 of the burial mound Taksai I is distinguished by large size of barrow and grave. The reconstructed height of the mound was less than 2 meters. The depth of the burial pit was more than 3 meters. For Late Sarmatian culture such dimensions of sepulchral structures are unique. Under the mound the ritual platform from mainland soil was discovered. The found inventory of a warrior-rider included: horse bridle, a set of bladed weapons consisting of a long sword, dagger and knife, as well as a small bronze cauldron. Analysis of inventory allows us to date this burial to the second half of the 3rd century A.D. This burial belongs to an elite funerary complexes of Late Sarmatian culture and is a burial of professional warriors. This social stratum was formed in Late Sarmatian society at the end of the 2nd - first half of the 3rd century A.D. Most of these graves are dating back to the first half of the 3rd century A.D and were found in the Low Don and in the Volga region. The situation in these regions changed in that period due to the invasion of the tribes of the North-Caucasian origin. Their occurrence is associated with the destruction of the Tanais in the Lower Don region and the spread of graves in the T-shaped catacombs in the steppe monuments. The tradition of burying warriors-horsemen of high social status almost disappears in the Volga-Don steppes after the middle of 3rd century A.D. In the Southern Urals where these processes had an indirect influence, the existence of traditional hierarchies of Late Sarmatian society could continue until the end of the 3rd century A.D. Among the parts of a horse bridle the researchers discovered bronze B-shape buckle. These buckles are widely distributed in the 4th-5th centuries A.D. in the basin of the Kama river and the Danube river. The found buckle is the earliest currently known

  20. Ancient history of flatfish research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghahn, Rüdiger; Bennema, Floris Pieter

    2013-01-01

    Owing to both their special appearance and behavior flatfish have attracted the special attention of people since ages. The first records of humans having been in touch with flatfish date back to the Stone Age about 15,000 years B.C. Detailed descriptions were already given in the classical antiquity and were taken up 1400 years later in the Renaissance by the first ichthyologists, encyclopédists, and also by practical men. This was more than 200 years before a number of common flatfish species were given their scientific names by Linnaeus in 1758. Besides morphology, remarkable and sometimes amusing naturalistic observations and figures are bequeathed. Ancient history of flatfish research is still a wide and open array. Examples are presented how the yield of information and interpretation from these times increases with interdisciplinary cooperation including archeologists, zoologists, ichthyologists, historians, art historians, fisheries and fishery biologist. The timeline of this contribution ends with the start of modern fishery research at the end of the 19th century in the course of the rapidly increasing exploitation of fish stocks.

  1. Project work Is the Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome really the Cradle of European Civilization?

    OpenAIRE

    Hvastija, Darka; Kos, Jasna

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the project for 15-year-old students with the title Ancient Greece and Rome and the sub-title Is the Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome really the Cradle of European Civilization? is introduced. It shows how to connect mathematics with art, history, physics, geography and philosophy by studying ancient Greek scientists and their achievements. Collaborative teaching is introduced. The major aim of the project was to show mathematics as a part of human civilization and to follow...

  2. Cosmologies of the ancient Mediterranean world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Fitzgerald

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cosmology is concerned with the order of the universe and seeks to provide an account, not only of that order, but also of the mind or reason behind it. In antiquity, the cosmos was usually understood religiously, such that the cosmologies of the ancient Mediterranean world were either religious in nature or constituted a reaction to a religiously conceived understanding of the structures of the universe. The oldest form in which ancient cosmologies occur is myth, which, owing to its elasticity as a form, enabled them to be appropriated, adapted and used by different groups. In addition, different cosmologies co-existed within the same ancient culture, each having an authoritative status. This article provides an introductory overview of these cosmological myths and argues that a comparative approach is the most fruitful way to study them. Emphasis is given to certain prominent cosmological topics, including theogony (the genesis of the divine or the relationship of the divine to the cosmos, cosmogony (the genesis of the cosmos, and anthropogony (the origin of humans within the cosmos. Although these myths vary greatly in terms of content and how they envision the origin of the cosmos, many of them depict death as part of the structure of the universe.

  3. Ancient and Current Chaos Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güngör Gündüz

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Chaos theories developed in the last three decades have made very important contributions to our understanding of dynamical systems and natural phenomena. The meaning of chaos in the current theories and in the past is somewhat different from each other. In this work, the properties of dynamical systems and the evolution of chaotic systems were discussed in terms of the views of ancient philosophers. The meaning of chaos in Anaximenes’ philosophy and its role in the Ancient natural philosophy has been discussed in relation to other natural philosophers such as of Anaximander, Parmenides, Heraclitus, Empedocles, Leucippus (i.e. atomists and Aristotle. In addition, the fundamental concepts of statistical mechanics and the current chaos theories were discussed in relation to the views in Ancient natural philosophy. The roots of the scientific concepts such as randomness, autocatalysis, nonlinear growth, information, pattern, etc. in the Ancient natural philosophy were investigated.

  4. Simulations of long-term health risk from shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.A.; Fields, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    PRESTO (Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations) is a computer code developed under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funding to evaluate possible health effects from shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes. The model is intended to assess radionuclide transport, ensuing exposure, and health impact to a static local population for up to 1000 years following the end of burial operations. Human exposure scenarios that may be considered by model include normal releases (including leaching and operational spillage), human intrusion, and near site farming. Pathways and processes of transit from the trench to an individual or population include:groundwater transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, resuspension, atmospheric transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, resuspension, atmospheric transport, deposition, inhalation, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water. Off-site population and individual doses and cancer risks may be calculated as well as doses and risks to the intruder and farmer. Data have been compiled for three extant shallow land burial sites: Barnwell, South Carolina; Beatty, Nevada; and West Valley, New York. Some simulation results for the Barnwell site are presented. 13 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  5. Ecological Wisdom and Inspiration Underlying the Planning and Construction of Ancient Human Settlements: Case Study of Hongcun UNESCO World Heritage Site in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanwen Zheng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Human settlements are social-economic-natural complex ecosystems centered on human activities and the most prominent site for the contradictions between humans and the environment. Taking Hongcun, a UNESCO World Heritage site in China, as an example, this paper analyzes the methods and effect of coupling man and nature in Hongcun, summarizes the ecological wisdom of dealing with the relationship between human and nature, and uses this wisdom to shed light on the planning, construction, and management of contemporary urban and rural settlements. Firstly, the study introduces the Human-Natural Intergraded Ecological Planning (HNIEP model’s hypothesis, explaining its foundation and potential principles or approaches. Secondly, using the case study of Hongcun to explain, support, and validate the HNIEP model and its framework, the study found that the unique planning and construction of Hongcun has greatly promoted ecosystem services, such as local microclimate regulation, rainwater runoff regulation, water conservation, landscape aesthetic, and engagement with nature. Thirdly, Hongcun reflects the concept of harmonious coexistence between human and nature, the wisdom of rational use of ecosystem structures, processes and functions, and the wisdom of coupling human activities with the living environment and natural ecosystem. Finally, the paper summarizes the enlightenment brought by both the HNIEP model and Hongcun wisdom to contemporary urban-rural planning and construction management.

  6. Shallow ground burial of low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilleri, A.; Cooper, M.B.; Hargrave, N.J.; Munslow-Davies, L.

    1989-01-01

    Acceptance criteria for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes are presented for adoption throughout Australia, a continent in which there are readily available areas in arid, sparsely inhabited places, likely to be suitable as sites for shallow ground burial. Drawing upon overseas practices and experiences, criteria have been developed for low-level waste disposal and are intended to be applicable and relevant to the Australian situation. Concentration levels have been derived for a shallow ground burial facility assuming a realistic institutional control period of 200 years. A comparison is made between this period and institutional control for 100 years and 300 years. Longer institutional control periods enable the acceptance of higher concentrations of radionuclides of intermediate half-lives. Scenarios, which have been considered, include current Australian pastoral practices and traditional Aboriginal occupancy. The derived radionuclide concentration levels for the disposal of low level wastes are not dissimilar to those developed in other countries. 17 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  7. Isotopically zoned carbonate cements in Early Paleozoic sandstones of the Illinois Basin: δ18O and δ13C records of burial and fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Adam C.; Kozdon, Reinhard; Kitajima, Kouki; Valley, John W.

    2017-11-01

    SEM/SIMS imaging and analysis of δ18O and δ13C in sandstones from a transect through the Illinois Basin (USA) show systematic μm-scale isotopic zonation of up to 10‰ in both carbonate and quartz cements of the middle-Ordovician St. Peter and Cambrian Mt. Simon formations. Quartz δ18O values are broadly consistent with the model of Hyodo et al. (2014), wherein burial and heating in the Illinois Basin is recorded in systematically zoned quartz overgrowths. Observations of zoned dolomite/ankerite cements indicate that they preserve a more extended record of temperature and fluid compositions than quartz, including early diagenesis before or during shallow burial, and late carbonates formed after quartz overgrowths. Many carbonate cements show innermost dolomite with δ18O values (21-25‰ VSMOW) that are too low to have formed by deposition at low temperatures from ancient seawater (δ18O > - 3‰) and most likely reflect mixing with meteoric water. A sharp increase in Fe content is commonly observed in zoned carbonate cements to be associated with a drop in δ18O and an abrupt shift in δ13C to higher or lower values. These changes are interpreted to record the passage of hot metal-rich brines through sandstone aquifers, that was associated with Mississippi-Valley Type (MVT) Pb-Zn deposits (ca. 270 Ma) of the Upper Mississippi Valley. Local variability and individual trends in δ13C are likely controlled by the sources of carbon and the degree to which carbon is sourced from adjacent carbonate units or thermal maturation of organic matter. Quartz overgrowths in sandstones provide an excellent record of conditions during burial, heating, and pressure-solution, whereas carbonate cements in sandstones preserve a more-extended record including initial pre-burial conditions and punctuated fluid flow events.

  8. Development of waste unit for use in shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodersen, K.

    1986-01-01

    A hexagonal waste unit has been developed for use in shallow land burial of low- and medium-level radioactive waste. The waste units used as overpack on empty standard 210 1 drums have been tested for tightness and mechanical resistance. Experimental burial of 21 empty full-size units has demonstrated the emplacement of the containers and the sealing of the crevises between them with molten bitumen. The development of the experimental burial with time is being followed. Three different conceptual designs for advanced burial systems using the hexagonal standard units are described. The outer barrier is a thick concrete structure covered by 2, 10 or 20 m soil, respectively. The waste units were cast from a normal high-quality concrete as well as from Densit, a new, very strong and impermeable type of concrete prepared by the combined use of silica-fume (microsilica) and a superplastizicer as additives. The migration of Cl - , Cs + and tritiated water was found to be much slower in Densit than in normal concrete. In combination with leaching measurements for Cs + from the same materials the results are used to present some theoretical considerations concerning transport through solution-filled pore systems as dependent on pore-size distribution, tortuosity, etc. A method based on neutron-activated cement cast in form of thin plates has been developed and used to study the dissolution chemistry of concrete. A preliminary model is presented. Indications for precipitation mechanisms were obtained. Densit was demonstrated to ensure a high degree of corrosion protection for steel reinforcement. The reason is mainly the high electrical resistivity combined with low diffusive transport in the material. The pozzolanic reaction results in somewhat lower pH in the pore water than in normal concrete, but the effect is not so pronounced that the passivation of steel reinforcement is endangered

  9. Touchstones from early medieval burials in Tuna in Alsike, Sweden

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, February (2014), s. 422-429 ISSN 0305-4403 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M300021203 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Early Middle Ages * Viking Age * elite * boat burial * touchstone * precious metal * zinc * nickel Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 2.196, year: 2014

  10. Self-burial mechanics of hygroscopically responsive awns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Wonjong; Kim, Wonjung; Kim, Ho-Young

    2014-12-01

    We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the mechanics of self-burial of some plant seeds whose morphologies respond to environmental changes in humidity. The seeds of Erodium and Pelargonium have hygroscopically responsive awns that play a critical role in their self-burial into soil. The awn, coiled in a dry state, uncoils to stretch linearly under highly humid condition because of a tilted arrangement of cellulose microfibrils in one of the layers of the awn's bilayered structure. By measuring the mechanical characteristics of the awns of Pelargonium carnosum, we find that the extensional force of the awn can be aptly modeled by the theory of elasticity for a coiled spring. We further show that although the resistance to the seed-head penetrating relatively coarse soils without spinning is large enough to block the digging seed, the rotation of the seed greatly reduces the soil's resistance down to a level the awn can easily overcome. Our mechanical analysis reveals that the self-burial of the seed is a sophisticated outcome of the helically coiled configuration of the awn. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Examination of representative drum from 618-9 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, D.R.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1992-10-01

    The work described in this report was conducted in pursuance of Task E of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Solid Waste Technology Support Program for Westinghouse Hanford Company. Task E calls for a determination of the corrosion rate of low-carbon steels under typical Hanford Site conditions. To meet this objective, Pacific Northwest Laboratory examined one intact drum that was judged to be representative of the largely intact drums excavated at the 618-9 Burial Ground located west of the 300 Area at the Hanford Site. Six samples were examined to characterize the drum, its composition, and its corrosion and corrosion products. The drum, which was found empty, was constructed of low-carbon steel. Its surface appeared relatively sound. The drum metal varied in thickness, but the minimum thickness in the samples was near 0.020 in. The corrosion corresponds to approximately 25 to 35 mils of metal loss, roughly a 1 mil/yr corrosion rate. Corrosion products were goethite and maghymite, expected products of iron buried in soil. Apparently, the drum leaked some time ago, but the cause of the leakage is unknown because records of the drums and their burial are limited. The drum was empty when found, and it is possible that it could have failed by pitting rather than by general corrosion. A pitting rate of about 3.5 mils/yr would have caused loss of drum integrity in the time since burial

  12. Ground resistance influences lizard burial in dry and wet sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Sarah; Kuckuk, Robyn; Goldman, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Many terrestrial animals move within soil in which water content can vary, and little is known about how water content affects locomotor performance. To investigate the effect of water content on burial, we created controlled dry and wet substrates. We used 0.3 mm glass particles and varied water content W, the mass of water to mass of dry loosely packed sand. Drag force on a submerged 1.6 cm diameter rod increased by a factor of 4 as W increased from 0 to 0.03, after which force increases were small. Drag force in wet media periodically fluctuated with time and corresponded with surface fracturing. We characterized how W affected burial performance and strategy of a generalist burrower, the ocellated skink lizard (Chalcides ocellatus). High speed x-ray imaging was used to measure head, body and limb kinematics in substrates with W= 0 and W= 0.03. In both states during burial the body was maintained in a curved posture and the animal moved using a start-stop motion. During movement, the head oscillated and the forelimb on the convex side of the body was used to push the animal forward. Both speed and angular excursion of the head oscillation decreased in the W= 0.03 state. The differences in locomotion were attributed to the changing resistance force within the media.

  13. Did the ancient Egyptians migrate to ancient Nigeria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock M. Agai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Literatures concerning the history of West African peoples published from 1900 to 1970 debate�the possible migrations of the Egyptians into West Africa. Writers like Samuel Johnson and�Lucas Olumide believe that the ancient Egyptians penetrated through ancient Nigeria but Leo�Frobenius and Geoffrey Parrinder frowned at this opinion. Using the works of these early�20th century writers of West African history together with a Yoruba legend which teaches�about the origin of their earliest ancestor(s, this researcher investigates the theories that the�ancient Egyptians had contact with the ancient Nigerians and particularly with the Yorubas.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: There is an existing ideology�amongst the Yorubas and other writers of Yoruba history that the original ancestors of�the Yorubas originated in ancient Egypt hence there was migration between Egypt and�Yorubaland. This researcher contends that even if there was migration between Egypt and�Nigeria, such migration did not take place during the predynastic and dynastic period as�speculated by some scholars. The subject is open for further research.

  14. Surgical history of ancient China: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Louis

    2009-12-01

    Although surgery was an accepted and quite proficient craft very early on in Chinese history, it has deteriorated through the ages. Despite the fact that anaesthetic agents in major surgery were employed during the third century, Chinese surgery is conspicuous by its stagnation. Reverence for the dead, filial piety, abhorrence of shedding blood and other conservative attitudes make it impossible for any accurate knowledge of the human anatomy and physiology, without which surgery cannot progress. This article surveys some highlights in the history of surgery in ancient China and examines the factors responsible for its decline. The second concluding part deals with orthopaedics.

  15. Mathematical model quantifies multiple daylight exposure and burial events for rock surfaces using luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiesleben, Trine; Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew; Jain, Mayank; Al Khasawneh, Sahar; Hvidt, Søren; Jakobsen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of rock surfaces has increased significantly over the last few years, as the potential of the method has been explored. It has been realized that luminescence-depth profiles show qualitative evidence for multiple daylight exposure and burial events. To quantify both burial and exposure events a new mathematical model is developed by expanding the existing models of evolution of luminescence–depth profiles, to include repeated sequential events of burial and exposure to daylight. This new model is applied to an infrared stimulated luminescence-depth profile from a feldspar-rich granite cobble from an archaeological site near Aarhus, Denmark. This profile shows qualitative evidence for multiple daylight exposure and burial events; these are quantified using the model developed here. By determining the burial ages from the surface layer of the cobble and by fitting the new model to the luminescence profile, it is concluded that the cobble was well bleached before burial. This indicates that the OSL burial age is likely to be reliable. In addition, a recent known exposure event provides an approximate calibration for older daylight exposure events. This study confirms the suggestion that rock surfaces contain a record of exposure and burial history, and that these events can be quantified. The burial age of rock surfaces can thus be dated with confidence, based on a knowledge of their pre-burial light exposure; it may also be possible to determine the length of a fossil exposure, using a known natural light exposure as calibration. - Highlights: • Evidence for multiple exposure and burial events in the history of a single cobble. • OSL rock surface dating model improved to include multiple burial/exposure cycles. • Application of the new model quantifies burial and exposure events.

  16. Fast, accurate and automatic ancient nucleosome and methylation maps with epiPALEOMIX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanghøj, Kristian Ebbesen; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Schubert, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    The first epigenomes from archaic hominins (AH) and ancient anatomically modern humans (AMH) have recently been characterized, based, however, on a limited number of samples. The extent to which ancient genome-wide epigenetic landscapes can be reconstructed thus remains contentious. Here, we...

  17. The rise and decline of character: humoral psychology in ancient and early modern medical theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.

    2009-01-01

    Humoralism, the view that the human body is composed of a limited number of elementary fluids, is one of the most characteristic aspects of ancient medicine. The psychological dimension of humoral theory in the ancient world has thus far received a relatively small amount of scholarly attention.

  18. Analysis of nuclear and organellar genomes of Plasmodium knowlesi in humans reveals ancient population structure and recent recombination among host-specific subpopulations

    KAUST Repository

    Diez Benavente, Ernest

    2017-09-18

    The macaque parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is a significant concern in Malaysia where cases of human infection are increasing. Parasites infecting humans originate from genetically distinct subpopulations associated with the long-tailed (Macaca fascicularis (Mf)) or pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina (Mn)). We used a new high-quality reference genome to re-evaluate previously described subpopulations among human and macaque isolates from Malaysian-Borneo and Peninsular-Malaysia. Nuclear genomes were dimorphic, as expected, but new evidence of chromosomal-segment exchanges between subpopulations was found. A large segment on chromosome 8 originating from the Mn subpopulation and containing genes encoding proteins expressed in mosquito-borne parasite stages, was found in Mf genotypes. By contrast, non-recombining organelle genomes partitioned into 3 deeply branched lineages, unlinked with nuclear genomic dimorphism. Subpopulations which diverged in isolation have re-connected, possibly due to deforestation and disruption of wild macaque habitats. The resulting genomic mosaics reveal traits selected by host-vector-parasite interactions in a setting of ecological transition.

  19. Mitogenomic analyses from ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paijmans, Johanna L. A.; Gilbert, Tom; Hofreiter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of ancient DNA is playing an increasingly important role in conservation genetic, phylogenetic and population genetic analyses, as it allows incorporating extinct species into DNA sequence trees and adds time depth to population genetics studies. For many years, these types of DNA...... analyses (whether using modern or ancient DNA) were largely restricted to the analysis of short fragments of the mitochondrial genome. However, due to many technological advances during the past decade, a growing number of studies have explored the power of complete mitochondrial genome sequences...... (mitogenomes). Such studies were initially limited to analyses of extant organisms, but developments in both DNA sequencing technologies and general methodological aspects related to working with degraded DNA have resulted in complete mitogenomes becoming increasingly popular for ancient DNA studies as well...

  20. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-B-1, 105-B Solid Waste Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance criteria for the 118-B-1, 105-B Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-B Reactor and P-10 Tritium Separation Project and also received waste from the 105-N Reactor. The burial ground received reactor hardware, process piping and tubing, fuel spacers, glassware, electrical components, tritium process wastes, soft wastes and other miscellaneous debris

  1. GPR and bulk ground resistivity surveys in graveyards: locating unmarked burials in contrasting soil types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James D; Pringle, Jamie K; Goodwin, Jon

    2014-04-01

    With graveyards and cemeteries globally being increasingly designated as full, there is a growing need to identify unmarked burial positions to find burial space or exhume and re-inter if necessary. In some countries, for example the U.S. and U.K., burial sites are not usually re-used; however, most graveyard and cemetery records do not have maps of positions. One non-invasive detection method is near-surface geophysics, but there has been a lack of research to-date on optimal methods and/or equipment configuration. This paper presents three case studies in contrasting burial environments, soil types, burial styles and ages in the U.K. Geophysical survey results reveal unmarked burials could be effectively identified from these case studies that were not uniform or predicted using 225 MHz frequency antennae GPR 2D 0.5 m spaced profiles. Bulk ground electrical surveys, rarely used for unmarked burials, revealed 1 m probe spacings were optimal compared to 0.5 m, with datasets needing 3D detrending to reveal burial positions. Results were variable depending upon soil type; in very coarse soils GPR was optimal; whereas resistivity was optimal in clay-rich soils and both were optimal in sandy and black earth soils. Archaeological excavations revealed unmarked burials, extra/missing individuals from parish records and a variety of burial styles from isolated, brick-lined, to vertically stacked individuals. Study results, evidence unmarked burial targets were significantly different from clandestine burials of murder victims which are used as analogues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Exploring sustainable burial practices in South Africa: Potential challenges and opportunities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leuta, T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available ; Moreosele et al, 2011) and alternatives to traditional burial1 (Davids, 2011). Burial in South Africa remains the most popular end-of-life choice, and is by far the most commonly used by members of Islamic, Christian, Jewish and traditional African faiths... provides challenges due to insufficient suitable and affordable land for future burial needs. For this method to become a more culturally- acceptable practice it requires education and publicity of the choices and implications (including costs) regarding...

  3. Authenticity in ancient DNA studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske

    2006-01-01

    Ancient DNA studies represent a powerful tool that can be used to obtain genetic insights into the past. However, despite the publication of large numbers of apparently successful ancient DNA studies, a number of problems exist with the field that are often ignored. Therefore, questions exist...... as to how reliable the conclusions of many of the published studies are. In this paper we outline first the problems associated with aDNA studies, and secondly present potential guidelines designed so as to enable non-specialist readers the opportunity to critically assess the quality of aDNA publications....

  4. Biomass burial and storage to reduce atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, N.

    2012-04-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a theoretical carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC/y, but probably 1-3 GtC/y can be realized in practice. Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other environmental concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from forest industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be 14/tCO2 (50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The low cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is possible because the technique uses the natural process of photosynthesis to remove carbon from the atmosphere. The technique is low tech, distributed, safe, and can be stopped at any time, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  5. Shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, J.B.; Jacobs, D.G.; Lee, D.W.

    1986-02-01

    The performance objectives included in regulations for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (10 CFR 61 for commercial waste and DOE Order 5820.2 for defense waste) are generic principles that generate technical requirements which must be factored into each phase of the development and operation of a shallow land burial facility. These phases include a determination of the quantity and characteristics of the waste, selection of a site and appropriate facility design, use of sound operating practices, and closure of the facility. The collective experience concerning shallow land burial operations has shown that achievement of the performance objectives (specifically, waste isolation and radionuclide containment) requires a systems approach, factoring into consideration the interrelationships of the phases of facility development and operation and their overall impact on performance. This report presents the technical requirements and procedures for the development and operation of a shallow land burial facility for low-level radioactive waste. The systems approach is embodied in the presentation. The report is not intended to be an instruction manual; rather, emphasis is placed on understanding the technical requirements and knowing what information and analysis are needed for making informed choices to meet them. A framework is developed for using the desired site characteristics to locate potentially suitable sites. The scope of efforts necessary for characterizing a site is then described and the range of techniques available for site characterization is identified. Given the natural features of a site, design options for achieving the performance objectives are discussed, as are the operating practices, which must be compatible with the design. Site closure is presented as functioning to preserve the containment and isolation provided at earlier stages of the development and operation of the facility

  6. Ancient Embalming Techneques Amongst The Ogoni Tribe In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Embalming is the art and science of temporary preserving human remains to forestall decomposition. It was first practiced by the ancient Egyptians dating back to 4000BC. This research was carried out to study the traditional method of embalmment by the Ogonis, a tribe in the Southern part of Nigeria. A total of 140 elders ...

  7. Worlds full of signs. Ancient Greek divination in context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerden, Kim

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation compares divination in ancient Greece to divinatory practices in Republican Rome and Neo-Assyrian Mesopotamia. Divination is the human production and interpretation of signs which were thought to have come from the supernatural – the signs could be concerned with past, present or

  8. The Ethical Power of Music: Ancient Greek and Chinese Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhwen

    2004-01-01

    Both the ancient Chinese and Greeks from around the fifth century B.C. to around third century A.D. recognized the immense impact that music has on the development of one's personality, and both regarded it as crucial in the cultivation of proper disposition in youth. Music's power over one's ethos--that is, human disposition--was emphasized by…

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Ethics and surgical training in ancient India ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-03-01

    Mar 1, 2008 ... Diseases and ailments have afflicted humanity since antediluvian times. Man's response in treating disease and, on occasion, finding its cause has been synonymous with the evolution of society, no matter how ancient. Therefore, medicine as we know it today is as old as Man, and must have developed ...

  10. Continuous Monitoring of Mobility, Burial and Re exposure of Underwater Munitions in Energetic Near Shore Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    to planning remediation efforts. In sandy, energetic, nearshore environments, the migration , burial, and reexposure processes all have the...8 Theory ...31 Discussion of Theory and Hydrodynamic Forcing

  11. Mathematical model quantifies multiple daylight exposure and burial events for rock surfaces using luminescence dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiesleben, Trine Holm; Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    luminescence-depth profile from a feldspar-rich granite cobble from an archaeological site near Aarhus, Denmark. This profile shows qualitative evidence for multiple daylight exposure and burial events; these are quantified using the model developed here. By determining the burial ages from the surface layer...... of the cobble and by fitting the new model to the luminescence profile, it is concluded that the cobble was well bleached before burial. This indicates that the OSL burial age is likely to be reliable. In addition, a recent known exposure event provides an approximate calibration for older daylight exposure...

  12. [Historical and biological approaches to the study of Modern Age French plague mass burials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianuccii, Raffaella; Tzortzis, Stéfan; Fornaciari, Gino; Signoli, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The "Black Death" and subsequent epidemics from 1346 to the early 18th century spread from the Caspian Sea all over Europe six hundred years after the outbreak of the Justinian plague (541-767 AD). Plague has been one of the most devastating infectious diseases that affected the humankind and has caused approximately 200 million human deaths historically. Here we describe the different approaches adopted in the study of several French putative plague mass burials dating to the Modern Age (16th-18th centuries). Through complementation of historical, archaeological and paleobiological data, ample knowledge of both the causes that favoured the spread of the Medieval plague in cities, towns and small villages and of the modification of the customary funerary practices in urban and rural areas due to plague are gained.

  13. Development and Applications of Thallium isotopes: a new proxy tracking the extent of manganese oxide burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, J. D.; Nielsen, S.; Ostrander, C.; Peterson, L. C.; Anbar, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Thallium (Tl) isotopes are a new and potential powerful paleoredox proxy with the possibility to track bottom water oxygen conditions based on the burial flux of manganese oxides. Thallium has a residence time of ~20 thousand years, which is long enough to render modern oxic seawater conservative with respect to concentration and isotopes. The isotopic signature of Tl in the global ocean is driven mainly by two outputs (1) adsorption onto manganese oxides and (2) low temperature oceanic crust alteration. Importantly, the isotopic inputs of Tl are all nearly the same value; thus, the isotopic composition and flux of the outputs almost exclusively set the seawater signature. For relatively short term redox events it is reasonable to assume that the dominant isotope fractionation process is associated with manganese oxide precipitation because low temperature alteration is controlled by long-term average ocean crust production rates. We present a broad range of modern samples that span several open ocean profiles combined with water column and sediment profiles from the permanently anoxic basins of the Black Sea and Cariaco Basins. The open ocean shows no variation in depth profiles that encompass most of the major water masses in the Atlantic and Southern Oceans. The anoxic basins, however, reveal Tl isotope signatures closer to their inputs, which is likely due to basinal restriction. The authigenic fraction of organic-rich sediments from the Black Sea and Cariaco Basin capture the Tl isotope value of the overlying water column, which shows that Tl isotopes could be applied as a faithful deep time redox proxy. For the first time, we will present new data showing that Tl isotopes is tracking bottom water ocean oxygenation. We are applying this isotope system to ancient samples, testing the spatial and temporal variability of ocean oxygenation coinciding with major biogeochemical events.

  14. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during

  15. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived form the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the main text. This Volume contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text

  16. The Ancient Maya Landscape: Facing the Challenges and Embracing the Promise of Integrating Archaeology, Remote Sensing, Soil Science and Hydrologic Modeling for Coupled Natural and Human Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtha, T., Jr.; Duffy, C.; Cook, B. D.; Schroder, W.; Webster, D.; French, K. D.; Alcover, O.; Golden, C.; Balzotti, C.; Shaffer, D.

    2016-12-01

    Relying on a niche inheritance perspective, this paper discusses the long-term spatial and temporal dynamics of land-use management, agricultural decision making and patterns of resource availability in the tropical lowlands of Central America. We introduce and describe ongoing research that addresses a series of long standing questions about coupled natural and human history dynamics in the Central Maya lowlands, emphasizing the role of landscape and region to address these questions. First, we summarize the results of a CNH pilot study focused on the evolution of the regional landscape of Tikal, Guatemala. Particular attention is centered on how we integrated landscape survey, traditional archaeology and soil studies to understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of agricultural land use and intensification over a two thousand period. Additionally, we discuss how these results were integrated into remote sensing, hydrological and erosion models to better understand how past changes in available water and productive land compare to what we know about settlement patterns in the Tikal Region over that same time period. We not only describe how the Maya transformed this landscape, but also how the region influenced changing patterns of settlement and land use. We finish this section with a discussion of some of the unique challenges integrating archaeological information to study CNH dynamics during this pilot study. Second, we introduce a new project designed to `scale up' the pilot study for a macro-regional analysis of the lowland Maya landscape. The new project leverages a uniquely sampled LIDAR data set designed to refine measurements of above ground carbon storage. Our new project quantitatively examines these data for evidence for past human activity. Preliminary results offer a promising path for tightly integrating archaeology, natural science, remote sensing and modeling for studying CNH dynamics in the deep and recent past.

  17. Limb amputations from the ancient times to the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryła, Wanda; Pogorzała, Adam M; Kasior, Iwona; Nowakowski, Andrzej

    2013-07-26

    Amputations, or the removal of limbs at different levels, have been performed since the ancient times. The first reports of amputations originate from the ancient ruins in Egypt, where primitive prosthetic toes were found in the tombs of the Pharaohs. In Europe, during the period of ancient Greece and Rome, various examples of amputations were described on amphoras and mosaics. During the middle ages, the body was marginalized and replaced by the worship of human spirituality. As a result reports of amputations from that time period are scarce. True development of amputation and prosthetic techniques took place during the Renaissance and centuries that followed. Present-day indications for amputation are similar to those utilized in the ancient times. The greatest development of limb amputation techniques and prosthetic methods began in the 20th century and continues to this day. Despite the development of new techniques in prosthetics, many solutions have their roots in designs originating in the ancient times and differ only in their structural design.

  18. Ancient woodland boundaries in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szabó, Péter

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 2 (2010), s. 205-214 ISSN 0305-7488 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : ancient woodland * historical ecology * landscape archaeology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.983, year: 2010

  19. Ancient genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Crespo, P; Poza, M; Prieto-Alcedo, M; Villa, T G

    2004-07-01

    Amber is a plant resin mainly produced by coniferous trees that, after entrapping a variety of living beings, was subjected to a process of fossilization until it turned into yellowish, translucent stones. It is also one of the best sources of ancient DNA on which to perform studies on evolution. Here a method for the sterilization of amber that allows reliable ancient DNA extraction with no actual DNA contamination is described. Working with insects taken from amber, it was possible to amplify the ATP9, PGU1 and rRNA18S ancient genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae corresponding to samples from the Miocene and Oligocene. After comparison of the current genes with their ancient (up to 35-40 million years) counterparts it was concluded that essential genes such as rRNA18S are highly conserved and that even normal 'house-keeping' genes, such as PGU1, are strikingly conserved along the millions of years that S. cerevisiae has evolved.

  20. The ancient art of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Allan

    2013-12-01

    Revision of Freud's theory requires a new way of seeking dream meaning. With the idea of elaborative encoding, Sue Llewellyn has provided a method of dream interpretation that takes into account both modern sleep science and the ancient art of memory. Her synthesis is elegant and compelling. But is her hypothesis testable?

  1. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. Ry

    1997-01-01

    Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification......Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification...

  2. Current genetic differentiation of Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehn in the Guineo-Congolian African zone: cumulative impact of ancient climatic changes and recent human activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Céline; Dussert, Stéphane; Hamon, Perla; Hamon, Serge; Kochko, Alexandre de; Poncet, Valérie

    2009-07-16

    Among Coffea species, C. canephora has the widest natural distribution area in tropical African forests. It represents a good model for analyzing the geographical distribution of diversity in relation to locations proposed as part of the "refuge theory". In this study, we used both microsatellite (simple sequence repeat, SSR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers to investigate the genetic variation pattern of C. canephora in the Guineo-Congolean distribution zone. Both markers were first compared in terms of their informativeness and efficiency in a study of genetic diversity and relationships among wild C. canephora genotypes. As expected, SSR markers were found to have a higher genetic distance detection capacity than RFLP. Nevertheless, similarity matrices showed significant correlations when Mantel's test was carried out (r = 0.66, p < 0.0001). Finally, both markers were equally effective for group discrimination and phylogenetic studies, but SSR markers tended to outperform RFLP markers in discriminating the source of an individual among diversity groups and in putative hybrid detection. Five well defined genetic groups, one in the Upper Guinean forests, the four others in the Lower Guinean forests, were identified, corresponding to geographical patterning in the individuals. Our data suggested that the Dahomey Gap, a biogeographical barrier, played a role in wild C. canephora differentiation. Climatic variations during the Pleistocene and/or Holocene probably caused the subgroup differentiation in the Congolese zone through the presence of a mosaic of putative refugia. Recent hybridization between C. canephora diversity groups, both for spontaneous individuals and cultivars, was further characterised according to their geographic dissemination or breeding history as a consequence of human activities.

  3. Low-Level Burial Grounds Dangerous Waste Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The single dangerous waste permit identification number issued to the Hanford Site by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology is US Environmental Protection Agency/State Identification Number WA 7890008967. This identification number encompasses a number of waste management units within the Hanford Site. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and serves as co-operator of the Low-Level Burial Grounds, the waste management unit addressed by this permit application. The Low-Level Burial Grounds Dangerous Waste Permit Application consists of both a Part A and a Part B Permit Application. The original Part A, submitted in November 1985, identified landfills, retrievable storage units, and reserved areas. An explanation of subsequent Part A revisions is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology

  4. Waste migration in shallow burial sites under unsaturated flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicholz, G.G.; Whang, J.

    1987-01-01

    Unsaturated conditions prevail in many shallow-land burial sites, both in arid and humid regions. Unless a burial site is allowed to flood and possibly overflow, a realistic assessment of any migration scenario must take into account the conditions of unsaturated flow. These are more difficult to observe and to model, but introduce significant changes into projected rates of waste leaching and waste migration. Column tests have been performed using soils from the Southeastern coastal plain to observe the effects of varying degrees of ''unsaturation'' on the movement of radioactive tracers. The moisture content in the columns was controlled by maintaining various levels of hydrostatic suction on soil columns whose hydrodynamic characteristics had been determined carefully. Tracer tests, employing Cs-137, I-131 and Ba-133 were used to determine migration profiles and to follow their movement down the column for different suction values. A calculational model has been developed for unsaturated flow and seems to match the observations fairly well. It is evident that a full description of migration processes must take into account the reduced migration rates under unsaturated conditions and the hysteresis effects associated with wetting-drying cycles

  5. Genetic research at a fivefold children's burial from medieval Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, Jessica; Melisch, Claudia; Powers, Natasha; Geppert, Maria; Zander, Judith; Purps, Josephine; Spors, Birgit; Nagy, Marion

    2015-03-01

    Berlin originated from the two twin cities Berlin and Cölln, which both were founded at the beginning of the 13th century. However the real date of their foundation as well as the origin of the first settlers is still unknown. On the Berlin site the historic city center is still visible in the Nikolaiviertel, but the medieval origin of Cölln disappeared almost completely. In 2007 a large scale excavation, which comprised an area of about 1700m(2) of the historical center of the St. Peters church, recovers the remains of Cölln's first citizens and span a period of 500 years of medieval population. Here we present the first genetic analysis of a fivefold children's burial from excavations in Berlin. The genetic data unveiled next to ancestry and eye color data also the kinship and the gender of the five individuals. Together with the archeological context the new gained information help to shed more light on the possible reasons for this burial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Application of GPR in Florida for Detecting Forensic Burials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Koppenjan; J. J. Schultz; S. Ono; H. Lee

    2003-01-01

    A study was performed at the University of Florida to measure ground penetrating radar(GPR) performance for detecting forensic burials. In controlled scenarios, 24 burials were constructed with pig cadavers. Two soils were utilized to represent two of the most common soil orders in Florida: an Entisol and an Ultisol. Graves were monitored on a monthly basis for time periods up to 21 months with grid data acquired with pulsed and swept-frequency GPR systems incorporating several different frequency antennas. A small subset of the graves was excavated to assess decomposition and relate to the GPR images during the test. The grave anomalies in the GPR depth profiles became less distinctive over time due to body decomposition and settling of the disturbed soil (backfill) as it compacted. Soil type was a major factor. Grave anomalies became more difficult to recognize over time for deep targets that were within clay. Forensic targets that were in sandy soil were recognized for the duration of this study. Time elapsed imagery will be presented to elucidate the changes, or lack thereof, of grave anomalies over the duration of this study. Further analysis was performed using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) reconstruction of images in 2-D and 3-D.

  7. Low-Level Burial Grounds Dangerous Waste Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The single dangerous waste permit identification number issued to the Hanford Site by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology is US Environmental Protection Agency/State Identification Number WA 7890008967. This identification number encompasses a number of waste management units within the Hanford Site. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and serves as co-operator of the Low-Level Burial Grounds, the waste management unit addressed by this permit application. The Low-Level Burial Grounds Dangerous Waste Permit Application consists of both a Part A and a Part B Permit Application. The original Part A, submitted in November 1985, identified landfills, retrievable storage units, and reserved areas. An explanation of subsequent Part A revisions is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology

  8. Shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Owen, P.T.; Fore, C.S.

    1977-10-01

    This publication is the first in a series of annotated bibliographies jointly compiled by the staffs of the Ecological Sciences Information Center of the Information Center Complex at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and of Dames and Moore, White Plains, New York. The data file was built to provide information support to Department of Energy researchers in the field of waste disposal and management. The scope of the data base emphasizes studies which deal with the ''old'' Manhattan sites, commercial disposal sites, and the specific parameters which affect the soil and geologic migration of radionuclides. Specialized data fields have been incorporated into the data base to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the ''Measured Radionuclides'' field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the ''Measured Parameters'' field. In addition, each document referenced in this bibliography has been assigned a ''relevance'' number to facilitate sorting the documents according to their pertinence to shallow land burial technology. The documents are rated 1, 2, 3, or 4, with 1 indicating direct applicability to shallow land burial technology and 4 indicating that a considerable amount of interpretation is required for the information presented to be applied. The references are arranged by the organization responsible for the research, with lead authors appearing alphabetically within each installation group. Indexes are provided for author, title, geographic location, keywords, subject categories, measured radionuclides, and publication description. 129 abstracted references

  9. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayratne, Upekala C; Pyke, David A

    2012-03-01

    Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30-40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and seeds in the seed bank was highly heterogeneous both spatially and temporally, and attrition varied significantly by region. Our study suggests that Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  10. Ecology and evolution of the diaspore "burial syndrome".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Aelys M; Antonelli, Alexandre; Pirie, Michael D; Linder, H Peter

    2011-04-01

    Hygroscopically active awns or "bristles" have long intrigued scientists. Experimental evidence shows that they are important for diaspore burial in the correct orientation, thereby increasing successful seed germination and seedling survival. Despite these ecological advantages, 38 of the 280 species of grasses in Danthonioideae lack awns. We provide the first study of awns in a phylogenetic context and show that although the awnless state has arisen ca. 25 times independently, the ecological disadvantage of not having an awn also applies in an evolutionary context. Only in Tribolium and Schismus have awnless ancestors diversified to form a clade of primarily awnless descendents. Several of the awnless species in these genera are annual and we find a significant correlation between the evolution of awns and the evolution of life history. A suite of other diaspore traits accompany the awned or awnless states. We interpret the awn as being the visible constituent of a compound "burial syndrome," the two ecological extremes of which may explain the correlation between awns and life history and provide an explanation why awnless species in Tribolium and Schismus persist. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Rock stresses associated with burial of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voight, B.

    1977-01-01

    Rock stress changes related to long-term deep storage of nuclear waste involve thermoelastic and pore fluid pressure changes associated with excavation and heating. Computer models are being examined to assess the question of thermally-induced fracturing in storage rock surrounding radioactive waste containers. Stresses are evaluated in three dimensions, employing elastic-plastic finite element codes. Potential failure conditions are expressed in terms of ''effective stresses,'' and force and thermal fields are incremented to produce an appropriate load path. In general, heating in vicinity of waste containers produces a zone of high compression bonded by a zone of circumferential and axial tension. (At this conference an analogous case of thermal stresses was documented and illustrated for larger-scale temperature domains associated with geothermal areas in Iceland.) Fractures are possible in radial directions as well as perpendicular to the axis of the cylindrical heat source. In addition, the mechanical effect of a vapor pulse will be explored by a two-phase numerical fluid transport model used in conjunction with mechanical finite element models. This portion of the work, being conducted jointly with C. R. Faust and J. W. Mercer of the US Geological Survey, should provide a preliminary appreciation of the possible effect of phase changes on fracturing of burial sites. Preliminary work suggests the possibility of establishing design criteria (e.g., design burial depth, depth of canister below storage vault) in order to minimize problems of potential rock fracture

  12. Micromorphological aspects of forensic geopedology: time-dependent markers of decomposition and permanence in soil in experimental burials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangarini, Sara; Cattaneo, Cristina; Trombino, Luca

    2014-05-01

    The importance of the role played by soil scientists grows up in the modern forensic sciences, in particular when buried human remains strongly decomposed or skeletonized are found in different environment situations. An interdisciplinary team, formed by earth and legal medicine researchers from the University of Milan is working on several sets of experimental burial of pigs in different soil types and for different times of burial, in order to get new evidences on environmental responses to the burial, focusing specifically on geopedological and micropedological aspects. The present work is aimed at the micromorphological (petrographic microscope) and ultramicroscopic (SEM) cross characterization of bone tissue in buried remains, in order to describe bone alteration pathways due both to decomposition and to permanence in soil. These methods allow identifying in the tissues of analysed bones: - Unusual concentrations of metal oxides (i.e. Fe, Mn), in the form of violet-blue colorations (in XPL), which seem to be related to chemical conditions in the burial area; their presence could be a method to discriminate permanence in soil rather than a different environment of decomposition. - Magnesium phosphate (i.e. Mg3(PO4)2 ) crystallizations, usually noticed in bones buried from 7 to 103 weeks; their presence seems to be related to the decomposition both of the bones themselves and of soft tissues. - The presence of significant sulphur levels (i.e. SO3) in bones buried for over 7 weeks, which seem to be related to the transport and fixation of soft tissues decomposition fluids. These results point out that micromorphological techniques coupled with spatially resolved chemical analyses allow identifying both indicators of the permanence of the remains into the soil (i.e. metal oxides concentrations) and time-dependent markers of decomposition (i.e. significant sulphur levels and magnesium phosphate) in order to determine PMI (post-mortem-interval) and TSB (time-since-burial

  13. Ancient and Modern Coins Unit Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States Mint (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.

    Ancient times comes to life when a student can hold in his/her hand or read about an artifact, such as a coin of the Greek or Roman era. Students are familiar with coins, and this commonality helps them understand the similarities and differences between their lives and times in ancient Greece or Rome. Many symbols on the ancient coins can be…

  14. Agriculture - reconciling ancient tensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Atkinson

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making in agriculture has tended to be driven by factors other than environmental concerns. This may be changing, and perhaps the emphases of the two creation accounts in Genesis (responsible management or 'dominion', and active care may become more important. The paper examines a number of current developments in agriculture (synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, genetic manipulation, and organic versus industrial methodologies and discusses the issues they raise for agricultural productivity and the human communities dependent on farming. The questions raised are complex; we are faced with establishing a new paradigm for agricultural practice.

  15. 618-10 Burial Ground Trench Remediation and 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Ground Nonintrusive Characterization of Vertical Pipe Units Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, J. W.

    2012-06-28

    A “lessons learned” is a noteworthy practice or innovative approach that is captured and shared to promote repeat application, or an adverse work practice/experience that is captured and shared to avoid reoccurrence. This document provides the lessons learned identified by the 618-10 Burial Ground trench remediation and the 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Ground nonintrusive characterization of the vertical pipe units (VPUs).

  16. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, M.J.; Capron, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-C Reactor and received process tubes, aluminum fuel spacers, control rods, reactor hardware, spent nuclear fuel and soft wastes

  17. About the burial of nuclear power plants, damaged or in the process of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbrond, J.

    1994-01-01

    Some underground mining methods leave deep empty holes in the earth's surface behind them. In this paper it is described how to use such mining methods for the burial of damaged nuclear power plants and for the decommissioning by burial of nuclear reactors. The design of a new power plant should be integrated with that of an escapeway - an underground arrangement for burial. The described mining methods are block caving for catastrophy burial, and various stoping methods for planned burial and decommissioning. Blind shaft sinking by full face boring machines for burial and decommissioning of the reactor vessel is also described. All the described activities of mining and shaft sinking are well known. The total costs of burial by these methods are estimated using standard mining industry cost data. These include the costs for normal mine ventilation and groundwater control. However, the estimates of the cost and duration do not include the capital and operational costs of the pre- and post burial activities of ventilation and groundwater control related to the radioactivity. (author)

  18. Technical data summary: Plan for closure of the 643-G burial ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    This report involves the actions of closing the 643-G burial ground which involves waste removal, stabilization, and capping. Remedial action involves the removing of the transuranic waste and closing of the grid wells. The closure cap for the burial site will consist of native soil, clay, and gravel. This will assure long-term physical and chemical stability. (MB)

  19. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel and J. M. Capron

    2007-07-25

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-C Reactor and received process tubes, aluminum fuel spacers, control rods, reactor hardware, spent nuclear fuel and soft wastes.

  20. Interactive effects between physical forces and ecosystem engineers on seed burial: a case study using

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Z.; Cozzoli, F.; Chu, N.; Salvador, M.; Ysebaert, T.; Zhang, L.; Herman, P.M.J.; Bouma, T.J.

    2016-01-01

    Seed burial (i.e. vertical seed dispersal) has become increasingly valued for its relevance for seed fate and plant recruitment. While ecosystem engineers have been generally considered as the most important drivers of seed burial, the role of physical forces, such as wind or water flow, has been

  1. Introduction: Life Space and Burial Space in the Post-Apartheid City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Landscapes of the dead are always, simultaneously, landscapes of the living. It is this coterminousness of life and death that gives the burial site its salience and emotional power. Different societies, at different times, renegotiate the relationship between what anthropologists call 'life space\\' and 'burial space\\', depending on ...

  2. Assessment of change in shallow land burial limits for defense transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.J.; Smith, C.F.; Spaeth, M.E.; Ciminesi, F.J.; Dickman, P.T.; O'Neal, D.A.

    1983-03-01

    There is an emerging consensus within the waste management technical community that the current concentration limit of 10 nCi/g for shallow land burial (SLB) of transuranic (TRU) waste is excessively restrictive. A concentration limit for SLB in the range of 100 to 1000 nCi/g is reasonable and justifiable based upon these reasons: Resultant increase in collective radiation dose (total population dose) would be very small, and the net detriment to public health would be negligible. Increasing the limit is cost-effective and could save hundreds of millions of dollars for the national economy over time. The hazard resulting from the increased SLB limit for TRU would be significantly less than that due to many naturally occurring mineral deposits and/or human activities. Expenditures directed toward health and safety conform to the economic law of diminishing returns: as the absolute expenditure increases, the marginal return decreases. Excessive restriction of the TRU concentration limit for SLB needlessly diverts limited resources (time, talent, and money) from other areas of health and safety where they might be more beneficially applied. Despite considerable effort, this study did not find any compelling technical argument to maintain the limit for TRU in SLB at 10 nCi/g. Subsequent to the initial preparation of this document, the US Department of Energy issued DOE Order 5820 which raises the administrative disposal limit for transuranic wastes from 10 nCi/g to 100 nCi/g. In addition, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has subsequently proposed and adopted a revised version of regulation 10 CFR 61 in which the disposal limit for shallow land burial of Category C (intruder protected) waste is set at 100 nCi/g

  3. Dreams in ancient Greek Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Moschos, M M; Koukaki, E; Vasilopoulos, E; Karamanou, M; Kontaxaki, M-I; Androutsos, G

    2016-01-01

    Dreams preoccupied the Greek and Roman world in antiquity, therefore they had a prominent role in social, philosophical, religious, historical and political life of those times. They were considered as omens and prophetic signs of future events in private and public life, and that was particularly accentuated when elements of actions which took place in the plot of dreams were associated directly or indirectly with real events. This is why it was important to use them in divination, and helped the growth of superstition and folklore believes. Medicine as a science and an anthropocentric art, could not ignore the importance of dreams, having in mind their popularity in antiquity. In ancient Greek medicine dreams can be divided into two basic categories. In the first one -which is related to religious medicine-dreams experienced by religionists are classified, when resorted to great religious sanctuaries such as those of Asclepius (Asclepieia) and Amphiaraos (Amfiaraeia). These dreams were the essential element for healing in this form of religious medicine, because after pilgrims underwent purifications they went to sleep in a special dwelling of the sanctuaries called "enkoimeterion" (Greek: the place to sleep) so that the healing god would come to their dreams either to cure them or to suggest treatment. In ancient Greek literature there are many reports of these experiences, but if there may be phenomena of self-suggestion, or they could be characterized as propaganda messages from the priesthood of each sanctuary for advertising purposes. The other category concerns the references about dreams found in ancient Greek medical literature, where one can find the attempts of ancient Greek physicians to interpret these dreams in a rational way as sings either of a corporal disease or of psychological distress. This second category will be the object of our study. Despite the different ways followed by each ancient Greek physician in order to explain dreams, their

  4. The 'Human Mind' as a common denominator in plant domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbo, Shahal; Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Gopher, Avi

    2014-05-01

    The role of conscious versus unconscious selection is a central issue in plant domestication. While some authors hold that domesticated plants arose due to unconscious dynamics driven by selection pressures exerted by the ancient 'cultivation regime', others attribute an indispensable role to conscious and knowledge-based selection as an imperative component of Neolithic Near Eastern plant domestication. Recent experimental work demonstrated that, contrary to commonly held views, deep seed burial as part of the ancient cultivation regime cannot be considered as a general selection pressure underlying the increased seed size of domesticated legumes compared with their wild ancestors. This is a robust conclusion since, in three out of the eight legume species studied from different world regions, there was no association between larger seed size and better seedling emergence from depth. We concur with the authors that these legume crops were most likely under various and multiple (often interacting) selection pressures under domestication, thereby causing the observed parallel/convergent evolution of their larger grain size. However, it is puzzling that these authors did not mention the ever-present common denominator in plant domestication, i.e. conscious human decision-making. In our view, the human 'Mind' and the 'Science of the Concrete' à la Lévi-Strauss deserved to be discussed as an integral component of plant domestication.

  5. Can Digital Computers Support Ancient Mathematical Consciousness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Sloman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper poses, discusses, but does not definitively answer, the following questions: What sorts of reasoning machinery could the ancient mathematicians, and other intelligent animals, be using for spatial reasoning, before the discovery of modern logical mechanisms? “Diagrams in minds” perhaps? How and why did natural selection produce such machinery? Is there a single package of biological abilities for spatial reasoning, or did different sorts of mathematical competence evolve at different times, forming a “layered” system? Do the layers develop in individuals at different stages? Which components are shared with other intelligent species? Does some or all of the machinery exist at or before birth in humans and if not how and when does it develop, and what is the role of experience in its development? How do brains implement such machinery? Could similar machines be implemented as virtual machines on digital computers, and if not what sorts of non-digital “Super Turing” mechanisms could replicate the required functionality, including discovery of impossibility and necessity? How are impossibility and necessity represented in brains? Are chemical mechanisms required? How could such mechanisms be specified in a genome? Are some not specified in the genome but products of interaction between genome and environment? Does Turing’s work on chemical morphogenesis published shortly before he died indicate that he was interested in this problem? Will the answers to these questions vindicate Immanuel Kant’s claims about the nature of mathematical knowledge, including his claim that mathematical truths are non-empirical, synthetic and necessary? Perhaps it’s time for discussions of consciousness to return to the nature of ancient mathematical consciousness, and related aspects of everyday human and non-human intelligence, usually ignored by consciousness theorists.

  6. Biosecurity procedures for the environmental management of carcasses burial sites in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geon-Ha; Pramanik, Sudipta

    2016-12-01

    Avian influenza and foot-and-mouth disease are two main contagious pathogenic viral disease which are responsible for the massive burials of livestock in Korea since burial is the primary measure to control these outbreaks. Biosecurity is a set of preventive measures designed to prevent the risk of spreading of these infectious diseases. The main objective of this paper is to discuss about the requirements of biosecurity and develop protocol outlines for environmental management of burial sites in Korea. Current practice prescribes to minimize the potential for on-farm pollution and the spread of the infectious diseases. Specific biosecurity procedures such as proper assessment of leachate quality, safe handling and disposal of leachate, adequate leachate pollution monitoring, necessary seasonal management of burial site, and appropriate sterilization process must be carried out to prevent the indirect transmission of pathogens from the burial sites. Policy makers should acquire robust knowledge of biosecurity for establishing more effective future legislation for carcasses disposal in Korea.

  7. An ancestral human genetic variant linked to an ancient disease: A novel association of FMO2 polymorphisms with tuberculosis (TB in Ethiopian populations provides new insight into the differential ethno-geographic distribution of FMO2*1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephrem Mekonnen

    Full Text Available The human FMO2 (flavin-containing monooxygenase 2 gene has been shown to be involved in innate immunity against microbial infections, including tuberculosis (TB, via the modulation of oxidative stress levels. It has also been found to possess a curious loss-of-function mutation (FMO2*1/FMO2*2 that demonstrates a distinctive differentiation in expression, function and ethno-geographic distribution. However, despite evidences of ethnic-specific genetic associations in the inflammatory profile of TB, no studies were done to investigate whether these patterns of variations correlate with evidences for the involvement of FMO2 in antimicrobial immune responses and ethnic differences in the distribution of FMO2 polymorphisms except for some pharmacogenetic data that suggest a potentially deleterious role for the functional variant (FMO2*1. This genetic epidemiological study was designed to investigate whether there is an association between FMO2 polymorphisms and TB, an ancient malady that remains a modern global health concern, in a sub-Saharan Africa setting where there is not only a relatively high co-prevalence of the disease and the ancestral FMO2*1 variant but also where both Mycobcaterium and Homo sapiens are considered to have originated and co-evolved. Blood samples and TB related clinical data were collected from ascertained TB cases and unrelated household controls (n = 292 from 3 different ethnic groups in Ethiopia. Latent Mtb infection was determined using Quantiferon to develop reliable TB progression phenotypes. We sequenced exonic regions of FMO2.We identified for the first time an association between FMO2 and TB both at the SNP and haplotype level. Two novel SNPs achieved a study-wide significance [chr1:171181877(A, p = 3.15E-07, OR = 4.644 and chr1:171165749(T, p = 3.32E-06, OR = 6.825] while multiple SNPs (22 showed nominal signals. The pattern of association suggested a protective effect of FMO2 against both active and latent TB

  8. The significance of petroleum bitumen in ancient Egyptian mummies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K A; Ikram, S; Evershed, R P

    2016-10-28

    Mummification was practised in ancient Egypt for more than 3000 years, emerging from initial observations of buried bodies preserved by natural desiccation. The use of organic balms (and other funerary practices) was a later introduction necessitated by more humid burial environments, especially tombs. The dark colour of many mummies led to the assumption that petroleum bitumen (or natural asphalt) was ubiquitous in mummification; however, this has been questioned for more than 100 years. We test this by investigating 91 materials comprising balms, tissues and textiles from 39 mummies dating from ca 3200 BC to AD 395. Targeted petroleum bitumen biomarker (steranes and hopanes) analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry selected ion monitoring (GC-MS SIM, m/z 217 and 191) showed no detectable bitumen use before the New Kingdom (ca 1550-1070 BC). However, bitumen was used in 50% of New Kingdom to Late Period mummies, rising to 87% of Ptolemaic/Roman Period mummies. Quantitative determinations using (14)C analyses reveal that even at peak use balms were never more than 45% w/w bitumen. Critically, the dark colour of balms can be simulated by heating/ageing mixtures of fats, resins and beeswax known to be used in balms. The application of black/dark brown balms to bodies was deliberate after the New Kingdom reflecting changing funerary beliefs and shifts in religious ideology.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'. © 2016 The Authors.

  9. The significance of petroleum bitumen in ancient Egyptian mummies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K. A.; Ikram, S.

    2016-01-01

    Mummification was practised in ancient Egypt for more than 3000 years, emerging from initial observations of buried bodies preserved by natural desiccation. The use of organic balms (and other funerary practices) was a later introduction necessitated by more humid burial environments, especially tombs. The dark colour of many mummies led to the assumption that petroleum bitumen (or natural asphalt) was ubiquitous in mummification; however, this has been questioned for more than 100 years. We test this by investigating 91 materials comprising balms, tissues and textiles from 39 mummies dating from ca 3200 BC to AD 395. Targeted petroleum bitumen biomarker (steranes and hopanes) analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry selected ion monitoring (GC-MS SIM, m/z 217 and 191) showed no detectable bitumen use before the New Kingdom (ca 1550–1070 BC). However, bitumen was used in 50% of New Kingdom to Late Period mummies, rising to 87% of Ptolemaic/Roman Period mummies. Quantitative determinations using 14C analyses reveal that even at peak use balms were never more than 45% w/w bitumen. Critically, the dark colour of balms can be simulated by heating/ageing mixtures of fats, resins and beeswax known to be used in balms. The application of black/dark brown balms to bodies was deliberate after the New Kingdom reflecting changing funerary beliefs and shifts in religious ideology. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Quantitative mass spectrometry’. PMID:27644983

  10. Necropolis on Bor lake: New reports on Bronze age burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapuran Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the social and anthropological aspects of burial rituals during the Middle Bronze Age in Timočka Krajina. Decades of systematic research of necropolises and reconnaissance in the basin of the Crni Timok proved an increase in number of sites around ore - rich areas of the east Kučaj mountains as well as around Romuliana site and the fertile valleys of Džanovo polje (Map. 1. The quantitative increase in settlements was reflected by the emergence of large necropolises, only three of which have been systematically explored; those in Trnjani, Magura and Bor Lake (Fig. 1; Plan 1. Analysis of geographical features of many settlements and their position in relation to natural resources helped define two communities, one of which carried out mining and metallurgical activities, while the other group engaged in the production of food. Both groups lived in the immediate vicinity and mutual dependence, functioning within a developed market for copper production. During the exploration of the necropolis near Bor Lake in 1997, the remains of burnt skeletons were collected from burial structures 2/97 and 13/97 (Fig. 2; Plans 2 and 3. Anthropological analysis of the cremated remains of the deceased showed that high temperatures were used during the cremation process, which we assume could have only been achieved in metallurgical furnaces. This is confirmed by the fact that the skeletal fragments contain traces of melted metal, as well as finds of bronze slag inside urns and grave structures in the necropolis in Trnjani (Figs. 3 and 4; Tables 1-4. Burial ritual of this kind was not proved by systematic archaeological research of necropolises in the basin of Crni Timok, although anthropological data collected from necropolises linked to metallurgical settlements may indicate some guidelines in the ritual cremation of prominent members of these communities. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177020: Arheologija Srbije

  11. On the problem of selection and interpretation of the two-chamber tiered burials of Catacomb culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feshchenko, Ye. L.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of burial structures from the territory of steppe Dniper region. The special type of burial constructions could be distinguished. It consists of primary and secondary graves, united by one entrance hole. The secondary burial located vertically above the initial burial chamber. Such structures can be defined as two-chamber tiered burial. The characteristic features of this type of burial are: usage of one input pits; construction of the second chamber only after opening the entrance and penetration in the primary chamber; preserve remnants of previous burials and, if necessary; bunk camera locations; recovery facilities ("sealing" after the second burial. Further study of the the Catacomb culture will clarify features of two-chamber tiered graves.

  12. Effects of urban stream burial on nitrogen uptake and ecosystem metabolism: implications for watershed nitrogen and carbon fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanization has resulted in extensive burial and channelization of headwater streams, yet little is known about impacts on stream ecosystem functions critical for reducing downstream nitrogen pollution. To characterize the biogeochemical impact of stream burial, we measured NO3...

  13. Ancient aliens on mars

    CERN Document Server

    Bara, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Best-selling author and Secret Space Program researcher Bara brings us this lavishly illustrated volume on alien structures on Mars. Was there once a vast, technologically advanced civilization on Mars, and did it leave evidence of its existence behind for humans to find eons later? Did these advanced extraterrestrial visitors vanish in a solar system wide cataclysm of their own making, only to make their way to Earth and start anew? Was Mars once as lush and green as the Earth, and teeming with life? Did Mars once orbit a missing member of the solar system, a "Super Earth” that vanished in a disaster that devastated life on Earth and Venus and left us only the asteroid belt as evidence of its once grand existence? Did the survivors of this catastrophe leave monuments and temples behind, arranged in a mathematical precision designed to teach us the Secret of a new physics that could lift us back to the stars? Does the planet have an automated defense shield that swallows up robotic probes if they wander int...

  14. The value of ancient architecture for educational program of masters of architectural space design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prishchepa Aleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of archaeological sites of ancient Greek colony-towns and medieval fortresses gives a real insight into the interaction of all spheres of human activity in ancient times. Ancient Greek Emporium is a vivid example of the architecture, art, archaeology and urban planning synthesis. Archaeological excavations provide an opportunity to study the artefacts of the ancient world belonging to several fields, such as sculpture, decorative arts, fashion design and household. Studying history of archaeology right on the place of excavation of an ancient city masters can imagine the scale of buildings, streets layout and location of business, administrative and residential buildings. It allows students to form professional way of thinking in a short period in order to gather the material and work on the master thesis.

  15. Is amino acid racemization a useful tool for screening for ancient DNA in bone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Matthew J; Penkman, Kirsty E H; Rohland, Nadin; Shapiro, Beth; Dobberstein, Reimer C; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Hofreiter, Michael

    2009-08-22

    Many rare and valuable ancient specimens now carry the scars of ancient DNA research, as questions of population genetics and phylogeography require larger sample sets. This fuels the demand for reliable techniques to screen for DNA preservation prior to destructive sampling. Only one such technique has been widely adopted: the extent of aspartic acid racemization (AAR). The kinetics of AAR are believed to be similar to the rate of DNA depurination and therefore a good measure of the likelihood of DNA survival. Moreover, AAR analysis is only minimally destructive. We report the first comprehensive test of AAR using 91 bone and teeth samples from temperate and high-latitude sites that were analysed for DNA. While the AAR range of all specimens was low (0.02-0.17), no correlation was found between the extent of AAR and DNA amplification success. Additional heating experiments and surveys of the literature indicated that d/l Asx is low in bones until almost all the collagen is lost. This is because aspartic acid is retained in the bone within the constrained environment of the collagen triple helix, where it cannot racemize for steric reasons. Only if the helix denatures to soluble gelatin can Asx racemize readily, but this soluble gelatine is readily lost in most burial environments. We conclude that Asx d/l is not a useful screening technique for ancient DNA from bone.

  16. Ancient DNA from marine mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David; Hofreiter, Michael; Morin, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    discuss studies recon- structing inter- and intra-specific phylogenies from aDNA sequences and discuss how aDNA sequences could be used to estimate mutation rates. Finally, we highlight some of the problems of aDNA studies on marine mammals, such as obtaining sufficient sample sizes and calibrating...... such as bone, tooth, baleen, skin, fur, whiskers and scrimshaw using ancient DNA (aDNA) approaches provide an oppor- tunity for investigating such changes over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Here, we review the application of aDNA techniques to the study of marine mammals. Most of the studies have...... focused on detecting changes in genetic diversity following periods of exploitation and environmental change. To date, these studies have shown that even small sample sizes can provide useful information on historical genetic diversity. Ancient DNA has also been used in investigations of changes...

  17. Alternative techniques for low-level waste shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, G.B.; Mezga, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    Experience to date relative to the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) indicates that the physical stability of the disposal unit and the hydrologic isolation of the waste are the two most important factors in assuring disposal site performance. Disposal unit stability can be ensured by providing stable waste packages and waste forms, compacting backfill material, and filling the void spaces between the packages. Hydrologic isolation can be achieved though a combination of proper site selection, subsurface drainage controls, internal trench drainage systems, and immobilization of the waste. A generalized design of a LLW disposal site that would provide the desired long-term isolation of the waste is discussed. While this design will be more costly than current practices, it will provide additional confidence in predicted and reliability and actual site performance

  18. Alternatives To The Burial Of Low-Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J. Mark

    2008-01-01

    The approach for management of LLRW in different countries has evolved differently due to many factors such as culture and public sentiment, systems of government, public policy, and geography. There are also various methods to disposition LLRW including but not limited to: - Long term statutes and unconditional or conditional release of material; - Direct Burial; - Treatment (Processing); - Burial; - Treatment; - Unconditional Release; - Recycle for Unconditional Release or Reuse Within Any Industry; - Controlled Recycle within Nuclear Industry. This paper examines the options of controlled recycle of material within the nuclear industry and cites several successful examples. Controlled recycling of LLRW materials within the nuclear industry has been demonstrated to be practical and economical. The reuse of materials within the nuclear industry properly addressed stakeholder concerns for material being used for what they believe to be improper purposes. There are a number of environmental benefits including: - Preservation of resources; - Energy Conservation (in cases where less energy is required to recycle/reuse as compared to mainstream new fuel storages. - Preservation of burial space at disposal sites. In many cases recycling is cost beneficial as compared to other options to disposition the LLRW. In some cases burial costs are comparatively higher. To further the advancement of controlled recycle countries must continue to embrace the concept and create large enough feedstocks of like type material to achieve economies of scale. Additionally, a mechanism to uniformly track material to show where material has been moved and ultimately dispositioned would also contribute to enhancing the endorsement of controlled recycling. There is a large amount of LLRW material that could potentially be recycled. To date, 100 mines, 90 commercial power reactors, over 250 research reactors and a number of fuel cycle facilities, have been retired from operation. Some of these

  19. Subsidence and settlement and their effect on shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeele, W.V.

    1985-01-01

    Subsidence and settlement are phenomena that are much more destructive than generally thought. In shallow land burials they may lead to cracking of the overburden and eventual exposure and escape of waste material. The primary causes are consolidation and cave-ins. Laboratory studies performed at Los Alamos permit us to predict settlement caused by consolidation or natural compaction of the crushed tuff overburden. Examples of expected settlement and subsidence are calculated based on the known geotechnical characteristics of crushed tuff. The same thing is done for bentonite/tuff mixes because some field experiments were performed using this additive (bentonite) to reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the crushed tuff. Remedial actions, i.e., means to limit the amount of settlement, are discussed. Finally, we briefly comment on our current field experiment, which studies the influence of subsidence on layered systems, in general, and on biobarriers, in particular. 16 references, 7 figures, 5 tables

  20. Onset of scour below pipelines and self-burial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Truelsen, Christoffer; Sichmann, T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study on the onset of scour below and self-burial of pipelines in currents/waves. Pressure was measured on the surface of a slightly buried pipe at two points, one at the upstream side and the other at the downstream side of the pipe, both...... in the sand bed. The latter enabled the pressure gradient (which drives a seepage flow underneath the pipe) to be calculated. The results indicated that the excessive seepage flow and the resulting piping are the major factor to cause the onset of scour below the pipeline. The onset of scour occurred always...... locally (but not along the length of the pipeline as a two-dimensional process). The critical condition corresponding to the onset of scour was determined both in the case of currents and in the case of waves. Once the scour breaks out, it will propagate along the length of the pipeline, scour holes being...

  1. Burial stress and elastic strain of carbonate rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2014-01-01

    strain multiplied by the rock frame modulus. We cannot measure the strain directly in the subsurface, but from the data on bulk density and P‐wave velocity, we can estimate the rock frame modulus and Biot's coefficient and then calculate the “effective vertical stress” as the total vertical stress minus......Burial stress on a sediment or sedimentary rock is relevant for predicting compaction or failure caused by changes in, e.g., pore pressure in the subsurface. For this purpose, the stress is conventionally expressed in terms of its effect: “the effective stress” defined as the consequent elastic...... the product of pore pressure and Biot's coefficient. We can now calculate the elastic strain by dividing “effective stress” with the rock frame modulus. By this procedure, the degree of elastic deformation at a given time and depth can be directly expressed. This facilitates the discussion of the deformation...

  2. High integrity container evaluation for solid waste disposal burial containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson, W.S.

    1996-01-01

    In order to provide radioactive waste disposal practices with the greatest measure of public protection, Solid Waste Disposal (SWD) adopted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirement to stabilize high specific activity radioactive waste prior to disposal. Under NRC guidelines, stability may be provided by several mechanisms, one of which is by placing the waste in a high integrity container (HIC). During the implementation process, SWD found that commercially-available HICs could not accommodate the varied nature of weapons complex waste, and in response developed a number of disposal containers to function as HICs. This document summarizes the evaluation of various containers that can be used for the disposal of Category 3 waste in the Low Level Burial Grounds. These containers include the VECTRA reinforced concrete HIC, reinforced concrete culvert, and the reinforced concrete vault. This evaluation provides justification for the use of these containers and identifies the conditions for use of each

  3. Low-level burial grounds dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This document is submitted to request an exemption for Trench 94 from dangerous waste landfill liner and leachate collection and removal system (hereinafter referred to as liner/leachate system) requirements. This exemption request is based on an evaluation which demonstrates that burial in Trench 94 of cathodically protected submarine reactor compartments (SRC), which contain lead and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) as hazardous constituents, is as effective as disposal in a landfill having a liner/leachate system. This demonstration also considers the effectiveness of burial in Trench 94 in terms of preventing long-term migration of contaminants to groundwater or surface water. Modeling results indicate that release of contaminants to the groundwater or surface water will not occur until after long periods of time and that even after reaching the groundwater, contaminants will not be in excess of current regulatory limits, such as drinking water standards. Chapter 1.0 provides introductory information concerning this request, including the scope of the exemption request and relevant background information. The five subsequent chapters provide information needed to support the exemption request. Chapter 2.0 discusses the regulatory basis for the exemption request and presents performance objectives related to regulatory requirements. Chapter 3.0 provides a description of the site and its operation. Chapter 4.0 describes the wastes subject to this exemption request Chapter 5.0 discusses the performance of the disposal site with respect to performance objectives. Finally, Chapter 6.0 presents the actual request for exemption from requirements for a liner/leachate system. 30 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs

  4. Does burial diagenesis reset pristine isotopic compositions in paleosol carbonates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, M. K.; Sarkar, A.; Tandon, S. K.; Samanta, A.; Sanyal, P.

    2010-11-01

    Sedimentological study of early Oligocene continental carbonates from the fluvial Dagshai Formation of the Himalayan foreland basin, India resulted in the recognition of four different types namely, soil, palustrine, pedogenically modified palustrine and groundwater carbonates. Stable oxygen and carbon isotopic ( δ18O and δ13C) analyses of fabric selective carbonate microsamples show that although the pristine isotopic compositions are largely altered during deep-burial diagenesis, complete isotopic homogenization does not occur. δ18O and δ13C analyses of ~ 200 calcrete and palustrine carbonates from different stratigraphic horizons and comparison with δ18O of more robust bioapatite (fossil vertebrate tooth) phase show that dense micrites (~ > 70% carbonate) invariably preserve the pristine δ18O value (mean) of ~ - 9.8‰, while altered carbonates show much lower δ18O value ~ - 13.8‰. Such inhomogeneity causes large intra-sample and intra-soil profile variability as high as > 5‰, suggesting that soils behave like a closed system where diagenetic overprinting occurs in local domains. A simple fluid-rock interaction model suggests active participation of clay minerals to enhance the effect of fluid-rock ratio in local domains during diagenesis. This places an upper limit of 70% micrite concentration above which the effect of diagenetic alteration is minimal. Careful sampling of dense micritic part of the soil carbonate nodules, therefore, does provide pristine isotopic composition and it is inappropriate, as proposed recently, to reject the paleoclimatic potential of all paleosol carbonates affected by burial diagenesis. Based on pristine δ13C value of - 8.8 ± 0.2‰ in soil carbonates an atmospheric CO 2 concentration between ~ 764 and ~ 306 ppmv is estimated for the early Oligocene (~ 31 Ma) Dagshai time. These data show excellent agreement between two independent proxy records (viz. soil carbonate and marine alkenone) and support early Oligocene

  5. Burial trench dynamic compaction demonstration at a humid site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.

    1985-01-01

    This task has the objective of determining the degree of consolidation which can be achieved by dynamic compaction of a closed burial trench within a cohesive soil formation. A seven-year-old burial trench in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was selected for this demonstration. This 251 m 3 trench contained about 80 Ci of mixed radionuclides, mostly 90 Sr, in 25 m 3 of waste consisting of contaminated equipment, dry solids, and demolition debris. Prior to compaction, a total trench void space of 79 m 3 was measured by pumping the trench full of water with corrections for seepage. Additional pre-compaction characterization included trench cap bulk density (1.68 kg/L), trench cap permeability (3 x 10 -7 m/s), and subsurface waste/backfill hydraulic conductivity (>0.01 m/s). Compaction was achieved by repeatedly dropping a 4-ton steel-reinforced concrete cylinder from heights of 4 to 8 m using the whipline of a 70-ton crane. The average trench ground surface was depressed 0.79 m, with some sections over 2 m, yielding a surveyed volumetric depression which totaled to 64% of the measured trench void space. Trench cap (0 to 60 cm) bulk density and permeability were not affected by compaction indicating that the consolidation was largely subsurface. Neither surface nor airborne radioactive contamination were observed during repeated monitoring during the demonstration. Dynamic compaction was shown to be an excellent and inexpensive (i.e., about $20/m 2 ) method to collapse trench void space, thereby hastening subsidence and stabilizing the land surface. 15 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Migration and biological transfer of radionuclides from shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    This document is the final report of the Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Migration and Biological Transfer of Radionuclides from Shallow Land Burial. It contains a description of the objectives of the CRP, its meetings, its achievements and the work of this individual members. Some early experiences in the operation of shallow land repositories have indicated that in the short-term, at least, radioactive wastes can be disposed of safely. However, while these experiences are encouraging, the safety of shallow-land burial for radioactive wastes remains to be demonstrated in the longer term. Some of the industrialized and more developed countries represented have well established disposal programmes for low level wastes (UK, France, USA, Japan, Sweden, Czechoslovakia, Argentina, India) while some of the developing countries represented are still at the preliminary planning stage (Thailand, Iraq). Accordingly, the interests of the participants are concerned with different aspects. Those from countries with existing facilities tend to be more interested in the development and improvement of safety assessment techniques and of a coherent long term disposal philosophy. Participants from countries without disposal facilities tend to be mainly concerned with basic experimental studies aimed at obtaining an understanding of radionuclide behaviour in soils. However, this division was by no means complete and on-going experimental studies were also reported by participants from USA, Canada and France. A total of 11 research agreements and 5 research contracts were allocated, but in addition a number of independent observers attended each of the three Research Coordination Meetings (RCMs). The RCMs were held in Vienna 4-8 November 1985, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, 7-11 September 1987, and Paris, France 17-21 April 1989. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. CHALLENGES WITH RETRIEVING TRANSURANIC WASTE FROM THE HANFORD BURIAL GROUNDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SWAN, R.J.; LAKES, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. DOE's Hanford Reservation produced plutonium and other nuclear materials for the nation's defense starting in World War II. The defense mission generated wastes that were either retrievably stored (i.e. retrievably stored waste) and/or disposed of in burial grounds. Challenges have emerged from retrieving suspect TRU waste including adequacy of records, radiological concerns, container integrity, industrial hygiene and safety issues, the lack of processing/treatment facilities, and the integration of regulatory requirements. All retrievably stored waste is managed as mixed waste and assumed to be TRU waste, unless documented otherwise. Mixed waste is defined as radioactive waste that contains hazardous constituents. The Atomic Energy Act governs waste with radionuclides, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) governs waste with hazardous constituents. Waste may also be governed by the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and a portion may be managed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). In 1970, TRU waste was required to be placed in 20-year retrievable storage and segregated from other Waste. Prior to that date, segregation did not occur. Because of the changing definition of TRU over the years, and the limitations of early assay equipment, all retrievably stored waste in the burial grounds is managed as suspect TRU. Experience has shown that some of this waste will be characterized as low-level (non-TRU) waste after assay. The majority of the retrieved waste is not amenable to sampling due to waste type and/or radiological issues. Key to waste retrieval and disposition are characterization, historical investigation and research, knowledge of past handling and packaging, as well as a broad understanding and application of the regulations

  8. Aboveground burial for managing catastrophic losses of livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Alan Flory

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Environmental impacts from carcass management are a significant concern globally. Despite a history of costly, ineffective, and environmentally damaging carcass disposal efforts, large animal carcass disposal methods have advanced little in the past decade. An outbreak today will likely be managed with the same carcass disposal techniques used in the previous decades and will likely result in the same economic, health, and environmental impacts. This article overviews the results of one field test that was completed in Virginia (United States using the aboveground burial (AGB technique and the disposal of 111 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD infected sheep in Tunisia using a similar methodology. Materials and Methods: Researchers in the United States conducted a field test to assess the environmental impact and effectiveness of AGB in decomposing livestock carcasses. The system design included a shallow trench excavated into native soil and a carbonaceous base placed on the bottom of the trenches followed by a single layer of animal carcasses. Excavated soils were subsequently placed on top of the animals, and a vegetative layer was established. A similar methodology was used in Tunisia to manage sheep infected with FMDs, Peste des Petits Ruminants virus, and Bluetongue Virus. Results: The results of the field test in the United States demonstrated a significant carcass degradation during the 1-year period of the project, and the migration of nutrients below the carcasses appears to be limited thereby minimizing the threat of groundwater contamination. The methodology proved practical for the disposal of infected sheep carcasses in Tunisia. Conclusions: Based on the analysis conducted to date, AGB appears to offer many benefits over traditional burial for catastrophic mortality management. Ongoing research will help to identify limitations of the method and determine where its application during large disease outbreaks or natural

  9. Land-use change, not climate, controls organic carbon burial in lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, N J; Dietz, R D; Engstrom, D R

    2013-10-22

    Lakes are a central component of the carbon cycle, both mineralizing terrestrially derived organic matter and storing substantial amounts of organic carbon (OC) in their sediments. However, the rates and controls on OC burial by lakes remain uncertain, as do the possible effects of future global change processes. To address these issues, we derived OC burial rates in (210)Pb-dated sediment cores from 116 small Minnesota lakes that cover major climate and land-use gradients. Rates for individual lakes presently range from 7 to 127 g C m(-2) yr(-1) and have increased by up to a factor of 8 since Euro-American settlement (mean increase: 2.8×). Mean pre-disturbance OC burial rates were similar (14-22 g C m(-2) yr(-1)) across all land-cover categories (prairie, mixed deciduous and boreal forest), indicating minimal effect of the regional temperature gradient (approx. 4 °C) on background carbon burial. The relationship between modern OC burial rates and temperature was also not significant after removal of the effect of total phosphorus. Contemporary burial rates were strongly correlated with lake-water nutrients and the extent of agricultural land cover in the catchment. Increased OC burial, documented even in relatively undisturbed boreal lake ecosystems, indicates a possible role for atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Our results suggest that globally, future land-cover change, intensification of agriculture and associated nutrient loading together with atmospheric N-deposition will enhance OC sequestration by lakes.

  10. Organic carbon burial in lakes and reservoirs of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, David W.; Stackpoole, Sarah M.; Verdin, Kristine L.; Butman, David E.; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Organic carbon (OC) burial in lacustrine sediments represents an important sink in the global carbon cycle; however, large-scale OC burial rates are poorly constrained, primarily because of the sparseness of available data sets. Here we present an analysis of OC burial rates in water bodies of the conterminous U.S. (CONUS) that takes advantage of recently developed national-scale data sets on reservoir sedimentation rates, sediment OC concentrations, lake OC burial rates, and water body distributions. We relate these data to basin characteristics and land use in a geostatistical analysis to develop an empirical model of OC burial in water bodies of the CONUS. Our results indicate that CONUS water bodies sequester 20.8 (95% CI: 9.4–65.8) Tg C yr–1, and spatial patterns in OC burial are strongly influenced by water body type, size, and abundance; land use; and soil and vegetation characteristics in surrounding areas. Carbon burial is greatest in the central and southeastern regions of the CONUS, where cultivation and an abundance of small water bodies enhance accumulation of sediment and OC in aquatic environments.

  11. Endogenous change: on cooperation and water in ancient history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, S.; Ertsen, M.

    2013-04-01

    We propose and test the theory of endogenous change based on historical reconstructions of two ancient civilizations, Indus and Hohokam, in two water scarce basins, the Indus basin in the Indian subcontinent and the Lower Colorado basin in Southwestern United States. The endogenous institutional change sees changes in institutions as a sequence of equilibria brought about by changes in "quasi-parameters" such as rainfall, population density, soil and land use induced water resource availability. In the historical reconstructions of ancient civilizations, institutions are proximated by the scale of cooperation be it in the form of the extent of trade, sophisticated irrigation network, a centrally planned state or a loosely held state with a common cultural identity. The "quasi-parameters" either change naturally or are changed by humans and the changes affect the stability of cooperative structures over time. However, human influenced changes in the quasi-parameters itself are conditioned on the scale of existing cooperative structures. We thus provide insights into the quantitative dimensions of water access by ancient populations and its co-evolution with the socioeconomic and sociopolitical organization of the human past. We however do not suggest that water manipulation was the single most significant factor in stimulating social development and complexity - clearly this has been shown as highly reductionist, even misleading. The paper cautiously contributes to proximate prediction of hydrological change by attempting to understand the complexity of coupled human-hydrological systems.

  12. Isochron-burial dating of glacially-driven sediments: first results from the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçar, Naki; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Alfimov, Vasily; Claude, Anne; Reber, Regina; Christl, Marcus; Vockenhuber, Christof; Schlunegger, Fritz; Dehnert, Andreas; Rahn, Meinert; Schlüchter, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The recently introduced method of isochron-burial dating, employs the fact that the samples from a well-defined single bed in a deposit would have the same post-burial but different pre-burial histories. The analysis of cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al in such samples enables the modeling of the post-burial component and the determination of the 26Al/10Be at the time of burial. The isochron-burial age can then be calculated from the initial and the measured ratios. In this study, we focus on the isochron-burial dating of the oldest Quaternary deposits of the Alpine Foreland. These are called Swiss Deckenschotter (cover gravels) as they build mesa-type hill tops on the Mesozoic or Cenozoic bedrock of the Swiss Alpine forelands. Deckenschotter consists of glaciofluvial gravel layers intercalated with glacial and/or overbank deposits. Although previously morphostratigraphically correlated with Günz and Mindel glaciations of Penck and Brückner, the Swiss Deckenschotter is likely much older, and their chronostratigraphy is not well constrained. In order to reconstruct the chronology of these deposits, we collected more than 30 clasts of different lithology, shape and size from a single stratigraphic horizon in an abandoned gravel pit in Siglistorf (canton Zurich). We processed 19 clasts for cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al. Four samples did not yield successful 26Al measurements and two were unsuccessful for 10Be. Most of the samples have low nuclide concentrations, i.e. <20000 10Be at/g and <150000 26Al at/g. Finally, using the 26Al/10Be ratio of the samples we calculated an isochron-burial age of around 1.5 Ma. Our results from this study indicate that glaciofluvial sediments can well be time-calibrated with isochron-burial dating despite the low cosmogenic nuclide concentrations.

  13. Formation of Burial Mounds of the Sarmatian Time in the Basin of the Esaulovsky Aksai River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Korobkova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the features of the formation of the burial mounds in the basin of the Esaulovsky Aksai river in the Sarmatian period. Most of the burial mounds of the region begin to form in the Bronze Age and continue to function throughout the early, middle and early late-Sarmatian periods. Most of the burial mounds were located on the watersheds and above-flood terraces of different levels. All of them are characterized by same principles of planning, barrows in them are stretched in a chain in the natural form of the terrace on which the burial mound was built. The territories developed already in the Bronze Age were chosen for creating mounds in the early Sarmatian period. The main part of them is concentrated on a small section landplot of the middle course of the Esaulovsky Aksai river. During the Middle Sarmatian period, the main part of barrows were also located in the middle course of the Esaulovsky Aksai, but represented 2 plots. One of these plots continues to use large burial mounds of the previous period, and the other one undergoes the creation of small barrow groups consisting usually of two-three barrows containing the richest burials of the region with the “classical” set of Middle Sarmatian features. In the late Sarmatian period, as well as in the previous stages of the Sarmatian culture, the burial mounds of the middle course of the Esaulovsky Aksai continue to be used, which cease to function no later than at the first half of the 3rd century AD. But the territory of actively used burial mounds changes, and the main complexes of that time concentrate in the upper reaches, where new burial mounds are created and continue to function until the end of the Sarmatian era.

  14. [The history of medicine in the ancient time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesarová, Drahomíra

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the history of medicine in the ancient Greece; from the cult of the God Asklepios, to the founder of the scientific rational medicine, Hippokrates. The humoral theory of Hippokrates is explained (the human body consists from four liquids) and his ideal of a physician's approach to a patient is emphasized. In the Hellenistic period the medical development continued in the Alexandria Medical School (Herofilos and Erasistratos). At first, not much attention was given to medicine and scientific health prevention in ancient Rome. Only 293 AD have physicians from Greece first been invited to Rome--e.g. Asklepiades. During the reign of C. lulius Caesar, foreigners, who engaged in medical practice, were granted Roman citizenship and thanks to a number of benefits the medical condition in Roman Empire blossomed. Medical clinics (iatreia), infirmaries (valetudinaria) and, under the influence of Christianity, hospitals were established. In the 2nd century AD ancient medicine reached its climax with physician Galenos, who created the entire system of medical science and became the most significant, but also last medical figure of ancient Rome.

  15. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

  16. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1980-01-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

  17. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  18. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  19. The conscious of Nightmares in ancient China

    OpenAIRE

    西林, 眞紀子

    2006-01-01

    The analaysis concerns Nightmares in ancient China. People in ancient China were very afraid of Nightmares. Nightmares are described in the『春秋左氏傳』etc. The exocis Nightmares is described in the『周禮』. The ceremony "難" of exocis Nightmares in the『禮記』. In the characters Meng (夢) had the conscious of Nightmares in ancient China. The analaysis is about the characters 'Meng', about the characters of the relationship 'Meng'

  20. The Ancient Greece's roots of Olimpism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubka Sergej Nazarovich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focused on the phenomena of sport in Ancient Greece along with history, traditions, religion, education, culture and art. Economic and political conditions are analysed which promote or hamper development of Olympic Games in Ancient Greece. Exceptional stability of Ancient Olympic games during more than eleven centuries are noted as well as their influence on the life of Greek polices of those days. Hellenistic period needs of individual consideration.

  1. Ancient DNA perspectives on American colonization and population history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, Jennifer A; Bolnick, Deborah A; Tackney, Justin; O'Rourke, Dennis H

    2011-12-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) analyses have proven to be important tools in understanding human population dispersals, settlement patterns, interactions between prehistoric populations, and the development of regional population histories. Here, we review the published results of sixty-three human populations from throughout the Americas and compare the levels of diversity and geographic patterns of variation in the ancient samples with contemporary genetic variation in the Americas in order to investigate the evolution of the Native American gene pool over time. Our analysis of mitochondrial haplogroup frequencies and prehistoric population genetic diversity presents a complex evolutionary picture. Although the broad genetic structure of American prehistoric populations appears to have been established relatively early, we nevertheless identify examples of genetic discontinuity over time in select regions. We discuss the implications this finding may have for our interpretation of the genetic evidence for the initial colonization of the Americas and its subsequent population history. 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Ancient Indian Leaps into Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, B S

    2011-01-01

    This book presents contributions of mathematicians covering topics from ancient India, placing them in the broader context of the history of mathematics. Although the translations of some Sanskrit mathematical texts are available in the literature, Indian contributions are rarely presented in major Western historical works. Yet some of the well-known and universally-accepted discoveries from India, including the concept of zero and the decimal representation of numbers, have made lasting contributions to the foundation of modern mathematics. Through a systematic approach, this book examines th

  3. Aiding the Interpretation of Ancient Documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roued-Cunliffe, Henriette

    How can Decision Support System (DSS) software aid the interpretation process involved in the reading of ancient documents? This paper discusses the development of a DSS prototype for the reading of ancient texts. In this context the term ‘ancient documents’ is used to describe mainly Greek...... tool it is important first to comprehend the interpretation process involved in reading ancient documents. This is not a linear process but rather a recursive process where the scholar moves between different levels of reading, such as ‘understanding the meaning of a character’ or ‘understanding...

  4. The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, James

    1998-01-01

    The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy combines new scholarship with hands-on science to bring readers into direct contact with the work of ancient astronomers. While tracing ideas from ancient Babylon to sixteenth-century Europe, the book places its greatest emphasis on the Greek period, when astronomers developed the geometric and philosophical ideas that have determined the subsequent character of Western astronomy. The author approaches this history through the concrete details of ancient astronomical practice. Carefully organized and generously illustrated, the book can teach reade

  5. Effect of soil erosion on the long-term stability of FUSRAP near-surface waste-burial sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Decontamination of FUSRAP sites could result in the generation of large volumes (in excess of 400,000 m/sup 3/) of low-activity radioactive wastes (primarily contaminated soil and building materials) requiring subsequent disposal. It is likely that near-surface burial will be seriously considered as an option for disposal of these materials. A number of factors - including soil erosion - could adversely affect the long-term stability of a near-surface waste-burial site. The majority of FUSRAP sites are located in the humid eastern United States, where the principal cause of erosion is the action of water. This report examines the effect of soil erosion by water on burial-site stability based on analysis of four hypothetical near-surface burial sites. The Universal Soil Loss Equation was employed to estimate average annual soil loss from burial sites and the 1000-year effects of soil loss on the soil barrier (burial trench cap) placed over low-activity wastes. Results suggest that the land use of the burial site and the slope gradient of the burial trench cap significantly affect the rate of soil erosion. The development of measures limiting the potential land use of a burial site (e.g., mixing large rocks into the burial trench cap) may be required to preserve the integrity of a burial trench for long periods of time.

  6. Effects of sand burial on the survival and growth of two shrubs dominant in different habitats of northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hao; Zhao, Ha-Lin; Zhao, Xue-Yong; Zuo, Xiao-An; Wang, Shao-Kun; Chen, Min

    2017-04-01

    Plants that grow in dune ecosystems always suffer from sand burial. Shrubs play implications on the healthy functioning of dune ecosystems due to control blowing sand. However, the survival and growth responses of shrubs to sand burial remain poorly understood. The survival rate and seedling height of two shrubs (Artemisia halodendron and Lespedeza davurica) along with the soil properties under different burial depths were examined in order to reveal the causing ecophysiological attributes of sand burial on shrubs in the desertified region. It was found that A. halodendron can survive a burial depth of 6 cm greater than its seedling height, which is a dominant shrub in mobile dunes with intense burial, whereas a burial depth equivalent to three fourths of its seedling height is detrimental to L. davurica, which is dominant in fixed dunes with less burial. The reasons for the shrub death under sand burial were associated with the physical barrier to vertical growth and the reduction in photosynthetic area. In conclusion, A. halodendron can facilitate the stabilization of mobile dunes because of their high tolerance to the frequent and intensive sand burial, while L. davurica can be beneficial for the recovery process because of their higher survival rates under shallow burial following restoration of mobile dunes.

  7. Effect of soil erosion on the long-term stability of FUSRAP near-surface waste-burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Decontamination of FUSRAP sites could result in the generation of large volumes (in excess of 400,000 m 3 ) of low-activity radioactive wastes (primarily contaminated soil and building materials) requiring subsequent disposal. It is likely that near-surface burial will be seriously considered as an option for disposal of these materials. A number of factors - including soil erosion - could adversely affect the long-term stability of a near-surface waste-burial site. The majority of FUSRAP sites are located in the humid eastern United States, where the principal cause of erosion is the action of water. This report examines the effect of soil erosion by water on burial-site stability based on analysis of four hypothetical near-surface burial sites. The Universal Soil Loss Equation was employed to estimate average annual soil loss from burial sites and the 1000-year effects of soil loss on the soil barrier (burial trench cap) placed over low-activity wastes. Results suggest that the land use of the burial site and the slope gradient of the burial trench cap significantly affect the rate of soil erosion. The development of measures limiting the potential land use of a burial site (e.g., mixing large rocks into the burial trench cap) may be required to preserve the integrity of a burial trench for long periods of time

  8. Minimizing risk associated with shallow burial of waste in semiarid ecosystems: Erosion and vegetation dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breshears, D.D.; Martens, S.N.; Nyhan, J.W.; Springer, E.P.; Wilcox, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Numerous regulations govern the disposal of low-level radioactive and hazardous waste by burial in shallow pits. The overall goal of these regulations is to reduce the risk to humans and components of the ecosystem for 500 to 1 000 years. Erosional loss of the soil profile covering waste and contamination of groundwater by leachate are two pathways that influence human and ecological risks. Screening calculations for a waste site in a pinyon-juniper woodland at Los Alamos National Laboratory predict the entire 2 m cover of a waste site could be lost by erosion in less than 500 years. In contrast, less than 0.001% of the waste would reach groundwater by leachate. Predicted erosion rates depend highly on plant cover. The boundary between ponderosa pine forest and pinyon-juniper woodland has shifted more than 1 km in less than 50 years in the Los Alamos region and additional boundary shifts have been hypothesized in conjunction with global warming. High erosion rates (> 0.2 cm per year) have been measured in these transition zones. In concert, these results suggest that risk associated with erosional loss of the waste site cover may greatly exceed risks associated with groundwater contamination in semiarid ecosystems

  9. Investigation of ancient DNA from Western Siberia and the Sargat culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Casey C; Kaestle, Frederika A

    2010-04-01

    Mitochondrial DNA from 14 archaeological samples at the Ural State University in Yekaterinburg, Russia, was extracted to test the feasibility of ancient DNA work on their collection. These samples come from a number of sites that fall into two groupings. Seven samples are from three sites, dating to the 8th-12th century AD, that belong to a northern group of what are thought to be Ugrians, who lived along the Ural Mountains in northwestern Siberia. The remaining seven samples are from two sites that belong to a southern group representing the Sargat culture, dating between roughly the 5th century BC and the 5th century AD, from southwestern Siberia near the Ural Mountains and the present-day Kazakhstan border. The samples are derived from several burial types, including kurgan burials. They also represent a number of different skeletal elements and a range of observed preservation. The northern sites repeatedly failed to amplify after multiple extraction and amplification attempts, but the samples from the southern sites were successfully extracted and amplified. The sequences obtained from the southern sites support the hypothesis that the Sargat culture was a potential zone of intermixture between native Ugrian and/or Siberian populations and steppe peoples from the south, possibly early Iranian or Indo-Iranian, which has been previously suggested by archaeological analysis.

  10. A comparative analysis of microscopic alterations in modern and ancient undecalcified and decalcified dry bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Valentina; Cummaudo, Marco; Maderna, Emanuela; Cappella, Annalisa; Caudullo, Giorgio; Scarpulla, Valentina; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2018-02-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the preservation of the microstructure of skeletal remains collected from four different known burial sites (archaeological and contemporary). Histological analysis on undecalcified and decalcified thin sections was performed in order to assess which of the two techniques is more affected by taphonomic insults. A histological analysis was performed on both undecalcified and decalcified thin sections of 40 long bones and the degree of diagenetic change was evaluated using transmitted and polarized light microscopy according to the Oxford Histological Index (OHI). In order to test the optical behavior of bone tissue, thin sections were observed by polarized light microscopy and the intensity of birefringence was evaluated. The more ancient samples are generally characterized by a low OHI (0-1) with extensive microscopic focal destruction; recent samples exhibited a better preservation of bone micromorphology. When comparing undecalcified to decalcified thin sections, the latter showed an amelioration in the conservation of microscopic structure. As regards the birefringence, it was very low in all the undecalcified thin sections, whereas decalcification process seems to improve its visibility. The preservation of the bone microscopic structure appears to be influenced not only by age, but also by the burial context. Undecalcified bones appear to be more affected by taphonomical alterations, probably because of the thickness of the thin sections; on the contrary, decalcified thin sections proved to be able to tackle this issue allowing a better reading of the bone tissue. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Application of neutron activation analysis in study of ancient ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoxia; Zhao Weijuan; Gao Zhengyao; Xie Jianzhong; Huang Zhongxiang; Jia Xiuqin; Han Song

    2000-01-01

    Trace-elements in ancient ceramics and imitative ancient ceramics were determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The NAA data are then analyzed by fuzzy cluster method and the trend cluster diagram is obtained. The raw material sources of ancient ceramics and imitative ancient ceramics are determined. The path for improving quality of imitative ancient ceramics is found

  12. Ancient water supports today's energy needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Natyzak, Jennifer L.; Castner, Elizabeth A.; Davis, Kyle F.; Emery, Kyle A.; Gephart, Jessica A.; Leach, Allison M.; Pace, Michael L.; Galloway, James N.

    2017-05-01

    The water footprint for fossil fuels typically accounts for water utilized in mining and fuel processing, whereas the water footprint of biofuels assesses the agricultural water used by crops through their lifetime. Fossil fuels have an additional water footprint that is not easily accounted for: ancient water that was used by plants millions of years ago, before they were transformed into fossil fuel. How much water is mankind using from the past to sustain current energy needs? We evaluate the link between ancient water virtually embodied in fossil fuels to current global energy demands by determining the water demand required to replace fossil fuels with biomass produced with water from the present. Using equal energy units of wood, bioethanol, and biodiesel to replace coal, natural gas, and crude oil, respectively, the resulting water demand is 7.39 × 1013 m3 y-1, approximately the same as the total annual evaporation from all land masses and transpiration from all terrestrial vegetation. Thus, there are strong hydrologic constraints to a reliance on biofuel energy produced with water from the present because the conversion from fossil fuels to biofuels would have a disproportionate and unsustainable impact on the modern water. By using fossil fuels to meet today's energy needs, we are virtually using water from a geological past. The water cycle is insufficient to sustain the production of the fuel presently consumed by human societies. Thus, non-fuel-based renewable energy sources are needed to decrease mankind's reliance on fossil fuel energy without placing an overwhelming pressure on global freshwater resources.

  13. Greek Death-Cult, Modern and Ancient: A Comparison of a Mediterranean and Balkan Cultural Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. Håland

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The article examines emotion and identity in connection with Greek death-cult in an attempt to clarify certain contemporary political phenomena in the Mediterranean and Balkan area. The cult of the dead is a common cultural pattern in the area. Why is this cult so persistent? What is death-cult and how does it manifest itself? The article delves into its lasting importance in the Greek part of the cultural area, where the author has conducted several fieldworks. To illustrate the persistence of this cultural pattern, the characteristic aspects connected with death-cult in Greek tradition are discussed: The comparison is based on festivals, which are dedicated to deceased persons and domestic death-rituals combined with ancient sources. Based on them an analytical survey of the relationship between the death-cult dedicated to deceased mediators in ancient and modern society, as it is manifested through laments, burials and the following memorial rituals is made. The modern domestic rituals people perform for their own dead influence the official ideological rituals, and vice versa, the domestic rituals reflect public performances. A study of modern cult practices reveals many parallels with the official cult of the ancients, and suggests ways in which modern rituals can throw new light upon the ancient rituals and vice versa. The article seeks to demonstrate how new ideologies must adjust to older rituals and beliefs and how public and domestic rituals are connected. The article finally suggests how these similarities might represent a common way of expression within a larger context in which the Mediterranean and Balkan cultural meaning of emotion is central.

  14. Ancient Genomics and the Peopling of the Southwest Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoglund, Pontus; Posth, Cosimo; Sirak, Kendra; Spriggs, Matthew; Valentin, Frederique; Bedford, Stuart; Clark, Geoffrey; Reepmeyer, Christian; Petchey, Fiona; Fernandes, Daniel; Fu, Qiaomei; Harney, Eadaoin; Lipson, Mark; Mallick, Swapan; Novak, Mario; Rohland, Nadin; Stewardson, Kristin; Abdullah, Syafiq; Cox, Murray P.; Friedlaender, Françoise R.; Friedlaender, Jonathan S.; Kivisild, Toomas; Koki, George; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Merriwether, D. Andrew; Ricaut, Francois-X.; Wee, Joseph T. S.; Patterson, Nick; Krause, Johannes; Pinhasi, Ron; Reich, David

    2017-01-01

    The appearance of people associated with the Lapita culture in the South Pacific ~3,000 years ago1 marked the beginning of the last major human dispersal to unpopulated lands. However, the relationship of these pioneers to the long established Papuans of the New Guinea region is unclear. We report genome-wide ancient DNA data from four individuals from Vanuatu (~3100-2700 years before present) and Tonga (~2700-2300 years before present), and co-analyze them with 778 present-day East Asians and Oceanians. Today, indigenous peoples of the South Pacific harbor a mixture of ancestry from Papuans and a population of East Asian origin that does not exist in unmixed form today, but is a match to the ancient individuals. Most analyses have interpreted the minimum of twenty-five percent Papuan ancestry in the region today as evidence that the first humans to reach Remote Oceania, including Polynesia, were derived from population mixtures near New Guinea, prior to the further expansion into Remote Oceania2–5. However, our finding that the ancient individuals had little to no Papuan ancestry implies later human population movements that spread Papuan ancestry through the South Pacific after the islands’ first peopling. PMID:27698418

  15. The psychology of animal companionship: Some ancient and modern views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennie Viviers

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The intuitive sensing of a mental bond between ourselves and animals, especially those that live very close to us, our companion animals, has been there since early history. Some ancient Israelite views testify to an irresistible anthropomorphising of their domestic animals (Jn 3:5–9 as well as an acknowledgement of the socio-psychological support provided by them (2 Sm 12:1c–4d. Is there indeed a mental overlap between humans and animals to explain this intuitive experiencing of a bond between ourselves and them since ancient times? Modern neuroscience, through neuro-imaging, has shown that dogs (at least are able to reciprocate our thoughts and feelings, be it in a limited way. They seem to have some limited form of a ‘theory of mind’ previously ascribed to humans only. This explains why they have been humans’ ‘best friend’ for the past 12 000 years since they were domesticated from wolves. The intuitions of the ancients and the findings of modern science confirm that we and non-human animals all form intrinsically part of the fascinating web of life. This fact should sensitise us as moral agents to preserve this life.

  16. The psychology of animal companionship: Some ancient and modern views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennie Viviers

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The intuitive sensing of a mental bond between ourselves and animals, especially those that live very close to us, our companion animals, has been there since early history. Some ancient Israelite views testify to an irresistible anthropomorphising of their domestic animals (Jn 3:5–9 as well as an acknowledgement of the socio-psychological support provided by them (2 Sm 12:1c–4d. Is there indeed a mental overlap between humans and animals to explain this intuitive experiencing of a bond between ourselves and them since ancient times? Modern neuroscience, through neuro-imaging, has shown that dogs (at least are able to reciprocate our thoughts and feelings, be it in a limited way. They seem to have some limited form of a ‘theory of mind’ previously ascribed to humans only. This explains why they have been humans’ ‘best friend’ for the past 12 000 years since they were domesticated from wolves. The intuitions of the ancients and the findings of modern science confirm that we and non-human animals all form intrinsically part of the fascinating web of life. This fact should sensitise us as moral agents to preserve this life.

  17. Foreign Guests in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora Žbontar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xenía was a special relationship between a foreign guest and his host in Ancient Greece. The ritual of hosting a foreigner included an exchange of objects, feasting, and the establishment of friendship between people from different social backgrounds. This relationship implied trust, loyalty, friendship, and mutual aid between the people involved. Goods and services were also exchanged without any form of payment. There were no formal laws governing xenía – it was based entirely on a moral appeal. Mutual appreciation between the host and the guest was established during the ritual, but the host did retain a certain level of superiority over the guest. Xenía was one of the most important institutions in Ancient Greece. It had a lot of features and obligations similar to kinship and marriage. In literary sources the word xénos varies in meaning from “enemy stranger”, “friendly stranger”, “foreigner”, “guest”, “host” to “ritual friend”, and it is often hard to tell which usage is appropriate in a given passage. The paper describes the emphasis on hospitality towards foreigners. It presents an example of a depiction indicating xenía is presented, as well as several objects which were traded during the ritual. The paper also addresses the importance of hospitality in Greek drama in general, especially with examples of violations of the hospitality code.

  18. Chemical compositions of ancient coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabuchi, Hisao; Notsu, Kenji; Nishimatsu, Shigeyoshi; Fuwa, Keiichiro; Iyama, Hiroyuki.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical composition of ancient coins may be useful to know the provenance of raw ore materials, technique of minting, route of circulation, and governmental policy or economical conditions of the epoch when they were minted. Thirteen elements (major: Cu, Pb, Sn, Zn, minor: Fe, As, Sb, trace: Co, Mn, Ni, Au, Ag, Se) in Chinese and Japanese ancient coins were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy and instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results show that, in both Chinese and Japanese coins, a transition from Cu-Pb-Sn system to Cu-Zn system occurred in the 15 -- 16 th century in China and in the 18 th century in Japan. Compositional ranges in Cu-Pb-Sn coins extend to 50 -- 80% Cu, 15 -- 35% Pb and 6 -- 15% Sn, respectively, and there seems to be no systematic compositional change with a function of their ages. As to the Cu-Zn coins, the Cu to Zn ratio of Chinese coins is distinctly different from that of Japanese ones, being about unity for Chinese coins and 4 for Japanese ones. In general, Japanese coins are much more abundant in As and Sb than Chinese ones. It is an important problem whether they are impurities of major elements or some components intentionally added in the course of minting. (author)

  19. Phosphorus recycling and burial in Baltic Sea sediments with contrasting redox conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mort, Haydon P; Slomp, Caroline P; Gustafson, Bo G

    2010-01-01

    . Most burial of P takes place as organic P. We find no evidence for significant authigenic Ca–P formation or biogenic Ca–P burial. The lack of major inorganic P burial sinks makes the Baltic Sea very sensitive to the feedback loop between increased hypoxia, enhanced regeneration of P and increased......In this study, redox-dependent phosphorus (P) recycling and burial at 6 sites in the Baltic Sea is investigated using a combination of porewater and sediment analyses and sediment age dating (210Pb and 137Cs). We focus on sites in the Kattegat, Danish Straits and Baltic Proper where present...... be accounted for in budgets and models for the Baltic Sea....

  20. Touchstones from early medieval burials in the collection of the State Archaeological Museum in Warsaw

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 64, [1] (2013), s. 147-152 ISSN 0043-5082 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : touchstones * Early Middle Ages * Mazovia * elite * burials * precious metal Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  1. Burial of Zostera marina seeds in sediment inhabited by three polychaetes: laboratory and field studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delefosse, Matthieu; Kristensen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    passively by sedimentation or actively through sediment reworking by benthic fauna.We evaluated the effect of three polychaetes on the burial rate and depth of eelgrass seeds. Burial was first measured in controlled laboratory experiments using different densities of Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor (400......–3200 ind m −2), Arenicola marina (20–80 ind m−2), and the invasive Marenzelleria viridis (400–1600 ind m −2). The obtained results were subsequently compared with burial rates of seed mimics in experimental field plots (1m2) dominated by the respective polychaetes. High recovery of seeds in the laboratory....... At their highest abundance, A. marina andM. viridis buried seeds to amedian depth of 6.7 cmand 0.5 cm, respectively, after amonth. The burial efficiency and depth of these species were, in contrast to N. diversicolor, dependent on animal abundance. Only 2% of seed mimics casted in the field plots were recovered...

  2. LASL experimental engineered waste burial facility: design considerations and preliminary plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePoorter, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The LASL Experimental Engineered Waste Burial Facility is a part of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program on Shallow-Land Burial Technology. It is a test facility where basic information can be obtained on the processes that occur in shallow-land burial operations and where new concepts for shallow-land burial can be tested on an accelerated basis on an appropriate scale. The purpose of this paper is to present some of the factors considered in the design of the facility and to present a preliminary description of the experiments that are initially planned. This will be done by discussing waste management philosophies, the purposes of the facility in the context of the waste management philosophy for the facility, and the design considerations, and by describing the experiments initially planned for inclusion in the facility, and the facility site

  3. Low-level burial grounds dangerous waste permit application design documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-08-01

    This document serves a supplement to the already existing ''Low-Level Burial Ground Dangerous Waste Permit Application Design Documents.'' This paper contains information regarding drawings, construction specifications, and liner/leachate compatibility test plans

  4. Numerical modelling of GPR electromagnetic fields for locating burial sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcione, José M.; Karczewski, Jerzy; Mazurkiewicz, Ewelina; Tadeusiewicz, Ryszard; Tomecka-Suchoń, Sylwia

    2017-11-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is commonly used for locating burial sites. In this article, we acquired radargrams at a site where a domestic pig cadaver was buried. The measurements were conducted with the ProEx System GPR manufactured by the Swedish company Mala Geoscience with an antenna of 500MHz. The event corresponding to the pig can be clearly seen in the measurements. In order to improve the interpretation, the electromagnetic field is compared to numerical simulations computed with the pseudo-spectral Fourier method. A geological model has been defined on the basis of assumed electromagnetic properties (permittivity, conductivity and magnetic permeability). The results, when compared with the GPR measurements, show a dissimilar amplitude behaviour, with a stronger reflection event from the bottom of the pit. We have therefore performed another simulation by decreasing the electrical conductivity of the body very close to that of air. The comparison improved, showing more reflections, which could be an indication that the body contains air or has been degraded to a certain extent that the electrical resistivity has greatly increased.

  5. Biobarriers used in shallow-burial ground stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.F.

    1979-03-01

    These data show that cobblestone can be effective as a barrier to burrowing animals and insects, but not totally effective as a barrier to plant roots. Because of variable weather patterns at Hanford, five to six year studies are recommended for further evaluation of the effectiveness of different materials as biobarriers to radioactive substances. The following criteria must be met to present plant roots from entering buried waste and transporting radioactive or other elements to the soil surface where they can enter the food web: (1) the burial zone beneath the cover should be kept dry; (2) enough soil or other water-retaining substance should be placed in the cover to hold annual precipitation; (3) plants or other substances should be placed in the cover to remove soil moisture from site each year via evaporation and plant transpiration; and (4) different additions to the cover should be designed and placed over the buried waste to prevent burrowing animals from causing channelization of water through the cover to the lower levels. Stone size appeared to affect the plants' rate of root growth since root growth slowed in the air spaces between stones. Root toxin was 100% effective as a means of keeping roots out of the buried waste; this method could be used as a barrier modification where no plant cover is needed. 9 figures, 2 tables

  6. Shallow land burial criteria for sodium-contaminated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, C.S.; Witbeck, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    The fiscal year 1982 objectives are as follows: (1) fabricate test specimens; (2) conduct experiments of water and moisture reactions with sodium-wetted specimens (base line measurements) and (3) conduct experiments of water and moisture reactions with sodium-wetted and evaporation cleaned specimens. Five pairs of metal crevice specimens were designed and fabricated. They are made of Type 304 stainless steel. The specimens have a range of crevice volumes, surface areas and weights so as to subsequently provide a range of amounts of sodium to accumulate in the crevices and surfaces when they are sodium wetted. They are weighed before and after wetting in a sensitive top loading electronic balance to obtain the amounts of sodium retained upon wetting and draining. The water reactions tests and results are discussed. During FY83, water reaction tests will continue using the same specimens. The specimens will be sodium-wetted and then cleaned using the water vapor-nitrogen cleaning method and the alcohol cleaning method. A peer review will be conducted in midyear. On the basis of the data obtained, criteria will be developed for the safe, shallow land burial of low level, radioactive sodium wastes. In addition, quality control and verification procedures based on the endpoints of sodium removal methods will be established

  7. Informal Workshop on Burial and Mobility Modeling of Munitions in the Underwater Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    burial of two replica 155 mm shells and one replica 81 mm mortar (with fins). The initial positions of the three targets are identified with the...wave and circulation patterns that drive sediment erosion and deposition. Likewise, the bottom type can vary from soft clays and muds , to sandy...impact in soft clays or muds ). The one exceptional case would be for impact burial in stiff muddy sediments where the UXO might initially be partially

  8. Cover integrity in shallow land burial of low-level wastes: hydrology and erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, L.J.; Nyhan, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    Applications of a state-of-the-art technology for simulating hydrologic processes and erosion affecting cover integrity at shallow land waste burial sites are described. A nonpoint source pollution model developed for agricultural systems has been adapted for application to waste burial sites in semiarid and arid regions. Applications include designs for field experiments, evaluation of slope length and steepness, evaluation of various soil types, and evaluation of vegetative cover influencing erosion rates and the water balance within the soil profile

  9. Extent of Stream Burial and Relationships to Watershed Area, Topography, and Impervious Surface Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy E. Weitzell

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stream burial—the routing of streams through culverts, pipes, and concrete lined channels, or simply paving them over—is common during urbanization, and disproportionately affects small, headwater streams. Burial undermines the physical and chemical processes governing life in streams, with consequences for water quality and quantity that may amplify from headwaters to downstream receiving waters. Knowledge of the extent of stream burial is critical for understanding cumulative impacts to stream networks, and for future decision-making allowing for urban development while protecting ecosystem function. We predicted stream burial across the urbanizing Potomac River Basin (USA for each 10-m stream segment in the basin from medium-resolution impervious cover data and training observations obtained from high-resolution aerial photography in a GIS. Results were analyzed across a range in spatial aggregation, including counties and independent cities, small watersheds, and regular spatial grids. Stream burial was generally correlated with total impervious surface area (ISA, with areas exhibiting ISA above 30% often subject to elevated ratios of stream burial. Recurring patterns in burial predictions related to catchment area and topographic slope were also detected. We discuss these results in the context of physiographic constraints on stream location and urban development, including implications for environmental management of aquatic resources.

  10. On Ancient Babylonian Algebra and Geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. In an earlier article [1] we had discussed some aspects of ancient Babylonian mathematics as deciphered froIn various clay tablets excavated from modern Iraq, viz. the Pythagoras theorem and also the sexagesimal num- ber system prevalent during the ancient Mesopotamian civilization. In this article, we study ...

  11. Attitudes Toward Deviant Sex in Ancient Mesopotamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, Vern L.

    1971-01-01

    The article concludes that the whole question of sexual life in ancient Mesopotamia is difficult to reconstruct and fraught with many uncertainties. Nevertheless, it seems certain that the ancient Mesopotamians had fewer prohibitions against sex than our own civilization, and regarded as acceptable many practices which later societies condemned.…

  12. Mechanisms in ancient Chinese books with illustrations

    CERN Document Server

    Hsiao, Kuo-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a unique approach for studying mechanisms and machines with drawings that were depicted unclearly in ancient Chinese books. The historical, cultural and technical backgrounds of the mechanisms are explained, and various mechanisms described and illustrated in ancient books are introduced. By utilizing the idea for the conceptual design of modern mechanisms, all feasible designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain members and joints that meet the technical standards of the subjects’ time periods are synthesized systematically. Ancient Chinese crossbows (the original crossbow and repeating crossbows), textile mechanisms (silk-reeling mechanism, spinning mechanisms, and looms), and many other artisan's tool mechanisms are used as illustrated examples.  Such an approach provides a logical method for the reconstruction designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain structures. It also provides an innovative direction for researchers to further identify the original structures of mechanisms...

  13. Phylogenetic estimation of timescales using ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molak, Martyna; Lorenzen, Eline; Shapiro, Beth

    2013-01-01

    analyses of ancient DNA. We also investigated the sample size and temporal span of the ancient DNA sequences needed to estimate phylogenetic timescales reliably. Our results show that the range of sample ages plays a crucial role in determining the quality of the results but that accurate and precise......In recent years, ancient DNA has increasingly been used for estimating molecular timescales, particularly in studies of substitution rates and demographic histories. Molecular clocks can be calibrated using temporal information from ancient DNA sequences. This information comes from the ages...... of the ancient samples, which can be estimated by radiocarbon dating the source material or by dating the layers in which the material was deposited. Both methods involve sources of uncertainty. The performance of Bayesian phylogenetic inference depends on the information content of the data set, which includes...

  14. Effects of sand burial on survival, growth, gas exchange and biomass allocation of Ulmus pumila seedlings in the Hunshandak Sandland, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L; Zhang, Z J; Zhang, C Y; Zhang, J Z

    2004-10-01

    In the last decade, the number of young plants of Ulmus pumila in the Hunshandak Sandland has decreased sharply because of severe sand burial, and their ecological protective function has been weakened. In order to develop an understanding of the tolerance of U. pumila to sand burial and to suggest reasonable measures to protect the sparse-elm-grassland ecosystem, the effects of burial on the survival, growth, photosynthesis and biomass allocation in U. pumila were studied. Seedlings were buried at five different depths in pot experiments: no burial (control), partial burial (33 % and 67 % stem height), and complete burial (100 % and 133 % stem height). Growth analyses and measurements of photosynthesis were carried after the plants had been uncovered. All the plants survived partial burial, but about 30 % and 80 % of the seedlings died as a result of the 100 % and 133 % sand burial treatments, respectively. The numbers of newly produced leaves and branches, and the height of the stems of the seedlings in the 33 % and 67 % burial treatments during the period of the experiment were significantly greater than those in the control. Furthermore, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were also elevated by the partial burial, but not affected by burial time. This might be attributed to the increased root length, which improved water acquisition. The biomass and biomass allocation of the seedlings were significantly changed by the burial treatments and burial times. The biomass was enhanced by partial burial but was reduced by complete burial at each burial time. However, the biomass allocation was not significantly changed by the 33 % and 67 % sand burial treatments 2 or 4 weeks following the burial. Ulmus pumila was shown to be tolerant to partial sand burial, but must be protected from complete burial.

  15. Odyssey of Human Creative Genius: From Astronomical Heritage to Space Technology Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dluzhnevskaya, Olga; Marov, Mikhail

    2016-10-01

    Astronomy was one of the most important sciences in the ancient world. It was rooted in naked eye observations and primitive stone instruments for astrometric measurements to determine the positions of the Sun, Moon, planets and some stars that had both practical and sacred meaning. That is why the majority of archaeoastronomical monuments are simultaneously observatories and sanctuaries, with burials and altars.

  16. A mid-third millennium BC collective burial cave in central Iberia: El Rebollosillo (Torrelaguna, Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Díaz-del-Río

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available El Rebollosillo is a small karstic cave located in the center of Iberia used for the disposition of secondary burials during the mid third millennium BC. We present bioanthropological, isotopic (87Sr/86Sr, δ13C and δ18O analyses and 16 radiocarbon dates on human remains, as well as mineralogical characterization of 6 beads (4 of them variscite from Palazuelo de las Cuevas, Zamora, and a quantitative analysis of 43 pottery fragments recovered during the 1989 excavations. A minimum of 21 individuals have been identified, covering all age ranges and sex. Low percentages of pathologies have been detected, mainly dental calculus and caries, with specific cases of cribra orbitalia, periostosis and arthritis. Only adults received a clearly individualized treatment, suggestive of achieved status. We interpret the evidence as a multi-staged mortuary program, the last phase of which is documented at the site, with previous stages perhaps carried out elsewhere, and we evaluate these results in the context of the regional funerary record.

  17. Ancient genomes revisit the ancestry of domestic and Przewalski's horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunitz, Charleen; Fages, Antoine; Hanghøj, Kristian; Albrechtsen, Anders; Khan, Naveed; Schubert, Mikkel; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Owens, Ivy J; Felkel, Sabine; Bignon-Lau, Olivier; de Barros Damgaard, Peter; Mittnik, Alissa; Mohaseb, Azadeh F; Davoudi, Hossein; Alquraishi, Saleh; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Crubézy, Eric; Benecke, Norbert; Olsen, Sandra; Brown, Dorcas; Anthony, David; Massy, Ken; Pitulko, Vladimir; Kasparov, Aleksei; Brem, Gottfried; Hofreiter, Michael; Mukhtarova, Gulmira; Baimukhanov, Nurbol; Lõugas, Lembi; Onar, Vedat; Stockhammer, Philipp W; Krause, Johannes; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Undrakhbold, Sainbileg; Erdenebaatar, Diimaajav; Lepetz, Sébastien; Mashkour, Marjan; Ludwig, Arne; Wallner, Barbara; Merz, Victor; Merz, Ilja; Zaibert, Viktor; Willerslev, Eske; Librado, Pablo; Outram, Alan K; Orlando, Ludovic

    2018-04-06

    The Eneolithic Botai culture of the Central Asian steppes provides the earliest archaeological evidence for horse husbandry, ~5500 years ago, but the exact nature of early horse domestication remains controversial. We generated 42 ancient-horse genomes, including 20 from Botai. Compared to 46 published ancient- and modern-horse genomes, our data indicate that Przewalski's horses are the feral descendants of horses herded at Botai and not truly wild horses. All domestic horses dated from ~4000 years ago to present only show ~2.7% of Botai-related ancestry. This indicates that a massive genomic turnover underpins the expansion of the horse stock that gave rise to modern domesticates, which coincides with large-scale human population expansions during the Early Bronze Age. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  18. On the Semantics of Plates from the Shilovka Burial Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonyakova (Chuvilo Natalia A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the finds made on the sites located in the Middle Volga region and Siberia, ivory plaques of high artistic value used to adorn combat saddle pommel are met. They would bear floral ornamentation or depict hunting scenes, reflecting the spiritual world of a nomad warrior. These images are dated widely, but not later than the 7th or 8th centuries. They were drawn with a sharp cutter and blackened down the lines. Of special interest are the bone plates from the Shilovka burial ground site (Uyanovsk oblast with the following images: two dragons in a heraldic posture, deer hunt scenes, horsemen in ambush, fight with a bear, and defense of the fortress. In the author’s opinion, the Shilovka plates depict a dramatic episode in the life of a Turkic warlord, which occurred in the midst of hostilities. During the hunt, a huge bear was unleashed against him. Part of his heavily armed convoy (or suite fled; some soldiers got ambushed (the enemy shot them from armor-piercing bows. Saving his life, the captain knelt and bent his bow, whose string broke at the most inopportune moment. Perhaps he died fighting a bear. One can assume that it was a stratagem of the enemy, which decided the outcome of the war. The symbol of victory on the plates is represented by the dragons, frozen in a heraldic posture, and expressing the basic principle of life characteristic of the nomad warriors in the Early Middle Ages: prosperity and well-being at a price of war and victories. The plaques were placed into the winner’s grave.

  19. Ancient DNA from nomads in 2500-year-old archeological sites of Pengyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-Bin; Li, Hong-Jie; Cai, Da-Wei; Li, Chun-Xiang; Zhang, Quan-Chao; Zhu, Hong; Zhou, Hui

    2010-04-01

    Six human remains (dating approximately 2500 years ago) were excavated from Pengyang, China, an area occupied by both ancient nomadic and farming people. The funerary objects found with these remains suggested they were nomads. To further confirm their ancestry, we analyzed both the maternal lineages and paternal lineages of the ancient DNA. From the mitochondrial DNA, six haplotypes were identified as three haplogroups: C, D4 and M10. The haplotype-sharing populations and phylogenetic analyses revealed that these individuals were closely associated with the ancient Xiongnu and modern northern Asians. Single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis of Y chromosomes from four male samples that were typed as haplogroup Q indicated that these people had originated in Siberia. These results show that these ancient people from Pengyang present a close genetic affinity to nomadic people, indicating that northern nomads had reached the Central Plain area of China nearly 2500 years ago.

  20. Evaluation of Elevated Tritium Levels in Groundwater Downgradient from the 618-11 Burial Ground Phase I Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.; Smith, R.M.; Williams, B.A.; Thompson, C.J.; Evans, J.C.; Hulstrom, L.C.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the results of the preliminary investigation of elevated tritium in groundwater discovered near the 618-11 burial ground, located in the eastern part of the Hanford Site. Tritium in one well downgradient of the burial ground was detected at levels up to 8,140,000 pCi/L. The 618-11 burial ground received a variety of radioactive waste from the 300 Area between 1962 and 1967. The burial ground covers 3.5 hectare (8.6 acre) and contains trenches, large diameter caissons, and vertical pipe storage units. The burial ground was stabilized with a native sediment covering. The Energy Northwest reactor complex was constructed immediately east of the burial ground

  1. Evaluation of Elevated Tritium Levels in Groundwater Downgradient from the 618-11 Burial Ground Phase I Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Smith, R.M.; Williams, B.A.; Thompson, C.J.; Evans, J.C.; Hulstrom, L.C.

    2000-05-01

    This report describes the results of the preliminary investigation of elevated tritium in groundwater discovered near the 618-11 burial ground, located in the eastern part of the Hanford Site. Tritium in one well downgradient of the burial ground was detected at levels up to 8,140,000 pCi/L. The 618-11 burial ground received a variety of radioactive waste from the 300 Area between 1962 and 1967. The burial ground covers 3.5 hectare (8.6 acre) and contains trenches, large diameter caissons, and vertical pipe storage units. The burial ground was stabilized with a native sediment covering. The Energy Northwest reactor complex was constructed immediately east of the burial ground.

  2. Lipid biomarkers for bacterial ecosystems: studies of cultured organisms, hydrothermal environments and ancient sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summons, R. E.; Jahnke, L. L.; Simoneit, B. R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper forms part of our long-term goal of using molecular structure and carbon isotopic signals preserved as hydrocarbons in ancient sediments to improve understanding of the early evolution of Earth's surface environment. We are particularly concerned with biomarkers which are informative about aerobiosis. Here, we combine bacterial biochemistry with the organic geochemistry of contemporary and ancient hydrothermal ecosystems to construct models for the nature, behaviour and preservation potential of primitive microbial communities. We use a combined molecular and isotopic approach to characterize lipids produced by cultured bacteria and test a variety of culture conditions which affect their biosynthesis. This information is then compared with lipid mixtures isolated from contemporary hot springs and evaluated for the kinds of chemical change that would accompany burial and incorporation into the sedimentary record. In this study we have shown that growth temperature does not appear to alter isotopic fractionation within the lipid classes produced by a methanotropic bacterium. We also found that cultured cyanobacteria biosynthesize diagnostic methylalkanes and dimethylalkanes with the latter only made when growing under low pCO2. In an examination of a microbial mat sample from Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park (USA), we could readily identify chemical structures with 13C contents which were diagnostic for the phototrophic organisms such as cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus. We could not, however, find molecular evidence for operation of a methane cycle in the particular mat samples we studied.

  3. Roman Bronze Vessels From the Late Sarmatian Burial of the Lebedevka Burial-Ground in Western Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treister Mikhail Yuryevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to studying cultural monuments – bronze vessels, a jug and a basin from the barrow no. 1/1967 of the Lebedevka Late Sarmatian burial mound (Western Kazakhstan, dating back to the middle of the 3rd century AD at the latest. These items do not find exact parallels among the bronze vessels of provincial Rome. Although the shape of the jug handle with a curved leaf turned upright between two horizontally arranged swan heads has parallels on the so-called “composite jug with handles” (“gegliederten Henkelkrügen”, the cylindrical form of the jug’s neck peculiar of the glass jugs of allegedly Syrian manufacture of the second half of the 3rd-4th centuries AD is very unusual. Even more unusual is a basin with horizontally bent rim and elaborate handles with pearls on a high narrow stand-ring. The XRF analyses of the Lebedevka jug’s metal revealed that its body and handle were made of a copper-based alloy with very high admixtures of zinc (24-27 % and inconsiderable additions of lead (up to 3 %. A similar alloy was used for manufacturing a vessel in the form of a crouching young negro from Niederbieber. Most objects of provincial Roman import reached Western Kazakhstan via the Bosporan kingdom along the Northern branch of the Silk Road. The above discussed bronze vessels from Lebedevka let suggest, that the nomads could receive some import articles that were brought along the caravan routes leading from Egypt and Syria to the East.

  4. Bios Politikos’tan Homo Economicus’a: Karşılaştırmalı Bir Perspektifle Antik ve Modern Dönemde İnsan, Ekonomi ve Siyaset İlişkisi / From Bios Politikos to Homo Economicus: The Relationship Between Human, Economy and Politics in the Ancient and Modern Periods with a Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem ÇELİK

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmanın amacı, Antik ve modern düşünürlerin siyaseti nasıl tanımladıklarını ortaya koyarak, tanımlar arasındaki farkların nedenini tartışmaktır. Antik dönemde, insanın doğası gereği politik bir varlık olarak tanımlanması, siyasetin bütün insani etkinlikler içerisinde en yücesi olarak görülmesine neden olmuştur. Antik düşünürler için siyaset, müşterek meselelerin eşitlerin gözü önünde tartışıldığı ve eşitsizliği dışlayan bir çoğulluk alanı olarak kavramıştır. Antik düşünür Aristoteles siyasetin amacının “iyi yaşam” olduğunu ifade etmektedir. Buna karşın Machiavelli ile başlayan modern siyasal düşünce, siyaseti, güç, iktidar ve şiddet kavramlarıyla tanımlamıştır. Machiavelli ve ardılları için siyaset, fiziksel şiddetin meşru örgütlenmesi, güç, değer ve kaynakların otorite eliyle dağıtılması şeklinde tanımlanmıştır. Antik Yunanda kamusal-siyasal alandan dışlanan şiddet, modern dünyada politik toplumu tanımlayan merkezi kavramlardan birisi haline gelmiştir. Antik dönemde siyasal varlık (zoon politikon olarak tanımlanan insan, modern dönemde ekonomik varlık (homo economicus olarak tanımlanmıştır. Antikler için yaşanmaya değer yaşam siyasete adanmış yaşam iken (bios politikos, modernler için ekonomik etkinlikle ilişkili hale gelmiştir. Çalışma, Antik ve modernlerin siyasal tanımları arasındaki farkın insan ve insan yaşamının amacı konusundaki farklılıklardan kaynaklandığını savunmaktadır. / The purpose of this study is to present how ancient and modern thinkers describe politics and to discuss reasons for differences seen in these definitions. In the ancient period, the identification of human being as a political entity by nature caused politics to be seen as the most supreme of all human activities. For the ancient thinkers, politics is conceptualized as a pluralist area in which the common

  5. Truth Obviousness in Ancient Greek Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Halyna I. Budz

    2013-01-01

    The article examines the features of the axiomatic approach to the truth understanding in ancient Greek philosophy. Truth in the works by ancient philosophers has axiomatic essence, basing on divine origin of truth. As the truth has a divine origin, it is in reality. The reality, created by Gods is the solemn reality. Therefore, understanding of reality by man is the display of divine reality, which is true and clever. In of the context of ancient Greek philosophy, to know truth is to know so...

  6. Buried Alive: The Behavioural Response of the Mussels, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis to Sudden Burial by Sediment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë L Hutchison

    Full Text Available Sedimentation in the sea occurs through natural processes, such as wave and tidal action, which can be exacerbated during storms and floods. Changes in terrestrial land use, marine aggregate extraction, dredging, drilling and mining are known to result in substantial sediment deposition. Research suggests that deposition will also occur due to the modern development of marine renewable energy. The response to individual burial under three depths of sediment, three sediment fractions and five burial durations was investigated in two mussel species, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis in specialist mesocosms. Both mussel species showed substantial mortality, which increased with duration of burial and burial by finer sediment fractions. M. modiolus was better able to survive short periods of burial than M. edulis, but at longer durations mortality was more pronounced. No mortality was observed in M. modiolus in burial durations of eight days or less but by 16 days of burial, over 50% cumulative mortality occurred. Under variable temperature regimes, M. edulis mortality increased from 20% at 8°C to over 60% at 14.5 and 20°C. Only M. edulis was able to emerge from burial, facilitated by increased byssus production, laid mostly on vertical surfaces but also on sediment particles. Emergence was higher from coarse sediment and shallow burials. Byssus production in M. edulis was not related to the condition index of the mussels. Results suggest that even marginal burial would result in mortality and be more pronounced in warm summer periods. Our results suggest that in the event of burial, adult M. modiolus would not be able to emerge from burial unless local hydrodynamics assist, whereas a small proportion of M. edulis may regain contact with the sediment water interface. The physiological stress resulting in mortality, contribution of local hydrodynamics to survival and other ecological pressures such as mussels existing in aggregations, are

  7. Remembering the Ancients: Observations on Technoscience in Capek's "R.U.R."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The technoscientific consequences of both the human drives for glory on the one hand and a comfortable life on the other potentially threaten human existence. "R.U.R." (Rossum's Universal Robots), a science fiction play by Karel Capek, bridges ancient writers and contemporary technoscientific endeavors, encouraging individuals to consider these…

  8. [Effect of shifting sand burial on evaporation reduction and salt restraint under saline water irrigation in extremely arid region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zhao, Ying; Xu, Xin-Wen; Lei, Jia-Qiang; Li, Sheng-Yu; Wang, Yong-Dong

    2014-05-01

    The Taklimakan Desert Highway Shelterbelt is drip-irrigated with high saline groundwater (2.58-29.70 g x L(-1)), and shifting sand burial and water-salt stress are most common and serious problems in this region. So it is of great importance to study the effect of shifting sand burial on soil moisture evaporation, salt accumulation and their distribution for water saving, salinity restraint, and suitable utilization of local land and water resources. In this study, Micro-Lysimeters (MLS) were used to investigate dynamics of soil moisture and salt under different thicknesses of sand burial (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm), and field control experiments of drip-irrigation were also carried out to investigate soil moisture and salt distribution under different thicknesses of shifting sand burial (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 cm). The soil daily and cumulative evaporation decreased with the increase of sand burial thickness in MLS, cumulative evaporation decreased by 2.5%-13.7% compared with control. And evaporative inhibiting efficiency increased with sand burial thickness, evaporative inhibiting efficiency of 1-5 cm sand burial was 16.7%-79.0%. Final soil moisture content beneath the interface of sand burial increased with sand burial thickness, and it increased by 2.5%-13.7% than control. The topsoil EC of shifting sand in MLS decreased by 1.19-6.00 mS x cm(-1) with the increasing sand burial thickness, whereas soil salt content beneath the interface in MLS increased and amplitude of the topsoil salt content was higher than that of the subsoil. Under drip-irrigation with saline groundwater, average soil moisture beneath the interface of shifting sand burial increased by 0.4% -2.0% compare with control, and the highest value of EC was 7.77 mS x cm(-1) when the sand burial thickness was 10 cm. The trend of salt accumulation content at shifting sand surface increased firstly, and then decreased with the increasing sand burial thickness. Soil salt contents beneath the

  9. Retrodiction of secular variations in deep-sea CaCO3 burial during the Cenozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Bernard P.; Luo, Yiming

    2017-09-01

    Deep-sea sediments record changes in oceanic carbonate chemistry and CaCO3 sedimentation rate through temporal variations in the total burial of CaCO3 and the position of the carbonate snowline, i.e., the ocean depth at which CaCO3-free sediments are first recorded. This paper links mathematically secular changes in snowline to those in the burial rate through a set of relatively simple equations. When the available Cenozoic deep-sea burial records are employed to predict secular variations in snowline, the process fails at some time in the past, indicating that these records are not consistent with each other. The burial records are more likely the source of this problem, as they involve far more uncertainties than the snowline records. As a consequence, we introduce a method for estimating carbonate burial through the use of a canonical CaCO3-depth profile, which can respond dynamically to secular changes in carbonate sedimentation and the positions of both the snowline and the carbonate saturation horizon. The resulting synthetic CaCO3 burial record is consistent with snowline records and indicates that the burial rates offered by Davies and Worsley (1981) are generally too high, with highly questionable maxima at 25 and 47 Ma BP. Our estimates of burial are more consistent with the range advanced by Mackenzie and Morse (1992); nevertheless, our results differ from the latter with respect to timing and magnitude of the variations. Our approach allows simultaneous calculation of the mean carbonate ion concentration of the deep sea. We find that carbonate-ion levels fell through the Cenozoic and are similar to those calculated by Tyrrell and Zeebe (2004), using a different model. Secular variations in CaCO3 burial are found to be primarily driven by changes in the Ca2+-CO3 2 - ion product within the bottom-waters, with an increase in the sedimentation rate of CaCO3 of secondary importance over the Cenozoic.

  10. Awn length variation and its effect on dispersal unit burial of Trachypogon spicatus (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erica E; Baruch, Zdravko

    2014-03-01

    Trachypogon spicatus, formerly known as Trachypogon plumosus, is a dominant grass in some savannas of Northern South America. Its dispersal unit, like many other species of the Andropogoneae tribe, bears a hygroscopic awn which facilitates its establishment in favorable microsites. Some authors have previously proposed that there is a positive correlation between awn length and dispersal unit burial, and that this relationship increases the probability of seed survival in the event of a fire, since soil acts as insulator. In this study we experimentally tested this relationship for T. spicatus. A total of 192 diaspores were placed in randomized blocks, in aluminum trays filled with soil under greenhouse conditions. Diaspores were sprayed with water daily for a month to guarantee awn movement; on the last day of the experiment, they were sprayed with red aerosol paint to determine burial depth. The effects of awn length, presence of caryopses, and presence of a pivot for the passive segment of the awn on diaspore burial were evaluated. Germination viability was tested using a tetrazolium salt test for 35 caryopses. No significant differences in diaspore burial were observed between diaspores with and without caryopses (F(2,126) = 0.034, p=0.853). A positive correlation between awn length and diaspore burial was observed only if the passive awn lacked a pivot (r(66)=0.394, pDiaspores whose awns had a pivot point achieved significantly deeper burial distances than their counterparts (F(2,126)=7.063, p=0.005). Viability test found that 0% of caryopses tested were able to germinate; this is possibly due to the time difference between sampling and testing. We considered the presence or absence of caryopsis as an important factor, since previous studies have not yet considered it and the high production of sterile diaspores in grasses. These results suggest that the physical mechanism behind T. spicatus diaspore burial is awn torque. This would explain why our results

  11. Awn length variation and its effect on dispersal unit burial of Trachypogon spicatus (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica E. Johnson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Trachypogon spicatus, formerly known as Trachypogon plumosus, is a dominant grass in some savannas of Northern South America. Its dispersal unit, like many other species of the Andropogoneae tribe, bears a hygroscopic awn which facilitates its establishment in favorable microsites. Some authors have previously proposed that there is a positive correlation between awn length and dispersal unit burial, and that this relationship increases the probability of seed survival in the event of a fire, since soil acts as insulator. In this study we experimentally tested this relationship for T. spicatus. A total of 192 diaspores were placed in randomized blocks, in aluminum trays filled with soil under greenhouse conditions. Diaspores were sprayed with water daily for a month to guarantee awn movement; on the last day of the experiment, they were sprayed with red aerosol paint to determine burial depth. The effects of awn length, presence of caryopses, and presence of a pivot for the passive segment of the awn on diaspore burial were evaluated. Germination viability was tested using a tetrazolium salt test for 35 caryopses. No significant differences in diaspore burial were observed between diaspores with and without caryopses (F(2,126= 0.034, p=0.853. A positive correlation between awn length and diaspore burial was observed only if the passive awn lacked a pivot (r(66=0.394, p<0.05. Diaspores whose awns had a pivot point achieved significantly deeper burial distances than their counterparts (F(2,126=7.063, p=0.005. Viability test found that 0% of caryopses tested were able to germinate; this is possibly due to the time difference between sampling and testing. We considered the presence or absence of caryopsis as an important factor, since previous studies have not yet considered it and the high production of sterile diaspores in grasses. These results suggest that the physical mechanism behind T. spicatus diaspore burial is awn torque. This would

  12. Munition Burial by Local Scour and Sandwaves: large-scale laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M. H.

    2017-12-01

    Our effort has been the direct observation and monitoring of the burial process of munitions induced by the combined action of waves, currents and pure oscillatory flows. The experimental conditions have made it possible to observe the burial process due to both local scour around model munitions as well as the passage of sandwaves. One experimental facility is the Large Oscillating Water Sediment Tunnel (LOWST) constructed with DURIP support. LOWST can reproduce field-like conditions near the sea bed. The second facility is a multipurpose wave-current flume which is 4 feet (1.20 m) deep, 6 feet (1.8 m) wide, and 161 feet (49.2 m) long. More than two hundred experiments were carried out in the wave-current flume. The main task completed within this effort has been the characterization of the burial process induced by local scour as well in the presence of dynamic sandwaves with superimposed ripples. It is found that the burial of a finite-length model munition (cylinder) is determined by local scour around the cylinder and by a more global process associated with the formation and evolution of sandwaves having superimposed ripples on them. Depending on the ratio of the amplitude of these features and the body's diameter (D), a model munition can progressively get partially or totally buried as such bedforms migrate. Analysis of the experimental data indicates that existing semi-empirical formulae for prediction of equilibrium-burial-depth, geometry of the scour hole around a cylinder, and time-scales developed for pipelines are not suitable for the case of a cylinder of finite length. Relative burial depth (Bd / D) is found to be mainly a function of two parameters. One is the Keulegan-Carpenter number, KC, and the Shields parameter, θ. Munition burial under either waves or combined flow, is influenced by two different processes. One is related to the local scour around the object, which takes place within the first few hundred minutes of flow action (i.e. short

  13. Environmental assessment for Trench 33 widening in 218-W-5 Low-Level Burial Ground, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the US Department of Energy''s proposed action: to widen and operated the unused Trench 33 in the 218-W-5 Low-Level Burial Ground. Information contained herein will be used by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office Manager, to determine if the Proposed Action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the Proposed Action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the Proposed Action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No significant Impact will be issued and the action may proceed

  14. Environmental assessment for Trench 33 widening in 218-W-5 Low-Level Burial Ground, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the US Department of Energy`s proposed action: to widen and operated the unused Trench 33 in the 218-W-5 Low-Level Burial Ground. Information contained herein will be used by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office Manager, to determine if the Proposed Action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the Proposed Action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the Proposed Action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No significant Impact will be issued and the action may proceed.

  15. Ancient DNA analysis might suggest external origin of individuals from chamber graves placed in medieval cemetery in Pień, Central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płoszaj, Tomasz; Jędrychowska-Dańska, Krystyna; Zamerska, Alicja; Drozd-Lipińska, Alicja; Poliński, Dariusz; Janowski, Andrzej; Witas, Henryk

    2017-12-01

    The participation of immigrants during early days in Poland of Piast's dynasty is a debated issue among archaeologists and anthropologists alike. Such hypotheses were formulated on the basis of, amongst others, the discovery of early medieval chamber graves characterized by construction features typical of the Scandinavian culture area. Archaeological and anthropological studies to date have not provided an unequivocal answer as to whether the individuals interred in those graves were autochthons who adopted a different burial rite, or perhaps immigrants from foreign lands. To characterize the gene pool of this population we analyzed the C/T allele of the nuclear gene LCT-13910 as well as fragments of the mitochondrial genome from individuals buried in very richly furnished chamber graves at the medieval cemetery in Pień. The obtained results for the nuclear allele and mtDNA do not corroborate the Scandinavian origin of the analyzed population. Moreover, we did not find haplogroup I, which is the one typical of populations that historically inhabited the north of Europe; and the frequency of the LCT-13910 T allele was similar to that of past and present Polish populations. On the other hand, we identified the atypical haplogroup C5c1, which suggests Asian origin of the studied individuals and confirms our previous reports concerning ancient human migrations from Asia to the territory of present-day Poland. While our findings do not conclusively disprove a Scandinavian lineage of the studied population, they certainly shed some new light on the origin of the individuals buried in chamber graves, which may be very different from the one initially proposed by archaeologists.

  16. [Medicine in ancient Mesopotamia--part 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins E Silva, J

    2009-01-01

    The present work summarizes the more elucidating aspects on the foundations and the practice of the medicine in Antique Mesopotamia, since the invention of the writing, more than 5000 thousand years ago, and the beginning of our era. The first part of the article includes a brief perspective about the political and social evolution that characterized those archaic civilizations, as well as the inventions and knowledge further used by the following Humanity's generations. Most of what is known on the subject, as well as the history and political-social events that occurred in the region during that remote epoch, resulted of the laborious decoding of about half a million small clay plates or fragments with text engravings in cuneiform characters that were discovered since the middle of the XIX century in the ruins of the main cities of the Babylonian and Assyrian empires. The second part embraces exclusively the main characteristics of the medicine in Ancient Mesopotamia, in its main facets: concept of disease, healers and practice. The disease was considered a divine punishment or resultant from a malign influence. In that base, the medicine began by being preventive, by the use of appropriate amulets, or by offerings or sacrifices intending to pacify those malign forces. The treatment of the generality of the diseases privileged the expulsion of those spirits and malign influences from the patient body, purifying it, which was done by the specific intervention of an ãshipu (clergyman-exorcist); not having results, the treatment was continued by the asû (practical healer) that appealed to a group of physical manipulations, limited surgical acts and the administration or application of prescriptions, resultants of the mixture of organic and inorganic substances. In case of failing, the patients (as well as individuals or rein leaders) could fall back upon a priest diviner (bârû) who, by examination of the organs of an animal especially sacrificed for the effect

  17. Recovery of macrobenthic assemblages following experimental sand burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. Barrón

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was supported by a fund provided by the Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología (UNAM and a fund provided to Celia Olabarria in 2004 and 2005 by the University of Vigo for overseas short stays.AbstractPeriodic inundation by sand is a very common feature of rocky coasts throughout the world. Even so, there have been few direct observations or experiments to investigate the role of sediments on intertidal rocky shores. We designed a field experiment in Mazatlán Bay, Mexico, to test the initial impact and subsequent recovery of intertidal macrobenthic assemblages exposed to sand burial at two sites of varying wave exposure. Both sites supported different natural assemblages. Treatment plots for the addition of sediment and control plots (50 × 50 cm, separated by at least 1.5 m, were randomly placed across the mid-water tidal level. The initial response of the resident macrobenthos and the subsequent recolonization was monitored over a period of 95 days. The main effect of sediment deposition at both sites was mortality and removal of biota due to smothering. The recovery process was rapid and may in part have been the result of the mechanism by which the small, disturbed patches were recolonized. Most of the invertebrates colonized the patches as adults; several seaweeds exhibited vegetative growth as the major mechanism of colonization (e.g., Ulva lactuca Linnaeus, 1753, Amphiroa valonioides Yendo, 1902 and Chaetomorpha antennina (Borgensen Kutzing, 1849. The rate of recovery varied between the sites, however. Recovery of species numbers proceeded quickly at the sheltered site (day 7, but took 95 days at the exposed site. In contrast, biomass reached control levels by day 45 at the sheltered site, but already by day 15 at the exposed site. By day 95, the assemblages recovered to 83.5% and 81% similarity with the controls at the sheltered and exposed sites respectively. Although differences in wave exposure could be very

  18. Dynamics of carbon sources supporting burial in seagrass sediments under increasing anthropogenic pressure

    KAUST Repository

    Mazarrasa, Inés

    2017-03-15

    Seagrass meadows are strong coastal carbon sinks of autochthonous and allochthonous carbon. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of coastal anthropogenic pressure on the variability of carbon sources in seagrass carbon sinks during the last 150 yr. We did so by examining the composition of the sediment organic carbon (Corg) stocks by measuring the δ13Corg signature and C : N ratio in 210Pb dated sediments of 11 Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows around the Balearic Islands (Spain, Western Mediterranean) under different levels of human pressure. On average, the top meter sediment carbon deposits were mainly (59% ± 12%) composed by P. oceanica derived carbon whereas seston contribution was generally lower (41% ± 8%). The contribution of P. oceanica to the total sediment carbon stock was the highest (∼ 80%) in the most pristine sites whereas the sestonic contribution was the highest (∼ 40–80%) in the meadows located in areas under moderate to very high human pressure. Furthermore, an increase in the contribution of sestonic carbon and a decrease in that of seagrass derived carbon toward present was observed in most of the meadows examined, coincident with the onset of the tourism industry development and coastal urbanization in the region. Our results demonstrate a general increase of total carbon accumulation rate in P. oceanica sediments during the last century, mainly driven by the increase in sestonic Corg carbon burial, which may have important implications in the long-term carbon sink capacity of the seagrass meadows in the region examined.

  19. Chemical speciation of plutonium in the radioactive waste burial ground at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1978-08-01

    The plutonium chemical species in two types of samples from the Savannah River Plant burial ground for radioactive waste were identified. Samples analyzed were water and sediment from burial ground monitoring well C-17 and soil from an alpha waste burial trench. Soluble plutonium in the monitoring well was less than 12A in diameter, was cationic, and contained about 43% Pu(VI) and 25% Pu(IV). The equilibrium distribution coefficient (K /sub d/) for soluble plutonium from the well water (pH 7) to burial ground soil was about 60. Soil plutonium from the waste trench was not cation-exchanged; 78% of the soil plutonium was associated with metallic oxides in the soil. Approximately 9% of the Pu was contained in the crystalline soil matrix. Thus, about 87% of the plutonium in the soil was in a relatively immobile form. Ion-exchangeable and organic acid forms of plutonium amounted to only about 2.5% each. The bulk of the plutonium now on burial ground soils will be immobile except for movement of soil particles containing plutonium. 6 tables

  20. Initial site characterization and evaluation of radionuclide contaminated soil waste burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Reisenauer, A.E.; Rickard, W.H.; Sandness, G.A.

    1977-02-01

    A survey of historical records and literature containing information on the contents of 300 Area and North Burial Grounds was completed. Existing records of radioactive waste location, type, and quantity within each burial ground facility were obtained and distributed to cooperating investigators. A study was then initiated to evaluate geophysical exploration techniques for mapping buried waste materials, waste containers, and trench boundaries. Results indicate that a combination of ground penetrating radar, magnetometer, metal detector, and acoustic measurements will be effective but will require further study, hardware development, and field testing. Drilling techniques for recovering radionuclide-contaminated materials and sediment cores were developed and tested. Laboratory sediment characterization and fluid transport and monitoring analyses were begun by installation of in situ transducers at the 300 North Burial Ground site. Biological transport mechanisms that control radionuclide movement at contaminated sites were also studied. Flora and fauna presently inhabiting specific burial ground areas were identified and analyzed. Future monitoring of specific mammal populations will permit determination of dose rate and pathways of contaminated materials contained in and adjacent to burial ground sites

  1. Controlled preparation of wet granular media reveals limits to lizard burial ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Sarah S.; Kuckuk, Robyn; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2015-07-01

    Many animals move within ground composed of granular media (GM); the resistive properties of such substrates can depend on water content and compaction, but little is known about how such parameters affect locomotion or the physics of drag and penetration. Using apparatus to control compaction of GM, our recent studies of movement in dry GM have revealed locomotion strategies of specialized dry-sand-swimming reptiles. However, these animals represent a small fraction of the diversity and presumed burial strategies of fossorial reptilian fauna. Here we develop a system to create states of wet GM of varying moisture content and compaction in quantities sufficient to study the burial and subsurface locomotion of the Ocellated skink (C. ocellatus), a generalist lizard. X-ray imaging revealed that in wet and dry GM the lizard slowly buried (≈ 30 s) propagating a wave from head to tail, while moving in a start-stop motion. During forward movement, the head oscillated, and the forelimb on the convex side of the body propelled the animal. Although body kinematics and ‘slip’ were similar in both substrates, the burial depth was smaller in wet GM. Penetration and drag force experiments on smooth cylinders revealed that wet GM was ≈ 4× more resistive than dry GM. In total, our measurements indicate that while the rheology of the dry and wet GM differ substantially, the lizard's burial motor pattern is conserved across substrates, while its burial depth is largely constrained by environmental resistance.

  2. Dental indicators of ancient dietary patterns: dental analysis in archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forshaw, R

    2014-05-01

    What can the study of ancient teeth tell us about the dietary habits of our ancestors? Diet plays a prominent role in the organisation and evolution of human cultures and an increasingly diverse array of analytical techniques are available to help reconstruct diet in ancient populations. Dental palaeopathology is particularly important as it can provide direct evidence of the type of diet an individual consumed during life. Heavy occlusal tooth wear is the most frequent condition recognisable and an examination of both macro and microscopic patterns of wear can establish the differences between the hard fibrous diet typical of a hunter-gatherer, and a diet primarily consisting of softer plant foods consumed by an agriculturist. The distributions of trace elements and stable isotopes in food webs make it possible to use them as natural tracers of foodstuffs. Through a consideration of photosynthetic pathways, the ratios of the different stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen can determine which specific groups of plants and animals were dominant in the food chains of various populations - a fact that has been used to trace the spread of agriculture in ancient civilisations.

  3. Ancient and modern environmental DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Ermini, Luca; Sarkissian, Clio Der; Haile, James; Hellstrom, Micaela; Spens, Johan; Thomsen, Philip Francis; Bohmann, Kristine; Cappellini, Enrico; Schnell, Ida Bærholm; Wales, Nathan A.; Carøe, Christian; Campos, Paula F.; Schmidt, Astrid M. Z.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Hansen, Anders J.; Orlando, Ludovic; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-01-01

    DNA obtained from environmental samples such as sediments, ice or water (environmental DNA, eDNA), represents an important source of information on past and present biodiversity. It has revealed an ancient forest in Greenland, extended by several thousand years the survival dates for mainland woolly mammoth in Alaska, and pushed back the dates for spruce survival in Scandinavian ice-free refugia during the last glaciation. More recently, eDNA was used to uncover the past 50 000 years of vegetation history in the Arctic, revealing massive vegetation turnover at the Pleistocene/Holocene transition, with implications for the extinction of megafauna. Furthermore, eDNA can reflect the biodiversity of extant flora and fauna, both qualitatively and quantitatively, allowing detection of rare species. As such, trace studies of plant and vertebrate DNA in the environment have revolutionized our knowledge of biogeography. However, the approach remains marred by biases related to DNA behaviour in environmental settings, incomplete reference databases and false positive results due to contamination. We provide a review of the field. PMID:25487334

  4. Genetic diversity among ancient Nordic populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchior, Linea Cecilie; Lynnerup, Niels; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    2010-01-01

    Using established criteria for work with fossil DNA we have analysed mitochondrial DNA from 92 individuals from 18 locations in Denmark ranging in time from the Mesolithic to the Medieval Age. Unequivocal assignment of mtDNA haplotypes was possible for 56 of the ancient individuals; however...... samples (4,200 YBP, Bell Beaker culture) that were typed were haplogroup U4 and U5a, respectively, and the single Bronze Age sample (3,300-3,500 YBP) was haplogroup U4. These two haplogroups have been associated with the Mesolithic populations of Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, at least...... the ancient Danes (average 13%) than among extant Danes and Scandinavians ( approximately 2.5%) as well as among other ancient population samples reported. Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type "diluted" by later immigration events. Interestingly, the two Neolithic...

  5. Paleo-Environmental Reconstruction Using Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Winther

    The aim of this thesis has been to investigate and expand the methodology and applicability for using ancient DNA deposited in lake sediments to detect and determine its genetic sources for paleo-environmental reconstruction. The aim was furthermore to put this tool into an applicable context...... research on ancient and modern environmental DNA (Paper 1), secondly by setting up a comparative study (Paper 2) to investigate how an ancient plant DNA (mini)-barcode can reflect other traditional methods (e.g. pollen and macrofossils) for reconstructing floristic history. In prolongation of the results...... obtained in paper 2 we developed a holistic metagenomic method combined with shotgun sequencing of ancient DNA in lake sediment samples to reconstruct organismal assemblages in addition to the flora e.g. micro-, meso- and megafauna, fungi and microbial communities (Paper 3). Fundamental processes were...

  6. AN INTERESTING CASE OF ANCIENT SCHWANNOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Schwannoma is a common benign tumour of nerve sheath. Degenerating type of schwannoma is called ancient schwannoma. Ancient schwannomas of scalp are rare and are often misdiagnosed as sebaceous cyst or dermoid cyst. CASE REPORT : We present a thirty two year old male presented with scalp swel ling of eight years duration. X - ray showed no intracranial extension. He underwent excision of the tumour and histopathology was reported as ancient schwannoma. DISCUSSION : Histopathologically , ancient schwannomas charecterised by cellular Antoni type A ar eas and less cellular Antoni type - B areas. 9 th , 7 th , 11 th , 5 th and 4 th cranial nerves are often affected and may be associated with multiple neuro fibramatosis (Von - Recklinghausen’s disease. Impact : Case is presented for its rarity and possible pre - operative misdiagnosis

  7. NIMI TANTRA (Opthalmology of Ancient India)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, C.K.

    1984-01-01

    The art of opthalmology was well developed in ancient India and was known as Nimi Tantra. In this paper the author presents the main features of Nimi Tantra an authoritative treatises written by Nimi, a prominent opthalmologist of his time.

  8. NIMI TANTRA (Opthalmology of Ancient India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, C K

    1984-04-01

    The art of opthalmology was well developed in ancient India and was known as Nimi Tantra. In this paper the author presents the main features of Nimi Tantra an authoritative treatises written by Nimi, a prominent opthalmologist of his time.

  9. Rheumatic diseases in the ancient Americas: the skeletal manifestations of treponematoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Carlos; Mansilla-Lory, Josefina; Martínez-Lavín, Manuel; Leboreiro, Ilán; Izaguirre, Aldo; Pijoan, Carmen

    2009-09-01

    The effect of rheumatic and infectious diseases on skeletal remains provides an important source of information for knowledge of contemporary medicine. Few pathologic conditions have attracted so much interest as treponematoses. One of these, syphilis, was the most feared venereal disease throughout the civilized world until the introduction of penicillin in the 20th century. To describe paleopathological and ceramic illustrations of treponematoses in ancient Mexico. Paleopathological and ceramic material examples from the National Institute of Anthropology and History of Mexico were reviewed. A unique paleopathologic site for treponemal diseases comprises the La Candelaria Cave skeletal collection from northern Mexico. The cave was used as a burial site and contained the bones of at least 83 adults and 33 subadults. Fifty-one percent of the recovered skulls possess erosions of the vault consistent with treponematoses. Some of these exhibit the impressive frontal bone lytic changes with irregular borders typical of caries sicca. In addition, periostosis of the long bones was found in up to 88% of the study sample, including 6 examples of saber-shin deformity of tibias. Radiocarbon dating (-C) of a bone retrieved from the cave ranges from 1100 to 1300 A.D. Additionally, a Pre-Hispanic ceramic figurine from the Mexican state of Nayarit depicting a lame man with multiple nodular skin lesions that suggest gummatous treponemal infection is described. These ancient specimens reinforce the notion that treponemal infection was present on the American Continent before European penetration of the New World. These very advanced paleopathologic lesions and ceramic representations demonstrate the degree to which these diseases wrought devastation before the antibiotic era. In ancient times, treponematoses were true rheumatic diseases that produced profound skeletal abnormalities marked by periosteal accretion and bone destruction.

  10. Nutritional characteristics of ancient Tuscan varieties of Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisetta Ghiselli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is an important cereal in human consumption. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in ancient wheat varieties. The latter represent an important source of germplasm, characterised by a broader genetic base and, therefore, a potential source of biodiversity. The objective of the study was to ascertain the optimal balance between the presence of secondary metabolites having beneficial effects on health and technological features that ensure successful baking quality. The experimental trial was performed in 2011-2012 on three organic farms located in three different areas within the province of Siena (Tuscany. In each location, an overall evaluation of the commercial, rheological and functional properties of five ancient Tuscan bread wheat varieties (Andriolo, Frassineto, Gentil rosso, Inallettabile 96, Verna as compared with a commercial modern variety (Palesio was carried out. The ancient varieties were compared both singularly (pure and in combination (mixtures of two varieties in equal proportion, respectively. Biometric and productive parameters were detected for each plot (32 plots in each farm. Macro- and trace elements, polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity (antiradical power, ARP were similarly determined on representative whole grain samples. Rheological analysis was carried out on flour samples. The multivariate statistical analysis using principal components analysis was performed on all variables analysed. The results showed a significant environment effect on the different parameters measured and did not reveal significant improvements in the variables measured when varieties were cultivated in mixtures. However, the study did reveal various interesting trends that are warranting of further investigation. The most interesting effect from a nutritional and functional point of view is the relationship between ARP, rheological properties, protein content and gluten content. These

  11. Earthquake Archaeology: a case study from Ancient Cnidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, I. S.; Altunel, E.; Piccardi, L.

    2003-04-01

    Ancient earthquakes can leave their mark in the mythical practices and literary accounts of ancient peoples, the stratigraphy of their site histories, and the structural integrity of their constructions. The ancient Greek/Roman city of Cnidus in southwestern Turkey records all three. A spectacular exposed fault plane cliff bordering the northern edge of the city appears to have been an important revered site, bearing votive niches carved into the near-vertical slip plane and associated with a Sanctuary of Demeter that implies a connection to the underworld. Stratigraphic evidence for earthquake faulting can be found in the form of a destruction horizon of contorted soil, relics and human remains exposed in the original excavations of the Sanctuary of Demeter by Sir Charles Newton (1857-58) and in a destruction horizon of burnt soil and bone uncovered by the ongoing excavation of a colonnaded street. Structural damage to constructions is widespread across the site, with warped and offset walls in the Sanctuary of Demeter, collapsed buildings in several places, and a parallel arrangement of fallen columns in the colonnaded street. The most remarkable structural evidence for fault activity, however, is the rupture of the ancient city's famous Round Temple of Aphrodite, whose podium reveals a history of damage and which is unambiguously displaced across a bedrock fault. While these phenomena are equivocal when viewed in isolation, collectively they imply at least two damaging earthquakes at the site, one (possibly both) of which ruptured along the fault on which the city is found. The Cnidus case study highlights how reliable identification of archaeoseismic damage relies on compiling an assemblage of indicators rather than the discovery of a diagnostic "smoking gun".

  12. Surgical history of ancient China: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Louis

    2010-03-01

    In this second part of ancient Chinese surgical history, the practice of bone setting in China began around 3000 years ago. Throughout this period, significant progress was made, some highlights of which are cited. These methods, comparable with Western orthopaedic technique, are still being practised today. In conclusion, the possible reasons for the lack of advancement in operative surgery are discussed, within context of the cultural, social and religious background of ancient China.

  13. Science and Library in the Ancient Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Sacit Keseroğlu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Science assumes its contemporary identity as a result of the stages of magic, religion and reason. The religious stage starts with the invention of writing and this stage leaves its place to reason with Thales in Ancient Greece. Knowledge eludes from religious beliefs. Ways to reach accurate, reliable and realistic knowledge are sought, along with the answer for what knowledge is. Therefore, beginning of the science is taken into consideration together with science and philosophy. The purpose of this study is to approach knowledge and science of the ancient age in Mesopotamia, Egypt and Ancient Greece in general terms and to determine the relationship between the knowledge produced in those places and libraries established. The hypothesis has been determined as “Egypt and Mesopotamia at the starting point of the history of science and science, and libraries in Ancient Greece have developed parallelly to each other.” The scope of the study has been limited to Mesopotamia, Egypt and Ancient Greece; and Ancient Greece has been explained, with descriptive method, in the frame of the topics of Ionia, Athens, Hellenistic Period and Rome. Many archives and libraries have been established in the ancient age. The difference between an archive and a library has been mentioned first, and then, various libraries have been introduced such as Nineveh in Mesopotamia, Alexandria in Ancient Greece and many others in Egypt. It has been clearly distinguished that there had been a very tight relationship between knowledge production and library, especially with the Library of Alexandria.

  14. Social Norms in the Ancient Athenian Courts

    OpenAIRE

    Lanni, Adriaan M.

    2013-01-01

    Ancient Athens was a remarkably peaceful and well-ordered society by both ancient and contemporary standards. Scholars typically attribute Athens’ success to internalized norms and purely informal enforcement mechanisms. This article argues that the formal Athenian court system played a vital role in maintaining order by enforcing informal norms. This peculiar approach to norm enforcement compensated for apparent weaknesses in the state system of coercion. It mitigated the effects of under-e...

  15. Problems of ancient and modern greek accent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerneja Kavčič

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the article are the accen­ tual features of ancient and modern Greek. The first part discusses the prob­ lems of the position of the Greek accent at the earliest stages of development and the accentual rules of Ionic-Attic, Lesbic and Doric dialect. The second and the third part present the questions of the phonetics of the ancient Greek accent and the process in which the modern Greek accent appeared.

  16. Problems of ancient and modern greek accent

    OpenAIRE

    Jerneja Kavčič

    2000-01-01

    The subject of the article are the accen­ tual features of ancient and modern Greek. The first part discusses the prob­ lems of the position of the Greek accent at the earliest stages of development and the accentual rules of Ionic-Attic, Lesbic and Doric dialect. The second and the third part present the questions of the phonetics of the ancient Greek accent and the process in which the modern Greek accent appeared.

  17. Ancient Irrigation Canals Mapped from Corona Imageries and Their Implications in Juyan Oasis along the Silk Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningke Hu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Historical records and archaeological discoveries have shown that prosperous agricultural activities developed in the ancient Juyan Oasis of northwestern China, an important oasis that once flourished on the ancient Silk Road. However, how the irrigation canals were distributed in historical time was unknown. Here, we identified and mapped the spatial distribution of ancient abandoned irrigation canals that were built using CORONA photographs and field inspections. This work found that ancient irrigation canals are large-scale and distributed throughout the desertified environment, with three hierarchical organization of first-, second-, and third-order irrigation canals (the total length of the first- and second-order-irrigation canals is dramatically more than 392 km. This study further indicates that ancient irrigation methods and modern irrigation systems in arid regions of China share the same basic irrigation design. New visual and fine-scale evidence and spatial distribution of irrigation canals are provided to illustrate the development of the ancient irrigated agriculture that occurred in the Juyan Oasis. This work is useful for readers who are interested in the construction and organization approaches of irrigation canals used in ancient irrigated agriculture in arid regions. It also has implications for how ancient people balance the relationships between human needs and the eco-environment using reasonable water management methods, especially for decision-making in the efficient usage of limited water resources in the arid inland river basin.

  18. [Light and blindness in ancient Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Rosso, Ana

    2010-01-01

    In Ancient Egypt, light and fire, which were closely related to the Sun God Ra, were the sources of life and well-being, while the dark meant danger and death. Similar to death, darkness drops on human beings in deep sleep and they enter a space inhabited by shadows. Dreams were believed to reveal an unknown world, to give the sleeper a glimpse into the future. Vision attracts distant objects and their light, on the other hand, can hurt the eyes like a burning flame. Eyes were the most important organ in Egyptian thought, as they allowed perception of the real world. Their importance has been immortalised in the myth of the Eye of Horus that explains the role of either eye. One represents the moonlight, which disperses the darkness of the night, and the other represents the sunshine, which creates life, and both could also represents the power of human intellect. Blindness, in turn, congenital or disease-related, was considered a divine punishment. A man, thus handicapped, would sink in a state of uncertainty and darkness. To protect the eyes from blindness, people used drops and ointments, which were believed to chase away all kinds of insects and demons that threatened with a variety of eye infections. Egyptian eye doctors or physicians, carried a special kit that contained green chrysocolla and a black kohl makeup, highly appreciated as prophylaxis because they personified Osiris' humours or body fluids. These products were offered to Gods to restore the brightness of divine glance and incite sun and moon to spread their beneficial light.

  19. Radionuclide sorption on Savannah River Plant burial ground soil: a summary and interpretation of laboratory data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeffner, S.L.

    1985-06-01

    This report is a summary of radionuclide sorption studies conducted to determine the performance of the low-level waste burial ground at the Savannah River Plant. Distribution coefficients for 60 Co, 90 Sr, 99 Tc, 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 129 I, 137 Cs, and /sup 238/239/Pu are reported. The effects of cations, anions, pH, radionuclide concentration and other variables on radionuclide sorption were evaluated. The pH and radionuclide concentration are the two major factors influencing radionuclide sorption. The pH range observed in the burial ground indicates that a wide range in the amount of radionuclide sorption is to be expected in the burial ground. These laboratory studies are useful for setting upper and lower limits on radionuclide mobility. 30 refs., 15 figs., 16 tabs

  20. Electrical resistivity survey to search for a recent clandestine burial of a homicide victim, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Jamie K; Jervis, John R

    2010-10-10

    This case report details an electrical resistivity survey to assist the search for a suspected 1-year-old clandestine burial of a murder victim in North Wales in the UK. Conventional search techniques (victim recovery dogs and probing) proved unsuccessful, and with a significant survey area and a high clay content soil precluding GPR as a geophysical search method, a resistivity survey was instead trialled. Ten resistivity grids were collected and site detrended with user-specified, contoured anomalies being generated. The resulting anomalies were compared to anomalies derived from similar-aged, simulated clandestine burial surveys. Seven anomalies with comparative sizes and amplitudes (±3Ω) of the simulated burials were identified within the search area and prioritised for further investigation. The shallowly buried victim was subsequently recovered outside the survey area. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Migration studies at the Savannah River Plant shallow land burial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.; Oblath, S.B.; Hawkins, R.H.; Emslie, R.H.; Ryan, J.P. Jr.; King, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclide migration from the Savannah River Plant low-level waste burial ground was studied in ongoing programs that provide generic data on a shallow land burial site in a humid region and support local waste disposal operations. Field, laboratory, and theoretical work continued in four areas. (1) Subsurface Monitoring: Groundwater around the burial ground was monitored for traces of radioactivity and mercury. (2) Lysimeter Tests: Gamma-emitting radionuclides were identified by sensitive methods in defense waste lysimeter percolate waters. Results from these and other lysimeters containing tritium, I-129, or Pu-239 sources are given. (3) Soil-Water Chemistry: Experiments on specific factors affecting migration of Cs-137 showed that potassium significantly increases cesium mobility, thus confirming observations with trench waters. Distribution coefficients for ruthenium were measured. (4) Transport Modeling: Efforts to refine and validate the SRL dose-to-man model continued. Transport calculations were made for tritium, Sr-90, Tc-99, and TRU radionuclides. 12 references, 3 tables

  2. Litter burial and exhumation: spatial and temporal distribution on a cobble pocket beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A T; Tudor, D T

    2001-11-01

    A cobble beach (-6 diameter to -8 diameter) located on the South Wales coastline, UK, was studied over a three-month winter period to assess litter input levels. After total beach litter clearance, six surveys were conducted at consecutive spring tides which involved marking of previously unrecorded litter. The beach was soon inundated with debris, predominantly plastic beverage containers. Some marked litter was found to disappear from the beach surface, re-emerging weeks later which suggests that the potential for litter burial has been underestimated in litter research. Higher wave energies between surveys coincided with higher levels of previously unseen litter. These new inputs consisted of sea borne and exhumed litter. Items larger than the surrounding cobbles were found to work their way back to the surface of the beach after burial, smaller items remained buried. Pits dug into the cobble ridge confirmed the burial of mainly small items.

  3. Burial diagenesis of deep sea chalk as reflected in Biot’s coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul

    to limestone as burial increases and porosity decreases. The porosity decrease is accompanied by an increasing velocity to elastic waves, and consequently a decreasing Biot’s coefficient, as estimated from velocity and density of core samples. When the effective burial stress is normalized to total horizontal...... cross sectional area, the porosity is found to decline as a function of stress. The porosity trend proceeds smoothly from ooze over chalk to limestone. By contrast, when vertical effective stress is normalized to grain contact area, each lithology shows a distinct porosity-decline - stress pattern...... indicate that by normalizing effective stress to grain contact area, we can get information about the mechanism behind burial related diagenetic porosity decline....

  4. Burial diagenesis of deep sea chalk as reflected in Biot's coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul

    2013-01-01

    to limestone as burial increases and porosity decreases. The porosity decrease is accompanied by an increasing velocity to elastic waves, and consequently a decreasing Biot's coefficient, as estimated from velocity and density of core samples. When the effective burial stress is normalized to total horizontal...... cross sectional area, the porosity is found to decline as a function of stress. The porosity trend proceeds smoothly from ooze over chalk to limestone. By contrast, when vertical effective stress is normalized to grain contact area, each lithology shows a distinct porosity-decline - stress pattern...... indicate that by normalizing effective stress to grain contact area, we can get information about the mechanism behind burial related diagenetic porosity decline....

  5. DOE program for improvement practices for shallow burial of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckhoner, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    The practice of burying solid radioactive waste in relatively shallow pits or trenches at government nuclear sites dates back to the Manhattan Project. In some cases, where local conditions were considered unfavorable, intersite shipment of waste has been required. This general concept was later used at commercially-operated sites under Federal or state regulation. The purpose, scope, and results of a DOE program begun several years ago for improvements of burial ground disposal methods are reviewed. The program includes the re-evaluation of the original siting and of operating practices at existing burial grounds (including monitoring for migration of activity); the development of improved criteria for siting of new grounds that might be required as the defense site operations continue; and development of corrective measures such as diking and better draining for possible unsatisfactory conditions that might be detected. The possible applications of these findings to commercial burial grounds is discussed

  6. Exploration of the burial apartments in tomb complex AS 68. Preliminary report of the 2013 fall season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Vymazalová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Exploration of the tomb complex of king’s daughter Sheretnebty, which was discovered in 2012, continued in the archaeological season of 2013. In October–November, the work concentrated on the underground parts of the tombs, including the burial shafts and burial chambers. In tomb AS 68c, two shafts were unusually deep; at a depth of 11.00 m under the ground the burial chambers of a man and a woman had been hewn. The man’s chamber contained a large sarcophagus of fine limestone and the remains of his burial and his tomb equipment, while the woman’s chamber remained largely unfinished and contained her rather simple burial placed on the floor. The so far discovered evidence indicates that this was the burial of Princess Sheretnebty. Another four shafts in the tomb contained four other burials of a female and three males, most probably the couple’s descendants. In addition, the shafts in the two western rock-cut tombs were explored. In the tomb of Shepespuptah (AS 68b, a single shaft was dug in the tomb’s chapel, while the tomb owner was buried in a burial chamber south of the chapel. The shaft in the chapel was large but reached only 1.40 m deep and was never finished and never used for burial. The two shafts in the tomb of Duaptah (AS 68a revealed the burials of two men; the southern shaft belonged to Duaptah himself while the northern shaft to a certain Nefermin. The burials were mostly very simple, and all of them were disturbed by tomb robbers. The preserved bones might, however, still reveal important details about the individuals buried in the rock-cut tombs, and they will therefore be studied in order to trace the family relationships among the tomb owners.

  7. Wrack burial reduces germination and establishment of the invasive cordgrass Spartina densiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abbas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Germination and emergence of halophytes may decrease significantly by seed burial in dead plant material, or wrack, which is common and abundant in tidal marshes. The effects of plant debris (wrack burial on seed germination and seedling establishment of Spartina densiflora, an invasive cordgrass, were studied under greenhouse conditions and compared with field observations. Five wrack burial depths were applied: control without wrack, 1 cm (1235 ± 92 g DW wrack m-2, 2 cm (3266 ± 13 g DW m-2, 4 cm (4213 ± 277 g DW m-2, and 8 cm (6138 ± 227 g DW m-2. Sediment pH, electrical conductivity, redox potential and temperature were recorded. Quiescence increased with wrack load up to ~20% at 8 cm deep. Germination decreased with wrack load from 96% to 14%, which could be related with anoxic conditions under the debris since sediment redox potential was as low as -83 ± 7 mV at 8 cm. Germination percentage increased and quiescent and dormant percentages decreased at higher daily sediment temperatures and with higher daily temperature fluctuations, conditions that were recorded without or under low loads of wrack. Spartina densiflora did not show primary dormancy, but its seeds entered into a non-deep physiological dormancy below 1 cm deep in plant debris. The establishment of S. densiflora seedlings was also greatly reduced by wrack burial since only 6 seedlings (11 ± 5 % of germinated seeds emerged above plant debris from 1 cm and all seedlings died from deeper than 1 cm. S. densiflora seedling development was also reduced by wrack burial. The inverse relationship between germination and emergence of S. densiflora with wrack burial recorded in our study is useful to predict its invasion dynamics and to plan the management of invaded marshes.

  8. Phosphorus burial in the ocean over glacial-interglacial time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tamburini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of nutrients, such as phosphorus (P, and their impact on primary productivity and the fluctuations in atmospheric CO2 over glacial-interglacial periods are intensely debated. Suggestions as to the importance of P evolved from an earlier proposal that P actively participated in changing productivity rates and therefore climate change, to most recent ones that changes in the glacial ocean inventory of phosphorus were important but not influential if compared to other macronutrients, such as nitrate. Using new data coming from a selection of ODP sites, we analyzed the distribution of oceanic P sedimentary phases and calculate reactive P burial fluxes, and we show how P burial fluxes changed over the last glacial-interglacial period at these sites. Concentrations of reactive P are generally lower during glacial times, while mass accumulation rates (MAR of reactive P show higher variability. If we extrapolate for the analyzed sites, we may assume that in general glacial burial fluxes of reactive P are lower than those during interglacial periods by about 8%, because the lack of burial of reactive P on the glacial shelf reduced in size, was apparently not compensated by burial in other regions of the ocean. Using the calculated changes in P burial, we evaluate their possible impact on the phosphate inventory in the world oceans. Using a simple mathematical approach, we find that these changes alone could have increased the phosphate inventory of glacial ocean waters by 17–40% compared to interglacial stages. Variations in the distribution of sedimentary P phases at the investigated sites seem to indicate that at the onset of interglacial stages, shallower sites experienced an increase in reactive P concentrations, which seems to point to P-richer waters at glacial terminations. All these findings would support the Shelf-Nutrient Hypothesis, which assumes that during glacial low stands nutrients are transferred from shallow sites

  9. Conservation archaeogenomics: ancient DNA and biodiversity in the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Courtney A; Rick, Torben C; Fleischer, Robert C; Maldonado, Jesús E

    2015-09-01

    There is growing consensus that we have entered the Anthropocene, a geologic epoch characterized by human domination of the ecosystems of the Earth. With the future uncertain, we are faced with understanding how global biodiversity will respond to anthropogenic perturbations. The archaeological record provides perspective on human-environment relations through time and across space. Ancient DNA (aDNA) analyses of plant and animal remains from archaeological sites are particularly useful for understanding past human-environment interactions, which can help guide conservation decisions during the environmental changes of the Anthropocene. Here, we define the emerging field of conservation archaeogenomics, which integrates archaeological and genomic data to generate baselines or benchmarks for scientists, managers, and policy-makers by evaluating climatic and human impacts on past, present, and future biodiversity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of the Hanford 300 area burial grounds. Decontamination and decommissioning regulatory issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, F.A.; Smith, R.F.; Phillips, S.J.

    1979-03-01

    The Hanford 300 Area Burial Grounds characterization project has identified four management alternatives for disposition of the burial grounds. These alternatives are: (1) abandonment, (2) entombment, (3) perpetual care, and (4) exhumation and translocation. Major Federal statutes and regulations that could apply to management alternatives are identified along with the constraints that applicable laws could impose. This analysis includes explicit attention to the uncertainty surrounding various legal constraints. Also specified are legislative developments as well as trends in other agencies and the courts, obtained by review of legislative proceedings, statutes and regulations, that could result in legislation or policies posing additional constraints

  11. Novel experiments for understanding the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePoorter, G.L.; Hakonson, T.E.

    1981-01-01

    Data on the basic processes that occur in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes are needed to engineer facilities with guaranteed performance, to validate models for system predictions, and to provide input to models that consider contaminant pathways out of the facility. Two types of novel experiments that will provide experimental data on the basic processes in shallow land burial facilities are described in this paper. Generic experiments that give data on the movement of water and radionuclides and an experiment that is particularly important for semi-arid sites are described

  12. Limits for the burial of the Department of Energy transuranic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, J.W.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1979-01-15

    Potential limits for the shallow earth burial of transuranic elements were examined by simplified models of the individual pathways to man. Pathways examined included transport to surface steams, transport to ground water, intrusion, and people living on the burial ground area after the wastes have surfaced. Limits are derived for each pathway and operational limits are suggested based upon a dose to the organ receiving the maximum dose rate of 0.5 rem/y after 70 years of exposure for the maximum exposed individual.

  13. Signs of trauma in an adult parietal bone exhumed from a Portuguese prehistoric collective burial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Maria Teresa

    2008-06-01

    A fragment of parietal bone from an adult individual of unknown sex exhumed from the collective burial of Praia da Samarra (Sintra, Portugal), dated to the end of the Neolithic, presents signs of different types of trauma. These include thinning of the skull vault and incisions marks. Differential diagnoses for these alterations are discussed: for the first one, depressed skull factures is the most likely cause. For the incisions, trepanation (more probable) and trauma due to a sharp force are proposed. These hypotheses are also discussed in terms of other similar findings from coeval Portuguese collective burials.

  14. Limits for the burial of the Department of Energy transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Potential limits for the shallow earth burial of transuranic elements were examined by simplified models of the individual pathways to man. Pathways examined included transport to surface steams, transport to ground water, intrusion, and people living on the burial ground area after the wastes have surfaced. Limits are derived for each pathway and operational limits are suggested based upon a dose to the organ receiving the maximum dose rate of 0.5 rem/y after 70 years of exposure for the maximum exposed individual

  15. Sampling and Analysis Instruction for Borehole Sampling at 118-B-1 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. S. Thompson

    2007-04-02

    The Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) Field Remediation Project has removed all of the disposed materials and contaminated soil from the 118-B-1 Burial Ground with the exception of tritium-contaminated soil that is believed to extend from the bottom of the present excavation to groundwater and is believed to contribute to tritium contamination observed at down-gradient monitoring Well 199-B8-6. This sampling and analysis instruction (SAI) provides the requirements for sample collection and laboratory analysis for characterization of the vertical distribution of tritium contamination in the vadose zone soil below the 118-B-1 Burial Ground remedial action excavation.

  16. Groundwater transport modeling of constituents originating from the Burial Grounds Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, P.F.; Shupe, M.G.; Spalding, C.P. [GeoTrans, Inc., Sterling, VA (US)

    1992-10-30

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), operates a number of sites for the land disposal of various leachable radionuclide, organic, and inorganic wastes. Located within the General Separations Area (GSA) of SRS are the Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF) and the Old Burial Ground (OBG). A portion of the LLRWDF has been designated as the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF). The OBG began receiving waste in 1952 and was closed in 1974. Various wastes, including transuranic, intermediate and low level beta-gamma, and solvents, were received during this period of operation. In 1969, prior to the closing of the OBG, a portion of the MWMF/LLRWDF (the MWMF) began receiving waste. GeoTrans, Inc. was contracted by WSRC to conduct a numerical modeling study to assess groundwater flow and contaminant transport in the vicinity of the MWMF in support of an Alternate Concentration Limits demonstration for the Part B permit. The project was divided into two phases: development of a groundwater flow model of the hydrogeologic system underlying the MWMF which includes the entire GSA, and development of a solute transport model to assess migration of 19 designated constituents of concern (COCs) over a period 30 years into the future. The first phase was completed in May of 1992 and the results documented in GeoTrans (1992). That report serves as the companion volume to the present contaminant transport modeling report. The transport study is intended to develop predictions of concentration and mass flux of the 19 COCs at downgradient exposure points over the 30 year period of interest. These results are to be used in human health and ecological risk assessments which are also being performed in support of the Part B permit.

  17. Global biogeochemical implications of mercury discharges from rivers and sediment burial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Helen M; Jacob, Daniel J; Kocman, David; Horowitz, Hannah M; Zhang, Yanxu; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Horvat, Milena; Corbitt, Elizabeth S; Krabbenhoft, David P; Sunderland, Elsie M

    2014-08-19

    Rivers are an important source of mercury (Hg) to marine ecosystems. Based on an analysis of compiled observations, we estimate global present-day Hg discharges from rivers to ocean margins are 27 ± 13 Mmol a(-1) (5500 ± 2700 Mg a(-1)), of which 28% reaches the open ocean and the rest is deposited to ocean margin sediments. Globally, the source of Hg to the open ocean from rivers amounts to 30% of atmospheric inputs. This is larger than previously estimated due to accounting for elevated concentrations in Asian rivers and variability in offshore transport across different types of estuaries. Riverine inputs of Hg to the North Atlantic have decreased several-fold since the 1970s while inputs to the North Pacific have increased. These trends have large effects on Hg concentrations at ocean margins but are too small in the open ocean to explain observed declines of seawater concentrations in the North Atlantic or increases in the North Pacific. Burial of Hg in ocean margin sediments represents a major sink in the global Hg biogeochemical cycle that has not been previously considered. We find that including this sink in a fully coupled global biogeochemical box model helps to balance the large anthropogenic release of Hg from commercial products recently added to global inventories. It also implies that legacy anthropogenic Hg can be removed from active environmental cycling on a faster time scale (centuries instead of millennia). Natural environmental Hg levels are lower than previously estimated, implying a relatively larger impact from human activity.

  18. Ancient Greek with Thrasymachus: A Web Site for Learning Ancient Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Alison

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a project that was begun as an attempt by two teachers of Ancient Greek to provide supplementary materials to accompany "Thrasymachus," a first-year textbook for learning ancient Greek. Provides a brief history and description of the project, the format of each chapter, a chronology for completion of materials for each chapter in the…

  19. Interactive effects between physical forces and ecosystem engineers on seed burial: a case study using Spartina anglica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Z.; Cozzoli, F.; Chu, N.; Salvador, M.; Ysebaert, T.; Zhang, L.; Herman, P.M.J.; Bouma, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Seed burial (i.e. vertical seed dispersal) has become increasingly valued for its relevance for seed fate and plant recruitment. While ecosystem engineers have been generally considered as the most important drivers of seed burial, the role of physical forces, such as wind or water flow, has been

  20. Interactive effects between physical forces and ecoystem engieneers on seed burial: a case study using Spartina anglica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Z.; Cozzoli, F.; Chu, N.; Salvador, M.; Ysebaert, T.; Zhang, L.; Herman, P.M.J.; Bouma, T.J.

    2016-01-01

    Seed burial (i.e. vertical seed dispersal) has become increasingly valued for its relevance for seed fate and plant recruitment. While ecosystem engineers have been generally considered as the most important drivers of seed burial, the role of physical forces, such as wind or water flow, has been